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Sample records for planthopper nilaparvata lugens

  1. Dynamics of imidacloprid resistance and cross-resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominant and extensive use of imidacloprid for suppressing the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, has placed heavy selection pressure on the target insect. A systematic study was carried out to determine imidacloprid resistance dynamics and cross-resistance. A 3-yr monitoring data (2005-2007) sh...

  2. Inheritance Mode and Realized Heritability of Resistance to Imidacloprid in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...

  3. Can tropical insects stand the heat? A case study with the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiranan Piyaphongkul

    Full Text Available The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål is the most serious pest of rice across the world, especially in tropical climates. N. lugens nymphs and adults were exposed to high temperatures to determine their critical thermal maximum (CT(max, heat coma temperature (HCT and upper lethal temperature (ULT. Thermal tolerance values differed between developmental stages: nymphs were consistently less heat tolerant than adults. The mean (± SE CT(max of nymphs and adult females and males were 34.9±0.3, 37.0±0.2 and 37.4±0.2°C respectively, and for the HCT were 37.7±0.3, 43.5±0.4 and 42.0±0.4°C. The ULT₅₀ values (± SE for nymphs and adults were 41.8±0.1 and 42.5±0.1°C respectively. The results indicate that nymphs of N. lugens are currently living at temperatures close to their upper thermal limits. Climate warming in tropical regions and occasional extreme high temperature events are likely to become important limiting factors affecting the survival and distribution of N. lugens.

  4. Radar observations of the seasonal migration of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H; Jiang, C; Zhang, Y; Yang, X; Cheng, D

    2014-12-01

    The summer and autumn migrations of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) were observed in Southern China with a millimetric scanning entomological radar and a searchlight trap supplemented with capture in field cages, field surveys, and dissections of females. Nilaparvata lugens took off at dusk and dawn in summer, but in autumn there was sometimes only a dusk take-off. The variation of the area density of the radar targets indicated that flight durations were about 9-10 h. In summer, planthopper-size targets generally flew below 1800 m above ground level (AGL), although some insects reached 2000 m AGL; in autumn, they flew lower, generally below 1100 m although some insects reached 1700 m AGL. Multiple layer concentrations were seen every night in both summer and autumn. The depths of these layers in autumn were less than in summer. Nilaparvata lugens flew in strong winds; wind shear may be the main factor causing them to accumulate and form dense layers at certain heights. Nilaparvata lugens emigrating in summer from the vicinity of the radar site in the Northeastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and carried by the prevailing southwesterly wind, would have travelled northeastwards and reached Northern Hunan Province. In autumn, with the prevailing northeasterly wind, emigrants would have reached overwintering areas (south of 21°N).

  5. Effects of nitrogen on the tolerance of brown planthopper,Nilaparvata Lugens, to adverse environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-XIANLU; KONG-LUENHEONG; XIAO-PINGYU; CUIHU

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen content in rice plants on the tolerance of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal to high temperature, starvation and insecticide, was studied in the laboratory at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. Survival of nymphs and adults, fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly increased by the increase of nitrogen content in host plants at 38℃. Moreover, the survival of nymphs,fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly higher in BPH populations on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen than those on rice plants with a low nitrogen regimen.Meanwhile, the tolerance of female adults to starvation and nymphs to growth regulator buprofezin on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen were slightly increased. This indicates that the tolerances of BPH to adverse environmental stresses were positively increased by the application of nitrogenous fertilizer. The outbreak potential of BPH induced by the excessive application of fertilizer in rice fields was also discussed.

  6. Bacterial Community in Different Populations of Rice Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; WANG Xin; YE Gong-yin; LU Zhong-xian

    2014-01-01

    The structures of bacterial communities in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) from different geographic and resistant virulent populations were analyzed by using denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that the bacterial communities in BPH nymph from the first to the fifth instars varied with nymphal growth and development. The bacterial communities in the first-instar BPH nymph were similar to those in adults. Nine geographic BPH populations were divided into three groups based on the cluster analysis of DGGE fingerprint. The first group was from the Philippines;the second group was from Thailand and Hainan, Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces of China; and the third group was from Vietnam and Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces of China. BPH populations adapted to different resistant rice varieties. The BPH populations from Mudgo (with resistant gene Bph1) and ASD7 (with resistant gene bph2) differed with those of the susceptible rice variety TN1.

  7. Genomic resources for the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens: Transcriptome pyrosequencing and microarray design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Bass; Martin Bay Hebsgaard; Joseph Hughes

    2012-01-01

    The brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens is a pest of cultivated rice throughout Asia and is controlled using insecticides and/or resistant rice varieties.This species has developed resistance to many classes of insecticide and biotypes have developed that are virulent against formerly resistant rice cultivars.Insects use a suite of detoxification enzymes,including cytochrome P450s,glutathione S-transferases and carboxyl/cholinesterases to defend themselves against plant secondary metabolites and pesticides.Pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-FLX platform was used to produce a substantial expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset to complement the existing Sanger sequenced ESTs in GenBank.A total of 78 959 reads were combined with the 37 392 publically available Sanger ESTs; these assembled into 8 911 contigs and 10 620 singletons.Analysis of the distribution of tentative unique genes (TUGs) with the gene ontology for biological processes and molecular functions suggests that the 454 and Sanger EST assembly is broadly representative of the N.lugens transcriptome.The brown planthopper transcriptome was found to contain 31 TUGs encoding P450s,nine encoding glutathione S-transferases and 26 encoding carboxyl/cholinesterases and many of these are putatively involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics.The Agilent eArray platform was used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray populated with probes for ~ 19 000 unigene sequences,including all those known to encode detoxification enzymes.The genomic resources developed in this study will be useful to the community studying this crop pest and will help elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying insecticide resistance and planthopper adaptation to resistant rice cultivars.

  8. Role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yujie; WANG Xia; LOU Yonggen; CHENG Jiaan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant direct defense against herbivores and pathogens; however, up to now, only few researches have focused on its role in induced plant indirect defense, i.e. the release of herbivore-induced volatiles, and the results are variable.Using a model system consisting of rice plants, the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae, we examined the role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by N. lugens by measuring both the timing of herbivore-induced ethylene levels and the relationships between ethylene, rice volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid. N. lugens infestation significantly enhanced the release of ethylene during 2-24 h after infestation. Plants treated with ethephon, a compound that breaks down to release ethylene at cytoplasmic pH, released volatiles profiles similar to those released by N.lugens-infested plants,and both of them showed an equal attraction of the parasitoid. Moreover, pretreatment with 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, reduced the release of most of rice volatiles whose amount was enhanced by N.lugens infestation and decreased the attractiveness to the parasitoid. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling is required for the production of rice volatiles induced by N.lugens.

  9. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

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    M. A. Latif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra, were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis.

  10. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Bao-kun; HUANG Jian-li; HU Chao-xing; HOU Mao-lin

    2014-01-01

    It is predicted that the current atmospheric CO2 concentration will be doubled and global mean temperature will increase by 1.5-6°C by the end of this century. Although a number of studies have addressed the separate effects of CO2 and temperature on plant-insect interactions, few have concerned with their combined impacts. In the current study, a factorial experiment was carried out to examine the effect of a doubling CO2 concentration and a 3°C temperature increase on a complete generation of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) on rice (Oryza sativa). Both elevated CO2 and temperature increased rice stem height and biomass of stem parts. Leaf chlorophyll content increased under elevated CO2, but only in ambient temperature treatment. Water content of stem parts was reduced under elevated temperature, but only when coupled with elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 alone increased biomass of root and elevated temperature alone enhanced leaf area and reduced ratio of root to stem parts. Brown planthopper (BPH) nymphal development was accelerated, and weight of and honeydew excretion by the F1 adults was reduced under elevated temperature only. Longevity of brachypterous females was affected by a signiifcant interaction between CO2 and temperature. At elevated temperature, CO2 had no effect on female longevity, but at ambient temperature, the females lived shorter under elevated CO2. Female fecundity was higher at elevated than at ambient temperature and higher at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2. These results indicate that the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 may enhance the brown planthopper population size.

  11. Evidence for the presence of biogenic magnetic particles in the nocturnal migratory brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weidong; Wan, Guijun; Xu, Jingjing; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yuxin; Qi, Liping; Chen, Fajun

    2016-01-05

    Biogenic magnetic particles have been detected in some migratory insects, which implies the basis of magnetoreception mechanism for orientation and navigation. Here, the biogenic magnetic particles in the migratory brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were qualitatively measured by SQUID magnetometry, and their characteristics were further determined by Prussian Blue staining, electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results indicate that there were remarkable magnetic materials in the abdomens and not in the head or thorax of the 3(rd)-5(th) instar nymphs, and in macropterous and brachypterous female and male adults of BPH. The size of magnetic particles was shown to be between 50-450 nm with a shape factor estimate of between 0.8-1.0 for all the tested BPHs. Moreover, the amount of magnetic particles was associated with the developmental stage (the 3(rd)-5(th) instar), wing form (macropterous vs. brachypterous) and sex. The macropterous female adults had the largest amount of magnetic particles. Although the existence of magnetic particles in the abdomens of BPH provides sound basis for the assumption of magnetic orientation, further behavioral studies and complementary physical characterization experiments should be conducted to determine whether the orientation behavior of BPH is associated with the magnetic particles detected in this study.

  12. Ferritin acts as the most abundant binding protein for snowdrop lectin in the midgut of rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Foissac, X; Carss, A; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    2000-04-01

    The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)] displays toxicity to the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. A 26kDa GNA-binding polypeptide from N. lugens midgut was identified by lectin blotting and affinity chromatography, and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. This polypeptide is the most abundant binding protein for GNA in the N. lugens midgut. A cDNA (fersub2) encoding this protein was isolated from an N. lugens cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to ferritin subunits from Manduca sexta and other arthropods, plants and vertebrates, and contains a putative N-glycosylation site. Native ferritin was purified from whole insects as a protein of more than 400kDa in size and characterized biochemically. Three subunits of 20, 26 and 27kDa were released from the native complex. The 26kDa subunit binds GNA, and its N-terminal sequence was identical to that of fersub2. A second cDNA (fersub1), exhibiting strong homology with dipteran ferritin, was identified as an abundant cDNA in an N. lugens midgut-specific cDNA library, and could encode the larger ferritin subunit. The fersub1 cDNA carries a stem-loop structure (iron-responsive element) upstream from the start codon, similar to structures that have been shown to play a role in the control of ferritin synthesis in other insects.

  13. Bio-effects of near-zero magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus and brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gui-jun; Jiang, Shou-lin; Zhao, Zong-chao; Xu, Jing-jing; Tao, Xiao-rong; Sword, Gregory A; Gao, Yue-bo; Pan, Wei-dong; Chen, Fa-jun

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic fields markedly affect the growth and development of many species of organisms potentially due to cryptochrome and endogenous presence of magnetic materials. Sensitivity to magnetic fields can also be involved in geomagnetic orientation by some long-distance migratory insects. In this study, near-zero magnetic fields (NZMF) in relation to normal geomagnetic fields (GMF) were setup using the Hypomagnetic Field Space System (HMFs) to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of two species of migratory planthopper, the small brown planthopper (abbr. SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, and the brown planthopper (abbr. BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. Exposure of both L. striatellus and N. lugens to NZMF delayed egg and nymphal developmental durations and decreased adult weight and female fecundity. The 1st-5th instars of SBPH and BPH showed different responses to NZMF. The 4th instar was significantly affected by NZMF, especially for BPH males, in which NZMF exposure reduced the difference in development duration between females and males. Compared with GMF, the vitellogenin transcript levels of newly molted female adults and the number of eggs per female were significantly reduced in both planthopper species, indicating a negative effect on fertility under NZMF. Our findings provided experimental evidence that NZMF negatively affected the growth and development of SBPH and BPH, with particularly strong effects on reproduction.

  14. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Jiarong Meng; Juma Ibrahim Mabubu; Yu Han; Yueping He; Jing Zhao; Hongxia Hua; Yanni Feng; Gang Wu

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In t...

  15. β-Glucosidase treatment and infestation by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens elicit similar signaling pathways in rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    β-Glucosidase has been reported to induce the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles.However,how it works remains unclear.Here,we investigated the levels of salicylic acid(SA),iasmonic acid (JA),ethylene,and H2O2,all of which are known signaling molecules that play important roles in induced plant defense in rice plants treated with β-glucosidase,and compared these to levels in plants infested by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l).Results showed that wounding and treatment by β-glucosidase increased the levels of SA,ethylene,and H2O2.but not JA,in all plants compared to control plants.The signaling pathways activated by β-glucosidase treatment are similar to those activated by an infestation by N.lugens,although the magnitude and timing of the signals elicited by the two treatments are different.This may explain why both treatments have similar volatile profiles and are equally attractive to the parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

  16. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S. VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K. L. HEONG; HU Cui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages,and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determined in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the increase of nitrogen content in rice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer.

  17. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuZhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YuXiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HuCui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determincd in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research institute (1RRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the in crease of nitrogen content inrice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury, of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility' to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer

  18. Relationship Between the Development of Methamidophos Resistance and the Activities of Three Detoxifying Enzymes in Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIuZe-wen; HANZhao-jun; ZHANGLing-chun

    2004-01-01

    Methamidophos resistance of brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens was selected in laboratory for 19 generations (F1 to F19). The resistance development in BPH was approximatively shaped as the letter "S" : resistance change was small before the fifth generation and after the fifteenth generation, and the changing pattern was sharp between the fifth and the fifteenth generation. Esterase might play an important role in the resistance development, because the esterase activity and the number of individuals with high activities increased along with the resistance development. The esterase activities of insecticide-sensitive population S, field population F0, its selective generations F, F10 and F15 were highly correlated with the resistance ratios of these generations, and the coefficient was 0.9899. Mixed-function oxidases and giutathione S-transferase also might play some roles in the resistance development, but the big change in the activities of the two detoxifying enzymes both took place before the tenth generation.

  19. Relationship Between the Development of Methamidophos Resistance and the Activities of Three Detoxifying Enzymes in Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ze-wen; HAN Zhao-jun; ZHANG Ling-chun

    2004-01-01

    Methamidophos resistance of brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens was selected in laboratory for 19 generations (F1 to F19). The resistance development in BPH was approximatively shaped as the letter "S" : resistance change was small before the fifth generation and after the fifteenth generation, and the changing pattern was sharp between the fifth and the fifteenth generation. Esterase might play an important role in the resistance development, because the esterase activity and the number of individuals with high activities increased along with the resistance development. The esterase activities of insecticide-sensitive population S, field population F0, its selective generations Fs, F10 and F15 were highly correlated with the resistance ratios of these generations, and the coefficient was 0.9899. Mixed-function oxidases and glutathione S-transferase also might play some roles in the resistance development, but the big change in the activities of the two detoxifying enzymes both took place before the tenth generation.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of neuropeptides and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) for neuropeptides in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Noda, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2014-03-01

    The genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors were identified in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Forty-eight candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or peptide hormones. These include all known insect neuropeptides and neurohormones, with the exception of neuropeptide-like precursor 2 (NPLP2) and trissin. The gene coding for prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was first identified from hemimetabolous insect. A total of 57 putative neuropeptide GPCR genes were identified and phylogenetic analysis showed most of them to be closely related to insect GPCRs. A notable finding was the occurrence of vertebrate hormone receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR)-like GPCR and parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR)-like GPCRs. These results suggest that N. lugens possesses the most comprehensive neuropeptide system yet found in insects. Moreover, our findings demonstrate the power of RNA-seq as a tool for analyzing the neuropeptide-related genes in the absence of whole genome sequence information.

  1. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae.

  2. Predation of Five Generalist Predators on Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål

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    Sri Karindah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two generalist predators of brown planthopper,Metioche vittaticollis and Anaxipha longipennis (Gryllidae have not been much studied in Indonesia. This research was conducted to study and compare the predatory ability of M. vittaticollis, A. longipennis (Gryllidae and three coleopterans, Paederus fuscipes (Staphylinidae, Ophionea sp. (Carabidae,and Micraspis sp. (Coccinellidae against brown planthopper (fourth and fifth instars under laboratory condition. In total, 20 nymphs of N. lugens were exposed for 2 hour to each predator for 5 consecutive days. Prey consumptions by the predatory crickets, M. vittaticollis and A. longipennis were greater than the other predators and followed by A. longipennis, Micraspis sp., P. fuscipes, and Ophionea sp. respectively. Consumption rates of M. vittaticolis and A. longipenis were also higher than other predators. Micraspis sp was more active on predation in the morning,while M. vittaticollis, A. longipennis, P. fuscipes, and Ophionea sp. were more active both in the morning and the night but not in the afternoon. However, all five species of predators were not so active in preying during the afternoon. In conclusion, a major effort should be extended to conserve these predatory crickets especially M. vittaticollis and A. longipennis.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a juvenile hormone esterase gene from brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhua; Yang, Baojun; Gu, Jianhua; Yao, Xiangmei; Zhang, Yixi; Song, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2008-12-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays key roles in the regulation of growth, development, diapause and reproduction in insects, and juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an important role in regulating JH titers. We obtained a full-length cDNA encoding JHE in Nilaparvata lugens (NlJHE), the first JHE gene cloned from the hemipteran insects. The deduced protein sequence of Nljhe contains the five conserved motifs identified in JHEs of other insect species, including a consensus GQSAG motif that is required for the enzymatic activity of JHE proteins. Nljhe showed high amino acid similarities with Athalia rosae JHE (40%) and Apis mellifera JHE (39%). Recombinant NlJHE protein expressed in the baculovirus expression system hydrolyzed [3H] JH III at high activity and yielded the specificity constants (kcat/KM=4.28x10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) close to those of the validated JHEs from other insect species, indicating that Nljhe cDNA encodes a functional JH esterase. The Nljhe transcript was expressed mainly in the fat body and the expression level reached a peak at 48 h after ecdysis of the 5th instar nymphs. In the 5th instar, macropterous insects showed significantly higher Nljhe mRNA levels and JHE activities, but much lower JH III levels, than those detected in the brachypterous insects soon after ecdysis and at 48 h after ecdysis. These data suggest that NlJHE might play important roles in regulation of JH levels and wing form differentiation.

  4. Cultivation, identification and quantification of one species of yeast-like symbiotes, Candida, in the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Pang; Sheng-Zhang Dong; Yun Hou; Ya-Lin Bian; Ke Yang; Xiao-Ping Yu

    2012-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l,which is one of the most destructive pests of rice,has been confirmed to harbor yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the fat body.Several morphologically different YLS have been previously isolated and cultured in vitro from BPH,but direct evidence is lacking to further clarify whether the cultured YLS were from BPH.In this study,one species of YLS was successfully cultured in vitro and simultaneously verified to exist in the fat body of BPH by sequence analysis and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The cultured YLS isolate in vitro was identified as a member of the genus Candida on the basis of 18S rDNA (ribosomal DNA) and 5.8S-ITS (internal transcribed spacer) rDNA sequence and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences from yeast.Therefore,this yeast isolate was named as Candida-like symbiotes.Candida-like symbiotes was found to exist in fat bodies,ovaries and newly laid eggs of the BPH,but not in the heads,thoraxes and mid-guts.In addition,the number of Candida-like symbiotes in 1 x 106 of purified YLS from BPH fat bodies was speculated to be (5.32 ± 0.22) × 104 on the basis of a quantitative PCR analysis.

  5. Heat stress impedes development and lowers fecundity of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiranan Piyaphongkul

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of sub-lethal high temperatures on the development and reproduction of the brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål. When first instar nymphs were exposed at their ULT(50 (41.8°C mean development time to adult was increased in both males and females, from 15.2±0.3 and 18.2±0.3 days respectively in the control to 18.7±0.2 and 19±0.2 days in the treated insects. These differences in development arising from heat stress experienced in the first instar nymph did not persist into the adult stage (adult longevity of 23.5±1.1 and 24.4±1.1 days for treated males and females compared with 25.7±1.0 and 20.6±1.1 days in the control groups, although untreated males lived longer than untreated females. Total mean longevity was increased from 38.8±0.1 to 43.4±1.0 days in treated females, but male longevity was not affected (40.9±0.9 and 42.2±1.1 days respectively. When male and female first instar nymphs were exposed at their ULT(50 of 41.8°C and allowed to mate on reaching adult, mean fecundity was reduced from 403.8±13.7 to 128.0±16.6 eggs per female in the treated insects. Following exposure of adult insects at their equivalent ULT(50 (42.5°C, the three mating combinations of treated male x treated female, treated male x untreated female, and untreated male x treated female produced 169.3±14.7, 249.6±21.3 and 233.4±17.2 eggs per female respectively, all significantly lower than the control. Exposure of nymphs and adults at their respective ULT(50 temperatures also significantly extended the time required for their progeny to complete egg development for all mating combinations compared with control. Overall, sub-lethal heat stress inhibited nymphal development, lowered fecundity and extended egg development time.

  6. Genomic insights into the glutathione S-transferase gene family of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal and Sogatella furcifera (Horvath (Hemiptera: Delphacidae.

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    Wen-Wu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase (GST genes control crucial traits for the metabolism of various toxins encountered by insects in host plants and the wider environment, including insecticides. The planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are serious specialist pests of rice throughout eastern Asia. Their capacity to rapidly adapt to resistant rice varieties and to develop resistance to various insecticides has led to severe outbreaks over the last decade. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the genome sequence of N. lugens, we identified for the first time the complete GST gene family of a delphacid insect whilst nine GST gene orthologs were identified from the closely related species S. furcifera. Nilaparvata lugens has 11 GST genes belonging to six cytosolic subclasses and a microsomal class, many fewer than seen in other insects with known genomes. Sigma is the largest GST subclass, and the intron-exon pattern deviates significantly from that of other species. Higher GST gene expression in the N. lugens adult migratory form reflects the higher risk of this life stage in encountering the toxins of non-host plants. After exposure to a sub-lethal dose of four insecticides, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, buprofezin or beta-cypermethrin, more GST genes were upregulated in S. furcifera than in N. lugens. RNA interference targeting two N. lugens GST genes, NlGSTe1 and NlGSTm2, significantly increased the sensitivity of fourth instar nymphs to chlorpyrifos but not to beta-cypermethrin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first elucidation of the nature of the GST gene family in a delphacid species, offering new insights into the evolution of metabolic enzyme genes in insects. Further, the use of RNA interference to identify the GST genes induced by insecticides illustrates likely mechanisms for the tolerance of these insects.

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of two populations of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, that differ in virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant-herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH-rice interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population and Mudgo (M population. In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH-rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to 'metabolism,' 'digestion and absorption,' and 'salivary secretion' might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for

  8. Jinggangmycin increases fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) via fatty acid synthase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Yiping; Liu, Zongyu; You, Linlin; Wu, You; Xu, Bing; Ge, Linquan; Stanley, David; Song, Qisheng; Wu, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is mainly used in controlling the rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, in China. JGM also enhances reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). To date, however, molecular mechanisms of the enhancement are unclear. Our related report documented the influence of foliar JGM sprays on ovarian protein content. Here, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) protocols to analyze ovarian proteins of BPH females following JGM spray (JGM-S) and topical application (JGM-T). We recorded changes in expression of 284 proteins (142↑ and 142↓) in JGM-S compared to the JGM-S control group (S-control); 267 proteins were differentially expressed (130↑ and 137↓) in JGM-T compared to the JGM-T control group (T-control), of which, 22 proteins were up-regulated in both groups. Comparing the JGM-S to the JGM-T group, 114 proteins were differentially expressed (62↑ and 52↓). Based on the biological significance of fatty acids, pathway annotation and enrichment analysis, we designed a dsRNA construct to silence a gene encoding fatty acid synthase (FAS). FAS was more highly expressed in JGM-S vs S-control and JGM-S vs JGM-T groups. The dsFAS treatment reduced fecundity by about 46% and reduced ovarian and fat body fatty acid concentrations in JGM-S-treated females relative to controls. We infer FAS provides critically needed fatty acids to support JGM-enhanced fecundity in BPH.

  9. Immunohistochemical and developmental studies to elucidate the mechanism of action of the snowdrop lectin on the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.; Bharathi, M; Spence, J; Powell, K S.

    1998-07-01

    Rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) were fed on artificial diet containing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA), which has been shown to be toxic towards this insect pest. In addition to decreasing survival, the lectin affected development, reducing the growth rate of nymphs by approximately 50% when present at a concentration of 5.3&mgr;M. Immunolocalisation studies showed that lectin binding was concentrated on the luminal surface of the midgut epithelial cells within the planthopper, suggesting that GNA binds to cell surface carbohydrate moieties in the gut. Immunolabelling at a lower level was also observed in the fat bodies, the ovarioles, and throughout the haemolymph. These observations suggest that GNA is able to cross the midgut epithelial barrier, and pass into the insect's circulatory system, resulting in a systemic toxic effect. Electron microscope studies showed morphological changes in the midgut region of planthoppers fed on a toxic dose of GNA, with disruption of the microvilli brush border region. No significant proteolytic degradation of GNA was observed either in the gut or honeydew of planthoppers fed on lectin-containing diet. The presence of glycoproteins which bind GNA in the gut of the brown planthopper was confirmed using digoxigen-labeled lectins to probe blots of extracted gut polypeptides.

  10. Insecticide resistance monitoring and correlation analysis of insecticides in field populations of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (stål) in China 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Liao, Xun; Mao, Kaikai; Zhang, Kaixiong; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The brown planthopper is a serious rice pest in China. Chemical insecticides have been considered a satisfactory means of controlling the brown planthopper. In the present study, we determined the susceptibility of twenty-one populations of Nilaparvata lugens to eleven insecticides by a rice-stem dipping method from 2012 to 2014 in eight provinces of China. These field-collected populations of N. lugens had developed high levels of resistance to imidacloprid (resistant ratio, RR=233.3-2029-fold) and buprofezin (RR=147.0-1222). Furthermore, N. lugens showed moderate to high levels of resistance to thiamethoxam (RR=25.9-159.2) and low to moderate levels of resistance to dinotefuran (RR=6.4-29.1), clothianidin (RR=6.1-33.6), ethiprole (RR=11.5-71.8), isoprocarb (RR=17.1-70.2), and chlorpyrifos (RR=7.4-30.7). In contrast, the susceptibility of N. lugens to etofenprox (RR=1.1-4.9), thiacloprid (RR=2.9-8.2) and acetamiprid (RR=2.7-26.2) remained susceptible to moderate levels of resistance. Significant correlations were detected between the LC50 values of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, buprofezin, and etofenprox, as well as between clothianidin and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, ethiprole, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid. Similarly, significant correlations were observed between chlorpyrifos and etofenprox, acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Additionally, the activity of the detoxification enzymes of N. lugens showed a significant correlation with the log LC50 values of imidacloprid, dinotefuran and ethiprole. These results will be beneficial for effective insecticide resistance management strategies to prevent or delay the development of insecticide resistance.

  11. Imidacloprid-induced transference effect on some elements in rice plants and the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samer Azzam; Fan Yang; Jin-Cai Wu; Jin Geng; Guo-Qing Yang

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of imidacloprid against insect pests has not only increased the rate of the development of target pest resistance but has also resulted in various negative effects on rice plants and Nilaparvata lugens resurgence. However, the effect of imidacloprid on elements in rice plants and the transference of these element changes between rice and N. lugens are currently poorly understood. The present study investigated changes of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K, Mg and Na contents in rice plants following imidacloprid foliar sprays in the adult female of N. lugens that develops from nymphs that feed on treated plants and honeydew produced by females. The results indicated that imidacloprid foliar spray significantly increased Fe and K contents in leaf sheaths. Generally, Fe, Mn, K and Na contents in leaf blades were noticeably decreased, but Ca contents in leaf blades for 10 and 30 mg/kg imidacloprid treatments were significantly increased. The contents of most elements except K and Mg in the adult females and honeydew were significantly elevated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Fe, Mn and Na in leaf blades and Fe and Mn in leaf sheaths could be proportionally transferred to N. lugens. The relationship between most elements in adult female bodies and in the honeydew showed a positive correlation coefficient. There were significant differences in the contents of some elements in rice plants and N. lugens from different regions.

  12. Effects of endosymbiote on feeding, development, and reproduction of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens stal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The biotype 1,2, and 3 of N. Lugensobtained from IRRI, the Philippines, were reared continuously on susceptible variety TN1, resistant varieties Mudgo (Bph1), and ASD7 (Bph2),respectively. To eliminate the yeast-like symbionts (YLS) in N.lugens,about 60-d old plants of TN1 bearing 3-d old eggs were laid at 26℃ for 2 d and exposed at 35℃ in an incubator for 3 d. After a hot treatment, the plants were transferred into an incubator at 26℃ for egg development. The hatched aposymbiotic nymphs were employed in this experiment.

  13. Re-emigration Capacity of the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens%褐飞虱的再迁飞能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封传红; 翟保平; 张孝羲

    2001-01-01

    Re-emigration potential of the brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens after an emigration and feeding different resistant varieties was simulated. Tethered flight of brown planthopper on a set of computerized flight mill revealed that the natural population of BPH in the rice cropping areas of the lower reaches of Yangtze River consisted of individuals with different flight characteristics, i.e., deposited type (flying less than 20 min), migratory type (flying more than 20 min, MT), strong migratory type (flying more than 160 min, SMT) and re-emigration type (2nd flying more than 20 min, RET). The flight capability and the differentiation of the MT of BPH was influenced significantly by the nutritive conditions. The individuals feeding on the sensitive varieties at heading stage would show a lower ratio of MT, but a stronger ability of migration and re-emigration among their MT individuals. The RET rate would be increased markedly by keeping apart the females, and the SMT individuals would display higher performance of re-emigration. There would only be 0.84 and 4.9 percent of the RET BPH among the natural populations and MT individuals respectively.%通过室内模拟试验研究了褐飞虱经过一次远迁降落、取食不同食料后的再迁飞能力。根据吊飞试验测得的飞行能力可将褐飞虱种群分为居留型(小于20min)、迁飞型(20min以上)、强迁飞型(160min以上)和再迁飞型(二次吊飞飞行20min以上)。不同营养条件对褐飞虱的飞行能力和迁飞型的分化有显著影响,早期营养条件好(取食穗期感性水稻品种)的迁飞型比率较低,但迁飞型个体的飞行能力和再迁飞能力均较强。未交配能显著提高再迁飞型比率。自然种群中褐飞虱再迁飞型比率仅占0.84%,吊飞一次后的迁飞型个体再次吊飞时的再迁飞型比率为4.9%,且强迁飞型个体具有较强的再迁飞能力。

  14. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-07-22

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible.

  15. Characterization of the Distal-less gene homologue, NlDll, in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinda; Yao, Yun; Jin, Minna; Li, Qilin

    2014-02-10

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a globally devastating insect pest of rice, particularly in eastern Asia. Distal-less or Dll is a highly conserved and well studied transcription factor required for limb formation in invertebrates and vertebrates. We have identified a homologue of this gene, NlDll, and demonstrated that it is expressed in all life stages of N. lugens, particularly in adult brachypterous females. When we compared between specific adult tissues it was expressed most strongly in wings. Using RNAi techniques we demonstrated that downregulation of NlDll in the 3rd instar larvae led to the disrupted development of the leg, while downregulation of NlDll in the 5th instar larvae led to abnormal wing formation. Ectopic over-expression of NlDll in Drosophila melanogaster using the GAL4-UAS system led to fatal or visible phenotypic changes such as the loss of normal wing structure and disrupted haltere structure. Our work suggests that NlDll is a conserved homologue of Distal-less and is required for both leg development and wing structure. Since researches have shown that Dll is required for wing morphogenesis, understanding the role of NlDll during the wing development will further provide a basis for revealing the molecular mechanism of the wing dimorphism in brown planthopper. In the future, NlDll could be used as a target gene for brown planthopper pest management in the field. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Establishing the role of detoxifying enzymes in field-evolved resistance to various insecticides in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, Vijayakumar Maheshwari; Jalali, Sushil K; Gowda, Dandinashivara K Sidde; Mohan, Muthugounder; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam

    2017-02-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the major pests of rice throughout Asia. Extensive use of insecticides for suppressing N. lugens has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance leading to frequent control failures in the field. The aim of the present study was to evaluate resistance in the field populations of N. lugens from major rice growing states of South India to various insecticides. We also determined the activity of detoxifying enzymes (esterases [ESTs], glutathione S-transferases [GSTs], and mixed-function oxidases [MFOs]). Moderate levels of resistance were detected in the field populations to acephate, thiamethoxam and buprofezin (resistance factors 1.05-20.92 fold, 4.52-14.99 fold, and 1.00-18.09 fold, respectively) as compared with susceptible strain while there were low levels of resistance to imidacloprid (resistance factor 1.23-6.70 fold) and complete sensitivity to etofenoprox (resistance factor 1.05-1.66 fold). EST activities in the field populations were 1.06 to 3.09 times higher than the susceptible strain while for GST and MFO the ratios varied from 1.29 to 3.41 and 1.03 to 1.76, respectively. The EST activity was found to be correlated to acephate resistance (r = 0.999, P ≥ 0.001). The high selection pressure of organophosphate, neonicotinoid, and insect growth regulator (IGR) in the field is likely to be contributing for resistance in BPH to multiple insecticides, leading to control failures. The results obtained will be beneficial to IPM recommendations for the use of effective insecticides against BPH. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Population dynamics of rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera, Delphacidae) in Central Vietnam and its effects on their spring migration to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Lu, M-H; Tuan, H A; Liu, W-C; Xie, M-C; McInerney, C E; Zhai, B-P

    2017-06-01

    Rice planthopper (RPH) populations of Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera periodically have erupted across Asia. Predicting RPH population dynamics and identifying their source areas are crucial for the management of these migratory pests in China, but the origins of the migrants to temperate and subtropical regions in China remains unclear. In particular, their early migration to China in March and April have not yet been explored due to a lack of research data available from potential source areas, Central Vietnam and Laos. In this study, we examined the population dynamics and migratory paths of N. lugens and S. furcifera in Vietnam and South China in 2012 and 2013. Trajectory modeling showed that in March and April in 2012 and 2013, RPH emigrated from source areas in Central Vietnam where rice was maturing to the Red River Delta and South China. Early migrants originated from Southern Central Vietnam (14-16°N), but later most were from Northern Central Vietnam (16-19°N). Analysis of meteorological and light-trap data from Hepu in April (1977-2013) using generalized linear models showed that immigration increased with precipitation in Southern Central Vietnam in January, but declined with precipitation in Northern Central Vietnam in January. These results determined that the RPH originate from overwintering areas in Central Vietnam, but not from southernmost areas of Vietnam. Winter precipitation, rather than temperature was the most important factor determining the number of RPH migrants. Based on their similar population dynamics and low population densities in Central Vietnam, we further speculated that RPH migrate to track ephemeral food resources whilst simultaneously avoiding predators. Migrations do not seem to be initiated by interspecific competition, overcrowding or host deterioration. Nevertheless, S. furcifera establishes populations earlier than N. lugens South China, perhaps to compensate for interspecific competition. We provide new

  18. Resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in transgenic rice expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissac, X; Thi Loc, N; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.

    2000-04-01

    Transgenic rice plants expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) were screened for resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens; GLH), a major homopteran pest of rice. Survival was reduced by 29% and 53% (P<0.05) respectively, on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific (phloem and epidermal layer) or constitutive. Similar levels of resistance in GNA-expressing transgenic rice were previously reported for rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH). GNA binding to glycoproteins in gut tissues showed that BPH contained more "receptors" than GLH, and that the binding affinity was stronger, particularly in the midgut. Subsequent toxicity of GNA is thus unlikely to be directly related to the amount of lectin bound. GNA was not detected in the honeydew of either insect species when they were fed on GNA-expressing plants, in contrast to results from artificial diet studies. This result suggests that GNA is not being delivered to the insect efficiently. When offered a free choice vs control plants, BPH nymphs tended to avoid plants expressing GNA; avoidance was less pronounced and took longer to develop on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific, In contrast to BPH, GLH nymphs were attracted to plants expressing GNA, whether constitutively or in a tissue-specific manner.

  19. Immunodetection of a brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) salivary catalase-like protein into tissues of rice, Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, A; Smith, C M

    2014-02-01

    Saliva plays an important role in host plant-phloem-feeding insect molecular interactions. To better elucidate the role of insect saliva, a series of experiments were conducted to establish if catalase from the salivary glands of the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was secreted into rice host plant tissue during feeding. Catalase is the main enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at high concentrations. H2O2 is a part of the free radicals system that mediates important physiological roles including signalling and defence. Previous studies have suggested that H2O2 is involved in the rice endogenous response to BPH feeding. If, the BPH secretes catalase into host plant tissue this will counter the effects of H2O2, from detoxification to interfering with plant signalling and defence mechanisms. When BPHs were fed on a hopper-resistant rice variety for 24 h, catalase activity in the salivary glands increased 3.5-fold compared with hoppers fed on a susceptible rice variety. Further supporting evidence of the effects of BPH catalase was demonstrated by immunodetection analyses where results from two independent sources: BPH-infested rice tissue and BPH-probed artificial diets, suggest that the BPH secretes catalase-like protein during feeding. The possible physiological roles of BPH-secreted catalase are discussed.

  20. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis ofKrüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) in the Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Min-na; XUE Jian; YAO Yun; LIN Xin-da

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is the most serious insect pest of rice. It has developed high resistance to traditional insecticides because of their intensive use. Juvenile hormone (JH) analogs have been used successfully to control this species and other pest insects. However, the molecular mechanism of JH signaling is not well understood.Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a transcription factor involved in the JH pathway. In this study, theKr-h1cDNA was cloned and characterized from N. lugens by rapid ampliifcation of cDNA ends (RACE) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Its spatial and temporal expression proifles were examined by real-time quantitative PCR, and its function was also studied by RNA interference (RNAi). The open reading frame ofNlKr-h1 is 1833 bp encoding for 611 amino acids. The protein contains eight conserved zinc-ifnger motifs.NlKr-h1 was expressed at all life stages, with the highest mRNA level in the 4-day embryo.NlKr-h1 mRNA levels rose during each nymphal molt after the 2nd instar. In the adults, the mRNA level in males was signiifcantly higher than that in females of either the macropterous or brachypterous type. The highest expression was observed in the female midgut.NlKr-h1 was activated by juvenile hormone III (JH III) in the 3rd-5th instar nymphs. Disruption ofNlkr-h1expression by RNAi caused stunted wing development and malformations of both male and female external genitalia. Our ifndings suggest thatKr-h1may be a useful target for pest insect management.

  1. Imidacloprid susecptibility survey and selection risk assessment in field populations of Nilaparvata lugens(Stal)(Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imidacloprid has been used for many years to control the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in China. To provide resistance assessment for the national insecticide resistance management program, we collected a total of 42 samples of the planthoppers from 27 locations covering 8 provinces t...

  2. Mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens by molecular modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Homology models of the ligand binding domain of the wild-type and Y151S mutant brown planthopper {Nilaparvata lugens)α1 and rat(Rattus norvegicus)β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor(nAChR) subunits were generated based on the crystal structure of acetylcholine binding protein of Lymnaea stagnalis.Neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid was docked into the putative binding site of wild-type and mutantα1β2 dimeric receptors by Surflex-docking,and the calculated docking energies were in agreement with experi...

  3. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein.

  4. Effects of herbivore-induced rice volatiles on the host selection behavior of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that herbivore would react to volatiles produced by herbivore infested plant due to potential change, either positive or negative, in the acceptability of the host plant. This hypothesis was tested for the brown planthopper (BPH) in the laboratory. Sixteen components of the headspace volatiles from rice seedlings with different treatments were collected with SPME and Tenax-TA trap and analyzed with GC and GC-MS. Significant differences in volatile emissions were observed for rice plants with different treatments. Undamaged control plants, mechanically damaged plants and the plants infested by BPH for 1 or 2 d emitted much lower amounts of volatiles compared to the plants infested by BPH for 3 or 5 d. The plants infested by BPH for 3 or 5 d emitted several volatiles that were not detected in undamaged control plants, mechanically damaged plants or the plants infested by BPH for 1 or 2 d. Spodoptera litura infested plants released much higher amounts of volatiles than those in all other treatments, and the contents of several green leaf volatiles, methyl salicylate and terpenoids increased dramatically. In dual-choice flight tunnel experiments, adult BPH females showed no significant preference between the untreated healthy plants and mechanically damaged plants or the plants infested by BPH adult females. However, rice plants damaged by S. litura had a clearly repellent effects on BPH adult females compared to healthy undamaged plants, mechanically damaged plants or the plants infested by BPH.

  5. Screening of IR50 x Rathu Heenati F7 RILs and identification of SSR markers linked to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; M Sheba, Jennifer; Marappan, Maheshwaran; Ponnuswamy, Shanmugasunderam; Seetharaman, Suresh; Pothi, Nagarajan; Subbarayalu, Mohankumar; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Natesan, Senthil

    2010-09-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the major insect pests of rice. A Sri Lankan indica rice cultivar Rathu Heenati was found to be resistant to all biotypes of the brown planthopper. In the present study, a total of 268 F(7) RILs of IR50 and Rathu Heenati were phenotyped for their level of resistance against BPH by the standard seedbox screening test (SSST) in the greenhouse. A total of 53 SSR primers mapped on the chromosome 3 were used to screen the polymorphism between the parents IR50 and Rathu Heenati, out of which eleven were found to be polymorphic between IR50 and Rathu Heenati. The eleven primers that have shown polymorphism between the IR50 and Rathu Heenati parents were genotyped in a set of five resistant RILs and five susceptible RILs along with the parents for co-segregation analysis. Among the eleven primers, two primers namely RM3180 (18.22 Mb) and RM2453 (20.19 Mb) showed complete co-segregation with resistance. The identification of SSR markers linked with BPH resistant could be used for the maker assisted selection (MAS) program in rice breeding and to map the resistant genes on rice chromosomes for further gene cloning.

  6. The content of amino acids in artificial diet influences the development and reproduction of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (STÅL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuehua; Lu, Kai; Qi, Shu; Zhou, Qiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Nitrogen availability from dietary protein has profound effects on the physiology and ecology of insect herbivores. The amount of amino acids consumed by Nilaparvata lugens impacts its phenotypic characteristics and reproduction. In this work, we hypothesized that amino acids deficiency leads to physiological trade-offs between survival and reproduction. We investigated the effect of larval nutrition on larval period, wing dimorphism, egg production, ovarian development, lifespan, and stored nutrients. Larvae were reared on the standard medium and an amino acid deficient medium (AADM), adults were reared on the standard medium. Nymphs reared on AADM had shorter larval period (20.78 d/23.09 d), higher brachypterous forms (34.06%/16.52%), the adults females were fed back on standard medium after emergency, they featured extended preoviposition period (11.41/13.45 d), declining number of laid eggs (2.27/37.44), ovarian dysplasia, and shorter lifespan compared with control group. Adults from both dietary treatment groups had approximately the same proportion of total lipids and protein nutrients carried over from larvae feeding into adulthood. We infer that N. lugens makes a physiological trade-off between survival and reproduction by suppressing ovarian development. This is probably a common strategy during times of nutritional deficiency in nature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. RELATIVE FITNESS AND FEEDING CAPACITY OF IMIDACLOPRID RESISTANT Nilaparvata lugens (KEBUGARAN RELATIIF DAN KEMAMPUAN MAKAN Nilaparvata lugens RESISTEN TERHADAP IMIDAKLOPRID)

    OpenAIRE

    Londingkene, Jesayas A.; Trisyono, Y. Andi; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Martono, Edhi

    2017-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is recommended for controlling Nilaparvata lugens. In Asian countries, such as, China, Vietnam, India, and Thailand, imidacloprid has caused resistance to N. lugens. Imidacloprid has also caused resistance to N. lugens based on some previous studies in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine the fitness and feeding capacity of imidacloprid-resistant N. lugens. The population of N. lugens used in this study had a resistance level of 50...

  8. Genome-wide screening for components of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro-RNA (miRNA) pathways in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H-J; Chen, T; Ma, X-F; Xue, J; Pan, P-L; Zhang, X-C; Cheng, J-A; Zhang, C-X

    2013-12-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is a major rice pest in Asia, and accumulated evidence indicates that this species is susceptible to RNA interference (RNAi); however, the mechanism underlying RNAi and parental RNAi has not yet been determined. We comprehensively investigated the repertoire of core genes involved in small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro-RNA (miRNA) pathways in the BPH by comparing its newly assembled transcriptome and genome with those of Drosophila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Caenorhabditis elegans. Our analysis showed that the BPH possesses one drosha and two Dicer (dcr) genes, three dsRNA-binding motif protein genes, two Argonaute (ago) genes, two Eri-1-like genes (eri-1), and a Sid-1-like gene (sid-1). Additionally, we report for first time that parental RNAi might occur in this species, and siRNA pathway and Sid-1 were required for high efficiency of systemic RNAi triggered by exogenous dsRNA. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated that the miRNA pathway was involved in BPH metamorphosis as depletion of the ago1 or dcr1 gene severely impaired ecdysis. The BPH might be a good model system to study the molecular mechanism of systemic RNAi in hemimetabolous insects, and RNAi has potential to be developed to control this pest in agricultural settings. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar 'ASD7' (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-12-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH.

  10. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar ‘ASD7’ (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH. PMID:26719745

  11. Suppressing male spermatogenesis-associated protein 5-like gene expression reduces vitellogenin gene expression and fecundity in Nilaparvata lugens Stål

    Science.gov (United States)

    In our previous study with the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, triazophos (tzp, organophosphate) treatments led to substantial up-regulation of a male spermatogenesis-associated protein 5-like gene (NlSPATA5) compared to untreated controls. Mating with tzp-treated males significantly in...

  12. Virulence of Metarhizium flavoviride 82 to different developmental stages of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae)%黄绿绿僵菌Mf82菌株对不同虫态褐飞虱的毒力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂业; 林华峰; 李世广; 金立

    2012-01-01

    对水稻重要害虫褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens目前市场上尚无一种理想的微生物杀虫剂.昆虫病原真菌具有从体壁侵入的能力因而对刺吸性害虫的防治具有优势.为此,本研究选用不同原寄主和来源地的3种昆虫病原真菌(金龟子绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae、黄绿绿僵菌Metarhizium flavoviride和球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana)的12个不同菌株,以1 100孢子/mm2孢子悬浮液进行室内毒力测定.结果表明:在参试的不同菌种12个菌株中,黄绿绿僵菌Mf82菌株对褐飞虱成虫致病力最高,10 d累计校正死亡率为83.5%,致死中时(LT50)为4.6d.其不同浓度孢子液对褐飞虱3个发育阶段有不同程度的致病力,毒力大小顺序为成虫>高龄若虫>低龄若虫.黄绿绿僵菌孢子液对各处理稻株褐飞虱产卵痕部位、卵粒均有侵染作用,10d侵染率分别为66.7%和51.2%,卵龄越低,侵染效果越好,卵龄为0.5d时侵染率最高.本研究表明黄绿绿僵菌Mf82菌株对褐飞虱成虫、若虫和卵均有较强的致病性,是一株极具应用潜力的生防真菌.%At present there still lacks ideal commercial microbial insecticides to control the brown planthopper ( BPH) , Nilaparvata lugens (Stil) , an important pest of rice in Asia. Entomopathogenic fungi can penetrate the cuticle of insect hosts and thus have the advantage of controlling sucking pests. In this study, laboratory bioassays were carried out on 12 isolates of three entomopathogenic fungal species, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium flavoviride and Beauveria bassiana, which were originally obtained from various hosts and geographic origins, for their virulence against BPH adults. The results showed that at the concentration of 1 100 conidia/mm2, the strain Mf82 had the highest virulence to adults with the corrected mortality reaching 83.5% within 10 d after treatment and the LT50 value 4.65 d. The pathogenicity of Mf82 to adults, nymphs at different instars and

  13. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of N lTgo in the Rice Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae)%褐飞虱 NlTgo 基因的克隆及功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙飞; 万品俊; 王渭霞; 傅强; 朱廷恒

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulator Tango (Tgo)plays crucial roles in insect development,including neurogenesis, hematopoiesis,sex determination and gut development.In this study,a full-length cDNA of Tango was cloned in Nilaparvata lugens .qRT-PCR and RNA interference (RNAi)were further used to analyze the expression pattern and function role,respectively.Our results showed that NlTgo contained a 2007-bp open reading frame (ORF),encoding 669 amino acid residues.Sequence alignment showed that NlTgo shared an identity of 68% with Pediculus humanus . Phylogenetic analysis suggested that NlTgo was closely related to the Tango proteins from Acyrthosiphon pisum , P yrrhocoris apterus and Cimex lectularius .Expression profile revealed that NlTgo expression was higher in the first-and second-instar larvae than that in eggs.Furthermore,the expression level of NlTgo was higher in ovary than that in integument.Knocking down of NlTgo ,in the 4th-instar nymph,was performed by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting NlTgo .It was found that the expression level of NlTgo ,4 days after injection,was significantly decreased by 77%,compared with control.Furthermore,nymphs died due to the abnormal molting,and the survival rate was only 23%,significantly lower than control group (98%).The results suggest that NlTgo is involved in the development of N .lugens and can serve as a potential target for controlling the brown planthopper.%转录因子 Tango(Tgo)在昆虫神经元发生、血细胞生成、性别决定、肠道发育等过程中发挥重要作用.克隆了褐飞虱Tango 基因(NlTgo ),应用荧光定量 PCR 和 RNAi 探索了 NlTgo 在褐飞虱中的表达动态和生物学功能.结果表明,NlTgo的开放阅读框为2007 bp,推测编码669个氨基酸残基.多序列比对表明 NlTgo 与已知的 Tgo 高度同源,其中与人体虱(Pediculus humanus corporis )Tgo 的一致性达68%.系统进化分析表明,NlTgo 与豌豆长管蚜(Acyrthosiphon pisum )、始红蝽(P yrrhocoris

  14. Genetic Analysis and Preliminary Mapping of Two Recessive Resistance Genes to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Li-yuan; PENG Suo-tang; WEI Xing-hua; Yu Ping; XU Qun; YUAN Xiao-ping; Yu Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; WANG Cai-hong; WAN Guo; TANG Sheng-xiang

    2011-01-01

    An F2 population derived from the cross of WB01,an introgression line resistant to brown planthopper (BPH) originated from Oryza rufipogon Griff.and a susceptible indica variety 9311,was developed for genetic analysis and gene mapping.The population with 303 Fz:3 families was genotyped by 141 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and used for gene mapping.Two softwares,Mapmaker/Exp 3.0 and Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0 were applied to detect QTLs.Totally,two QTLs resistant to BPH,named temporarily as bph22(t) and bph23(t),were identified to locate on chromosomes 4 and 8,individually had LOD values of 2.92and 3.15,and explained 11.3% and 14.9% of the phenotypic variation,respectively.

  15. Insecticide resistance selection in rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stal) and white backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) are the main insects on rice in China. The insecticide resistance of the two planthoppers have often been reported. Availability of the resistant population is a prerequisite for studying the resistance mechanism. In this paper, one method to select methamidophos resistance of the two planthoppers was recommended.

  16. Insecticide Susceptibility and Activity of Metabolic Enzymes of Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)(Hemiptera: Deiphacidae)Feeding on Transgenic Bt Rice%取食转Bt基因水稻褐飞虱对杀虫剂的敏感性及其代谢酶的活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆亮; 姚洪渭; 陈洋; 田俊策; 彭于发; 叶恭银

    2011-01-01

    测定比较了褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens在转cry1Ab基因水稻KMD1和KMD2及其对照秀水11上取食不同世代的室内种群和田间种群对5种杀虫剂的敏感水平及其体内解毒酶(酯酶和谷胱甘肽S-转移酶)、靶标酶(乙酰胆碱酯酶)和保护酶(超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化物酶)的活性,以及体内Cry1Ab蛋白的含量.结果表明,5种杀虫剂对分别持续取食KMD1和KMD2的褐飞虱室内种群和田间种群LD50值与取食对照的无显著差异.在KMD1和KMD2上取食1代和9代的褐飞虱室内种群以及田间种群体内解毒酶、靶标酶和保护酶等活性与取食对照的差异不显著.取食KMD的褐飞虱不同种群体内的Cry1Ab蛋白含量相对稳定,其中以取食KMD2的较高.上述结果表明,转cry1Ab基因水稻KMD1和KMD2对褐飞虱的杀虫剂敏感性和代谢酶活性无显著影响.%The toxicities of five commonly-used insecticides against different populations of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, fed on transgenic rice with crylAb gene, KMD1 and KMD2 for different generations were measured and compared with those on non-transgenic parental rice variety, Xiushui 11.Activities of detoxification enzymes (EST and GST), target enzyme (AChE), and protective enzymes (SOD, CAT and POD) from different populations of N.lugens fed on KMD1, KMD2, and Xiushui 11 and the content of Cry protein were also detected.For all five insecticides tested,there were no significant differences in LD50 values among different populations of N.lugens fed on KMD1 KMD2, and Xiushui 11 continuously in the laboratory and collected from the rice fields.For all six metabolic enzymes tested, there was no significant difference of enzyme activities among different populations of N.lugens fed on KMD1, KMD2 and Xiushui 11 for 1 and 9 generations in the laboratory or collected from the rice fields.The content of Cry protein was relatively stable in different populations of N.lugens fed on Bt

  17. The influence of Typhoon Khanun on the return migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stal in eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hu

    Full Text Available Migratory insects adapt to and exploit the atmospheric environment to complete their migration and maintain their population. However, little is known about the mechanism of insect migration under the influence of extreme weather conditions such as typhoons. A case study was conducted to investigate the effect of typhoon Khanun, which made landfall in the eastern China in Sept. 2005, on the migration of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål. The migration pathways of N. lugens were reconstructed for the period under the influence of the typhoon by calculating trajectories using the MM5, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, and migration events were examined in 7 counties of the Yangtze River Delta region with ancillary information. The light trap catches and field observations indicated that the migration peak of N. lugens coincided with the period when the typhoon made landfall in this region. The trajectory analyses revealed that most emigrations from this region during this period were hampered or ended in short distances. The sources of the light-trap catches were mainly located the nearby regions of each station (i.e. mostly less than 100 km away, with a few exceeding 200 km but all less than 300 km. This disrupted emigration was very different from the usual N. lugens migration which would bring them to Hunan, Jiangxi, and southern Anhui from this region at this time of year. This study revealed that the return migration of N. lugens was suppressed by the typhoon Khanun, leading to populations remaining high in the Yangtze River Delta and exacerbating later outbreaks.

  18. Distinct expression profiles and different functions of odorant binding proteins in Nilaparvata lugens Stal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs play important roles in insect olfaction. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Delphacidae, Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera is one of the most important rice pests. Its monophagy (only feeding on rice, wing form (long and short wing variation, and annual long distance migration (seeking for rice plants of high nutrition imply that the olfaction would play a central role in BPH behavior. However, the olfaction related proteins have not been characterized in this insect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full length cDNA of three OBPs were obtained and distinct expression profiles were revealed regarding to tissue, developmental stage, wing form and gender for the first time for the species. The results provide important clues in functional differentiation of these genes. Binding assays with 41 compounds demonstrated that NlugOBP3 had markedly higher binding ability and wider binding spectrum than the other two OBPs. Terpenes and Ketones displayed higher binding while Alkanes showed no binding to the three OBPs. Focused on NlugOBP3, RNA interference experiments showed that NlugOBP3 not only involved in nymph olfaction on rice seedlings, but also had non-olfactory functions, as it was closely related to nymph survival. CONCLUSIONS: NlugOBP3 plays important roles in both olfaction and survival of BPH. It may serve as a potential target for developing behavioral disruptant and/or lethal agent in N. lugens.

  19. Knockdown of midgut genes by dsRNA-transgenic plant-mediated RNA interference in the hemipteran insect Nilaparvata lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful technique for functional genomics research in insects. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA directed against insect genes have been reported for lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, showing potential for field-level control of insect pests, but this has not been reported for other insect orders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hemipteran insect brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål is a typical phloem sap feeder specific to rice (Oryza sativa L.. To analyze the potential of exploiting RNAi-mediated effects in this insect, we identified genes (Nlsid-1 and Nlaub encoding proteins that might be involved in the RNAi pathway in N. lugens. Both genes are expressed ubiquitously in nymphs and adult insects. Three genes (the hexose transporter gene NlHT1, the carboxypeptidase gene Nlcar and the trypsin-like serine protease gene Nltry that are highly expressed in the N. lugens midgut were isolated and used to develop dsRNA constructs for transforming rice. RNA blot analysis showed that the dsRNAs were transcribed and some of them were processed to siRNAs in the transgenic lines. When nymphs were fed on rice plants expressing dsRNA, levels of transcripts of the targeted genes in the midgut were reduced; however, lethal phenotypic effects after dsRNA feeding were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that genes for the RNAi pathway (Nlsid-1 and Nlaub are present in N. lugens. When insects were fed on rice plant materials expressing dsRNAs, RNA interference was triggered and the target genes transcript levels were suppressed. The gene knockdown technique described here may prove to be a valuable tool for further investigations in N. lugens. The results demonstrate the potential of dsRNA-mediated RNAi for field-level control of planthoppers, but appropriate target genes must be selected when designing the dsRNA-transgenic plants.

  20. Comparison for activities of antioxidant enzymes in imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible symbiotic strains in rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l)%褐飞虱共生菌抗感吡虫啉菌株体内抗氧化酶活性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陈建明; 张珏锋; 何月平; 陈列忠

    2011-01-01

    在含不同浓度吡虫啉的综合马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂液体培养基中接种抗感吡虫啉褐飞虱共生菌菌株且培养2~6天后,通过测定抗吡虫啉菌株和敏感菌株的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)等活性,阐明抗感菌株在吡虫啉胁迫下体内抗氧化酶活性的变化.结果显示,抗吡虫啉菌株和敏感菌株三种抗氧化酶活性差异明显不同,抗性菌株的SOD、POD活性(极)显著高于敏感菌株,其中抗性菌株SOD活性比敏感菌株提高了45.89%~222.53%;抗性菌株的CAT活性与敏感菌株差异无明显规律性.说明褐飞虱共生菌对吡虫啉的抗药性与其体内SOD和POD的活性增强有关.%After imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible symbiotic strains of rice brown planthopper, Ni-laparvata lugens were cultured in CPDA (comprehensive potato dextrose agar) liquid culture medium containing different concentrations of imidacloprid for two to six days, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase) in imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible strains were determined , and change of these enzymes activities in different imidacloprid resistant strains were elucidated. The results showed that imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible strains had significant difference in activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in imidacloprid resistant strains were significantly higher than those in imidacloprid susceptible strains, and activities of superoxide dismutase in imidacloprid resistant strains had increased 45. 89% -222.53% , while change of catalase activity had no obvious regularity in imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible strains. It was suggested that resistant of N. lugens symbiotes to imidacloprid was related to enh-ancement of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities.

  1. THE ROLES OF DETOXIFYING ENZYMES AND AChE INSENSITIVITY IN METHAMIDOPHOS RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT AND DECLINE IN NILAPARVATA LUGENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-wenLiu; Zhao-junHan; Ling-chunZhang

    2003-01-01

    Methamidophos resistance of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal, BPH) was selected in laboratory. After successive selection for 9 generations, the selection was ceased by rearing BPH without contact with any insecticide for 9 generations. In the full course, the successive changes of esterase activity, MFO activity, GSTs activity and AChE insensitivity were analyzed. The results showed that the change of esterase activity was high correlated with that of methamidophos in the full course, which indicated that esterase played very important role both in the resistance development and in the resistance decline. However, the change of AChE insensitivity only significantly correlated with that of resistance in the development stage, and the change of MFO activity or GSTs activity only significantly correlated with that of the resistance in the decline stage, which indicated the changes of AChE insensitivity, MFO activity or GSTs activity only played some roles in different stages of the resistance change.

  2. The genetic basis of population fecundity prediction across multiple field populations of Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong Xiang; Zhai, Yi Fan; Zhang, Jian Qing; Kang, Kui; Cai, Jing Heng; Fu, Yonggui; Qiu, Jie Qi; Shen, Jia Wei; Zhang, Wen Qing

    2015-02-01

    Identifying the molecular markers for complex quantitative traits in natural populations promises to provide novel insight into genetic mechanisms of adaptation and to aid in forecasting population dynamics. In this study, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using candidate gene approach from high- and low-fecundity populations of the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) divergently selected for fecundity. We also tested whether the population fecundity can be predicted by a few SNPs. Seven genes (ACE, fizzy, HMGCR, LpR, Sxl, Vg and VgR) were inspected for SNPs in N. lugens, which is a serious insect pest of rice. By direct sequencing of the complementary DNA and promoter sequences of these candidate genes, 1033 SNPs were discovered within high- and low-fecundity BPH populations. A panel of 121 candidate SNPs were selected and genotyped in 215 individuals from 2 laboratory populations (HFP and LFP) and 3 field populations (GZP, SGP and ZSP). Prior to association tests, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among the 3 field populations were analysed. The association results showed that 7 SNPs were significantly associated with population fecundity in BPH. These significant SNPs were used for constructing general liner models with stepwise regression. The best predictive model was composed of 2 SNPs (ACE-862 and VgR-816 ) with very good fitting degree. We found that 29% of the phenotypic variation in fecundity could be accounted for by only two markers. Using two laboratory populations and a complete independent field population, the predictive accuracy was 84.35-92.39%. The predictive model provides an efficient molecular method to predict BPH fecundity of field populations and provides novel insights for insect population management.

  3. Cross-resistance of bisultap resistant strain of Nilaparvata lugens and its biochemical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shanfeng; Zhang, Runjie

    2011-02-01

    The resistant (R) strain of the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) selected for bisultap resistance displayed 7.7-fold resistance to bisultap and also had cross-resistance to nereistoxin (monosultap, thiocyclam, and cartap), chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and malathion but no cross-resistance to buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil. To find out the biochemical mechanism of resistance to bisultap, biochemical assay was done. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) activity in R strain was 2.71-fold that in susceptible strain (S strain), in which the changed activity for general esterase (EST) was 1.91 and for glutathione S-transferases only 1.32. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) could significantly inhibit P450 activity (percentage of inhibition [PI]: 37.31%) in the R strain, with ESTs PI = 16.04% by triphenyl phosphate (TPP). The results also demonstrated that diethyl maleate had no synergism with bisultap. However, PBO displayed significant synergism in three different strains, and the synergism increased with resistance (S strain 1.42, Lab strain, 2.24 and R strain, 3.23). TPP also showed synergism for three strains, especially in R strain (synergistic ratio = 2.47). An in vitro biochemical study and in vivo synergistic study indicated that P450 might be play important role in the biochemical mechanism of bisultap resistance and that esterase might be the important factor of bisultap resistance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity play important role in bisultap resistance. We suggest that buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil could be used in resistance management programs for N. lugens via alternation and rotation with bisultap.

  4. The influence of Typhoon Khanun on the return migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lu, Fang; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Xu, Wei-Gen; Jiang, Xue-Hui; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Migratory insects adapt to and exploit the atmospheric environment to complete their migration and maintain their population. However, little is known about the mechanism of insect migration under the influence of extreme weather conditions such as typhoons. A case study was conducted to investigate the effect of typhoon Khanun, which made landfall in the eastern China in Sept. 2005, on the migration of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). The migration pathways of N. lugens were reconstructed for the period under the influence of the typhoon by calculating trajectories using the MM5, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, and migration events were examined in 7 counties of the Yangtze River Delta region with ancillary information. The light trap catches and field observations indicated that the migration peak of N. lugens coincided with the period when the typhoon made landfall in this region. The trajectory analyses revealed that most emigrations from this region during this period were hampered or ended in short distances. The sources of the light-trap catches were mainly located the nearby regions of each station (i.e. mostly less than 100 km away, with a few exceeding 200 km but all less than 300 km). This disrupted emigration was very different from the usual N. lugens migration which would bring them to Hunan, Jiangxi, and southern Anhui from this region at this time of year. This study revealed that the return migration of N. lugens was suppressed by the typhoon Khanun, leading to populations remaining high in the Yangtze River Delta and exacerbating later outbreaks.

  5. Domestication for imidacloprid-resistant strain of rice brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l,symbiote,Candida lipolytica%褐飞虱共生解脂假丝酵母抗吡虫啉菌株的驯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陈建明; 张珏锋; 何月平; 陈列忠

    2011-01-01

    为进一步研究共生菌在褐飞虱对吡虫啉产生抗性中的生理生化机制,在稻田杀虫剂对褐飞虱共生解脂假丝酵母生长影响的基础上,选用不同吡虫啉浓度进行抗药性菌株的驯化.结果表明,褐飞虱共生解脂假丝酵母在不同吡虫啉浓度(2000、1000和500 mg/L)的固体培养基上继代培养,经过20代后2000 mg/L培养基上的共生菌菌落数量,与未加吡虫啉的培养基上的菌落数量差异不明显,并且连续3代稳定后定为抗2000 mg/L吡虫啉的共生菌菌株.在光镜下比较不同抗感吡虫啉菌株假菌丝的形态变化,发现抗吡虫啉菌株的假菌丝出现畸形,而且假丝变短,部分出现了膨大.%To further study physiological-biochemical mechanism of symbiote in imidacloprid-resistant brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), imidacloprid-resistant strain of symbiote, Candida lipolytica,was domesticated with different concentrations of imidacloprid based on effect of insecticides on growth and development of C.lipolytica.The results indicated that after in vitro C.lipolytica, on solid culture medium containing 2 000, 1 000 and 500 mg/L imidacloprid were subcultured for continuous 20 generations, the colony numbers of C.lipolytica on solid culture medium containing 2 000 mg/L imidacloprid were no significant difference with those on control medium containing non-imidacloprid.When numbers of colony kept stable for continuous three generations, the domesticated strain was called 2 000 mg/L imidacloprid-resistant one.Morphological changes of imidacloprid -resistant and -susceptible strains pseudohyphae were further observed using light microscope, it was found that pseudohyphae of imidacloprid-resistant strain occurred malformation and become shorter, some appeared enlargement.

  6. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Nilaparvata lugens with Different Levels of Virulence on Rice by Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-xia; LAI Feng-xiang; LI Kai-long; FU Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopperNilaparvata lugens Stål (Homoptera: Delphacidae) can cause hopperburn by feeding on rice and also can transmit the grassy stunt disease. Resistant rice varieties have been developed, but severalN. lugens strains can recover their virulence to these resistant rice varieties. In the present study, reference genes with stable expression levels inN. lugens populations showed different levels of virulence to susceptible and resistant rice varieties. The expression of six candidate reference genes inN. lugens feeding on susceptible and resistant rice varieties was analyzed. These genes were evaluated for their potential use in the analysis of differential gene expression. Polymerase chain reaction data was generated fromN. lugens, including two different treatments (resistant or susceptible rice) and three virulentN. lugens populations. Three software programs (BestKeeper, Normfinder and geNorm) were used to assess the candidate reference genes. Both geNorm and Normfinder identified the genes18S,β-ACT,β-TUB andα-TUB as the most stable reference genes. BestKeeper identifiedETIF1 as the optimal reference gene with the least overall variation, whereas18S andα-TUB were the second and third most stably expressed genes, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that the genes18S andα-TUB were the most suitable reference genes inN. lugens. These results will facilitate future transcript profiling studies onN. lugens populations that show variation in virulence levels on different rice varieties.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangcun He

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Homoptera: Delphacidae is an economically important pest on rice. In this study, 30 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from N. lugens genomic libraries using the method of Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence Containing Repeats (FIASCO. Polymorphism of each locus was detected in 48 individuals from two natural populations. These microsatellite loci revealed 2 to 18 alleles, and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.042 to 0.937 and from 0.042 to 0.958, respectively. These markers will be useful for the future study of this agricultural pest in population genetics and molecular genetics.

  8. Identification of a heat shock protein 90 gene involved in resistance to temperature stress in two wing-morphs of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wenting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is one of the most destructive pests damaging rice in Asia and exhibits wing dimorphism, with brachypters possessing severely reduced wings and macropters bearing fully developed wings. Previous studies have shown that macropters are more heat resistant than brachypters. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the differential thermotolerance abilities of these two morphs, a full-length Hsp gene, NlHsp90 was cloned from N. lugen. Our results showed that the relative expression levels of NlHsp90 in N. lugens females increased with the rise of temperature. Interestingly, NlHsp90 in macropters females could be induced at lower temperature (32°C) than that in brachypters (34°C), and the NlHsp90 mRNA levels in macropters were significantly higher than those in brachypters from 34 to 40°C. In addition, the maximum expression levels of NlHsp90 were achieved much earlier in macropters, and NlHsp90 mRNA levels in macropters were significantly higher than those in brachypters from 1 to 6h of recovery after temperature stress. Furthermore, knockdown of NlHsp90 by dsRNA injection reduced survival in both morphs with a greater reduction in the macropters relative to that of the brachyters. These results indicated that NlHsp90 plays an important role for thermotolerance in N. lugens, and there is difference on induction between two morphs.

  9. 70%噻虫嗪WS对水稻壮苗及稻飞虱的防治效果%Effects of 70% thiamethoxam WS on strengthening rice seedling and controlling planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付佑胜; 赵桂东; 刘伟中

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Effect of different doses of thiamethoxam WS(70%) on strengthening rice seedling and controlling planthopper was studied in order to screen its best dose and treatment method on rice seed. [Method]Germination rate, root length, leaf width, rool number of rice seedlings and preventive effects of three different doses of thiamethoxam WS (20, 40 and 80 g for every 100 kg seeds) using two different methods (coating first and presoaking, presoaking first and coaling) were investigated. [ Result ]The most satisfying combination was found as treatment of 40 g 70% thiamethoxam WS every 100 kg seeds (coaled first and then presoaked). The germination percentage (indoor) was stabilized at 96% after 4 days. The length of rice root was 4.93 cm after 30 days. Ten days later, leaf width of the top five leaves was found apparently larger than the control. The average number of root was 54 on the 45th day. For the prevention of the planthopper, the control effect reached 96% on the 15th, 30th and 45th day. [Conclusion]The application of 40 g 70% thiamethoxam WS every 100 kg seeds (coated first and then presoaked) was recommended to get the best controlling effects at rice production.%[目的]研究70%噻虫嗪WS不同处理方式对水稻的壮苗效果及对稻飞虱的防治效果,以期获得该药剂对水稻种子的最佳处理剂量和处理方法,为水稻安全生产提供科学依据.[方法]70%噻虫嗪WS:水稻种子按照20 g:100kg、40 g:100 kg和80 g:100 kg分别采用先包衣后浸种和先浸种后包衣的处理方式,以空白为对照,测定不同处理方式水稻种子发芽率、稻根长、叶片宽度、根数及对稻飞虱的防治效果.[结果]70%噻虫嗪WS按照药剂/种子为40 g/100kg,采用先包衣后浸种处理方式的综合效果最佳,处理后4d室内发芽率稳定为96.00%,30 d平均根长为4.93 cm,40 d水稻1~5叶位叶片宽度明显较对照宽,45 d的平均根数为54.0条,处理后15、30、45 d对稻

  10. Changes in Methamidophos Resistance and Fitness of Hybrids in Different Strains of Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xian-sheng; LIU Ze-wen; LI Shu-mei; HAN Zhao-jun; YANG Jie-pin; ZHANG Ling-chun; SUN Hao

    2004-01-01

    A resistant strain selected successively in the laboratory for 17 generations had 198.63-fold resistance to methamidophos.The resistant levels and fitness of progenies from the resistant strain and susceptible strain or field population were closer to those of the resistant strain than those of the susceptible strain or field population. The changes in the resistant levels of the hybrid were propitious to the resistance development, however, the changes of the fitness went to the contrary. The effects of the migration on the development of methamidophos resistance in Nilaparvata lugens were discussed in the aspects of the migration of Nilaparvata lugens,the resistant levels of progenies and the changes of the fitness.

  11. 不同氮肥水平下转Bt基因水稻对褐飞虱和白背飞虱生态适应性的继代影响%Effects of Bt Rice with cry1C and cry2A on the Ecological Generation Fitness of Rice Brown Planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens ) and Whitebacked Planthoppers (Sogatella furcifera)at Various Nitrogen Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 杨亚军; 田俊策; 鲁艳辉; 徐红星; 郑许松; 吕仲贤

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of Bt rice on the generation fitness of non-target pest at different nitrogen rates,as wall as the potential impact of Bt rice and nitrogen fertilizer levels on non-target pest,the brown plantthopper (BPH)(Nilaparvata lugens)and the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH)(Sogatella furcifera),were successively cultured for four generations on Bt rice,T1C-19 with cry1C and T2A-1 with cry2A ,and their parental rice Minghui 63,at nitrogen rates of 0,100 and 250 kg/hm2 .The results indicated that the ecological fitness of the BPH and WBPH was increased with the increasing nitrogen fertilizer level, including shortened nymph developmental duration, enhanced fecundity, prolonged longevity, increased nymph survival rate, female weight, egg hatchability and population growth rate.There were significant differences in rice planthopper nymphal development duration,body weight of female adult,fecundity and population growth rate for four successive generations under different nitrogen rates.Transgenic Bt rice,T1C-19 and T2A-1,had no significant effect on the fitness of BPH and WBPH at the same generations and nitrogen rates,except the BPH fecundity.BPH fecundity on transgenic Bt rice T1C-19 at the nitrogen levels of 100 kg/hm2 and 250 kg/hm2 (N)was lower compared with the transgenic Bt rice T2A-1 and its parent Minghui 63 from the first generation to the third generation,but no significant difference was found among varieties at the fourth generation at three nitrogen rates.No significant difference was found on the fitness of BPH and WBPH with the generation increase, between non-transgenic Bt rice and transgenic Bt rice.Therefore, the present study demonstrated that nitrogen fertilizer levels exerted a significant influence on the ecological fitness of the rice planthoppers with the generation increase,while transgenic Bt rice didn′t.%在目前氮肥施用量依然偏多的大背景下,氮肥与转Bt基因水稻的相互作用是否会对稻田中

  12. 20种非寄主植物挥发物对褐飞虱拒避与引诱行为的影响%Effects of volatiles in twenty non-host plants on the repellented and attractive behaviors of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献英; 霍治国; 犹昌艳; 胡飞

    2014-01-01

    【目的】为开发和设计褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens拒避剂与引诱剂提供科学依据.【方法】利用Y型嗅觉仪测定褐飞虱对20种非寄主植物释放的挥发物及对α-蒎烯、α-水芹烯、崁烯、芳樟醇的拒避与引诱行为.【结果和结论】枸树Broussonetia papyrifera、塞楝Khaya senegalensis、胜红蓟Ageratum conyzoides、蟛蜞菊Wedelia chinensis、鬼针草Bidens pilosa、马樱丹Lantana camara、桉树Eucalyptus exsetrta、毛麻楝Chukrasia tabularis的叶片和小茴香Foeniculum vulgare的种子挥发物对褐飞虱雌成虫具有显著的拒避作用,其中蟛蜞菊、塞楝和桉树叶片挥发物的拒避作用比较明显,拒避率分别为87.5%、83.3%和72.0%;洋葱Allium cepa(鳞茎)挥发物对褐飞虱具有极显著的引诱作用,引诱率为73.1%;其他植物叶片挥发物对褐飞虱的拒避与引诱行为没有显著的影响.9种植物共有的3种挥发成分在测试浓度下,α-蒎烯对褐飞虱雌成虫有显著的引诱作用,崁烯对其有显著的拒避作用,α-水芹烯则对其拒避与引诱行为没有显著影响.水稻挥发物芳樟醇因含量不同,褐飞虱雌成虫的选择行为有差异,芳樟醇用量为1μL时对褐飞虱具有显著引诱作用,10μL以上时表现为拒避作用,15μL以上均具有极显著的拒避作用.%[Objective]To provide scientific evidence for the development and design of repellents and at-tractants of brown planthopper ,Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( BPH).[Method] The repellented and attrac-tivebehaviors response of female adults BPH to volatiles of twenty non-host plants and α-phellandrene ,α-pinene ,camphene and linalool were tested by a Y-tube olfactometer .[Result and conclusion] The vola-tiles of Broussonetia papyrifera,Khaya senegalensis,Ageratum conyzoides,Wedelia chinensis,Bidens pilosa, Lantana camara, Eucalyptus exsetrta, Chukrasia tabularis, and the nuts of Foeniculum vulgare revealed

  13. 水稻褐飞虱综合治理研究与示范——农业公益性行业专项“水稻褐飞虱综合防控技术研究”进展%Progress in research on the integrated management of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林拥军; 罗举; 娄永根; 祝增荣; 唐启义; 吕仲贤; 徐红星; 郑许松; 黄凤宽; 彭兆谱; 何光存; 华红霞; 陈荣智; 郭慧芳; 陈其志; 万丙良; 吕亮; 林华峰; 刘芳; 肖汉祥; 侯茂林; 姚英娟; 何予卿; 杨长举; 翟保平; 沈晋良; 张开军; 薛晓峰; 傅强

    2011-01-01

    Because of the magnitude of the losses to rice production caused by the brown planthopper ( BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) ) , and the resistance of BPH to chemical insecticides, the frequency of BPH outbreaks, breeding of insect resistant rice varieties, insecticide resistance monitoring, development of new pesticides , new ecological management technologies, prediction technologies and the integration and demonstration of sustainable pest management technologies were investigated in central, southern and eastern China and other representative regions.The results show that BPH collected from Vietnam, Laos and southern China were mainly biotype Ⅱ , with the next most common biotype being biotype Ⅲ. Paddy field microclimate was the key factor for BPH escaping high temperature, as morning temperature increased, a large number of BPH moved to within 20 cm of the rice base to thereby minimizing the adverse effects of high temperature. Different methods of transplanting rice seedlings had a great influence on the densities of BPH; BPH densities in handed-planted rice fields were the highest, followed by those in machine-planted rice fields, with densities in direct seeded rice fields the lowest. The abundance of BPH in super hybrid rice was obviously higher than in conventional hybrid rice and high levels of nitrogen promoted BPH occurrence. Furthermore, there was an interactive effect between different rice varieties and nitrogen levels with regard to BPH abundance. BPH in China have high resistance to imidacloprid (168.1-561.5) , low to moderate resistance to buprofezin (4.2-33.1) and are sensitive to slightly resistant to nitenpyram and chlorpyrifos. Four effective pesticides with low toxicity to humans were selected from those sold on the current market; Thiamethoxam, Pymetrozine, Nitenpyram and Fenobucard. We developed three kinds of new compound pesticides, one of which has been officially registered by the Ministry of Agriculture' s Pesticide Quarantine

  14. Expression induction of P450 genes by imidacloprid in Nilaparvata lugens: A genome-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yixi; Wang, Yunchao; Yang, Yuanxue; Cang, Xinzhu; Liu, Zewen

    2016-09-01

    The overexpression of P450 monooxygenase genes is a main mechanism for the resistance to imidacloprid, a representative neonicotinoid insecticide, in Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper, BPH). However, only two P450 genes (CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1), among fifty-four P450 genes identified from BPH genome database, have been reported to play important roles in imidacloprid resistance until now. In this study, after the confirmation of important roles of P450s in imidacloprid resistance by the synergism analysis, the expression induction by imidacloprid was determined for all P450 genes. In the susceptible (Sus) strain, eight P450 genes in Clade4, eight in Clade3 and two in Clade2 were up-regulated by imidacloprid, among which three genes (CYP6CS1, CYP6CW1 and CYP6ER1, all in Clade3) were increased to above 4.0-fold and eight genes to above 2.0-fold. In contrast, no P450 genes were induced in Mito clade. Eight genes induced to above 2.0-fold were selected to determine their expression and induced levels in Huzhou population, in which piperonyl butoxide showed the biggest effects on imidacloprid toxicity among eight field populations. The expression levels of seven P450 genes were higher in Huzhou population than that in Sus strain, with the biggest differences for CYP6CS1 (9.8-fold), CYP6ER1 (7.7-fold) and CYP6AY1 (5.1-fold). The induction levels for all tested genes were bigger in Sus strain than that in Huzhou population except CYP425B1. Screening the induction of P450 genes by imidacloprid in the genome-scale will provide an overall view on the possible metabolic factors in the resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides. The further work, such as the functional study of recombinant proteins, will be performed to validate the roles of these P450s in imidacloprid resistance.

  15. Cry1Ab rice does not impact biological characters and functional response ofCyrtorhinus lividipennispreying onNilaparvata lugens eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yang; LAI Feng-xiang; SUN Yan-qun; HONG Li-ying; TIAN Jun-ce; ZHANG Zhi-tao; FU Qiang

    2015-01-01

    One concern about the use of transgenic plants is their potential risk to natural enemies. In this study, using the eggs of the rice brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens, as a food source, we investigated the effects of Cry1Ab rice on the biological characteristics and functional response of an important predatorCyrtorhinus lividipennis. The results showed that the survival ability (adult emergence rate and egg hatching rate), development (egg duration, nymphal developmental duration), adult fresh weight, adult longevity and fecundity ofC. lividipennis on Bt rice plants were not signiifcantly different compared to those on non-Bt rice plants. Furthermore, two important parameters of functional response (instantaneous search rate and handling time) were not signiifcantly affected by Bt rice. In conclusion, the tested Cry1Ab rice does not adversely impact the biological character and functional response ofC. lividipennis.

  16. A Comparative Study on the Population Fitness of Three Strains of Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Differ in Eye Color-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhua; Yang, Baojun; Luo, Ju; Tang, Jian; Wu, Jincai

    2015-08-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a destructive insect pest on rice throughout Asia. As a visible genetic marker, red eye mutant colony of brown planthopper is a valuable material. Here, we established the near-isogenic lines, NIL-BB and NIL-rr, through mating red eye females to brown eye brothers for eight successive generations. Biological experiments showed that NIL-BB had big fitness cost; however, NIL-rr had comparable survival and fertility parameters with BB, a normal laboratory brown planthopper strain. Significantly lower number eggs per female and egg hatchability were the key factors resulting in big fitness cost of NIL-BB. The population trend indexes of BB, NIL-rr, and NIL-BB were 52.18, 43.80, and 4.19, respectively. Real-time PCR study suggested that the poorer fertility of NIL-BB was not mediated by the differential expression of genes relating to oogenesis. The stronger fitness of NIL-rr compared with NIL-BB may be caused by the eye mutant gene or its closely linked genes having stronger compensation ability for reproduction. The comparable fitness of NIL-rr with BB indicated that NIL-rr may be used in field research. The NIL-BB strain with significantly declined fecundity and survival ability can be used as study model for the signal pathways relating to fecundity.

  17. BIOEFFICACY OF PIPER RIBESIOIDES (PIPERACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST NILAPARVATA LUGENS STAL. (HOMOPTERA: DELPHACIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phankaen, Y; Pluempanupat, W; Mourad, A K; Bullangpoti, V

    2014-01-01

    The extracts of stem and seeds of Piper ribesioides (Piperaceae) were prepared in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol and evaluated for their efficacy against 3-day-old adult brown plant hoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal under laboratory conditions. The treatment was given topically and results suggest the dose dependent response related to exposure time. The ethyl acetate extract was the best with an LC50 = 738 ppm-, 24 h post-treatment. There was substantial increase in activity (LC50 = 27.298 ppm) with the increase in duration of exposure. This trend was observed in all treatments that suggests the potential of Piper ribesioides as an insecticide for N. lugens as an alternative control.

  18. Molecular characterization and gene functional analysis of Dicer-2 gene from Nilaparvata lugens(Hemiptera:Geometroidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Zhang; Kai Lu; Jia-Liang Zhou; Qiang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Nilaparvata lugens(St((A)l)(Hemiptera: Geometroidea),a serious rice pest in many countries of Asia,causes a great loss in rice production every year.RNA interference (RNAi)is a powerful technology for gene function study in insects and a potential tool for pest control.As a core component of RNAi pathway,Dicer-2(Dcr-2)protein determines the production of small interfering RNA(siRNA)and is crucial for the efficiency of RNAi.In this study,the full-length complementary DNA(cDNA)ofN.lugens Dcr-2(NlDcr-2)was first cloned and analyzed,and then the RNAi experiment was conducted to explore the function of NIDcr-2 gene.The complete Dcr-2 cDNA ofN.lugens was 4971 bp in length with an open reading frame(ORF)of 1,656 amino acids.Phylogenetic and protein domain analysis showed that the predicted NlDcr-2 protein was similar to Tribolium castaneum.In the RNAi experiment,the messenger RNA level of NIDcr-2 was significantly reduced by NlDcr-2double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)(dsDcr-2).Fifty-five per cent decrease of NlDcr-2 was found after 4 days of unremitting feeding.No significant effect was observed on the development ofN.lugens after dsRNA ingestion.

  19. Wing patterning genes of Nilaparvata lugens identiifcation by transcriptome analysis, and their differential expression proifle in wing pads between brachypterous and macropterous morphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai-yin; HU Ding-bang; LIU Fang-zhou; LONG Man; LIU Si-yi; ZHAO Jing; HE Yue-ping; HUA Hong-xia

    2015-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens is an economically important pest on rice plants. This species produces macropterous and brachypterous morphs in response to environmental cues, which makes it very dififcult to control. The molecular basis of wing patterning in N. lugens is stil unknown. It is necessary to identify wing patterning genes of N. lugens, and also to clarify the expression differences of wing patterning genes between macropterous and brachypter-ous morphs. High-throughput deep sequencing of transcriptome of N. lugens wing pad yielded 116 744 580 raw reads and 113 042 700 clean reads. Al the reads were assembled into 55 963 unigenes with an average length of 804 bp. With the E-value cut-off of 1.0E–5,18 359 and 2 883 unigens had hits in NCBI-NR (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences) and NCBI-NT (NCBI nucleotide sequences) databases, respectively. A total of 16 502 unigenes were assigned to GO (gene ontology) classiifcation, 9 709 ungenes were grouped into 26 COG (cluster of orthologous groups of proteins) classiifcations, and 6 724 unigenes were assigned to different KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) path-ways. In total, 56 unigenes which are homologous to wing patterning genes of Drosophila melanogaster or Tribolium castaneum were identiifed. Out of the 56 unigenes, 24 unigenes were selected, and their expression levels across the ifve nymphal stages between macropterous strain and brachypterous strain were examined by qRT-PCR. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that development stage had signiifcant effects on the expression level of al the 24 genes (P<0.05). The expression levels of 8 genes (Nlen, Nlhh, Nlsal, NlAbd-A, Nlwg, Nlvg, Nlexd and NlUbx) were signiifcantly affected by wing morph. This is the ifrst transcriptome analysis of wing pads of hemimetabolous insect, N. lugens. The identiifed wing patterning genes would be useful resource for future exploration of molecular basis of wing development. The 8 differential y expressed

  20. Wing patterning genes of Nilaparvata lugens identification by transcriptome analysis, and their differential expression profile in wing pads between brachypterous and macropterous morphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai-yin; HU Ding-bang; LIU Fang-zhou; LONG Man; LIU Si-yi; ZHAO Jing; HE Yue-ping; HUA Hong-xia

    2015-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens is an economically important pest on rice plants. This species produces macropterous and brachypterous morphs in response to environmental cues, which makes it very difficult to control. The molecular basis of wing patterning in N. lugens is still unknown. It is necessary to identify wing patterning genes of N. lugens, and also to clarify the expression differences of wing patterning genes between macropterous and brachypter- ous morphs. High-throughput deep sequencing of transcriptome of N. lugens wing pad yielded 116 744 580 raw reads and 113042700 clean reads. All the reads were assembled into 55963 unigenes with an average length of 804 bp. With the E-value cut-off of 1.0E-5,18 359 and 2 883 unigens had hits in NCBI-NR (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences) and NCBI-NT (NCBI nucleotide sequences) databases, respectively. A total of 16 502 unigenes were assigned to GO (gene ontology) classification, 9 709 ungenes were grouped into 26 COG (cluster of orthologous groups of proteins) classifications, and 6 724 unigenes were assigned to different KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) path- ways. In total, 56 unigenes which are homologous to wing patterning genes of Drosophila melanogaster or Tribolium castaneum were identified. Out of the 56 unigenes, 24 unigenes were selected, and their expression levels across the five nymphal stages between macropterous strain and brachypterous strain were examined by qRT-PCR. Two-wayANOVAanalysis showed that development stage had significant effects on the expression level of all the 24 genes (P〈0.05). The expression levels of 8 genes (Nlen, Nlhh, Nlsal, NIAbd-A, Nlwg, Nlvg, Nlexd and NIUbx) were significantly affected by wing morph. This is the first transcriptome analysis of wing pads of hemimetabolous insect, N. lugens. The identified wing patterning genes would be useful resource for future exploration of molecular basis of wing development. The

  1. Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice: from Germplasm to Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C. He

    2007-01-01

    @@ The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive and widespread insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa) that can be found throughout the rice-growing areas in Asia, causing significant yield loss in susceptible cultivars every year.

  2. Structural characterization of the catalytic site of a Nilaparvata lugens delta-class glutathione transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Higashiura, Akifumi; Hossain, Md Tofazzal; Yamada, Naotaka; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-15

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a major class of detoxification enzymes that play a central role in the defense against environmental toxicants and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the crystal structure of a delta-class glutathione transferase from Nilaparvata lugens, nlGSTD, to gain insights into its catalytic mechanism. The structure of nlGSTD in complex with glutathione, determined at a resolution of 1.7Å, revealed that it exists as a dimer and its secondary and tertiary structures are similar to those of other delta-class GSTs. Analysis of a complex between nlGSTD and glutathione showed that the bound glutathione was localized to the glutathione-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of nlGSTD mutants indicated that amino acid residues Ser11, His52, Glu66, and Phe119 contribute to catalytic activity.

  3. 非寄主植物乙醇提取物对褐飞虱若虫的驱避与触杀活性%Repellent activity and contact toxicity of ethanolic extracts from 11 non-host plant species against the brown planthopper nymphs, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献英; 王华; 杜尧东; 犹昌艳; 胡飞

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the repellent activity and contact toxicity of ethanolic extracts from non-host plant species against the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. We prepared ethanolic extracts from 11 plant species widely distributed in southern China, and tested their effects on BPH stage 3~4 nymphs using a film bioassay. The results showed that the extracts from Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Foeniculum vulgare had anti-feeding activity against BPH nymphs at a concentration of 10 mg·mL-1. These Z. bungeanum and F. vulgare extracts also had repellent activity, with repellent rates of 53.3% and 43.3%, respectively, at 24 h after extract application. In contrast, the extracts from Khaya senegalensis, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus exserta, and Chukrasia tabularis showed attractant activity at a concentration of 10 mg·mL-1;we recorded landing rates of 75.0%, 73.3%, 73.3%and 71.7%, respectively, at 24 h after extract application. Furthermore, the repellent activity of Z. bungeanum and F. vulgare extracts increased as the concentration increased. For example, these extracts at a concentration of 40 mg·mL-1 showed 66.7% and 60.0% repellent rates, respectively, at 24 h after extract application. The extracts from Z. bungeanum and F. vulgare showed significant repellent activity in the concentration range of 10~40 mg·mL-1. The attractant activity of extracts from K. senegalensis, A. conyzoides, E. exserta, and C. tabularis increased at relatively low concentrations, but decreased as the concentration of the extract became higher. The effects of ethanolic extracts from K. senegalensis and C. tabularis on BPH nymphs were different at different concentrations;at a low concentration (10 mg·mL-1), they showed significant attractant activity to BPH nymphs, while at a high concentration (40 mg·mL-1), they showed repellant activities of 50.0%and 40.0%, respectively, at 24 h after extract application. The extract from A. conyzoides had a significant

  4. Functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis to eggs ofNilaparvata lugens are not affected by genetically modiifed herbicide-tolerant rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-bin; LONG Li-ping; HUANG Qian; LING Yan; CHEN Yu-chong; XIAO Guo-ying; HUANG Suo-sheng; WU Bi-qiu; HUANG Feng-kuan; CAI Jian-he

    2015-01-01

    To safely and sustainably utilize genetic breeding techniques for crop production, greater understanding of the potential effects of geneticaly modiifed herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the ecological functions of predators is required. In the laboratory, we examined the functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter to eggs of brown plan-thopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), which were reared on GMHT rice Bar68-1; the untransformed parental cultivar, D68; or a BPH-susceptive rice variety, Taichung Native 1. Al stages of nymphs and female adultof C. lividipennis, either on GMHT rice or control plants, exhibited typical type II functional responses when fed on BPH eggs; the attacking rate and handling time ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice Bar68-1 was not signiifcantly different from that on D68. The numerical responses ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice or controls ift Beddington’s model; there were no signiifcant differences in the parameters of numerical responses between GMHT rice Bar68-1 and D68. The results indicated that the functional and numerical responses ofC. lividipennis to BPH eggs are not affected by GMHT rice Bar68-1.

  5. Radar observation and trajectory analysis on the autumn return migration of the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens(Homoptera:Delphacidae) in 2009 in China%褐飞虱2009年秋季回迁的雷达监测及轨迹分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐会会; 张云慧; 程登发; 韩二宾; 孙京瑞

    2010-01-01

    褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)是水稻生产上重要的迁飞性害虫,研究其迁飞、扩散规律,为早期预警和有效防治提供科学依据.2009年4月27日至10月11日,在中国农业科学院植物保护研究所重大病虫害监测预警兴安雷达站内利用毫米波扫描昆虫雷达对褐飞虱的迁飞过程进行长期观测,高空探照灯诱虫器及佳多自动虫情测报灯诱虫器分别用来诱捕高空及地面的褐飞虱,对高空探照灯诱到的褐飞虱雌成虫随机挑选30头进行卵巢解剖,并结合大区环流和利用Hysplit4模型进行轨迹分析,研究了褐飞虱的秋季回迁过程和虫源.结果表明:褐飞虱秋季回迁高峰期出现在9月28日至10月7日,高峰日为10月1日,高峰日内雷达回波主要在600~1 100 m范围内聚集成层,高空探照灯诱虫器内褐飞虱的数量达到了13 620头;卵巢发育级别以1~2级为主.轨迹分析显示:本次回迁的褐色虱主要来自湖南衡阳和永州等地,随东北气流向广西柳州、南宁和崇左等方向迁飞.轨迹推断与褐飞虱实发虫情基本吻合,通过毫米波扫描昆虫雷达确定了褐飞虱秋季回迁的高度,为毫米波扫描昆虫雷达早期投入到预测预报的文践中奠定了基础,对我国褐飞虱早期预警体系的建立将提供必要的技术支持.

  6. Susceptibility to Insecticides and Ecological Fitness in Resistant Rice Varieties of Field Nilaparvata lugens Stål Population Free from Insecticides in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ya-jun; DONG Bi-qin; XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; K.L.HEONG; LU Zhong-xian

    2014-01-01

    A population of rice brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens collected from a paddy field in Hangzhou was successively reared on susceptible rice Taichung Native 1 (TN1) in a laboratory free from insecticides for more than 14 generations. The changes in susceptibility to insecticides and ecological fitness on different resistant rice varieties were monitored in each generation. The resistance ratio to imidacloprid sharply declined with the succession of rearing generations without insecticides from 359.94-fold at F1 to 6.50-fold at F14 compared with the susceptible strain, and the resistance ratio to chlorpyrifos was from 9.90-fold at F1 to 5.94-fold at F14. Nymphal duration and weights of newly hatched female adults were significantly affected by rice variety, generation and their interactions, but nymphal survival was significantly affected by the generation only. The ratio of brachypterous adults in males was affected by the generation and generation × variety interaction, whereas no difference was found in females. Nymphal duration extended with increasing generations, and the female nymphal duration was shorter in the susceptible variety TN1 than those in the resistant varieties IR26 and IR36. In addition, the female adult weight in TN1 was higher than those in IR26 and IR36. These results indicated that the resistance of field BPH population to insecticides was reversed after several generations of no-exposure to insecticides, and the ecological fitness in TN1 was higher than those in IR26 and IR36. These findings suggested the rational and reduced use of insecticides in combination with the manipulation of resistant rice varieties would be effective for BPH management.

  7. Ras-like family small GTPases genes in Nilaparvata lugens: Identification, phylogenetic analysis, gene expression and function in nymphal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixia; Li, Kailong; Wan, Pinjun; Lai, Fengxiang; Fu, Qiang; Zhu, Tingheng

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-nine cDNAs encoding Ras-like family small GTPases (RSGs) were cloned and sequenced from Nilaparvata lugens. Twenty-eight proteins are described here: 3 from Rho, 2 from Ras, 9 from Arf and 14 from Rabs. These RSGs from N.lugens have five conserved G-loop motifs and displayed a higher degree of sequence conservation with orthologues from insects. RT-qPCR analysis revealed NlRSGs expressed at all life stages and the highest expression was observed in hemolymph, gut or wing for most of NlRSGs. RNAi demonstrated that eighteen NlRSGs play a crucial role in nymphal development. Nymphs with silenced NlRSGs failed to molt, eclosion or development arrest. The qRT-PCR analysis verified the correlation between mortality and the down-regulation of the target genes. The expression level of nuclear receptors, Kr-h1, Hr3, FTZ-F1 and E93 involved in 20E and JH signal pathway was impacted in nymphs with silenced twelve NlRSGs individually. The expression of two halloween genes, Cyp314a1 and Cyp315a1 involved in ecdysone synthesis, decreased in nymphs with silenced NlSar1 or NlArf1. Cyp307a1 increased in nymphs with silenced NlArf6. In N.lugens with silenced NlSRβ, NlSar1 and NlRab2 at 9th day individually, 0.0% eclosion rate and almost 100.0% mortality was demonstrated. Further analysis showed NlSRβ could be served as a candidate target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N.lugens control. PMID:28241066

  8. Occurrence Regularity of Major Damage Generations of Nilaparvata lugens(Stl) in Single Cropping Medium Rice Region in Sandu County of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Tianlei; Jin; Daochao; Yang; Hong; Ai; Zhengxian; Zhou; Zhaoxia

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify occurrence regularity of major damage generations of Nilaparvata lugens( Stl) in Sandu Shui Autonomous County( Sandu County for short),Guizhou Province,a karst single cropping medium rice region,the population dynamics of N. lugens were systematically studied using the methods of light trap and systematic field survey from 2009 to 2011. The results showed that the number of immigration generations caught by light trap and the actual population of N. lugens in fields were different among three years. The daily maximum trapping numbers of N. lugens amounted to 6 688 in 2009,which were 15. 3 and 2. 5 times of that in 2010 and 2011,respectively. The peak numbers in prediction nursery were 10 777,4 630 and 1 615 heads per hundred hills in 2009,2010 and 2011,respectively. The forth and fifth generations of N. lugens were the major damage generations in single cropping medium rice fields,and the initial immigration day was significantly related with primary-peak day. The occurrence degree of adults and nymphs of N. lugens varied with years and transplanting periods,and the peak days of N. lugens nymphs were from late July to early August in 2010 and 2011. The occurrence peaks of adults and nymphs in late transplanting paddy field were later than that in the early one. Meanwhile,the coexisted various growth periods of rice,due to time differences of transplanting,were conducive to inhabitation and reproduction of N. lugens. The population dynamics of spiders and Cyrtohinus lividipennis well synchronied with that of N. lugens,but predatory capacity of spiders and C. lividipennis was not enough to control N. lugens.

  9. Resistance of transgenic rice pure lines to brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) is one of the most damaging rice insect pests. Recent studies showed that lectin (GNA), coded by the gna gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) was toxic to BPH in artificial diet assay (Powell et al, 1993, 1995). Here we report the development of homozygous transgenic rice lines contained the gna gene and the BPH bioassay test of the homozygous lines.

  10. Insect resistance to Nilaparvata lugens and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in transgenic indica rice and the inheritance of gna+sbti transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Xu, Xinping; Xing, Hengtai; Zhu, Huachen; Fan, Qin

    2005-04-01

    Molecular genetic analysis and insect bioassay of transgenic indica rice 'Zhuxian B' plants carrying snowdrop lectin gene (gna) and soybean trypsin inhibitor gene (sbti) were investigated in detail. PCR, 'dot' blot and PCR-Southern blot analysis showed that both transgenes had been incorporated into the rice genome and transmitted up to R3 progeny in most lines tested. Some transgenic lines exhibited Mendelian segregation, but the other showed either 1:1 (positive: negative for the transgenes) or other aberrant segregation patterns. The segregation patterns of gna gene crossed between R2 and R3 progeny. In half of transgenic R3 lines, gna and sbti transgenes co-segregated. Two independent homozygous lines expressing double transgenes were identified in R3 progeny. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the copy numbers of integrated gna and sbti transgenes varied from one to ten in different lines. Insect bioassay data showed that most transgenic plants had better resistance to both Nilaparvata lugens (Stahl) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) than wild-type plants. The insect resistance of transgenic lines increased with the increase in transgene positive ratio in most of the transgenic lines. In all, we obtained nine lines of R3 transgenic plants, including one pure line, which had better resistance to both N lugens and C medinalis than wild-type plants.

  11. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-03-28

    The "target of rapamycin" (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens.

  12. [Sublethal effect of chlorantraniliprole on the experimental population of non-target insect Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Wang, Zhao; Jing, Dao-Chao

    2013-02-01

    Chlorantraniliprole is a newly developed insecticide targeting at lepidopteron pests in rice fields, whereas Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is one of the important non-target pests of the insecticide. In this paper, the rice stem dipping method was adopted to test the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the 3rd instar nymphs and adults of N. lugens. The LC50 of chlorantraniliprole to the 3rd instar nymphs and adults was 26.85 and 35.53 mg.L-1, respectively. When the 3rd instar nymph was exposed to the LC10 and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole, the life span of the survived female adults was not significantly affected. However, when treated with LC25 dosage, the fecundity of the survived female adults was significantly reduced by 45.6 eggs. After the 3rd instar nymph was treated with the sublethal doses LC10 and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole, the fecundity of the F1, females were decreased significantly by 43.5 and 72.9 eggs, and the life span of the F1 females was shortened by 1.35 and 2.87 d, respectively. The developmental periods of all the instars of F, generation were delayed after treated with the sublethal doses LC10 and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was decreased by 12.8% and 23.5%, and the net reproductive rate (R0) was decreased by 37.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean generation time (T) and population doubling time (t) were delayed. Overall, the sublethal doses of chlorantraniliprole could suppress the population growth of N. lugens.

  13. 不同药剂对褐飞虱作用特性的比较%Comparison of the effectiveness of different insecticides against Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧芳; 方继朝; 刘宝生; 王利华

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of different insecticides, including thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, melhylamino-avermectin, imidaelothiz and ethiprole, against the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens ( Stal ), was investigated. Lethal concentration and time were determined after seedling-dipping and spraying treatments. Based on dose-mortality responses, nitenpyram showed the highest insecticidical activity against 3rd instar nymphs of all the insecticides tested with LC50 values for seedling-dipping and spray treatments of 0.41 mg/L and 0.26 mg/L, respectively. Imidaclothiz was the least effective insecticide tested. Differences in the performance of the same insecticides between seedling-dipping and spraying treatments were found in methylamino-avermectin, inridaclothiz and thiamethoxam. The killing speed of sprayed methylamino-avermectin, ethiprole and imidaclothiz was significantly higher than that of thiamethoxam and nitenpyram. All instars of the brown planthopper were sensitive to thiamethoxam and nitenpyram, the insecticidical activity ratio of the LC50s of 1st and 5th instar nymphs were 7.4 and 9.7, respectively.%为高效和合理利用化学药剂防治褐飞虱Nilaparvta lugens( St(a)l),采用浸苗法和喷雾法测定了噻虫嗪、烯啶虫胺、甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐、氯噻啉和乙虫腈5种药剂对褐飞虱的作用活性和速度,同时还比较了噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺对褐飞虱不同龄期若虫的作用活性.结果表明,在5种供试药剂中,从作用活性来看,无论是用浸苗法还是喷雾法处理,烯啶虫胺活性均最高,对褐飞虱3龄若虫的LC50分别为0.41和0.26 mg/L,氯噻啉的活性则最低.甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐、氯噻啉和噻虫嗪用喷雾法处理时的活性均显著高于用浸苗法处理时的活性;烯啶虫胺和乙虫腈在2种处理方式下的活性没有明显差异.从作用速度来看,喷雾法处理时,甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐、乙虫腈和氯噻啉杀虫速度均快于

  14. Biochemical mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens: over-expression of cytochrome P450 CYP6AY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhiping; Wen, Yucong; Yang, Baojun; Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Shuhua; Liu, Zewen; Han, Zhaojun

    2013-11-01

    Imidacloprid is a key insecticide extensively used for control of Nilaparvata lugens, and its resistance had been reported both in the laboratory selected strains and field populations. A target site mutation Y151S in two nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits and enhanced oxidative detoxification have been identified in the laboratory resistant strain, contributing importantly to imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens. To date, however, imidacloprid resistance in field population is primarily attributable to enhanced oxidative detoxification by over-expressed P450 monooxygenases. A resistant strain (Res), originally collected from a field population and continuously selected in laboratory with imidacloprid for more than 40 generations, had 180.8-fold resistance to imidacloprid, compared to a susceptible strain (Sus). Expression of different putative P450 genes at mRNA levels was detected and compared between Res and Sus strains, and six genes were found expressed significantly higher in Res strain than in Sus strain. CYP6AY1 was found to be the most different expressed P450 gene and its mRNA level in Res strain was 17.9 times of that in Sus strain. By expressing in E. coli cells, CYP6AY1 was found to metabolize imidacloprid efficiently with initial velocity calculated of 0.851 ± 0.073 pmol/min/pmol P450. When CYP6AY1 mRNA levels in Res strain was reduced by RNA interference, imidacloprid susceptibility was recovered. In four field populations with different resistance levels, high levels of CYP6AY1 transcript were also found. In vitro and in vivo studies provided evidences that the over-expression of CYP6AY1 was one of the key factors contributing to imidacloprid resistance in the laboratory selected strain Res, which might also be the important mechanism for imidacloprid resistance in field populations, when the target site mutation was not prevalent at present.

  15. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological contro

  16. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents

  17. A taxonomic investigation on egg parasitoid, Anagrus of rice planthopper in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Exploitation and utilization of beneficial arthropods viz. insects and spiders to regulate pest populations has a good prospect in China. The role of non_rice habitats in maintaining the population of natural enemies of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) has been investigated in Zhejiang Province since 1994. The work focused primarily on the egg parasitoids genus Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Plants laden with eggs of the brown planthopper were exposed 2 d every week in the rice fields and grassy areas dominated by Digitaria spp. Then, the plants were retrieved and brought back to the laboratory for parasitoid rearing. Newly emerged parasitoids were preserved in alcohol solution for further identification.

  18. Effects of exogenous plant growth regulator abscisic acid-induced resistance in rice on the expression of vitellogenin mRNA in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xia; Wong, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recent study showed that exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) acts as a regulator of plant resistance. This study investigated average injury scale and callose contents of rice, and vitellogenin (Nlvg) mRNA expression in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adult females after third instar nymphs fed on exogenous ABA-treated susceptible [Taichung Native one (TN1)] and moderately resistant (IR42) rice cultivars. The results showed that exogenous ABA significantly decreased average injury scale of rice and Nlvg mRNA expression in N. lugens adults compared with the control (without ABA spraying). Nlvg mRNA expression in N. lugens adults decreased significantly after third instar nymphs fed on ABA-treated (5, 20, and 40 mg/liter) TN1 for 1 and 2 d, and for IR42, after fed on ABA-treated (20 and 40 mg/liter) rice plants for 1 d and after fed on ABA-treated (5, 20, and 40 mg/liter) rice for 2 d decreased significantly. The callose contents showed no significant change for TN1, while for IR42, significantly increased in roots and sheathes after N. lugens infestation under ABA treatments (20 and 40 mg/liter) compared with the control. The decrease of Nlvg mRNA expression may be partially attributed to the increase of callose content of plants. The results provide a profile for concerning the effects of ABA-induced rice plants' defenses on phloem-feeding insects.

  19. Prokaryotic expression of the Nilaparvata lugens flightin gene and its differential expression in different life stages%褐飞虱flightin的原核表达及其差异表达检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小琴; 胡玉琼; 张传溪

    2013-01-01

    Flightin,located in thick filament,was originally found in the indirect flight muscle of Drosophila melanogaster.It is important in these muscles both for structural integrity and sarcomere function.Prior to this study,differences in the muscle components of macropterous and brachypterous adults of the brown planthopper (BPH,Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l) had not been studied.We amplified the flightin gene from the cDNA of macropterous female adults and inserted it into the expression vector pGEX-6P-1 for fusion expression with gultathione S transferase (GST).The recombinant vector was then inserted into Escherichia coli Rosseta.After optimization of the expression conditions at different temperatures and concentrations of IPTG,high level of expression of flightin was achieved.The soluble expressed GST-flightin was purified and used to immunise rabbits for preparing a polyclonal antibody against flightin.Using the prepared antibody,we searched for flightin expression in different developmental stages and in two-winged forms.We found that flightin was uniquely expressed in the adult stage and only expressed in macropterous female adults.No positivebands were detected in eggs,nymphs and brachypterous female adults.This study provides a basis for the study of wing muscle development and wing dimorphism,as well as for research into the interaction of flightin with other proteins in the BPH.%f1ightin最早发现于果蝇Drosophila melanogaster的间接飞行肌中,并且定位于粗肌丝.这种蛋白对维持肌节的结构和功能起到了重要的作用,但其在具有长短翅型分化的褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l的不同翅型间差异并不清楚.本研究以长翅型雌虫褐飞虱cDNA为模板,通过PCR扩增得到褐飞虱flightin基因ORF全长,将其连接到表达载体pGEX-6P-1中以与谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)融合表达.将表达载体转入大肠杆菌表达株Rosseta,在不同温度、不同浓度IPTG的条件下诱导表达flightin,得到了

  20. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Long; Wan, Pin-Jun; Wang, Wei-Xia; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Ran (RanGTPase) in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan) was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1) Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2) The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  1. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Li

    Full Text Available Ran (RanGTPase in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1 and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1 Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2 The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  2. Susceptibility to several types of insecticides in the rice planthoppers Nilaparvam lugens(St(a)l)and Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)(Homoptera:Delphacidae)%褐飞虱和白背飞虱对几类杀虫剂的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦华; 苍涛; 赵学平; 吴长兴; 陈丽萍; 俞瑞鲜; 吴声敢; 王强

    2009-01-01

    为了科学用药和抗性治理提供理论基础,采用稻茎浸渍法测定了2008年7月采自浙江省杭州市和宁波市褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(Stal)种群对7种杀虫剂的抗药性及褐飞虱和白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera(Horvmh)种群对16种杀虫剂的敏感性.褐飞虱抗药性测定结果表明,与相对敏感品系相比,杭州种群和宁波种群对吡虫啉的抗性倍数分别为479.0倍和366.1倍;对氯噻啉的抗性倍数分别为81.1倍和50.9倍;对噻虫嗪的抗性倍数分别为10.3倍和9.4倍;对噻嗪酮和氟虫腈分别产生了5.0~8.6倍和15.8~17.0倍的抗药性;对烯啶虫胺和啶虫脒的抗性倍数在3倍以下.两种稻15飞虱对杀虫剂的敏感性测定结果表明:嚷虫嗪、噻嗪酮、烯啶虫胺和毒死蜱对褐飞虱和白背飞虱种群都具有较高的室内毒力.当田间褐飞虱和白背飞虱混合发生时,可选用噻虫嗪、噻嗪酮、烯啶虫胺和毒死蜱进行防治,不宜使用吡虫啉、氯噻啉和氟虫腈防治.%To provide theoretic basis for the scientific application of insecticides and resistance management,the resistance of Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)to seven insecticides and the sensitivity of N.lugens and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in two field populations collected from Hangzhou city and Ningbo city, Zhejiang Province in July 2008 to sixteen insecticides were evaluated with rice stem-dipping method. Compared with the relative susceptible strain of N. lugens, the Hangzhou and Ningbo populations developed resistance to imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, thiamethoxam, buprofezin and fipronil, with the resistance ratios (RR) to imidacloprid were 479.0-fold and 366.1-fold, to imidaclothiz were 81.1-fold and 50.9-fold, to thiamethoxam were 10.3-fold and 9.4-fold, to buprofezin and fipronil were 5.0 - 8.6-fold and 15.8-17.0-fold, respectively, while the two populations remained susceptible to nitenpyram and acetamiprid (RR <3-fold).The toxicity of sixteen insecticides to

  3. Rice planthopper resistance of interspecific protoplast fusin line "pf9279" between O. sative and O.officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ An interspecific hybrid line pf9279 was obtained by protoplast fusion between 02428(japonica, with a wide compatibility gene) and CNW240 (O. officinalis, from Malaysia) at CNRRI in 1992. Possible introgression of planthopper resistance from O.officinalis into pf9279 was investigated by field and laboratory experiments during 1998-1999 at CNRRI. Thirty-day-old seedlings of pf9279 and other rice varieties were individually transplanted with a spacing of 18× 24 cm in each plot (ca 7× 20 m) on Jun 15, 1999. Population trends of brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and whitebacked planthopper(WBPH),Sogatella furcifera were examined weekly by visual counting of adult females on 50-100 hills for each variety.

  4. Diversity of planthoppers associated with the winter rice agroecosystems in southern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-ji; Fu, Da-ying; Liu, Xiao-jun; Zhao, Tao; Han, Zhong-liang; Lü, Jian-ping; Wan, Hai-long; Ye, Hui

    2012-01-01

    A field survey of the overwintering planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) associated with the rice agroecosystems in southern Yunnan was carried out during January-February in 2010 and 2011. 22 species of planthoppers were collected and identified, with one species representing the subfamily Stenocraninae and the other 21 species in Delphacinae. Nycheuma cognatum (Muir), Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead), and Pseudosogata vatrenus (Fennah) were new provincial records for Yunnan. The pest species, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), and Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) were able to overwinter in part of the survey range. 13 species were listed to be of economic importance. Abandoned rice paddies with dense Poaceae grasses (Poaceae) were the most favorable overwintering habitat. The survey range was divided into four regions and five areas based on natural geographical characteristics. The study demonstrated that winter temperature differentiation, terrains, and habitat differences were three factors affecting planthopper diversity. Planthopper species diversity showed a reductive trend from south to north and reflected a gradient of more severe winter temperatures. In addition, planthopper diversity was influenced by smaller-scale differences in terrain and habitat, as evidenced by greater diversity in the valleys and low-altitude areas as compared to mid-mountain and Karst plain areas.

  5. Effects of alpha-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp extract and imidacloprid on Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) and non-target organisms: toxicity and detoxification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Visetson, Suraphon; Milne, John; Milne, Manthana; Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Pronbanlualap, Somchai

    2007-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvato lugens Stat. (BPH) is the most devastating insect pest in rice fields. Outbreaks of BPH, which are resistant to many synthetic insecticides, can cause total rice crop loss. This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of extracts of mangosteen pericarp (Garcina mangostana L.) as an alternative control of BPH Thailand strain. Topical spraying was applied to various stages of nymphal and adult BPH to determine toxicity. An ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp extract gave the best control of BPH, with LC50 of 4.5% w/v (r2 = 0.95) with 3rd instar BPH nymphs when compared with the other solvents, hexane, acetone and dichloromethane. The active compound, alpha-mangostin showed an LC50 of 5.44%w/v (r2 = 0.88). The toxicity of this extract was less than that of Imidacloprid which showed an LC50 of 0.0042% w/v (r2 = 0.99). The toxicity to non-target organisms was determined. This extract showed toxicity to guppies ((LC50 = 2.53 and 4.27 ppm for females and males, respectively; r2 = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), bees (LC50 = 4.38% w/v, r2 = 0.95) and mice (no oral acute toxicity and no dermal inflammation but showed eye irritation in 1 day which became normal within 3 days). In vitro detoxification enzyme activities of carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-s-transferase from BPH after 24 hours exposure were also observed. Carboxylesterase showed stronger activity than other enzymes. Toxicity in terms of LC50 values of both the extract and imidacloprid treatments increased in each generation. The LC50 values for each generation were 4.22-6.67 after sequential spraying. After the ethanol extract was kept at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 55 degrees C for 3 months, the quantity of alpha-mangostin and the BPH control efficiency was lower at 55 degrees C than those for other temperatures. The results from this research indicate that mangosteen pericarp extract can be an alternative insecticide for the control of BPH

  6. Will climate change affect outbreak patterns of planthoppers in Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M P; Huang, Dingcheng; Nachman, G; Ahmed, Nur; Begum, Mahfuz Ara; Rabbi, M F

    2014-01-01

    Recently, planthoppers outbreaks have intensified across Asia resulting in heavy rice yield losses. The problem has been widely reported as being induced by insecticides while other factors such as global warming that could be potential drivers have been neglected. Here, we speculate that global warming may increase outbreak risk of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.). We present data that demonstrate the relationship between climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) and the abundance of brown planthopper (BPH) during 1998-2007. Data show that BPH has become significantly more abundant in April over the 10-year period, but our data do not indicate that this is due to a change in climate, as no significant time trends in temperature and precipitation could be demonstrated. The abundance of BPH varied considerably between months within a year which is attributed to seasonal factors, including the availability of suitable host plants. On the other hand, the variation within months is attributed to fluctuations in monthly temperature and precipitation among years. The effects of these weather variables on BPH abundance were analyzed statistically by a general linear model. The statistical model shows that the expected effect of increasing temperatures is ambiguous and interacts with the amount of rainfall. According to the model, months or areas characterized by a climate that is either cold and dry or hot and wet are likely to experience higher levels of BPH due to climate change, whereas other combinations of temperature and rainfall may reduce the abundance of BPH. The analysis indicates that global warming may have contributed to the recent outbreaks of BPH in some rice growing areas of Asia, and that the severity of such outbreaks is likely to increase if climate change exaggerates. Our study highlights the need to consider climate change when designing strategies to manage planthoppers outbreaks.

  7. Various infection status and molecular evidence for horizontal transmission and recombination of Wolbachia and Cardinium among rice planthoppers and related species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Jun Zhang; Xiao Han; Xiao-Yue Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia and Cardinium are widely distributed and are considered important for their ability to disturb reproduction and affect other fitness-related traits of their hosts.By using multilocus sequence typing (MLST),RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing methods,we extensively surveyed Wolbachia and Cardinium infection status of four predominant rice planthoppers and one kind of leafhopper in different rice fields.The results demonstrated that Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) and Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) were infected with the same Wolbachia strain (wStri),while Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l) and its closely related species Nilaparvata muiri China were infected with two phylogeneticlly distant strains,wLug and wMui,respectively.Three new Wolbachia strains (provisionally named wMfasl,wMfas2 and wMfas3) were detected in the leafhopper Macrostelesfascifrons (St(a)l).Only S.furcifera was co-infected with Cardinium,which indicated that the distribution of Cardinium in these rice planthoppers was narrower than that of Wolbachia.Unambiguous intragenic recombination events among these Wolbachia strains and incongruent phylogenetic relationships show that the connections between different Wolbachia strains and hosts were more complex than we expected.These results suggest that horizontal transmission and host associated specialization are two factors affecting Wolbachia and Cardinium infections among planthoppers and their related species.

  8. Field Efficacy of Sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC against Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)%氟啶虫胺腈对褐飞虱的田间防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林仁魁; 邹华娇; 吴德飞

    2012-01-01

    [目的]明确240 g/L氟啶虫胺腈悬浮剂对褐飞虱的田间控制作用及最佳使用剂量.[方法]采用田间喷雾法,对氟啶虫胺腈37.5、50、75、100 g a.i./hm2四种不同剂量处理防治褐飞虱效果进行试验研究.[结果]240 g/L氟啶虫胺腈悬浮剂37.5、50 g a.i./hm2两种剂量处理,药后1~3 d对褐飞虱的防效为51.42%~68.51%,药后7~14 d的防效为61.00%~79.10%,与对照药剂25%噻嗪酮可湿性粉剂112.5 g a.i./hm2剂量处理相比,速效性相当,但持效性差;而75、100 g a.i./hm2两种剂量处理,药后1~3 d防效为67.18%~74.11%,药后7~14 d防效为81.26%~89.22%,与对照药剂25%噻嗪酮可湿性粉剂112.5 g a.i./hm2剂量处理相比,速效性更好,而持效性相当.[结论]240 g/L氟啶虫胺腈悬浮剂75~100 g a.i./hm2剂量喷雾处理,能有效控制褐飞虱的发生为害,可供生产上推广应用.%[Aims] The paper aims to conform the efficacy and the optimum dosage of sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC on controlling Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) in rice field. [Methods] Using the method of field spray, the efficacy of sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC with dosage of 37.5, 50, 75, 100 g a.i./ha on controling N. lugens were determined. [Results] The control effects of sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC with dosage of 37.5 and 50 g a.i./ha after 1-3 days after treatment were 51.42-68.51%, and 61.00-79.10% after 7-14 days, the rapid control effects had no significant difference compared with uprofezin 25% WP at 1 125 g a.i./ha , but the uprofezin 25% WP did have more persistent control effects. The control effects at 75 and 100 g a.i./ha after application of 1-3 days were 67.18-74.11%, and 81.26-89.22% after 7-14 days, the persistent control effects had no significant difference with uprofezin 25% WP at 1125 g a.i./ha, but sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC has more rapid control effects. [Conclusions] The dosage of 75-100 g a.i./ha of sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC could effectively control the populations of N

  9. Medium and Long-term Forecasting Models ofNilaparvata lugens (stål)’s Immigration Amount in Jiangsu Province%江苏省褐飞虱迁入量的中长期预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包云轩; 薛周华; 刘垚; 蒋蓉; 谢晓金; 杨荣明; 朱凤

    2016-01-01

    heads of brown planthoppers (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens (stål), at a station in a rice-growing region by using the atmospheric background fields in the earlier stages and provide a basis for the early warning of BPH’s catastrophic immigrations and their effective prevention and controlling, the BPH’s lighting catches of all plant protection stations in Jiangsu Province during the period from 1983 to 2010 and the reanalyzed meteorological data from the National Center of Environmental Predicting (NCEP) in USA during the period from 1982 to 2010 were collected to analyze the teleconnections between the BPH’s annual total immigration heads of Gaoyou, Tongzhou and Yixing as the representative plant protection stations in the different rice-growing regions of Jiangsu Province and the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) on the Pacific Ocean from January of the preceding year to June of the present year, the temperature field of Indo-China Peninsula (T-INP) from December of the preceding year to June of the present year and the atmospheric circulation characteristic variables (ACCV) from July of the preceding year to June of the present year. A stepwise regression method was used to establish a series of the forecasting models for the annual total immigration heads of BPH at the three stations. The results showed as follows: (1) there were the correlations of different extents between the BPH’s immigration heads of Gaoyou, Tongzhou and Yixing and the SSTA on the Pacific Ocean, the T-INP and the ACCV on the Northern Hemisphere in the different temporal and spatial thresholds. The significant negative correlations exist between the logarithms of BPH’s annual total immigration heads at the three stations and the SSTA in the preceding year. Among them, the remarkable correlative regions between the logarithms of BPH’s annual total immigration heads at Tongzhou and Yixing and the SSTA on the Pacific Ocean mainly distributed on the northern and middle Pacific Ocean

  10. Biodiversity and Dynamics of Planthoppers and Their Natural Enemies in Rice Fields with Different Nitrogen Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HU Cui

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates I.e. 200, 100 and 0 kg N/ha in paddy fields at International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. Biodiversity of arthropods sampled by Blower-Vac, and dynamics of planthoppers, egg parasitoids of Homoptera trapped by rice plants with eggs of brown planthoppers (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (St(ā)l), and web spiders on rice canopy collected by sweeping net, were analyzed at different rice growth stages. The most abundant arthropods were sampled at the milking stage of rice, totalling 116 species identified into 14 insect orders and 15 species of spider in all samples. Meanwhile the number of arthropod species significantly increased with rice growth and the diversity indices increased with the increase of nitrogen rate at the booting stage. On the other hand, in the dominant predators, Pardosa pseudoannulata, Callitrichi formosana, Micraspis sp., Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Veliidae sp. And Mesoveliidae sp., only C. Lividipennis and Micraspis sp. Were increased significantly in abundance following the application of nitrogen at the milking stage of rice. The egg parasitoids of plant-hoppers were predominated by Anagrus flaveolus and Oligosita sp. And their densities in the field without nitrogen fertilizer were markedly higher than those in fields with 100 and 200 kg N/ha at both booting and milking stages of rice. The number and web area of dominant residential spiders Tetragnatha sp. And Araneus sp. In rice canopy significantly reduced with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer. The population density of planthoppers, included BPH and the white-backed planthoppers (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, peaked during the booting stage, however, the number of BPH in rice field with 200 kg N/ha was considerably higher than those in other two rice fields with 100 kg N/ha and 0 kg N/ha at the booting as well as the milking stage. These results indicated that the rapid growth in

  11. 褐飞虱对噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺的抗性风险评估%Resistance risk assessment to thiamethoxam and nitenpyram for nilaparvata lugens St(a)l

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕芳; 张扬; 崔百元; 张振飞; 廖永林; 肖汉祥

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicities of thiamethoxam and nitenpyram of field PoPulations of Nilaparvata lugens St?l,which were collected from Guangzhou District,Guangdong,were carried by the rice stem dipping method.The results showed that the LC50 were 0.2857 mg/L and 0.5022 mg/L,and field populations were susceptible level,the resistance ratio were 2.67 and 1.06.To assess the resistance risk of thiamethoxam and nitenpyram,continuously selected was carried in laboratory.The results showed that the resistance ratio of thiamethoxam increased by 829.80 fold and was extremely high resistance level after 30 generations,and nitenpyram increased by 31.70 fold and was mid-resistance leve.The result showed that continuous selection with thiamethoxam and nitenpyram could further increase the resistance risk.%采用稻茎浸渍法,测定了广州市本地褐飞虱种群对噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺的室内毒力,评估褐飞虱对其的抗性风险.结果表明:广州本地褐飞虱种群对噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺的LC50分别为0.2857mg/L和0.5022 mg/L,分别是敏感品系LC50的2.67倍和1.06倍,仍属敏感水平.室内抗性筛选结果表明:经过30代的连续筛选后,噻虫嗪的抗性上升829.80倍,达到极高抗性水平,烯啶虫胺的抗性上升31.70倍,达到中等抗性水平,表明褐飞虱对噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺存在抗性风险的可能.根据试验结果,对褐飞虱噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺抗性的预防治理提出了应用策略.

  12. Bionomics of brown planthopper biotype 2 from field and greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two biotype 2 populations of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens stal, were used in this experiment. One was purified by determining the weight of honeydew excreted on susceptible rice variety TN1 and resistant rice varieties Mudgo (bearing resistant gene Bph1) and ASD7 (bearing resistant gene bph2) by female adult in paddy field in Guangxi Province, south China, and the other was obtained from greenhouse and continuously reared on rice resistant variety Mudgo in IRRI, Philippines. One newly hatched nymph was introduced into the test tube containing two 60 day old rice plants and cultured at 26± 1℃ , L∶ D =12 h∶ 12 h. Sixty replications were set up for each tested rice variety. The number and instar of nymphes were recorded every day. The body weight and honeydew excreted by female adult emerged within 24 h and 72 h, the number of eggs laid, and newly hatched nymph on different resistant rice varieties were measured. The hatchability, net reproductive rate, female adult nutritional indices such as relative growth rate (RGR)and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) were calculated.

  13. Genome-wide mapping of virulence in brown planthopper identifies loci that break down host plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shengli; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yinhua; Liu, Bingfang; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Hangjin; Zhou, Xi; Qin, Rui; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2014-01-01

    Insects and plants have coexisted for over 350 million years and their interactions have affected ecosystems and agricultural practices worldwide. Variation in herbivorous insects' virulence to circumvent host resistance has been extensively documented. However, despite decades of investigation, the genetic foundations of virulence are currently unknown. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is the most destructive rice (Oryza sativa) pest in the world. The identification of the resistance gene Bph1 and its introduction in commercial rice varieties prompted the emergence of a new virulent brown planthopper biotype that was able to break the resistance conferred by Bph1. In this study, we aimed to construct a high density linkage map for the brown planthopper and identify the loci responsible for its virulence in order to determine their genetic architecture. Based on genotyping data for hundreds of molecular markers in three mapping populations, we constructed the most comprehensive linkage map available for this species, covering 96.6% of its genome. Fifteen chromosomes were anchored with 124 gene-specific markers. Using genome-wide scanning and interval mapping, the Qhp7 locus that governs preference for Bph1 plants was mapped to a 0.1 cM region of chromosome 7. In addition, two major QTLs that govern the rate of insect growth on resistant rice plants were identified on chromosomes 5 (Qgr5) and 14 (Qgr14). This is the first study to successfully locate virulence in the genome of this important agricultural insect by marker-based genetic mapping. Our results show that the virulence which overcomes the resistance conferred by Bph1 is controlled by a few major genes and that the components of virulence originate from independent genetic characters. The isolation of these loci will enable the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the rice-brown planthopper interaction and facilitate the development of durable approaches for controlling this most

  14. Soluble Proteins in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by SDS-PAGE%褐飞虱可溶性蛋白 SDS-PAGE 电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁梓强; 梁士可; 张梅; 王方海

    2015-01-01

    The soluble proteins in Nilaparvata lugens adults and nymphs were analyzed by SDS-PAGE e-lectrophoresis.Results showed that there were almost equal number protein bands in all types of adult samples, most bands in different wing or gender samples existed content differences except female adult-specific protein band.There were four bands significantly higher in long-winged adult samples than in short-winged adult samples;in the comparison of male and female adult samples, it was found that there were two bands higher in males than in females, while other three bands higher in females than in males. The bands in nymph samples were gradually increased with the increase of age, four bands were constant-ly expressed in each instar period, one more band appeared in 5th instar nymph samples, and one band could be detected from the 4th instar.In addition, the contents of two bands were found much higher in long wing bud nymphs (9.029, 9.563 ng/μL) than those in short wing bud nymphs (5.133, 3.111 ng/μL) .Last we discussed the relationships among the different bands and wing dimorphism or sex differ-entiation in insects.%采用SDS-PAGE电泳分析褐飞虱成虫和各龄期若虫的可溶性蛋白,结果表明,成虫各类样品中,条带数量基本相同,只发现一条雌性成虫所特有的蛋白条带,而多数条带在不同翅型或性别样品中存在着含量差异。如有4条条带在长翅型中的含量明显高于短翅型中的含量;在雌、雄成虫样品的比较中则发现2条条带在雄虫中含量高于雌虫,而另有3条条带在雌虫中含量高于雄虫。若虫样品随着龄期升高,条带逐渐增多,发现有4条条带在各个龄期中均有表达,1条条带只在5龄若虫样品中出现,另有1条条带从4龄期开始出现。此外,还发现有2条条带在长翅芽若虫样品中的含量(9.029,9.563 ng/μL )明显高于短翅芽若虫样品中的含量(5.133,3.111 ng/μL)。并

  15. The insecticide resistance in two planthoppers from three areas to three insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Migrating insects brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparata lugens Stal and white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatellafurcifera Horvath are both most harmful insects on rice in China. Chemical control is thought to be the best way to manage them, but it may cause insecticide resistance.

  16. 灌溉方式对优质晚稻褐飞虱及其主要天敌种群动态的影响%Effect of irrigation method on population dynamics of Nilaparvata lugens and natural enemies of high-quality late rice field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 刘洋; 陈恺林; 方宝华; 汤文光; 周学其; 张玉烛; 陈松

    2016-01-01

    High-quality late rice is preferred by most consumers for its good taste. Irrigation is an important management practice in rice cultivation. This study analyzed the effects of irrigation method on the population dynamics of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the main natural enemies [Cyrtorrhinus livdipennis (Reute), Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bose. et Str., l906)] of high-quality late rice. The study also determined the effective irrigation method which reduced the occurrence of N. lugens, that in turn reduced the use of chemical pesticides, and improved rice quality and cultivation efficiency. To do so, deficit irrigation, wet irrigation, intermittent irrigation and long-term irrigation were set up to study the effects of the various irrigation methods on the population dynamics of N. lugens and the main natural enemies of high-quality late rice under two pest control methods (biological and chemical control) and two isolation methods (semi-partitioning and full-partitioning method). The results showed that C. livdipennis occurred after N. lugens, which limited the effective control of N. lugens by C. livdipennis. The population of N. lugens under long-term irrigation was less than that under deficit irrigation and P. pseudoannulata under deficit irrigation was less than that under other irrigation methods. These differences were significant for main growth stages (booting stage to milk stage) when there was rapid growth of late rice brown plant hopper under biological control. There were significant correlations of population changes between P. pseudoannulata and C. livdipennis and N. lugens. P. pseudoannulata had an absolute control over N. lugens when N. lugens population was less than 1 891.1 per 100-clump and the ratio of N. lugens to P. pseudoannulata exceeded 9.67. Chemical pesticides had a severe lethal effect on C. livdipennis under all the irrigation methods. Long-term irrigation greatly reduced the toxicity of chemical pesticides to P. pseudoannulata. In

  17. Analyses of time-dose-mortality model of the emulsifiable formulation of Metarhizium flavoviride Mf82 against Nilaparvata lugens%黄绿绿僵菌Mf82悬乳剂对褐飞虱作用的时间-剂量-死亡率模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华峰; 张松影; 李茂业; 李世广; 冯明峰

    2013-01-01

    为了寻找褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens生物防治的新途径,用新分离出的黄绿绿僵菌Metarhizium flavoviride(Mf82)菌株与实验室保存的黄绿绿僵菌、金龟子绿僵菌和球孢白僵菌3种菌种9个菌株作对比,测定了它们对褐飞虱成虫的毒力.结果表明:Mf82菌株对褐飞虱成虫的毒力最高,以1.0×108个孢子/mL的孢子液喷雾接种到褐飞虱成虫体表上,累积死亡率高达81.7%,LT50为4.6d,致病效果显著高于其他受测菌株.在此基础上研制了黄绿绿僵菌悬乳剂,并研究了其对褐飞虱的致病力.结果表明:随着黄绿绿僵菌浓度的增加,褐飞虱的累计死亡率增加,在浓度为1,048个孢子/mm2时,累计死亡率达到85.0%.利用时问-剂量-死亡率模型对数据进行处理,所建模型均顺利通过Hosmer-Lemeshow拟合异质性检验,表明模型拟合良好,并由模型估计出了该剂型对褐飞虱的致死剂量与致死时间.在接种后第7天和第9天,LC50值分别为2.1x103、9.9×102个孢子/mm2,LC90分别为7.8×104、3.7×104个孢子/mm2.黄绿绿僵菌悬乳剂对褐飞虱的致死时间与对数剂量相关,供试菌剂LT50值随着对数剂量的增加而递减,对数剂量由7.0增加到8.0时,LT5o由8.9d降为5.7d.可见该黄绿绿僵菌悬乳剂对褐飞虱具有较强的毒力,在褐飞虱生物防治中具有广阔的应用前景.%In order to effectively control Nilaparvata lugens, ten strains of entomogenous fungi including a new strain of Metarhizium flavoviride, Mf82, isolated from N. lugens and six strains of Beauveria bassiana and four different species of Metarhizium were bioassayed for its virulence against the adults of N. lugens. The results showed that cumulative mortality (81.7%) of strain Mf82 was the highest among all tested strains, and the median lethal time (LT50) value was 4.6d at a concentration of 1.0×108conidia/mL. Thus, an emulsifiable formulation of Mf82 was processed in the laboratory, and the bioassay of

  18. Transgenic rice homozygous lines expressing GNA showed enhanced resistance to rice brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mature seed-derived calli from two elite Chinese japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Eyi 105 and Ewan 5 were co-transformed with two plasmids, pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1, containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment. 61 independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 329 bombarded calli. 79% transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southern blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed that 36 out of 48 gna-containing transgenic plants expressed GNA (75 %) at various levels with the highest expression being approximately 0.5% of total soluble protein. Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From the R2 generations whose R1 parent plants showing 3:1 Mendelian segregation patterns,we identified five independent homozygous lines containing and expressing all the three transgenes. Insect bioassay and feeding tests showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) by decreasing BPH survival and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.These BPH-resistant lines have been incorporated into rice insect resistance breeding program. This is the first report that homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing GNA, developed by genetic transformation and through genetic analysis-based selection, conferred enhanced resistance to BPH, one of the most damaging insect pests in rice.

  19. Expression of snowdrop lectin (GNA) in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V; Rathore, K S; Hodges, T K; Fu, X; Stoger, E; Sudhakar, D; Williams, S; Christou, P; Bharathi, M; Bown, D P; Powell, K S; Spence, J; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    1998-08-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) has been shown previously to be toxic towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH) when administered in artificial diet. BPH feeds by phloem abstraction, and causes 'hopper burn', as well as being an important virus vector. To evaluate the potential of the gna gene to confer resistance towards BPH, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were produced, containing the gna gene in constructs where its expression was driven by a phloem-specific promoter (from the rice sucrose synthase RSs1 gene) and by a constitutive promoter (from the maize ubiquitin ubi1 gene). PCR and Southern analyses on DNA from these plants confirmed their transgenic status, and that the transgenes were transmitted to progeny after self-fertilization. Western blot analyses revealed expression of GNA at levels of up to 2.0% of total protein in some of the transgenic plants. GNA expression driven by the RSs1 promoter was tissue-specific, as shown by immunohistochemical localization of the protein in the non-lignified vascular tissue of transgenic plants. Insect bioassays and feeding studies showed that GNA expressed in the transgenic rice plants decreased survival and overall fecundity (production of offspring) of the insects, retarded insect development, and had a deterrent effect on BPH feeding. gna is the first transgene to exhibit insecticidal activity towards sap-sucking insects in an important cereal crop plant.

  20. Detection of BPH (brown planthopper sheath blight in rice farming using multispectral remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Ghobadifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable pest controlling method is essential in producing rice, one of the most important food staples worldwide, which is globally under concern of either farmers or consumers. Infestation of rice plant hopper such as brown planthopper (BPH (Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most notable risks in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will (1 decrease food production costs, (2 limit environmental hazards, and (3 enhance natural pest control before the problem spreads, for precision farming procedures. In this paper, detection of sheath blight was examined using SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre-5 images as the main data. Analyses were undertaken using ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images 4.8 and SPSS software. As a result, there was variety for the images of both early and late growing seasons. Specific image indices, such as RVI14, SDI14 and SDI24, proved better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. These sorts of indices could be recognized as a valued indicator for developing techniques in order to detect the sheath blight of rice by means of remote sensing.

  1. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Mamunur RASHID; Mahbuba JAHAN; Khandakar Shariful ISLAM

    2016-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  2. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mamunur Rashid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K, on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  3. Dynamics of resistance to imidacloprid, buprofezin, fipronil in Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l) during the year 2006 to 2009 in China%中国水稻主产区褐飞虱对3种杀虫剂的抗性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵振润; 张帅; 李永平; 沈晋良; 龙丽萍; 高聪芬; 郭井泉

    2011-01-01

    Resistance of Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l) to imidacloprid, buprofezin, fipronil was monitored using rice stem dipping method in 9 different regions, including Nanning, Yangjiang, Dong'an, Fuqing,Shanggao, Xiaogan, Jinhua, Tongzhou, Hexian from the year of 2006 to 2009. The results indicated that most of populations developed high level of resistance to imidacloprid( resistance ratios are 105.5- to 459. 7-fold) ,but the data collected in 2009 revealed that populations from Dong'an,Xiaogan,Shanggao showed slightly decreasing resistance to imidacloprid, and increasing resistance to fipronil. During 2006 -2009 populations of N. lugens changed their resistance to buprofezin from being susceptible or low level(resistance ratios are below 6.9-fold) to moderate or high level(resistance ratios are 13.5- to 43.3-fold). Because imidacloprid was prohibited in highly resistant regions beginning from 2005,N. lugens increased its resistance to buprofezin rapidly, and it was already at low or moderate level (the resistance ratios are 7.0- to 14.4-fold) in 2009. As a result, after imidacloprid and fipronil were prohibited, using buprofezin singly to control N. lugens in large areas will lead to resistance rapidly.%2006-2009年,用稻茎浸渍法连续监测了广西南宁市、广东阳江市、湖南东安县、福建福清市、江西上高县、湖北孝感市、浙江金华市、江苏通州市和安徽和县共9个地区揭飞虱种群对吡虫啉、噻嗪酮和氟虫睛的杭性变化.结果表明:揭飞虱种群对吡虫琳的杭性仍处于高水平至极高水平抗性阶段(105.5~459.7倍),但2009年监测到东安、孝感、上高种群对吡虫琳的抗性已有下降趋势;揭飞虱种群对氟虫睛的抗性有增长趋势,2006到2009年褐飞虱种群对氟虫腈由敏感至低水平杭性(<6.9倍)发展到了中水平至高水平抗性(13.5~43.3倍);由于2005年吡虫啉在高抗地区的禁用,褐飞虱种群对噻嗪酮的杭性上升速度加快,2009年已

  4. 田间噻嗪酮与黄绿绿僵菌对褐飞虱的协同防治%Synergism Between Low Concentration Buprofezin and Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on Controlling Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l(Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿博闻; 张润杰

    2005-01-01

    在广州郊区稻田中用黄绿绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae var.acridum Bosenberg et Strand和低用量农药噻嗪酮(buprofezin)对褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens Stl进行了协同防治作用药效试验.试验验共设低用量噻嗪酮、高用量噻嗪酮、黄绿绿僵菌、l低用量噻嗪酮和黄绿绿僵菌混施、清水对照共5个喷雾处理,每处理3个重复小区(4 m×5 m),随机区组排列.在处理前1天、处理后的第2、6、11、16、21 d分别调查褐飞虱每丛的飞虱数.结果表明,低用量噻嗪酮与黄绿绿僵菌混施可以有效的控制田间稻飞虱的种群密度,对成虫的防效在第16天、对若虫第21天时达到95%以上,其相对防效和虫口减退率都有明显升高并表现出明显的协同作用,这种协同作用对褐飞虱成虫的防治效果优于对褐飞虱若虫的防治效果.

  5. An injury equivalency system for establishing a common economic threshold for three species of rice planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shou-Horng; Chen, Ching-Huan; Chen, Chiou-Nan; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2013-04-01

    The economic threshold (ET) for multiple pest species that share the same injury type on host plants (feeding guild) has been proposed for decision-making in integrated management framework of many defoliating insect pests. However, only a few consider agricultural pests with sucking mouthparts. This study presents the first injury equivalency system for the feeding guild made up of three rice (Oryza sativa L.) planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) species--Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), Sogatella furcifera (Harváth), and Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén)--by using relative amount of honeydew excretion of each species. The intraspecific injury equivalent coefficient was determined; this coefficient provides an exchange rate for different developmental stages in a species. N. lugens was chosen as the standard species to obtain interspecific injury equivalents for other individuals in the guild, allowing estimates of total guild injury feasible. For extension purposes, the injury equivalency was simplified by pooling all nymphs and adults in the guild to mitigate the potential confusion resulting from uncertainty of instars or wing form. A matrix of ETs established on previous studies and incorporating changes of management cost and rice price was used and served as a control decision guide for the guild samples. The validity of the proposed injury equivalency system was tested using several field data sets, and the results are generally promising and meaningfully elevate the accuracy of estimating combined injury and damage to rice, suggesting that the proposed system is a better integrated pest management decision-making system compared with conventional practices.

  6. Classification of rice planthopper based on invariant moments and BP neural network%基于4种不变矩和BP神经网络的稻飞虱分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹修国; 丁为民; 刘德营; 赵三琴

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of the quality of images that were acquired by rice planthoppers remote real-time recognition system, the shape feature values which were extracted by invariant moments to recognize a rice planthopper. 160W self-ballasted high-voltage mercury lamp was used in the experiment to lure rice planthoppers to the curtain, then a H-shape mobile photographing device which had been designed independently by us was used to photograph the planthopper image. The device has the advantages of simple structure and low cost. The USB interface camera of this device was less than 600 RMB. It will lay the foundation for the development of a rice planthopper scene recognition system with low cost. The color images which had been photographed were grayed with a weighted formula, and then were subject to binaryzation with an Otsu method. Finally, the algorithms such as morphological operations were used for filtration to get a binary image with better quality. The feature values of the rice planthopper binary images were respectively extracted by four invariant moments:Hu moment, improved Hu moment, Zernike moment, and Krawtchouk moment, and then a BP nerve network was used to train and test the four feature values respectively, so as to detect the recognition effect of extraction feature values of the four moments. Matlab 2008a was used in the experiment. 240 samples of sogatella furcifera, nilaparvata lugens, and small brown planthoppers had been trained, and then an additional 60 samples were selected for testing. The test result was that the overall recognition rate of the Hu moment was only 76.7%, and the recognition rate of the improved Hu moment was 85%, while the recognition rate of the Zernike moment was 86.7%and the recognition rate of the Krawtchouk moment was 91.7%. The recognition rate of the Krawtchouk moment was the best of the four moments. The reason was that the Krawtchouk moment not only reflected the global feature, but exhibits better locality

  7. Classification of rice planthopper based on improved gray level co-occurrence matrix and particle swarm algorithm%基于改进灰度共生矩阵和粒子群算法的稻飞虱分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹修国; 丁为民; 陈彩蓉; 刘德营

    2014-01-01

    The rice planthopper images acquired by remote real-time recognition system usually have poor quality, and hence it is impossible to classify rice planthoppers using the color features of rice planthopper images. This study proposed to extract texture features of images based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and used the texture features to classify rice planthoppers. A H-shape mobile photographing device designed by us was used to obtain color images of rice planthoppers. The color images were grayed by formula, and then the background of images was removed using Otsu image segmentation method to generate binary images followed by calculation through the binary image coordinates. The GLCM was improved to extract texture features of images without background. Specifically, the center of gravity was determined by coordinates of the images and considered as the center to construct GLCM. The images of the rice planthopper were copied into the sub images with 160 pixels×160 pixels based on the center. Using multiple annular routes, the features of rice planthopper gray images were extracted including energy, entropy, moment of inertia and correlation. In the training and testing experiment of the extracted features, back propagation (BP) nerve network and optimized BP nerve network based on parametric selection -improved particle swarm optimization algorithm were individually used to train and classify the rice planthopper, and the training time and identification rate of each method were compared. A total of 300Sogatella,Laodelphax andNilaparvata lugens with 100 samples for each type of rice planthopper was trained. The training time using the optimized BP nerve network based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm was only 0.5683 seconds, which was far less than that (29.5772 seconds) using BP neural network. Based on the BP neural network, the identification rate reached 80% forSogatella, 90% forLaodelphax, and 95% forNilaparvata lugens. Based on

  8. Tagging of Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in F2s of IR50 × Ptb33 of Rice by Using Bulked Segregant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkateswarlu YADAVALLI; Gajendra P. NARWANE; M. S. R. KRISHNA; Nagarajan POTHI; Bharathi MUTHUSAMY

    2012-01-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stǎl) is one of the most damaging pests causing hopper burn in rice,and thereby reducing the productivity and also the quality of the product.The effective management strategy to control this pest is the identification and transfer of desirable genes to local rice cultivars.The most important approach for developing resistant cultivars is the identification of markers,which can help in marker-assisted selection of more durable resistant genotype.The susceptible parent IR50 and the resistant parent Ptb33,and their F2 populations were used in bulked segregant analysis for identification of resistant genes with random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (RAPD) primers.The primers OPC7 and OPAG14 showed both dominant and susceptible specific banding pattern so called co-dominant markers.Moreover,OPC7697 and OPAG14660 showed resistant specific bands and thus being in coupling phase,whereas OPC7846 and OPAG14650 showed susceptible specific genotypic bands in bulked segregant analysis.Therefore,the coupling phase markers,OPC7697 and OPAG14680.are considered to be more useful in marker-assisted selection of rice genotypes in crop improvement.

  9. Allelic diversity in an NLR gene BPH9 enables rice to combat planthopper variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Huang, Jin; Wang, Zhizheng; Jing, Shengli; Wang, Yang; Ouyang, Yidan; Cai, Baodong; Xin, Xiu-Fang; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Chunxiao; Pan, Yufang; Ma, Rui; Li, Qiaofeng; Jiang, Weihua; Zeng, Ya; Shangguan, Xinxin; Wang, Huiying; Du, Bo; Zhu, Lili; Xu, Xun; Feng, Yu-Qi; He, Sheng Yang; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhang, Qifa; He, Guangcun

    2016-10-24

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most devastating insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Currently, 30 BPH-resistance genes have been genetically defined, most of which are clustered on specific chromosome regions. Here, we describe molecular cloning and characterization of a BPH-resistance gene, BPH9, mapped on the long arm of rice chromosome 12 (12L). BPH9 encodes a rare type of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing protein that localizes to the endomembrane system and causes a cell death phenotype. BPH9 activates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-signaling pathways in rice plants and confers both antixenosis and antibiosis to BPH. We further demonstrated that the eight BPH-resistance genes that are clustered on chromosome 12L, including the widely used BPH1, are allelic with each other. To honor the priority in the literature, we thus designated this locus as BPH1/9 These eight genes can be classified into four allelotypes, BPH1/9-1, -2, -7, and -9 These allelotypes confer varying levels of resistance to different biotypes of BPH. The coding region of BPH1/9 shows a high level of diversity in rice germplasm. Homologous fragments of the nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains exist, which might have served as a repository for generating allele diversity. Our findings reveal a rice plant strategy for modifying the genetic information to gain the upper hand in the struggle against insect herbivores. Further exploration of natural allelic variation and artificial shuffling within this gene may allow breeding to be tailored to control emerging biotypes of BPH.

  10. Influence of Temperature on Symbiotic Bacterium Composition in Successive Generations of Egg Parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus nilaparvatae is the dominant egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers and plays an important role in biological control. Symbiotic bacteria can significantly influence the development, survival, reproduction and population differentiation of their hosts. To study the influence of temperature on symbiotic bacterial composition in the successive generations of A. nilaparvatae, A. nilaparvatae were raised under different constant temperatures of 22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C, 31 °C and 34 °C. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the diversity of symbiotic bacteria. Our results revealed that the endophytic bacteria of A. nilaparvatae were Pantoea sp., Pseudomonas sp. and some uncultured bacteria. The bacterial community composition in A. nilaparvatae significantly varied among different temperatures and generations, which might be partially caused by temperature, feeding behavior and the physical changes of hosts. However, the analysis of wsp gene showed that the Wolbachia in A. nilaparvatae belonged to group A, sub-group Mors and sub-group Dro. Sub-group Mors was absolutely dominant, and this Wolbachia composition remained stable in different temperatures and generations, except for the 3rd generation under 34 °C during which sub-group Dro became the dominant Wolbachia. The above results suggest that the continuous high temperature of 34 °C can influence the Wolbachia community composition in A. nilaparvatae.

  11. Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOtuka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in East Asia. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSV’s migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in East Asia from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in

  12. 褐飞虱在不同水稻品系上繁殖能力及相关解毒酶系基因表达变化分析%On the Fertility and Related Detoxification Enzyme Systems Gene Expression of Nilaparvata lugens Feeding on Different Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞姗姗; 刘雅; 杨萌萌; 沈祺达; 谢国强; 王世贵; 唐斌

    2016-01-01

    This experiment adopts the TN1 sensitive rice varieties and other different levels of resistance rice cultivars , such as Zhongzheyou and IR56 ,to breed N .lugens ,and then use a part of those N .lugens to study N .lugens spawning and other breeding situations ,and determines the expression changes of esterase ,cytochrome P450 ,Glutathione transferase (GST) ,vitellogenin(Vg) on mRNA .The results show that the fecundity of N .lugens reduces on resistance rice ,and the expression of Vg2 decreases significantly ,which indicates resistance rice has inhibitory effect on N . lugens fecundity and Vg2 regulate the spawning .Part genes of esterase and P450 have high expression in the resistance rice N . lugens body , which have significant differences .%采用水稻敏感品系T N1和抗性品系中浙优、IR56饲养褐飞虱,研究褐飞虱产卵量等繁殖情况,测定解毒酶系中酯酶、细胞色素P450和谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST )及卵黄原蛋白(Vg )等基因在mRNA上的表达变化。结果显示褐飞虱在抗性水稻上产卵量减少,Vg2的表达量极显著下降,表明水稻抗性对褐飞虱的产卵量有抑制作用且Vg2调控产卵。酯酶和P450中的部分基因均在取食抗性水稻的褐飞虱体内表达量较高,存在极显著差异。

  13. The roles of CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 in imidacloprid resistance in the brown planthopper: Expression levels and detoxification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haibo; Gao, Hongli; Zhang, Yixi; Fan, Dongzhe; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Zewen

    2016-05-01

    Two P450 monooxygenase genes, CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1, were reported to contribute importantly to imidacloprid resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Although recombinant CYP6AY1 could metabolize imidacloprid efficiently, the expression levels of CYP6ER1 gene were higher in most resistant populations. In the present study, three field populations were collected from different countries, and the bioassay, RNAi and imidacloprid metabolism were performed to evaluate the importance of two P450s in imidacloprid resistance. All three populations, DOT (Dongtai) from China, CNA (Chainat) from Thailand and HCM (Ho Chi Minh) from Vietnam, showed high resistance to imidacloprid (57.0-, 102.9- and 89.0-fold). CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 were both over expressed in three populations, with highest ratio of 13.2-fold for CYP6ER1 in HCM population. Synergism test and RNAi analysis confirmed the roles of both P450 genes in imidacloprid resistance. However, CYP6AY1 was indicated more important in CNA population, and CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 were equal in HCM population, although the expression level of CYP6ER1 (13.2-fold) was much higher than that of CYP6AY1 (4.11-fold) in HCM population. Although the recombinant proteins of both P450 genes could metabolize imidacloprid efficiently, the catalytic activity of CYP6AY1 (Kcat=3.627 pmol/min/pmol P450) was significantly higher than that of CYP6ER1 (Kcat=2.785 pmol/min/pmol P450). It was supposed that both P450 proteins were important for imidacloprid resistance, in which CYP6AY1 metabolized imidacloprid more efficiently and CYP6ER1 gene could be regulated by imidacloprid to a higher level.

  14. Molecular Breeding of Rice Restorer Lines and Hybrids for Brown Planthopper (BPH) Resistance Using the Bph14 and Bph15 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Ye, Shengtuo; Mou, Tongmin

    2016-12-01

    The development of hybrid rice is a practical approach for increasing rice production. However, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, causes severe yield loss of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and can threaten food security. Therefore, breeding hybrid rice resistant to BPH is the most effective and economical strategy to maintain high and stable production. Fortunately, numerous BPH resistance genes have been identified, and abundant linkage markers are available for molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs. Hence, we pyramided two BPH resistance genes, Bph14 and Bph15, into a susceptive CMS restorer line Huahui938 and its derived hybrids using MAS to improve the BPH resistance of hybrid rice. Three near-isogenic lines (NILs) with pyramided Bph14 and Bph15 were obtained by molecular marker-assisted backcross (MAB) and phenotypic selection. The genomic components of these NILs were detected using the whole-genome SNP (Single nucleotide polymorphism) array, RICE6K, suggesting that the recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery of the NILs was 87.88, 87.70 and 86.62 %, respectively. BPH bioassays showed that the improved NILs and their derived hybrids carrying homozygous Bph14 and Bph15 were resistant to BPH. However, the hybrids with heterozygous Bph14 and Bph15 remained susceptible to BPH. The developed NILs showed no significant differences in major agronomic traits and rice qualities compared with the recurrent parent. Moreover, the improved hybrids derived from the NILs exhibited better agronomic performance and rice quality compared with the controls under natural field conditions. This study demonstrates that it is essential to stack Bph14 and Bph15 into both the maternal and paternal parents for developing BPH-resistant hybrid rice varieties. The SNP array with abundant DNA markers is an efficient tool for analyzing the RPG recovery of progenies and can be used to monitor the donor segments in NILs, thus being extremely important

  15. Detection of Wolbachia in Laodelphax striatellus and analysis of Wolbachia wsp gene between three species of the rice planthopper%灰飞虱体内Wolbachia的检测及三种稻飞虱Wolbachia的wsp基因差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许存宾; 刘艳; 王锡锋

    2012-01-01

    To identify the geographical genetic differentiation of Wolbachia in the small brown planthopper (Lao-delphax striatellus, SBPH) and it's variation among three species of the rice planthopper, we detected the Wol-bahcia outer surface protein (wsp) gene in SBPH by the PCR method, and the sequences were analyzed by phylo-genetic analysis. The results showed that the average infection rate of Wolbachia in SBPH collected from 21 regions in 12 provinces was 96.41%. There was no geographical genetic differentiation in Walachia wsp gene. Wolbachia in the SBPH and the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera , WBPH) shared the same homology in wsp gene sequences, but differences were found in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), with a similarity of 83.39%. The results gained in this study indicated that SBPH and WBPH might be infected by the same strain of Wolbachia, while BPH by a different strain.%采用PCR方法对灰飞虱感染Wolbachia情况进行检测,并对Wolbachia的wsp基因进行序列测定和系统发育分析,以明确各地区Wolbachia的差异及三种稻飞虱体内Wolbachia的差异.结果表明,12省份21地区灰飞虱群体Wolbachia平均感染率达到96.41%.各地灰飞虱体内Wolbachia不存在明显的地理种群分化.与褐飞虱及白背飞虱体内Wolbachia的wsp序列对比,灰飞虱与白背飞虱的序列一致,而与褐飞虱存在较大差异(相似性83.39%),处于不同的系统进化簇.表明感染白背飞虱与灰飞虱的Wolbachia处于相同株系,而感染褐飞虱的Wolbachia处于另一株系.

  16. Migratory biology of the white backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváith) :Case studies in Huizhou, Anhui Province%白背飞虱的迁飞生物学:安徽徽州个例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁永刚; 张国; 杨海博; 瞿钰锋; 张孝羲; 翟保平

    2011-01-01

    The take-off behavior, wing dimorphism and population characteristics of the white backed planthopper Sogatella furcifem (Horvath) (WBPH) in different years, locations and generations were studied by field surveys, ovarian dissection and observation of captive insects. The main results were: (1 ) The majority of the second and third generations of WBPH are emigrants colonizing early-mid rice but, in 2009, the number of emigrants declined significantly after rice reaches the waxen maturity stage; (2) The number of emigrants was correlated with adult density; (3) heavy precipitation affects the number of insects that take to the air; (4) The ratio of the macropterous adults in most of the local generations was more than 80% and their wing forms were 'macropterous-macropterous-macropterous' in successive generations, a different pattern to that observed in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens ( Stal ) , (5) There was no relationship between the number of insects taking to the air, or otherwise emigrating, and rice growth stages; (6) The population characteristics of the WBPH could be classified into three types; mostly immigrants, partly local breeding and partly emigrated, and mostly emigrated.%通过水稻田罩笼试验研究了白背飞虱起飞迁出与世代、田间成虫密度的关系以及降水对起飞的影响,采用系统田调查和长翅雌虫卵巢系统解剖分析了各代翅型分化、迁出与水稻生育期的关系以及各世代虫源性质.结果表明:(1)早中稻田白背飞虱起飞迁出以第2、3代为主,后期迁出较少;(2)白背飞虱起飞迁出数量与田间成虫密度有关;(3)降水影响白背飞虱的起飞;(4)白背飞虱各世代以长翅型为主,世代间翅型分化模式不同于褐飞虱,表现为“长-长-长”;(5)白背飞虱起飞与水稻生育期关系不大;(6)白背飞虱虫源性质分为基本迁入型、部分迁入滞留与部分迁出型、基本迁出型.

  17. GNA Confers Resistance to Rice Brown Planthopper in Transgenic Rice Pure Lines by Both Bioassay and Feeding Tests%生物鉴定和喂养试验证明GNA赋予转基因水稻纯系对褐飞虱的抗性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 孙小芬; 万丙良; 戚华雄; 卢兴桂

    2001-01-01

    Two transgenic rice pure lines, generated by particle bombardment, were challeng ed by the first-instar nymphs of rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) biotype I using the standard BPH bioassay and feeding test protocol essen tially the same as described by Rao et al. (1998). Both lines contained and expressed the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene(hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene(gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus niv alis) lectin gene (gna). Insect bioassay and feeding test results showed t hat both lines had significant deterrent effect on BPH by decreasing BPH surviva l and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.%参照Rao等(1998)的褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养方法,用水稻褐飞虱生物Ⅰ型的一龄若虫食喂, 用基因枪法获得2个转基因水稻纯系. 这2个纯系均含有并表达潮霉素抗性基因(hpt)、 gusA报告基因和雪花莲凝集素基因(gna). 褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养试验表明,水稻 纯系对褐飞虱具有显著的抑制作用. 具体表现为降低褐飞虱成活率和繁殖力、延缓褐飞虱发 育以及减少褐飞虱进食量. 通过褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养试验证明,表达GNA的转基因水稻纯系对严重危害水稻生产的褐飞虱具有抗性作用.

  18. 转Bt基因及其亲本水稻上褐飞虱对三唑磷和溴氰菊酯的反应%Ecological responses of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, to triazophos and deltamethrin on transgenic Bt rice lines and their non-Bt parental rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向冬; 杨亚军; 田俊策; 徐红星; 郑许松; 吕仲贤

    2014-01-01

    以转Bt基因抗虫水稻T1C-19(含cry1C基因)和T2A-1(含cry2A基因)及其亲本水稻MH63为材料,用20和40 mg·L-1的三唑磷以及1、3和6mg.L-1的溴氰菊酯喷雾分别处理稻株上的3龄褐飞虱若虫,研究了两种农药对转Bt基因抗虫水稻上褐飞虱再猖獗的影响.结果表明:三唑磷处理对褐飞虱的若虫历期无显著性影响,溴氰菊酯则能显著降低若虫历期,但随着两种药剂处理浓度的升高,若虫的存活率降低、成虫的产卵量增加.在同一浓度农药药剂处理下,3个水稻品种上的褐飞虱若虫发育历期、若虫存活率、初羽雌成虫体质量、产卵量和卵孵化率等生态学参数均没有显著差异.表明褐飞虱在两种转Bt水稻上对三唑磷和溴氰菊酯诱导再猖獗的反应能力与其亲本水稻MH63没有差异.

  19. No cross-resistance between imidacloprid and pymetrozine in the brown planthopper: status and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanxue; Huang, Lixin; Wang, Yunchao; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Siqi; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-01

    Cross-resistance between insecticides, especially from different groups, can be extremely unpredictable, and it has been a serious concern in pest control. Pymetrozine has been widely used to control Nilaparvata lugens with the suspension of imidacloprid for the resistance, and N. lugens has showed obvious pymetrozine resistance in recent years. To investigate the possible cross-resistance between imidacloprid and pymetrozine is very important to avoid the adverse effects on resistance development and pest control. Bioassays of two field populations in five consecutive years showed that imidacloprid resistance decreased greatly, while pymetrozine resistance increased significantly. The synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) could synergize both imidacloprid and pymetrozine in all field populations, which indicated the importance of P450s in the resistance to two insecticides. Imidacloprid resistance was reported to be associated with two P450s, CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1, which could metabolize imidacloprid efficiently. However, the recombinant proteins of these two P450s did not show any enzymatic activity to metabolize pymetrozine. The pymetrozine susceptibility did not change when CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 mRNA levels were reduced by RNA interference (RNAi), although which could obviously decrease imidacloprid resistance. In vivo and in vitro studies provided evidences to demonstrate that there was no cross-resistance between imidacloprid and pymetrozine in N. lugens, which was different from the findings in Bemisia tabaci.

  20. The Control Strategy of Nilaparvata lugens%水稻褐飞虱防控策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖世纯; 王凤英; 黎柳锋

    2011-01-01

    褐飞虱近年对水稻的为害愈来愈严重,为探讨新的防控策略,笔者从飞虱的主要越冬虫源地、成灾原因及综合防控等分析认为:(1)对中国水稻为害极重的褐飞虱,真正成灾的越冬虫源应主要来自16°N以南的地区,尤其是越南南部与泰国南部的湄公河三角洲区域.(2)水稻褐飞虱的成灾原因既与越战后东盟国家大力发展水稻等粮食作物种植,且在耕作制度上也相应地由高秆改矮秆、单季改双季甚至三季,密集程度和施肥程度有所提高有关,又与国内水稻品种多、生育期不一,在防控上不能统一行动,用药混杂和过量有关,还与全球气候变暖更利于飞虱的繁衍与迁移,以及杂交水稻可能更利于飞虱类的繁衍有关.因此,要彻底防控水稻褐飞虱的为害,要"防控前移",到飞虱的发源地-湄公河三角洲区域去实施以生态治理为核心的综合防治技术,一方面帮助其提高水稻产量,改良水稻种植模式,压缩冬春稻种植面积;另一方面帮助其发展经济,构建世界热带水果与特种经济植物基地,同时组建大型粮食生产加工集团,以及开展褐飞虱防控国际间合作;对迁入代要及早治理,并且以县为单位组建植物保护公司,再利用飞虱对某些水稻品种特别嗜好性,构建飞虱诱集区,形成聚而歼之的主战场.%Yield loss is caused by brown plant hopper are becoming more and more serious in recent years.By analyzing the changes of rice cropping system and the occurring dynamics of the insect, new ideas and control strategies are forwarded: (1) The plant brown hopper that imperil the rice production in China might survive overwinter to north latitude of 19° N, but the disastrous insect source mainly comes from the south of 16° N,especially from the Mekong Delta of south Vietnam and Thailand.(2) Rampant of BPH might relate to the following factors: the expansion of rice growing area in Asean countries, substitution of high-stem type by dwarf type, multi-cropping seasons every year, higher planting density and fertilizer input, overlap of growth stage,utilization of susceptible rice varieties, extra use of pesticide, global warming that infavor of the reproduction and migration of the insects.Control strategies: push forward the defense frontline to the birthland, Mekong Delta, by implementing integrated pest control focused on regional ecology management: reducing the winter season rice growth area, setting up tropical fruit and cash crop producing base, international cooperation on BPH control, eliminating the migrating insects by seducing them in a confined trap.

  1. Q96 昆虫学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    褐飞虱对噻嗪酮抗性的遗传分析=Genetic analysis of resistance to buprofezin in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae);B型烟粉虱抗噻虫嗪品系的遗传分化=Genetic differentiation in the thiamethoxam-resistant strain ofBemisia tabaci B-biotype。

  2. Diet-dependent fecundity of the spiders Atypena formosana and Pardosa pseudoannulata, predators in irrigated rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Toft, Søren; Villareal, Sylvia

    2001-01-01

    The fecundity of the spiders Atypena formosana and Pardosa pseudoannulata was assessed on diets of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (BPH), green leafhopper Nephotettix virescens (GLH), Collembola (Entomobryidae), Drosophila melanogaster and three prey mixtures; BPH-GLH, BPH-GLH-Collembola and...

  3. Bt rice expressing Cry2Aa does not harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a main predator of the nontarget herbivore Nilapavarta lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    Full Text Available T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål, is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1 a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2 a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3 a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis.

  4. Electronic Monitoring of Feeding and Oviposition Behavior of Rice Planthoppers and Its Application in Plant Resistance Study%电子记录稻飞虱取食和产卵行为及其在植物抗虫性研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    服部诚

    2003-01-01

    采用AC型电子记录系统(EMS)对褐飞虱在非寄主植物稗草和具有抗性基因bph4的水稻品种Babawee上的取食行为进行了比较研究.结果表明,褐飞虱口针到达稗草韧皮部以前停止取食,这揭示了在稗草非韧皮部组织中存在拒食剂.而在抗虫品种上,口针到达韧皮部以后取食行为终止.因此,可以清楚地识别两类具有不同抑制取食抗性因子的抗性植物.分析白背飞虱产卵行为的电子记录表明,在大多数情况下,就旺盛生长的水稻植株的下半部分而言,白背飞虱产卵器插入植物组织中但不产卵.这表明旺盛生长的植株能诱导白背飞虱的产卵行为,但由于某些拒避性因素使整个产卵过程不能完成.因此,这一系统可以有效地识别具有产卵抗性的植物上行为序列中受到破坏的步骤.%Feeding behaviors of Nilaparvata lugens on a non-host plant, the barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli var. Oryzicola, and resistant rice Babawee (bph4) were compared by using AC-eletronic monitoring system (EMS). Waveform data obtained by EMS showed that N. Lugens usually stopped feeding activities before stylets reach the phloem in barnyard grass which revealed to contain an antifeedant in the non-phloem, whereas feeding was interrupted after stylets reached the phloem in resistant rice. Thus, EMS analysis clearly distinguished two types of resistant plants with different resistant factors against planthopper feeding. EMS analysis of Sogatella furcifera oviposition behavior on the lower part of the leaf sheath of fully-grown rice demonstrated that in most cases the ovipositor was inserted into the plant but pulled out without depositing any eggs. It suggested that oviposition behavior itself was normally induced on the fully-grown rice, but the entire process was not completed due to some deterring factors. Thus, this system is also effective in identifying a disrupted step in the behavioral sequence on a plant resistant

  5. 25%噻虫·吡蚜酮WP防治稻飞虱田间试验研究%Study on Effect of Thiamethoxam+Pymetrozine 25%WP Against Rice Planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘栋

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the control effect of thiamethoxam + pymetrozine 25% WP on N. lugens and L. striatellus, the field tests were carried out. The results showed that thiamethoxam+pymetrozine 25%WP could control rice planthopper effectively. The optimal use time was at peak stage of young nymphs of rice planthopper, and the suitable dosages were 180-360 g/hm2.%为明确25%噻虫·吡蚜酮 WP对水稻褐飞虱及灰飞虱的防治效果,进行了小区药剂试验。结果表明:25%噻虫·吡蚜酮WP对灰飞虱和褐飞虱控制作用较好,建议在低龄若虫高峰期用药,制剂用量以180~360 g/hm2为宜。

  6. Studies on Insecticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ye-cheng; XU Han-hong

    2005-01-01

    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo. were studied for the first time. The results showed that all parts of S. kwangsiensis Lo. had contact activity against brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal,and the contact activity of methanol extract from root tubers was the highest, with a LD50 value being 1.5794 μg/female.l-roemerine was isolated from root tubers of S. kwangsiensis Lo. and identified, and it was the main active ingredient.l-roemerine had high contact toxicity to brown planthoppers, with a LD50 value being 0.0443 μg/female. Contact toxicity of l-roemerine to brown planthoppers was 7.48 times that of malathion, the convientional chemical insecticide used for controlling brown planthoppers.l-roemerine also had stomach poison activity against brown planthoppers.

  7. 应用巢式PCR-DGGE技术分析稻虱缨小蜂体内Wolbachia的多样性%Diversity of Wolbachia in Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera:Mymaridae) analyzed using nested PCR-DGGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑平; 王新; 徐红星; 汤江武; 郑许松; 杨亚军; 吕仲贤

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the diversity of Wolbachia in insects by using nested PCR-DGGE. Samples of Anagrus nilaparvatae, one of dominant egg parasitoids of rice planthoppers in Asian rice growth area, were collected from Hangzhou, China and the Philippines. After the total DNA was extracted, the 16S rDNA and wsp gene fragments of Wolbachia were amplified with nested PCR, and then analyzed using DGGE. The results showed that Wolbachia in A. Nilaparvatae were sensitively and exactly detected based on 16S rDNA gene, and the dominant bacteria in A. Nilaparvatae were Acinetobacter sp., Methylophilus sp., Acidovorax sp., Burkholderia sp. And Wolbachia sp. The analysis of wsp gene showed that Wolbachia in A. Nilaparvatae from Hangzhou belongs to group A, sub-group Mors, and that from the Philippines belongs to group A, sub-group Dro. The results suggest that nested PCR-DGGE is an effective molecular tool for detecting the diversity of Wolbachia in Anagrus sp., and the 16S rDNA gene fragment is the optimal biomarker for Wolbachia detection, while the wsp gene is the optimal biomarker for Wolbachia species identification and classification.%以采集自中国杭州和菲律宾的稻虱缨小蜂Anagrus nilaparvatae为研究对象,采用巢式PCR扩增Wolbachia的16S rDNA和wsp基因片段,并用DGGE分析稻虱缨小蜂体内Wolbachia的多样性.基于16S rDNA基因的分析结果准确地检测到稻虱缨小蜂体内细菌主要是Acinetobacter sp.,Methylophilus sp.,Acidovorax sp.,Burkholderia sp.和Wolbachia sp..基于wsp基因的分析结果显示,杭州种群感染的Wolbachia属于A组的Mors亚组,菲律宾种群感染的Wolbachia属于A组的Dro亚组.结果说明,巢式PCR-DGGE是寄生蜂体内Wolbachia检测和多样性分析的有效方法,其中16S rDNA基因是检测Wolbachia存在的较佳分子标记,wsp基因是Wolbachia多样性分析以及种属鉴定和分型的较佳分子标记.

  8. Evolutionary aspects of acoustic communication in Ribautodelphax planthoppers (Homoptera, Delphacidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Delphacidae (Homoptera), commonly referred to as planthoppers, are herbivores, which usually feed on grasses and sedges. During sexual behaviour males and females communicate by exchanging low-frequency vibrational signals, which are transmitted through the substrate, normally the host plant. This t

  9. A Markov Random Field Model for Image Segmentation of Rice Planthopper in Rice Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei Yue; Ken Cai; Hanhui Lin; Hong Man; Zhaofeng Zeng

    2016-01-01

    It is meaningful to develop the automation segmentation of rice planthopper pests based on imaging technology in precision agriculture. However, rice planthopper images affected by light and complicated backgrounds in open rice fields make the segmentation difficult. This study proposed a segmentation approach of rice planthopper images based on the Markov random field to conduct effective segmentation. First, fractional order differential was introduced into the extraction proces...

  10. Automated Counting of Rice Planthoppers in Paddy Fields Based on Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing; XIAN Ding-xiang; LIU Qing-jie; YANG Bao-jun; DIAO Guang-qiang; TANG Jian

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative survey of rice planthoppers in paddy ifelds is important to assess the population density and make forecasting decisions. Manual rice planthopper survey methods in paddy ifelds are time-consuming, fatiguing and tedious. This paper describes a handheld device for easily capturing planthopper images on rice stems and an automatic method for counting rice planthoppers based on image processing. The handheld device consists of a digital camera with WiFi, a smartphone and an extrendable pole. The surveyor can use the smartphone to control the camera, which is ifxed on the front of the pole by WiFi, and to photograph planthoppers on rice stems. For the counting of planthoppers on rice stems, we adopt three layers of detection that involve the following:(a) the ifrst layer of detection is an AdaBoost classiifer based on Haar features;(b) the second layer of detection is a support vector machine (SVM) classiifer based on histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features;(c) the third layer of detection is the threshold judgment of the three features. We use this method to detect and count whiteback planthoppers (Sogatella furcifera) on rice plant images and achieve an 85.2%detection rate and a 9.6%false detection rate. The method is easy, rapid and accurate for the assessment of the population density of rice planthoppers in paddy ifelds.

  11. Tetrahydroindeno[1',2':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-a]imidazol-5(1H)-ones as novel neonicotinoid insecticides: reaction selectivity and substituent effects on the activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanyang; Meng, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Fengjuan; Cheng, Jiagao; Shao, Xusheng; Li, Zhong

    2015-02-11

    Tetraheterocyclic tetrahydroindeno[1',2':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-a]imidazol-5(1H)-one derivatives as novel neonicotinoid candidates were designed and prepared by selective etherification, chlorination and esterification of ninhydrin-heterocyclic ketene aminals adducts. Some of the designed compounds showed excellent insecticidal activity against cowpea aphids (Aphis craccivora), brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), and armyworm (Mythimna separata). In particular, the activity against armyworm (Mythimna separata) improved a lot in contrast with that of imidacloprid and cycloxaprid. The research here provides a novel neonicotinoid chemotype for further development.

  12. Effect of Rice Sowing Date on Occurrence of Small Brown Planthopper and Epidemics of Planthopper-Transmitted Rice Stripe Viral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-liang; ZHU Zeng-rong; ZHOU Yin; LU Qiang; SUN Xiang-liang; TAO Xian-guo; CHEN Yue; WANG Hua-di; CHENG Jia-an

    2009-01-01

    To understand the relationship between rice sowing date and occurrence of the rice small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus Fallen and the epidemics of the planthopper-transmitted dee stripe viral (RSV) disease, four sowing dates of rice were evaluated in 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the peak density of SBPH and RSV incidence in the nursery and in the transplanted field decreased with the delay of sowing date in single crop of japonica rice in north Zhejiang Province of China. The relationship between seedling RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial with sowing date was well described by Weibull equation. The area under the curve of population dynamics (AUCPD or planthopper-day accumulation) or the peak density of the planthopper in the nursery could be summarized by a logistic equation. RSV incidence in the transplanted fields could be characterized quantitatively by a multivariate regression equation, including the variables of sowing date, peak density of the vector, and RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial. That the descriptive model excluded the AUCPD in transplanted field implies that this variable is not necessary in forecasting disease epidemics in the field. The 2-year experiments sufficiently indicated that suitable sowing of rice could be used as one of the effective measures to control the vector population and therefore the planthopper-transmitted RSV on a larger seale. The optimal sowing date for the single-cropped transplanted japonica rice is recommended from late May to early June in north Zhejiang, China.

  13. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas], found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families. Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained was supported by statistical tests of

  14. QTLs for ovicidal response to whitebacked planthopper in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Japanese japonica rice commonly provides with an ovicidal resistance against the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Similarly, ovicidal activity was also found to play a significant role in a stable field resistance to WBPH in some Chinese japonica rice. Rice varieties with ovicidal resistance characterized by watery lesions and subsequent necrotic symptom in the leaf sheaths ovipositied by WBPH. Based on the ovicidal symptom, the ovicidal QTLs on the rice chromosomes were analyzed by using a doubled haploid (DH) population of 122 lines derived from a cross between a non ovicidal indica variety Zaiyeqing 8 (ZYQ 8) and an ovicidal japonica variety Jingxi 17 (JX 17). There was a significant difference in WBPH egg mortality between the two varieties. Average egg mortality was 36.5% in ZYQ 8, and 72.8% in JX 17.

  15. Diet-dependent fecundity of the spiders Atypena formosana and Pardosa pseudoannulata, predators in irrigated rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Toft, Søren; Villareal, Sylvia

    2001-01-01

    The fecundity of the spiders Atypena formosana and Pardosa pseudoannulata was assessed on diets of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (BPH), green leafhopper Nephotettix virescens (GLH), Collembola (Entomobryidae), Drosophila melanogaster and three prey mixtures; BPH-GLH, BPH-GLH-Collembola and......The fecundity of the spiders Atypena formosana and Pardosa pseudoannulata was assessed on diets of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (BPH), green leafhopper Nephotettix virescens (GLH), Collembola (Entomobryidae), Drosophila melanogaster and three prey mixtures; BPH-GLH, BPH......-GLH-Collembola and a full mixed diet of BPH-GLH-Collembola-D. melanogaster. Egg production and hatching success was high in A. formosana except on the BPH, the GLH and the BPH-GLH diets. In P. pseudoannulata egg production and hatching success was lowest on diets of GLH and BPH-GLH, whereas this spider used BPH better....... Differences between offspring sizes were small. Survival of A. formosana females was lowest on the GLH and BPH-GLH diets. In P. pseudoannulata survival did not differ significantly. Food conversion efficiency was highest on the Collembola and the D. melanogaster diets for both spiders. Overall, diets...

  16. 杂环或大位阻基团固定硝基位向的新型新烟碱类化合物的分子设计,合成及生物活性%Molecular Design,Synthesis and Bioactivity of Novel Neonicotinoids Using Fused Heterocycle or Bulky Groups to Fix the Direction of -NO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠; 邵旭升; 田忠贞; 黄青春; 钱旭红

    2009-01-01

    Neonicotinoids,targeting insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs),has attracted considerable attentions for decades.To explore the influence of configuration of-NO2 on bioactivities and search for compounds with higher activities,some classes of neonicotinoids containing tetrahydropyridine or bukyl substituent were synthesized,in which the -NO2 and pyridine was kept in same side of nitromethylene.Neonicotinoids with tetrahydropyridine fixed cis configuration exhibited high activities against cowpea aphids and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens),furthermore,some compounds showed higher insecticidal activities against imidacloprid-resistant brown planthopper than imidacloprid.However,the open-chain analogues with tetrahydropyridine fixed cis configuration only exhibited some knockdown activities against cowpea aphids.Neonicotinoids with bulky substituents fixed cis configuration compounds exhibited higher insecticidal activities against cowpea aphids,armyworm and Nephotettix bipunctatus (Fabricius).

  17. A Markov Random Field Model for Image Segmentation of Rice Planthopper in Rice Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Yue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is meaningful to develop the automation segmentation of rice planthopper pests based on imaging technology in precision agriculture. However, rice planthopper images affected by light and complicated backgrounds in open rice fields make the segmentation difficult. This study proposed a segmentation approach of rice planthopper images based on the Markov random field to conduct effective segmentation. First, fractional order differential was introduced into the extraction process of image texture features to gain complete texture information of rice planthopper images. Observation data modeling was established by a combination of image color features and texture features to overcome the disadvantages of insufficient image texture information. Finally, the improved potential function models, the neighborhood relationship between the pixel labels, and the attributes of pixels were defined. The segmentation results were assessed by quantitative evaluation. The experiments showed that the proposed improved approach in the study was more robust, especially with the changes in the illumination condition. This approach can effectively improve segmentation accuracy and promote vision segmentation results of rice planthopper images.

  18. Molecular detection of the endosymbiont Wolbachia in different Asian populations of the brown planthopper%亚洲不同地理种群褐飞虱内共生菌Wolbachia的分子检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈吕宇; 楼怡寒; 黄海剑; 丁张军; 叶雨轩; 张传溪

    2013-01-01

    褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l是水稻的重要害虫,而Wolbachia是其重要的次生共生细菌之一.为了解褐飞虱种群感染Wolbachia的情况,本研究对采自世界褐飞虱主要分布区的22个地理种群感染Wolbachia的情况进行了检测和分析.qPCR结果表明,除杭州2009年种群没有检测出Wolbachia外,其它21个种群中都有不同程度的Wolbachia感染.对Wolbachia的wsp基因序列的比较和进化分析表明,褐飞虱各地理种群Wolbachia都属于B群,并可进一步分为Ori和Con两个亚群.其中18个褐飞虱种群中的Wolbachia属于Ori亚群,广东清远和浙江桐乡褐飞虱种群中的Wolbachia则属于Con亚群,而菲律宾Iloilo褐飞虱种群分别检测到同时有2个亚群Wolbachia感染.本结果可为进一步研究褐飞虱与共生菌的共生关系、褐飞虱致害性变异和迁飞路线分析及利用Wolbachia防治褐飞虱提供依据.

  19. Insecticide resistance and activities of relative enzymes in different populations of the white backed planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ White backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horvath), is one of the most devastating insect pests on rice in Asia. Its control mainly depended on the chemical pesticides. Surveys of insecticide susceptibility revealed that organophosphorus and carbamate resistance has emerged since early 1980s in China and Japan. WBPH has the long distance migration property, and Heinrichs(1994) considered that the migration might influence the resistance level of planthoppers. So we conducted the comparative studies on insecticide susceptibility and activities of resistance relative enzymes in four WBPH populations collected from Zhejiang, Yunnan, and Hainan provinces of China in 1997.

  20. Research Progress of Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice%水稻抗褐飞虱基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝莉莉; 胡亮; 杜波

    2011-01-01

    综述了水稻抗褐飞虱基因的研究进展.褐飞虱是对水稻为害最严重的害虫之一.它栖息于稻丛基部,吸食韧皮部汁液.褐飞虱具有不同的生物型.在抗性品种的选择压力下,将产生一种新的生物型褐飞虱群体克服该抗性品种.因此,寻找新的抗性基因是培育新的抗褐飞虱水稻品种的关键.合适的水稻抗褐飞虱的鉴定方法是克隆水稻抗褐飞虱基因的基础.常用的方法有苗期集团鉴定、蜜露量测定、电子取食监测系统等.迄今为止,科学家已经在栽培稻和野生稻中定位了21个水稻抗褐飞虱基因,并且Bph14基因已经被武汉大学生命科学学院杂交水稻国家重点实验室成功克隆.该结果为克隆其他水稻抗褐飞虱基因以及研究水稻抗褐飞虱的分子机制奠定了基础.%The research progresses on brown planthopper (Nilap arv ata lugens Stal, BPH) resistance genes in rice were summarized. BPH is one of the most destructive pests in crop production worldwide. They gather at the base part of rice plant and suck assimilates from the phloem. BPH has various biotypos. Under the selection pressure of resistant variety, a new biotype of BPH might come out to overcome the resistance of the variety. Exploring new resistance gene is critical for developing resistant rice variety. Appropriate evaluation of germplasm for BPH resistance is the key to identify resistance genes correctly.There are several types of screening methods such as the standard seodbex screening technique, honey dew test, electronic monitoring system and so on. To date, 21 BPH-resistance genes have been identified from cultivated and wild rice species.Bph14 is the fast report of BPH-resistance gene in rice. These results provide basis for the clone of more BPH resistance genes and the study on molecular mechanism of rice resistance to BPH.

  1. Symbiont-mediated adaptation by planthoppers and leafhoppers to resistant rice varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrater, J.B.; Jong, de P.W.; Dicke, M.; Chen, Y.H.; Horgan, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    For over 50 years, host plant resistance has been the principal focus of public research to reduce planthopper and leafhopper damage to rice in Asia. Several resistance genes have been identified from native varieties and wild rice species, and some of these have been incorporated into high-yielding

  2. Feeding impact of the planthopper taosa longula on waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae), a planthopper native to South America, is a candidate for the biological control of waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae), a serious weed around the world. The damage that T. longula causes to the clonal r...

  3. Wolbachia Occurrence in Planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Vectors of Cereal Viruses in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattio, M F; Argüello Caro, E B; Rodriguero, M S; Dumón, A D; Alemandri, V M; Truol, G

    2015-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are the most important cereal crops for the Argentinean economy and are affected by several diseases. Different planthopper species transmit causal agents of some of those diseases, including Mal de Río Cuarto virus, barley yellow striate mosaic virus, and the recently proposed maize yellow striate virus. Many planthopper species are sap feeders and therefore are expected to host bacteria providing essential nutrients lacking in the diet. Previous studies have evidenced that some of these bacterial symbionts are involved in the virus transmission. Wolbachia is a group of obligate intracellular bacteria infecting numerous arthropod species and causing reproductive alterations in their hosts. These bacteria have been detected in planthopper species, considered rice pests in various regions of the world. To date, Wolbachia infection status of planthopper species of Argentina is unknown. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA, wsp- and ftsZ-specific genes demonstrated Wolbachia infection in Caenodelphax teapae (Fowler), Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah, Pyrophagus tigrinus Remes Lenicov & Varela, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir), and Toya propinqua (Fieber). This is the first report of Wolbachia in delphacid vectors of viruses affecting maize and wheat. An understanding of the bacterial diversity harbored by these insect vectors could lead to new options for future management of diseases of economically important crops in a developing country.

  4. Development of RNAi methods for Peregrinus maidis, the corn planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianxiu; Rotenberg, Dorith; Afsharifar, Alireza; Barandoc-Alviar, Karen; Whitfield, Anna E

    2013-01-01

    The corn planthopper, Peregrinus maidis, is a major pest of agronomically-important crops. Peregrinus maidis has a large geographical distribution and transmits Maize mosaic rhabdovirus (MMV) and Maize stripe tenuivirus (MSpV). The objective of this study was to develop effective RNAi methods for P. maidis. Vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an essential enzyme for hydrolysis of ATP and for transport of protons out of cells thereby maintaining membrane ion balance, and it has been demonstrated to be an efficacious target for RNAi in other insects. In this study, two genes encoding subunits of P. maidis V-ATPase (V-ATPase B and V-ATPase D) were chosen as RNAi target genes. The open reading frames of V-ATPase B and D were generated and used for constructing dsRNA fragments. Experiments were conducted using oral delivery and microinjection of V-ATPase B and V-ATPase D dsRNA to investigate the effectiveness of RNAi in P. maidis. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that microinjection of V-ATPase dsRNA led to a minimum reduction of 27-fold in the normalized abundance of V-ATPase transcripts two days post injection, while ingestion of dsRNA resulted in a two-fold reduction after six days of feeding. While both methods of dsRNA delivery resulted in knockdown of target transcripts, the injection method was more rapid and effective. The reduction in V-ATPase transcript abundance resulted in observable phenotypes. Specifically, the development of nymphs injected with 200 ng of either V-ATPase B or D dsRNA was impaired, resulting in higher mortality and lower fecundity than control insects injected with GFP dsRNA. Microscopic examination of these insects revealed that female reproductive organs did not develop normally. The successful development of RNAi in P. maidis to target specific genes will enable the development of new insect control strategies and functional analysis of vital genes and genes associated with interactions between P

  5. In situ localization of proteinase inhibitor mRNA in rice plant challenged by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor (PI) mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in tissue sections of root, stem and leaf of the resistant rice (B5) plant fed by brown planthopper nymphs. In the rice material without BPH feeding, PI gene was expressed in the root, stem and leaf, while the abundance of PI mRNA was low. In the rice material fed by BPH, PI gene was expressed substantially in the parenchyma of rice stem and leaf, but weakly in the root. The results indicated that the PI gene was up-regulated in the rice plant challenged by brown planthopper. For the first time, we reported the expression changes of proteinase inhibitor gene in plant which was infested by a piercing/sucking insect.

  6. Mapping of Wbph6(t)—a new gene resistant to whitebacked planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) is one of the most destructive insects for rice. The utilization of WBPH resistance genes is always an efficient solution to this problem. Besides five WBPH resistance genes registered, Wbph1, Wbph2, Wbph3, wbph4, and Wbph5, classical segregation analysis and allelism test showed that several rice landraces from Yunan Province, China, carried a new dominant resistance gene Wbph6(t). We herein reported the mapping of Wbph6(t) by using DNA markers.

  7. Computer Vision for Screening Resistance Level of Rice Varieties to Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nurfadhilah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper is one of the most important insect pest that threatens the stability of national rice production in Indonesia. One of the efforts to save rice production is by using brown planthopper resistant variety. Currently the determination approach is still conventional based on Standard Seedboxes Screening Test from IRRI with assistance of experienced experts in the scoring process resistance level.In this study, a prototype of application system to predict resistance levels by image color approach was developed. The method consists of collecting images data, preparation process (background and objects segmentation, and determination of area proportion which has been infected (sick and dead and healthy, based on ‘A’ value from CIELab color space laboratory. According to proportion value distribution, the rule of rice resistance to brown planthopper assessment based on image was developed. The rule is mostly similar with IRRI standard rules. All of images were assessed based on the rule and then the model was developed with an error rate of 17.02%.

  8. 扫描电镜观察飞虱虫疠霉侵染水稻害虫褐飞虱%Germination and sporulation of Pandora delphacis (Entomophthoromycota: Entomophthorales) on the rice pest Nilaparvata lugens: SEM observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周湘; 王大伟; 郭恺; 毛胜凤

    2014-01-01

    稻飞虱如褐飞虱频繁威胁东亚和南亚的水稻生产.化学杀虫剂作为控制虫害的主要手段时常引发环境问题和害虫抗药性.昆虫病原真菌飞虱虫疠霉是稻飞虱的天敌,了解该菌的生物学和流行学特性是开发其生物防治潜能的必要前提.研究利用扫描电镜对飞虱虫疠霉侵染寄丰褐飞虱的关键步骤进行了观察.飞虱虫疠霉的分生孢子接触到褐飞虱体壁后可迅速萌发产生侵染性芽管,侵入虫体.经过4d左右的体内潜伏期,飞虱虫疠霉菌丝重新在寄主体表出现.最先突破坚硬体壁的部位为虫体腹部.3种特化菌丝形成于虫体表面,包括假囊状体、假根和分生孢子梗.假囊状体向虫体四周空气中伸出,很可能是帮助真菌探知周围空气湿度状况并吸收湿气用于开启新一轮的侵染循环.假根将虫尸固定在原位植株上,利于之后分生孢子梗主动弹射侵染性分生孢子感染附近健康寄主.这次观察结果显示飞虱虫疠霉具备用于稻飞虱生防的潜能,有必要开展其扩大培养和剂型化研究推进该生防菌的田间应用.

  9. Infection density of Wolbachia in different tissues of macropters and brachypters adults of Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)%褐飞虱长短翅型成虫不同组织内Wolbachia的密度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张开军; 洪晓月

    2010-01-01

    以褐飞虱海南三亚种群为试验材料,运用实时荧光定量PCR方法对感染Wolbachia品系的长翅雌虫、长翅雄虫、短翅雌虫和短翅雄虫体内Wolbachia的密度进行测定.研究结果表明:雌虫中Wolbachia的密度一般都高于雄虫,短翅雌虫中Wolbachia的密度要显著高于长翅型雌虫.进一步对虫体头部、胸部、腹部和足4个组织的Wolbachia含量进行了测定,研究其在寄主各个组织中含量分布的差异.4个组织中,由于褐飞虱的生殖组织在腹部,而Wolbachia主要集中于寄主的生殖细胞中,所以腹部的Wolbachia含量最高;在非生殖组织中,同样存在Wolbachia,胸部含量比头部和足的含量都要高.

  10. Production and purification of active snowdrop lectin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, M; Powell, K S; Gatehouse, J A; Raemaekers, R; Newell, C A; Hamilton, W D

    1998-02-15

    Recombinant snowdrop lectin was produced in Escherichia coli from a cDNA clone encoding mature Galanthus nivalis agglutinin. After induction with isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside, inclusion bodies from E. coli were solubilised and the G. nivalis agglutinin purified by metal-affinity chromatography using a carboxy-terminal hexahistidine tag. The protein was refolded on the metal-affinity column prior to elution. After purification, the recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes to a dilution similar to that determined for 'native' lectin purified from snowdrop, and showed similar specific binding to mannose. The toxicity of the recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) was shown to be similar to that of 'native' G. nivalis agglutinin when incorporated into an artificial diet. The recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin is thus functionally similar to 'native' snowdrop lectin.

  11. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Herbivores and Its Stimulation to Major Insect Pests in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-xian LU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most important factors in development of herbivore populations. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in plants can normally increase herbivore feeding preference, food consumption, survival, growth, reproduction, and population density, except few examples that nitrogen fertilizer reduces the herbivore performances. In most of the rice growing areas in Asia, the great increases in populations of major insect pests of rice, including planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and stem borers (Scirpophaga incertulas, Chilo suppressalis, S. innotata, C. polychrysus and Sesamia inferens were closely related to the long-term excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers. The optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated paddy fields is proposed to improve the fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency and reduce the environmental pollution.

  12. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Herbivores and Its Stimulation to Major Insect Pests in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; YU Xiao-ping; Kong-luen HEONG; HU Cui

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important factors in development of herbivore populations. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in plants can normally increase herbivore feeding preference, food consumption, survival, growth, reproduction, and population density, except few examples that nitrogen fertilizer reduces the herbivore performances. In most of the rice growing areas in Asia, the great increases in populations of major insect pests of rice, including planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera), leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis), and stem borers (Scirpophaga incertulas, Chilo suppressalis, S. innotata, C. polychrysus and Sesamia inferens) were closely related to the long-term excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers. The optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated paddy fields is proposed to improve the fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency and reduce the environmental pollution.

  13. Activation of the TOR Signalling Pathway by Glutamine Regulates Insect Fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yifan; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Jianqing; Kang, Kui; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Wenqing

    2015-05-29

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) positively controls cell growth in response to nutrients such as amino acids. However, research on the specific nutrients sensed by TOR is limited. Glutamine (Gln), a particularly important amino acid involved in metabolism in organisms, is synthesised and catalysed exclusively by glutamine synthetase (GS), and our previous studies have shown that Gln may regulate fecundity in vivo levels of the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. Until now, it has remained unclear whether Gln activates or inhibits the TOR signalling pathway. Here, we performed the combined analyses of iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) and DGE (tag-based digital gene expression) data in N. lugens at the protein and transcript levels after GS RNAi, and we found that 52 pathways overlap, including the TOR pathway. We further experimentally demonstrate that Gln activates the TOR pathway by promoting the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT and inhibiting the 5'AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK phosphorylation activity in the pest. Furthermore, TOR regulates the fecundity of N. lugens probably by mediating vitellogenin (Vg) expression. This work is the first report that Gln activates the TOR pathway in vivo.

  14. The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Hoch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1, Maui (3, and Hawaii Island (3. Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

  15. Mapping of a new gene for brown planthopper resistance in cultivated rice introgressed from Oryza eichingeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wild rice species is an important source of useful genes for cultivated rice improvement. Some accessions of Oryza eichingeri (2n = 24, CC) from Africa confer strong resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and bacterial blight (BB). In the present study, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis were performed on disomic backcross plants between Oryza sativa (2n = 24, AA) and O. eichingeri in order to identify the presenee of O. eichingeri segments and further to localize BPH-resistant gene. In the introgression lines, 1-6O. eichingeri segments were detected on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 6, or/and 10. The dominant BPH resistant gene, tentatively named Bph13(t), was mapped to chromosome 2, being 6.1 and 5.5 cM away from two microsatellite markers RM240 and RM250, respectively. The transfer and localization of this gene from O. eichingeri will contribute to the improvement of BPH resistance in cultivated rice.``

  16. Brief communication: a preliminary study on the influence of physical fruit traits on fruit handling and seed fate by white-handed Titi monkeys (Callicebus lugens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Silvia J; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2012-03-01

    Callicebus and the pitheciins are closely related; however, differences in their diets and dental morphology suggest that they differ in the use of mechanically protected food. We describe physical traits of fruits consumed by white-handed titi monkeys (Callicebus lugens) and determine their influence on fruit part selection and immediate seed fate after fruit handling. We tested two hypotheses about the effects of mechanical fruit traits on fruit part selection and seed fate: (1) fruits selected for seed consumption are harder than fruits selected for their fleshy parts and (2) consumed seeds are softer than seeds with other fates. In addition, we analyzed the influence of other physical fruit traits on fruit part selection and seed fate. C. lugens included 69 species in its diet, from which it mainly consumed their fleshy parts. It also consumed seeds, alone or with fleshy fruit parts, but most of them ended up close to parent trees after being dropped or spat out. The first hypothesis was supported while the second was rejected, indicating that C. lugens tends to rely on hard fruits for obtaining seeds, while seed hardness had no influence on fruit part selection and seed fate, contrasting with the pattern reported for Pithecia and Chiropotes in other studies. Ripeness was the most influential factor for fruit part and seed fate discrimination. Results suggest a tendency to sclerocarpic foraging in C. lugens when feeding on seeds. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Seleksi Resistansi Wereng Batang Padi Coklat terhadap Insektisida Fipronil

    OpenAIRE

    Melhanah Melhanah; Witjaksono Witjaksono; Y. A. Trisyono

    2002-01-01

    The rice brown planthoper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of  key pests on rice. The use of insecticides unwisely has caused N. lugens to develop resistance. The objective of this research was to determine the potency of N. lugens to develop resistance through laboratory, selections to fipronil, a relatively new insecticide.  A population of N. lugens was collected from rice field in Muntilan, Central Java during the outbreak in 2001. Selections were carried out ever...

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV, the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba against Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant which has potent insecticidal activity against brown planthopper. The MeOH extract was tested in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory assay with IC50 values of 252.1 μg/mL. Two ginkgolides and thirteen flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. It revealed that the 13 isolated flavonoids were found to inhibit AChE with IC50 values ranging from 57.8 to 133.1 μg/mL in the inhibitory assay. AChE was inhibited dose dependently by all tested flavonoids, and compound 6 displayed the highest inhibitory effect against AChE with IC50 values of 57.8 μg/mL.

  20. Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Rice Planthoppers to Adult and Immature Stages of Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ko; Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Planthopper-targeting insecticides, pymetrozine, thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and nitenpyram, were tested under laboratory conditions for toxicity to adults and immatures of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, using standard tests described by International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). In the dry film residue test, all insecticides resulted in >90% mortality in T. chilonis adults and were ranked as moderately harmful. Persistent toxicity tests revealed that nitenpyram was short-lived and the other three insecticides were of slightly persistent toxicity to the wasp adults. Effects of the insecticides on egg, larval, and prepupal stages of T. chilonis were investigated with striped stem borer as host. At the three stages of T. chilonis (within the host egg), all the insecticides reduced parasitism rate, but nitenpyram and pymetrozine applied at egg stage, buprofezin and nitenpyram at larval stage, and buprofezin and thiamethoxam at prepupal stage of T. chilonis reduced parasitism by insecticide treatment of the three immature stages of T. chilonis all reduced wasp emergence from host eggs, only thiamethoxam applied at larval stage and buprofezin at prepupal stage resulted in >30% reduction in emergence rate as compared with the control and were categorized as harmful. Immature duration of T. chilonis was only significantly extended by nitenpyram applied to egg stage than the control. Sex ratio of emerged wasps was not affected by the treatment to immature stages. The data are of significance for IPM programs incorporating inundative release of T. chilonis for control of lepidopteran rice pests where there is heavy co-occurrence of planthoppers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Ecological Fitness of Non-vector Planthopper Sogatella furcifera on Rice Plants Infected with Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-chan; XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; GAO Guang-chun; PAN Jian-hong; LU Zhong-xian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infested rice plants on the ecological parameters and its relevant defensive and detoxification enzymes of white-backed planthopper (WBPH) in laboratory for exploring the relationship between RBSDV and the non-vector planthopper.The results showed that nymph survival rate,female adult weight and fecundity,and egg hatchability of WBPH fed on RBSDV-infested rice plants did not markedly differ from those on healthy plants,whereas the female adult longevity and egg duration significantly shortened on diseased plants.Furthermore,significantly higher activities of defensive enzymes (dismutase,catalase and peroxidase) and detoxification enzymes (acetylcholinesterase,carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase) were found in WBPH adults fed on infected plants.Results implied that infestation by RBSDV increased the ecological fitness of non-vector planlhopper population.

  2. Mapping of a New Gene Wbph6(t) Resistant to the Whitebacked Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXi-ming; ZHAIHu-qu; WANJian-min; MALiang-yong; ZHUANGJie-yun; LIUOuang-jie; YANGChang-deng

    2004-01-01

    A rice population consisting of 90 TN1/Gulyigu F3 lines was employed to analyze the linkage between DNA markers and a new gene Wbph6(t) conferring resistance to whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera. By using the mapping approach of bulked extremes and recessive class, Wbph6(t) was mapped onto the short arm of chromosome 11 with a genetic distance of 21.2 cM to SSLP marker RM167.

  3. Mapping of a New Gene Wbph6(t) Resistant to the Whitebacked Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-ming; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min; MA Liang-yong; ZHUANG Jie-yun; LIU Guang-jie; YANG Chang-deng

    2004-01-01

    A rice population consisting of 90 TN1/Guiyigu F3 lines was employed to analyze the linkage between DNA markers and a new gene Wbph6(t) conferring resistance to whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera. By using the mapping approach of bulked extremes and recessive class, Wbph6(t) was mapped onto the short arm of chromosome 11 with a genetic distance of 21.2 cM to SSLP marker RM167.

  4. Tagging the gene Wbph2 in ARC 10239 resistant to the whitebacked planthopper Sogatella furcifera by using RFLP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Gene tagging is the base of marker-assisted breeding for insect resistance in rice. Five genes (Wbph1, Wbph2, Wbph3, Wbph4, and Wbph5) were identified to be responsible for the resistance to the whitebacked planthopper. The gene Wbph2 in ARC 10239 was clarified as a dominant resistant gene to S.furcifera. In present study, ARC 10239 and susceptible Minghui 63 were selected as parents to make a cross for gene tagging.

  5. Prediction of the occurring amount of whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) on early rice by sea temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YEZhengxiang; HUANGRonghua; QINHouguo

    1994-01-01

    Whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) is a kind of long-distance migrator- pest. Its occurring amount is closely related to the climate change of large sphere. In recent years many researches have reported that the climate of large sphere was affected by the Pacific sea temperature (ST). We studied the long-range forecast of the occurring amount of WBPH by using data provided by State Meteorological Administration. China

  6. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

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    Weilin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective.

  7. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motifs and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04805.001 PMID:26083713

  8. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-06-17

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motives and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity.

  9. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops.

  10. Mapping of two new brown planthopper resistance genes from wild rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A brown planthopper (BPH) resistance line, B5, derived its resistance genes from the wild rice Oryza officinalis Wall exwatt, was hybridized with Taichung Native 1, a cultivar highly susceptible to BPH. A mapping population composed of randomly selected 167 F2 individuals was used for determining the BPH resistance genes by the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). Bulked segregant analysis was conducted to identify RFLP makers linked to the BPH resistance genes in B5. The results indicat-ed that the markers linked to BPH resistance are located at two genomic regions on the long arm of chromosome 3 and the short arm of chromosome 4, respectively. The existence of the two loci was further assessed by the quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. We located the two loci at a 3.2 cM interval between G1318 and R1925 on chromosome 3 and a 1.2 cM interval between C820 and S11182 on chromosome 4. Comparison with the BPH genes that have been reported indicated that the BPH resistance genes in B5 are novel. These two genes may be useful BPH resistance resource for rice breeding. Furthermore, the mapping of the two genes is useful for cloning the BPH resistance genes.

  11. Cloning and characterization of rice RH3 gene induced by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolan; WENG Qingmei; YOU Aiqing; ZHU Lili; HE Guangcun

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have showed that the histone H3 gene is correlated with development, cell speciality and stress response. The RH3 full-length cDNA was isolated from the cDNA library of rice infested by brown planthopper (BPH) with EST (Accession no. BU572343) screened from rice SSH library as probe. This gene encodes histone H3 protein including 136 amino acids, with one amino acid different from a kind of disease resistance-related protein in rice (AF467728). At the position 126, the aspartic acid is replaced by lysine. The time course results showed that the expression of the RH3 began to increase at 8 h after BPH-feeding, and got to its peak at 96 h. Regulations of the gene expression in treatments with stress/defense signal molecules were analyzed by Northern blot. Water deficit and Pyricularia grisea increased the expression of RH3 while ABA down-regulated the gene. The enhanced accumulation of RH3 transcripts in the vascular bundle and short cell of stem after BPH feeding was revealed by RNA in situ hybridization. It is the first time to report that RH3 is correlated with the response of rice to BPH.

  12. Pyramiding blast, bacterial blight and brown planthopper resistance genes in rice restorer lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Zhi-juan; Yang Shu-dong; ZENG Yu-xiang; LIANG Yan; YANG Chang-deng; QIAN Qian

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast, bacterial blight (BB) and brown planthopper (BPH) are the three main pests of rice. This study investigated pyr-amiding genes resistant to blast, BB and BPH to develop restorer lines. Ten new lines with blast, BB and/or BPH resistance genes were developed using marker-assisted selection (MAS) technique and agronomic trait selection (ATS) method. Only HR13 with resistance genes to blast, BB and BPH was obtained. In addition to blast and BB resistance, four lines (HR39, HR41, HR42, HR43) demonstrated moderate resistance to BPH, but MAS for BPH resistance genes were not conducted in developing these four lines. These data suggested that there were unknown elite BPH resistance genes in the Zhongzu 14 donor parent. A more effective defense was demonstrated in the lines withPi1 andPi2 genes although the weather in 2012 was favorable to disease incidence. Blast resistance of the lines with a single resistance gene,Pita, was easily inlfuenced by the weather. Overal, the information obtained through pyramiding multiple resistance genes on developing the restorer lines is helpful for rice resistance breeding.

  13. Sensory pits - Enigmatic sense organs of the nymphs of the planthopper Issus coleoptratus (Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräunig, Peter; Krumpholz, Katharina; Baumgartner, Werner

    2012-09-01

    The sensory pits of the nymphs of the planthopper Issus coleoptratus were investigated using light and electron microscopic techniques. Sensory pits consist of a bowl-shaped depression in the cuticle (25-70 μm in diameter) covered by a transparent cupola of presumably waxy material. Each pit is equipped with a long sensory hair that emerges from the inner wall of the pit and extends horizontally for about two thirds of the pit diameter. The cupola emerges from the rim of the pit opposite to the socket of this hair. Additional small sensory hairs extend into the base of the cupola. While the ultrastructure of these small hairs resembles that of other mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of insects, that of the long hairs shows several peculiarities. Sensory pits are dispersed over the frontal part of the head, the tergites of thoracic and abdominal segments. On the different parts of the exoskeleton, the orientation of long hairs within the pits varies in a systematic fashion with respect to the body axes. Size, location, and orientation of the pits show almost perfect bilateral symmetry. Their number increases with each moult. Comparative data show that the level of structural complexity of these sense organs varies considerably within this group of insects.

  14. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea (Insecta: Hemiptera is one of the most dominant groups of phytophagous insects. It comprises about 20 families, containing a total of 9000 species worldwide. Despite several recent studies, the phylogeny of Fulgoroidea is not yet satisfactorily resolved and the phylogenetic positions of several key families, especially Cixiidae, Delphacidae, Tettigometridae, Nogodinidae, Acanaloniidae and Issidae, are contentious. Here, we expand upon recent phylogenetic work using additional nuclear (18S and 28S and novel mitochondrial (16S and cytb markers. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded robust phylogenetic trees. In these topologies, a group containing Cixiidae and Delphacidae is recovered as the sister group to the remaining taxa. Tettigometridae is placed in a more nested position and is grouped with Caliscelidae. Sister relationships are found between Flatidae and Ricaniidae, and between Dictyopharidae and Fulgoridae. Nogodinidae and Issidae are confirmed to be non-monophyletic families. For major nodes of interest, divergence date estimates are generally older than those from the fossil record.

  15. Physical mapping of Bph3, a brown planthopper resistance locus in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapong Jairin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, a destructive phloem feeding insect pest, is an important objective in rice breeding programs in Thailand. The broad-spectrum resistance gene Bph3 is one of the major BPH resistance genes identified so far in cultivated rice and has been widely used in rice improvement programs. This resistance gene has been identified and mapped on the short arm of chromosome 6. In this study, physical mapping of Bph3 was performed using a BC3F3 population derived from a cross between Rathu Heenati and KDML105. Recombinant BC3F3 individuals with the Bph3 genotype were determined by phenotypic evaluation using modified mass tiller screening at the vegetative stage of rice plants. The recombination events surrounding the Bph3 locus were used to identify the co-segregate markers. According to the genome sequence of Nipponbare, the Bph3 locus was finally localized approximately in a 190 kb interval flanked by markers RM19291 and RM8072, which contain twenty-two putative genes. Additional phenotypic experiment revealed that the resistance in Rathu Heenati was decreased by increasing nitrogen content in rice plants through remobilization of nitrogen. This phenomenon should be helpful for identifying the Bph3 gene.

  16. High Temperature Effects on Yeast-like Endosymbiotes and Pesticide Resistance of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-jie; YU Xiao-ping; CHEN Jian-ming

    2008-01-01

    The newly-hatched nymphs of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, including field and sensitive populations, were subjected to the high-temperature (35℃) treatment. The number of yeast-like endosymbiotes in SBPH reduced by 23.47%-34.23%, 57.86%-61.51% and 88.96%-90.71% after the high-temperature treatment for 1 d, 2 d, and 3 d, respectively. However, the size of yeast-like endosymbiotes was not obviously affected. Resistance of SBPH to three insecticides (imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos and fipronil) decreased with the increase of treatment time.

  17. Determination of Rice ragged stunt virus and vector transmission characteristics%水稻锯齿叶矮缩病毒的检测及介体传毒特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章松柏; 宋国威; 杨靓; 吴祖建; 谢联辉

    2013-01-01

    RT-PCR and viral dsRNA identification assays were established to detect Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) in Nilaparvata lugens and rice plants,and vector transmission characteristics were analyzed using artificial inoculation.The results showed that viral dsRNA identification assay could detect virus from rice samples as less as 0.5 g,and RT-PCR assay was suitable for detecting RRSV in individual brown planthopper.The viruliferous ratios of nymphs and adults of N.lugens inoculated by RRSV were 68.2% and 75.0%,respectively.50.0% of nymphs and 32.5% of adults could transmit RRSV after virus acquisition.These results revealed that the brown planthopper population had high compatibility to RRSV with strong capacity to transmit the virus.%分别建立了水稻锯齿叶矮缩病毒(RRSV)病株的dsRNA基因组检测法和单头介体褐飞虱带毒的RT-PCR法,并结合生物学接种试验,对介体传毒特性进行了初步分析.结果显示:dsRNA基因组鉴定法可以从0.5 g病株样品中快速检测到RRSV,RT-PCR法可以灵敏地应用于褐飞虱带毒、传毒情况的检测;饲毒后褐飞虱成虫、若虫的带毒率分别为75.0%、68.2%,传毒率分别为50.0%、32.5%,说明褐飞虱种群传播RRSV的能力很强,是高度亲和的群体.

  18. Organ-specific transcriptome response of the small brown planthopper toward rice stripe virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wan; Lu, Lixia; Yang, Pengcheng; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes rice stripe disease and is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The alimentary canal and salivary gland of SBPH play important roles in viral replication and transmission. However, little is known about the underlying molecular functions of these two organs in the interaction between RSV and SBPH. In this study, organ-specific transcriptomes of the alimentary canal and salivary gland were analyzed in viruliferous and naïve SBPH. The number of differentially expressed unigenes in the alimentary canal was considerably greater than that in the salivary gland after RSV infection, and only 23 unigenes were co-regulated in the two organs. In the alimentary canal, genes involved in lysosome, digestion and detoxification were activated upon RSV infection, whereas the genes related to DNA replication and repair were suppressed. RSV activated RNA transport and repressed the MAPK, mTOR, Wnt, and TGF-beta signaling pathways in the salivary gland. The overall immune reaction toward RSV was much stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal. RSV activated the pattern recognition molecules and Toll pathway in the salivary gland but inhibited these two reactions in the alimentary canal. The responses from reactive oxygen and the immune-responsive effectors were stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal after RSV infection. These findings provide clues on the roles of the two organs in confronting RSV infection and aid in the understanding of the interaction between RSV and SBPHs.

  19. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available The white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth, is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2 were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1 have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a

  20. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canxing; Duan; Jiaojiao; Yu; Jianyu; Bai; Zhendong; Zhu; Xiaoming; Wang

    2014-01-01

    The small brown planthopper(SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallén(Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice(Oryza sativa L.) in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid(SA) synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation(hpi) increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid(JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase(POD), and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  1. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus Fallén (Homoptera: Delphacidae, is a serious pest of rice (Oryza sativa L. in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid (SA synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation (hpi increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid (JA synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase (POD, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  2. High temperature determines the ups and downs of small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Dong Liu; Ai-Min Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Small brown planthopper,Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) numbers usually drop sharply in the summer and revive quickly in the autumn.However,it is unclear whether and how the high temperature plays a role in this process.The effects of durations of heat exposure (33℃) on life-history traits were examined here.Exposure of adults for 1 day during the oviposition stage led to a very low survival of nymphs.The average longevity ofL.striatellus exposed for 1-31 days from oviposition was significantly longer than that of the control (27℃).Short-term (1-5 days) heat exposure of the third instar nymphs did not significantly influence eclosion,but exposure of the fourth instar nymphs significantly increased eclosion.Lifespan from egg to adult was significantly lengthened when the third instar nymphs were exposed to heat for 2-15 days,or the fourth instar were exposed for 10 days.The preoviposition period was prolonged by heat exposure of the third or fourth instar nymphs.Short-term heat exposure of less than 3 days of the third or fourth instar nymphs did not restrict fecundity,but when the exposure duration exceeded 5 days the total eggs per female and hatchability decreased.Exposure to high temperature increased the brachypter rate of adults.In summary,low survival and slowing development under heat exposure resulted in population decline in the summer,and the relatively high fecundity and brachypter rate led to quick revival in autumn.Temperature in the summer determines the rise and fall in numbers of L.striatellus.

  3. Transgenic rice plants expressing the snowdrop lectin gene (gna) exhibit high-level resistance to the whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagadhara, D; Ramesh, S; Pasalu, I C; Rao, Y Kondala; Sarma, N P; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2004-11-01

    Transgenic rice plants, expressing snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)], obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, were evaluated for resistance against the insect, the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). The transgene gna was driven by the phloem-specific, rice-sucrose synthase promoter RSs1, and the bar was driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. In our previous study, the transgenic status of these lines was confirmed by Southern, Northern and Western blot analyses. Both the transgenes, gna and bar, were stably inherited and co-segregated into progenies in T1 to T5 generations. Insect bioassays on transgenic plants revealed the potent entomotoxic effects of GNA on the WBPH. Also, significant decreases were observed in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects fed on transgenic plants. Furthermore, intact GNA was detected in the total proteins of WBPHs fed on these plants. Western blot analysis revealed stable and consistent expression of GNA throughout the growth and development of transgenic plants. Transgenic lines expressing GNA exhibited high-level resistance against the WBPH. As reported earlier, these transgenics also showed substantial resistance against the brown planthopper and green leafhopper.

  4. Possible Source Populations of the White-backed Planthopper in the Greater Mekong Subregion Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Chu, Dong; Yin, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Xue-Qing; Chen, Ai-Dong; Khay, Sathya; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Kyaw, Mu Mu; Kongchuensin, Manita; Ngo, Vien Vinh; Nguyen, Chung Huy

    2016-12-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice in Asia. However, little is known regarding the migration of this pest insect from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, into China’s Yunnan Province. To determine the migration patterns of S. furcifera in the GMS and putative secondary immigration inside China’s Yunnan Province, we investigated the population genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow of 42 S. furcifera populations across the six countries in the GMS by intensive sampling using mitochondrial genes. Our study revealed the potential emigration of S. furcifera from the GMS consists primarily of three major sources: 1) the S. furcifera from Laos and Vietnam migrate into south and southeast Yunnan, where they proceed to further migrate into northeast and central Yunnan; 2) the S. furcifera from Myanmar migrate into west Yunnan, and/or central Yunnan, and/or northeast Yunnan; 3) the S. furcifera from Cambodia migrate into southwest Yunnan, where the populations can migrate further into central Yunnan. The new data will not only be helpful in predicting population dynamics of the planthopper, but will also aid in regional control programs for this economically important pest insect.

  5. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests.

  6. Field population abundance of leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) as affected by rice growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (ppopulation of these two homopterans indicated adaptive feeding strategy to reduce food competition.

  7. 稻飞虱灾变机理及可持续治理的基础研究%Basic research on the outbreak mechanism and sustainable management of rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄永根; 程家安

    2011-01-01

    稻飞虱(褐飞虱、白背飞虱和褐飞虱)是威胁我国粮食安全最大的生物灾害.本文基于稻飞虱致害能力的高度变异性、对农药的高适应性、传播病毒病和具有远距离迁飞能力等特点,以及研究中存在的稻飞虱迁飞动态、致害性变异和种间互作关系等灾变机理机制不清楚,提出了稻飞虱迁飞时空动态、致害性变异、稻飞虱传播的病毒病、农药对稻飞虱及其天敌的生态毒理效应、稻飞虱基因组数据分析和稻田生态系统对稻飞虱种群数量调控功能6个研究发展方向以阐明稻飞虱灾变的内在机理,为稻飞虱可持续治理体系建设提供理论依据.%Rice planthoopers have been the most destructive pests for food security and the chemical pesticides used to control them are affecting ecological and food safety in China. Therefore, integrated approach for intensive rice production and sustainable control of rice planthoppers has been becoming of the most important task. The molecular mechanism for the pests adapting intensive rice ecosystem and ecological bases for integrating technology for intensive agriculture and sustainable pest management would be studied to improve understanding. 6 sub-projects, including migration and temporal-special dynamics of rice planthopper populations; genetic bases of rice resistance to planthoppers and planthopper virulence; ecological and molecular mechanism of epidemic of rice virus diseases transmitted by planthoppers; ecological toxicology of pesticides on planthoppers and their natural enemy; data analysis for planthopper genome and techniques for identifying functional genes and regulating function and relevant mechanism of rice ecosystem on planthopper population development, will be further explored to provide theoretical and technical bases for establishing outbreak monitoring and warning systems for rice planthoppers and virus diseases, development of resistant varieties and program for

  8. Molecular phylogenetics of cixiid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha): new insights from combined analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceotto, Paula; Kergoat, Gaël J; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Bourgoin, Thierry

    2008-08-01

    The planthopper family Cixiidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) comprises approximately 160 genera and 2000 species divided in three subfamilies: Borystheninae, Bothriocerinae and Cixiinae, the later with 16 tribes. The current paper represents the first attempt to estimate phylogenetic relationships within Cixiidae based on molecular data. We use a total of 3652bp sequence alignment of four genes: the mitochondrial coding genes Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) and Cytochrome b (Cytb), a portion of the nuclear 18S rDNA and two non-contiguous portions of the nuclear 28S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships of 72 terminal specimens were reconstructed using both maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Through the analysis of this empirical dataset, we also provide comparisons among different a priori partitioning strategies and the use of mixture models in a Bayesian framework. Our comparisons suggest that mixture models overcome the benefits obtained by partitioning the data according to codon position and gene identity, as they provide better accuracy in phylogenetic reconstructions. The recovered maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference phylogenies suggest that the family Cixiidae is paraphyletic in respect with Delphacidae. The paraphyly of the subfamily Cixiinae is also recovered by both approaches. In contrast to a morphological phylogeny recently proposed for cixiids, subfamilies Borystheninae and Bothriocerinae form a monophyletic group.

  9. Effects of temperature on Bt rice and ecological fitness of the non-target insect pest Nilaparvata lugens%温度对Bt水稻及其非靶标害虫褐飞虱生态适应性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚军; 吴志红; 徐红星; 郑许松; 田俊策; 鲁艳辉; 吕仲贤

    2016-01-01

    [背景]温度是影响植物生长发育最为重要的环境因子之一.明确温度对Bt水稻及其非靶标害虫的影响有助于今后Bt水稻的推广应用.[方法]设置不同的温度梯度(26、30和34℃)分别处理Bt水稻T2A-1(表达Cry2A蛋白),在处理后不同天数内分别测定Cry蛋白、叶绿素、草酸、可溶性糖和总氮含量,同时评价不同温度处理下Bt水稻上褐飞虱的生态适应性.[结果]Cry蛋白含量显著受温度影响,随着温度升高Cry蛋白含量下降.温度、处理时间及两者相互作用均显著影响Bt水稻T2A-l的叶片叶绿素、叶鞘草酸、可溶性糖和总氮含量.叶绿素含量在26℃处理20 d时高于30、34℃的处理.随着温度的升高,Bt水稻叶鞘草酸含量升高.可溶性糖含量高温(30和34℃)处理后20 d低于26℃处理.Bt水稻叶鞘内可溶性氮含量随着温度的升高而升高.温度对非Bt水稻MH63上叶绿素、草酸、可溶性糖和总氮含量的影响与T2A-1趋势一致.高温(34℃)处理的Bt水稻上的褐飞虱雌雄虫寿命、每雌产卵量及卵孵化率显著低于26℃处理.温度对非Bt水稻MH63上褐飞虱生态适应性参数的影响与T2A-1趋势一致.[结论与意义]温度对Bt水稻具有显著影响,且对Bt水稻上非靶标害虫褐飞虱的生态适应性产生不利影响.本研究有利于今后Bt稻田的害虫综合治理措施的制定.

  10. 稻飞虱为害胁迫对水稻植株内主要保护酶活性的影响%The Activity Dynamics of Main Protective Enzymes in Rice Plants Under Feeding Stresses of Sogatella furcifera and Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金锋; 薛庆中

    2004-01-01

    研究了水稻植株受白背飞虱和褐飞虱为害后体内的活性氧清除系统主要酶活性的变化动态.结果表明,受白背飞虱为害后,稻株体内的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性增加、过氧化氢酶(catalase)活性下降,过氧化物酶(POD)活性变化在抗虫和感虫材料中有差异,前者活性增加,后者下降;受褐飞虱为害后,SOD活性增加,catalase和POD活性在抗虫材料中下降,而在感虫材料中增加;其为害造成的抗虫材料SOD活性增长率和感虫材料catalase活性下降率均比白背飞虱高.这和褐飞虱的取食量明显高于白背飞虱的取食量趋势相似.

  11. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  12. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng Qi; Yonggen Lou; Jiancai Li; Xiu Han; Ran Li; Jianqiang Wu; Haixin Yu; Lingfei Hu; Yutao Xiao; Jing Lu

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.

  13. Involvement of Jasmonate- signaling pathway in the herbivore-induced rice plant defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHOU Qiang; CHEN Wei; ZHANG Guren; HE Guofeng; GU Dexiang; ZHANG Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    The expression patterns of eight defense- related genes in the herbivore-infested and jasmonate- treated (jasmonic acid, JA and its derivative MeJA) rice leaves were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results showed that Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivory induced the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes that are involved in the jasmonate-signaling pathway. Moreover, S. Litura damage resulted in the expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS), Bowman-birk proteinase inhibitor (BBPI), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and other rice defense- related genes that were also induced by aqueous JA treatment or gaseous MeJA treatment. These indicated that in rice leaves, the JA-related signaling pathway was involved in the S. Litura-induced chemical defense. Mechanical damage and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) damage induced the expression of LOX gene, but both treatments did not induce the expression of AOS gene. However, BPH damage induced the expression of acidic pathogen-related protein 1 (PR-1a), Chitinase (PR-3), and PAL genes, which is involved in the salicylate- signaling pathway. It was suggested that salicylate-related signaling pathway or other pathways, rather than jasmonate-signaling pathway was involved in the BPH-induced rice plant defense.

  14. Systematic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) metabolic responses to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Christeller, John T; Fukumoto, Kaori; Isshiki, Ryutaro; Shinya, Tomonori; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Plants defend against attack from herbivores by direct and indirect defence mechanisms mediated by the accumulation of phytoalexins and release of volatile signals, respectively. While the defensive arsenals of some plants, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis are well known, most of rice's (Oryza sativa) defence metabolites and their effectiveness against herbivores remain uncharacterized. Here, we used a non-biassed metabolomics approach to identify many novel herbivory-regulated metabolic signatures in rice. Most were up-regulated by herbivore attack while only a few were suppressed. Two of the most prominent up-regulated signatures were characterized as phenolamides (PAs), p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine. PAs accumulated in response to attack by both chewing insects, i.e. feeding of the lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia) and the rice skipper (Parnara guttata) larvae, and the attack of the sucking insect, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). In bioassays, BPH insects feeding on 15% sugar solution containing p-coumaroylputrescine or feruloylputrescine, at concentrations similar to those elicited by heavy BPH attack in rice, had a higher mortality compared to those feeding on sugar diet alone. Our results highlight PAs as a rapidly expanding new group of plant defence metabolites that are elicited by herbivore attack, and deter herbivores in rice and other plants.

  15. Occurrence and Cataclysm Rule of the Major Grain and Oil Crops Significant Insect Pests and Dis-eases in Nanchong City%南充市主要粮油作物重大病虫害发生流行及灾变规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昌家; 龙维国; 杨建华; 肖孟; 蔡群碧; 丁攀; 白体坤; 冯礼斌; 庞锐; 陈如胜; 郭建全; 尹怀中; 文旭

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzed the occurrence popular rule which the Nanchong city the wheat stripe rust (Puccinia stfiirormis),the paddy rice blast(Pyricularia oryzae),the rice planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and the rape sclerotinia stem rot[Sclerotinia sclerotiorum(Lib)de Bary],the disease-carrying insect has the relevance,has discovered the influence significant disease-carrying insect reproduction decision factor,ap-praised the main disease-carrying insect to have the harm situation,the cataclysm rule and the risk.%分析了南充市小麦条锈病、水稻稻瘟病、稻飞虱和油菜菌核病的发生流行规律,病虫发生相关性,找出了影响重大病虫重发的决定因子,评价了主要病虫发生危害情况、灾变规律和风险。

  16. Evaluation of Rice Germplasm for Resistance to the Small Brown Planthopper(Laodelphax striatellus)and Analysis of Resistance Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Can-xing; ZHANG Shi-xian; LEI Cai-lin; CHENG Zhi-jun; CHEN Qing; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-eight rice accessions were screened for resistance to the small brown planthopper(SBPH)resistance to SBPH were detected,accounting for 18.1%of the total accessions,which included 2 highly resistant,9 resistant and 14 moderately resistant varieties.Compared with indica rice,japonica rice was more susceptible to SBPH.Antixenosis test,antibiosis test and correlation analysis were performed to elucidate the resistance mechanism.The resistant check Rathu Heenati(RHT),highly resistant varieties Mudgo and Kasalath,and resistant variety IR36 expressed strong antixenosis and antibiosis against SBPH,indicating the close relationship between resistance level and these two resistance mechanisms in the four rice varieties.Antibiosis was the dominant resistance pattern in the resistant varieties Daorenqiao and Yangmaogu due to their high antibiosis but low antixenosis.Dular,ASD7 and Milyang 23 had relatively strong antixenosis and antibiosis,indicating the two resistance mechanisms were significant in these three varieties.The resistant DV85 expressed relatively high level of antixenosis but low antibiosis,whereas Zhaiyeqing 8 and Guiyigu conferred only moderate antibiosis and antixenosis to SBPH,suggesting tolerance in these three varieties.Antibiosis and antixenosis governed the resistance to SBPH in the moderately resistant accession 9311.Antixenosis was the main resistance type in V20A.Tolerance was considered to be an important resistance mechanism in Minghui 63 and Yangjing 9538 due to their poor antibiosis and antixenosis resistance.The above accessions with strong antibiosis or antixenosis were the ideal materials for the resistance breeding.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  18. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in small brown planthopper (Laodephax striatellus by next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Zhou

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are thought to play critical roles in many metabolic activities in eukaryotes. The small brown planthopper (Laodephax striatellus Fallén, one of the most destructive agricultural pests, causes great damage to crops including rice, wheat, and maize. However, information about the genome of L. striatellus is limited. In this study, a small RNA library was constructed from a mixed L. striatellus population and sequenced by Solexa sequencing technology. A total of 501 mature miRNAs were identified, including 227 conserved and 274 novel miRNAs belonging to 125 and 250 families, respectively. Sixty-nine conserved miRNAs that are included in 38 families are predicted to have an RNA secondary structure typically found in miRNAs. Many miRNAs were validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Comparison with the miRNAs in 84 animal species from miRBase showed that the conserved miRNA families we identified are highly conserved in the Arthropoda phylum. Furthermore, miRanda predicted 2701 target genes for 378 miRNAs, which could be categorized into 52 functional groups annotated by gene ontology. The function of miRNA target genes was found to be very similar between conserved and novel miRNAs. This study of miRNAs in L. striatellus will provide new information and enhance the understanding of the role of miRNAs in the regulation of L. striatellus metabolism and development.

  19. From micropterism to hyperpterism: recognition strategy and standardized homology-driven terminology of the forewing venation patterns in planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Thierry; Wang, Rong-Rong; Asche, Manfred; Hoch, Hannelore; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline; Stroiński, Adam; Yap, Sheryl; Szwedo, Jacek

    Following recent advances in the morphological interpretations of the tegmen basal cell margins in the Paraneoptera, a standardized and homology-driven groundplan terminology for tegmina types, structures and vein patterns in Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha, including fossils, is proposed. Each term is listed with a morphological definition, compared and linked to the main systems of planthopper forewing description that have been reviewed. The importance of a standardized and homology-driven terminology is stressed to enhance the quality of data in taxonomic descriptions and to strengthen phylogenetic morphological analysis results. When the interpretation of the origin of vein branches is render difficult, a three-step strategy for pattern recognition of the vein is proposed based on two principles: (1) vein forks are more informative than topology of the vein branches: a search for homologous areas, the nodal cells in particular, must first guide the recognition rather the number of branches of a vein, and (2) minimum of ad hoc evolutionary events should be invoked in the understanding of a modified vein pattern. Examples of some conflicting interpretations of venation patterns in planthoppers are discussed within different families for both extant and extinct taxa. For the first time, the concept of brachypterism is defined in a non-relative way independently from other structures, and the new one of hyperpterism is proposed; a reporting system is proposed for each of them.

  20. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of 1,3,5-Trisubstituted- 1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine-2-N-nitroimines%Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of 1,3,5-Trisubstituted- 1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine-2-N-nitroimines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛思佳; 马旭波; 步洪飞; 刘丽; 许效

    2011-01-01

    A new series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted-l,3,5-hexahydrotriazine-2-N-nitroimines (3a--3j) were designed and synthesized as novel neonicotinoid analogues, and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR, IR, elemental analysis and MS. The preliminary bioassay tests showed that most of the target compounds had good insecticidal activities against Nilaparvata lugens as well as Aphis medicaginis at 500 mg/L, while compound 3i had 100% mortality against Nilaparvata lugens at 20 mg/L.

  1. Comparing gene expression profiles between Bt and non-Bt rice in response to brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bt proteins are the most widely used insecticidal proteins in transgenic crops for improving insect resistance. We previously observed longer nymphal developmental duration and lower fecundity in brown planthopper (BPH fed on Bt rice line KMD2, although Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab could rarely concentrate in this non-target rice pest. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis in an effort to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive and/or less nutritious to BPH. We detected 3,834 and 3,273 differentially expressed probe-sets in response to BPH infestation in non-Bt parent Xiushui 11 and Bt rice KMD2, respectively, only 439 of which showed significant differences in expression between rice lines. Our analysis revealed a shift from growth to defense responses in response to BPH infestation, which was also detected in many other studies of plants suffering biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and basic metabolism pathways were inhibited in response to infestation. IAA and GA levels decreased as a result of the repression of biosynthesis-related genes or the induction of inactivation-related genes. In accordance with these observations, a number of IAA-, GA-, BR-signaling genes were downregulated in response to BPH. Thus, the growth of rice plants under BPH attack was reduced and defense related hormone signaling like JA, SA and ET were activated. In addition, growth-related hormone signaling pathways, such as GA, BR and auxin signaling pathways, as well as ABA, were also found to be involved in BPH-induced defense. On the other side, 51 probe-sets (represented 50 genes that most likely contribute to the impact of Bt rice on BPH were identified, including three early nodulin genes, four lipid metabolic genes, 14 stress response genes, three TF genes and genes with other functions. Two transcription factor genes, bHLH and MYB, together with lipid transfer protein genes LTPL65 and

  2. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Prionychus Solier, 1835 de Marruecos y redescripción de Prionychus anthracinus (Mulsant, 1856 y Prionychus lugens (Küster, 1850 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alleculinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Villero, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe a new species of Prionychus from northern Morocco, specifically in the region of Nador, near Melilla. Prionychus alfonsoblancoi sp. nov. belongs to those species in which the prosternum, ahead of procoxa, angles downards in a flat or slightly convex slope, the elytra have almost no striae, the anterior margin of pronotum has no border and they show a chestnut colouration. Within the Iberian/Maghreb area, these characters make P. alfonsoblancoi resemble only P. lugens, a species from which it can be clearly separated by the length of the antennae, the pronotal punctuation and the structure of the aedeagus. P. alfonsoblancoi is the fourth species present in Morocco and, by extension, in North Africa. Given the biometrics indices currently used to describe the species of this subfamily, it has been decided to re-describe Prionychus anthracinus and Prionychus lugens according to up-to-date standards. A dichotomous key to the species of the genus that inhabit the Iberian peninsula and northern África has also been developed.En este trabajo se describe una nueva especie de Prionychus del norte de Marruecos; en concreto de la región de Nador, en las cercanías de Melilla. Prionychus alfonsoblancoi sp. nov. pertenece al grupo de especies que presentan el prosterno, por delante de las procoxas, en declive plano o algo convexo, élitros casi sin estrías, borde anterior del pronoto no rebordeado y coloración castaña. Estos caracteres hacen que en el ámbito iberomagrebí, P. alfonsoblancoi se aproxime únicamente a Prionychus lugens, especie de la que puede separarse claramente por la longitud de las antenas, el punteado del pronoto y la estructura del edeago. P. alfonsoblancoi representa la cuarta especie presente en Marruecos y, por extensión, en el norte de África. Dados los índices biométricos que actualmente se utilizan para describir las especies de esta subfamilia, se ha optado por redescribir Prionychus anthracinus

  3. "Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae" Is the Prevalent Agent of Marginal Chlorosis of Strawberry in French Production Fields and Is Transmitted by the Planthopper Cixius wagneri (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danet, Jean-Luc; Foissac, Xavier; Zreik, Leyla; Salar, Pascal; Verdin, Eric; Nourrisseau, Jean-Georges; Garnier, Monique

    2003-06-01

    ABSTRACT Marginal chlorosis has affected strawberry production in France for about 15 years. A phloem-restricted uncultured bacterium, "Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae," is associated with the disease. A large-scale survey for marginal chlorosis in French strawberry production fields and nurseries by polymerase chain reaction amplification of "Ca. P. fragariae" 16S rDNA revealed that symptoms of marginal chlorosis were not always induced by "Ca. P. fragariae" and that the stolbur phytoplasma could induce identical symptoms. "Ca. P. fragariae" was found to be predominant in strawberry production fields, whereas the stolbur phytoplasma was predominantly detected in nurseries. Two transmission periods of the disease, one in spring and the other from late summer to early fall, were evident. Cixius wagneri planthoppers captured on infected strawberry plants were demonstrated to be efficient vectors of "Ca. P. fragariae." The involvement in natural disease spread of the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, previously shown to acquire and multiply "Ca. P. fragariae" under greenhouse conditions, remains uncertain.

  4. Development Research on Five Pesticides Against Rice Planthopper%5种防治稻飞虱药剂的发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾林玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide references for pesticide production and application, the developments, patents, mechanisms, applications, resistances, control effects, formulations, technologies and markets of five pesticides on rice planthopper were studied in this paper.%从开发及专利、作用机理及应用、抗性、药效、剂型及复配、工艺和市场等方面,对吡虫啉、噻虫嗪、烯啶虫胺、吡蚜酮和噻嗪酮等5种防治稻飞虱药剂进行了研究,旨在为防治稻飞虱药剂的生产和应用提供参考。

  5. Nomenclatural changes in the planthopper tribe Hemisphaeriini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae, with the description of a new genus and a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Meng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclatural changes are made in three previously described genera in the planthopper tribe Hemisphaeriini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae: Issinae, viz Gergithus Stål, 1870, Mongoliana Distant, 1909 and Hemisphaeroides Melichar, 1903. In addition, a new genus, Gnezdilovius gen. nov., with Gergithus lineatus Kato, 1933 as its type species, is described for 40 species formerly included in Gergithus, and the generic characteristics of the latter genus is revised. One new species, Gergithus frontilongus sp. nov. from China (Yunnan, is described and illustrated. One additional Gergithus species, previously misidentified as G. signatifrons Melichar, 1906 from Siberut Island, is mentioned and illustrated. Gergithus contusus Walker, 1851 is transferred to Mongoliana and Hemisphaerius atromaculatus Distant, 1916 and H. fuscoclypeatus Distant, 1916 are transferred to Hemisphaeroides. Checklists for all four genera are provided detailing the nomenclatural changes and a key to the 19 genera of Hemisphaeriini is provided. Morphological diversity and distribution of the genera are briefly discussed.

  6. 不同杀虫剂防治水稻褐飞虱田间药效评价%Control Effect of Different Insecticides on Rice Brown Planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓霞; 周奋启; 陈银凤; 耿跃; 袁林泽; 徐蕾

    2014-01-01

    2013年对褐飞虱进行6种杀虫剂田间防治效果评价。结果表明:施药后5 d和10 d,22%氟啶虫胺腈SC、20%呋虫胺SG、25%噻虫嗪WG、50%吡蚜酮WG对褐飞虱的防效分别为77.9%~90.9%和77.0%~90.5%,20%异丙威EC、25%噻嗪酮WP的防效分别为40.1%~65.9%和20.6%~49.9%。22%氟啶虫胺腈SC、20%呋虫胺SG、25%噻虫嗪WG、50%吡蚜酮WG防效较好。建议在实践中,轮换使用噻虫嗪、吡蚜酮、呋虫胺、氟啶虫胺腈防治褐飞虱。%Fieldefficacies of 6 insecticides including sulfoxaflor, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, pymetrozine, isoprocarb, buprofezin on rice brown planthopper were investigated in 2013. The results indicated that on the 5th day and 10th day after treatment, sulfoxaflor 22% SC, dinotefuran 20% SG, thiamethoxam 25% WG, pymetrozine 50% WG could control rice brown planthopper effectively, with the efficiencies of 77.9%-90.9%, 77.0%-90.5%. The control effects of isoprocarb 20% EC, buprofezin 25% WP were 40.1%-65.9%, 20.6%-49.9%, and were significantly lower than sulfoxaflor 22% SC, dinotefuran 20% SG, thiamethoxam 25% WG, pymetrozine 50% WG.

  7. Insect Analogue to the Lotus Leaf: A Planthopper Wing Membrane Incorporating a Low-Adhesion, Nonwetting, Superhydrophobic, Bactericidal, and Biocompatible Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gregory S; Green, David W; Cribb, Bronwen W; Brown, Christopher L; Meritt, Christopher R; Tobin, Mark J; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Sun, Mingxia; Liang, Ai-Ping; Watson, Jolanta A

    2017-07-19

    Nature has produced many intriguing and spectacular surfaces at the micro- and nanoscales. These small surface decorations act for a singular or, in most cases, a range of functions. The minute landscape found on the lotus leaf is one such example, displaying antiwetting behavior and low adhesion with foreign particulate matter. Indeed the lotus leaf has often been considered the "benchmark" for such properties. One could expect that there are animal counterparts of this self-drying and self-cleaning surface system. In this study, we show that the planthopper insect wing (Desudaba danae) exhibits a remarkable architectural similarity to the lotus leaf surface. Not only does the wing demonstrate a topographical likeness, but some surface properties are also expressed, such as nonwetting behavior and low adhering forces with contaminants. In addition, the insect-wing cuticle exhibits an antibacterial property in which Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis) are killed over many consecutive waves of attacks over 7 days. In contrast, eukaryote cell associations, upon contact with the insect membrane, lead to a formation of integrated cell sheets (e.g., among human stem cells (SHED-MSC) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF)). The multifunctional features of the insect membrane provide a potential natural template for man-made applications in which specific control of liquid, solid, and biological contacts is desired and required. Moreover, the planthopper wing cuticle provides a "new" natural surface with which numerous interfacial properties can be explored for a range of comparative studies with both natural and man-made materials.

  8. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Iflaviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iflaviridae is a family of small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of approximately 9-11 kilobases in length. All members infect arthropod hosts with the majority infecting insects. Beneficial and pest insects serve as hosts and infections can be symptomless (Nilaparvata lugens honeydew virus 1...

  9. Mal de Río Cuarto Virus Infection Triggers the Production of Distinctive Viral-Derived siRNA Profiles in Wheat and Its Planthopper Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. de Haro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant reoviruses are able to multiply in gramineae plants and delphacid vectors encountering different defense strategies with unique features. This study aims to comparatively assess alterations of small RNA (sRNA populations in both hosts upon virus infection. For this purpose, we characterized the sRNA profiles of wheat and planthopper vectors infected by Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae and quantified virus genome segments by quantitative reverse transcription PCR We provide evidence that plant and insect silencing machineries differentially recognize the viral genome, thus giving rise to distinct profiles of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs. In plants, most of the virus genome segments were targeted preferentially within their upstream sequences and vsiRNAs mapped with higher density to the smaller genome segments than to the medium or larger ones. This tendency, however, was not observed in insects. In both hosts, vsiRNAs were equally derived from sense and antisense RNA strands and the differences in vsiRNAs accumulation did not correlate with mRNAs accumulation. We also established that the piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway was active in the delphacid vector but, contrary to what is observed in virus-infected mosquitoes, virus-specific piRNAs were not detected. This work contributes to the understanding of the silencing response in insect and plant hosts.

  10. Differential Expression of Whitebacked Planthopper Resistance in the japonica/indica Doubled Haploid Rice Population under Field Evaluation and Seedbox Screening Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) -resistance in a japonica / indica doubled haploid (DH) rice population established from a cross between WBPH-resistant japonica Chunjiang 06 and susceptible indica TN1, was comparatively evaluated through a field experiment based on the WBPH immigrant density and standardized seedbox screening test (SSST). All the susceptible DH lines in the field experiment behaved accordingly in SSST. However, 35 of resistant 66 lines (53%) in the field, were categorized to susceptible groups in SSST. Likewise, there were no significant differences in WBPH immigrant densities among 70 DH lines that were highly resistant to susceptible in SSST. The results revealed that SSST could not evaluate properly WBPH resistance in the DH lines. Four QTLs for WBPH-resistance phenotyped by the immigrant density were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, and 11. Of them, the QTL on chromosome 4 was the most effective (LOD 21.8, variance 78%). Five QTLs associated with seedling mortality were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In addition to the QTL (LOD 10.5, variance 68%) on chromosome 4, there was another major QTL (LOD 12.7, variance 71%) located on chromosome 5, which was SSST-specific but might be irrespective of the WBPH resistance traits.

  11. Molecular Characterization and Differential Expression of an Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in the White-Backed Planthopper Sogatella furcifera Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming He

    Full Text Available The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, a notorious rice pest in Asia, employs host plant volatiles as cues for host location. In insects, odor detection is mediated by two types of olfactory receptors: odorant receptors (ORs and ionotropic receptors (IRs. In this study, we identified 63 SfurORs and 14 SfurIRs in S. furcifera based on sequences obtained from the head transcriptome and bioinformatics analysis. The motif-pattern of 130 hemiptera ORs indicated an apparent differentiation in this order. Phylogenetic trees of the ORs and IRs were constructed using neighbor-joining estimates. Most of the ORs had orthologous genes, but a specific OR clade was identified in S. furcifera, which suggests that these ORs may have specific olfactory functions in this species. Our results provide a basis for further investigations of how S. furcifera coordinates its olfactory receptor genes with its plant hosts, thereby providing a foundation for novel pest management approaches based on these genes.

  12. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars. PMID:27682162

  13. Cryptochromes and Hormone Signal Transduction under Near-Zero Magnetic Fields: New Clues to Magnetic Field Effects in a Rice Planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gui-Jun; Wang, Wen-Jing; Xu, Jing-Jing; Yang, Quan-Feng; Dai, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Sword, Gregory A; Pan, Wei-Dong; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although there are considerable reports of magnetic field effects (MFE) on organisms, very little is known so far about the MFE-related signal transduction pathways. Here we establish a manipulative near-zero magnetic field (NZMF) to investigate the potential signal transduction pathways involved in MFE. We show that exposure of migratory white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, to the NZMF results in delayed egg and nymphal development, increased frequency of brachypterous females, and reduced longevity of macropterous female adults. To understand the changes in gene expression underlying these phenotypes, we examined the temporal patterns of gene expression of (i) CRY1 and CRY2 as putative magnetosensors, (ii) JHAMT, FAMeT and JHEH in the juvenile hormone pathway, (iii) CYP307A1 in the ecdysone pathway, and (iv) reproduction-related Vitellogenin (Vg). The significantly altered gene expression of CRY1 and CRY2 under the NZMF suggest their developmental stage-specific patterns and potential upstream location in magnetic response. Gene expression patterns of JHAMT, JHEH and CYP307A1 were consistent with the NZMF-triggered delay in nymphal development, higher proportion of brachypterous female adults, and the shortened longevity of macropterous female adults, which show feasible links between hormone signal transduction and phenotypic MFE. By conducting manipulative NZMF experiments, our study suggests an important role of the geomagnetic field (GMF) in modulating development and physiology of insects, provides new insights into the complexity of MFE-magnetosensitivity interactions, and represents an initial but crucial step forward in understanding the molecular basis of cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction involved in MFE.

  14. Cryptochromes and Hormone Signal Transduction under Near-Zero Magnetic Fields: New Clues to Magnetic Field Effects in a Rice Planthopper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Jun Wan

    Full Text Available Although there are considerable reports of magnetic field effects (MFE on organisms, very little is known so far about the MFE-related signal transduction pathways. Here we establish a manipulative near-zero magnetic field (NZMF to investigate the potential signal transduction pathways involved in MFE. We show that exposure of migratory white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, to the NZMF results in delayed egg and nymphal development, increased frequency of brachypterous females, and reduced longevity of macropterous female adults. To understand the changes in gene expression underlying these phenotypes, we examined the temporal patterns of gene expression of (i CRY1 and CRY2 as putative magnetosensors, (ii JHAMT, FAMeT and JHEH in the juvenile hormone pathway, (iii CYP307A1 in the ecdysone pathway, and (iv reproduction-related Vitellogenin (Vg. The significantly altered gene expression of CRY1 and CRY2 under the NZMF suggest their developmental stage-specific patterns and potential upstream location in magnetic response. Gene expression patterns of JHAMT, JHEH and CYP307A1 were consistent with the NZMF-triggered delay in nymphal development, higher proportion of brachypterous female adults, and the shortened longevity of macropterous female adults, which show feasible links between hormone signal transduction and phenotypic MFE. By conducting manipulative NZMF experiments, our study suggests an important role of the geomagnetic field (GMF in modulating development and physiology of insects, provides new insights into the complexity of MFE-magnetosensitivity interactions, and represents an initial but crucial step forward in understanding the molecular basis of cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction involved in MFE.

  15. Cryptochromes and Hormone Signal Transduction under Near-Zero Magnetic Fields: New Clues to Magnetic Field Effects in a Rice Planthopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gui-Jun; Wang, Wen-Jing; Xu, Jing-Jing; Yang, Quan-Feng; Dai, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Sword, Gregory A.; Pan, Wei-Dong; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although there are considerable reports of magnetic field effects (MFE) on organisms, very little is known so far about the MFE-related signal transduction pathways. Here we establish a manipulative near-zero magnetic field (NZMF) to investigate the potential signal transduction pathways involved in MFE. We show that exposure of migratory white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, to the NZMF results in delayed egg and nymphal development, increased frequency of brachypterous females, and reduced longevity of macropterous female adults. To understand the changes in gene expression underlying these phenotypes, we examined the temporal patterns of gene expression of (i) CRY1 and CRY2 as putative magnetosensors, (ii) JHAMT, FAMeT and JHEH in the juvenile hormone pathway, (iii) CYP307A1 in the ecdysone pathway, and (iv) reproduction-related Vitellogenin (Vg). The significantly altered gene expression of CRY1 and CRY2 under the NZMF suggest their developmental stage-specific patterns and potential upstream location in magnetic response. Gene expression patterns of JHAMT, JHEH and CYP307A1 were consistent with the NZMF-triggered delay in nymphal development, higher proportion of brachypterous female adults, and the shortened longevity of macropterous female adults, which show feasible links between hormone signal transduction and phenotypic MFE. By conducting manipulative NZMF experiments, our study suggests an important role of the geomagnetic field (GMF) in modulating development and physiology of insects, provides new insights into the complexity of MFE-magnetosensitivity interactions, and represents an initial but crucial step forward in understanding the molecular basis of cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction involved in MFE. PMID:26173003

  16. Development of a simplified RT-PCR without RNA isolation for rapid detection of RNA viruses in a single small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiufang; Liu, Haoqiu; Yuan, Pingping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Qingqing; Jiang, Xuanli; Zhou, Yijun

    2017-05-03

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is an important pest of cereal crops and acts as a transmission vector for multiple RNA viruses. Rapid diagnosis of virus in the vector is crucial for efficient forecast and control of viral disease. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for virus detection. The traditional RT-PCR contains a RNA isolation step and is widely used for virus detection in insect. However, using the traditional RT-PCR for detecting RNA virus in individual SBPHs becomes challenging because of the expensive reagents and laborious procedure associated with RNA isolation when processing a large number of samples. We established a simplified RT-PCR method without RNA isolation for RNA virus detection in a single SBPH. This method is achieved by grinding a single SBPH in sterile water and using the crude extract directly as the template for RT-PCR. The crude extract containing the virus RNA can be prepared in approximately two minutes. Rice stripe virus (RSV), rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Himetobi P virus (HiPV) were successfully detected using this simplified method. The detection results were validated by sequencing and dot immunobinding assay, indicating that this simplified method is reliable for detecting different viruses in insects. The evaluation of the sensitivity of this method showed that both RSV and HiPV can be detected when the cDNA from the crude extract was diluted up to 10(3) fold. Compared to the traditional RT-PCR with RNA isolation, the simplified RT-PCR method greatly reduces the sample processing time, decreases the detection cost, and improves the efficiency by avoiding RNA isolation. A simplified RT-PCR method is developed for rapid detection of RNA virus in a single SBPH without the laborious RNA isolation step. It offers a convenient alternative to the traditional RT-PCR method.

  17. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadifar, F.; Wayayok, A.; Shattri, M.; Shafri, H.

    2014-06-01

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application.

  18. The 9-lipoxygenase Osr9-LOX1 interacts with the 13-lipoxygenase-mediated pathway to regulate resistance to chewing and piercing-sucking herbivores in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoxin; Ren, Nan; Qi, Jingfeng; Lu, Jing; Xiang, Caiyu; Ju, Hongping; Cheng, Jiaan; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-09-01

    Oxylipins produced by the 13-lipoxygenase (LOX) have been reported to play an important role in plant defense responses to herbivores. Yet, the role of oxylipins produced by the 9-LOX pathway in this process remains largely unknown. Here we cloned a gene encoding a chloroplast-localized 9-LOX, Osr9-LOX1, from rice. Transcriptional analysis revealed that herbivore infestation, mechanical wounding and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment either repressed or did not enhance the level of Osr9-LOX1 transcripts at early stages but did at later stages, whereas salicylic acid (SA) treatment quickly increased the transcript level of Osr9-LOX1. Antisense expression of Osr9-lox1 (as-r9lox1) decreased the amount of wound-induced (Z)-3-hexenal but increased levels of striped stem borer (SSB)-induced linolenic acid, JA, SA and trypsin protease inhibitors. These changes were associated with increased resistance in rice to the larvae of the SSB Chilo suppressalis. In contrast, although no significant differences were observed in the duration of the nymph stage or the number of eggs laid by female adults between the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens that fed on as-r9lox1 lines and BPH that fed on wild-type (WT) rice plants, the survival rate of BPH nymphs that fed on as-r9lox1 lines was higher than that of nymphs that fed on WT plants, possibly because of a higher JA level. The results demonstrate that Osr9-LOX1 plays an important role in regulating an herbivore-induced JA burst and cross-talk between JA and SA, and in controlling resistance in rice to chewing and phloem-feeding herbivores.

  19. silencing COI1 in rice increases susceptibility to chewing insects and impairs inducible defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    Full Text Available The jasmonic acid (JA pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1 is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses. However, the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants, especially in rice (Oryza sativa L. is largely unknown. We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference (RNAi to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder (LF Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, a chewing insect, and brown planthopper (BPH Nilaparvata lugens, a phloem-feeding insect. In wild-type rice plants (WT, the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, but not by BPH infestation. The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI, and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation, but the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX was only induced by LF. The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF, but no change against BPH. Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content, but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content, POD and PPO activity by 62.3%, 48.5% and 27.2%, respectively. In addition, MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57.2% and 48.2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants. These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component, controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect (LF in rice plants, and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI, POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation.

  20. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  1. Applications of DNA-Markers to Analyze Rice Planthopper Resistance Genes%应用DNA标记分析稻飞虱的抗性基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒川一成; 曾娟; 钱忠海

    2003-01-01

    Recent achievements in molecular tagging and mapping of genetic loci for rice planthopper resistance in rice were briefly reviewed. Four rice genes for the brown planthopper (BPH) resistance, Bph 1, bph 2, bph 4 and Bph 9, and four putative BPH-resistance genes, Bph 10(t), bph 11(t), bph 12(t) and Bph 13(t), introgressed from wild rice species with different genomes have so far been mapped onto 5 of 12 rice chromosomes. Of them, Bph 1, bph 2, Bph 9 and Bph 10(t), have been found forming a linkage block on the long arm of rice chromosome 12, in the vicinity of about 25 cM from the bph 2 locus. Several QTLs affecting field resistance and ovicidal activities have also been detected. The whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) resistance genes, Wbph 1, Wbph 2 and Wbph 6(t) have been tagged or tentatively mapped. QTLs for ovicidal resistance to WBPH in japonica rice have been analyzed in detail. The effective QTL has been detected on the short arm of chromosome 6, and a dominant ovicidal gene Ovc has been identified at the locus. One QTL on chromosome 1 and two QTLs on chromosome 5 increased WBPH egg mortality in the presence of ovicidal gene Ovc. QTL mapping with DNA-markers will increase our understandings of complicated physiological and genetic mechanisms in varietal resistance in crop plants. Marker-assisted selection will facilitate to develop insect resistant crops with polygenic basis, and to introduce valuable insect resistance traits from wild relatives into improved crop varieties in order to increase durability and genetic diversity of insect resistance in the crops.%简要地回顾了水稻抗飞虱的遗传位点定位和作图的新进展.来自具有不同基因组的野生稻渗入系的4个抗褐飞虱基因Bph 1、 bph 2、 bph 4和Bph 9,以及4个暂定名抗褐飞虱基因Bph 10(t)、bph 11(t)、bph 12(t)和Bph 13(t),目前已被定位于水稻12条染色体中的5条.其中,Bph 1、 bph 2、 Bph 9和Bph 10(t)在水稻第12染色体的长臂上形成1

  2. Study on Control Technology in Brown Planthopper Outbreak Year in Huangshan Single Season Rice%黄山稻区单季中稻防控褐飞虱大发生技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方春华

    2015-01-01

    为了明确单季中稻褐飞虱大发生条件下的防控技术。通过不同药剂组合进行防治褐飞虱的田间药效试验,并进行大田示范验证。结果表明,在四(2)代低龄若虫高峰期选择对褐飞虱高效的药剂呋虫胺进行防治,并在五(3)代低龄高峰期使用呋虫胺或吡蚜酮等再进行1次防治,可以有效控制褐飞虱危害。%In order to definite the control technology on brown planthopper in outbreak year, field efficacy trials and demonstration were carried out by combinating different pesticides. The results showed that brown planthopper could be controlled effectively when dinotefuran was used at peak stage of low instar nymphs of 4 (2) generation, then dinotefuran or pymetrozine was used at peak period of 5 (3) generation.

  3. Comparative Study on Control Efficacy of Six Pesticide Mixtures against Rice Planthoppers%几种复配剂对稻飞虱的防治效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀阿; 祈建杭; 陈金宏; 吕敏; 葛恒来

    2013-01-01

    比较了6种复配剂对稻飞虱的防效,结果表明:噻嗪异丙威、吡蚜噻嗪酮、丙威毒死蜱的防效优异,吡虫乙酰甲、吡虫仲丁威的防效较好,以上5种复配剂均显著优于吡虫杀虫单,因此噻嗪异丙威、吡蚜噻嗪酮、丙威毒死蜱可作为防治稻飞虱的常规品种,吡虫乙酰甲、吡虫仲丁威作为替换品种,在防治过程中注意经常轮换药剂品种.%The comparison of the control efficacy of six pesticide mixtures against rice planthoppers was conducted in this paper. The results showed that the control efficacies of thiazide isoprocarb, pymetrozine buprofezin and isoprocarb chlorpyrifos were the best, and those of imidacloprid methacholine and imidacloprid fenobucarb were better. The control efficacies of the above five pesticide mixtures were significantly superior to that of imidacloprid monosultap. Thiazide isoprocarb, pymetrozine buprofezin and isoprocarb chlorpyrifos were recommended as the conventional varieties controlling rice planthoppers, while imidacloprid methacholine and imidacloprid fenobucarb could be used as replacement varieties. The pesticides should be frequently rotated in the pest control.

  4. Current Research Status and Prospects of Genomes of Insects Important to Agriculture in China%中国农业昆虫基因组学研究概况与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传溪

    2015-01-01

    Insects are the largest class of all living things with overwhelming diversity in the earth. Many of them are of agricultural importance: serious crop pests or beneficial insects. Modern entomological researches are more and more relying on information obtained from different insect genomes and transcriptomes since Drosophila melanogaster genome being sequenced in 2000. To better understand insect biology and transform our ability to manage insects that threaten our health, food supply, and economic security and to use beneficial insects that are essential to the maintenance and productivity of natural and agricultural ecosystems or provide us with silk, honey, medicine and other insect products, we need to know their genomic and transcriptomic information. Up to date, genomes of more than 50 insect species have been sequenced and analyzed around the world, and genomes of five insects of agricultural importance, including the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori), the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis), the fig wasp (Ceratosolen solmsi) and the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), have been analyzed during the past decade in China, and genome sequencing for several agricultural insects including the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), the oriental leafworm moth (Spodoptera litura), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the white backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera), the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellu) and several parasite wasps, are in progress. Transcriptomes of the whiteflyand brown planthopper were reported in China in 2010, first two insect transciptomes reported in the world. Hundreds of insect transcriptomes have been reported in China since that year. Many important progresses in the functional genomics of the silkworm, the locust and the brown planthopper have been achieved, including the resequencing of 40 varieties of silkworm genomes which revealed domestication events and

  5. Studies on Resistance to Brown Planthopper in Transgenic Rice Pure Lines%转基因水稻纯系对褐飞虱的抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 孙小芬; 姚剑虹; 戚华雄; 卢兴桂

    2000-01-01

    Mature seed-derived callus from japonica rice cv. Eyi 105 was co-transformed with two plasmids,pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1,containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt),the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment.Twenty-six independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 152 bombarded callus. Seventy-three percent of transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southen blot analysis.Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From R2 generations with their R1 parent plants showing 3∶1 Mendelian segregation patterns, three independent homozyous lines expressing all the three transgenes were identified. Insect bioassay results showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to brown planthopper.%利用基因枪法将含潮霉素抗性基因、GUS报告基因和雪花莲凝集素基因的2个质粒pWRG1515和pRSSGNA1共同转化粳稻品种鄂宜105的成熟胚诱导的愈伤组织. 从轰击的152块愈伤组织中共再生出26株独立转基因植株.PCR/Southern印迹法分析发现,73%的转基因植株含有所有3个外源基因.遗传分析证实外源基因在转基因植株后代中以孟德尔方式遗传.从其R1代亲本为孟德尔3∶1方式遗传的R2代中,鉴定出3个表达所有3个外源基因的独立转基因植株纯系.抗虫鉴定结果发现这些纯系对褐飞虱具有明显的抑制作用.

  6. Massively parallel pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analyses of small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, a vector insect transmitting rice stripe virus (RSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengyue

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus is an important agricultural pest that not only damages rice plants by sap-sucking, but also acts as a vector that transmits rice stripe virus (RSV, which can cause even more serious yield loss. Despite being a model organism for studying entomology, population biology, plant protection, molecular interactions among plants, viruses and insects, only a few genomic sequences are available for this species. To investigate its transcriptome and determine the differences between viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, we employed 454-FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing to generate EST databases of this insect. Results We obtained 201,281 and 218,681 high-quality reads from viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, respectively, with an average read length as 230 bp. These reads were assembled into contigs and two EST databases were generated. When all reads were combined, 16,885 contigs and 24,607 singletons (a total of 41,492 unigenes were obtained, which represents a transcriptome of the insect. BlastX search against the NCBI-NR database revealed that only 6,873 (16.6% of these unigenes have significant matches. Comparison of the distribution of GO classification among viruliferous, naïve, and combined EST databases indicated that these libraries are broadly representative of the L. striatellus transcriptomes. Functionally diverse transcripts from RSV, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia and yeast-like symbiotes were identified, which reflects the possible lifestyles of these microbial symbionts that live in the cells of the host insect. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that L. striatellus encodes similar innate immunity regulatory systems as other insects, such as RNA interference, JAK/STAT and partial Imd cascades, which might be involved in defense against viral infection. In addition, we determined the differences in gene expression between vector and naïve samples, which

  7. 5%噻虫嗪水乳剂防治稻飞虱田间药效试验%Field Trial on Control of Rice Planthopper by 5% Thiamethoxam Concentrate Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁娟; 李树香; 黄小华

    2011-01-01

    采用5%噻虫嗪水乳剂防治稻飞虱田间药效试验。结果表明,5%噻虫嗪水乳剂有效成份用量为15.00、11.25、7.50 g/hm2对稻飞虱的防治效果均显著优于对照药剂25%噻虫嗪水分散粒剂有效成份用量7.5 g/hm2,药后第1天防效高达90.34%,药后第3天防效高达95.03%,药后第7天防效高达92.43%,且在试验作物上未见药害发生。%The rice planthopper was treated with 5% Thiamethoxam Concentrate Emulsion in the field, and the results showed this agricultural chemical when applied to control rice planthopper at the effective composition content of 15g/hm, 11.25g/hm, 7.Sg/hm all had a highly control efficiency than the control pesticides 25% Thiamethoxam water dispersible granule of 7.5g/hm, the control effects were as high as 90.34%, 95.03 %, 92.43% at The first, third and seventh days after spraying, no damages to the treated litchi trees were found caused.

  8. 灰飞虱胁迫下水稻防卫相关基因的表达%Expression of Rice Defence Genes under Small Brown Planthopper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万昌; 余娇娇; 段灿星; 朱振东; 王晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallen (Homoptera: Delphacide), is an economically important pest in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in China. Real-time PCR was used to determine transcriptional level of rice defence genes after SBPH infestation using specific primers. The expression levels of SA synthesis-related genes PAL, NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4 were higher in the resistant variety "Mudgo" than in the susceptible variety "Kittake" after SBPH feeding. The expression level of gene PAL in 12 h-infestation rice was 6.914 times of that in untreated rice. The expression amount of PAL in Mudgo increased more rapidly and in higher levels, which were 42.848, 70.743, and 69.193 times over the expression amounts of Kittake at 24, 48, and 72 h after SBPH infestation, respectively. The expression levels of NPR1 in Mudgo were 4.690, 6.231, and 4.112 times over those in Kittake after SBPH infestation for 12, 36, and 72 h, respectively. There were significant differences in transcriptional levels of the jasmonate (JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 after 36 h-infestation between Mudgo and Kittake. The expression level was substantially lower in Mudgo than in Kittake at subsequent time points. In addition, the expression level of receptor gene EIN2 in ethylene signaling pathway was higher in Kittake than in Mudgo after SBPH feeding. The above results indicated that SBPH feeding activated the salicylic acid signaling pathway in resistant Mudgo and induced the defenses in susceptible Kittake associated with a JA/ethylene-dependent pathway. Genes PAL and NPR1 play a considerable role in the regulation of Mudgo expressing resistance to SBPH.%运用荧光定量PCR方法及特异性引物,对不同时间(12、24、36、48和72 h)灰飞虱胁迫下抗虫和感虫水稻品种中主要防卫途径的相关基因进行转录水平上定量分析.灰飞虱取食后,与水杨酸合成途径相关的基因PAL、NPR1、EDS1和PAD4在抗灰飞虱品种Mudgo

  9. The Backward Trajectory Simulation of the Planthopper During Migratory Peak in Hubei Province%湖北省稻飞虱迁入高峰日后向轨迹模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万素琴; 任永建; 刘志雄; 周国珍; 高正旭; 邓环; 邓爱娟

    2012-01-01

    稻飞虱是造成湖北省水稻大幅度减产原因之一。它是一种典型的气候型迁飞虫害,起飞、迁飞和沉降均与气象条件密切相关。本文采用高空气象场资料、植保站稻飞虱灯下监测资料,在个例分析基础上,利用质点轨迹、扩散及沉降模式HYSPLIT-4,模拟稻飞虱迁飞高峰日后向轨迹,分析湖北省稻飞虱迁飞路径和主要虫源。主要结论:(1)湖北省稻飞虱迁人主要路径有5条:西南路径、南路路径、东南路径、东路路径和东北路径;(2)春夏季稻飞虱迁入路径以西南路径比例最大,平均为47%;其次为南路和东南路径;(3)秋季稻飞虱迁入路径以东北路径比例最大,平均为30%,其次为西南路径,比例为23%;(4)秋季与春夏季相比,西南路径比例下降了24%,东北路径增加了22%,东路路径增加了8%,南路、东南路变化不大。(5)偏南方向(西南路、南路和东南路)三种路径之和春夏季为80%,秋季为55%,秋季比春夏季减少了25%;(6)综合春夏季、秋季,西南路径对湖北省全省都有较大影响,对南部的影响大于北部,偏北路径秋季影响大,南部和东南路径对江汉平原影响最大。(7)理论上稻飞虱虫源区在19°-25°N、90°-120°E之间,以东西向为长轴、南北向为短轴、面积约为3300km×660km的矩形区域内,越南、泰国、缅甸、柬埔寨和菲律宾等地是湖北稻飞虱初始虫源地,云南、贵州、两广、福建、湖南、江西和江淮等地区为湖北省稻飞虱的二次虫源地或三次虫源地。根据未来数值预报场进行质点前向轨迹模拟,综合分析虫源地是否有大量稻飞虱、是否符合起飞条件,目标地是否有下沉气流配合,可以开展稻飞虱迁入气象预报,此工作尚需进一步开展业务试验。%Rice planthopper is one of the causes for a kind of

  10. Migratory biology of the white backed planthopper:Take-off and emigration%白背飞虱的迁飞生物学:起飞与迁出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗举; 汪远昆; 张孝羲; 翟保平

    2011-01-01

    The aerial migration of the white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horv6th) (WBPH) was studied in the field and captivity in Suzhou in 2001 and 2002. The results indicate that WBPH immigrate into Suzhou in early July, and produce two generation in this area. A few adults were beginning to emigrate from the end of August but the peak of emigration occurred in mid September when the mass flight could be seen at dusk. When the population density was high, the mass flight of insects continued until 10 minutes after twilight. The daily emigration ratio was about 80% during the emigration peak in captive populations, but about 50% to 65% in paddy fields. We found that the emigration behaviour of WBPH has changed since the mid 1990' s. The offspring of immigrants would mostly emigrate when the macropterous adults emerged in 1980' s, but now very few hoppers depart in August which greatly prolongs the duration of damage to rice crops. Emigration trajectory analysis at altitudes of 500, 1 000 and 1 500 m indicates that in mid or late August about 40% of the migrating planthoppers from Suzhau arrive at the Yangtse and Huai River basin and the other 49% emigrate to the Yellow and East Seas, even crossing the sea to South Korea or Japan in a strong southerly low level jet-stream. In September, these planthoppers return to rice planting areas south of the Yangtse and north of Nanling.%2001-2002年在苏州吴中区2个生长季节的田间观察和罩笼试验表明,白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera (Horváth)7月上旬以前迁入苏州,并在当地繁殖2代.从8月中下旬开始陆续有少量向外迁飞,9月份大田出现外迁高峰.田间白背飞虱起飞比率约为50% ~65%,迁出峰期的每日迁出率约为80%.8月下旬白背飞虱一般已不构成危害.但20世纪90年代中期之后,白背飞虱8月份很少迁出而在迁入地大量滞留形成增殖代和主害代,危害时间大大延长,这与20世纪80年代的发生规律有了很

  11. Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps Rice with Insect and Herbicide Resistance Acted No Adverse Impacts on the Population Growth of a Non-Target Herbivore, the White-Backed Planthopper, Under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zeng-bin; HAN Nai-shun; TIAN Jun-ce; PENG Yu-fa; HU Cui; GUO Yu-yuan; SHEN Zhi-cheng; YE Gong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Numerous Bt rice lines expressing Cry protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been developed since 1989. However, the potential risks posed by Bt rice on non-target organisms still remain debate. The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the most economically important insect pests of rice in Asian countries and also one of the main non-target herbivores of transgenic rice. In the current study, impacts of transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps rice (G6H1) with both insect and herbicide resistance on WBPH were evaluated to ascertain whether this transgenic rice line had potential risks for this sap-sucking pest under laboratory and ifeld conditions. The laboratory results showed that no signiifcant difference in egg developmental duration, nymphal survival rate and female fecundity was found for WBPH between G6H1 and its non-transgenic isoline (XS110). However, the development duration of nymphs was signiifcantly shorter and female longevity signiifcantly longer when WBPH fed on G6H1 by comparison with those on its control. To verify the results found in laboratory, a 3-yr ifeld trial was conducted to monitor WBPH population using both the vacuum-suction machine and beat plate methods. Although the seasonal density of WBPH nymphs and total density of nymphs and adults were not signiifcantly affected by transgenic rice regardless of the sampling methods, the seasonal density of WBPH adults in transgenic rice plots was slightly lower than that in the control when using the vacuum-suction machine. Based on these results both from laboratory and ifeld, it is clear that our tested transgenic rice line will not lead higher population of WBPH. However, long-term ifeld experiments to monitor the population dynamics of WPBH at large scale need to be conducted to conifrm the present conclusions in future.

  12. Research advances on animal genetics in China in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Zhang; Xiaofang, Chen; Xun, Huang; Xiao, Yang

    2016-06-20

    Chinese scientists have made significant achievements in the field of animal genetics in 2015. Incomplete statistics show that among all the publications of 2015 involving nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans), fly (Drosophila melanogaster), zebrafish (Danio rerio), African clawed frog (Xenopus) or mice (Mus musculus), about 1/5 publications are from China. Many innovative studies were published in high-impact international academic journals by Chinese scientists, including the identification of a putative magnetic receptor MagR, the genetic basis for the regulation of wing polyphenism in the insect brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), DNA N(6)-methyladenine (6mA) modification in the Drosophila genome, a novel molecular mechanism regarding the dendritic spine pruning and maturation in the mammals, the mechanism for the CREB coactivator CRTC2 in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, the control of systemic inflammation by neurotransmitter dopamine, the role of Gasdermin protein family in triggering pyroptosis, a parvalbumin-positive excitatory visual pathway to trigger fear responses in mice, etc. Chinese scientists have also made important contributions in genome editing via TALEN or CRISPR/Cas system. According to incomplete statistics, more than 1/5 of the publications related to genome editing in 2015 are from China, where a variety of animals with different approaches were targeted, ranging from the worm to primates. Particularly, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes was successfully achieved for the first time. China has been one of the leading countries in genome sequencing in recent years, and Chinese scientists reported the sequence and annotation of the genomes of several important animal species in 2015, including goose (Anser cygnoides), Schlegel's Japanese Gecko (Gekko japonicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and pig (Sus scrofa). They further analyzed the genome

  13. A fusion protein containing a lepidopteran-specific toxin from the South Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus and snowdrop lectin shows oral toxicity to target insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitches Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence suggesting a role in plant defence, the use of plant lectins in crop protection has been hindered by their low and species-specific insecticidal activity. Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA is transported to the haemolymph of insects after oral ingestion, and can be used as a basis for novel insecticides. Recombinant proteins containing GNA expressed as a fusion with a peptide or protein, normally only toxic when injected into the insect haemolymph, have the potential to show oral toxicity as a result of GNA-mediated uptake. Results A gene encoding a toxin, ButaIT, from the red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus was synthesised and assembled into expression constructs. One construct contained ButaIT alone, whereas the other contained ButaIT fused N-terminally to a GNA polypeptide (ButaIT/GNA. Both recombinant proteins were produced using the yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression host, and purified. Recombinant ButaIT and ButaIT/GNA were acutely toxic when injected into larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea, causing slow paralysis, leading to mortality or decreased growth. ButaIT/GNA was chronically toxic when fed to L. oleracea larvae, causing decreased survival and weight gain under conditions where GNA alone was effectively non-toxic. Intact ButaIT/GNA was detected in larval haemolymph from insects fed the fusion protein orally, demonstrating transport of the linked polypeptide across the gut. Proteolysis of the fusion protein was also observed. ButaIT/GNA was significantly more toxic that GNA alone when fed to the homopteran Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper in liquid artificial diet. Conclusion The ButaIT/GNA recombinant fusion protein is toxic to lepidopteran larvae both when injected and when fed orally, showing the utility of GNA as a carrier to transport potentially toxic peptides and proteins across the insect gut. Although ButaIT has been claimed to be lepidopteran

  14. Seleksi Resistansi Wereng Batang Padi Coklat terhadap Insektisida Fipronil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melhanah Melhanah

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The rice brown planthoper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae, is one of  key pests on rice. The use of insecticides unwisely has caused N. lugens to develop resistance. The objective of this research was to determine the potency of N. lugens to develop resistance through laboratory, selections to fipronil, a relatively new insecticide.  A population of N. lugens was collected from rice field in Muntilan, Central Java during the outbreak in 2001. Selections were carried out every generation for four generations against third instars. Selection was started by dipping Cisadane rice seedlings in a solution of fipronil (50 ppm. The concentration was increased every generation, and the concentration used for the last selection (the fourth generation was 250 ppm. To determine the rate of resistance development, biassays were carried out to estimate LC50 of fipronil against selected and non-selected populations of N. lugens, and their LC50 values were compared to that of the laboratory population. The laboratory population has been in the laboratory for 15 years without any insecticides exposure. The founding population was as susceptible as the laboratory population to fipronil because their LC50 values were similar. Even though the concentration for selections was increased from generation to generation, the survival rate of N. lugens increased steadily. After four generations of selection, the resistance of selected population was 27.3 times than the non-selected population. These findings indicate that N. lugens population has the potency to develop resistance to fipronil in a continuous selection pressure is applied.

  15. Novel hydrazone derivatives containing pyridine amide moiety: Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zai-Bo; Hu, De-Yu; Zeng, Song; Song, Bao-An

    2016-02-15

    A series of novel hydrazone derivatives containing pyridine amide moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their insecticidal activity. Bioassays indicated that some of the target compounds exhibited good insecticidal activities against Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens), Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), Mythimna separata (M. separata), Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera), Pyrausta nubilalis (P. nubilalis), and Culex pipiens pallens (C. pipiens pallens). In particular, compound 5j revealed excellent insecticidal activity against C. pipiens pallens, with the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and the 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values of 2.44 and 5.76 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to those of chlorpyrifos (3.26 and 6.98 mg/L, respectively), tebufenozide (1.22 and 2.49 mg/L, respectively), and RH-5849 (2.61 and 6.37 mg/L, respectively). These results indicated that hydrazone derivatives containing pyridine amide moiety could be developed as novel and promising insecticides.

  16. Pyramiding the Blast Resistant Gene Pi9 and the Brown Planthopper Gene Bph18(t) to Develop Restorer Lines in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)%聚合抗稻瘟病基因Pi9和抗褐飞虱基因Bp h18(t)选育水稻恢复系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文清; 裴庆利; 梁云涛; 刘丕庆; 赵开军; 王春连; 林纬; 杨培忠; 于洁

    2014-01-01

    水稻(Oryza sativa L.)作为粮食作物,在全世界粮食生产中具有极其重要的地位。稻瘟病、褐飞虱等病虫害的发生严重危害着水稻的安全生产,培育并利用水稻抗性品种能经济有效地预防水稻病虫害的发生,因此,培育抗性品种在水稻安全生产中尤为重要。本研究以具有抗稻瘟病基因Pi9的抗病品系75-1-127为抗病亲本,以携带有抗褐飞虱基因Bph18(t)的水稻材料C4064为抗虫亲本,以性状优良的恢复系测679作为轮回亲本,进行杂交、回交和自交,并辅以田间多代选择。在分离群体中,使用与Pi9紧密连锁的SCAR标记pB8跟踪目标基因Pi9,利用与Bph18(t)紧密连锁的标记KC16跟踪目标基因Bph18(t)。通过分子标记辅助选择、农艺性状评价和抗病抗虫鉴定,选育出聚合了Pi9和Bph18(t)基因、对稻瘟病和褐飞虱的抗性水平接近抗病亲本或抗虫亲本的恢复系。%Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a cereal crop, plays an ultimately important role in the global food production. The occurrence of the rice disease and pest such as the rice blast (RB) and the brown planthopper (BPH) can seve-rely damage the safe production of rice, and the development and application of the resistant varieties can prevent the occurrence of the rice disease and pest economically and effectively, so the development of the resistant variety is crucial in the safe production of rice. In this study, we used the disease resistant line 75-1-127 carrying rice blast resistant gene Pi9 as the disease-resistant parent, the BPH-resistant line C4064 harboring brown planthopper resistant gene Bph18(t) as the BPH-resistant parent, and the elite restoring line Ce679 as recurrent parents, to hy-bridize, backcross, selfcross and field select for multiple generations. The Pi9-linked SCAR marker pB8 was used to select Pi9, and the Bph18(t)-linked marker KC16 was used to select Bph18(t) in the segregating populations. By

  17. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Subletal Deltametrin terhadap Nutrisi dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Ratna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the reproductive capacity through increasing plant growth and nutrition is one plausible mechanism of resurgence. This research was intended to determine the effect of deltamethrin on plant vigor and nutrition contents. The experiment was carried out outdoor. The treatments tested were deltamethrin (50 ppm, buprofezin (100 ppm, and control (water. Insecticide applications were applied one time (at age 26 d or 50 d and two times (at age 26 and 50 d. Deltamethrin applications as many as two times did not increase the total chlorophyll and the photosynthesis rate, nutrients (total nitrogen, total protein, total sugar, total reducing sugar at aged 26 d, and sucrose, growth (plant height and number of tillers, and yield (number of panicles. However, application of deltamethrin at aged 26 d increased the amount of asparagine. Asparagine is known to be associated with the feeding rate of Nilaparvata lugens stimulation. Therefore, increasing level of asparagine after application of deltamethrin at sublethal concentration was considered as one of the factors that might be involved in the mechanism of N. lugens resurgence. Salah satu mekanisme resurjensi adalah peningkatan reproduksi hama melalui peningkatan nutrisi dan pertumbuhan tanaman. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk melihat pengaruh deltametrin terhadap kandungan nutrisi dan vigor tanaman. Pengujian dilakukan di lapangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah deltametrin 50 ppm, buprofezin 100 ppm, dan kontrol (air. Aplikasi insektisida dilakukan satu kali masing-masing pada umur tanaman 26 dan 50 hst dan dua kali pada umur 26 dan 50 hst. Aplikasi deltametrin sebanyak dua kali tidak meningkatkan total klorofil dan laju fotosintesis, nutrisi (total nitrogen, total protein, total gula, total gula reduksi pada 26 hst, dan sukrosa kecuali asparagin, pertumbuhan (tinggi tanaman dan jumlah anakan, dan hasil (jumlah malai tanaman. Oleh karena asparagin berperan sebagai pemacu laju makan Nilaparvata

  18. Establishment of singly Wolbachia- and singly Cardinium-infected whitebacked planthopper ( Sogatella furcifera ) lines by microinjecting penicillin G%显微注射青霉素G获得单感染Wolbachia和单感染Cardinium白背飞虱品系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向菲; 赵冬晓; 洪晓月

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia和Cardinium都是广泛存在于节肢动物体内的一类母系遗传的共生细菌,可以通过不同方式操纵寄主的生殖行为.Wolbachia和Cardinium感染同一寄主在自然界比较常见,但是在某些可以同时感染Wolbachia 和Cardinium的寄主中其单感染品系较难发现.本研究检测了云南文山(YN)、海南三亚(HN)这2个不同地理种群中Wolbachia和Cardinium的感染情况;以双感染Wolbachia和Cardinium的白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera海南种群为实验材料,运用显微注射方法对双感染Wolbachia和Cardinium的白背飞虱若虫注射不同浓度青霉素G以获得单感染品系.结果表明:白背飞虱自然种群中单感染Wolbachia比率极低,本实验用到的海南种群未检测到单感染Wolbachia成虫;通过显微注射青霉素G的方法可以从白背飞虱双感染品系中筛选获得单感染品系,当青霉素G注射浓度为0.2% (w/v),注射龄期为5龄时得到单感染品系效率最高;F5代的检测结果显示显微注射得到的单感染品系可以稳定遗传.本研究为获得单感染品系白背飞虱提供了快捷方法,同时为其他双感染Wolbachia和Cardinium节肢动物不同感染品系的筛选提供参考.%Wolbachia and Cardinium are both maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and are associated with various reproductive abnormalities in their hosts. Infection with both Wolbachia and Cardinium is reasonably common, yet it is relatively difficult to find the individuals infected with single symbiont in doubly infected hosts naturally. In this study, Wolbachia and Cardinium were detected in two populations of the whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) , collected from Wenshan of Yunnan ( YN ) and Sanya of Hainan ( HN ). Using the Hainan population of doubly infected S. furcifera as the material, we developed a new technique of microinjecting different concentrations of penicillin G into

  19. 2015年中国动物遗传学研究领域若干重要进展%Research advances on animal genetics in China in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 陈晓芳; 黄勋; 杨晓

    2016-01-01

    Chinese scientists have made significant achievements in the field of animal genetics in 2015. Incom-plete statistics show that among all the publications of 2015 involving nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans), fly (Dro-sophila melanogaster), zebrafish (Danio rerio), African clawed frog (Xenopus) or mice (Mus musculus), about 1/5 publications are from China. Many innovative studies were publishedin high-impact international academic jour-nals by Chinese scientists, including the identification of a putative magnetic receptor MagR, the genetic basis for the regulation of wing polyphenism in the insect brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) modification in theDrosophilagenome, a novel molecular mechanism regarding thedendriticspine pruning and maturation in the mammals, the mechanism for the CREB coactivator CRTC2 in the regulation of hepatic lipid me-tabolism, the control of systemic inflammation by neurotransmitter dopamine, the role of Gasdermin protein family in triggering pyroptosis, a parvalbumin-positive excitatory visual pathway to trigger fear responses in mice, etc. Chinese scientists have also made important contributions in genome editingviaTALEN or CRISPR/Cas system. According to incomplete statistics, more than 1/5 of the publications related to genome editing in 2015 are from China, where a variety of animals with different approaches were targeted, ranging from the worm to primates. Particularly, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes was successfully achieved for the first time. China has been one of the leading countries in genome sequencing in recent years, and Chinese scientists reported the sequence and annotation of the genomes of several important animal species in 2015, including goose ser cygnoides), Schlegel’s Japanese Gecko (Gekko japonicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), large yel-low croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and pig (Susscrofa). They further analyzed the genome

  20. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of cytochrome P450 reductase gene in Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera:Delphacidae)%白背飞虱细胞色素 P450还原酶基因的分子特征与表达模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余航; 刘苏; 朱晴子; 周文武; 梁庆梅; 史肖肖; 祝梓杰; 祝增荣

    2016-01-01

    从水稻重要害虫白背飞虱(Sogatella furcifera)中克隆了一条编码细胞色素 P450还原酶(cytochrome P450 reductase,CPR)的全长 cDNA,命名为 SfCPR,其开放阅读框全长为2034 bp,编码一个含有677个氨基酸残基的蛋白质.SfCPR 蛋白质的2级结构具有 CPR 的典型特征,例如 N 端跨膜区、黄素单核苷酸结合域、黄素腺嘌呤二核苷酸结合域和烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸磷酸结合域,以及保守的催化残基.系统进化分析结果显示, SfCPR 与灰飞虱和褐飞虱的 CPRs 聚在同一分支.荧光定量聚合酶链式反应结果显示:SfCPR 基因在白背飞虱各龄期均有表达,其中以成虫表达量最高;在白背飞虱成虫各组织中均能够检测到 SfCPR 基因的表达,其中,以腹部表达量最高.使用亚致死剂量的溴氰菊酯、吡虫啉和噻嗪酮处理白背飞虱3龄若虫后,试虫的 SfCPR 表达水平均显著上升.上述结果为进一步研究该基因的生理功能奠定了基础.%Summary Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is an electron supplier for various cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.Most P450-mediated catalytic reactions in insects require involvement of CPR,such as detoxification of insecticides and plant secondary metabolites.So far,CPR genes have been identified and characterized from many model and non-model insect species.Since insect P450 system is one of the most important metabolic adaptive traits involved in the degradation of xenobiotics and regulation of endogenous substrates.CPR,as the indispensable electron donor of P450 system,has attracted increasing attention as a potential candidate to develop novel chemical inhibitor to manage target insect pests.Rice planthoppers,such as Nilaparvata lugens ,Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera ,are considered to be the most serious pests of rice.Previously,some studies on L.striatellus and N.lugens found that silencing the CPR gene by

  1. Cloning and prokaryotic expression of rice gene encoding β-caryophyllene synthase and its genetic transformation%水稻β-石竹烯合成酶基因OsCAS的克隆鉴定、原核表达及其遗传转化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈林泉; 周国鑫; 王祺; 祝树德; 娄永根

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the role of β-caryophyllene emitted from rice plants in mediating interactions among rice, herbivores and their natural enemies, a rice β-caryophyllene synthase gene OsCAS was cloned, expressed in E. coli and over-expressed or silenced in rice plants using an Agrobacterium-based transformation system. The gene OsCAS, a 1731 bp cDNA, contains an open reading frame of 1728 bp, which encodes a protein of 576 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 66.5 kDa. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the putative rice OsCAS had a high amino acid identity (99%) to maize (Zea mays) β-caryophyllene synthase, whereas a low amino acid identity (51%) to those in other plants including Arabodopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), Artemisia (Artemisia annua) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Infestation by rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l) or jasmonic acid treatment enhanced significantly the expression levels of OsCAS gene. The recombinant OsCAS protein was expressed in E. coli and rice lines with over-expression or RNAi silencing of OsCAS gene were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, which laid a foundation for elucidating the biochemical and ecological functions of OsCAS.%为阐明水稻β-石竹烯在调节水稻、害虫及其天敌相互关系中的作用,克隆鉴定了一个水稻β-石竹烯合成酶基因OsCAS,并对其原核表达与遗传转化进行研究.该基因的cDNA全长1731 bp,包含一个1728 bp的开放阅读框,编码一个由576个氨基酸组成的蛋白,预测分子量66.5 kDa.系统进化树分析表明,水稻OsCAS基因编码蛋白的氨基酸序列与同为单子叶植物玉米的β-石竹烯合成酶氨基酸序列同源性达99%,而与其他植物(拟南芥、青篙、黄瓜)的同源性仅51%.褐飞虱为害和茉莉酸处理能明显上调OsCAS基因的表达水平.同时原核表达了OsCAS基因,并利用农杆菌转化系统获得OsCAS基因过量表达和RNAi的水稻品系,为分析OsCAS基因

  2. Wolbachia screening in spiders and assessment of horizontal transmission between predator and prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Y; Peng, Y; Liu, F X; Lei, C

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the prevalence of Wolbachia in arthropods is attributable not only to its vertical transmission, but also to its horizontal transfer. In order to assess the horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between predator and prey, arthropods belonging to 11 spider families and six insect families were collected in the same field of rice. The distribution of Wolbachia in these arthropods was detected by diagnostic PCR amplification of the wsp (Wolbachia outer surface protein gene) and 16S rDNA genes. Nurscia albofasciata Strand (Araneae: Titanoecidae), Propylea japonica Thunberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Paederus fuscipes Curtis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae) were infected with Wolbachia. This is the first report of infection of N. albofasciata and P. fuscipes by Wolbachia. No direct evidence indicated the existence of horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between predator and prey.

  3. cis-Nitenpyram Analogues Bearing Acyloxy Segments Anchored on the Tetrahydropyrimidine Ring: Synthesis,Insecticidal Activities and Molecular Docking Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Chuan-wen; WU Ying; CHEN Yan-xia; NAN Shi-bin; ZHANG Wang-geng

    2013-01-01

    A series of novel cis-nitenpyram analogues bearing acyloxy segments anchored on the tetrahydropyrimidine ring was designed and synthesized.Preliminary bioassays indicate that all the nitenpyram analogues 3a—3n exhibit good insecticidal activities against Nilaparvata lugens and Aphis medicaginis at 100 mg/L,while analogue 3k affords the best activity in vitro and the lethal concentration 50(LC50) values(0.187,0.214 mg/L) are close to that of nitenpyram.The structure activity relationships(SARs) suggest that their insecticidal potency is influenced by the species of acyloxy segments.The docking results reveal that analogue 3k forms stronger hydrogen-bonding with the nAChR,which explain the structure activity relationships(SARs) observed in vitro and imply that the strategies of our designed nitenpyram analogues are feasible.

  4. 超级稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群繁殖速率的密度制约效应%Density Restriction Effects of Reproductive Rate of Rice Brown Planthopper Population in Super Rice Yongyou NO. 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐森富; 王会福; 汪恩国; 陈伟强

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究超级籼粳杂交稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群繁殖速率的密度制约效应.[方法]在超级籼粳杂交稻甬优6号不同生育期即分蘖期、孕穗期、灌浆期分别接入不同虫量褐飞虱,调查并分析超级稻褐飞虱神群繁殖速率及其变化动态.[结果]分蘖期:褐飞虱孕穗期、灌浆期种群教量随分蘖期种群基数的增加而逐渐增加;当灌浆期褐飞虱种群密度升高达到一定限度(>250头/丛)时,其乳熟期种群教量随该密度的加大而呈下降趋势;超级稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群发展呈现中间快、两头慢的特点.孕穗期:褐飞虱种群发展在孕穗至灌浆期是随着其基数密度升高而升高,但到乳熟期相关性表现却不显著;超级稻中后期褐飞虱种群仍具有高繁殖能力,对水稻产量潜存极大威胁.灌浆期:褐飞虱种群密度<70头/丛时,其种群发展仍随着其基数密度升高而升高,对产量仍潜存较大威胁.[结论]研究结果为建立和健全褐飞虱监测预警体系、经济有效生态控制超级稻褐飞虱发生危害、提高褐飞虱持续控制能力提供理论依据.%[ Objective ] The paper was to study the density restriction effects of reproductive rate of rice brown planthopper (BPH) population in super indics and japonica hybrid rice Yongyou NO. 6. [ Method ] Different amounts of BPH were inoculated into super indica and japonica hybrid rice Yongyou NO. 6 during tillering, booting and filling stage, respectively. The reproductive rate and variation dynamics of BPH in super rice was also investigated and analyzed. [ Result ] Tillering stage: the population quantity of BPH during booting and filling stage gradually increased with the increase of cardinal number of its population at tillering stage; when the population density of BPH during grain filling stage reached a certain limit ( > 250 head/cluster), the population density at milking stage showed decrease trend with the increase of such

  5. Effects of soil biota influenced by long-term organic and chemical fertilizers on rice growth and resistance to insects

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    Linhui Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization plays an important role in soil quality, food supply and security. Although promoting soil biological development is considered as one of the most critical components that organic fertilizers exert on soil compared with chemical fertilization, less attention has been paid to the fertilization-derived influence on crop growth and insect-resistance via soil biota. Understanding the role of soil biota in crop growth and resistance to insects would not only help explain the biological mechanisms of the fertilization effects on soil functions, but also help identify integrative management techniques for soils and crops. Soil suspension was extracted from long-term organically fertilized soils and chemically fertilized soils. Then, the soil suspension was sterilized or non-sterilized to investigate the soil biota’s effects on rice growth and insect-resistance through a soil-free cultured method. Results showed that soil biota and fertilization significantly affected soil nutrient status (P < 0.01. Soil biota decreased soil ammonium content, rice biomass, shoot nitrogen content and the biomass of Nilaparvata lugens, but increased soil nitrate content, rice root-shoot ratio and the contents of root nitrogen, soluble sugar and phenolics (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, soil biota from organically fertilized soils promoted the synthesis of shoot soluble sugar and shoot phenolics. With the addition of Nilaparvata lugens, soil biota significantly reduced rice nitrogen uptake and promoted phenolic synthesis (P < 0.05. Collectively, soil biota, especially from organically fertilized soils, promoted rice resistance traits by altering the nutrient allocation of rice between aboveground and belowground, and by increasing the root-shoot ratio and the synthesis of phenols.

  6. Effects of techniques of paddy field production mechanization on occurrence of diseases, insect pests, weeds and yield of double-cropping rice%全程机械化生产对双季稻病虫草发生及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保同; 张建中; 吴建富; 潘晓华; 石庆华

    2013-01-01

    7.88%。该研究为双季稻区水稻全程机械化生产病虫草防治技术的推广提供参考。%Four patterns such as mechanized rotary tillage-mechanized transplanting method, mechanized rotary with cattle tillage-mechanized transplanting method, cattle tillage-mechanized transplanting method and mechanized rotary tillage-manual transplanting method were tested in order to investigate the effects of different plowing-transplanting methods on diseases, insect pests, weeds and yield of double-cropping rice. Results showed that major diseases, insect pests and weeds were sheath blight disease Rhizoctonia solani, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, Monochoria vaginalis and Echinochloa crusgalli in early rice with four plowing-transplanting methods in no using pesticide areas, and sheath blight disease, C medinalis, rice planthopper (Sogatella furcifera and Nilaparvata lugens), M. vaginalis and E. crusgalli in late rice. Under the same conditions of fertilizer and water management, the sheath blight disease indexes of early and late rice were 8.25-13.31 and 17.60-23.10 at booting stage, 13.75-20.90 and 20.02-23.76 at milky stage, respectively, which was more serious using mechanized rotary tillage-manual transplanting method than that using mechanized rotary tillage-mechanized transplanting method, and more serious using cattle tillage-mechanized transplanting method than that using mechanized rotary tillage-mechanized transplanting method. The second generation of C. medinalis occurred seriously in early rice, and its curled leaf rates were 15.03%-16.67%. The fourth and fifth generation of C. medinalis in late rice occurred seriously, and its curled leaf rates were 29.67%-33.48% and 60.09%-65.45%, respectively. The occurrence difference of C. medinalis was not significant between four plowing-transplanting methods in early and late rice. The population density of rice planthoppers in late rice was low at early stage, 425-550 heads/100 clusters at full heading stage

  7. The insecticidal activity and action mode of an imidacloprid analogue, 1-(3-pyridylmethyl)-2-nitroimino-imidazolidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, An-Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Xi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Ze-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are key insecticides extensively used for control of Nilaparvata lugens. However, imidacloprid resistance has been reported in many Asian countries in recent years. To understand the roles of the chlorine atom of pyridyl group on insecticidal activity and resistance, the atom was removed to generate an imidacloprid analogue DC-Imi (DesChlorine Imidacloprid). DC-Imi showed significantly higher toxicity than imidacloprid in the susceptible strain of N. lugens, but had medium level cross-resistance in an imidacloprid-resistant strain. In Xenopus oocyte expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) Nlα1/rβ2, the inward currents evoked by DC-Imi were detected and could be blocked by typical nAChRs antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE), which demonstrated that DC-Imi acted as an agonist on insect nAChRs. The efficacy of DC-Imi on Nlα1/rβ2 was 1.8-fold higher than that of imidacloprid. In addition, the influence of an imidacloprid resistance associated mutation (Y151S) on agonist potencies was evaluated. Compared with the wild-type receptor, the mutation reduced maximal inward current of DC-Imi to 55.6% and increased half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) to 3.53-fold. Compared with imidacloprid (increasing EC50 to 2.38-fold of wild-type receptor), Y151S mutation decreased DC-Imi potency more significantly. The results indicated that the selective and possibly high toxicities could be achieved through the modification of 6-chloro-3-pyridyl group in imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids.

  8. Phenotypic Expression of Whitebacked Planthopper Resistance in the Newly Established japonica / indica Doubled Haploid Rice Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazushige SOGAWA; SUN Zong-xiu; QIAN Qian; ZENG Da-li

    2004-01-01

    A new doubled haploid (DH) rice population was established from a cross between WBPH-resistant japonica Chunjiang 06 (C J-06) and susceptible indica TN1. Sucking inhibitory and ovicidal resistance of the DH rice lines were evaluated on the basis of non-preference response of WBPH immigrants and honeydew excretion by WBPH females, and appearance of watery lesions in the necrotic discoloration of leaf sheaths ovipositied by WBPH,respectively. Both the major gene resistance to WBPH, sucking inhibitory and ovicidal resistance, showed 1 (resistant): 1 (susceptible) segregation ratio in the DH population. Relative density of WBPH populations and damage scores in the DH population indicated combined functions of both the major resistance genes as well as QTLs affecting the host plant response to WBPH infestations. Thus, the newly developed CJ-06/TN1 DH population could be a useful material to analyze major genes and QTLs for WBPH resistance in japonica rice.

  9. The planthopper genus Spartidelphax, a new segregate of Nearctic Delphacodes (Hemiptera, Delphacidae

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    Charles Bartlett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The new genus Spartidelphax is described to house three species removed from the polyphyletic genus Delphacodes. The members of Spartidelphax are coastal species native to eastern North America, and probably feed exclusively on cordgrass (Poaceae, Spartina Schreb.. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the included species (viz. S. detectus, S. luteivittus, and S. penedetectus are reviewed. Spartidelphax luteivittus is a nomen dubium, whose type material is inadequate to provide diagnostic features contrasting with S. detectus and S. penedetectus. Diagnoses and a key are provided for the remaining Spartidelphax.

  10. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of genome segments S1, S2, S3 and S6 of Mal de Río Cuarto virus, a newly accepted Fijivirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distéfano, Ana J; Conci, Luis R; Muñoz Hidalgo, Marianne; Guzmán, Fabiana A; Hopp, Horacio E; del Vas, Mariana

    2003-03-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a newly described species of the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae. The nucleotide sequence of four MRCV genome segments was determined. MRCV S1, S2, S3 and S6 were predicted to encode proteins of 168.4, 134.4, 141.7 and 90 kDa, respectively. MRCV S1 encodes a basic protein that contains conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs, and is homologous to Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), Fiji disease virus (FDV) and Nilaparvata lugens reovirus (NLRV) polymerases as well as to corresponding proteins of members of other genera of the Reoviridae. MRCV S2 codes for a protein with intermediate homology to the ones coded by RBSDV S4 and FDV S3 'B' spike, which is presumably the B-spike protein. MRCV S3 most probably encodes the major core protein and is highly homologous to corresponding proteins of RBSDV S2 and FDV S3. MRCV S6-encoded protein has low homology to the proteins of unknown function coded by RBSDV S6 and FDV S6. The identity levels between all analyzed MRCV coded proteins and their RBSDV counterparts varied between 84.5 and 44.8%. The analysis of the reported sequences allowed a phylogenetic comparison of MRCV with other reovirus and supported its taxonomic status within the genus.

  11. Sequence analysis of genome segments S4 and S8 of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV): evidence that the virus should be a separate Fijivirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distéfano, A J; Conci, L R; Muñoz Hidalgo, M; Guzmán, F A; Hopp, H E; del Vas, M

    2002-09-01

    This is the first sequence-based characterization of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV), currently classified as a variant of Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) and exclusively found in South America. We sequenced and analyzed genome segments S4 and S8. MRCV S4 coded for a putative 131.67 kDa protein while MRCV S8 coded for a putative 68.26 kDa protein containing an ATP/GTP-binding motif. The 5' and 3' ends of MRCV segments, were 5'AAGUUUUU3' and 5'CAGCUnnnGUC3', respectively. Prediction of secondary structure of both segments coding strands showed that terminal regions were able to form structures that are proposed to be replication and packaging signals. MRCV S4 showed identity to members of Fijivirus as well as to two other genera of the Reoviridae family. MRCV S8 revealed identity with Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) S8, MRDV S7, Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) S9 and Nilaparvata lugens reovirus (NLRV) S7. While MRDV and RBSDV segments are highly homologous between each other, MRCV identity levels with them was considerably lower. We discussed the evolutionary relationships of MRCV to other Reoviridae, and based on phylogenetic analysis we proposed that although MRCV is related to MRDV, it could be regarded as a new species of the Fijivirus genus.

  12. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, L G; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I C; Beldade, R; Bernardi, G; Boubou, A; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F; Bruford, M W; Buonamici, A; Burnett, R K; Canal, D; Cárdenas, H; Caullet, C; Chen, S Y; Chun, Y J; Cossu, C; Crane, C F; Cros-Arteil, S; Cudney-Bueno, R; Danti, R; Dávila, J A; Della Rocca, G; Dobata, S; Dunkle, L D; Dupas, S; Faure, N; Ferrero, M E; Fumanal, B; Gigot, G; González, I; Goodwin, S B; Groth, D; Hardesty, B D; Hasegawa, E; Hoffman, E A; Hou, M L; Jamsari, A F J; Ji, H J; Johnson, D H; Joseph, L; Justy, F; Kang, E J; Kaufmann, B; Kim, K S; Kim, W J; Koehler, A V; Laitung, B; Latch, P; Liu, Y D; Manjerovic, M B; Martel, E; Metcalfe, S S; Miller, J N; Midgley, J J; Migeon, A; Moore, A J; Moore, W L; Morris, V R F; Navajas, M; Navia, D; Neel, M C; De Nova, P J G; Olivieri, I; Omura, T; Othman, A S; Oudot-Canaff, J; Panthee, D R; Parkinson, C L; Patimah, I; Pérez-Galindo, C A; Pettengill, J B; Pfautsch, S; Piola, F; Potti, J; Poulin, R; Raimondi, P T; Rinehart, T A; Ruzainah, A; Sarver, S K; Scheffler, B E; Schneider, A R R; Silvain, J F; Siti Azizah, M N; Springer, Y P; Stewart, C N; Sun, W; Tiedemann, R; Tsuji, K; Trigiano, R N; Vendramin, G G; Wadl, P A; Wang, L; Wang, X; Watanabe, K; Waterman, J M; Weisser, W W; Westcott, D A; Wiesner, K R; Xu, X F; Yaegashi, S; Yuan, J S

    2009-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata lugens; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Phoxinus neogaeus; Pristomyrmex punctatus; Pseudobagrus brevicorpus; Seiridium cardinale; Stenopsyche marmorata; Tetranychus evansi and Xerus inauris. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Agalinis decemloba; Agalinis tenella; Agalinis obtusifolia; Agalinis setacea; Agalinis skinneriana; Cercospora zeina; Cercospora kikuchii; Cercospora sorghi; Mycosphaerella graminicola; Setosphaeria turcica; Magnaporthe oryzae; Cotesia flavipes; Cotesia marginiventris; Grindelia Xpaludosa; Grindelia chiloensis; Grindelia fastigiata; Grindelia lanceolata; Grindelia squarrosa; Leucadendron coniferum; Leucadendron salicifolium; Leucadendron tinctum; Leucadendron meridianum; Laodelphax striatellus; Sogatella furcifera; Phoxinus eos; Phoxinus rigidus; Phoxinus brevispinosus; Phoxinus bicolor; Tetranychus urticae; Tetranychus turkestani; Tetranychus ludeni; Tetranychus neocaledonicus; Tetranychus amicus; Amphitetranychus viennensis; Eotetranychus rubiphilus; Eotetranychus tiliarium; Oligonychus perseae; Panonychus citri; Bryobia rubrioculus; Schizonobia bundi; Petrobia harti; Xerus princeps; Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and Sciurus carolinensis.

  13. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Activities of Novel Pyrazole Oxime Compounds Containing a Substituted Pyridyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuili Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to find novel biologically active pyrazole oximes, a series of pyrazole oxime compounds bearing a substituted pyridyl unit were prepared. Bioassays showed that some target compounds were found to have good acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, compound 9q especially displayed potent acaricidal activity against T. cinnabarinus when the concentration was reduced to 100 μg/mL. Interestingly, most target compounds possessed excellent insecticidal activities against Oriental armyworm at 500 μg/mL. Moreover, some compounds were active against Aphis medicaginis and Nilaparvata lugens at 500 μg/mL. Additionally, compounds 9b, 9g, 9l, 9p, 9q, 9r, 9s, 9t, 9u, and 9v displayed significant antiproliferative activities against HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 1.53–17.27 μM, better than that of the control 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 35.67 μM.

  14. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  15. Cambios en el uso del espacio por una manada de Callicebus torquatus lugens (Bajo Apoporis, Vaupés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Bacca Viviana

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue realizado en la Estación Biológica Mosiro Itajura (Caparú (Vaupés,Colombia entre diciembre de 2000 y mayo de 2001, y se enfocó en una manada particular deCallicebus torquatus lugensbautizada "Vecinos", la cual ha sido objeto de investigación durantevarios años. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar el uso que la manada hace de su espa-cio en relación con la oferta de recursos exhibida dentro de su territorio, establecer variaciones enel tamaño y ubicación del territorio en los últimos años, relacionar los patrones de compor-tamiento con la distribución espacio / temporal dentro del territorio y establecer los tipos deinteracciones con otras manadas de primates. Para ello se siguió al grupo durante 295.39 horasrepartidas en 5 meses, en las que se registraron los comportamientos adoptados por cada unode los miembros de la manada utilizando el método de registro instantáneo o "Slow data scan"(Altmann, 1974; Cullen y Valladares, 1997 y se marcaron los árboles utilizados para alimen-tación, dormitorio y vocalización. Para el caso de los árboles de alimentación, se determinó elrecurso consumido y se colectó la muestra botánica para su posterior determinación. Adicio-nalmente, se realizaron muestreos fenológicos durante 3 meses, utilizando cuadrantes de 10 m2(66 en total repartidos en las hectáreas correspondientes al territorio reportado para el mismogrupo por Palacios y Rodríguez (1995, marcándose en total 1.536 árboles con un DAP mayor a3 cm. Se encontró que el uso del territorio estuvo determinado por la oferta de recursos, la dis-tribución espacial y el tipo de cosecha que exhibían las especies vegetales base de la dieta de los"Vecinos", las cuales estaban representadas principalmente en las familias Euphorbiaceae,Annonaceae, Myristicaceae y Moraceae. Durante este período de estudio su territorio abarcó unárea de 19.75 ha, hallándose un sobrelapamiento de 3.75 ha con el territorio reportado por Fo-rero (1986 y de 18.25 ha con lo registrado por Palacios y Rodríguez (1995, que representan un19% y un 92.4%, respectivamente, del territorio reportado para este estudio. La manada invirtióla mayoría de su tiempo en descansar, seguida en orden de proporción por las actividades dedesplazamiento, alimentación y las actividades sociales (acicalamiento, agresión, juego y vocali-zación, y aunque para realizar dichas actividades utilizaron todos los estratos del bosque, la ma-yor preferencia se presentó para los estratos bajos y medios (0 - 18 m de altura. En cuanto a lospatrones de actividad diaria, se observó como en otros estudios, que en esta especie existe unatendencia para alimentarse a horas específicas a lo largo del día. Los picos de actividad princi-palmente dependieron de la oferta y la distribución de los recursos consumidos por ellos.

  16. Taxonomic updates and descriptions of four new Lophopini planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Lophopidae from Yunnan province, South China

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    Menglin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic updates and descriptions of four new species from Yunnan, China are provided: three new species in the genus Pitambara Distant, 1906: P. triremiprocta Wang & Soulier-Perkins, sp. nov., P. impudica Wang & Bourgoin, sp. nov., P. tricorne Wang & Wang, sp. nov., and one new species in the genus Serida Walker, 1857: Serida parenthesisflexuosa Wang & Soulier-Perkins, sp. nov. A new identification key to Pitambara species is provided, as well as to the species of the genus Lacusa Stål, 1862. Lacusa yunnanensis Chou & Huang, 1985 stat. rev. is not considered as a synonym of the species L. fuscofasciata (Stål, 1854 anymore and Lacusa orientalis (Liang, 2000 is transferred to the genus Acothrura Melichar, 1915 as Acothrura orientalis (Liang, 2000 comb. nov.

  17. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae, a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

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    Yanan Hao

    Full Text Available Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.

  18. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae.

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    Xia Zhou

    Full Text Available Micraspis discolor (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle' adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized.

  19. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle' adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized.

  20. Some topological properties of arthropod food webs in paddy fields of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiQin Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the topological properties of paddy arthropod food webs is of significance for understanding natural equilibrium of rice pests. In present study, we used Pajek software to analyze the topological properties of four full arthropod food webs in South China. The results showed that predators were significantly abundant than preys, and the proportion of predators to preys (3.07 was significantly higher than previously reported by Cohen in 1977 (1.33. In the food webs, the number of top species was the largest, accounted for about 50% of the total. The number of intermediate-intermediate links was far greater than the other three links. The average degree of paddy arthropod food webs is 6.0, 6.04, 5.74 and 7.75, respectively. Average degree and link density did not change significantly with the change of the number of species, but the connectance reduced significantly. In the paddy ecosystems, the increase of species diversity does not lead to an increase proportionally to the links among species. The link density and connectance of food webs of early season rice field were less than that from late season rice field. Cycles of all food webs cycles were 0. The maximum chain length of the basal species was 3, and the largest chain length of the top species was typically 2 or 3. Neutral insects were found to play a very important role in the paddy ecosystem. Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera were found to be the dominant species of rice pests. Pardosa pseudoannulata, Tetragnatha maxillosa, Pirata subparaticus, Arctosa stigmosa and Clubiona corrugate were identified as the important predatory species that may effectively control the pest population. The keystone species calculated from keystone index and network analysis are analogous, indicating either keystone index or network analysis can be used in the analysis of keystone species.

  1. Subcellular localization of the stripe disease-specific protein encoded by rice stripe virus (RSV) in its vector, the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The stripe disease-specific protein (SP) encoded by the rice stripe virus (RSV) was successfully used as a localization signal of the virus in its vector, the small brown lanthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Fallen. Immunogold parficles in large numbers were detected in various parts of the viruliferous females: the ovum, surface of chorion, the midgut lumen, and the columnar cells. Whereas there was none of these particles in the non-viruliferous females and males,and testis of viruliferous males. Endosymbionts (mycetocytes)were abundant, harboring ovaries of both viruliferous and non-viruliferous females, but none in the testis of males. The results provided us with the direct proof that RSV is a ciruculative and propagative plant virus and it was transovarially transmitted alongside with endosymbionts of its vector. Therefore, we deem it a nice lead for future studies on the mechanism of RSV transmission and functioning of its viral proteins.

  2. 抛秧栽培田稻飞虱的发生特点%The characteristics of the incidence of rice planthopper in rice seedling throwing culture field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘运良; 罗黔超; 肖卫平; 王蓉; 王国先

    2002-01-01

    系统观察和大田普查结果一致表明,抛秧栽培田前期稻飞虱(以白背飞虱为主)发生量明显高于常规移栽田.高峰期虫量,前者是后者的2.5倍以上.为此,初步分析了抛秧栽培田虫量较大的原因,提出了重点监测,适时早治,机动喷雾,连片防治的防治策略.

  3. Crop resistance traits modify the effects of an aboveground herbivore, brown planthopper, on soil microbial biomass and nematode community via changes to plant performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Liu, M.; Chen, F.; Griffiths, B.S.; Chen, X.; Johnson, S.N.; Hu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-mediated effects of aboveground herbivory on the belowground ecosystem are well documented, but less attention has been paid to agro-ecosystems and in particular how crop cultivars with different traits (i.e. resistance to pests) shape such interactions. A fully factorial experiment was conduc

  4. Wolbachia 在中国稻田飞虱中的感染和传播%Infection and Transmission of Wolbachia in Chinese Planthopper Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘波谊; 周伟国; 赵新燕; 冯丽冰; 李昌本

    2000-01-01

    用PCR方法检测了采集于不同地域的稻田飞虱共生菌Wolbachia的感染,发现灰飞虱Lacdelphax striatellus,褐飞虱Nileparvata Jugens,白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera为Wolbachia所感染.克隆了编码Wolbachia外膜蛋白质的wsp基因并进行了序列测定.对wsp的RFLP分析证实了这些飞虱为单一Wolbachia感染.还发现一种能同时寄生于这3种昆虫的一类寄生蜂为同种Wolbachia感染.Wolbachia可能通过这种寄生蜂在不同昆虫间横向传播.

  5. 白背飞虱中的Wolbachia和Cardinium双重感染特性%Double infection of Wolbachia and Cardinium in the whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张开军; 朱文超; 刘静; 丁秀蕾; 荣霞; 洪晓月

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the infection characteristics of bacterial endosymbionts Wolbachia and Cardinium in natural populations of Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) and the relationship between Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO, we used PCR method to detect the infection rates and tissue distribution of these bacteria and phage in various 5. furcifera populations which were collected from nine localities in seven provinces and regions of China. The results revealed that the double infection of Wolbachia and Cardinium was a common event in this insect with each population tested having a high infection rate. For Cardinium, the infection rate was nearly 100% , but for Wolbachia, the infection rates of females and males were quite different, nearly 100% in females while ranged from 22.2% -95.0% in male adults. In addition, by comparing the detection results using different DNA extraction methods and DNA polymerase, we found that the rough DNA extraction method has evident disadvantages in surveying the endosymbiont infection. Wolbachia and Cardinium existed not only in the germinal tissues of S. furcifera but also in non-reproductive tissues/parts such as head, thorax, legs and wings. Meanwhile, these two endosymbionts exhibited different change patterns during the adult stage, particularly in males. There existed an obvious negative correlation between the infection rates of Wolbachia and the rates of bacteriophage WO detected from uninfected individuals in males. The lower Wolbachia infection rate in males might be caused by the transition of WO phage from lysogenic to lytic type under the induction of certain factors. The results of this study will shed light on further understanding of the reproductive manipulation and underlying mechanisms of Wolbachia and Cardinium, their vertical transfer,interrelationship and their potential utilization.%为了明确自然种群白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera中Wolbachia和Cardinium的感染情况以及Wolbachia与其特有的WO噬菌体之间的关系,以采自中国7个省区9个地点的白背飞虱为研究材料,运用PCR检测的方法调查了Wolbachia,Cardinium以及WO噬菌体在各飞虱种群中的感染率和组织分布特点.结果表明:白背飞虱广泛双重感染Wolbachia和Cardinium,并且都表现出很高的感染率.白背飞虱各种群Cardinium的感染率几乎均为100%;Wolbachia的感染率也较高,但雌雄虫感染率差异较大,雌虫的感染率几乎均为100%,而雄虫的感染率从22.2%~95.0%不等.另外,通过不同DNA聚合酶、不同提取方法的对比,揭示了DNA粗提样品在基于PCR技术的胞内共生菌检测中的不足之处.对白背飞虱头部、胸部、腹部、足和翅5个不同部位组织的检测结果表明,不仅在含有生殖组织的腹部有这两类共生菌的感染,在其他非生殖组织中同样也感染了这两类共生菌;虽然Wolbachia和Cardinium在寄主的各个组织中均有分布,但是两者在白背飞虱成虫(尤其是雄虫)阶段的动态变化有明显的差异.进一步对Wolbachia宿主特异性WO噬菌体的检测结果表明,自然种群雄虫中Wolbachia的感染率与不感染个体中WO噬菌体的比率呈明显的负相关.因此推测,雄虫中Wolbachia感染率相对较低的原因可能是由于Wolbachia基因组中溶原性的WO噬菌体受到某种因素的诱导已转化为裂解性噬菌体.研究结果为进一步揭示Wolbachia和Cardinium双重感染条件下对寄主的生殖调控作用及其机制、垂直传播规律、两者之间的相互关系以及进一步的应用研究等方面提供了重要的理论基础.

  6. 害虫对氟虫腈的抗药性研究进展%Current status of the pest resistance to fipronil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦华; 吴长兴; 赵学平; 陈丽萍; 俞瑞鲜; 苍涛; 吴声敢; 王强

    2009-01-01

    Fipronil is the first commercially used member of the phenylpyrazole insecticides that interact antagonistically with GABA-gated chloride channel. Fipronil has made a great contribution to manage some of the most destructive crop pests in the world, including species with serious resistance to earlier-used insecticides. However, with the extensive application in pest control, the great attention has been paid to the resistance of insects to fipronil. To date, some substantial agricultural pests such as Plutella xylostella (L.), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Nilaparvata lugens ( Stal), Sogatella furcifera ( Horváth ) , Chilo suppressalis ( Walker) , Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) , etc, have developed resistance to fipronil. To provide a theory base for reasonable using fipronil, current status of resistance, cross-resistance, and resistance mechanism were reviewed in this article.%氟虫腈是第一个商品化的苯基吡唑类杀虫剂,其作用机理是抑制γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)受体氯离子通道.氟虫腈为防治一些世界性的重大害虫包括对以前使用的杀虫剂具有严重抗性的害虫作出了重要贡献.然而,随着氟虫腈的大量使用,害虫对该药的抗药性问题受到日益关注.至今,重要的农业害虫如小菜蛾,烟粉虱、褐飞虱、白背飞虱,二化螟及斜纹夜蛾等已经对氟虫腈产生抗药性.文章就害虫对氟虫腈的抗药性发生概况、交互抗性及抗药性机理策略进行综述,以期为氟虫腈的合理使用提供理论基础.

  7. The Predatory Function of Three Spiders to Two Insect Pests in Rice Within a Multi-species Co-existence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-quan; SHEN Zuo-rui; ZHAO Zhi-mo

    2002-01-01

    The prey-seeking behavior of three spiders (X1-Pirata subpiraticus, X2-Clubiona japonicola and X3-Tetragnatha japonica ) for brown plant hopper (X4-Nilaparvata lugens ) and rice spittle bug (Xs-Callitettix versicolor) was investigated, as well as how interference between and within species occurred, by using a quadratic regression rotational composite design. Six predation models derived from the analysis of interactions among and within predators and preys were developed. The total predatory capacity of spiders on rice insect pests after coexistence for one day can be expressed as follows: Y3 = 32. 795 + 2.25X1 + 1.083X2 + 0.5X3 + 10.167X4 + 3.167X5 - 1.67X12 - 2.42X22 - 3. 295X32 - 0. 045X42 + 0. 455X52 - 3. 125X1X2 + 0.375X1X3-0.625X1X4 - 0.375X1X5 + 0.375X2X3 - 0.875X2X4 + 0.125X2X5 + 0.375X3X4 - 0.375X3X5 + 0.125X4X5. The principal efficiency analysis using this model indicated that increases in insect pest density significantly increased predation by predators; this was much greater than the effect of any single predator. X4 had a greater effect than X5; however, X4 and X5 demonstrated little interspecific interference and even promoted each other and increased predation rates as the densities of the two pests increased. Among the three predators, an increase in the density of X1 had the greatest effect on the increase in predation, X3 had the second, X2 the third greatest effect. As predator density increased inter- and intra-species interference occurred, which were largely related to the size, activity, niche breadth, niche overlap and searching efficiency of the predators. X2 produced the greatest interference between different individuals and between any other predator species. X3 had the second greatest, which reduced predation levels at high predator densities. Because of these factors, the highest predation rate was obtained at a prey density of 120 per 4 rice-hills. The optimal proportion of the three predators in the multi-predator prey system was X

  8. Effect of transgenic Bt rice on the survival rate and predation of Paederus fuscipes Curtis adults%Bt水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫存活及捕食功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程正新; 黄建华; 梁玉勇; 程森弟; 熊焕保; 陈南萍; 胡水秀

    2014-01-01

    [目的]以稻田中重要捕食性天敌青翅蚁形隐翅虫Paederus fuscipes Curtis为研究对象,探讨在室内条件下青翅蚁形隐翅虫取食转Bt基因水稻上的褐飞虱后对其存活率和捕食功能的影响.[方法]在室内条件下,取食通过用一直取食转Bt水稻的褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)来饲养青翅蚁形隐翅虫,在第7、14、21、28天调查其成活率,研究转Bt水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫生长的影响.通过设置不同的猎物密度和捕食者密度,研究转Bt水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫成虫捕食功能的影响.[结果]室内条件下,转Bt水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫的存活率无明显影响.在试验褐飞虱密度下,转Bt基因水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫对褐飞虱的捕食量无显著影响,且捕食作用方程可用HollingⅡ模型拟合,理论方程为N=1.3421N/(1+0.0887N).瞬时攻击率a'和平均处理时间Th无显著差异,同时,转Bt基因水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫的捕食干扰反应无显著影响.[结论]转Bt基因水稻对供试天敌昆虫青翅蚁形隐翅虫存活率和捕食功能无明显影响.

  9. Effect of two single mutations on malathion degradation by insect carboxylesterases%两个单点突变对昆虫羧酸酯酶降解马拉硫磷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柳平; 姚淑敏; 林哲; 崔峰

    2013-01-01

    马拉硫磷是一种高效低毒的有机磷杀虫剂,分子量大且结构特殊,广泛用于农业害虫的防治.羧酸酯酶突变是昆虫对有机磷类杀虫剂产生代谢抗性的重要机制之一.本实验室前期已从棉蚜Aphis gossypii、褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens、斜纹夜蛾Spodoptera litura、家蚕Bombyx mori、异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis、赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum和西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera中各克隆了一个非特异性羧酸酯酶基因,通过体外定点突变构建了G/A151D和W271L两种突变体,并进行了原核细胞表达和纯化.本实验在体外测定了这7种昆虫野生型和两种突变型羧酸酯酶对马拉硫磷的降解.结果显示:棉蚜、西方蜜蜂、斜纹夜蛾、赤拟谷盗的野生型羧酸酯酶能够降解马拉硫磷,两个突变并不能提高它们的降解活性,而家蚕、异色瓢虫和褐飞虱的野生型羧酸酯酶不能降解马拉硫磷,G/A151D和/或W271L突变能使这些酯酶获得马拉硫磷羧酸酯酶(MCE)的活性,有可能使这些昆虫对马拉硫磷产生抗性.不同物种的MCE活性相差较大,斜纹夜蛾的MCE活性最高,其kcat/Km值为1.8~1.9 L/μmol·min,其次是赤拟谷盗,其Kcat/Km值为0.87 ~0.95 L/μmol·min,其他昆虫的MCE活性相对较低,相差可高达10倍.%Malathion is an efficient but low toxic organophosphate insecticide with a large molecular weight and a special structure.It is widely used in the prevention and control of various agricultural pests.Mutation in carboxylesterases is one of important metabolic resistance mechanisms to organophosphate insecticides in insects.In a previous study,seven non-specific carboxylesterase genes from Aphis gossypii,Nilaparvata lugens,Spodoptera litura,Bombyx mori,Harmonia axyridis,Tribolium castaneum and Apis mellifera,respectively,were cloned,mutated at position 151 or 271 and expressed in Escherichia coli.In this experiment,the hydrolysis of the purified recombinant proteins of the seven

  10. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1494 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 resistant variety rice seedlings responding to brown planthopper feeding Oryza sativa cDNA, mRNA sequence....es of B5 resistant variety rice seedlings responding to brown planthopper feeding Oryza sativa cDNA, mRNA se

  11. QTL Information Table: 456 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available qOVA-5-2 Resistance or Tolerance Insect resistance whitebacked planthopper RFLP C)I...g egg mortality of whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera Horvath in rice, Oryza sativa L. Rice Genetics Newsletter 17, 87-89. ... ...nterval Asominori IR24 C1268 rgn Yamasaki, M., Yoshimura, A., and Yasui, H. (2000). Mapping of QTLs affectin

  12. Breeding of transgenic rice lines with GNA and Bar genes resistance to both brown planthopper and herbicide%导入GNA和Bar基因获得抗褐飞虱和抗除草剂的转基因水稻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于恒秀; 赵志鹏; 王玲; 刘巧泉; 龚志云; 顾铭洪

    2007-01-01

    褐飞虱(brown planthopper,BPH)是世界上,尤其是我国及许多亚洲国家水稻生产的最主要害虫之一。培育抗稻飞虱的水稻品种是一种最经济有效的防治方法,同时可以避免化学农药的使用对环境造成的破坏。一些植物凝集素(phytohem agglutinin,PHA)对褐飞虱具有毒性,其中又以雪花莲凝集素(galanthus nivals agglutinin,GNA)对褐飞虱的毒性最强,对哺乳动物毒副作用极低。

  13. Karyotype characterization of planthopper species Hysteropterum albaceticum Dlabola, 1983 and Agalmatium bilobum (Fieber, 1877 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Issidae using AgNOR-, C- and DAPI/CMA3 -banding techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Kuznetsova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Males of Hysteropterum albaceticum Dlabola, 1983 and Agalmatium bilobum (Fieber, 1877 display a chromosomal complement of 2n = 26 + X, which is a basic one of the tribe Issini (Issidae. In the present study, silver staining, C-banding and a base specific CMA3 -and DAPI-banding were used with the aim of identifying possible cytogenetic markers and distinguishing between karyotypes with the same chromosome number and no detectable inter-species differences in karyotype structure. We characterized the species studied in terms of the distribution and molecular structure of C-heterochromatin regions and the location of nucleolus organizing regions (NORs. The species are shown to differ considerably in the amount of heterochromatin, its distribution pattern along the karyotypes and its stain ability with DAPI and CMA3.

  14. 福建省稻飞虱气象条件适宜程度等级预报%Forecast of Suitable Grade of Meteorological Conditions for Occurrences of Rice Planthoppers in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 关瑞锋; 杨凯; 林晶; 王家义; 李丽纯; 马治国

    2008-01-01

    利用福建省14个县1975-2006年早稻、晚稻稻飞虱资料和相应气象资料,分析福建省早稻、晚稻稻飞虱发生与气象条件的关系.结果表明:影响福建省早稻、晚稻稻飞虱发生发展的关键气象因子分别是6月中下旬气温、降水日数和9月中下旬气温、降水日数,利用关键气象因子构建气象条件适宜程度等级指数K模型,通过历史回代检验,气象条件适宜程度等级与稻飞虱实际发生的等级相比,早晚稻"一致"和"基本一致"的平均可达到69.1%;对福建省2007年6月下旬早稻稻飞虱高峰期的气象条件适宜程度等级进行预报,"一致"和"基本一致"的达92.1%,总体上预报效果较好,可投入业务应用.

  15. TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE ORIENTAL PLANTHOPPER GENUS HEMISPHAERIUS SCHAUM (HEMIPTERA, ISSIDAE)%中国球瓢蜡蝉属二新种记述(半翅目,瓢蜡蝉科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车艳丽; 张雅林; 王应伦

    2006-01-01

    1丽球瓢蜡蝉Hemisphaerius lysanias Fennah Gergithus esperauto Chou et Lu,1985:122,新异名观察标本:1♂(Gergitnus esperauto Chou et Lu的正模,原文记述为1♀,实际标本为雄虫),海南海口,1964-05-29,刘思孔采;1♂,海南岛保亭,1964-04-12,刘思孔采;1♂,海南马岭,1974-12-18,杨集昆采;2♂♂,海南尖峰岭,1981-01-6/8,陈振耀采;1♂,1♀,海南吊罗山,1983-05-23,张雅林采;1♂,海南岛尖峰岭,1983-05-26,张雅林采;3♂♂,2♀♀,海南琼中牙畜岭,2002-07-02,王培明采;21♂♂,7♀♀,海南定安县翰林,2002-07-26,王宗庆、车艳丽采;1♂,3♀♀,海南吊罗山,2002-08-16,王培明采;1♀,海南定安县岭口,2002-08-25,王宗庆、车艳丽采.2三瓣球瓢蜡蝉,新种Hemisphaerius trilobulus sp.nov.本种与H.tappanus Matsumura相似,但可从以下特征区分:1)前者前翅中域及边缘分别具有1斜条纹,条纹之间具有1个圆斑,后者翅近端部具2斜条纹;2)前者唇基端部具横带,后者唇基中央具2条纵带.正模♂,云南勐腊,1991-05-15,王应伦、彩万志采.副模:2♀♀,云南西双版纳勐仑,1974-04-21/30,周尧、袁锋、胡隐月采;2♂♂,3♀♀,云南西双版纳勐仑,1982-04-17/24,周静若、王素梅采;20♂♂,云南勐腊瑶区,1991-04-08/22,王应伦、彩万志采;10♀♀,云南勐腊瑶区,1991-05-07/11,王应伦、彩万志采.3双斑球瓢蜡蝉,新种Hemisphaerius bimaculatus sp.nov.本种与H.palaemon Fennah相近似,但可从以下特征区分:1)后翅仅为前翅的0.4倍,后者后翅为前翅的0.5;2)后足刺式6-10-2,后者6-9-2;3)额的端部具有2个浅色的斑,后者无.正模♂,福建天游,1982-06-27,张万池采.副模2♀♀,福建武夷宫,1982-06-26,齐石成采;1♀,福建戴云山,1984-07-30,崔志新采.%In the present paper, two new species, Hemisphaerius bimaculatus sp. nov. and Hemisphaerius trilobulus sp. nov.are described and illustrated, H. lysanius Fennah from Viemam is illustrated and found to be a senior synonym of Gergithus esperauto Chou et Lu. The type specimens are kept in Entomological Museum, Northwest A & F University (NWAFU).

  16. Effect of soybeans, corn and rice configurations on the biological control of pest insects%大豆、玉米与水稻配置对稻田寄生蜂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈林泉; 胡中卫; 吴进才

    2013-01-01

    本文研究了稻田生境和非稻田生境间寄生性天敌的迁移扩散规律及其对水稻主要害虫的控制作用.结果表明,寄生蜂从大豆生境扩散到稻田生境的数量显著高于其从玉米生境扩散到稻田生境,而田埂种植玉米的寄生蜂扩散数量与不种植玉米相比无显著性差异.田埂配置大豆的有机稻田内二化螟Chilo suppressalis、三化螟Tryporyza incertulas、稻纵卷叶螟Cnaphalocrocis medinalis cnienee和褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens的卵寄生率分别为17.8%,20.3%,10.2%和12.4%,与未配置大豆的对照相比分别增加了4.3%,7.5%,2.1%,和3.4%;它们的幼虫寄生率分别为14.7%,31.7%,21.3%,7.3%,与对照相比分别增加了5.3%,9.8%,5.7%和2.8%.而田埂配置玉米的有机稻田的二化螟,三化螟,稻纵卷叶螟和褐飞虱的卵寄生率分别为10.3%,14.4%,8.6%和9.3%;与未配置玉米的对照相比分别降低了3.2%,增加1.6%,0.5%和0.3%;它们的幼虫寄生率分别为10.3%,19.4%,17.5%和2.6%,与对照相比分别增加了0.9%,降低了2.5%,增加了1.9%和降低了1.9%.研究结果可为通过建立合理的水稻邻作模式进行害虫生物防治提供重要科学依据.%The movement of natural enemies into organic rice fields beside a ridge on which soybean and maize were planted was compared to that into a control rice field with no soybean or maize crops nearby.We found that significantly more natural enemies moved into rice fields from soybean than from maize habitat.Parasitism rates of the eggs of Chilo suppressalis,Tryporyza incertulas,Cnaphalocrocis medinalis cnienee,and Nilaparvata lugens in the organic rice field adjacent to soybeans were 17.8%,20.3%,10.2% and 12.4%,respectively,which were 4.3%,7.5%,2.1% and 3.4% higher than those observed in the control.Parasitism rates on eggs of the four pests in the organic rice field adjacent to maize were 10.3%,4.4%,8.6% and

  17. Interspecifc hybrid plants obtained from cultivars (AA) crossed with wild Oryza species (CC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGShengxiang; YANHuthuang; HuHulying

    1994-01-01

    Wild dee O.officinalis(CNW 258, CNW 259) and O. eichingeri (CNW 260, CNW 261) have CC genome and high resistance to brown planthopper (BPH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). To transfer the resistant gene(s) of the wild rice into Asian cultivated rice, the interspecific crosses between O. sativa L. (AA) and O. officinafis and O.eiclungeri (CC) was made in present study.

  18. QTL Information Table: 739 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ovc Resistance or Tolerance Insect resistance ovicidal response to whitebacked plan...thopper RFLP B)Fine F2 IR24 Asominori S1954 L688 R1954 pha Yamasaki, M., Yoshimura, A., and Yasui, H. (2003). Genetic basis of ovicid...al response to whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horv?th) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Molecular Breeding 12, 133-143. ...

  19. Cry1Ab杀虫蛋白在水稻-褐飞虱-拟水狼蛛食物链中转移与富集%Biotransfer and bioaccumulation of Cry1Ab insecticidal protein in rice plant-brown planthopper-wolf spider food chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茂; 叶恭银; 卢新民; 胡萃; 彭于发; 舒庆尧; Illimar ALTOSAAR

    2005-01-01

    采用ELISA方法检测了2个转cry1Ab基因水稻(Bt水稻)品系KMD1和KMD2不同生育期叶鞘内Cry1Ab杀虫蛋白的含量及其通过褐飞虱和拟水狼蛛的转移和富集情况.结果表明,这2个品系中抽穗期和黄熟期叶鞘内Cry1Ab的含量均显著低于苗期、分蘖期和孕穗期,KMD1和KMD2中Cry1Ab杀虫蛋白可以通过食物链转移到Bt水稻非靶标害虫褐飞虱及其天敌拟水狼蛛体内.褐飞虱在KMD1或KMD2上取食2 d后,体内均含有Cry1Ab杀虫蛋白,但连续取食2、4、6、8和10 d后,其体内含量并未因取食时间的延长而呈现明显增加的趋势.当拟水狼蛛捕食以KMD1或KMD2为食的褐飞虱时,在捕食2、4、6、8和10 d后,其体内均可检测到Cry1Ab杀虫蛋白,其含量并未随捕食时间的延长而明显上升,但均显著高于相应时间褐飞虱体内的含量.可见,该蛋白可通过水稻转移至褐飞虱,再转移至拟水狼蛛,并存在明显的富集现象,而这种富集并不随蜘蛛捕食时间的延长而加强.拟水狼蛛捕食以KMD1或KMD2为食的褐飞虱时,其捕食量未受到显著影响,其中肠酶粗提物对Cry1Ab杀虫蛋白具有明显的降解作用.

  20. 氟啶虫酰胺对水稻白背飞虱的防治效果及天敌安全性评价%The Control Effect and Safety Evaluation to Natural Enemies of Flonicamid against White-backed Planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束兆林; 于居龙; 缪康; 赵来成; 杨红福; 方继朝; 郭慧芳

    2016-01-01

    [目的]通过氟啶虫酰胺田间防治水稻白背飞虱试验,评价其防治效果及对天敌的安全性,为生产上推广应用提供科学依据.[方法]田间条件下设置制剂为10%氟啶虫酰胺水分散粒剂600、750、900 g/hm2,对照药剂25%吡蚜酮可湿性粉剂300 g/hm2,药后1、3、7、14、21 d调查白背飞虱、蜘蛛虫口数量,计算药剂对飞虱的防治效果、蜘蛛的杀伤率.[结果]田间试验结果表明,10%氟啶虫酰胺水分散粒剂600、750、900 g/hm2药后1~21 d对飞虱的防治效果为45.23%~85.41%,中高剂量防效(57.02%~85.41%)与对照药剂吡蚜酮(62.76%~92.62%)无显著性差异,试验药剂对田间蜘蛛杀伤力与吡蚜酮无显著性差异.[结论]氟啶虫酰胺对以白背飞虱为主的田间防治效果优异,对稻田蜘蛛安全,推荐剂量为10%氟啶虫酰胺水分散粒剂750~900g/hm2,在白背飞虱低龄若虫高峰期用药.

  1. The Safe Use of Chlorpyrifos in Rice Field and Effects on Rice Planthopper and Its Natural Enemies%水稻田毒死蜱安全使用及其对稻飞虱和主要天敌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建人; 施海萍; 冯永斌; 黄贤夫; 王驰; 陈海波; 蔡娟娟

    2013-01-01

    [目的]水稻田毒死蜱用量多,明确稻米残留情况.[方法]在甬优6号收割15、20、30、40d喷施48%毒死蜱EC360~1080 mL a.i./hm2后调查抽样,用Agilent 6890气相色谱仪检测残留量.[结果]48%毒死蜱EC喷施次数多或用量高,残留大,糠远高于糙米;在离收割15 d喷施1080 mL a.iJhrn2 1次,或者在离收割40、30、20 d均喷施720 mL a.i./hrn23次,糙米中的残留量≥0.1 mg/kg;对稻飞虱能治前控后,蜘蛛影响少,黑肩绿盲蝽杀伤力大.[结论]水稻田喷施毒死蜱,离收割30 d以上或者离收割15d以内,用量应分别控制在1 080、720mLa.i./hm2之内,并尽量减少用药的次数.

  2. 灰飞虱 LHSC70基因表达特性及功能%Expression Profiling and Function Analyses of LH SC70 in Laodelphax striatellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利华; 单丹; 方继朝

    2015-01-01

    灰飞虱是我国主要水稻害虫之一,在各水稻种植区均有分布,对环境具有较强的适应性.HSP70作为分子伴侣在生物生长发育和外界刺激应激中发挥重要作用.HSC70是 HSP70家族重要成员之一,具有组成型表达特性.为探讨灰飞虱对环境适应的分子机理,本研究采用 qPCR、RNA 干涉等技术研究了灰飞虱 HSC70的表达特性和功能.结果表明,灰飞虱 HSC70基因长1971 bp,命名为 LHSC70,编码656个氨基酸,推测分子量为71.6 kD,等电点为5.46,含 HSP70家族3个标签序列,具有 HSP70典型结构特征.系统进化分析表明 LHSC70与褐飞虱 HSC70同源性最高,达到99%.LHSC70基因的表达与龄期有关,1~5龄若虫的表达量无显著差异,但雌成虫的表达量明显高于若虫和雄成虫;10、16、22、26、30、34、38、42℃下,雌成虫 LHSC70基因表达量变化不显著.RNA 干涉抑制雌成虫 LHSC70基因表达,导致其耐热性下降,而产卵量变化不大.这些结果说明灰飞虱 LHSC70为组成型热激蛋白70,与组成抗性有关,与繁殖关系不大,且不受热激诱导.%Laodelphax striatellus is an major pest on rice in China.It has strong adaptability to environments and was found in all rice growing areas of the country.As a molecular chaperone,HSP70 plays an important role in biological growth and response to stress.HSC70,characterized by constitutive expression,is one of the most important members of the HSP70 family.To explore the adaptation mechanisms of L .striatellus to environments,LHSC70 expression profiling and function were analyzed.The results showed the complete cDNA of LHSC70 is 1 971 bp in length,which encodes a protein of 65 6 amino acids,with a molecular weight of 71 .6 kD and theoretical isoelectric point of 5 .46. LHSC70 contains three signature sequences of HSP70 family and carries a typical HSP70 family structural signature. The phylogenic tree showed it shares 99% homology with HSC70 of Nilaparvata lugens

  3. Egg morphology, laying behavior and record of the host plants of Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851), a new alien species for Europe (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elisabetta; Stroiński, Adam; Lucchi, Andrea

    2015-11-17

    The exotic planthopper, Ricania speculum (Ricaniidae) was recently detected in Liguria, in northern Italy, and recorded as a first alert for Europe. The first morphological description of eggs and laying behavior are given. Eggs are inserted into the woody tissue of a wide range of different host plants in such a unique manner among native and alien planthoppers of Italy that it can be used to describe the prevalence and diffusion of the species in new environments, though in the absence of juveniles and/or adults. In addition, the paper lists the host plants utilized for egg laying and describes the eggs.

  4. Ultra-low altitude and low spraying technology research with UAV in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial application has characteristics of low-volume, small droplet, and possibility of drift. To control rice planthopper, leaf roller and blast, the research aimed at screening agrichemicals and determining the feasibility of using high concentration of conventional dosage for aerial application....

  5. Characterization of twelve novel microsatellite markers of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) identified from next generation sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest of rice and has long-range migratory behavior in Asia. Microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) have been widely used to determine the origins and genetic diversity of insect pests. ...

  6. A new species of the genus Euricania Melichar, 1898 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae) from China, with a world checklist and a key to all species recorded for the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lan-Lan; Stroiński, Adam; Qin, Dao-Zheng

    2015-10-21

    One new species of the planthopper genus Euricania Melichar, 1898 - E. paraclara sp. nov. is described from Guizhou (southwest China). A checklist of all Euricania species and an identification key to the species of the Chinese fauna are provided. Photographs of the adult and illustrations of male and female genitalia of the new species are also given.

  7. Egg parasitoid of Saccharosydne subandina (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Neuquen, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharosydne subandina Remes Lenicov & Rossi Batiz is a recently described planthopper from Argentina which is known to feed on garlic, rye, and pampas grass (de Remes-Lenicov & Rossi-Batiz 2010). During a trip to Neuquén Province in February 2007, we noticed a heavy infestation of pampas grass, Co...

  8. QTL Information Table: 26 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IR64 Azucena RG157 RZ318 pha Soundararajan, R.P., Kadirvel, P., Gunathilagaraj, K., and Maheswaran, M. (2004). Mapping of Quantitati...ve Trait Loci Associated with Resistance to Brown Planthopper in Rice by Means of a

  9. Genetic Variability of Stolbur Phytoplasma in Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) and its Main Host Plants in Vineyard Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Lucia; Riolo, Paola; Murolo, Sergio; Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Nardi, Sandro; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2015-08-01

    Bois noir is an economically important grapevine yellows that is induced by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' and principally vectored by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). This study explores the 'Ca. P. solani' genetic variability associated to the nettle-H. obsoletus and bindweed-H. obsoletus systems in vineyard agroecosystems of the central-eastern Italy. Molecular characterization of 'Ca. P. solani' isolates was carried out using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism to investigate the nonribosomal vmp1 gene. Seven phytoplasma vmp-types were detected among the host plants- and insect-associated field-collected samples. The vmp1 gene showed the highest polymorphism in the bindweed-H. obsoletus system, according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, which is in agreement with nucleotide sequence analysis. Five vmp-types were associated with H. obsoletus from bindweed, of which one was solely restricted to planthoppers, with one genotype also in planthoppers from nettle. Type V12 was the most prevalent in both planthoppers and bindweed. H. obsoletus from nettle harbored three vmp-types, of which V3 was predominant. V3 was the only type detected for nettle. Our data demonstrate that planthoppers might have acquired some 'Ca. P. solani' profiles from other plant hosts before landing on nettle or bindweed. Overall, the different vmp1 gene rearrangements observed in these two plant hosts-H. obsoletus systems might represent different adaptations of the pathogen to the two host plants. Molecular information about the complex of vmp-types provides useful data for better understanding of Bois noir epidemiology in vineyard agroecosystem. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Especie nueva de Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco y nuevos registros para México A new species of Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, and new records for Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ortega-De Santiago

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Dolichoderus tridentanodus sp. nov. recolectada en Puerto Vallaría, Jalisco, México, con base en obreras y que pertenece al complejo lugens. Esta especie se distingue de D. lugens por presentar 6 dientes en el margen interno de la mandíbula, 2 espinas dorsales en el propodeo, 2 protuberancias a los costados del pecíolo y 1 espina central; el cuerpo con abundante pubescencia de color dorado y cubierto por puntuaciones densas y marcadas;. es negro, con mandíbulas, clípeo, antenas y patas de color amarillo. Se cita para los estados de Jalisco, Nayarit y San Luis Potosí. Se proporciona una clave para las especies de Dolichoderus en México, así como la distribución de las especies con nuevos registros para algunos estados.We describe Dolichoderus tridentanodus sp. nov. collected in Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico based on workers, which is placed in the lugens complex. This species can be distinguished from D. lugens by the presence of 6 teeth in the internal margin of the mandible, 2 spines on the dorsal face of the propodeum, 2 lateral projections on the petiole and 1 central spine; body with abundant golden pubescence, densely and uniformly covered with coarse punctures; dark color, with yellow mandibles, clipeus, antenna and legs. This species is known for the states of Jalisco, Nayarit and San Luis Potosí. We provide a key for all the species of Dolichoderus in Mexico, and data of distribution with new records for some states.

  11. Molecular systematics and phylogeography of the genus Lagothrix (Atelidae, Primates) by means of the mitochondrial COII gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Pinedo-Castro, Myreya Omayra

    2010-01-01

    We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis on the origin and evolution of Lagothrix taxa based on an analysis of 720 base pairs of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II mitochondrial gene in 97 Lagothrix specimens. All the current Lagothrix forms probably descended from the ancestor L. poeppigii or perhaps (less probably) that of L. lugens. We detected at least 2 lineages in L. poeppigii. L. cana and L. lagotricha were determined to be monophyletic and had lower gene diversity levels compared to L. poeppigii and L. lugens. The most basal ancestors of the current L. poeppigii lineages diverged from the other Lagothrix taxa around 2.5 million years ago, at the end of the Pliocene or at the beginning of the Pleistocene. Clearly, L. cana and L. lagotricha were the 2 most recently derived Lagothrix taxa. The diversification within L. lugens and L. poeppigii may coincide with the first and second Pleistocene glacial periods, respectively, while the diversification within L. cana and L. lagotricha could have occurred in the last 400,000 years, coinciding with the climatological changes provoked by the Illinois-Riss (third) and Wisconsin-Würm (fourth) glaciations. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Revision of the Sundaland species of the genus Dysphaea Selys, 1853 using molecular and morphological methods, with notes on allied species (Odonata: Euphaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Matti; Dow, Rory A; Stokvis, Frank R

    2015-04-29

    The Sundaland species of the genus Dysphaea were studied using molecular and morphological methods. Four species are recognized: D. dimidiata Selys, D. lugens Selys, D. ulu spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Borneo, Sarawak, Miri division, Upper Baram, Sungai Pejelai, Ulu Moh, 24 viii 2014; deposited in RMNH) and D. vanida spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Thailand, Ranong province, Khlong Nakha, Khlong Bang Man, 12-13 v 1999; deposited in RMNH). The four species are described and illustrated for both sexes, with keys provided. The type specimens of the four Dysphaea taxa named by E. de Selys Longchamps, i.e. dimidiata, limbata, semilimbata and lugens, were studied and their taxonomic status is discussed. Lectotypes are designated for D. dimidiata and D. limbata. D. dimidiata is recorded from Palawan (the Philippines) for the first time. A molecular analysis using three markers (COI, 16S and 28S) is presented. This includes specimens of three Sundaland species of the genus (D. lugens missing) and two congeners from other regions (D. basi-tincta and D. gloriosa). Notes and photographs of the male holotype of D. walli Fraser (from Maymyo, Burma) are provided.

  13. Nitenpyram analogues with 1,4-dihydropyridine fixed cis-configuration:synthesis,insecticidal activities and molecular docking studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUE Sijia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of Nitenpyram analogues(Ia-Ij with 1,4-dihydropyridine fixed cis-configuration were designed and synthesized.Preliminary bioassays showed that most of them exhibited good insecticidal activities against Aphis medicagini and Brown rice planthopper at 500 mg/L and 100 mg/L.The analogue Ij afforded the best activity in vitro,that had 100% mortality at 4 mg/L against Brown rice planthopper and Aphis medicagin.In addition,the molecular docking simulations revealed that the structural uniqueness of these analogues may lead to a unique molecular recognition and binding mode,and the results explained the SARs observed in vitro, which shed light on the novel insecticidal mechanism of these novel nitenpyam analogues.

  14. QTL Information Table: 740 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available qOVA-4 Resistance or Tolerance Insect resistance ovicidal response to whitebacked p...cidal response to whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horv?th) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Molecular Breeding 12, 133-143. ... ...lanthopper RFLP C)Interval F2 IR24 Asominori A R1854 C946 pha Yamasaki, M., Yoshimura, A., and Yasui, H. (2003). Genetic basis of ovi

  15. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Xet-Mull, Ana M.; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae), the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, micr...

  16. New insights into an RNAi approach for plant defence against piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichao; Guan, Ruobing; Guo, Huimin; Miao, Xuexia

    2015-11-01

    Insect double-stranded (ds)RNA expression in transgenic crops can increase plant resistance to biotic stress; however, creating transgenic crops to defend against every insect pest is impractical. Arabidopsis Mob1A is required for organ growth and reproduction. When Arabidopsis roots were soaked in dsMob1A, the root lengths and numbers were significantly suppressed and plants could not bolt or flower. Twenty-four hours after rice roots were immersed in fluorescent-labelled dsEYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein), fluorescence was observed in the rice sheath and stem and in planthoppers feeding on the rice. The expression levels of Ago and Dicer in rice and planthoppers were induced by dsEYFP. When rice roots were soaked in dsActin, their growth was also significantly suppressed. When planthoppers or Asian corn borers fed on rice or maize that had been irrigated with a solution containing the dsRNA of an insect target gene, the insect's mortality rate increased significantly. Our results demonstrate that dsRNAs can be absorbed by crop roots, trigger plant and insect RNAi and enhance piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect mortality rates. We also confirmed that dsRNA was stable under outdoor conditions. These results indicate that the root dsRNA soaking can be used as a bioinsecticide strategy during crop irrigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Insecticidal Activity of the Optical Active Neonicotinoid Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Sijia; Bu Hongfei; Liu Li; Xu Xiao; Ma Xubo

    2011-01-01

    Eight novel neonicotinoid analogues 1-(2-tetrahydrofurfuryl)-5-substituted-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine-2-N-ni-troimines 3a-3h were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis. The stereostructure of 3a was determined by the single-crystal X-ray analysis, which exhibits a half-chair conformation and dihedral angle is 49.70°. The preliminary bioassay tests showed that all the title compounds exhibited good insecticide activities against Nilaparvata legen (N. legen).

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN CITOGENÉTICA EN INDIVIDUOS DEL GÉNERO Lagothrix EN COLOMBIA (PRIMATES: ATELIDAE Cytogenetic Characterization in Individuals of the Genus Lagothrix in Colombia (Primates: Atelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA YISSEL RENGIFO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El género Lagothrix se encuentra representado en Colombia por Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha y Lagothrix lagothricha lugens y siendo un género llamativo para el tráfico y caza, se han realizado varios trabajos encaminados a conocer sobre su ecología y ciclo de vida mostrando la importancia de este género en el ecosistema aunque sus características citogenéticas no han sido bien estudiadas. En este trabajo se analizaron 18 individuos (seis, L. l. lugens y 12 L. L. lagothricha en cautiverio provenientes de zoológicos y centros de rescate, en los que por medio de técnicas de cultivo de sangre periférica y bandaje cromosómico G, C, R, Q y NOR se determinó un cariotipo estándar de 2n=62 para todos los individuos con dos variantes de éste también conocidos como cariomorfos que se originan por la diferencia en su número fundamental (NF, debido a una inversión pericéntrica en el par cromosómico 24. Dentro de estos cariomorfos se encontraron polimorfismos en varios pares cromosómicos que no fueron determinantes para diferenciar subespecies en los individuos trabajados, por lo que se recomienda revisar la taxonomía del género.The genus Lagothrix is represented in Colombia by Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha and Lagothrix lagothricha lugens but their cytogenetic features have not been well characterized. We studied 18 captive individuals (6, L. l. lugens and 12, L. L. lagothricha from zoos and rescue centers, using techniques of peripheral blood culture and G, C, R, Q and NOR chromosome banding. We determined the standard karyotype 2n = 62 for all analyzed individuals with two karyotype variants (also known as karyomorphs that showed different fundamental numbers due to a pericentric inversion on chromosome pair 24. Within these karyomorphs other polymorphisms were found in several pairs that were not crucial to distinguishing subspecies. We recommend reviewing the taxonomy of the genus especially at the subspecies level.

  19. LED multispectral circulation solar insecticidal lamp application in rice field%LED 多光谱间歇发光太阳能杀虫灯对稻田害虫诱杀效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂海华; 唐乃雄; 胡秀霞; 姚志文; 王广利; 魏洪义

    2016-01-01

    南方水稻种植期间害虫轮流发生,以稻飞虱、稻纵卷叶螟、二化螟、三化螟的危害性最大,为了降低水稻害虫的发生率,防止农药的滥用,最好是采用物理防治。试验根据害虫的趋光性的波段范围以及夜晚活动旺盛时间(扑灯节律)的差异,研制了一种 LED(light emitting diodes)多光谱循环式太阳能杀虫灯,实现诱捕害虫的最大化。试验结果发现该灯对水稻害虫有较大的诱杀力,期间诱杀稻纵卷叶螟32.5%、二化螟25.6%、三化螟25.15%,各类稻飞虱占9.35%,其它害虫类别6.90%,灯区较对照区减少药剂防治2次;该灯对益虫的影响较小,诱捕的益害比为0.0089∶1,有利于保护生态平衡。该灯能有效地杀灭水稻害虫,减少水稻种植过程中农药使用量并提高经济效益。%Double cropping rice in southern China is planted starting from May to the end of October. The pests occur in turn during this period, and the rice planthopper, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, rice stem borer, and Tryporyza incertulas are the most harmful. In order to obtain high yields, farmers must uninterruptedly use various types of agrochemicals for the prevention and control on the outbreak of pests. In recent years, researchers have studied the phototaxis behaviors of rice pests at night. For example, rice leaf folder, Scirpophaga incertulas, Chilo suppressalis, Sesamia inferens, and Oxya chinensis are more sensitive in the violet light (350-400 nm), and rice gall midge, brown planthopper, and white-backed planthopper are more sensitive in the blue light (470 nm) and green (515-550 nm), while aphids (green), thrips, and tabaci are more sensitive in the yellow light (550-590 nm). The use of black light lamp, double-wave lamp, vibration frequency spectrum lamp, light emitting diode (LED) lamp, and so on can prevent and control rice pest, which have achieved good results. Lighting prevention does not produced any

  20. Caracterización Citogenética y Aproximación Taxonómica en Individuos del Género Lagothrix en Colombia (Primates: Atelidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Marta Lucia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El género Lagothrix se encuentra representado en Colombia por Lagothrix lagotricha lagotricha y Lagothrix lagotricha lugens y siendo un género llamativo para el tráfico y caza, se han realizado varios trabajos encaminados a conocer sobre su ecología y ciclo de vida mostrando la importancia de este género en el ecosistema aunque sus características citogenéticas no han sido bien estudiadas. En este trabajo se analizaron 18 individuos (6 L. l. lugens y 12 L. l. lagothricha en cautiverio provenientes de zoológicos y de centros de rescate, en donde por medio de técnicas de cultivo de sangre periférica y de bandeo cromosómico G, C, R, Q y NOR se determinó un cariotipo estándar de 2n=62 para todos los individuos con dos variantes de éste cariotipo o también conocidos como cariomorfos que se originan por la diferencia en su número fundamental (NF, debido a una inversión pericéntrica en el par cromosómico 24. Dentro de estos cariomorfos se encontraron polimorfismos en varios pares cromosómicos que no fueron determinantes para diferenciar subespecies en los individuos trabajados, por lo que se recomienda revisar la taxonomía del género.

  1. CARACTERIZACIÓN CITOGENÉTICA EN INDIVIDUOS DEL GÉNERO Lagothrix EN COLOMBIA (PRIMATES: ATELIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA YISSEL RENGIFO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Lagothrix se encuentra representado en Colombia por Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha y Lagothrix lagothricha lugens y siendo un género llamativo para el tráfico y caza, se han realizado varios trabajos encaminados a conocer sobre su ecología y ciclo de vida mostrando la importancia de este género en el ecosistema aunque sus carac- terísticas citogenéticas no han sido bien estudiadas. En este trabajo se analizaron 18 individuos (seis, L. l. lugens y 12 L. L. lagothricha en cautiverio provenientes de zoológicos y centros de rescate, en los que por medio de técnicas de cultivo de sangre periférica y bandaje cromosómico G, C, R, Q y NOR se determinó un cariotipo estándar de 2n=62 para todos los individuos con dos variantes de éste también conocidos como cario morfos que se originan por la diferencia en su número fundamental (NF, debido a una inversión pericéntrica en el par cromosómico 24. Dentro de estos cariomorfos se encontraron polimorfismos en varios pares cromosómicos que no fueron determinantes para diferenciar subespecies en los individuos trabajados, por lo que se recomienda revisar la taxonomía del género.

  2. 丁硫克百威对白背飞虱和南方水稻黑条矮缩病的防治研究%Effect of Carbosulfan on White -back Pianthopper and Sowthern Black -streaked Dwarf Virus of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠雪; 罗全丽; 陆金鹏

    2016-01-01

    为明确丁硫克百威拌种剂对水稻白背飞虱和南方水稻黑条矮缩病的防治效果及其对天敌的影响,选择不同剂量的35%丁硫克百威种子处理干粉剂进行拌种。结果表明:剂量是30 g/kg 种子拌种可有效防治白背飞虱,在播种后32 d、43 d、50 d 和57 d 的防效分别为:90.6%、78.4%、67.9%和61.1%;同时通过防治白背飞虱减少传毒媒介,能有效控制南方水稻黑条矮缩病的危害,防效为76.9%。%In order to define the effect carbosuifan bud on white -backed planthopper and rice dwarf virus disease prevention of rice, choose different doses of 35% carbosulfan.The results showed that the dose of 30 g/kg could can be effective prevention of white -backed planthopper,32 d after sowing,43 d,50 d and the control effect of 57 d respectively:90.6%,78.4%,67.9% and 78.4%;At the same time through the prevention and control of white -backed planthopper reduce the toxic medium,can effectively control the harm of south dwarf virus disease black of rie,control effect is 76.9%.

  3. Review of the genus Anasta Emeljanov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae: Hastini) from the Australasian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi-Shun; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2013-11-29

    The dictyopharid planthopper genus Anasta Emeljanov from the Australasian region is revised to include six species including a new one: A. australiaca (Lallemand, 1935) comb. nov. (North Australia), A. lobosa sp. nov. (Papua New Guinea), A. minuta (Lallemand, 1935) comb. nov. (Timor, Indonesia), A. prognatha (Distant, 1906) (North Australia, Papua New Guinea), A. timorina (Lallemand, 1935) (Timor, Indonesia), and A. vitiensis Emeljanov et Wilson, 2009 (Fiji). Descriptions or redescriptions of A. australiaca, A. lobosa sp. nov., and A. prognatha are provided together with dorsal habitus and structural illustrations of male genitalia. A key to the species of the genus and distribution map are provided. The biogeography of the genus is discussed.

  4. Agalmatium flavescens (Hemiptera, Issidae and Camponotus aethiops (Hymenoptera, Formicidae – an unknown trophobiotic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIA GJONOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of trophobiosis between ants and planthoppers of the family Issidae is limited to studies of individual cases from Argentina, Mexico, India, the island of Naxos (Cyclades and an anecdotal report from Italy. This paper reports a previously undescribed ant-attendance of Agalmatium flavescens (Olivier, 1791 (Hemiptera, Issidae by Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798. It includes a brief literature review and presents some ecological aspects of this new finding. In additions, live color photographs of A. flavescens and interactions with ants are provided.

  5. Development of Chromosomal Segment Substitution Lines from a Backcross Recombinant Inbred Population of Interspecific Rice Cross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; Hafeez Ur Rahman BUGHIO; CHEN Da-zhou; LIU Guang-jie; ZHENG Kang-le; ZHUANG Jie-yun

    2006-01-01

    A backcross recombinant inbred line population consisting of 202 lines was developed from Xieqingzao B//Xieqingzao B Dongxiang wild rice. The population was assayed with DNA markers and phenotyped on planthopper resistance and yield traits. A linkage map consisting of 119 DNA markers and spanned for 1188 cM over the 12 rice chromosomes was constructed. Thirty-two chromosomal segment substitution lines were selected based on the percentage of Xieqingzao B allele at marker loci. These lines are of great potential for gene mapping and alien gene introgression.

  6. Pyramided rice lines harbouring Allium sativum (asal) and Galanthus nivalis (gna) lectin genes impart enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, Y; Vijaya Kumar, S; Pasalu, I C; Balachandran, S M; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2011-03-20

    We have developed transgene pyramided rice lines, endowed with enhanced resistance to major sap-sucking insects, through sexual crosses made between two stable transgenic rice lines containing Allium sativum (asal) and Galanthus nivalis (gna) lectin genes. Presence and expression of asal and gna genes in pyramided lines were confirmed by PCR and western blot analyses. Segregation analysis of F₂ progenies disclosed digenic (9:3:3:1) inheritance of the transgenes. Homozygous F₃ plants carrying asal and gna genes were identified employing genetic and molecular methods besides insect bioassays. Pyramided lines, infested with brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), proved more effective in reducing insect survival, fecundity, feeding ability besides delayed development of insects as compared to the parental transgenics. Under infested conditions, pyramided lines were found superior to the parental transgenics in their seed yield potential. This study represents first report on pyramiding of two lectin genes into rice exhibiting enhanced resistance against major sucking pests. The pyramided lines appear promising and might serve as a novel genetic resource in rice breeding aimed at durable and broad based resistance against hoppers.

  7. Induced resistance in rice against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, R; Chen, Y

    2007-08-01

    Vaccinations are the mainstay of western preventive medicine, and they have been used to protect some crops against disease and insect pests. We consider rice as a model for protection using induced resistance since it is one of the most important staple crops and there have been significant new developments in: cross-resistance among rice insects, chemical pathways involved in induced resistance, sequencing the rice genome and expression of genes conferring resistance against rice insect pests. Insect attack has been found to cause lesions that kill planthopper eggs and early stages of gall midges. Damaged plants released volatiles that made them less likely to be chosen by planthoppers and more attractive to parasitoids. Chemical elicitors have been developed for dicotyledonous plants and these can induce resistance in rice, although rice does not fit models developed to explain signalling in dicots. For example, salicylic acid did not increase in rice after infection by pathogens and did not appear to be the mobile signal for induced resistance against pathogens although it was involved in induced responses to phloem-feeding insects. Jasmonic acid acted as a signal in some induced responses to pathogens as well as chewing insects. Many of the genes associated with induced resistance in rice have recently been mapped, and techniques are being developed to incorporate them into the genome of cultivated varieties. Attempts to control insect pests of rice will affect interactions with pathogens, predators and parasites, and other organisms in this agroecosystem.

  8. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Derivants of 3,13-Ester Mesaconitine%3,13-酯基中乌头碱衍生物的合成及其杀虫活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 袁小红; 杨海君; 侯大斌; 王惠; 许源

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to explore the relations between structure of aconitine, aconitine derivatives and insecticide. [Method] The aconitine derivatives such as 3-acetyl mesaconitine, 3-propionyl mesaconitine, 3-acetyl-13-Benzoyl-mesaconitine and 3-propionyl-13-Benzoyl-mesaconitine were synthesized by mesaconitine with acetic anhydride or propionic anhydride and their insecticidal activities were also determined. [Result] When the concentration was 500 mg/L, the insecticidal activities of mesaconitine against Nilaparvata legen and Aphis were 50% and 30% respectively while the insecticidal activities of 3-acetyl mesaconitine, 3-propionyl mesaconitine, 3-acetyl-13-Benzoyl-mesaconitine and 3-propionyl-13-Benzoyl-mesaconitine against Aphis medicagini were 40%, 30%, 30% and 20% respectively at 500 mg/L. [Conclusion] After hydroxyl esterification, the insecticidal activity of mesaconitine was declined and the existence of hydroxyl at 3rd position in mesaconitine played very important influences on insecticidal activity.

  9. Taxonomic studies in the Disinae. VI. A revision of the genus Herschelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Linder

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Herschelia (Disinae, Orchidaceae is revised. Sixteen species, one subspecies and one variety are recognized. Two new species from tropical Africa (H. chimanimaniensis Linder and H. praecox Linder and a new variety from the Cape Province H. lugens (H. Bol. Kraenzl. var. nigrescens Linder are described. Three new combinations are made by transferring the two species of Forficaria and  Disa sect. Microperistera (one species to Herschelia. Thirteen species are illustrated, and the nomenclature and the available information about the habitats of the taxa are discussed. The species are grouped into two subgenera, one of which is further divided into two sections and four series. This classification is based on the putative phylogeny, as determined by the method devised by Wagner (1962.

  10. Taxonomic studies in the Disinae. VI. A revision of the genus Herschelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Linder

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Herschelia (Disinae, Orchidaceae is revised. Sixteen species, one subspecies and one variety are recognized. Two new species from tropical Africa (H. chimanimaniensis Linder and H. praecox Linder and a new variety from the Cape Province H. lugens (H. Bol. Kraenzl. var. nigrescens Linder are described. Three new combinations are made by transferring the two species of Forficaria and  Disa sect. Microperistera (one species to Herschelia. Thirteen species are illustrated, and the nomenclature and the available information about the habitats of the taxa are discussed. The species are grouped into two subgenera, one of which is further divided into two sections and four series. This classification is based on the putative phylogeny, as determined by the method devised by Wagner (1962.

  11. Identification of potential insect vectors of the Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease of coconut in Ghana by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilet Fabian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The vector of the phytoplasma responsible for the coconut lethal yellowing disease in West Africa is unknown to date. However, it is known that phytoplasmas are transmitted by leafhoppers and planthoppers, which are supposed to be the only ones able to inject the phytoplasma in the phloem. Whereas the presence of phytoplasma in the insect does not prove its capacity to transmit the disease. We have tested a large number of insects for the presence of phytoplamas by PCR (direct PCR and Nested PCR using both primer pairs specific for all phytoplasmas and those specific for the coconut lethal yellowing disease phytoplasma. In effect the evidence of one or several species carrying the phytoplasma would direct us on the insects to focus on in our transmission cages trials.

  12. Tip of the clade on the top of the World--the first fossil Lophopidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) from the Palaeocene of Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Stroiński, Adam; Lin, Qibin

    2015-06-01

    Lophopidae is a family of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) present today in tropical and subtropical zones of the Old World. The most recent taxonomic studies and phylogeny of these insects do not include the extinct representatives. Therefore, each new discovery of a fossil lophopid is of high interest, giving new insights to their evolutionary history and enabling to test the proposed relationships. The recent findings of extinct Lophopidae in Europe, in various Palaeogene deposits, put in doubts their proposed evolutionary and biogeographic scenario. The new fossil from the Palaeocene of Northern Tibet is related to one of the Lophopidae clades, Apia(+) group, believed to be the most advanced one, and recently distributed in the recent Sundaland-New Guinea-Queensland area. A new genus and species Gesaris gnapo gen. et sp. n. provide information on early lophopids diversity and relationships and demonstrates the necessity for a revision of the existing hypotheses for the initial diversification and distributional pattern of the Lophopidae.

  13. The Empidemiology of Wheat Rosette Stunt in Hulunbeir District of Inner—Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangMinghou; LuJun; 等

    1995-01-01

    The virus disease threatening wheat production in Hulunbeir District of Inner-Mongolia was identified as NCMV(Northern Cereal Mosaic Virus)or WRSV(Wheat Rosette Stunt Virus)by test of host range,transmission,virus particle and serology.The main vector for spreading the virus is planthopper,Laodelphax striatellus(Fallen),Which overwinters in the stubbles of wheat underground.The overwintered viruliferous nymphs emerged in late Pril is responsible for the early infection of the disease.Agropyron repens,an important perennial weed in cultivated regions,is also an important wild host of the virus and its vector.Severe loss is induced when wheat is infected before 3-leaf stage.The disease incidence could be predicted by a model with the population and viruliferous rate of overwintered vectors as independent variables.

  14. Tip of the clade on the top of the World—the first fossil Lophopidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) from the Palaeocene of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Stroiński, Adam; Lin, Qibin

    2015-06-01

    Lophopidae is a family of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) present today in tropical and subtropical zones of the Old World. The most recent taxonomic studies and phylogeny of these insects do not include the extinct representatives. Therefore, each new discovery of a fossil lophopid is of high interest, giving new insights to their evolutionary history and enabling to test the proposed relationships. The recent findings of extinct Lophopidae in Europe, in various Palaeogene deposits, put in doubts their proposed evolutionary and biogeographic scenario. The new fossil from the Palaeocene of Northern Tibet is related to one of the Lophopidae clades, Apia+ group, believed to be the most advanced one, and recently distributed in the recent Sundaland-New Guinea-Queensland area. A new genus and species Gesaris gnapo gen. et sp. n. provide information on early lophopids diversity and relationships and demonstrates the necessity for a revision of the existing hypotheses for the initial diversification and distributional pattern of the Lophopidae.

  15. First report of Cheiloneurus exitiosus (Perkins, 1906) and Helegonatopus dimorphus (Hoffer, 1954) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Japan, with remarks on their abundance in rice paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Hironobu; Higashiura, Yoshimitsu; Japoshvili, George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Encyrtid secondary parasitoids of Delphacidae have not been recorded in Japan. However, they may play an important role in the rice ecosystem because they can reduce the number of Dryinidae, the natural enemies of rice planthoppers. New information We found two encyrtid species, Cheiloneurus exitiosus (Perkins, 1906) and Helegonatopus dimorphus (Hoffer, 1954), from rice paddies and the surrounding environment. Haplogonatopus oratorius (Westwood, 1833) and Anteon sp. were newly recognized as hosts of He. dimorphus. Parasitism of C. exitiosus was rare, but He. dimorphus was common in Kumamoto Prefecture. The sex ratio (male proportion) and clutch size of He. dimorphus was estimated as 0.19 and 4.95, respectively. PMID:27660532

  16. The recent disciplinal progresses of agricultural entomology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yuyuan; Liang Gemei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, four recent advances and achievements of China in agricultural insect research, namely, on the genome of silkworm (Bombyx mori Linnaeus), on the geographical differentiation and regional migration of cotton boll-worm (Helicoverpa armigera (Htthner)) , on the standardized monitoring techniques for safety of honey bee (Apis mel-lifera Linnaeus) products, and on the virus transmission property of small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén)) as well as the interactions between vector and rice stripe virus (RSV), were reported. All of these resear-ches are very important for controlling agricultural insect pests and the diseases they transmit, accelerating the molecular biological research of silkworm, and promoting the international trade of honey bee products. Most of these achievements mentioned above have got the national, provincial, ministerial or municipal awards on science and technology.

  17. Status and prospects of plant virus control through interference with vector transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, C; Caciagli, P; Lemaire, O; Lopez-Moya, J J; MacFarlane, S; Peters, D; Susi, P; Torrance, L

    2013-01-01

    Most plant viruses rely on vector organisms for their plant-to-plant spread. Although there are many different natural vectors, few plant virus-vector systems have been well studied. This review describes our current understanding of virus transmission by aphids, thrips, whiteflies, leafhoppers, planthoppers, treehoppers, mites, nematodes, and zoosporic endoparasites. Strategies for control of vectors by host resistance, chemicals, and integrated pest management are reviewed. Many gaps in the knowledge of the transmission mechanisms and a lack of available host resistance to vectors are evident. Advances in genome sequencing and molecular technologies will help to address these problems and will allow innovative control methods through interference with vector transmission. Improved knowledge of factors affecting pest and disease spread in different ecosystems for predictive modeling is also needed. Innovative control measures are urgently required because of the increased risks from vector-borne infections that arise from environmental change.

  18. Research Progress in Resistance of Rice to Sogatella furcifera%水稻抗白背飞虱研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓伟; 胡兰香; 陈红萍; 陈明亮; 肖叶青

    2012-01-01

    White-backed planthopper {Sogatella furcifera) is one of the serious pest insects in China and Southeast Asia at present. This article summarized the research progress in the resistance of rice to Sogatella furcifera, including the resistance physiology, molecular defense mechanism, resistant genes, QTL locating and resistance breeding, and gave a prospect on the research direction of the resistance of rice to Sogatella furcifera in the future.%白背飞虱是目前我国及东南亚为害严重的病虫害之一,综述了在水稻抗白背飞虱的生理、分子防御机理、抗白背飞虱基因、QTL定位以及抗性育种等方面的研究,并展望了今后水稻抗白背飞虱研究的方向.

  19. Identification of key amino acid differences contributing to neonicotinoid sensitivity between two nAChR α subunits from Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangkun; Zhang, Yixi; Guo, Beina; Sun, Huahua; Liu, Chuanjun; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are still primary methods to control rice planthoppers in China, which not only cause environmental pollution, insecticide residue and insecticide resistance, but also have negative effects on natural enemies, such as Pardosa pseudoannulata (the pond wolf spider), an important predatory enemy of rice planthoppers. Neonicotinoids insecticides, such as imidacloprid and thiacloprid, are insect-selective nAChRs agonists that are used extensively in the areas of crop protection and animal health, but have hypotoxicity to P. pseudoannulata. In the present study, two nAChR α subunits, Ppα1 or Ppα8, were found to be successfully expressed with rβ2 in Xenopus oocytes, but with much different sensitivity to imidacloprid and thiacloprid on two recombinant receptors Ppα1/rβ2 and Ppα8/rβ2. Key amino acid differences were found in and between the important loops for ligand binding. In order to well understand the relationship between the amino acid differences and neonicotinoid sensitivities, different segments in Ppα8 or Ppα1 with key amino acid differences were introduced into the corresponding regions of Ppα1 or Ppα8 to construct chimeras and then co-expressed with rβ2 subunit in Xenopus oocytes. The results from chimeras of both Ppα8 and Ppα1 showed that segments Δ5, Δ6, and Δ7 contributed to neonicotinoid sensitivities directly between two receptors. Although the segment Δ4 including all loop B region had no direct influences on neonicotinoid sensitivities, it could more remarkably influence neonicotinoid sensitivities when co-introductions with Δ5, Δ6 or Δ7. So, key amino acid differences in these four segments were important to neonicotinoid sensitivities, but the difference in Δ4 was likely ignored because of its indirect effects.

  20. Transovarial transmission of a plant virus is mediated by vitellogenin of its insect vector.

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    Yan Huo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most plant viruses are transmitted by hemipteroid insects. Some viruses can be transmitted from female parent to offspring usually through eggs, but the mechanism of this transovarial transmission remains unclear. Rice stripe virus (RSV, a Tenuivirus, transmitted mainly by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, is also spread to the offspring through the eggs. Here, we used the RSV-planthopper system as a model to investigate the mechanism of transovarial transmission and demonstrated the central role of vitellogenin (Vg of L. striatellus in the process of virus transmission into the eggs. Our data showed Vg can bind to pc3 in vivo and in vitro and colocalize in the germarium. RSV filamentous ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs only accumulated in the terminal filaments and pedicel areas prior to Vg expression and was not present in the germarium until Vg was expressed, where RSV RNPs and Vg had colocalized. Observations by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM also indicated that these two proteins colocalized in nurse cells. Knockdown of Vg expression due to RNA interference resulted in inhibition of the invasion of ovarioles by RSV. Together, the data obtained indicated that RSV RNPs may enter the nurse cell of the germarium via endocytosis through binding with Vg. Finally, the virus enters the oocytes through nutritive cords, using the same route as for Vg transport. Our results show that the Vg of L. striatellus played a critical role in transovarial transmission of RSV and shows how viruses can use existing transovarial transportation systems in insect vectors for their own purposes.

  1. Development and Identification of Introgression Lines from Cross of Oryza sativa and Oryza minuta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Si-bin; WEI Yu; LI Xiao-qiong; LIU Kai-qiang; HUANG Feng-kuan; CHEN Cai-hong; GAO Guo-qing

    2013-01-01

    Introgression line population is effectively used in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs),identifying favorable genes,discovering hidden genetic variation,evaluating the action or interaction of QTLs in multiple conditions and providing the favorable experimental materials for plant breeding and genetic research.In this study,an advanced backcross and consecutive selfing strategy was used to develop introgression lines (ILs),which derived from an accession of Oryza minuta (accession No.101133) with BBCC genome,as the donor,and an elite indica cultivar IR24 (O.sativa),as the recipient.Introgression segments from O.minuta were screened using 164 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the genome of each IL.Introgressed segments carried by 131 ILs covered the whole O.sativa genome.The average number of homozygous O.minuta segments per introgression line was about 9.99.The average length of introgressed segments was approximate 14.78 cM,and about 79.64%of these segments had sizes less than 20 cM.In the genome of each introgression line,the O.minuta chromosomal segments harbored chromosomal fragments of O.sativa ranging from 1.15% to 27.6%,with an overall average of 8.57%.At each locus,the ratio of substitution of O.minuta alleles had a range of 1.5%-25.2%,with an average of 8.3% Based on the evaluation of the phenotype of these ILs,a wide range of alterations in morphological and yield-related traits were found.After inoculation,ILs 41,11 and 7 showed high resistance to bacterial blight,brown planthopper and whitebacked planthopper,respectively.These O.minuta-O.sativa ILs will serve as genetic materials for identifying and using favorable genes from O.minuta.

  2. Studies on interaction of insect repellent compounds with odorant binding receptor proteins by in silico molecular docking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, J Vinay; Kannabiran, K

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the interactions between insect repellent compounds and target olfactory proteins. Four compounds, camphor (C10H16O), carvacrol (C10H14O), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and firmotox (C22H28O5) were chosen as ligands. Seven olfactory proteins of insects with PDB IDs: 3K1E, 1QWV, 1TUJ, 1OOF, 2ERB, 3R1O and OBP1 were chosen for docking analysis. Patch dock was used and pymol for visualizing the structures. The interactions of these ligands with few odorant binding proteins showed binding energies. The ligand camphor had showed a binding energy of -136 kcal/mol with OBP1 protein. The ligand carvacrol interacted with 1QWV and 1TUJ proteins with a least binding energy of -117.45 kcal/mol and -21.78 kcal/mol respectively. The ligand oleic acid interacted with 1OOF, 2ERB, 3R1O and OBP1 with least binding energies. Ligand firmotox interacted with OBP1 and showed least binding energies. Three ligands (camphor, oleic acid and firmotox) had one, two, three interactions with a single protein OBP1 of Nilaparvatha lugens (Rice pest). From this in silico study we identified the interaction patterns for insect repellent compounds with the target insect odarant proteins. The results of our study revealed that the chosen ligands showed hydrogen bond interactions with the target olfactory receptor proteins.

  3. Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tamara L.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2017-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps. The mean antennal length of males attracted to field traps baited with a single female was longer than that of males attracted to traps baited with two females, a pattern consistent with Darwin's prediction assuming the latter emits higher pheromone concentrations. Furthermore, younger females attracted males with longer antennae, which may reflect age-specific changes in pheromone emission. These field experiments provide the first direct evidence of an unappreciated role for sexual selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in moth antennae and raise the intriguing possibility that females select males with longer antennae through strategic emission of pheromones.

  4. 三七病毒病媒介昆虫诱集试验研究%Experimental Study for the Trap of Virus Vector Insects of Notoginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昱君; 王勇; 杨建忠; 刘云芝; 韦美丽; 黄天卫; 朱云飞

    2015-01-01

    Taking trap plate method to trap the virus vector insects of notoginseng in annual and biennial garden from different locations in order to ascertain vector insect groups of notoginseng. The results showed that there were the insect groups include 2 section,4 families that may transmit the virus disease.The insect quantity in garden displayed Jiangna township of Yanshan county>Horse Pond town of Wenshan county>Dry River village of Yanshan County and whiteflies>thrips>planthoppers>leaf hoppers>aphids.The whiteflies,leafhoppers and aphids taxi yellow plate;planthoppers was stronger tropism to blue plate.The number of Thrips on the blue plate was bigger than on the yellow one in annual garden. The situation in biennid garden was contrang to the annual garden. leafhoppers,planthoppers like suck younger notoginseng plants and mealworms were pleased on the two years old plant that ahading.Suggested that using insect board traps method to control the vectors insects to achieve the goal of controlling spread of notoginseng virus disease.%采取诱虫板诱集法,对不同地点的一年生三七园、二年生三七园内昆虫进行诱集试验研究,以探明三七园内虫媒昆虫类群。结果表明:在三七产区不同代表性三七园内均可诱到包括2目4科可传播病毒病的昆虫类群。诱集虫量表现为砚山江那七园跃文山马塘七园跃砚山干河七园;粉虱类跃蓟马类跃叶蝉类跃飞虱类跃蚜虫类。其中粉虱类、叶蝉类、蚜虫类对黄板的趋性较强;飞虱类对蓝板的趋性较强;蓟马类则显示一年生三七园内蓝板诱集量高于黄板,二年生三七园内黄板诱集量高于蓝板。几种类群昆虫中,叶蝉、飞虱喜为害幼嫩的三七植株,粉虱则喜在荫蔽度较好的二年生三七上取食。建议生产上采用捕虫板诱杀法防治传毒昆虫,从而达到控制三七病毒病扩展蔓延的目的。

  5. Intelligent Monitoring System for Agricultural Pests Based on Internet of Things%基于物联网的农业虫害智能监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩迪; 张佳锐

    2015-01-01

    〗In order to improve the overall level of China's agricultural pest resistance , precise research of how crop growth environment affects the number of plant pest trends is particularly important .Intelligent monitoring system for Ag-ricultural Pests Based on Internet of Things ( IoT) develops a set of automatic data collection system of farml-and environ-ment information , the number of pests , and it can also set the equipment parameters .Artificial taking pictures of plan-thopper, this system uses k-means clustering algorithm to separate the planthopper from the backgr -ound ,uses an el-lipse fitting based on least square method to get the ellipticity ,which is used to distinguish between insect body and im-purities and add up the pests number .Hardware composition of the system and software design of function modules are in-troduced in detail , which realizes automatic information collection and automated operation and lays the foundation of ef -fective prevention and control of pest .%为提高我国农业抗病虫害的整体水平,精准研究农作物生长环境对虫害数目变化趋势的影响尤为重要。基于物联网的农业虫害智能监控系统研发了一套自动采集农田环境信息、害虫数目,并且可以进行设备参数设置的系统。采用K-means 聚类算法从拍摄图片背景中提取稻飞虱和最小二乘法椭圆拟合,用椭圆率区分虫体和杂质统计稻飞虱数目。同时,详细介绍了系统的硬件组成和软件设计功能模块,实现了虫害等信息的自动采集和自动化运作,为有效防控病虫害奠定基础。

  6. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal, coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH, green leafhopper (GLH and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH. Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice

  7. Research priorities for rice pest management in tropical Asia: a simulation analysis of yield losses and management efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willocquet, Laetitia; Elazegui, Francisco A; Castilla, Nancy; Fernandez, Luzviminda; Fischer, Kenneth S; Peng, Shaobing; Teng, Paul S; Srivastava, R K; Singh, H M; Zhu, Defeng; Savary, Serge

    2004-07-01

    ABSTRACT A simulation study was conducted to assess the current and prospective efficiency of rice pest management and develop research priorities for lowland production situations in tropical Asia. Simulation modeling with the RICEPEST model provided the flexibility required to address varying production situations and diverse pest profiles (bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight, brown spot, leaf blast, neck blast, sheath rot, white heads, dead hearts, brown plant-hoppers, insect defoliators, and weeds). Operational definitions for management efficacy (injury reduction) and management efficiency (yield gain) were developed. This approach enabled the modeling of scenarios pertaining to different pest management strategies within the agroecological contexts of rice production and their associated pest injuries. Rice pests could be classified into two broad research priority-setting categories with respect to simulated yield losses and management efficiencies. One group, including weeds, sheath blight, and brown spot, consists of pests for which effective pest management tools need to be developed. The second group consists of leaf blast, neck blast, bacterial leaf blight, and brown plant-hoppers, for which the efficiency of current management methods is to be maintained. Simulated yield losses in future production situations indicated that a new type of rice plant with high-harvest index and high-biomass production ("New Plant Type") was more vulnerable to pests than hybrid rice. Simulations also indicated that the impact of deployment of host resistance (e.g., through genetic engineering) was much larger when targeted against sheath blight than when targeted against stem borers. Simulated yield losses for combinations of production situations and injury profiles that dominate current lowland rice production in tropical Asia ranged from 140 to 230 g m(-2). For these combinations, the simulated efficiency of current pest management methods, expressed in terms of

  8. RNA Interference in Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapathrudu Kanakala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. RNA interference (RNAi was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing results in mortality or interference with pathogen transmission. The identification of such candidates poses a major challenge for increasing the role of RNAi in pest control. Another challenge is to understand the RNAi machinery in insect cells and whether components that were identified in other organisms are also present in insect. This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists.

  9. Characterization of rice black-streaked dwarf virus- and rice stripe virus-derived siRNAs in singly and doubly infected insect vector Laodelphax striatellus.

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    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Replication of RNA viruses in insect cells triggers an antiviral defense that is mediated by RNA interference (RNAi which generates viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. However, it is not known whether an antiviral RNAi response is also induced in insects by reoviruses, whose double-stranded RNA genome replication is thought to occur within core particles. Deep sequencing of small RNAs showed that when the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus was infected by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV (Reoviridae; Fijivirus, more viral-derived siRNAs accumulated than when the vector insect was infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV, a negative single-stranded RNA virus. RBSDV siRNAs were predominantly 21 and 22 nucleotides long and there were almost equal numbers of positive and negative sense. RBSDV siRNAs were frequently generated from hotspots in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of viral genome segments but these hotspots were not associated with any predicted RNA secondary structures. Under laboratory condition, L. striatellus can be infected simultaneously with RBSDV and RSV. Double infection enhanced the accumulation of particular genome segments but not viral coat protein of RBSDV and correlated with an increase in the abundance of siRNAs derived from RBSDV. The results of this study suggest that reovirus replication in its insect vector potentially induces an RNAi-mediated antiviral response.

  10. Analysis of Sogatella furcifera (Horvath soluble proteins by SDS-PAGE

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    ZiQiang Liang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The soluble proteins from nymphs and adults of Sogatella furcifera were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The number of protein bands increased gradually as the nymphs developing, such as six and 14 protein bands were found in 3rd-instar nymphs and 5th-instar nymphs respectively. At the same time, we found that three bands expressed in each instar, two bands began to appear from 4th-instar, and six bands were specific in 5th-instar. There were four bands that their content in 5th-instar nymphs with long-winged disc was at least 65.61% higher than in 5th-instar nymphs with short-winged disc. There were 13 protein bands observed in male adults, while female adults had 13 corresponding protein bands and a specific band expressed only in tissue. Comparing between two wing-type adults, four bands were specific to long-winged adults, while the content of other three bands in long-winged adults was at least 72.54 % higher than in short-winged adults. Finally, these specific protein bands associated with wing or sex were discussed what kind role they played in wing or sexual differentiation. The results will be helpful to further explore the mechanism of wing or sexual differentiation about planthoppers.

  11. Characterization of 12 Novel Microsatellite Markers of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Identified From Next-Generation Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hwa Yeun; Coates, Brad; Kim, Kyung Seok; Park, Marana; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest of rice and has long-range migratory behavior in Asia. Microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats) have been widely used to determine the origins and genetic diversity of insect pests. We identified novel microsatellite loci for S. furcifera samples collected from Laos, Vietnam, and three localities in Bangladesh from next-generation Roche 454 pyrosequencing data. Size polymorphism at 12 microsatellite loci was verified for 40 adult individuals collected from Shinan, South Korea. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.92. The mean values of observed (H(o)) and expected heterozygosities (H(E)) were 0.615 and 0.757, respectively. These new microsatellite markers will be a resource for future ecological genetic studies of S. furcifera samples across more broad geographic regions in Asia and may assist in estimations of genetic differentiation and gene flow among populations for implementation of more effective management strategies to control this serious rice pest.

  12. Impact of insect-resistant transgenic rice on target insect pests and non-target arthropods in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO CHEN; JIAN-ZHOU ZHAO; GONG-YIN YE; QIANG FU; ANTHONY M.SHELTON

    2006-01-01

    Progress on the research and development of insect-resistant transgenic rice,especially expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt),in China has been rapid in recent years. A number of insect-resistant transgenic rice lines/varieties have passed restricted and enlarged field testing,and several have been approved for productive testing since 2002 in China,although none was approved for commercial use until 2006.Extensive laboratory and field trials have been conducted for evaluation of the efficiency of transgenic rice on target lepidoteran pests and potential ecological risks on non-target arthropods. The efficacy of a number of transgenic rice lines currently tested in China was excellent for control of the major target insect pests,the rice stem borers (Chilo suppressalis,Scirpophaga incertulas,Sesamia inferens) and leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis),and was better than most insecticides extensively used by millions of farmers at present in China.No significantly negative or unintended effects of transgenic rice on non-target arthropods were found compared with non-transgenic rice. In contrast,most of the current insecticides used for the control of rice stem borers and leaffolders proved harmful to natural enemies,and some insecticides may directly induce resurgence of rice planthoppers. Studies for developing a proactive insect resistance management of transgenic rice in the future are discussed to ensure the sustainable use of transgenic rice.

  13. Development of Elite BPH-Resistant Wide-Spectrum Restorer Lines for Three and Two Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengfeng Fan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the world food security. Breeding of elite high-yield, strong-resistant broad-spectrum restorer line is an important strategy for hybrid rice in commercial breeding programs. Here, we developed three elite brown planthopper (BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines by pyramiding big-panicle gene Gn8.1, BPH-resistant genes Bph6 and Bph9, fertility restorer genes Rf3, Rf4, Rf5, and Rf6 through molecular marker assisted selection. Resistance analysis revealed that the newly developed restorer lines showed stronger BPH-resistance than any of the single-gene donor parent Luoyang-6 and Luoyang-9. Moreover, the three new restorer lines had broad spectrum recovery capabilities for Honglian CMS, Wild abortive CMS and two-line GMS sterile lines, and higher grain yields than that of the recurrent parent 9,311 under nature field conditions. Importantly, the hybrid crosses also showed good performance for grain yield and BPH-resistance. Thus, the development of elite BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines has a promising future for breeding of broad spectrum BPH-resistant high-yield varieties.

  14. Insect symbiotic bacteria harbour viral pathogens for transovarial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Yi; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens(1-3). In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects(3-5). Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring. We observe rice dwarf virus (a plant reovirus) binding to the envelopes of the bacterium Sulcia, a common obligate symbiont of leafhoppers(6-8), allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Such virus-bacterium binding is mediated by the specific interaction of the viral capsid protein and the Sulcia outer membrane protein. Treatment with antibiotics or antibodies against Sulcia outer membrane protein interferes with this interaction and strongly prevents viral transmission to insect offspring. This newly discovered virus-bacterium interaction represents the first evidence that a viral pathogen can directly exploit a symbiotic bacterium for its transmission. We believe that such a model of virus-bacterium communication is a common phenomenon in nature.

  15. Bioaccumulation of Cry1Ab protein from an herbivore reduces anti-oxidant enzyme activities in two spider species.

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    Ji Zhou

    Full Text Available Cry proteins are expressed in rice lines for lepidopteran pest control. These proteins can be transferred from transgenic rice plants to non-target arthropods, including planthoppers and then to a predatory spider. Movement of Cry proteins through food webs may reduce fitness of non-target arthropods, although recent publications indicated no serious changes in non-target populations. Nonetheless, Cry protein intoxication influences gene expression in Cry-sensitive insects. We posed the hypothesis that Cry protein intoxication influences enzyme activities in spiders acting in tri-trophic food webs. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test our hypothesis with two spider species. We demonstrated that the movement of CryAb protein from Drosophila culture medium into fruit flies maintained on the CryAb containing medium and from the flies to the spiders Ummeliata insecticeps and Pardosa pseudoannulata. We also show that the activities of three key metabolic enzymes, acetylcholine esterase (AchE, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were significantly influenced in the spiders after feeding on Cry1Ab-containing fruit flies. We infer from these data that Cry proteins originating in transgenic crops impacts non-target arthropods at the physiological and biochemical levels, which may be one mechanism of Cry protein-related reductions in fitness of non-target beneficial predators.

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stripe Disease in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to map the quantitative trait loci for rice stripe resistance, a molecular linkage map was constructed based on the lines to rice stripe were investigated by both artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, and the ratios of ranged from 0 to 134.08 and from 6.25 to 133.6 under artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, respectively,and showed a marked bias towards resistant parent (Zhaiyeqing 8), indicating that the resistance to rice stripe was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). QTL analysis showed that the QTLs detected by the two inoculation methods were completely different.Only one QTL, qSTV7, was detected under artificial inoculation, at which the Zhaiyeqing 8 allele increased the resistance to rice stripe, while two QTLs, qSTV5 and qSTV1, were detected under natural infection, in which resistant alleles came from Zhaiyeqing 8and Wuyujing 3, respectively. These results showed that resistant parent Zhaiyeqing 8 carried the alleles associated with the resistance to rice stripe virus and the small brown planthopper, and susceptible parent Wuyujing 3 also carried the resistant allele to rice stripe virus. In comparison with the results previously reported, QTLs detected in the study were new resistant genes to rice stripe disease. This will provide a new resistant resource for avoiding genetic vulnerability for single utilization of the resistant gene Stvb-i.

  17. Structural determination of elicitors in Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) that induce Japonica rice plant varieties (Oryza sativa L.) to produce an ovicidal substance against S. furcifera eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Oh; Nakayama, Naoya; Toda, Kyohei; Tebayashi, Shinichi; Kim, Chul-Sa

    2014-01-01

    Certain Japonica rice plant varieties (Oryza sativa L.) show resistance to the eggs of the white backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) by the formation of watery lesions and production of benzyl benzoate, an active ovicidal compound. Benzyl benzoate results in high ovicidal activity of S. furcifera eggs and reduces egg hatchability. The production of benzyl benzoate by the rice plants is only induced by an unknown elicitor(s) from the female S. furcifera. Therefore, we tried to isolate and identify these elicitors. An active 80% MeOH extract of S. furcifera was separated on a reverse-phase ODS MPLC, and the elicitor(s) was eluted in 100% MeOH and 100% EtOH fractions. Further separation of the active 100% MeOH fraction using a HPLC led to the isolation of four active compounds. The structures of each compound were determined by using NMR, LC-MS, and GC-MS spectra. The compounds were 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-X-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine.

  18. General situation and prospect of imidacloprid used for killing insects%吡虫啉在卫生杀虫中的应用概况及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥梅

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a neurotoxin with contact insecticide, stomach poison and inner absorber, not only can effectively control variety of agricultural insect pests such as aphids and rice planthopper, but also has good germicidal effect on the termites,flies and cockroaches and other insects. Imidacloprid has many advantage such as high safety, convenient use,good effect,long duration and environment friendly. Imidacloprid has broad application prospects in health pest control.%吡虫啉是一种具有触杀、胃毒和内吸作用的神经毒素,不但能够有效防治农作物上的蚜虫、飞虱等多种农业害虫,对白蚁、苍蝇和蟑螂等卫生害虫同样具有优异的杀灭效果.吡虫啉具有安全性高、使用方便、作用效果好、持效期长和环境友好等优点,在卫生害虫防治领域具有广阔的应用前景.

  19. RNA Interference in Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakala, Surapathrudu; Ghanim, Murad

    2016-12-12

    Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing results in mortality or interference with pathogen transmission. The identification of such candidates poses a major challenge for increasing the role of RNAi in pest control. Another challenge is to understand the RNAi machinery in insect cells and whether components that were identified in other organisms are also present in insect. This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists.

  20. Contrasting micro/nano architecture on termite wings: two divergent strategies for optimising success of colonisation flights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Watson

    Full Text Available Many termite species typically fly during or shortly after rain periods. Local precipitation will ensure water will be present when establishing a new colony after the initial flight. Here we show how different species of termite utilise two distinct and contrasting strategies for optimising the success of the colonisation flight. Nasutitermes sp. and Microcerotermes sp. fly during rain periods and adopt hydrophobic structuring/'technologies' on their wings to contend with a moving canvas of droplets in daylight hours. Schedorhinotermes sp. fly after rain periods (typically at night and thus do not come into contact with mobile droplets. These termites, in contrast, display hydrophilic structuring on their wings with a small scale roughness which is not dimensionally sufficient to introduce an increase in hydrophobicity. The lack of hydrophobicity allows the termite to be hydrophilicly captured at locations where water may be present in large quantities; sufficient for the initial colonization period. The high wettability of the termite cuticle (Schedorhinotermes sp. indicates that the membrane has a high surface energy and thus will also have strong attractions with solid particles. To investigate this the termite wings were also interacted with both artificial and natural contaminants in the form of hydrophilic silicon beads of various sizes, 4 µm C(18 beads and three differently structured pollens. These were compared to the superhydrophobic surface of the planthopper (Desudaba psittacus and a native Si wafer surface. The termite cuticle demonstrated higher adhesive interactions with all particles in comparison to those measured on the plant hopper.

  1. Contrasting micro/nano architecture on termite wings: two divergent strategies for optimising success of colonisation flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gregory S; Cribb, Bronwen W; Watson, Jolanta A

    2011-01-01

    Many termite species typically fly during or shortly after rain periods. Local precipitation will ensure water will be present when establishing a new colony after the initial flight. Here we show how different species of termite utilise two distinct and contrasting strategies for optimising the success of the colonisation flight. Nasutitermes sp. and Microcerotermes sp. fly during rain periods and adopt hydrophobic structuring/'technologies' on their wings to contend with a moving canvas of droplets in daylight hours. Schedorhinotermes sp. fly after rain periods (typically at night) and thus do not come into contact with mobile droplets. These termites, in contrast, display hydrophilic structuring on their wings with a small scale roughness which is not dimensionally sufficient to introduce an increase in hydrophobicity. The lack of hydrophobicity allows the termite to be hydrophilicly captured at locations where water may be present in large quantities; sufficient for the initial colonization period. The high wettability of the termite cuticle (Schedorhinotermes sp.) indicates that the membrane has a high surface energy and thus will also have strong attractions with solid particles. To investigate this the termite wings were also interacted with both artificial and natural contaminants in the form of hydrophilic silicon beads of various sizes, 4 µm C(18) beads and three differently structured pollens. These were compared to the superhydrophobic surface of the planthopper (Desudaba psittacus) and a native Si wafer surface. The termite cuticle demonstrated higher adhesive interactions with all particles in comparison to those measured on the plant hopper.

  2. Optimization of Splicing by Overlap Extension PCR Using Nested PCR%基于巢式PCR的重叠延伸PCR优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭雷; 赵艳; 马银花

    2016-01-01

    [目的]结合巢式PCR对重叠延伸PCR进行优化。[方法]以褐飞虱Actin 1基因启动子区与EGFP表达盒区基因融合为例,通过巢式PCR对重叠延伸PCR进行优化。[结果]成功获得融合片段,经过巢式PCR优化后大大简化试验流程,缩短试验时间,并增强PCR特异性与检出率。[结论]优化了重叠延伸PCR,可更快速高效融合基因片段。%Objective] To optimize the Splicing by overlap extension PCR using nested PCR.[Method] Nested PCR was used to optimize SOE-PCR (splicing by overlap extension PCR) for combining brown planthopper (BPH) Actin 1 promoter and EGFP expression cassette. [Result] Nested PCR could greatly optimize SOE-PCR.After optimization of nested PCR, the test process was simplified, and the detection time was shortened.The PCR specificity and detection rate were enhanced.[ Conclusion] The optimized SOE-PCR can rapidly and effectively fuse the gene segment.

  3. [Occurrence dynamics of migratory pest insects Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Sogatella furcifera in transgenic Bt rice field in Xing'an County of Guangxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, He; Li, Zhi-Yi; Xu, Yan-Bo; Han, Chao; Han, Lan-Zhi; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2011-11-01

    An investigation was conducted in Xing' an County of Guangxi Province in 2010 to study the occurrence and damage characteristics of two unique migratory pest insects, rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera), in a transgenic Bt rice (cv. HH1 with dual Cry1Ab+Cry1Ac genes) field, taking the corresponding non-transgenic parent (cv. MH63) field as the control. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of C. medinalis eggs and larvae in the two fields, but the percentage of fold-leaf plants and the fold-leaf rate per plant were significantly lower in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control, suggesting that transgenic Bt rice had higher resistance against the target pest insect C. medinalis. As for S. furcifera, its occurrence dynamics of nymphs, adults (including macro- and brachypterous forms), and whole population had no significant differences between the two fields, but the abundance of the nymphs and brachypterous adults at the peak stage of S. furcifera occurrence was obviously higher in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control, while the macropterous abundance was in adverse. The sex ratio of female of the macropterous adults at the late growth stage of rice was generally lower in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control. These results suggested that under the background of large area commercial production of transgenic Bt rice, the occurrence and harm of the non-target pest insect S. furcifera could become more complicated.

  4. The global status of insect resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Denholm, Ian; Williamson, Martin S; Nauen, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    The first neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, was launched in 1991. Today this class of insecticides comprises at least seven major compounds with a market share of more than 25% of total global insecticide sales. Neonicotinoid insecticides are highly selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and provide farmers with invaluable, highly effective tools against some of the world's most destructive crop pests. These include sucking pests such as aphids, whiteflies, and planthoppers, and also some coleopteran, dipteran and lepidopteran species. Although many insect species are still successfully controlled by neonicotinoids, their popularity has imposed a mounting selection pressure for resistance, and in several species resistance has now reached levels that compromise the efficacy of these insecticides. Research to understand the molecular basis of neonicotinoid resistance has revealed both target-site and metabolic mechanisms conferring resistance. For target-site resistance, field-evolved mutations have only been characterized in two aphid species. Metabolic resistance appears much more common, with the enhanced expression of one or more cytochrome P450s frequently reported in resistant strains. Despite the current scale of resistance, neonicotinoids remain a major component of many pest control programmes, and resistance management strategies, based on mode of action rotation, are of crucial importance in preventing resistance becoming more widespread. In this review we summarize the current status of neonicotinoid resistance, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved, and the implications for resistance management.

  5. Optimization of Field Investigation of Major Rice Pests%水稻主要害虫田间调查实践优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤伟群; 侯平扬

    2013-01-01

    病虫害田间调查是测报的基础性工作,提高病虫害田间调查数据的准确性,有赖于田间调查方法的规范性和操作技能的提升.本文优化总结了基层测报技术人员对水稻主要害虫稻飞虱、稻纵卷叶螟、二化螟的田间调查实践,归纳出对3种害虫田间调查方法的要点,并提出了田间调查的注意事项.%Field investigations of plant diseases and pests are the basis for forecasting,improving the accuracy of field investigation data,depends on normative and operational skills of field investigation methods improved.This paper sum optimizes and summarizes the major pests in rice field investigations practice of grass-roots forecasting technicians on the rice planthopper,rice leaf-roller and Asiatic rice striped borer,summarized to 3 kinds of pests field investigation methods,and made notes on field investigations.

  6. Genome Sizes of Nine Insect Species Determined by Flow Cytometry and k-mer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kang; Lin, Kejian; Wang, Guirong; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The flow cytometry method was used to estimate the genome sizes of nine agriculturally important insects, including two coleopterans, five Hemipterans, and two hymenopterans. Among which, the coleopteran Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) had the largest genome of 981 Mb. The average genome size was 504 Mb, suggesting that insects have a moderate-size genome. Compared with the insects in other orders, hymenopterans had small genomes, which were averagely about ~200 Mb. We found that the genome sizes of four insect species were different between male and female, showing the organismal complexity of insects. The largest difference occurred in the coconut leaf beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro). The male coconut leaf beetle had a 111 Mb larger genome than females, which might be due to the chromosome number difference between the sexes. The results indicated that insect invasiveness was not related to genome size. We also determined the genome sizes of the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) and the parasitic wasp Macrocentrus cingulum (Brischke) using k-mer analysis with Illunima Solexa sequencing data. There were slight differences in the results from the two methods. k-mer analysis indicated that the genome size of L. striatellus was 500–700 Mb and that of M. cingulum was ~150 Mb. In all, the genome sizes information presented here should be helpful for designing the genome sequencing strategy when necessary. PMID:27932995

  7. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Wild Rice (Oryza minuta) and Its Comparison with Other Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Shahzad, Raheem; Seo, Chang-Woo; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Oryza minuta (Poaceae family) is a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice with a BBCC genome. O. minuta has the potential to resist against various pathogenic diseases such as bacterial blight (BB), white backed planthopper (WBPH) and brown plant hopper (BPH). Here, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. minuta. The mtDNA genome is 515,022 bp, containing 60 protein coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome organization and the gene content at the nucleotide level are highly similar (89%) to that of O. rufipogon. Comparison with other related species revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved among the Poaceae members. Similarly, O. minuta mt genome shared 24 protein-coding genes, 15 tRNA genes and 1 ribosomal RNA gene with other rice species (indica and japonica). The evolutionary relationship and phylogenetic analysis revealed that O. minuta is more closely related to O. rufipogon than to any other related species. Such studies are essential to understand the evolutionary divergence among species and analyze common gene pools to combat risks in the current scenario of a changing environment. PMID:27045847

  8. Transformation of Arabidopsis by Rice OsWRKY78:: GFP Fusion Gene and Subcellular Localization of OsWRKY78 Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunzhi LIU; Mei ZHANG; Xin TANG; Xiaolan WANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to understand the subcellular localization of OsWRKY78 protein in plants. [Method] Primers specific for OsWRKY78 gene were designed according to the OsWRKY78 full length sequence in Genbank. The gene was cloned by RT-PCR method. The gene was then recombined into a plasmid ex- pression vector carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, pBinGFP. The re- combinant was confirmed by PCR and enzyme digestion. The recombinant plasmid pBinGFP-OsWRKY was transformed into Arabidopsis through Agrobacterium tume- faciens strain GV3101 and transgenic plants were obtained. [Result] Measured by fluorescence microscopy, the expression of OsWRKY78 and GFP fusion protein in root tip cells was localized in the nucleus. [Conclusion] This study laid the foundation for further investigating the function of OsWRKY78 gene and its role in related sig- nal transduction and provided theoretical basis for exploring the relation between OsWRKY78 gene and brown planthoppers.

  9. Biological and molecular events associated with simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by invertebrate and fungal vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syller, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Viruses are likely to be the most dangerous parasites of living organisms because of their widespread occurrence, possible deleterious effects on their hosts and high rates of evolution. Virus host-to-host transmission is a critical step in the virus life cycle, because it enables survival in a given environment and efficient dissemination. As hosts of plant viruses are not mobile, these pathogens have adopted diverse transmission strategies involving various vector organisms, mainly arthropods, nematodes, fungi and protists. In nature, plants are often infected with more than one virus at a time, thereby creating potential sources for vectors to acquire and transmit simultaneously two or more viruses. Simultaneous transmission can result in multiple infections of new host plants, which become subsequent potential sources of the viruses, thus enhancing the spread of the diseases caused by these pathogens. Moreover, it can contribute to the maintenance of viral genetic diversity in the host communities. However, despite its possible significance, the problem of the simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by vectors has not been investigated in detail. In this review, the current knowledge on multiple viral transmissions by aphids, whiteflies, leafhoppers, planthoppers, nematodes and fungi is outlined. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  11. Effects of the susceptibility of rice varieties to Sogatella furcifera on nymphal development and reproduction of Microvelia horvathi through a food chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIE-GUANG XIAO; JIANG-XIA TANG

    2007-01-01

    The effects of four rice varieties highly susceptible ('Xiang-Zao-Xian31' and 'Jia-Yu 164' ), moderately susceptible ('Wei-You402'), and resistant ('Zhu-Liang-You02') to the whitebacked planthopper Sogatella furcifera on the nymphal development, reproduction and survival of Microvelia horoathi were investigated through a food chain using Sogatella furcifera as herbivore prey. Significant longer nymphal developmental time were observed in the 1st, 4th, 5th instar and whole nymphal stage of M. horvathi raised on S.furcifera fed 'ZLY02' and 'WY402' than those of the other two varieties. M. horvathi raised on S. furcifera fed resistant 'ZLY02' showed a significant lower survival of whole nymphal stage than those fed other three susceptible varieties. Moreover, M. horvathi raised on S. furcifera fed resistant 'ZLY02' had shorter female longevity and lower lifetime fecundity than those of on susceptible 'XZX31'. Our results suggest that the S. furcifera-resistant rice variety 'ZLY02' had a negative effect on the growth and development of the predator M. horvathi through a food chain.

  12. Expression Differences of Resistance-Related Genes Induced by Cycloxaprid Using qRT-PCR in the Female Adult of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Xue; Jin, Dao-Chao; Li, Feng-Liang; Cheng, Ying; Li, Wen-Hong; Ye, Zhao-Chun; Zhou, Yu-Hang

    2017-08-01

    As a newer cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid pesticide at present, cycloxaprid has good industrialization prospects, including the management of imidacloprid-resistant populations, because this chemical have an excellent efficiency against rice planthoppers. Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is the most economically important pest of rice worldwide and has developed resistance to many insecticides. This study focused on the expression change of these resistance genes, induced by cycloxaprid, involved in metabolic detoxification and receptor protein. Twenty-two differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that may be related with the insecticide resistance were found in the transcriptome of S. furcifera, including 2 cytochrome P450 genes, 2 glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, 1 acid phosphatase (ACP) gene, 12 decarboxylase genes, 2 glycolipid genes, 1 cadherin gene, and 2 glycosyltransferase genes, which were up- or downregulated in response to an exposure of cycloxaprid. Furthermore, two P450 genes (CYP4 and CYP6 family, respectively), two decarboxylase genes, and one glycosyltransferase gene were validated by qRT-PCR. Expression differences of these genes verified successfully by qRT-PCR in response to different concentrations and times treated with cycloxaprid could explain the insecticide resistance mechanism under cycloxaprid stress in S. furcifera. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Functional and biochemical properties of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (Fijivirus, Reoviridae) P9-1 viroplasm protein show further similarities to animal reovirus counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroniche, Guillermo A; Mongelli, Vanesa C; Peralta, Andrea V; Distéfano, Ana J; Llauger, Gabriela; Taboga, Oscar A; Hopp, Esteban H; del Vas, Mariana

    2010-09-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a plant virus of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae that infects several monocotyledonous species and is transmitted by planthoppers in a persistent and propagative manner. Other members of the family replicate in viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) termed viroplasms that are formed in the cytoplasm of infected plant and insect cells. In this study, the protein coded by the first ORF of MRCV segment S9 (P9-1) was shown to establish cytoplasmic inclusion bodies resembling viroplasms after transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. In accordance, MRCV P9-1 self-associates giving rise to high molecular weight complexes when expressed in bacteria. Strong self-interaction was also evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, biochemical characterization showed that MRCV P9-1 bound single stranded RNA and had ATPase activity. Finally, the MRCV P9-1 region required for the formation of VIB-like structures was mapped to the protein carboxy-terminal half. This extensive functional and biochemical characterization of MRCV P9-1 revealed further similarities between plant and animal reovirus viroplasm proteins. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of Elite BPH-Resistant Wide-Spectrum Restorer Lines for Three and Two Line Hybrid Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengfeng; Li, Nengwu; Chen, Yunping; Liu, Xingdan; Sun, Heng; Wang, Jie; He, Guangcun; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the world food security. Breeding of elite high-yield, strong-resistant broad-spectrum restorer line is an important strategy for hybrid rice in commercial breeding programs. Here, we developed three elite brown planthopper (BPH)-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines by pyramiding big-panicle gene Gn8.1, BPH-resistant genes Bph6 and Bph9, fertility restorer genes Rf3, Rf4, Rf5, and Rf6 through molecular marker assisted selection. Resistance analysis revealed that the newly developed restorer lines showed stronger BPH-resistance than any of the single-gene donor parent Luoyang-6 and Luoyang-9. Moreover, the three new restorer lines had broad spectrum recovery capabilities for Honglian CMS, Wild abortive CMS and two-line GMS sterile lines, and higher grain yields than that of the recurrent parent 9,311 under nature field conditions. Importantly, the hybrid crosses also showed good performance for grain yield and BPH-resistance. Thus, the development of elite BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines has a promising future for breeding of broad spectrum BPH-resistant high-yield varieties.

  15. Insulin-related peptide 5 is involved in regulating embryo development and biochemical composition in pea aphid with wing polyphenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan eGuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In aphids there is a fecundity-dispersal trade-off between wingless and winged morphs. Recent research on the molecular mechanism of wing morphs associated with dispersal reveals that insulin receptors in the insulin signaling (IS pathway regulate alteration of wing morphs in planthoppers. However, little is known about whether genes in the IS pathway are involved in developmental regulation in aphid nymphs with different wing morphs. In this study, we show that expression of the insulin-related peptide 5 gene (Apirp5 affects biochemical composition and embryo development of wingless pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. After comparing expression levels of major genes in the IS pathway between third instar winged and wingless nymphs, we found that Apirp5 showed higher expression in head and thorax of the wingless nymphs than in the winged nymphs. Although microinjection treatment affects physical performance in aphids, nymphs with RNA interference of Apirp5 had less weight, smaller embryo size and higher carbohydrate and protein contents compared to control group. Comparison between winged and wingless nymphs showed a similar trend. These results indicate that Apirp5 is involved in embryo development and metabolic regulation in wing dimorphic pea aphid.

  16. Depletion of host cell riboflavin reduces Wolbachia levels in cultured mosquito cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Ann M; Baldridge, Gerald D; Carroll, Elissa M; Kurtz, Cassandra M

    2014-09-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium that occurs in arthropod and nematode hosts. Wolbachia presumably provides a fitness benefit to its hosts, but the basis for its retention and spread in host populations remains unclear. Wolbachia genomes retain biosynthetic pathways for some vitamins, and the possibility that these vitamins benefit host cells provides a potential means of selecting for Wolbachia-infected cell lines. To explore whether riboflavin produced by Wolbachia is available to its host cell, we established that growth of uninfected C7-10 mosquito cells decreases in riboflavin-depleted culture medium. A well-studied inhibitor of riboflavin uptake, lumiflavin, further inhibits growth of uninfected C7-10 cells with an LC50 of approximately 12 μg/ml. Growth of C/wStr1 mosquito cells, infected with Wolbachia from the planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, was enhanced in medium containing low levels of lumiflavin, but Wolbachia levels decreased. Lumiflavin-enhanced growth thus resembled the improved growth that accompanies treatment with antibiotics that deplete Wolbachia, rather than a metabolic advantage provided by the Wolbachia infection. We used the polymerase chain reaction to validate the decrease in Wolbachia abundance and evaluated our results in the context of a proteomic analysis in which we detected nearly 800 wStr proteins. Our data indicate that Wolbachia converts riboflavin to FMN and FAD for its own metabolic needs, and does not provide a source of riboflavin for its host cell.

  17. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key "nResults: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorarius"nThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. "nConclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles. 

  18. Forty-sixth supplement to the American ornithologists' union check-list of North American Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R.C.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J.L.; Kratter, A.W.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Remsen, J.V.; Rising, J.D.; Stotz, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    This is the fifth Supplement since publication of the 7th edition of the Check-list of North American Birds (American Ornithologists? Union [AOU] 1998). It summarizes decisions made by the AOU?s Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 January and 31 December 2004. Changes in this Supplement fall into the following categories: (1) two species replace others presently on the list because of splitting of extralimital forms (Leptotila plumbeiceps replaces L. rufaxilla and Hylocharis humboldtii replaces H. grayi); (2) one species is removed from the Appendix and added to the main list because of new distributional information (Circus aeruginosus); (3) one species is removed from the list because of its merger with another species on the list (Motacilla lugens); (4) one species is removed from the main list and placed in the Appendix (Acridotheres cristatellus); (4) two species are removed from the families in which they were previously treated and placed in incertae sedis categories (Donacobius atricapilla and Coereba flaveola), and one family is removed from the list (Coerebidae); (6) one genus is removed from the list (Mimodes) because of its merger with another on the list (Mimus), with the consequent change of the scientific name of one species; and (7) the distribution of one species is restricted because of the removal of an extralimital population now treated as distinct (Melanerpes chrysauchen). Further, one species is added to the list of birds known to occur in the United States (Tachycineta albilinea). A few recent references are added to statements of distribution. Minor corrections are made in several citations or notes. There is one more deletion from the main list than additions to it, so the number of species in the main list becomes 2,037.

  19. The evolution of host associations in the parasitic wasp genus Ichneumon (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): convergent adaptations to host pupation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Andreas; Riedel, Matthias; Kropf, Christian; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Klopfstein, Seraina

    2013-03-27

    The diversification of organisms with a parasitic lifestyle is often tightly linked to the evolution of their host associations. If a tight host association exists, closely related species tend to attack closely related hosts; host associations are less stable if associations are determined by more plastic traits like parasitoid searching and oviposition behaviour. The pupal-parasitoids of the genus Ichneumon attack a variety of macrolepidopteran hosts. They are either monophagous or polyphagous, and therefore offer a promissing system to investigate the evolution of host associations. Ichneumon was previously divided into two groups based on general body shape; however, a stout shape has been suggested as an adaptation to buried host pupation sites, and might thus not represent a reliable phylogenetic character. We here reconstruct the first molecular phylogeny of the genus Ichneumon using two mitochondrial (CO1 and NADH1) and one nuclear marker (28S). The resulting phylogeny only supports monophyly of Ichneumon when Ichneumon lugens Gravenhorst, 1829 (formerly in Chasmias, stat. rev.) and Ichneumon deliratorius Linnaeus, 1758 (formerly Coelichneumon) are included. Neither parasitoid species that attack hosts belonging to one family nor those attacking butterflies (Rhopalocera) form monophyletic clades. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest multiple transitions between searching for hosts above versus below ground and between a stout versus elongated body shape. A model assuming correlated evolution between the two characters was preferred over independent evolution of host-searching niche and body shape. Host relations, both in terms of phylogeny and ecology, evolved at a high pace in the genus Ichneumon. Numerous switches between hosts of different lepidopteran families have occurred, a pattern that seems to be the rule among idiobiont parasitoids. A stout body and antennal shape in the parasitoid female is confirmed as an ecological adaptation to host

  20. Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Krüpple-homologue 1 (Kr-h1) are required for ovariole development and egg maturation in the brown plant hopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinda; Yao, Yun; Wang, Bo

    2015-12-14

    The brown plant hopper is one of the most destructive known pests of rice. We studied the roles of the JH receptor Met and the downstream transcription factor Kr-h1 in ovariole development and egg maturation. The predicted Met protein in N. lugens (NlMet) contained 517 amino acids. qRT-PCR showed that NlMet was expressed in all tissues and that the highest expression occurred in the embryonic stage. In NlMet- or NlKr-h1-silenced female adults, ovarian development varied significantly, whereas the numbers of ovarioles were less variable in those injected with dsRNA targeting NlMet, NlKrh-1 or both NlMet and NlKr-h1. In females injected with dsNlKr-h1 or with dsNlMet in combination with dsNlKr-h1 dsRNA, the preoviposition period was prolonged, whereas the females injected with NlMet dsRNA showed no significant changes. Moreover, we found no differences in the length of the preoviposition period between macropterous and brachypterous females. The disruption of Nlmet or NlKr-h1 or the dual knockdown of NlMet and NlKr-h1 significantly reduced the number of eggs laid. Moreover, significant differences were also found between the macropterous and the brachypterous brown plant hoppers. These results indicated that Met and Kr-h1 are required for ovariole development and egg maturation in the brown plant hopper.

  1. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran.Methods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key Results: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorariusThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. Conclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles. 

  2. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangkun Meng

    Full Text Available The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs, 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides.

  3. Nano scale proteomics revealed the presence of regulatory proteins including three FT-Like proteins in phloem and xylem saps from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Toshihiko; Shigyo, Mikao; Nakano, Ryouhei; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2008-05-01

    The main physiological roles of phloem and xylem in higher plants involve the transport of water, nutrients and metabolites. They are also involved, however, in whole plant events including stress responses and long-distance signaling. Phloem and xylem saps therefore include a variety of proteins. In this study, we have performed a shotgun analysis of the proteome of phloem and xylem saps from rice, taking advantage of the complete and available genomic information for this plant. Xylem sap was prepared using the root pressure method, whereas phloem sap was prepared with a unique method with the assistance of planthoppers to ensure the robustness of the detected proteins. The technical difficulties caused by the very limited availability of rice samples were overcome by the use of nano-flow liquid chromatography linked to a mass spectrometer. We identified 118 different proteins and eight different peptides in xylem sap, and 107 different proteins and five different peptides in phloem sap. Signal transduction proteins, putative transcription factors and stress response factors as well as metabolic enzymes were identified in these saps. Interestingly, we found the presence of three TERMINAL FLOWER 1/FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like proteins in phloem sap. The detected FT-like proteins were not rice Hd3a (OsFTL2) itself that acted as a non-cell-autonomous signal for flowering control, but they were members of distinct subfamilies of the FT family with differential expression patterns. These results imply that proteomics on a nano scale is a potent tool for investigation of biological processes in plants.

  4. Biological aspects on the cultures of the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora delphacis grown on broomcorn millets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Mingguang; LIANG Yong

    2003-01-01

    A novel method was developed to use glutinous broomcorn millets (Panicum miliaceum L.) as solid substrate to make cultures of the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora delphacis specifically pathogenic to planthoppers, leafhoppers and aphids. Steamed millets with water content of 45% were inoculated with a liquid culture of P. delphacis at a ratio of 20% (v/w) and then incubated at 25℃ and L:D 12:12. The millets cultured for 3-17 d exhibited high potential for conidialproduction. The 5-d-old millet culture sporulated most abundantly, discharging up to 17.12 (±1.31) × 104 conidia/ millet. The cultures incubated for 7-11 d also had a satisfactory sporulation capability, yielding 13.00-13.90 × 104 conidia/millet. Compared to 2.32 (±0.34) × 104 conidia discharged from each of Myzus persicae adults killed by P. delphacis and a ≤60-h duration of sporulation, eachof the millets cultured for 5-11 d produced 5.6-7.4 times more conidia with an over doubled duration for conidial discharge (144 h). Among 106 M. persicae adults exposed to the shower of conidia discharged from the cultured millets, a total mortality of 69.8% caused by P. delphacis infection was observed within 7 d after exposure, but no death was attributed to the fungal infection in the aphids unexposed. The results indicate that the millet cultures of P. delphacis are biologically similar to aphid cadavers killed by the same fungus. Due to the superiority of the cultured millets to the cadavers in sporulation potential and duration, the method for making cultures of P. delphacis on the broomcorn millets is highly recommended for use in study of entomophthoralean fungi for microbial control. This is the first report on the success of the solid culture of Pandora species on cereals.

  5. Transgenic strategies to confer resistance against viruses in rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide eSasaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world’s population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. In an effort to improve control, many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA-interference (RNAi, also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral Achilles’ heel gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants.

  6. Rice Stripe Virus Infection Alters mRNA Levels of Sphingolipid-Metabolizing Enzymes and Sphingolipids Content in Laodelphax striatellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Qiang; Bai, Yue-Liang; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Zhu, Mu-Fei; Zhang, Min-Jing; Mao, Cun-Gui; Zhu, Zeng-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Sphingolipids and their metabolites have been implicated in viral infection and replication in mammal cells but how their metabolizing enzymes in the host are regulated by viruses remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of 12 sphingolipid genes and their regulation by Rice stripe virus in the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén), a serious pest of rice throughout eastern Asia. According to protein sequence similarity, we identified 12 sphingolipid enzyme genes in L. striatellus. By comparing their mRNA levels in viruliferous versus nonviruliferous L. striatellus at different life stages by qPCR, we found that RSV infection upregulated six genes (LsCGT1, LsNAGA1, LsSGPP, LsSMPD4, LsSMS, and LsSPT) in most stages of L. striatellus. Especially, four genes (LsCGT1, LsSMPD2, LsNAGA1, and LsSMS) and another three genes (LsNAGA1, LsSGPP, and LsSMS) were significantly upregulated in viruliferous third-instar and fourth-instar nymphs, respectively. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that RSV infection increased the levels of various ceramides, such as Cer18:0, Cer20:0, and Cer22:0 species, in third and fourth instar L. striatellus nymphs. Together, these results demonstrate that RSV infection alters the transcript levels of various sphingolipid enzymes and the contents of sphingolipids in L. striatellus, indicating that sphingolipids may be important for RSV infection or replication in L. striatellus. PMID:28130458

  7. Cross-resistance to three phenylpyrazole insecticides and A2'N mutation detection of GABA receptor subunit in fipronil-resistant Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Mu, Xi-Chao; Wu, Shun-Fan; Wang, Li-Xiang; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2017-08-01

    Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) is an important pest of crops in East Asia. Over the past decade, phenylpyrazole insecticides, which target the insect GABA receptor, have increasingly been used as alternatives against rice planthoppers. Cross-resistance to ethiprole and butene-fipronil was detected in a laboratory-selected fipronil-resistant strain of L. striatellus (LsFR). Compared with a fipronil-susceptible strain (LsFS), LsFR had obtained a high-level resistance to fipronil (112.1-fold) and moderate resistance to ethiprole (24.5-fold) and butene-fipronil (14.7-fold). For the resistance of field populations, LC50 values of ethiprole were remarkably higher than the other two analogues in Gaochun and Yancheng populations in 2016. Significant correlations were demonstrated between the LC50 values of three phenylpyrazole insecticides (R = 0.944-0.998, P = 0.007-0.016). Additionally, an AS-PCR assay was developed to detect the A2'N mutant GABA receptor in L. striatellus strains or populations. It was noteworthy that mutation frequencies of 19.2 and 3.6% appeared in Lujiang and Gaochun populations in 2016, respectively. Furthermore, there was an extremely significant difference in genomic expression of Lsrdl between the LsFS and LsFR individuals (1.85-fold, F = 26.8, P = 0.0008). This study could help us better understand the cross-resistance mechanisms in L. striatellus, and be beneficial for proposing effective pest management strategies of phenylpyrazole resistance. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. 氟啶虫胺腈与乙基多杀菌素混用防治水稻迁飞性害虫田间药效试验%Field Effect Trials on the Mixture of Sulfoxaflor and Spinetoram Against Rice Migratory Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏华兴; 陈明亮; 刘维新; 王健生

    2013-01-01

      In order to find excellent insecticides for controlling rice migratory pests, the field trials were carried out. The results showed that the mixture of sulfoxaflor 22%SC and spinetoram 60 g/L SC had high, quick and long control effects against rice planthopper and rice leaf roller,and was safe to the main natural enemies such as spiders and Cyrtorrhinus livdipennis, etc. The application rates of the mixture were sulfoxaflor 22%SC 375 mL/hm2 and spinetoram 60 g/L SC 500 mL/hm2.%  为探索防治水稻迁飞性害虫的有效药剂,开展了田间药效试验。结果表明:22%氟啶虫胺腈悬浮剂与60 g/L乙基多杀菌素悬浮剂混用防治稻飞虱、稻纵卷叶螟具有速效性好、持效期长的特点,可起到防治多种害虫的作用,其适宜剂量为22%氟啶虫胺腈悬浮剂375 mL/hm2+60 g/L乙基多杀菌素悬浮剂500 mL/hm2,对水稻生长无任何不良影响,且对稻田害虫天敌如蜘蛛、黑肩绿盲蝽等杀伤作用小。

  9. New model for the genesis and maturation of viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qianzhuo; Zheng, Shenglan; Han, Qingmei; Chen, Hongyan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian; Wei, Taiyun

    2013-06-01

    Plant reoviruses are thought to replicate and assemble within cytoplasmic, nonmembranous structures called viroplasms. Here, we established continuous cell cultures of the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) to investigate the mechanisms for the genesis and maturation of the viroplasm induced by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, during infection of its insect vector. Electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the viroplasm consisted of a granular region, where viral RNAs and nonstructural proteins P6 and P9-1 accumulated, and a filamentous region, where viral RNAs, progeny cores, viral particles, as well as nonstructural proteins P5 and P6 accumulated. Our results suggested that the filamentous viroplasm matrix was the site for the assembly of progeny virions. Because viral RNAs were produced by assembled core particles within the filamentous viroplasm matrix, we propose that these viral RNAs might be transported to the granular viroplasm matrix. P5 formed filamentous inclusions and P9-1 formed granular inclusions in the absence of viral infection, suggesting that the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrices were formed primarily by P5 and P9-1, respectively. P6 was apparently recruited in the whole viroplasm matrix by direct interaction with P9-1 and P5. Thus, the present results suggested that P5, P6, and P9-1 are collectively required for the genesis and maturation of the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrix induced by SRBSDV infection. Based on these results, we propose a new model to explain the genesis and maturation of the viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells.

  10. Natural phytoplasma infection of four phloem-feeding Auchenorrhyncha across vineyard agroecosystems in central-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, L; Isidoro, N; Rioloi, P

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal variations of grapevine yellow phytoplasma were investigated in four phloem-feeding planthopper and leafhopper species that are vectors of plant disease agents. In total, 1,148 wild specimens were collected from three vineyard agroecosystems in the Marche region (central-eastern Italy), from May to September 2008, and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism methods. Of 525 Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, 25.1% were positive for aster yellow phytoplasma (16SrI-C, 16SrI-B subgroups) and stolbur phytoplasma (16SrXII-A subgroup; Vergilbungskrankheit type I [VK-I]). Of 368 Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret, 19.3% were positive for the 16SrXII-A subgroup (VK-I, VK-II; mainly according to their host plant). Of 146 Neoaliturus fenestratus (Herrich-Schäffer), 15.1% were positive for the 16SrI-C and 16SrI-B subgroups, and 7.3% of 109 Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom) were positive for the 16SrI-B subgroup. The total inoculation efficiency in the feeding medium assays was 57.1% for P. alienus, 44.7% for E. lineolatus, 44.4% for N. fenestratus and 33.9% for H. obsoletus. All of the phytoplasma subgroups identified in the insect bodies were also detected in their feeding media. Detection of stolbur phytoplasma in E. lineolatus feeding media strengthens the hypothesis that it is a candidate vector of Bois noir disease causal agent. The phytoplasma subgroups detected in the Auchenorrhyncha species showed variations according to season and/or vineyard agroecosystem. This study highlights the different specificities of these phytoplasma-Auchenorrhyncha species relationships, and suggests a primary role of the entire vineyard agroecosystem in the epidemiology of grapevine yellow phytoplasma diseases.

  11. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangkun; Zhang, Yixi; Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides.

  12. Target resistance and non-target effect of two transgenic Bt rice lines in Zhejiang field%两种转 Bt基因水稻品系在浙江田间的靶标抗性及其非靶标影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海亮; 杨亚军; 包斐; 王桂跃; 谭禾平; 吕仲贤

    2013-01-01

    研究了浙江田间转cry1C基因水稻T1c-19和转cry2A基因水稻T2A-1对靶标害虫二化螟和稻纵卷叶螟的抗性及对主要非靶标生物的影响。结果表明,与非转基因亲本对照明恢63相比,这两种转Bt基因水稻在整个生育期对稻纵卷叶螟、二化螟都具有极强的抗性,稻纵卷叶螟卷叶率减少98%以上,二化螟枯心/白穗率减少87%以上;而对非靶标害虫稻飞虱以及稻田主要捕食性天敌蜘蛛和黑肩绿盲蝽数量均无显著性影响。%Effects of Bt rice T1c-19 (cry1C) and T2A-1 (cry2A) on the resistance of target pests (Chilo suppressalis Walker and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee ) and non-target pests was evaluated in Zhejiang field .The results showed that T1c-19 and T2A-1 Bt rice could be high resistant to C.suppressalis and C.medinalis.The damage caused by C.medinalis and C.suppressalis on T1c-19 and T2A-1 decreased up to 98%and 87%, respectively;and there was no significant effect on non-target pest , i.e.rice planthoppers , and natural enemies , i.e.spiders and mired bugs .

  13. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  14. Overexpression of multiple detoxification genes in deltamethrin resistant Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén, is one of the major rice pests in Asia and has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Understanding resistance mechanisms is essential to the management of this pest. Biochemical and molecular assays were performed in this study to systematically characterize deltamethrin resistance mechanisms with laboratory-selected resistant and susceptible strains of SBPH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Deltamethrin resistant strains of SBPH (JH-del were derived from a field population by continuously selections (up to 30 generations in the laboratory, while a susceptible strain (JHS was obtained from the same population by removing insecticide pressure for 30 generations. The role of detoxification enzymes in the resistance was investigated using synergism and enzyme activity assays with strains of different resistant levels. Furthermore, 71 cytochrome P450, 93 esterases and 12 glutathione-S-transferases cDNAs were cloned based on transcriptome data of a field collected population. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR screening analysis of 176 identified detoxification genes demonstrated that multiple P450 and esterase genes were overexpressed (>2-fold in JH-del strains (G4 and G30 when compared to that in JHS, and the results of quantitative PCR coincided with the semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. Target mutation at IIS3-IIS6 regions encoded by the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was ruled out for conferring the observed resistance. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As the first attempt to discover genes potentially involved in SBPH pyrethroid resistance, this study putatively identified several candidate genes of detoxification enzymes that were significantly overexpressed in the resistant strain, which matched the synergism and enzyme activity testing. The biochemical and molecular evidences suggest that the high level pyrethroid resistance in L. striatellus could be due to

  15. Mosaic composition of ribA and wspB genes flanking the virB8-D4 operon in the Wolbachia supergroup B-strain, wStr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Li, Yang Grace; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W; Baldridge, Abigail S; Fallon, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales), is a widespread, vertically transmitted endosymbiont of filarial nematodes and arthropods. In insects, Wolbachia modifies reproduction, and in mosquitoes, infection interferes with replication of arboviruses, bacteria and plasmodia. Development of Wolbachia as a tool to control pest insects will be facilitated by an understanding of molecular events that underlie genetic exchange between Wolbachia strains. Here, we used nucleotide sequence, transcriptional and proteomic analyses to evaluate expression levels and establish the mosaic nature of genes flanking the T4SS virB8-D4 operon from wStr, a supergroup B-strain from a planthopper (Hemiptera) that maintains a robust, persistent infection in an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line. Based on protein abundance, ribA, which contains promoter elements at the 5'-end of the operon, is weakly expressed. The 3'-end of the operon encodes an intact wspB, which encodes an outer membrane protein and is co-transcribed with the vir genes. WspB and vir proteins are expressed at similar, above average abundance levels. In wStr, both ribA and wspB are mosaics of conserved sequence motifs from Wolbachia supergroup A- and B-strains, and wspB is nearly identical to its homolog from wCobU4-2, an A-strain from weevils (Coleoptera). We describe conserved repeated sequence elements that map within or near pseudogene lesions and transitions between A- and B-strain motifs. These studies contribute to ongoing efforts to explore interactions between Wolbachia and its host cell in an in vitro system.

  16. Bt水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫存活及捕食功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程正新; 黄建华; 梁玉勇; 程森弟; 熊焕保; 陈南萍; 胡水秀

    2014-01-01

    【目的】以稻田中重要捕食性天敌青翅蚁形隐翅虫Paederus fuscipes Curtis为研究对象,探讨在室内条件下青翅蚁形隐翅虫取食转Bt基因水稻上的褐飞虱后对其存活率和捕食功能的影响。【方法】在室内条件下,取食通过用一直取食转Bt水稻的褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(St?l)来饲养青翅蚁形隐翅虫,在第7、14、21、28天调查其成活率,研究转Bt水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫生长的影响。通过设置不同的猎物密度和捕食者密度,研究转Bt水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫成虫捕食功能的影响。【结果】室内条件下,转Bt水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫的存活率无明显影响。在试验褐飞虱密度下,转Bt基因水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫对褐飞虱的捕食量无显著影响,且捕食作用方程可用HollingⅡ模型拟合,理论方程为Na=1.3421N/(1+0.0887N)。瞬时攻击率a′和平均处理时间Th无显著差异,同时,转Bt基因水稻对青翅蚁形隐翅虫的捕食干扰反应无显著影响。【结论】转Bt基因水稻对供试天敌昆虫青翅蚁形隐翅虫存活率和捕食功能无明显影响。

  17. Late Glacial climate and palaeoenvironment in the Southern Carpathian Mountains inferred by chironomid and pollen analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, M.; Heiri, O.; Magyari, E.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.; Jakab, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Carpathian Mountains have several glacial lakes with their sediments extending back to the Late Glacial period (ca. 11,500-14,700 calibrated radiocarbon years BP). This area has so far missed quantitative palaeoclimate records that are however much needed in order to obtain a continental-scale picture of ecosystem reorganization in response to rapid climatic changes during the Late Glacial. High-resolution chironomid and pollen analyses can both provide such records. In this study these two methods are applied to the sediment sequence of a small sub-alpine lake, Taul dintre Brazi (Retezat Mts, 1740 m a.s.l., 0.5 ha). The lake is situated on base-poor, granite bedrock, within the Picea abies forest belt. Our aim was (1) to study changes in the chironomid fauna, (2) to obtain summer temperature estimates using a chironomid-mean July air temperature inference model, and finally (3) to compare the chironomid-inferred climate record with a pollen-based quantitative climate record (plant functional type method). Here we provide first results from this multi-proxy study. The Late Glacial and Early Holocene part of this core was analysed at 100-200 yr resolution. During the Oldest Dryas the chironomid fauna was dominated by Pseudodiamesa and Tanytarsini species; the start of the Lateglacial interstadial was marked by the diversification of Tanytarsini (Tanytarsus lugens-type, Tanytarsus pallidicornis-type, Paratanytarsus sp, Micropsectra insignilobus-type) and the disappearance of Pseudodiamesa suggesting a distinct increase in summer temperature. At the same time afforestation by Larix, Pinus cembra, Pinus mugo and Picea abies was signaled by the pollen, stomatal and plant macrofossil records. During the Younger Dryas reversal the chironomid fauna showed increasing abundance of Micropsectra insignilobus-type, a chironomid typical for cool, nutrient poor lakes whereas the pollen, plant macrofossil and stomatal records pointed to a decrease of Picea abies

  18. Novel O-linked glycans containing 6'-sulfo-Gal/GalNAc of MUC1 secreted from human breast cancer YMB-S cells: possible carbohydrate epitopes of KL-6(MUC1) monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Akira; Ohkura, Takashi; Ideo, Hiroko; Yamashita, Katsuko

    2012-02-01

    Human serum Krebs von den Lugen-6 (KL-6) antigen is a MUC1 glycoprotein (KL-6/MUC1) recognized by anti-KL-6 monoclonal antibody (KL-6/mAb) and has been utilized as a diagnostic marker for interstitial pneumonia. KL-6/mAb is thought to recognize the specific glycopeptides sequence of MUC1, but the precise glycan structure of the epitope is unclear. In this study, we determined the carbohydrate structures of KL-6/MUC1 to search the carbohydrate epitopes for KL-6/mAb. KL-6/MUC1 was purified from the culture medium of human breast cancer YMB-S cells by KL-6/mAb-affinity chromatography; the O-linked glycan structures were determined in combination with paper electrophoresis, several lectin column chromatographies, sialidase digestion and methanolysis. KL-6/MUC1 contained core 1 and extended core 1 glycans modified with one or two sialic acid/sulfate residues. Based on these structures, several synthetic glycans binding to anti-KL-6/mAb were compared with one another by surface plasmon resonance. Sequentially, related radiolabeled oligosaccharides were enzymatically synthesized and analyzed for binding to a KL-6/mAb-conjugated affinity column. 3'-sialylated, 6'-sulfated LNnT [Neu5Acα2-3(SO(3)(-)-6)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc], 3'-sialylated, 6-sulfated core 1 [Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-3(SO(3)(-)-6)GalNAc] and disulfated core 1 SO(3)(-)-3Galβ1-3(SO(3)(-)-6)GalNAc exhibited substantial affinity for KL-6/mAb, and 3'-sulfated core 1 derivatives [SO(3)(-)-3Galβ1-3(±Neu5Acα2-6)GalNAc] and 3'-sialylated core 1 weakly interacted with KL-6/mAb. These results indicated that the possible carbohydrate epitopes of KL-6/mAb involve not only 3'-sialylated core 1 but also novel core 1 and extended core 1 with sulfate and sialic acid residues. Epitope expressing changes with suppression or over-expression of the Gal6ST (Gal 6-O-sulfotransferase) gene, suggesting that Gal6ST is involved in the biosynthesis of the unique epitopes of KL-6/mAb.

  19. Leafhoppers and Cixiids in Phytoplasma-infected Carrot Fields: Species Composition and Potential Phytoplasma Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Drobnjaković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first molecular analysis of samples collected in southern Bačka (Serbia confirmed the presence of aster yellows (16SrI and stolbur phytoplasmas (16SrXII in insects belonging to the family Cicadellidae, as well as in carrot plants where the insects were collected. A correct identification of the phytoplasmas and their vectors is essential to arrange effective control strategies to prevent diseases associated with phytoplasmas from spreading to carrots and other vegetable crops. In order to enhance knowledgeabout insect vectors of aster yellows and stolbur phytoplasmas in Serbia, Cicadellidae and Cixiidae (Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha, the most common vectors of these phytoplasmas,were monitored in southern Bačka during 2008. Adults leaf- and planthoppers were collected and identified at species level using standard entomological methods,and tested for phytoplasma presence by means of PCR/RFLP. A total of 13 insect species of Cicadellidae were identified, as follows: a three species of the subfamily Agallinae: Anaceratagallia ribauti (Ossiannilsson, Anaceratagallia venosa (Fourcroy,and Anaceratagallia laevis (Ribaut; b seven species of the subfamily Deltocephalinae: Psammotettix confinis (Dahlbom, Psammotettix striatus (Linnaues Psammottettix alienus (Dahlbom, Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallén, Ophiola decumana (Kontkanen,Errastunus ocellaris Fallén, and Scaphoideus titanus Ball; c three species of the subfamily Typhlocibinae: Eupteryx atropunctata (Goeze, Eupteryx mellissae Curtis, Zyginidia pullula (Boheman. Female specimens of the genus Euscelis (Deltocephalinae were also collected, as well as one species of Reptalus quinquecostatus (Dufour of the family Cixiidae. Stolbur phytoplasmas were detected in A. laevis, A. ribauti, A. venosa, P. striatus, P. confinis and P. alienus. The species: A. laevis, O. decumana, and P. confinis were AY-infected (subgroup 16SrI-A, while subgroup 16SrI-C was found only in one specimen of P. confinis. Since some

  20. Variable Inhibition of Zika Virus Replication by Different Wolbachia Strains in Mosquito Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michaela J; Isern, Sharon; Michael, Scott F; Corley, Ronald B; Connor, John H; Frydman, Horacio M

    2017-07-15

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are a major source of human disease. One strategy to reduce arbovirus disease is to reduce the mosquito's ability to transmit virus. Mosquito infection with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis wMel is a novel strategy to reduce Aedes mosquito competency for flavivirus infection. However, experiments investigating cyclic environmental temperatures have shown a reduction in maternal transmission of wMel, potentially weakening the integration of this strain into a mosquito population relative to that of other Wolbachia strains. Consequently, it is important to investigate additional Wolbachia strains. All Zika virus (ZIKV) suppression studies are limited to the wMel Wolbachia strain. Here we show ZIKV inhibition by two different Wolbachia strains: wAlbB (isolated from Aedes albopictus mosquitoes) and wStri (isolated from the planthopper Laodelphax striatellus) in mosquito cells. Wolbachia strain wStri inhibited ZIKV most effectively. Single-cycle infection experiments showed that ZIKV RNA replication and nonstructural protein 5 translation were reduced below the limits of detection in wStri-containing cells, demonstrating early inhibition of virus replication. ZIKV replication was rescued when Wolbachia was inhibited with a bacteriostatic antibiotic. We observed a partial rescue of ZIKV growth when Wolbachia-infected cells were supplemented with cholesterol-lipid concentrate, suggesting competition for nutrients as one of the possible mechanisms of Wolbachia inhibition of ZIKV. Our data show that wAlbB and wStri infection causes inhibition of ZIKV, making them attractive candidates for further in vitro mechanistic and in vivo studies and future vector-centered approaches to limit ZIKV infection and spread.IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) has swiftly spread throughout most of the Western Hemisphere. This is due in large part to its replication in and spread by a mosquito vector host. There is an urgent need for approaches that limit

  1. Effects of raising frogs and putting pest-killing lamps in paddy fields on the prevention of rice pests and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Luo, Fan; Cao, Ming-Yang

    2014-05-01

    Frogs in paddy fields become less and less due to applying large amounts of pesticides and human hunting for a long time, which causes the aggravation of rice pests and diseases. A field experiment was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai to study the effects of artificially raising frogs and putting frequency oscillation pest-killing lamps in paddy fields on the prevention of rice pests and diseases. The field experiment includes three treatments. Treatment I: 150 frogs, each 20 g in weight, per 100 m2 were put in the fields; Treatment II: a frequency oscillation pest-killing lamp was put in the fields; Treatment III: no frogs and pest-killing lamps were put in the fields. All the experimental fields were operated based on the organic faming system. The amount of organic manure, 7500 kg/hm2, was applied to the fields as base fertilizer before sowing in early June, 2013. No any chemical fertilizers and pesticides were used during the entire period of rice growth. Each treatment is in triplicate and each plot is 67 m2 in area. The results are as follows: (1) During the entire growth period, the incidences of rice pests and diseases with Treatment I and II are significantly lower than those with CK (Treatment III). The incidence of chilo suppressalis with Treatment I, II and III is 0, 0.46% and 1.69%, respectively; that of cnaphalocrocis medinalis is 7.67%, 6.62% and 10.10%, respectively; that of rice sheath blight is 0, 11.11% and 5.43%, respectively; that of rice planthopper is 4.25 per hill, 5.75 per hill and 11 per hill, respectively. (2) The grain yield of the three treatments is significantly different. That of Treatment I, II and III is 5157.73 kg/hm2, 4761.60 kg/hm2 and 3645.14kg/hm2 on average, respectively. (3) Affected by frog activities, the contents of NH4-N, available P and available K in the soil with Treatment I are significantly raised. All the above suggest that artificially raising frogs in paddy fields could effectively prevent rice pests and

  2. Effects of high temperature on life history traits and heat shock protein expression in chlorpyrifos-resistant Laodelphax striatella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Shan, Dan; Zhang, Yueliang; Liu, Xiangdong; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Zhichun; Fang, Jichao

    2017-03-01

    The resistance of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatella, to insecticides has been widely found in China, and has posed serious problems to efforts to control the pest. To determine the costs and benefits of resistance, the life tables of chlorpyrifos-resistant and -susceptible strains were constructed at 24 and 30°C. The results showed the resistant SBPH (YN-CPF) had lower fitness at 24°C, but slightly higher fitness at 30°C compared to the susceptible SBPH. Transcriptomic analysis showed there are five heat shock protein genes changed their expression, and the up-regulated genes are LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2. The deduced amino acid sequences of LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2 include three heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family signatures, but LsHSC70-1 has the conserved HSP70 carboxyl terminal region of the "EEVD" motif, while LsHSC70-2 has the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal of the "KDEL" motif. The phylogenetic tree further identified LsHsc70-1 has closer evolutionary distances to cytoplasmic/nuclear HSP70s from human and Drosophila melanogaster, while LsHsc70-2 has closer evolutionary distances to HSP70s localized to ER. After treatment at 30-44°C, the expression of LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2 was slightly increased in YN-CPF. These results suggested that LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2 are members of Hsc70 family, localized to the cytosol/nucleus and ER, respectively. The up-regulated expression of these genes may protect the chlorpyrifos-resistant pest against damage under high temperatures, increasing its relative fitness, but the lower relative fitness of this population under optimal temperature may be the trade-off. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: A new proposed Fijivirus species in the family Reoviridae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoHui; WEN JingJung; CAI DeJiang; LI Peng; XU DongLin; ZHANG ShuGuang

    2008-01-01

    For the past several years, a novel dwarf disease has been observed on rice (Oryza sativa) in some regions of Guangdong Province and Hainan Province, southern China. Infected plants showed stunting,dark leaf and small enations on stem and leaf back. Typical Fijivirus viroplasma containing crystalline arrayed spherical virons approximately 70-75 nm in diameter and tubular structures were detected in ultrathin sections by an electron microscope in parenchyma phloem cells of the infected plants. The virus was transmitted to rice seedlings by white-backed planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), collected in the diseased fields. Analysis of dsRNA extracts from infected plants revealed ten linear segments, which were similar to the electrophoretic profile of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). RT-PCR with a single primer which matched to a linker sequence ligated to both 3' ends of the viral genomic dsRNAs resulted in amplification of genome segments 9 (S9) and 10 (S10) cDNA products. The complete nucleotide sequences of S9 and S10 were obtained from clones of the RT-PCR amplicon exhibited characteristic properties of Fijivirus including low GC content (34.5% and 35.6%), genus conserved 5' and 3' termini sequences and similar genome organization. Blast searches indicated that the sequences of S9 and S10 shared 68.8%-74.9% and 67.1 %-77.4% nucleotide identities with those of viruses in the Fijivirus group 2, respectively. These values were similar to those among other viruses in the Fijivirus group 2 and considerably lower than those among RBSDV isolates. Phylogenetic trees based on S9 and S10 nucleotide sequences and their putative amino acid sequences showed that this virus represented a separate branch among other Fijiviruses. The virus was also detected by a nested RT-PCR assay in corn (Zea mays), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), Juncellus serotinus and flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum) in and/or adjacent to the infected rice fields

  4. The Preparation and Sustained Release of Thiamethoxam Wrapped by Urea-formaldehyde Resin%脲醛树脂包裹噻虫嗪微胶囊的制备及其缓释性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟乃庆; 宋福千; 崔七泽; 杨华; 王立升

    2016-01-01

    Thiamethoxam is a new neonicotinoid insecticide. The Thiamethoxam microcapsules with sustained release were prepared with urea-formaldehyde resin by in situ polymerization. The encapsulating rate, drug loading and release rate were investigated by the intelligent dissolution tester. The particle size distribution and apparent shape of the microcapsules were measured by nano - particle size analyzer and field emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. The results showed that the best ratio of tUrea and formaldehyde was 1/1. 8 , the encapsulating rate and drug loading were 86. 40% and 18. 21%, respectively. The microcapsules could uniformly and sustainedly release in 18 days. Field tests showed that the amount of 60 g·ai/acres with 18. 54% thiamethoxam microcapsules had good effect in killing water planthoppers.%噻虫嗪是新型烟碱类杀虫剂,本文选择脲醛树脂作为囊壁材料,采用原位聚合法对噻虫嗪进行包裹,制备了具有缓释功能的噻虫嗪微胶囊。使用智能溶出试验仪,考察了微胶囊的包裹率、载药量和溶出率。采用纳米粒度分析仪和场发射扫面电子显微镜,对微胶囊的粒径分布和表观形态进行测定。结果表明,尿素和甲醛的最佳比例为1/1.8,此时包埋率为86.40%,载药量为18.21%,在18天内可以实现均匀释放。田间试验表明,采用18.54%噻虫嗪微胶囊,用量为60 g·ai/亩具有较好的杀灭水稻飞虱的效果。

  5. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini of Tahiti, Society Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Liebherr

    2013-08-01

    similar species are often distributed on different massifs suggesting that vicariance associated with erosional valley formation has facilitated speciation, however several instances in which sister species occupy sympatric distributions on the same ridge system demonstrate that speciation may also occur across extremely localized landscapes. Such localized differentiation is facilitated by the low vagility of these small-bodied, flightless predators whose fragmented populations can persist and diverge within spatially limited habitat patches. The intense philopatry of Tahitian Mecyclothorax spp. coupled with the highly dissected landscape has produced the geographically densest adaptive radiation on Earth. This radiation has occurred very rapidly, with species durations averaging 300,000 yr; a speciation rate similar to that observed in Hawaiian Oliarus planthoppers and Laupala crickets, and East African Rift lake cichlid fishes.

  6. Ecological Control Effects on Pest, Pathogen and Weed of Multiple Species Coexistence in Paddy Fields in Traditional Agricultural Regions%传统农业区稻田多个物种共存对病虫草害的生态控制效应——以贵州省从江县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 成升魁; 杨海龙; 何露; 焦雯珺; 刘珊; 闵庆文

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture has flourished in China since time immemorial. One of the legacies of the time-honored agricultural development in China has been varied farming practices that adapt well to different natural conditions. Value of these traditional practices or models is rediscovered and cherished today when the so-called modem agriculture fails to be sustainable due to a variety of ecological and health problems and risks introduced by modern systems. Among plenty of traditional agricultural practices or models, some ecological principles were revealed, but significant philosophies of other traditional agricultural systems remain unknown. However, the area of traditional agriculture in China is rapidly shrinking. To that end, it is critical to investigating traditional agricultural practices and models. Understanding the role of agrobiodiversity as a contributor to sustainable agriculture, evaluation of its functions was performed in this study.Agrobiodiversity is most likely to enhance ecosystem stability and productivity when a unique or complementary effect is added to the ecosystem. Performing a semi-experiment combined with the random sampling investigation technique, modern and traditional rice varieties in different farming systems were investigated, i.e., 1) rice monoculture (R); 2) rice-fish culture (R-F); and 3)rice-fish-duck culture (R-F-D). Results show that the glutinous rice in every farming system had a lower weed density than that of the hybrid ones. There was no significant difference in the density of rice planthoppers, spider, rice leave roller (Cnaphalocrocis medialis Guenee) between glutinous rice and hybrid ones. The hybrid rice in every farming system had a lower incidence of Blast disease than that of the glutinous ones. Concerning the farming systems, under R-F-D, the weed density in paddy fields decreased significantly, and the control effects on weed species such as Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.), Rotala indica (Willd.) Koehne were 100

  7. “十一五”国审水稻新品种特征特性分析%Character Analysis of China National Authorized Rice Varieties During the Eleventh Five-year Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玲; 余传元; 雷建国; 王智权; 孔华; 郭安平; 肖宇龙; 李马忠

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the main characteristics and existing problems of new rice varieties) and to provide the theory strategy for future rice varieties improvement,characteristics such as agronomic traits,quality and resistance of 288 Chinese newly national authorized rice varieties (including 183 hybridization indica rice,105 japonica rice) during the Eleventh Five-year Plan were statistically analyzed. Rice morphology as well as the correlation between yield and yield related traits exhibited considerable differences among six ecological rice types. Long growth duration and large panicles were the major factors for high yield in single season rice along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River,further yield increment could be achieved by increasing reproductive panicles on the basis of large panicles. For early rice along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Japonica rice in North China which had the most reproductive tillers,further yield increase should be the increment of spikelets per panicle. Japonica rice from North China and late-season indica rice had comparably better rice quality,while early season indica rice contained higher chalky rate. The entire 288 nation authorized rice varieties showed acceptable high resistance to rice blast while the resistance to rice planthopper was generally low,improvement of resistance to rice planthopper should be the focus in further rice breeding works. Outstanding male sterile lines played an important role in hybrid rice breeding. In addition to some previously bred superior lines like II -32A,'Xieqinzao A' etc,which were still widely used,newly bred promising A lines like ' Tianfeng A',Wufeng A',' Chuan Xiang A' etc,also showed actively themselves. Two line hybrids thrived due to the application of a number of practical PGMS and TGMS lines,which were an important contribution in promoting rice breeding during the Eleven Five-year Plan.%为了分析水稻新品种的主要特性及存在的问题,

  8. Reconstruction of Holocene palaeoclimate and environment in the Khatanga region, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrykh, Ludmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    environmental conditions in Quarternary Period and especially in Holocene (Smol et al., 2005; Nazarova et al., 2013). Main aim of our the research is to perform a high-resolution Holocene temperature reconstructions for Taymyr (the northern most region of Russian Arctic) using lake sediments from Chatanga region, and statistical chironomid-based inference models for estimation of mean July air temperature and water depth from lakes in north-eastern Russia. We performed a multy-proxy reconstruction of palaeoclimate and environment in the Holocene using a 132 cm sediment core covering 6 ka of sedimentation. Based of the chironomids analysis we performed a quantitative reconstruction of mean July air temperature in the Chatanga region (Taymyr Peninsula). Our investigation has shown that modern fauna is well represented along the whole sediment core. Dominating taxa along the core are cold stenotherms such as Chironomus anthracinus-type, Hydrobaenus lugubris-type and Tanytarsus lugens-type. Faunistic composition of lower part of the core (before 5 ka BP) is characteristic for a warmer conditions, which is in accordance with the earlier studies showing that mean summer temperatures may have been 2.5° to 5.0°C warmer than today in Taymyr peninsula between 9 and 4 ka BP. During the last 3500 years, our record suggests cooler conditions as elsewhere in the Russian arctic. This project was financed by DAAD "Mikhail Lomonosov Program"

  9. Tracking the source regions of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV)occurred in Wuyi county, Zhejiang province, China in 2009, transmitted by Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)(Homoptera: Delphacidae)%浙江武义2009年南方水稻黑条矮缩病的毒源地分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵悦; 吴璀献; 朱旭东; 蒋学辉; 张孝羲; 翟保平

    2011-01-01

    2009年,浙江省境内首次出现南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV),且仅武义县有发病现象.因为该病毒病是一种虫媒病毒,且白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)是主要传毒介体,所以本文通过白背飞虱灯下诱虫情况调查、迁飞轨迹模拟、天气学背景分析以及毒源地分析,阐释了2009年浙江省武义县发现的南方水稻黑条矮缩病的供毒源地分布情况,以及白背飞虱携毒的传递路径,并讨论了轨迹模拟中各生物学参数的设定方法,从而为剖析该病毒的宏观流行规律奠定科学基础.结果显示:(1)通过对白背飞虱迁入武义的主要虫源地与经鉴定的南方水稻黑条矮缩病发病区域的叠加分析,明确了浙江武义的可能毒源地分布于两广、闽南、赣南四省区境内;(2)西南低空急流及偏南气流是白背飞虱将我国南方的病毒远距离传送到武义县境内的动力源;(3)白背飞虱随下沉气流和降雨在武义境内的集中降落是南方水稻黑条矮缩病在当地暴发的触发条件.%In 2009, Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) appeared first time in Zhejiang province, while only in Wuyi county morbidity phenomenon occurred. Since this virus is a kind of arbovirus, and the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella fwrcifera (Horvdth) (WBPH), is its main transmitted vector, we used light trap catch data, migration trajectory simulation, synoptic meteorological background and virus infection to study the pathways of WBPH in Wuyi, Zhejiang, 2009. In this way, the possible source regions of SRBSDV transmitted by its vector WBPH were analyzed, and the biological parameters for trajectory analysis were determined based on the numerical simulation. This research aims to establish scientific basis for the macro-epidemic researching of SRBSDV. The results illustrated that:(1) through the overlapping analysis of the virus incidence area and the

  10. An Evaluation of Methods for Assessing the Impacts of Bt-maize on Non-target Organisms with Leafhoppers%利用叶蝉评价转基因玉米对非靶标生物的风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳杰; 葛阳; 谭树乾; 陈红星; 郭艳艳; 张恺祺; 石旺鹏

    2014-01-01

    The application of transgenic insect-resistant crops has been an important way to replace insecticides. But transgenic insect-resistant crops have potential negative effects, especially the effect on the non-target organisms and resistance to GM. Visual assessment and yellow traps were used for investigating the dynamic of leafhoppers and main arthropods in Cry1Ac transgenic insect-resistant corn field for two years. The study showed that planthoppers and leafhoppers were highly abundant and diverse in maize fields, their mid-term occurrence was 28.9%-43.1% of sucking pest insects, and the population dynamic had no significant difference between Bt-maize and the untreated near-isogenic maize. Leafhoppers were directly exposed to these entomotoxic proteins and could also serve as a source of Cry protein exposure to predatory arthropods. Therefore, it was reasonable to use Auchenorrhyncha in the risk assessment of GM corn. So the risk of Bt corn on non-target organisms could be evaluated using leafhoppers as an indicator species. The results in field tests showed that this method was feasible.%转基因抗虫作物应用是替代杀虫剂的重要途径。但转基因作物可能存负面效应,特别是对非靶标生物的影响及害虫产生抗性。采用直接和陷阱调查结合方法,连续多年对转Cry1Ac抗虫基因玉米实验田叶蝉和主要节肢动物数量动态跟踪调查,结果发现叶蝉是玉米田优势非靶标生物种群之一,中期发生比例占刺吸式害虫的28.9%~43.1%,且种群动态与主要非靶标节肢动物群落动态基本一致。又鉴于叶蝉直接刺吸接触到Bt杀虫蛋白,可直接反映转基因作物对非靶标生物的安全性,因此可利用叶蝉作为转基因抗虫玉米安全性评价指示生物来评价转基因玉米对非靶标生物群落风险,田间测试结果证明此方法是可行的。

  11. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  12. El Silverio: nueva variedad de arroz para el trópico mexicano El Silverio: a new rice cultivar for the tropical areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis García Angulo

    2011-08-01

    under irrigation. Its milling quality is 55% of polished whole grain over palay. The growing cycle of the new variety El Silverio, is 130 days of seed germination to grain maturity in Spring-Summer and 135 days in Autumn-Winter; the plant type is compact with a height of 95 cm and therefore is resistant to lodging disease, it is also moderately tolerant to drought, resistant to shattering and tolerant to diseases such as "rice blast fungus" (Magnaporthe grisea called before (Pyricularia oryzae, "brown leaf spot" (Helminthosporium oryzae and rice scald (Monographella albescens. Regarding to insect pests, it is tolerant to mechanical damage caused by the "sogata" planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus. El Silverio is the second variety selected of Milagro Filipino (IR8 in Mexico; it has been recorded in the National Catalogue of Plants Varieties (CNVV for its spanish acronym with the number: ARZ015-260210.

  13. 广西兴安转Bt水稻大田两迁害虫发生动态%Occurrence dynamics of migratory pest insects Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Sogatella furcifera in transgenic Bt rice field in Xing' an County of Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋贺; 李志毅; 徐艳博; 韩超; 韩兰芝; 陈法军

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in Xing' an County of Guangxi Province in 2010 to study the occurrence and damage characteristics of two unique migratory pest insects, rice leaffolder ( Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera) , in a transgenic Bt rice (cv. HH1 with dual CrylAb + CrylAc genes) field, taking the corresponding non-transgenic parent (cv. MH63) field as the control. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of C. Medinalis eggs and larvae in the two fields, but the percentage of fold-leaf plants and the fold-leaf rate per plant were significantly lower in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control, suggesting that transgenic Bt rice had higher resistance against the target pest insect C. Medinalis. As for 5. Furcifera, its occurrence dynamics of nymphs, adults (including macro- and brachypterous forms) , and whole population had no significant differences between the two fields, but the abundance of the nymphs and brachypterous adults at the peak stage of S. Furcifera occurrence was obviously higher in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control, while the macropterous abundance was in adverse. The sex ratio of female of the macropterous adults at the late growth stage of rice was generally lower in transgenic Bt rice field than in the control. These results suggested that under the background of large area commercial production of transgenic Bt rice, the occurrence and harm of the non-target pest insect S. Furcifera could become more complicated.%以转Bt水稻华恢1号(Cry1Ac/ CryAb融合基因型,简称HH1)及其对照亲本明恢63(简称MH63)稻田两迁害虫稻纵卷叶螟和白背飞虱为研究对象,系统研究转基因抗虫水稻种植下两迁害虫的发生规律及其致害力差异.结果表明:转Bt水稻及其对照亲本上稻纵卷叶螟的落卵量和幼虫发生量无显著差异,但转Bt水稻的卷叶株率和卷叶率都显著低于对照亲本.表明转Bt水稻对靶标

  14. Multi-generation effect of Bt rice with cry1C and cry2A on survival, development and reproduction of non-target pest Sogatella furcifera (Horváth)%转cry1C和cry2A基因Bt水稻对白背飞虱生长、发育及繁殖的继代影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 杨亚军; 田俊策; 徐红星; 郑许松; 吕仲贤

    2014-01-01

    转Bt基因水稻对非靶标节肢动物的影响是转基因水稻安全性评价的重要组成部分。目前,已开展了大量关于转Bt基因水稻对非靶标害虫安全性评价的研究,但多限于1代,不能完全反映田间情况。试验以转Bt基因水稻T1C-19(含cry1C基因)和T2A-1(含cry2A基因)以及其亲本非Bt水稻MH63为材料,在室内条件下连续饲养白背飞虱4代,研究转Bt水稻对非靶标害虫白背飞虱生长发育和繁殖的继代效应,以明确T1 C-19和T2 A-1水稻对白背飞虱的潜在影响。结果表明,白背飞虱在3种水稻品种上连续取食4代以后,其生长发育(若虫发育历期、若虫存活率、雌成虫体重)和繁殖(产卵量和卵孵化率)指标均没有受到水稻品种的显著影响。可见,供试的T1 C-19和T2 A-1对白背飞虱无显著影响。%The assessment on the effect of Bt rice on non-target arthropods is one of the important items in the ecological safety assessment of Bt rice.So far, many studies on the effect of Bt rice on non-target insect pests were conducted.However, most of experiments were focus on the assessment for only one generation of non-target organisms, which could not completely simulate the field condition .In present study, the non-target pest, white backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera(Horváth), was successively reared on Bt rice varieties, T1C-19 with cry1C gene and T2A-1 with cry2A gene, and their parental rice MH63 for four generations and the multi-generation effects of Bt rice on survival , development and reproduction of WBPH were evaluated to assess the potential impact of Bt rice on WBPH.The results indicated that the nymph duration and survival rate , female adult weight, longevity and fecundity , and the egg hatchability of WBPH on Bt rice did not significantly differ from those on MH63 over four generations.It implies that T1C-19 and T2A-1 had no significant effect on non-target pest WBPH.

  15. 湖北白背飞虱种群消长与迁飞动态%Population fluctuation and migration dynamics of Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) in Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范淑琴; 翟保平

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] Hubei Province ( 29°05′N-33°20′N,108°21′E-116°07′E ) is situated in central China and is one of China’s major rice producing areas. This province is the northern boundary of the distribution, and the turning point for the return migration, of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) (WBPH). It is therefore an important link in the migration chain of this species. Understanding the population fluctuations and migration dynamics of the WBPH in Hubei will provide useful information for forecasting outbreaks of this pest. [Methods] The annual fluctuations and distribution within mesoscale source areas of immigrant populations, and the destination areas of emigrating populations of the WBPH, were studied by trajectory analysis using NOAA’s HYSPLIT based on the daily light-trap catches from 2000 to 2013. Migration processes were analyzed by GrADS using NCEP-NCAR to reanalyze the data. [Conclusion] (1) Light-trap catches of WBPH are a sensitive index for forecasting outbreaks of the WBPH, and the first appearance of WBPHs in light-traps should be earlier in outbreak years. (2) Simulations of migration trajectories during major migration events from 2000 to 2013 indicated that most immigrants to Hubei came from Hunan, Guizhou and Chongqing, with some from Guangxi. (3) In autumn, most individuals emigrated to Hunan, Chongqing and Guizhou via the northeast airflow. When the wind speed was higher, WBPH could migrate directly from Hubei to Guangxi and Yunnan, and a few could even reach northern Vietnam. (4) The low level jet-stream is a strong conveyer for long distance migrants, and landfall by large numbers of these pests can be caused by wind shear, cyclone and heavy rainfall.%【目的】湖北省是我国水稻的主产区之一,位居稻飞虱发生的北界,也是回迁时的起始站,是整个迁飞链条中的重要环节。明确这里稻飞虱的发生消长和迁飞动态,可为预测预报提供科学依据

  16. RBSDV 侵染对水稻 ABA 代谢相关基因表达的影响%Effect of RBSDV Infection on Transcriptional Expression of Abscisic Acid Metabolism Related Genes in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪海平; 徐秋芳; 兰莹; 陈晴晴; 张金凤; 周益军

    2015-01-01

    为明确水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Rice black streaked dwarf virus ,RBSDV)侵染对水稻脱落酸(abscisic acid,ABA)含量的影响,通过灰飞虱在水稻日本晴和淮稻5号两个品种上人工接种 RBSDV,待接种的水稻表现明显矮缩症状时,采用 ELISA方法测定 ABA 含量.结果显示,在接种 RBSDV 的日本晴和淮稻5号中,ABA 含量均明显增加.接种病毒的日本晴植株中ABA 含量为111.04 ng/g,而对照中仅为60.86 ng/g;淮稻5号对照植物 ABA 含量为70.61 ng/g,而病株中 ABA 的含量为102.60 ng/g.为进一步明确病毒侵染如何调控 ABA 的含量,采用荧光定量 PCR 方法分析了日本晴接种 RBSDV 8 d,12 d,16 d 和60 d 时 ABA 合成关键基因(OsZEP 、OsNCED1、OsNCED2、OsNCED3、OsNCED4和 OsNCED5)及分解关键基因(OsABA8ox1、OsABA8ox2和 OsABA8ox3)mRNA 相对表达量的变化.结果显示,病毒侵染8 d,ABA 合成和分解代谢基因的表达量均高于对照,其中 OsNCED4和 OsNCED5的表达量随病毒侵染时间的延长而增加,至60 d 时 OsNCED3、OsNCED4和 OsNCED5的表达量为对照的3.97、7.66和2.99倍,而 OsZEP ,OsABA8ox1和 OsABA8ox2的表达量则随侵染时间的延长而降低.RBSDV 侵染后可能既影响了 ABA 合成也影响了其分解,两者共同作用导致了 ABA 含量增加.%To investigate the effect of virus infection on abscisic acid (ABA)content in rice,two rice varieties, Nipponbare and Huaidao 5 ,were inoculated with rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV)artificially via small brown planthoppers,and the ABA content was measured by ELISA method when the plants showed the obvious viral disease symptoms.The results showed that the ABA content was increased in virus infected rice.The ABA content in virus infected Nipponbare was 1 1 1 .04 ng/g compared to 60.86 ng/g in the control.In Huaidao 5 ,it was 102.60 ng/g in the virus infected plants and 70.6 1 ng/g in the control.To reveal how the virus regulates the ABA content,the relative

  17. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    ), which comprised 90% of all prey items for 50 adult birds and 98% of all prey for two nestlings. Caterpillars were also the most important prey for Maui ‘alauahio (43% for 104 adult birds) although spiders (Araneae, 16%), beetles (12%) and true bugs, planthoppers and psyllids (Hemiptera; 12%) were also important. Caterpillars were generally the most abundant type of arthropod in the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, although spiders, beetles and hemipterans were also common. Total arthropod biomass and caterpillar biomass at Nakula was as great, or greater, than that observed at Hanawi and Waikamoi per unit of foliage of both koa and ‘ōhi‘a. Spiders generally dominated the bark fauna on both koa and ‘ōhi‘a at all sites although isopods (Isopoda), millipedes (Myriapoda: Millipeda) and lacewings (Neuroptera) were also abundant at Waikamoi and Hanawi. Total arthropod biomass on bark, as well as the biomass of several individual taxa, was significantly lower at Nakula than the other sites. Our measurement of the density of beetle exit holes in dead koa branches found no difference between Nakula and Waikamoi. Finally, no difference existed in the abundance of arthropods (primarily caterpillars and moth pupae) within ‘ākala stems among sites. With the exception of bark surfaces, our results suggest that the arthropod prey base for birds on primary foraging substrates at Nakula is similar to that found at two sites within the current range of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. However, our results should be viewed with caution because they are limited to the scale of individual branch, tree, or ‘ākala stem. To complete the assessment, our results should be scaled up to the landscape level by determining the density of each substrate within each site. Key arthropod prey of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are available at Nakula and, as habitat restoration continues, food abundance should increase to the point at which populations of these birds can be supported.

  18. The biological effects of transgenic rice varieties with cry1C or cry2A on the non-target insect pest Laodelphax striatellus%转cry1C和cry2A不同抗虫基因水稻品种对非靶标害虫灰飞虱生物学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 林克剑; 李飞; 侯茂林

    2011-01-01

    The biological effects of transgenic rice varieties with cry1C or cry2A on the non-target insect pest the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, were studied The effects of rice varieties with crylC or cry2A on the host selection behavior of L. striatellus were observed at 25 ℃ under indoor conditions. The effects of rice varieties with cry1C or cry2A on individual development and population growth were also studied, by recording the developmental duration and survival rate of each stage and other parameters in the population life tables. The results showed no significant differences in the inhabiting ratios of the directional selection of L. striatellus on the rice varieties with cry1C or cry2A or the control variety 'MH63', with the inverse sine conversion values of 27. 5, 28. 5 and 26. 5, respectively. The average number of probed wounds caused by L. striatellus on the transgenic cry1C variety (508. 3/d) was significantly more than that on the transgenic cry2A variety (288. 5/d) and the control variety 'MH63' (297. 0/d). There were no significant differences in the nymphal duration, egg hatchability, survival rate of each stage and adult emergence rate between transgenic rice varieties and the control variety. There were also no significant differences in the fresh weights of newly emerged adults among the transgenic cry2A variety (0. 731 mg), transgenic cry1C variety (0. 744 mg) and the controKO. 821 mg). Statistically, no significant effects of transgenic rice varieties with cry1C or cry2A on the insect development and population growth of L. striatellus were observed.%为明确转cry1C和cry2A不同抗虫基因水稻品种对非靶标害虫灰飞虱生物学特性的影响,在室内恒温25℃条件下观察转cry1C和cry2A不同抗虫基因水稻品种对非靶标害虫灰飞虱寄主选择行为的影响,以及个体发育与种群发展情况,记录并分析各虫态的发育历期、存活率及实验种群生命表参数.

  19. 降水变化对中国农作物病虫害的影响%Impacts of Precipitation Variations on Crop Diseases and Pests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍治国; 李茂松; 王丽; 肖晶晶; 黄大鹏; 王春艳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the previous research, the existing observations of the impacts of precipitation variations on crop diseases and pests and the regularities were systematically analyzed by detecting the facts of the temporal-spatial variation of crop diseases and pests in response to the precipitation variations, and the updated understanding of the precipitation variations on crop diseases and pests were put forward. Additionally, directions for future research were suggested. Existing facts indicated that, for a certain area in a certain period, less rainfall, high temperature and drought accelerated the breeding speed and population growth of some pests. More rainfall and rainy days could be good for the distinct aggravation of some diseases, the sharp increase in immigration of pests and the aggravation of damage caused by crop diseases and pests. Rainstorms and floods could lead to the sudden increase of some diseases and significantly aggravated damage. The rainstorms could lead to sudden increases in immigration of some adults, dramatic decreases of larvae in fields. Intensive rainfall could increase the mortality of some pests in fields sharply and reduce the population density distinctly. In the high temperature and drought years, there might be outbreak of some crop diseases and pests, locusts could breed one more generation than normal. In the continuous rainy years, the occurrence boundary of some crop diseases and pests could move northward. The year with longer Meiyu period and more Meiyu rainfall was advantageous to the immigrations of rice planthoppers and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee in Jianghuai region and one more generation of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee would occur in the year with the earlier immigration. The year with stronger western Pacific subtropical high was helpful for the earlier occurrence of first immigration of pests, increasing the quantity, expanding the range and aggravating the damage. The typhoon rainstorms could contribute to