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Sample records for plantago ovata forsk

  1. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Priyanka; Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  2. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers for Plantago ovata Forsk.: Using Next Generation Sequencing and Their Cross-Species Transferability

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    Ranbir Singh Fougat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk. is an important medicinal plant having high pharmacological activity in its seed husk, which is substantially used in the food, beverages and packaging industries. Nevertheless, isabgol lags behind in research, particularly for genomic resources, like molecular markers, genetic maps, etc. Presently, molecular markers can be easily developed through next generation sequencing technologies, more efficiently, cost effectively and in less time than ever before. This study was framed keeping in view the need to develop molecular markers for this economically important crop by employing a microsatellite enrichment protocol using a next generation sequencing platform (ion torrent PGM™ to obtain simple sequence repeats (SSRs for Plantago ovata for the very first time. A total of 3447 contigs were assembled, which contained 249 SSRs. Thirty seven loci were randomly selected for primer development; of which, 30 loci were successfully amplified. The developed microsatellite markers showed the amplification of the expected size and cross-amplification in another six species of Plantago. The SSR markers were unable to show polymorphism within P. ovata, suggesting that low variability exists within genotypes of P. ovata. This study suggests that PGM™ sequencing is a rapid and cost-effective tool for developing SSR markers for non-model species, and the markers so-observed could be useful in the molecular breeding of P. ovata.

  3. Experimental Paper. In vitro synthesis of mucilage in Plantago ovata Forsk affected by genotypes and culture media

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    Golkar Pooran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk is medicinally used mainly for its mucilage content. Objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to improve mucilage yield under in vitro callus culture using different genotypes, explants and culture media. Methods: The effects of a range of concentrations of plant growth regulators including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and kinetin (Kin were evaluated on mucilage synthesis under in vitro culture using cotyledon, hypocotyl and seed explants. Fourteen genotypes originating from different geographical regions of Iran were used to evaluate their response to in vitro mucilage synthesis. Results: The highest rate of callus induction (76% and callus growth rate CGR (0.38 mm/day were induced on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l Kin and the hypocotyl explant. The results of analysis of variance showed significant genotypic differences for callus induction, CGR and mucilage content of callus and seeds. The mucilage content ranged from 0.38 to 0.08 (g/g DW and 0.13 to 0.042 (g/g DW for callus and seed, respectively. The superior callus induction (73%, CGR (0.45 mm/day and mucilage content of callus (0.38 g/g DW was denoted to Po1 genotype. The callus produced nearly three times more mucilage than the seeds using superior genotype (Po1. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that high efficiency of callus culture of P. ovata using hypocotyl explant accompanied by the exploration of genetic diversity are important to improve the yield of mucilage synthesis by in vitro callus culture.

  4. Assessment of genetic diversity in Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sandeep kaswan

    improvement of this crop (Dhar et al., 2005). Therefore, it is necessary to analyze or examine the genetic diversity provided by the gene pools and then harnessed for crop improvement. The concept of molecular marker is an ideal approach for this purpose. They are reliable indicator of genetic diversity because they are ...

  5. Isolation, characterization and investigation of Plantago ovata husk polysaccharide as superdisintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshal; Varkhade, Chhaya

    2014-08-01

    Psyllium husk (Plantago ovata, Family: Plantaginaceae) contains a high proportion of hemicellulose, composed of a xylan backbone linked with arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid units (arabinoxylans). Polysaccharide was isolated from Psyllium husk using solvent precipitation method. The isolated polysaccharide was evaluated for various physicochemical parameters. The rheological behavior of polysaccharide (1% w/v in water) was studied using Brookfield viscometer. Polysaccharide derived from the husk of P. ovata was investigated as superdisintegrant in the fast dissolving tablets. Valsartan, an antihypertensive drug, was selected as a model drug. The tablets of Valsartan were prepared separately using different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5% w/w) of isolated Plantago ovata (P. ovata) husk polysaccharide (Natural) and crospovidone as a synthetic superdisintegrant by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for various pre-compression and post-compression parameters. The drug excipient interactions were characterized by FTIR studies. The formulation F4 containing7.5% polysaccharide showed rapid wetting time and disintegration time as compared to formulation prepared using synthetic superdisintegrant at the same concentration level. Hence batch F4 was considered as optimized formulation. The stability studies were performed on formulation F4. The disintegration time and in vitro drug release of the optimized formulation was compared with the marketed formulation (Conventional tablets). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF GRANULES WITH SEEDS EPIDERMIS OF PLANTAGO OVATA FORSSK

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    J. V. Daironas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a morphological and anatomical study of granules from the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds are presented in the article. Morphological and microscopic diagnostic signs are important for establishing the authenticity of medicinal plant material and drugs made from it.The aim is the identification of morphological and microscopic diagnostic characteristics of the seed epidermis of Plantago ovata, minimal and sufficient to establish the authenticity of the granular pieces of the plant’s epidermis.Materials and methods. The study of morphological and anatomical characteristics as well as histochemical study were conducted according to the procedures of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation XIII edition. Microscope “Micromed-1” and digital camera MD300 Electronic Eyepiece (Jincheng were used. Photos were edited in Adobe Photoshop CS6.Results and discussion. Morphological signs of the epidermis of Plantago ovata seeds include its light yellow or pinkish-yellow color and a presence of a pigmented spot of pink or light brown color on the epidermis of the convex side of the seeds and along the seed. These signs are applicable for diagnosis and are also found in crushed raw materials. Granules are rough lumps, consisting of stuck together epidermis pieces. They are characterized by a yellowish or light brown color and the presence of a pigmented spot. The microscopic diagnostic signs include the structure of the upper and lower epidermis, the presence of cells with mucus and starch grains. The upper epidermis consists of large polygonal cells with straight thin anticlinal walls. The cells are covered with a smooth cuticle and are filled with mucus. The lower epidermis consists of elongated rectangular cells. Cells with mucus swell rapidly in the radial direction. Biometric characteristics of anatomical diagnostic signs were established.Conclusion. As the result of a morphological and anatomical study the diagnostic signs

  7. Treatment of water turbidity and bacteria by using a coagulant extracted from Plantago ovata

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    Bahman Ramavandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A biocoagulant was successfully extracted from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl3-induced crude extract (FCE. The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for clarification using the turbid water of a river. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the effects of turbidity concentration, coagulant quantity, water pH, and humic acid concentration on the coagulation of water turbidity by FCE. The maximum turbidity removal was occurred at water pH<8. At the optimum dosage of FCE, only 0.8 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon was released to the treated water. An increase in the humic acid led to the promotion of the water turbidity removal. Results demonstrated that the FCE removed more than 95.6% of all initial turbidity concentrations (50–300 NTU. High bacteriological quality was achieved in the treated water. FCE as an eco-friendly biocoagulant was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant for removing turbidity from waters.

  8. Effects of Different Fertilizer Treatments on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Isabgol (Plantago ovata

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    Gh. Asadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manures is one of the most important strategies for plant nutrition compared to chemical fertilizers, especially in organic management of medicinal plants. In order to evaluate the effects of different organic and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and qualitative characteristics of isabgol (Plantago ovata, a field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growing season of 2011-2012. Treatments included three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (25, 50 and 75 kg.ha-1, three levels of cow manure (5, 10 and 15 t.ha-1 and three levels of vermicompost (2, 4 and 6 t.ha-1 and control.The results showed that the effectof different fertilizers was significant (p≤0.05 on all studied traits except swelling rate of isabgol. The maximum amounts were observed in 6 t.ha-1 vermicompost and 15 t.ha-1 cow manure. The highest seed yield (548.4 kg.ha-1 was observed in 6 t.ha-1 vermicompost that it enhanced up to 26% compared to control. By increasing in organic fertilizers enhanced mucilage content, swelling factor and swelling content of isabgol. The maximum mucilage content and swelling factor were observed in 15 t.ha-1 (with 35.3% and 13.4 ml, respectively. Since, organic matters improved quantitative and qualitative yield of isabgol compared to chemical fertilizer, it concluded that these organic inputs could be regarded as a suitable alternative to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants such as isabgol especially in low input systems.

  9. Effect of drought stress and sulphur fertilizer on quantity and quality yield of psyllium (Plantago ovata L. in Baluchestan

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    M. Mousavi nik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of chemical fertilizers application is very important issues on environment and plant yield especially in arid and-semi arid region. In order to determine the effects of drought stresses and fertilizer levels on quantity and quality yields of psyllium (Plantago ovata L., a study was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Natural Resources and Agriculture Researches Center of Balouchestan, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. Treatments included different irrigation regimes (three, five and eight times irrigation during the growing season as main plots and four levels of sulphur fertilizer (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur as sub plot. The results showed that the irrigation regimes and sulphur fertilizer had significant effects on seed and biological yield of psyllium, so the highest seed and biological yields obtained in eight times irrigation. Also, the maximum of these factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest harvest index and 1000- seed weight, No. seed per spike and No. spike per plant were observed in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. The highest plant height was obtained in eight times irrigation and 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur and the maximum mucilage percentage and proline content were obtained in three times irrigation. The maximum mucilage yield and carbohydrate content were achieved in eight times irrigation. Among sulphur fertilizer, the highest amounts for all factors were achieved in 225 kg.ha-1 sulphur. There was positive and significant correlation between seed yield with spike No. per plant, Seed No. per spike, 1000-Seed, biological yield and mucilage yield.

  10. Colonic production of butyrate in patients with previous colonic cancer during long-term treatment with dietary fibre (Plantago ovata seeds)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, I; Hove, H; Clausen, M R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butyrate has antineoplastic properties against colorectal cancer cells and is the preferred oxidative substrate for colonocytes. Like acetate and propionate (short-chain fatty acids; SCFAs), butyrate is produced by colonic fermentation of dietary fibre. METHODS: Twenty patients resected...... for colorectal cancer were treated with 20 g/day of the fibre Plantago ovata seeds for 3 months, which increased the intake of fibre by 17.9 +/- 0.8 g/day, from basal levels of 19.2 +/- 1.7 g/day; 17 patients completed the study. Faecal samples were obtained on eight occasions, twice before treatment......, and monthly three times during and three time after treatment. RESULTS: One month of fibre therapy increased faecal concentrations of butyrate by 42 +/- 12% (from 13.2 +/- 1.2 to 19.3 +/- 3.0 mmol/l; P

  11. Production and functional characterisation of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bran and psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Craeyveld, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Prebiotica zijn voedingscomponenten die niet geabsorbeerd of gehydrolyse erd kunnen worden door enzymen van het gastrointestinaal stelsel, maar d ie in de dikke darm selectief gefermenteerd worden door bepaalde types b acteriën die een gezondheids-bevorderend effect uitoefenen op hun gasthe er. Naast inuline en fructo-oligosachariden, de meest bestudeerde prebio tica, vormen arabinoxylan-oligosachariden (AXOS) mogelijk een nieuwe kla sse van prebiotische componenten. AXOS kunnen uit tarwezeme...

  12. Effect of organic fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk. clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. and dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.

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    A. Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2010. The design was split plot with three replications. Main plots were the medicinal plant species consist of: blond psyllium (Plantago ovate Forssk., clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L. and subplots were various organic fertilizer consist of cow manure, vermicompost (based on cow manure, coffee compost and spent mushroom compost. Results showed that medicinal plants had significant difference for number of seeds per plant, shoot dry matter, seed yield, plant height and mucilage percentage. Effect of various organic matter on all traits except for 1000-seed weight was significant. Interaction of organic fertilizers and plant was significant for dry matter. Lalementia had the most mucilage percentage (27.75% and cow manure was the best fertilizer because it had the highest amounts of dry matter (1816 kg.ha-1, seed yield (467.5 kg.ha-1, number seed per plant (550 seeds.plant-1, plant height (23.17 cm and mucilage percentage (20.75%.

  13. Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jana L.; Tucker, Matthew R.; Khor, Shi Fang; Shirley, Neil; Lahnstein, Jelle; Beahan, Cherie; Bacic, Antony; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago genus to examine variation in heteroxylan composition and structure in seed coat mucilage. Compositional assays were combined with analysis of the glycosyltransferase family 61 (GT61) family during seed coat development, with the aim of identifying GT61 sequences participating in xylan backbone substitution. The results reveal natural variation in heteroxylan content and structure, particularly in P. ovata and P. cunninghamii, species which show a similar amount of heteroxylan but different backbone substitution profiles. Analysis of the GT61 family identified specific sequences co-expressed with IRREGULAR XYLEM 10 genes, which encode putative xylan synthases, revealing a close temporal association between xylan synthesis and substitution. Moreover, in P. ovata, several abundant GT61 sequences appear to lack orthologues in P. cunninghamii. Our results indicate that natural variation in Plantago species can be exploited to reveal novel details of seed coat development and polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27856710

  14. The effect of ionizing radiation on Plantago ovata (Ispaghula husk) in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Assaf, S.; Parsons, B.J.; Phillips, G.O.

    2005-01-01

    Herbal medicine derived from natural raw materials is widely used in pharmaceutical preparations. Our study concerns the radiation decontamination of ispaghula husk (IH). Due to the high polysaccharide content of IH, it gels over wide range of concentrations. During the course of IH intake by patients, it experiences different degradation conditions such as acidic, alkaline and colonic microflora. Our study was designed to mimic this behaviour by carrying out controlled degradation steps using ionizing radiation and to study the effects on the molecular weight distribution in different solvents. Gel permeation chromatography coupled on line to a multi angle laser light detector (GPC-MALLS) was used in this study. We have shown that the water-soluble extract of the IH was increased from 21% to 47% with increasing degradation of the molecular structure whereas the alkaline solubility increased from 60 to 80%). The weight average molecular weight of the soluble control polysaccharide was higher in the water extract (2.3x106) than the material extracted in alkali (1.6x106), but following degradation as a results of irradiation, the material extracted into the two systems showed similar molecular weight profiles (author)

  15. In vitro propagation via seeds of Capparis ovata Desf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unicornis

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... High seed germination percentage (70%) was achieved on ... tages after direct sowing under field conditions. Bond. (1990) ... been applied in caper plant (C. ovata) (Soyler and Arslan,. 1999; Soyler ... Temperatures, pre-soa-.

  16. Micropropagation of Plantago camtschatica Link

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    Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Far East medicinal plant - Plantago camtschatica was propagated in vitro from tips of shoots (obtained in vitro and from different explants of 4-week-old seedlings: seedling tips, hypocotyls, cotyledons, roots, first leaves. To our knowledge there is no information in literature about in vitro culture of this plantain. MS basal medium, supplemented with 0.6 pM IAA in combination with various cytokinins (BA, KIN, ZEA, was used. After 6 weeks of culture, micropropagation rate (MR - mean number of buds and shoots per explant - was calculated. Our study proved that P. camtschatica species was amenable to propagation in vitro from different kinds of explants. However, multiplication by adventitious shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants was found to be the most suitable method for the propagation of this plant. Adventitious shoots could root without stimulation what allows to omit the stage of rooting. The plants obtained as a result of micropropagation were not phenotypically changed.

  17. Å forske med kunsten kollaborativt i en fortellerforestillingsproduksjon

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    Mette Bøe Lyngstad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen viser forskerne, som også er fortellere, hvordan de i utviklingen av sin egen fortellerforestilling forsket med kunsten. Artikkelforfatterne forsøker å vise en selvrefleksivitet og metodologisk bevissthet gjennom hele kunstproduksjonen. De undersøker hvordan en gjennom å forske med kunsten kollaborativt kan koble historiske fakta, fiksjonsfortelling og livsfortelling i en kunstproduksjon. Forskningsartikkelen tar for seg kunstproduksjonens ulike faser som brainstormfase, innsamlingsfase, fortellertekniske fase og utforskingsfase i scenerommet.

  18. Somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

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    Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica L. were produced for the first time. Shoot-tips isolated from in vitro obtained 4-week shoots were encapsulated using sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Capsules with or without sucrose and with and without cytokinin - indole-3-butyric acid (IBA were used. Sucrose presence in capsules very distinctly influences somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica germination and their conversion into plants. However, addition of IBA to capsules has not clear influence on the ability of plant regrowth. Plantlets transplanted to soil grew to phenotypically normal plants.

  19. Chemotaxonomy and evolution of Plantago L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønsted, Nina; Franzyk, Henrik; Mølgaard, Per

    2003-01-01

    In continuation of our investigations of the genus Plantago L. (Plantaginaceae), sixteen species were investigated with respect to watersoluble glycosides. The iridoids auroside, strictoloside and globularicisin, as well as poliumoside, 3-[(4-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl]propionic acid and 2...

  20. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, Marina; Minocci, Marco; Beran, Alfred; Ivesa, Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp

  1. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Marina [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mmonti@inogs.it; Minocci, Marco [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Beran, Alfred [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Ivesa, Ljiljana [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research, G. Paliaga 5, 52210 Rovinj (Croatia)

    2007-05-15

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp.

  2. Plantlets from encapsulated shoot buds of Catalpa ovata G. Don

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    Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of Catalpa ovata G. Don were encapsulated using 3% sodium alginate with sucrose (3% and 50 mM calcium chloride. The morphogenic response of encapsulated buds was affected by such factors, like composition of the media and the presence of growth regulators. The highest frequency of plantlet germination from encapsulated buds (70% within 4 weeks was obtained on Woody Plant medium (WP (Lloyd and McCown 1980 containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA (1 mg/l. The process was substantially inhibited by cold-storage (4oC of encapsulated buds. In this case, the frequency response ranged from 3% to 22% dependent on storage period (28 or 42 days and the presence of the paraffin coat covering the alginate capsules. The plantlets developed from both unstored and stored encapsulated buds of C. ovata were transplanted to soil and grew in pots to phenotypically normal plants.

  3. Typification of the Linnaean names Plantago serraria and P. subulata (Plantago subgenus i>Coronopus>, Plantaginaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Iamonico, Duilio; Rønsted, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Plantago subg. Coronopus is a mainly Mediterranean group of plantains whose taxonomy is very complex. Two Linnaean names within this subgenus still remain untypified: P. serraria and P. subulata. We here discuss the possible types for these names, and designate lectotypes for both. For nomenclatu....... For nomenclatural purposes, the names P. triquetra and P. pungens are also included in the treatment of P. subulata....

  4. Ostreopsis cf. ovata dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea in relation to biotic and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Olga; Guallar, Carles; Andree, Karl B; Diogène, Jorge; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    An expansion of the distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a dinoflagellate which produces palytoxin-like compounds, has been reported in recent years. Economical and social interests are affected by blooms, as they are responsible for respiratory and skin problems in humans and may cause damage to marine organisms. In order to identify the most influential environmental factors that trigger proliferations of O. cf. ovata in the area of the adjacent shallow rocky coast of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) a three-year survey was performed on the metaphytic microalgae community growing on the macrophytes Jania rubens and Corallina elongata. Small-size diatoms were more abundant than dinoflagellates; O. cf. ovata was identified as the only species present from the genus. Seawater temperature was the primary driver defining the ecological niche of O. cf. ovata. Freshwater and groundwater fluxes were more pronounced in southern than in northern sites, which may have resulted in a distinct O. cf. ovata spatial distribution, with the highest records of abundance and more frequent blooms in the north. In consequence, negative correlations between the abundance of O. cf. ovata and nitrate concentrations and significant positive correlation with salinity were observed. The temporal pattern of O. cf. ovata dynamics from mid-July to early-November is probably due to the fact that this species is observed only above a certain threshold temperature of seawater. Metaphytic cells of O. cf. ovata were smaller in the northern site than in the south, possibly as a result of an increase in cell division, coinciding with higher abundance, and this could be an indicator of favorable conditions. Toxicity in planktonic cells was negatively correlated with cell abundance in the water column, achieving maximum concentrations of 25pg. PLTX eqcell(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth Inhibition of Sporomusa ovata by Incorporation of Benzimidazole Bases into Cobamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Kenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Phenolyl cobamides are unique members of a class of cobalt-containing cofactors that includes vitamin B12 (cobalamin). Cobamide cofactors facilitate diverse reactions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Phenolyl cobamides are structurally and chemically distinct from the more commonly used benzimidazolyl cobamides such as cobalamin, as the lower axial ligand is a phenolic group rather than a benzimidazole. The functional significance of this difference is not well understood. Here we show that in the bacterium Sporomusa ovata, the only organism known to synthesize phenolyl cobamides, several cobamide-dependent acetogenic metabolisms have a requirement or preference for phenolyl cobamides. The addition of benzimidazoles to S. ovata cultures results in a decrease in growth rate when grown on methanol, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate, H2 plus CO2, or betaine. Suppression of native p-cresolyl cobamide synthesis and production of benzimidazolyl cobamides occur upon the addition of benzimidazoles, indicating that benzimidazolyl cobamides are not functionally equivalent to the phenolyl cobamide cofactors produced by S. ovata. We further show that S. ovata is capable of incorporating other phenolic compounds into cobamides that function in methanol metabolism. These results demonstrate that S. ovata can incorporate a wide range of compounds as cobamide lower ligands, despite its preference for phenolyl cobamides in the metabolism of certain energy substrates. To our knowledge, S. ovata is unique among cobamide-dependent organisms in its preferential utilization of phenolyl cobamides. PMID:23417488

  6. First record of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf blight on Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae) Primeiro relato de Glomerella cingulata causando queima foliar em Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Sérgio Vieira; Olinto Liparini Pereira; Márcio Luiz Batista; Robert Weingart Barreto

    2005-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata was found causing severe leaf blight on Talauma ovata, a common tree species in the Atlantic tropical rain forest floodplains of Southern Brazil. The disease and pathogen are described and illustrated and patogenicity is also demonstrated. This is the first report of this disease.Glomerella cingulata foi encontrado causando severa queima-foliar em Talauma ovata, uma espécie arbórea comum em florestas úmidas tropicais do Sudeste do Brasil. A doença e o patógeno foram descr...

  7. Ostreopsis cf. ovata dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea in relation to biotic and abiotic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnicer, Olga [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Guallar, Carles [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); IFREMER, DYNECO-PELAGOS Centre de Brest, Pointe du Diable BP70, 29280 Plouzane (France); Andree, Karl B.; Diogène, Jorge [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita, E-mail: margarita.fernandez@irta.cat [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    An expansion of the distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a dinoflagellate which produces palytoxin-like compounds, has been reported in recent years. Economical and social interests are affected by blooms, as they are responsible for respiratory and skin problems in humans and may cause damage to marine organisms. In order to identify the most influential environmental factors that trigger proliferations of O. cf. ovata in the area of the adjacent shallow rocky coast of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) a three-year survey was performed on the metaphytic microalgae community growing on the macrophytes Jania rubens and Corallina elongata. Small-size diatoms were more abundant than dinoflagellates; O. cf. ovata was identified as the only species present from the genus. Seawater temperature was the primary driver defining the ecological niche of O. cf. ovata. Freshwater and groundwater fluxes were more pronounced in southern than in northern sites, which may have resulted in a distinct O. cf. ovata spatial distribution, with the highest records of abundance and more frequent blooms in the north. In consequence, negative correlations between the abundance of O. cf. ovata and nitrate concentrations and significant positive correlation with salinity were observed. The temporal pattern of O. cf. ovata dynamics from mid-July to early-November is probably due to the fact that this species is observed only above a certain threshold temperature of seawater. Metaphytic cells of O. cf. ovata were smaller in the northern site than in the south, possibly as a result of an increase in cell division, coinciding with higher abundance, and this could be an indicator of favorable conditions. Toxicity in planktonic cells was negatively correlated with cell abundance in the water column, achieving maximum concentrations of 25 pg. PLTX eq cell{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Presence of a single Ostreopsis genotype in confirmed through qPCR. • Temperature confirmed as the most

  8. Commercially important properties of plants of the genus Plantago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The centuries-old experience of folk medicine, nutritional traditions, and the results of numerous research studies show that plants of the genus Plantago can be used for medicinal, cosmetic, dietetic, and ritual purposes. In the phytochemical composition of Plantago, there is an abundance of biologically active substances (among others, glycosides, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and vitamins exhibiting beneficial effects and, simultaneously, there is a low content of compounds that may exert a toxic effect. Scientific research has confirmed that Plantago plants have antioxidative, apoptosis-inhibiting, protective, healing-enhancing, spasmolytic, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial properties; they inhibit the development of some tumours, reduce the level of lipids in blood and inhibit tissue glycation. In phytotherapy, leaves, stems, and/or seeds of different plantain species are used. Plantago leaves and seeds are also used to manufacture creams, lotions, and face masks. Different parts of these plants (fresh plant material, extracts, or isolated substances are also used in human and animal nutrition. Plantain leaves can be eaten like lettuce or added to salads, fried in pastry, used to prepare a tea, juice, or wine. Its seeds are added to cakes, bread, breakfast cereals, ice cream, and drinks, or they are cooked like groats. Animals fed with plantain can live longer and are healthier, while meat derived from such animals is tastier and healthier to humans. Plantago seeds are readily eaten by cage birds. Plantain pollen, produced in large amounts (up to 20,000 pollen grains per 1 stamen of P. lancolata, can cause allergies in sensitive people. Due to a long flowering period of plants of the genus Plantago, the effect of the allergenic factor persists for many weeks. In Poland days with the maximum concentration of airborne plantain pollen most often occur in July.

  9. Chemotaxonomy of Plantago. Iridoid glucosides and caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønsted, N.; Göbel, E.; Franzyk, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Data for 34 species of Plantago (Plantaginaceae), including subgen. Littorella (=Littorella uniflora), have been collected with regard to their content of iridoid glucosides and caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides (CPGs). In the present work, 21 species were investigated for the first time and man...... in the family. Finally, the close relationship between Plantago and Veronica suggested by chloroplast DNA sequence analysis, could be corroborated by the common occurrence of the rare 8,9-unsaturated iridoids in these two genera. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. In Vitro antibacterial activity of rumex nervosus, plantago lanceolata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finding indicated that Rumex nervosus showed have the highest zone of inhibition (20mm) against the genus Salmonella followed by Plantago lanceolata with the zone of inhibition (16mm) against L. monocytogenes. On the other hand, Lepidium sativum and Solanum incanum did not have any antibacterial activity ...

  11. New CMS types in Plantago lanceolata and their relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, A.A.; Mateman, A.C.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Mitochondrial variation in Plantago lanceolata was used to detect new CMS types. Directional reciprocal crosses were made between plants which differed in mtDNA restriction patterns. Differential segregation of male steriles in reciprocal crosses indicated that the parents differed in CMS type.

  12. Studies on the nematode; Moaciria icosiensis (Seurat, 1917) from Chalcides ocellatus (Forsk.) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Deen, A; al-Shareef, M F

    1996-12-01

    With the aid of scanning electron microscopy certain morphological features (e.g.lateral alae, posterior end of male and cuticular surface) are used as principal pilars in the description of the nematode Moaciria icosiensis (Seurat, 1917) from Chalcides ocellatus (Forsk). Cuticular surface is distinguished by minute striations. Lateral alae are smooth and showing undulation. The posterior end of the male is curved and carries specific papillae. These morphological features are specific and aid in proper identification of Moaciria icosiensis.

  13. First record of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf blight on Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae Primeiro relato de Glomerella cingulata causando queima foliar em Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sérgio Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Glomerella cingulata was found causing severe leaf blight on Talauma ovata, a common tree species in the Atlantic tropical rain forest floodplains of Southern Brazil. The disease and pathogen are described and illustrated and patogenicity is also demonstrated. This is the first report of this disease.Glomerella cingulata foi encontrado causando severa queima-foliar em Talauma ovata, uma espécie arbórea comum em florestas úmidas tropicais do Sudeste do Brasil. A doença e o patógeno foram descritos e ilustrados, e sua patogenicidade também foi demonstrada. Esse é o primeiro relato dessa doença.

  14. Effects of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Raquel A F; Contins, Mariana; Nascimento, Silvia M

    2018-04-01

    Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been recorded with increasing frequency, intensity and geographic distribution. This dinoflagellate produces potent toxins that may cause mortality of marine invertebrates. Adults of sea urchins are commonly affected by O. cf. ovata exposure with evidence of spines loss and high mortality during periods of high dinoflagellate abundances. Here, we report on the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate O. cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, a key ecological herbivore. Lytechinus variegatus eggs and sperm were experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Ostreopsis cf. ovata (4, 40, 400, and 4000 cells ml -1 ) to test the hypothesis that fertilization success, embryonic and larval development of the sea urchin are negatively affected by the toxic dinoflagellate even at low abundances. Reduced fertilization, developmental failures, embryo and larval mortality, and occurrence of abnormal offspring were evident after exposure to O. cf. ovata. Fertilization decreased when gametes were exposed to high O. cf. ovata abundances (400 and 4000 cells ml -1 ), but just the exposure to the highest abundance significantly reduced fertilization success. Sea urchin early development was affected by O. cf. ovata in a dose-dependent way, high dinoflagellate abundances fully inhibited the early development of L. variegatus. Ostreopsis cf. ovata significantly increased the mortality of sea urchin eggs and embryos in the first hours of exposure (∼1-3 h), regardless of dinoflagellate abundance. Abundances of 400 and 4000 O. cf. ovata cells ml -1 induced significantly higher mortality on sea urchin initial stages in the first hours, and no egg or embryo was found in these treatments after 18 h of incubation. The early echinopluteus larva was only reached in the control and in treatments with low Ostreopsis cf. ovata abundances (4 and 40 cells ml -1 ). The

  15. Chemical Constituents from Sonneratia ovata Backer and their in vitro Cytotoxicity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thi Hoai Thu; Huu Viet Thong, Phamb; Nguyen, KimTuyen Phamc

    2015-01-01

    Sonneratia ovata Backer, Sonneratiaceae, is a widespread plant in mangrove forests in Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia. Sonneratia ovata’s chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Therefore, we now report on the structural elucidation of three new phenolics, sonnerphenolic A (1), sonner...

  16. First record of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf blight on Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Bruno Sérgio; Pereira,Olinto Liparini; Batista,Márcio Luiz; Barreto,Robert Weingart

    2005-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata was found causing severe leaf blight on Talauma ovata, a common tree species in the Atlantic tropical rain forest floodplains of Southern Brazil. The disease and pathogen are described and illustrated and patogenicity is also demonstrated. This is the first report of this disease.

  17. Uptake of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen by the benthic toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauzein, Cécile; Couet, Douglas; Blasco, Thierry; Lemée, Rodolphe

    2017-05-01

    Environmental factors that shape dynamics of benthic toxic blooms are largely unknown. In particular, for the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata, the importance of the availability of nutrients and the contribution of the inorganic and organic pools to growth need to be quantified in marine coastal environments. The present study aimed at characterizing N-uptake of dissolved inorganic and organic sources by O. cf. ovata cells, using the 15 N-labelling technique. Experiments were conducted taking into account potential interactions between nutrient uptake systems as well as variations with the diel cycle. Uptake abilities of O. cf. ovata were parameterized for ammonium (NH 4 + ), nitrate (NO 3 - ) and N-urea, from the estimation of kinetic and inhibition parameters. In the range of 0 to 10μmolNL -1 , kinetic curves showed a clear preference pattern following the ranking NH 4 + >NO 3 - >N-urea, where the preferential uptake of NH 4 + relative to NO 3 - was accentuated by an inhibitory effect of NH 4 + concentration on NO 3 - uptake capabilities. Conversely, under high nutrient concentrations, the preference for NH 4 + relative to NO 3 - was largely reduced, probably because of the existence of a low-affinity high capacity inducible NO 3 - uptake system. Ability to take up nutrients in darkness could not be defined as a competitive advantage for O. cf. ovata. Species competitiveness can also be defined from nutrient uptake kinetic parameters. A strong affinity for NH 4 + was observed for O. cf. ovata cells that may partly explain the success of this toxic species during the summer season in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-mer (France). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of binding properties of Plantago psyllium seed mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ansoroudi, Farshad; Fallah, Saeed; Amin, Gholamreza

    2010-09-01

    Mucilage extracted from Plantago psyllium seeds was evaluated for inertness and safety parameters. The suitability of psyllium mucilage for a pharmaceutical binder was assessed in paracetamol tablets. Properties of the granules prepared using different concentrations of psyllium mucilage was compared with PVP and tragacanth. Psyllium mucilage at 5 % (m/m) was found to be comparable with 3 % (m/m) of PVP. Investigated paracetamol tablets indicated that psyllium mucilage can retard the drug release.

  19. Taxonomic novelties in Plantago section Virginica (Plantaginaceae) and an updated identification key

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Trevisan, Rafael; Meudt, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This study raises two rather poorly understood subspecies to the rank of species, and revalidates two subspecies in Plantago (Plantaginaceae) section Virginica. Plantago napiformis, formerly P. tomentosa subsp. napiformis, is an uncommon species from grasslands in northeastern Argentina, southern...... an updated identification key to all 22 Plantago species and subspecies in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina....

  20. Salt stress in Plantago - The role of membranes, channels and pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, HBA

    1995-01-01

    In the present article the cellular mechanism of Na+ transport across the plasma membrane and tonoplast of root cells of Plantago media (salt sensitive) and Plantago maritima (salt tolerant) is discussed based on findings obtained mainly by patch clamp technique. It is conluded that the combination

  1. Highlights from the CERN/ESO/NordForsk ''Gender in Physics Day''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primas, F.; Guinot, G.; Strandberg, L.

    2017-03-01

    In their role as observers on the EU Gender Equality Network in the European Research Area (GENERA) project, funded under the Horizon 2020 framework, CERN, ESO and NordForsk joined forces and organised a Gender in Physics Day at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation. The one-day conference aimed to examine innovative activities promoting gender equality, and to discuss gender-oriented policies and best practice in the European Research Area (with special emphasis on intergovernmental organisations), as well as the importance of building solid networks. The event was very well attended and was declared a success. The main highlights of the meeting are reported.

  2. The toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata: Quantification of proliferation along the coastline of Genoa, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangialajo, L.; Bertolotto, R.; Cattaneo-Vietti, R.; Chiantore, M.; Grillo, C.; Lemee, R.; Melchiorre, N.; Moretto, P.; Povero, P.; Ruggieri, N.

    2008-01-01

    Toxic harmful algal bloom (HAB) occurrence is becoming more frequent and problematic in highly urbanized coastal zones. In summer 2005 along the urbanized Genoa coastline (Ligurian Sea, North western Mediterranean Sea), local first aid stations treated about 200 people, who all showed similar symptoms following exposure to marine aerosols. The link with proliferation of Ostreopsis ovata was made, and it highlighted for the first time, the risks that benthic HABs may represent in highly urbanised temperate areas. Subsequently, a specific monitoring plan was designed and implemented in the same area in July 2006, before the first signs of Ostreopsis proliferation were detected. Here we report on this quantification of an Ostreopsis ovata bloom in the Ligurian Sea. Cells were quantified both in the water column and in the epiphytic community on macrophytes. Our results suggest a role of sea water temperature and weather conditions in favouring bloom development

  3. PERKEMBANGAN AERENKIM AKAR KANGKUNG DARAT (Ipomoea reptans Poir DAN KANGKUNG AIR (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ningsih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian tentang perkembangan aerenkim pada kangkung darat dan kangkung air telah dilakukan pada bulan Oktober 2014 sampai Februari 2015 di Laboratorium Struktur Perkembangan Tumbuhan Jurusan Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Andalas. Jaringan akar diproses dengan metode parafin, kemudian dideskripsikan secara kuantitatif. Rongga aerenkim pada kangkung air terbentuk pada minggu ke tiga dengan jumlah dua rongga sel sedangkan pada kangung darat terbentuk pada minggu ke empat. Proses pembentukan aerenkim terjadi melalui proses pelisisan sel korteks.Abstract Research of aerenchyma development on terrestrial kale Ipomea reptans poir and water kale Ipomoea aquatic Forsk was conducted from October, 2014 until February, 2015 at Laboratory of plant growth structure, the Faculty of Math and Science, Department of Biology, Andalas University. Kales were analyzed by using paraffin method then described by quantitive data. Results showed: (i aerenchyma cavities were formed in the 1st week, (ii aquatic Forsks with two cell cavities were formed in the 3rd week, (iii terrestrial kales were formed in the 4th week. The formation process of aerenchyma occurred through lysis process of cortical cell.

  4. Effect of Plantago australis leaves on different gastric ulcer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Bürger

    Full Text Available The anti-ulcerogenic effect of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE of Plantago australis leaves was tested against ethanol-, indomethacin-, and cold restrain-induced stress ulcers. The CEE (500 and 1000 mg/kg reduced the lesion index (LI and the ulcer index in ethanol-induced ulcers, and the dose of 1000 mg/kg increased the amount of mucous. The highest dose of the CEE reduced the LI of cold restraint-induced stress ulcers when compared to the control group. The indomethacin-induced ulcers were not affected by this extract.

  5. Profiling of antioxidant potential and phytoconstituents of Plantago coronopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The halophyte species Plantago coronopus has several described ethnomedicinal uses, but few reported biological activities. This work carried out for the first time a comparative analysis of P. coronopus organs in terms of phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of organic and water extracts from roots, leaves and flowers. The leaves contents in selected nutrients, namely amino acids and minerals, are also described. Roots (ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had the highest radical scavenging activity (RSA towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radicals, while leaves (hexane extract had higher RSA on nitric oxide radical and iron chelating ability. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis identified eighteen phenolics from which salicylic acid and epicatechin are here firstly described in Plantago species. Leaves had mineral levels similar to those of most vegetables, proving to be a good source for elements like calcium, sodium, iron and magnesium, and also for several of the essential amino acids justifying it use as food. Our results, especially those regarding the phenolics composition, can explain the main traditional uses given to this plantain and, altogether, emphasize the potential of P. coronopus as a source of bioactive molecules particularly useful for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  6. Growth of Biomphalaria glabrata populations in the presence of the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-06-01

    Adults of three ampullariid species were examined for their ability to affect the population growth of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions in which food (lettuce) was supplied ad libitum over an eleven week interval. Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata were obtained from Kenya, and Marisa cornuarietis originated from the Dominican Republic. The presence of either 3 or 9 L. carinatus or 3 M. cornuarietis per 40 l aquarium did not reduce the population size of B. glabrata below levels attained in control aquaria lacking ampullariids. The presence of 9 M. cornuarietis adults significantly reduced B. glabrata populations by week 10 of the experiment. Presence of 3 or 9 P. ovata per aquarium significantly reduced B. glabrata numbers below control levels starting at week four of the experiment. Aquaria with 9 P. ovata were observed to have fewer B. glabrata egg masses than control aquaria, but the number of egg masses observed was not significantly reduced in aquaria with 3 P. ovata or with 3 or 9 L. carinatus or M. cornuarietis. However, the presence of 3 or 9 adults of each ampullariid species resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of such egg masses that disappeared prior to expected hatching date and that were presumed to have been consumed. The results of his laboratory study suggest that further investigation of the role of ampullariids as biological control agents for pulmonate snails in sub-Saharan Africa should focus on P. ovata.

  7. Production of butyrate and caproate from a coculture of Sporomusa ovata and Clostridium kluyveri during MES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Faraghi Parapari, Neda

    2014-01-01

    the lack of genetic tools. S. ovata is able to produceethanol and acetate while C. kluyveri uses these two compounds as carbon source and producesbutyrate and caproate.The first step was to optimize the growth medium for S. ovata to increase ethanol production. Theeffect of trace metal ions such as SeO4...

  8. Plantago major in Traditional Persian Medicine and modern phytotherapy: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafian, Younes; Hamedi, Shokouh Sadat; Farshchi, Masoumeh Kaboli

    2018-01-01

    Plantago major has been used widely since ancient times, to manage a wide range of diseases including constipation, coughs and wounds. The aim of this study is to review the traditional application, botanical characterization, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry effects and toxicity of Plantago major. In this review study, medicinal properties of Plantago major are collected from credible pharmacopeias, textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) belonging to the 10–18th century AD, such as “The Canon of Medicine”, “Makhzan-Al- Advia” and so on. Moreover, electronic databases including Scopus, Medline and Web of science were explored for this purpose. Plantago major has been prescribed in various forms such as roasted seeds, decoction, syrup, liniment, gargle, rectal enema, vaginal suppository, eye and nasal drop for each illness by TPM scholars. Some of its traditional properties including wound healing, antipyretic, antitussive, anti-infective, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative, astringent and hemostatic have been confirmed in recent researches. Phytochemical investigations showed that Plantago major contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies have proven some of the traditional applications of Plantago major. Nevertheless, more investigations are required on this plant, because it has the potential to be used to produce various natural medications. PMID:29629064

  9. An immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, J C; Ventas, P; Cosmes, P; López-Asunsolo, A

    1996-01-01

    It is known that most patients with type I allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. Recently, an epidemiological and CAP-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and Plantago and grass pollens. The aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. Sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis with a pool of sera revealed that several distinct protein bands were shared by the three extracts at 14, 31, and a spectrum between 40 and 70 kDa, approximately. Immunoblotting inhibition experiments, performed with extracts of melon, Plantago and Dactylis, showed that all allergens of melon blotting were almost completely inhibited by grass and Plantago pollen extracts. Inversely, the melon extract was capable of inhibiting IgE-binding to various allergens of Dactylis at high mol mass and partially to the band at 14 kDa. Moreover, the melon almost totally inhibited the IgE-binding capacity to the proteins of Plantago extract. Taken together, the results support the presence of structurally similar allergens in melon, Plantago and grass pollens, and that all allergenic epitopes of the melon are present in these pollens.

  10. Effects of Salt Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Plantago Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Pacurar, Andrea; López-Gresa, María P; Donat-Torres, María P; Llinares, Josep V; Boscaiu, Monica; Vicente, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the responses to salt stress of taxonomically related taxa should help to elucidate relevant mechanisms of stress tolerance in plants. We have applied this strategy to three Plantago species adapted to different natural habitats, P. crassifolia and P. coronopus-both halophytes-and P. major, considered as salt-sensitive since it is never found in natural saline habitats. Growth inhibition measurements in controlled salt treatments indicated, however, that P. major is quite resistant to salt stress, although less than its halophytic congeners. The contents of monovalent ions and specific osmolytes were determined in plant leaves after four-week salt treatments. Salt-treated plants of the three taxa accumulated Na+ and Cl- in response to increasing external NaCl concentrations, to a lesser extent in P. major than in the halophytes; the latter species also showed higher ion contents in the non-stressed plants. In the halophytes, K+ concentration decreased at moderate salinity levels, to increase again under high salt conditions, whereas in P. major K+ contents were reduced only above 400 mM NaCl. Sorbitol contents augmented in all plants, roughly in parallel with increasing salinity, but the relative increments and the absolute values reached did not differ much in the three taxa. On the contrary, a strong (relative) accumulation of proline in response to high salt concentrations (600-800 mM NaCl) was observed in the halophytes, but not in P. major. These results indicate that the responses to salt stress triggered specifically in the halophytes, and therefore the most relevant for tolerance in the genus Plantago are: a higher efficiency in the transport of toxic ions to the leaves, the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica, even under low salinity conditions, and the activation, in response to very high salt concentrations, of proline accumulation and K+ transport to the leaves of the plants.

  11. Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera bifolia and Listera ovata survive N application under P limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejcman, Michal; Schellberg, Jürgen; Pavlů, Vilém

    2010-11-01

    Increased nutrient availability is generally believed to be harmful for terrestrial orchids. However, no information is available on whether grassland orchids survive decades-long calcium (Ca), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) application. We took advantage of sampling in one of the oldest long-term experiments in the world, the Rengen Grassland Experiment (RGE), which was established in Germany in 1941 on low-productive Violion caninae grassland, and we monitored orchids from 2005 to 2009. Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera bifolia and Listera ovata survived decades-long application of Ca and CaN fertilizer, but not CaN together with P. Cover of D. maculata was highest in areas of Ca treatment. The number of flowers per plant of L. ovata was significantly higher in the CaN treatment compared with the control indicating that enhanced N availability stimulated its growth. Long-term N application (NH 4NO 3 at an annual rate of 100 kg N ha -1) was not fatal to the studied orchids if not accompanied by P application. It is more likely that enhanced N availability can cause loss of studied orchids only where the availability of P in soil is high enough to enable the growth of productive species that can better compete for light on eutrophic soils.

  12. Occurrences of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata in relation with environmental factors in Kerkennah Island (Southern coast of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Ben brahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the seasonal and monthly variability of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata (O. ovata in relation to environmental parameters in Kerkennah Island. Methods: Three water samples replicate of one-litter were taken daily for ten consecutive days on 12 months. All sampling water was kept in the dark at ambient temperature until their microscopic observation. Environmental variables such as salinity and temperature were measured in the field concomitantly as phytoplankton sampling. Nutrients (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate were analysed in laboratory with Auto-analyser Luebbe type. Cell identification and enumeration in water samples were performed with an inverted microscope after the sedimentation. Results: The highest abundance of O. ovata was recorded in summer. Analysis of variance showed significant difference of abundance between seasons, whereas no significant difference for month was detected. Factorial analysis ordination showed a positive correlation of Ostreopsis mainly with temperature and low correlation with nitrite and nitrate whereas the second axis (with 26.30% of variance showed that Ostreopsis was correlated with temperature and salinity. Conclusions: The maximum abundance of Ostreopsis was reached in summer when temperature was high and a low relationship between O. ovata and nutrient was detected.

  13. [New settlers comb jellies Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) and Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 and their influence on the pelagic ecosystem of the northeastern part of the Black Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, T A; Musaeva, E I; Bulgakova, Iu V; Mirzoian, Z A; MartynIuk, M L

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the condition of pelagic ecosystem of northeastern Black Sea influenced by expansion of a new settler Beroe ovata in 1999-2001. Expansion of B. ovata considerably decreased the population of another new settler Mnemiopsis leidyi that deformed the Black Sea ecosystem for over a decade. Reduction of M. leidyi population limited its influence on the ecosystem and, consequently, we observed reestablishment of the main components of the Black Sea pelagic ecosystem--zooplankton and fish, their spawn and larvae. The relationship between annual and seasonal variability of the population and biomass of the both new settlers M. leidyi and B. ovata are discussed.

  14. FITOREMEDIASI KADMIUM (CD PADA LEACHATE MENGGUNAKAN KANGKUNG AIR (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (STUDI KASUS TPA JATIBARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Zamhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leachate TPA Jatibarang yang tercemar kadmium (Cd kemungkinan dapat dibersihkan secara fitoremediasi menggunakan kangkung air (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan kangkung air sebagai fitoremediator dalam menyerap Cd dalam leachate TPA Jatibarang. Sebelum penelitian, dilakukan uji pendahuluan kandungan Cd dalam leachate maupun dalam kangkung air. Kangkung diaklimatisasi dalam air bersih selama 3 hari, selanjutnya ditimbang seberat 300 gram kemudian diletakkan ke dalam ember berisi 10 L leachate. Sampel leachate dan organ tanaman diambil setiap 2 hari sekali (2 hari, 4 hari, 6 hari, dan 8 hari. Faktor intensitas cahaya diambil setiap hari pada pukul 08.00-09.00 WIB menggunakan lux meter, sedangkan nilai pH dan suhu leachate diukur menggunakan kertas indikator pH dan termometer sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Perameter yang diamati adalah akumulasi Cd dalam akar, batang, dan daun kangkung air pada masing-masing lama waktu pananaman. Akumulasi Cd diukur dengan AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Data penyerapan Cd dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama waktu kangkung air ditanam dalam leachate berpengaruh terhadap akumulasi Cd pada tanaman. Penyerapan Cd oleh kangkung air mencapai jenuh pada hari ke-8 dengan total penyerapan 0,052 ppm. Akumulasi Cd paling besar pada akar kangkung yaitu 0,023 ppm.Cadmium (Cd that contained in TPA Jatibarang’s leachate can be cleaned by phytoremediation using water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.. This research aimed to determine the ability of the water spinach as a fitoremediator in adsorb cadmium (Cd that contained in TPA Jatibarang’s leachate. The research was conducted by using a randomized completely design (RCD factorial, with longer treatment planted time in leachate water spinach was 0 day, 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, and 8 days respectively. The observed parameters of Cd accumulation in roots, stems, and leaves of water spinach in

  15. Aluminium stress disrupts metabolic performance of Plantago almogravensis plantlets transiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevenstuk, Tomás; Moing, Annick; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Romano, Anabela

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how tolerant plants cope with internalized aluminium (Al). Tolerant plants are known to deploy efficient detoxification mechanisms, however it is not known to what extent the primary and secondary metabolism is affected by Al. The aim of this work was to study the metabolic repercussions of Al stress in the tolerant plant Plantago almogravensis. P. almogravensis is well adapted to acid soils where high concentrations of free Al are found and has been classified as a hyperaccumulator. In vitro reared plantlets were used for this purpose in order to control Al exposure rigorously. The metabolome of P. almogravensis plantlets as well as its metabolic response to the supply of sucrose was characterized. The supply of sucrose leads to an accumulation of amino acids and secondary metabolites and consumption of carbohydrates that result from increased metabolic activity. In Al-treated plantlets the synthesis of amino acids and secondary metabolites is transiently impaired, suggesting that P. almogravensis is able to recover from the Al treatment within the duration of the trials. In the presence of Al the consumption of carbohydrate resources is accelerated. The content of some metabolic stress markers also demonstrates that P. almogravensis is highly adapted to Al stress.

  16. Inhibitory potential of important phytochemicals from Pergularia daemia (Forsk. chiov., on snake venom (Naja naja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T.V. Raghavamma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pergularia daemia (Forsk. chiov., is a milk weed of Asclepiadaceae family. In the present study β-sitosterol, β-amyrin, α-amyrin and lupeol were identified in the leaf by GC–MS. Molecular docking studies were performed to evaluate their activities on phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and l-amino acid oxidase enzymes which constituted a rich source in snake venoms (Naja naja. Snake venom Phospholipase A2 with PDB code 1A3D devoid of co-crystallized ligand was extracted from Protein Data Bank. Using Molegro Virtual Docker two cavities are formed by cocrystallization. l-Amino acid oxidase (PDB code 4E0V was a receptor model with a co-crystallized ligand FAD. Among the phytochemicals analysed, β-sitosterol displayed high affinity of binding to the active site regions of phospholipase A2 and l-amino acid oxidase, respectively. The affinity of binding was −125.939 and −157.521 kcal/mole identified by gold scores. α-Amyrin and β-amyrin had two hydrogen bond interactions with PLA2. Hence this study suggests that β-sitosterol identified in P. daemia can antagonize PLA2 and LAAO activities and forms a theoretical basis for the folk use of the plant against snake venom.

  17. Nutrient Dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., Mangrove Forest in Vamleshwar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the nutrient budget of plants, sediments and nutrient dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., dominated forest in Vamleshwar near Narmada estuary, West Coast of Gujarat for a period of one year from November 2008 to October 2009. The average tree height of the mangrove is 1.5 to 2 m without much vertical stratification. Allometric methodology was used to measure the biomass, and yield a figure of 86.47 t ha-1 and the litter fall rate amounted to 2.9 t ha-1. Nutrient stocks of N, P and K in this mangrove were 137.05, 14.38 and 241.29 kg ha-1, with an annual accumulation of 55.74, 12.38 and 83.94 kg ha-1, and an annual return of 51.30, 10.83 and 13.52 kg ha-1, respectively, in the form of litter. The annual uptake for N, P and K were 61.04, 14.28 and 97.46 kg ha-1, and turnover rates of N, P and K were estimated at 3, 6 and 14 years, respectively, for the study period. Flow coefficients, which reveal the dynamic processes of nutrients between mangrove plants and sediments, are also explained. The present study concluded that the A. marina dominated mangrove plantation is more efficient in nutrient use and conservation.

  18. Diel Behavioral Activity Patterns in Adult Solitarious Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål

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    Sidi Ould Ely

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The responses of adult solitarious desert locust to odors from a host plant were evaluated in a two-choice wind tunnel. Solitarious desert locusts collected from the field (Red Sea Coast were more attracted to volatiles from potted Heliotropium ovalifolium in scotophase than in photophase. The attraction towards the host plant odors rather than to clean air, in both photophase and scotophase, concurs with previous observations on oviposition preferences near these plants. Diel behavioral activity patterns of adult solitarious desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål that were collected from the field in Port Sudan were investigated by monitoring, scanning, resting, taking off, and walking/running in a wind tunnel. Solitarious locusts that had been propagated in the laboratory for 20 generations were also observed for comparison. In both groups of locusts, insects were significantly more active after sunset and this activity attained peak level at 1-2 hours after dusk. Of the two groups, solitarious locusts collected from the field were significantly more active. In the scotophase, the former traversed distances that were about seven times those covered by laboratory-reared locusts. Overall, the results show that the repertoire of behavioral activities of solitarious locusts is maintained in laboratory-reared insects, albeit at a lower level. The implications of these observations in the behavioral ecology of the desert locust are discussed.

  19. Breeding approaches for crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) management in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiales, Diego; Fernández-Aparicio, Monica; Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Castillejo, Mari A; Prats, Elena; Sillero, Josefina C; Rispail, Nicolas; Fondevilla, Sara

    2009-05-01

    Pea cultivation is strongly hampered in Mediterranean and Middle East farming systems by the occurrence of Orobanche crenata Forsk. Strategies of control have been developed, but only marginal successes have been achieved. Most control methods are either unfeasible, uneconomical, hard to achieve or result in incomplete protection. The integration of several control measures is the most desirable strategy. [corrected] Recent developments in control are presented and re-evaluated in light of recent developments in crop breeding and molecular genetics. These developments are placed within a framework that is compatible with current agronomic practices. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The application of knowledge gained from basic genomic research and genetic engineering will contribute to more rapid pea improvement for resistance against O. crenata and/or the herbicide.

  20. Performance of faba bean genotypes with Orobanche foetida Poir. and Orobanche crenata Forsk. infestation in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Trabelsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche foetida Poir. and O. crenata Forsk. are major constraints to faba bean (Vicia faba L. cultivation in Tunisia. To evalúate the different levels of resistance of seven small-seeded faba bean genotypes to these parasitic weed species, three trials were conducted in fields infested and non-infested with O. foetida in the Oued Beja Agricultural Experimental Unit and O. crenata in an experimental field at Ariana of the National Institute of Agricultural Research during three cropping seasons. Compared to the susceptible cv. Bad'i, the seven genotypes showed moderate to high levels of resistance to both Orobanche species. The number and dry weight of emerged broomrapes and underground tubercles recorded on the new improved genotypes were lower than those recorded on released and resistant 'Najeh' and 'Baraca'. The parasitism index on the new genotypes varied from 2-6 times less than susceptible 'Bad'i' in both Oued-Beja and Ariana. Yield reduction due to O.foetida infection varied from 13.5% on genotype XAR-VF00.13-89-2-1-1-1-1 to 59.7% on 'Baraca', whereas the yield loss was about 92% on the susceptible control. Parasitic infection did not affect dry grain protein accumulation in the tested genotypes.

  1. CNS Depressant and Antiepileptic Activities of the Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

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    Dhanasekaran Sivaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and antiepileptic activities of the methanol extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (IAF were investigated on various animal models including pentobarbitone sleeping time and hole-board exploratory behavior for sedation tests and strychnine, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., like chlorpromazine HCl (1 mg/kg, i.m., produced a dose-dependent prolongation of pentobarbitone sleeping time and suppression of exploratory behavior. IAF (200 and 400 mg/kg produced dose-dependent and significant increases in onset to clonic and tonic convulsions and at 400 mg/kg, showed complete protection against seizures induced by strychnine and picrotoxin but not with pentylenetetrazole. Acute oral toxicity test, up to 14 days, did not produce any visible signs of toxicity. These results suggest that potentially antiepileptic compounds are present in leaf extract of IAF that deserve the study of their identity and mechanism of action.

  2. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk. Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10 to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, reasons for Khat chewing, and DAST-10. Stepwise-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of Khat dependence. Results. The majority of the respondents were married, had a secondary school level of education, were employed, were younger than 35 years old, and were living in rural areas. Many chewers gave more than one reason for using Khat. It was mainly used to increase mental capacity, physical strength, and social entertainment, as well as enhance cheerfulness and orgasms. Statistical modeling of Khat dependence suggested that the most significant predictors were residence (OR = 1.67, P<0.02, frequency of Khat chewing (OR = 4.8, P<0.01, age of starting Khat chewing (OR = 1.15, P<0.01, and time of Khat effect (OR = 1.15, P<0.04. Conclusion. Our study provides important information on the pattern of Khat use and its potential to cause dependence.

  3. Micropropagation of Plantago asiatica L. through culture of shoot-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Makowczyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip multiplication of the medicinal species - Plantago asiatica was carried on MS medium with IAA and BAP or kinetin. Best results in micropropagation were achieved by adding 0.1 mg/dm3 IAA and 1 mg/dm3 BAP. After 6 weeks shoots were transferred to MS medium for rooting. The resulting plantlets were transferred after 8 weeks into pots and after a period of adaptation into the ground (field culture. The species Plantago asiatica was propagated in vitro by shoot-tip multiplication for the first time.

  4. Effects of Myrcia ovata Cambess. essential oil on planktonic growth of gastrointestinal microorganisms and biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya S. Cândido

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaves of Myrcia ovata Cambess., commonly used in Brazil for the treatment of gastric illnesses, was screened for antimicrobial activity and action in the formation of microbial biofilms by Enterococcus faecalis. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type system. Its chemical composition was analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Both MIC and MBC of the essential oil were determined by broth microdilution techniques and agar dilution method. The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Candida parapsilosis. The results showed that the essential oil of M. ovata Cambess. was effective against the formation of biofilm by E. faecalis when compared with the control. Four volatile compounds, representing 92.1 % of the oil, were identified and geranial was the major component (50.4 %. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of M. ovata.

  5. Consumption of Biomphalaria glabrata egg masses and juveniles by the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofkin, B V; Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-04-01

    Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata from Kenya and Marisa cornuarietis from the Dominican Republic were examined for their ability to consume egg masses and juveniles of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions. Adults of all three ampullariid species consumed all egg masses presented to them over a five day period of observation. Juvenile P. ovata consumed significantly more egg masses than juveniles of M. cornuarietis or L. carinatus. Both adult and juvenile ampullariids generally ate more egg masses when maintained under a temperature regime (25-32 degrees C) approximating conditions in coastal Kenya than at 13-25 degrees C which approximates the temperature regime near Nairobi, Kenya. Egg masses attached to floating 'refugia' were not attacked, apparently reflecting the difficulty experienced by ampullariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all lariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm B. glabrata juvenile snails presented to them. P. ovata adults consumed significantly more 3.0 +/- 0.5 mm juveniles than adults of the other two species. B. glabrata egg masses and juveniles were consumed even though lettuce was continually present in experimental aquaria. Implications of these results for biological control studies in East Africa are discussed.

  6. ITS1 locus: a major determinant of genetic diversity of Plantago spp. (plantaginaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altantestseg, K.; Baatartsogt, O.; Enkhchimeg, V.

    2018-01-01

    By this study, ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) regions in the nuclear DNA of 10 Plantago samples collected from Mongolia (5 samples) and Vietnam (5 samples) were sequenced and constructed Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees for establishing the genetic relationship. The results showed that 10 samples belonged to 2 species (7 Plantago major and 3 Plantago depressa). The length of sequences ranged from 632 to 644 bp (ITS1 ranged from 210-222 bp, 5.8S was 162 bp, and ITS2 259 - 261 bp). The ITS1 region was highly variable among the sequences whereas ITS2 and 5.8S regions were more conservative. The MP and NJ trees apparently separated P. major and P. depressa into 2 different groups, supported with high bootstrap values. P. depressa was first time reported in Mongolia. The results highlighted that ITS sequences could distinguish P. major and P. depressa, which is certainly important for pharmacist to use crude drugs derived from Plantago. (author)

  7. Gender variation, partial male sterility and labile sex expression in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, HP; VanDamme, JMM

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system consisting of male steriles (MS, females) and hermaphrodites (H). There is however within such sq stems a third, often neglected, class of partially male sterile plants (PMS), i.e. plants with an intermediate sex expression. In natural populations of Plantago

  8. Gender variation, partial male sterility and labile sex expression in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system consisting of male steriles (MS, females) and hermaphrodites (H). There is however within such sq stems a third, often neglected, class of partially male sterile plants (PMS), i.e. plants with an intermediate sex expression. In natural populations of Plantago

  9. NaCl salinity affects lateral root development in Plantago maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Wenisch, J; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Root growth and morphology were assessed weekly in hydroponically-grown seedlings of the halophyte Plantago maritima L. during exposure to 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 21 d. Relative growth rate was reduced by 25% at 200 mM NaCl. The lower NaCl treatments did not affect relative growth rates.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Baranowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optimal procedure for extraction and purification, the identified protein was isolated by several methods, including electroelution, binding to glass beads, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration. Antibodies raised against the isolated protein were used for localization of the adhesive protein in Cuvierian tubules. Immunostaining and immunogold electron microscopical studies revealed the strongest immunoreactivity in the mesothelium; this tissue layer is involved in adhesion. Adhesion of Cuvierian tubule extracts was measured on the surface of various materials. The extracted protein showed the strongest adhesion to Teflon surface. Increased adhesion was observed in the presence of potassium and EDTA, while cadmium caused a decrease in adhesion. Addition of antibodies and trypsin abolished the adhesive properties of the extract.

  11. Dehydro-alpha-lapachone isolated from Catalpa ovata stems: activity against plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun Young; Kim, Hae Young; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Lim, He Kyoung; Lim, Chi Hwan; Cho, Kwang Yun; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2006-05-01

    The methanol extract of stems of Catalpa ovata G Don exhibits potent in vivo antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr (rice blast) on rice plants, Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr (tomato grey mould) and Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary (tomato late blight) on tomato plants, Puccinia recondita Rob ex Desm (wheat leaf rust) on wheat plants and Blumeria graminis (DC) Speer f. sp. hordei Marchal (barley powdery mildew) on barley plants. An antifungal substance was isolated and identified as dehydro-alpha-lapachone from mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. It completely inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Simmonds, M. grisea and Pythium ultimum Trow over a range of 0.4-33.3 mg litre(-1). It also controlled the development of rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, barley powdery mildew and red pepper anthracnose (Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr) S Hughes). The chemical was particularly effective in suppressing red pepper anthracnose by 95% at a concentration of 125 mg litre(-1). Copyright 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The morphology of hairs in species of Plantago L. sectio Oreades Decne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hairs of three taxa of sectio Oreades Decne genus Plantago have been studied. We have found that hair typical for the majority of representatives of the genus Plantago, that is, with a unicellular stalk and head vertically divided into two cells, occur in these studied taxa. Some of the headless hairs occurring here are similar to those occurring in sectio Arnoglossum Decne. Rahn's (1978 suggestion of transferring sectio Oreades to the subgenus Psyllium seems wrong since the representatives of this section, in contrast to subgenus Psyllium, do not have hairs with the stalks consisting of several cells and unicellular heads, club-like hairs or iridoid-plantarenaloside. They contain, however, hairs with overlapping cells and iridoid-catapol, which is absent in the taxa of subgenus Psyllium.

  13. Effect of tungstate on acetate and ethanol production by the electrosynthetic bacterium Sporomusa ovata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Lizak, Dawid Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    successfully converted to their corresponding alcohols 1-propanol and 1-butanol by S. ovata during gas fermentation. Increasing tungstate concentration enhanced conversion efficiency for both propionate and butyrate. Gene expression analysis suggested that tungsten-containing aldehyde ferredoxin...... oxidoreductases (AORs) and a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase (FDH) were involved in the improved biosynthesis of acetate, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. AORs and FDH contribute to the fatty acids re-assimilation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, respectively. This study presented here shows...

  14. Effect of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates on growth and arsenic accumulation in Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orłowska, Elżbieta; Godzik, Barbara; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The role of indigenous and non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata L. growing on substrate originating from mine waste rich in As was assessed in a pot experiment. P. lanceolata inoculated with AMF had higher shoot and root biomass and lower concentrations of As in roots than the non-inoculated plants. There were significant differences in As concentration and uptake between different AMF isolates. Inoculation with the indigenous isolate resulted in increased transfer of As from roots to shoots; AMF from non-polluted area apparently restricted plants from absorbing As to the tissue; and plants inoculated with an AMF isolate from Zn–Pb waste showed strong As retainment within the roots. Staining with dithizone indicated that AMF might be actively involved in As accumulation. The mycorrhizal colonization affected also the concentration of Cd and Zn in roots and Pb concentration, both in shoots and roots. - Highlights: ► The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in As uptake was studied. ► Growth of Plantago lanceolata was significantly enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. ► Arsenic concentration and uptake significantly depended on the AMF isolate. ► Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may be useful for bioremediation of As contaminated wastes. - Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on As uptake by Plantago lanceolata strongly depends on the origin of fungal isolates.

  15. Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kangkung Air (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) dan Kangkung Darat (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) yang Ditanam di Daerah Berbeda Ketinggian

    OpenAIRE

    Sijabat, Novriani

    2015-01-01

    Kangkung is a member of Convolvulaceae plants which is popular in Indonesia. Kangkung leaves contain of amino acid, fatty acid, minerals, and a high value of total phenolic content. Kangkung had been found with cyotoxic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. There are 2 types of kangkung : water’s kangkung (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) and land’s kangkung (Ipomoea reptans Poir.) Both are growing well on different-altitude areas. The purpose of this study was to det...

  16. Penjajakan Kadar Logam Berat Pb Pada Tanaman Kangkung Darat (Ipomea reptans Poir) Asal Kecamatan Medan Deli Dan Kangkung Air (Ipomea aquatica Forsk) Asal Kecamatan Sunggal Kota Medan.

    OpenAIRE

    Rumajar, Antonius Theodorus B

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan di lahan pertanian kangkung darat (Ipomea reptans Poir) asal kecamatan Medan Deli dan kangkung air (Ipomea aquatica Forsk) asal kecamatan Sunggal kota Medan dan Laboratorium Riset dan Teknologi Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan yang dilakukan pada bulan Juni 2010 sampai Oktober 2010. Penelitian ini menggunakan alat AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy) dengan dua (2) kali ulangan berdasarkan metode deskriptif analitik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ba...

  17. Growth and competitive abilities of the federally endangered Lindera melissifolia and the potentially invasive Brunnichia ovata in varying densities, hydrologic regimes, and light availabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy S. Hawkins; Nathan Schiff; A. Dan Wilson; Theodor D. Leininger; Margaret S. Devall

    2016-01-01

    Brunnichia ovata (Walter) Shinners is a native, perennial, woody vine with the potential to become an aggressive competitor of the federally endangered shrub Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume. Our study simulated habitat disturbances to hydrologic regime and light availability that may occur naturally, or through active...

  18. Effects of Vermi-compost Fertilizer Application and Foliar Spraying on Yield and Yield Component of Isabgol (Plantago ovate L. Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Rahimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vermi-compost is the ability of some species of earthworms to consume and break down a wide range of organic residues such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, crop residues and industrial refuse. Vermi-composts are usually more stable than their parent materials with increased availability of nutrients and improved physicochemical and microbiological properties. Aerial compost tea contains high populations of live microorganism consisting of rhizobactria, trichoderma and pseudomonas species which increase the growth and yield of the plant. Acid humic is the main humic substance and the important ingredient of soil organic matter (humus which causes increase of yield and quality of crop. The aim of this research is evaluating the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of compost tea and acid humic on yield, yield component and mucilage content of isabgol. Vermiwash as the extract of vermi-compost is liquid organic fertilizer obtained from unit of vermiculture and vermi-compost as drainage. It is used as a foliar spraying on the leaf. Vermiwash stimulate and increase the yield of crop products and foliar application of vermiwash can be caused of plant resistance to different factors and can prevent leaf necrosis. Material and Methods In order to study the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of tea compost and acid humic on growth indices of isabgol (Plantago ovata, an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on complete randomized design with three replications in agricultural research farm at Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments were included application of vermi-compost (0 (control, 4, 8, 12 and 16 t.ha-1 and 3 levels of foliar application (distilled water as control, acid humic and compost tea. Samples for evaluating of yield, yield components and mucilage content were taken from 1 m2 area of each treatment. Tea compost solution prepared using mix of vermi-compost, acid humic, yeast and alga extract

  19. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K.; Babanezhad, M.; Vitharana, U.W.A.; Wuytack, T.; Potters, G.; Samson, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  20. The morphology of hairs in species of Plantago L. Sections: Novorbis Decne and Mesembrynia Decne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of the investigation of hairs in representatives of various sections of the genus Plantago L.(Andrzejewska-Golec and Świętosławski 1987, 1988, 1989 a, b, 1991, in press 2. It deals with the species of the related sections: Novorbis Decne (3 species and Mesembrynia Decne (5 species. The investigated taxa of both sections have one type of headed hair (typical of the representatives of the genus Plantago as well as three types of headless hairs: 1 1-3-celled-bristle-shaped, 2 consisting of several cells, and 3 multicellular-web-like. Only slight differences between the hairs of the investigated taxa of sections Novorbis and Mesembrynia were noticed. The hairs of the representatives of these sections are also similar to the hairs of representatives of another section, related to those mentioned above, viz. Lamprosantha Decne (Andrzejewska-Golec and Świętosławski 1991.

  1. Taxonomic and geographic novelties in the genus Plantago (Plantaginaceae) in Chile, including the description of a new species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Shipunov, Alexey; Rønsted, Nina

    2018-01-01

    We present taxonomic and geographic novelties in the genus Plantago from Chile. More specifically, we describe P. nebularis, a new species endemic to Cerro Moreno, Antofagasta region, and propose P. zoellneriana, a new name for P. sericea subsp. araucana. We also lectotypify the name P. sericea, ...

  2. The response of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma to elevated CO2 is modulated by the formation of secondary shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho Guerra da Fonseca, F.M; den Hertog, J; Stulen, G

    The effect of elevated CO2 on the relative growth rate (RGR) of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma was studied during the vegetative stage, in relation to plant development, by growing plants at 350 mu l l(-1) or at 700 mu l l(-1) CO2 in non-limiting nutrient solution with nitrate. To minimize

  3. Histological study on the effect of He-Ne laser on the compound eyes of the locust Schistocerca Gregaria Forsk (Orthoptera-Acridiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Meguid, A.; El-Gundi, A.M.; Osiris, W.G.; El-Kes, N.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of the He-Ne laser beam at different exposure periods (10,30 and 60 minutes) on the histological structure of the compound eyes of Schistocerca Gregaria Forsk is investigated. This study shows that various remarkable changes occurred in the histological structure of the right exposed eye (R) as in the left eye (L) (unexposed eye of the same insect), which may be due to a change in the micro-environment of the compound eyes, affected by the laser beam, furthermore, damage in the photoreceptors of the compound eyes of the insect was observed. 23 figs

  4. Preculturing effect of thidiazuron on in vitro shoot multiplication and micropropagation round in Capparis decidua (Forsk.) an important multipurpose plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, Kahkashan

    2016-09-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for clonal multiplication of an important shrub: Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew, through in vitro shoot induction and multiplication from nodal explants. Pretreatment of nodal explants in a liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with various thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations at relatively high levels (5-100 μM) for different time duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d), proved a significant approach for in vitro shoot production. After an initial exposure time to TDZ, nodal explants were inoculated onto a MS basal medium devoid of TDZ for further induction and proliferation. The highest regeneration rate (85%), average number of shoots/explant (8.7 ± 0.22) and maximum shoot length (3.9 ± 0.33 cm) were obtained from the nodal explants exposed to 50 μM TDZ for 8 d. The nodal explants excised from the proliferated cultures of TDZ (50 μM) for 8 d were used as explants and showed an enhancement rate after next three round of in vitro propagation. Best results for rooting was obtained by ex vitro treatment of shoots with 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 20 min. as it produced an average of 5.7 ± 0.41 roots per microshoot with 4.4 ± 0.39 cm root length in 84% shoots. Different planting substrates was tested for maximum survival of hardening off micropropagated plantlets and soilrite proved most effective than others as 97.1 ± 7.21 plantlets survived. All micropropagated plants grew well in natural conditions and showed similar morphology to the mother plant.

  5. Plantago lanceolata growth and Cr uptake after mycorrhizal inoculation in a Cr amended substrate

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    Amaia Nogales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from two chromium contaminated sites, one with 275 mg kg-1 of Cr (zone A and the other with 550 mg kg-1 Cr (zone B, were multiplied and tentatively identified. The effect of both fungal consortia on Plantago lanceolata plant growth in a substrate amended with 200 mg kg-1 of Cr and with 400 mg kg-1 Cr was assessed and compared with the growth of plants inoculated with Glomus intraradices BEG72. Only the plants inoculated with G. intraradices BEG72 and with the fungal consortia obtained from the area with a high Cr contamination (zone B grew in the soil with 400 mg kg-1 of Cr. The consortia of fungi from zone B, decreased the plant’s uptake/translocation of the heavy metal compared with G. intraradices BEG72. These results underscore the differential effect of AM fungi in conferring bioprotection in Cr contaminated soils.

  6. Eggs for breakfast? Analysis of a probable mosasaur biting trace on the Cretaceous echinoid Echinocorys ovata Leske, 1778

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    C. Neumann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil biting traces (praedichnia represent indirect evidence of predation and shed light on fossil predator–prey interactions and fossil food webs. Especially from echinoderm skeletons, biting traces are well known. Here, we describe the oral surface of a large Cretaceous (Maastrichtian holasteroid echinoid Echinocorys ovata Leske, 1778 from Hemmoor (northern Germany which exhibits four circular punctures arranged in a semi-circular arc. Whereas three of the punctures penetrated the skeleton, one puncture only just hit the margin of the echinoid test at the ambitus, leaving a long incision furrow in the skeleton. The punctures were not lethal to the sea urchin as is indicated by progressed skeletal regeneration and closure of the fractures. The overall appearance of the punctures suggests that they were produced during a single mechanical event, most likely by the biting action of the teeth of a large vertebrate animal. We analysed the shape and arrangement of the biting trace and conclude that it was probably produced by a marine reptile possessing a prognath tooth position, most likely by a globidensine mosasauroid. Our finding not only sheds light on mosasaur feeding behaviour and prey selection but also increases the knowledge of the food webs in the chalk sea ecosystem during the uppermost Cretaceous.

  7. Establishing the link between Ostreopsis cf.ovata blooms and human health impacts using ecology and epidemiology

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    Magda Vila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis have been related to sporadic acute respiratory symptoms and general malaise in people exposed to marine aerosols on some Mediterranean beaches. However, the direct link between recurrent Ostreopsis blooms and health problems has not been clearly established. In order to establish and elucidate the connection, we conducted a joint ecology and epidemiology study in an Ostreopsis hot spot. Throughout the bloom, which extended from the end of June until the end of October 2013, 81% of the human cohort that we studied experienced at least one Ostreopsis-related symptom. Paradoxically, the time when the effects were greatest was during a short time window in early August. This corresponded to the transition from the exponential growth to the stationary phase of the bloom. Negligible symptoms were reported from August to mid-October, during the stationary period of the proliferation, when O. cf. ovata maintained high concentrations of epiphytic cells. No clear patterns in the landward wind component were noted during the time when health effects were greatest. Our main hypothesis is that the irritants present in the aerosol are produced during a particular physiological phase of the Ostreopsis cells during the bloom.

  8. Plantago maxima leaves extract inhibits adipogenic action of a high-fat diet in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Gritsenko, Viktor A; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the content of biologically active compounds producing an antioxidant effect in Plantago maxima and their influence on main mechanisms of dietary obesity development. Biologically active compounds in P. maxima were tested using paper chromatography. In in vivo experiment, high-fat-fed Wistar rats obtained P. maxima water extract for 3 months. Morphometric parameters, weight gain, serum adipokines, and cytokines, as well as oxidative stress biomarkers in rats’ tissues were evaluated. Gut microflora was also examined. Plantago maxima leaves used in the experiment contained significant amount of flavonoids, iridoids, phenol carboxylic acids, and tannins and ascorbic acid. Our in vivo experiment data demonstrate that P. maxima water extract prevents excessive adiposity in a diet-induced model. P. maxima consumption reduced serum leptin (twofold), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (sevenfold), tumornecrosis factor-α (25%), and interleukine-6 (26%) levels. P. maxima water extract decreased adipose tissue oxidative stress biomarkers in rats fed a high-fat diet. In addition, increased bacterial growth in the diet-induced obesity model was reversed by the P. maxima extract treatment. Plantago maxima water extract possessed antiadipogenic, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant activity, and normalized gut microflora in a rat model of diet-induced excessive adiposity due to a high content of biologically active compounds.

  9. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

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    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  10. TWO SPECIES OF PROFUSULINELLA (P. ALJUTOVICA AND P. OVATA, EARLY MOSCOVIAN (PENNSYLVANIAN FUSULINES FROM SOUTHERN TURKEY AND SUBDIVISION OF PRIMITIVE GROUPS OF THE FAMILY FUSULINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUMIO KOBAYASHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Early Moscovian (Pennsylvanian fusulines, Profusulinella aljutovica and Profusulinella ovata, from the Hadim area, southern Turkey are described systematically. They are contained in the bedded limestone (algal fusuline grainstone of the Yaricak Formation of the Aladag Unit in the Tauride Block. Morphologic analysis of these and similar species suggests: (1 Aljutovella should be synonymous with Profusulinella; (2 Ovatella, Depratina, Staffellaeformes, Aljutovella (Elongatella, Tikhonovichiella, Skelnevatella, and Priscoidella proposed in 1980’s and 1990’s are also synonymous with Profusulinella; and (3 the families Profusulinellidae and Aljutovellidae are not necessary and Profusulinella is included in the subfamily Fusulinellinae placed under the family Fusulinidae. 

  11. “Sticky invasion” – the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata L. seed mucilage

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    Agnieszka Kreitschitz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucilage envelope of seeds has various functions including the provision of different ways for the dispersal of diaspores. Chemical composition and water content of the mucilage yield particular adhesive and frictional properties in the envelope that also influence the dispersal of seeds. To determine the physical properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage we studied (1 composition, (2 desiccation, (3 adhesion, and (4 friction properties of the mucilage under different hydration conditions. We revealed the presence of cellulose fibrils in the mucilage, which are responsible for a continuous and even distribution of the mucilaginous layer on the seed surface. The measured values of adhesive and frictional properties differed significantly in comparison to the previously studied pectic mucilage of Linum usitatissimum. Also, the water loss from the cellulose mucilage was more rapid. The obtained different values can result from the presence of cellulose fibrils and their interaction with pectins in the mucilage. Because of this feature the mucilage of P. lanceolata may represent a more regularly ordered and stabile system than the pectic mucilage of flax, which lacks cellulose. In spite of the fact that P. lanceolata mucilage revealed different adhesive and frictional properties than the pectic mucilage, it still demonstrates an effective system promoting zoochoric seed dispersal. Cellulose may additionally prevent the mucilage against loss from the seed surface.

  12. Photoprotection by carotenoids of Plantago media photosynthetic apparatus in natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Tamara; Dymova, Olga; Zakhozhiy, Ilya; Dalke, Igor; Tabalenkova, Galina

    2012-01-01

    The study of daily changes in photosynthetic rate, of energy used in photochemical and non-photochemical processes, and of carotenoid composition aimed at evaluating the role of xanthophyll cycle (XC) in protection of hoary plantain plants (Plantago media) in nature. The leaves of sun plants differed from shade plants in terms of CO(2) exchange rate and photosynthetic pigments content. The total pool XC pigments and the conversion state increased from morning to midday in sun plants. An increase in zeaxanthin content occurred concomitantly with the violaxanthin decrease. About 80% violaxanthin was involved in conversion. The maximum of zeaxanthin in XC pigments pool was 60%. The conversion state of XC was twice as lower in shade plants than that in sun plants. The photosynthesis of sun leaves was depressed strongly at midday, but changes of maximum quantum yield of PS2 (F(v)/F(m)) were not apparent at that time. The coefficient qN (non-photochemical quenching) in the sun leaves changed strongly, from 0.3 to 0.9 as irradiance increased. The direct relation between heat dissipation and the conversion state of XC in plantain leaves was revealed. Thus, plantain leaves were found to be resistant to excess solar radiation due to activation of qN mechanisms associated with the XC de-epoxidation.

  13. Pengaruh Kemasaman, Suhu, dan Cahaya terhadap Golovinomyces sordidus Penyebab Penyakit Embun Tepung pada Plantago major

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    Dini Florina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Unidentified powdery mildew was found on leaves of a medicinal plant, Plantago major in Indonesia. The present studies were aimed to identify the causal fungal species of powdery mildew of  P. major and study the effect of acidity, temperature and light on the causal fungus. Identification was conducted by observing morphological characteristics of the fungus scraped from diseased leaves under light microscope. The infection process was observed by staining the inoculated leaves followed observation under light microscope. Conidia were suspended in various pH solutions to examine effect of pH on conidial germination and hyphal length. For testing effects of temperature on conidial germination and hyphal length, conidial suspensions were dropped onto glass slides then incubated in temperature ranges from 20–35 °C, the germinating conidia and length of the existing hypha were counted and measured 24 hours later. With the same method as above the glass slides were incubated in 25 °C either in the dark or exposed under illuminated white light tube (400 Lux for study effect of light on conidial germination. The causal fungus was identified as Golovinomyces sordidus (syn. Erysiphe sordida with its anamorph state as Oidium. The germinating conidia penetrate directly into leaf tissue within 24 hours. The optimal conditions for the conidia to germinate are pH between 4 and 7, temperature between 25 °C and 30 °C, and dark condition.  

  14. TRACE METAL CONTENT (Cu, Zn, Mn AND Fe) IN URTICA DIOICA L. AND PLANTAGO MAJOR L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolak, Elzbieta; Raczuk, Jolanta; Borkowska, Lidia

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in the washed and unwashed leaves and roots of two plant species: Urica dioica L. and Plantago major L., used in herbal medicine. These two herb species occur in the same environmental habitats, yet their morphological structure is different. The soil and plant samples for analyses were collected from an uncontaminated area in Eastern Poland. In each habitat location, the samples were taken from sandy soils with slightly acidic and neutral pH values. The obtained results showed that U. dioica and P. major accumulated similar amounts of trace metals, such as: Cu, Zn and Fe, in leaves, despite the differences in the morphological structure of their overground parts. The content of Mn in leaves U. dioica was about twice as much as in P. major. Also, no differences in the metal content were observed between washed and unwashed leaves of both species. However, in the same habitat conditions, a significantly higher content of Cu, Zn and Mn was found in the roots of P. major than U. dioica. The content of Fe in the roots was similar in both species. P. major and U. dioica may be a valuable source of microelements, if they are obtained from unpolluted habitats.

  15. B chromosome in Plantago lagopus Linnaeus, 1753 shows preferential transmission and accumulation through unusual processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Manoj K.; Kour, Gurmeet; Kaul, Sanjana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Plantago lagopus is a diploid (2n = 2x =12) weed belonging to family Plantaginaceae. We reported a novel B chromosome in this species composed of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA and other repetitive elements. In the present work, presence of B chromosome(s) was confirmed through FISH on root tip and pollen mother cells. Several experiments were done to determine the transmission of B chromosome through male and female sex tracks. Progenies derived from the reciprocal crosses between plants with (1B) and without (0B) B chromosomes were studied. The frequency of B chromosome bearing plants was significantly higher than expected, in the progeny of 1B female × 0B male. Thus, the B chromosome seems to have preferential transmission through the female sex track, which may be due to meiotic drive. One of the most intriguing aspects of the present study was the recovery of plants having more chromosomes than the standard complement of 12 chromosomes. Such plants were isolated from the progenies of B chromosome carrying plants. The origin of these plants can be explained on the basis of a two step process; formation of unreduced gametes in 1B plants and fusion of unreduced gametes with the normal gametes or other unreduced gametes. Several molecular techniques were used which unequivocally confirmed similar genetic constitution of 1B (parent) and plants with higher number of chromosomes. PMID:28919970

  16. Biotransformation of flubendazole and fenbendazole and their effects in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlíková, Lucie Raisová; Skálová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora; Syslová, Eliška; Vokřál, Ivan; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2018-01-01

    Although veterinary anthelmintics represent an important source of environmental pollution, the fate of anthelmintics and their effects in plants has not yet been studied sufficiently. The aim of our work was to identify metabolic pathways of the two benzimidazole anthelmintics fenbendazole (FBZ) and flubendazole (FLU) in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.). Plants cultivated as in vitro regenerants were used for this purpose. The effects of anthelmintics and their biotransformation products on plant oxidative stress parameters were also studied. The obtained results showed that the enzymatic system of the ribwort plantain was able to uptake FLU and FBZ, translocate them in leaves and transform them into several metabolites, particularly glycosides. Overall, 12 FLU and 22 FBZ metabolites were identified in the root, leaf base and leaf top of the plant. Concerning the effects of FLU and FBZ, both anthelmintics in the ribwort plantain cells caused significant increase of proline concentration (up to twice), a well-known stress marker, and significant decrease of superoxide dismutase activity (by 50%). In addition, the activities of four other antioxidant enzymes were significantly changed after either FLU or FBZ exposition. This could indicate a certain risk of oxidative damage in plants influenced by anthelmintics, particularly when they are under other stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioassay-guided supercritical fluid extraction of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting substances in Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenholm, A; Göransson, U; Bohlin, L

    2013-02-01

    Selective extraction of plant materials is advantageous for obtaining extracts enriched with desired constituents, thereby reducing the need for subsequent chromatography purification. Such compounds include three cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory substances in Plantago major L. targeted in this investigation: α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) (18:3 ω-3) and the triterpenic acids ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. To investigate the scope for tuning the selectivity of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using bioassay guidance, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane as solvent as a reference technique, to optimise yields of these substances. Extraction parameters were varied to optimise extracts' COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratios. The crude extracts were purified initially using a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure and the target compounds were identified with GC-MS, LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS² using GC-FID for quantification. α-LNA was preferentially extracted in dynamic mode using unmodified carbon dioxide at 40°C and 172 bar, at a 0.04% (w/w) yield with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.5. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were dynamically extracted at 0.25% and 0.06% yields, respectively, with no traces of (α-LNA) and a COX-2/COX-1-inhibitory effect ratio of 1.1 using 10% (v/v) ethanol as polar modifier at 75°C and 483 bar. The Soxhlet extracts had ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and αLNA yields up to 1.36%, 0.34% and 0.15%, respectively, with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.2. The target substances can be extracted selectively by bioassay guided optimisation of SFE conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Physiological characteristics of Plantago major under SO2 exposure as affected by foliar iron spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohasseli, Vahid; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Shariatmadari, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is considered as a main air pollutant in industrialized areas that can damage vegetation. In the present study, we investigated how exposure to SO 2 and foliar application of iron (Fe) would affect certain physiological characteristics of Plantago major. The plant seedlings exposed or unexposed to SO 2 (3900 μg m -3 ) were non-supplemented or supplemented with Fe (3 g L -1 ) as foliar spray. Plants were exposed to SO 2 for 6 weeks in 100 × 70 × 70 cm chambers. Fumigation of plants with SO 2 was performed for 3 h daily for 3 days per week (alternate day). Lower leaf Fe concentration in the plants exposed to SO 2 at no added Fe treatment was accompanied with incidence of chlorosis symptoms and reduced chlorophyll concentration. No visible chlorotic symptoms were observed on the SO 2 -exposed plants supplied with Fe that accumulated higher Fe in their leaves. Both at with and without added Fe treatments, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity was higher in the plants fumigated with SO 2 in comparison with those non-fumigated with SO 2 . Foliar application of Fe was also effective in increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT and POD. Exposure to SO 2 led to reduced cellulose but enhanced lignin content of plant leaf cell wall. The results obtained showed that foliar application of Fe was effective in reducing the effects of exposure to SO 2 on cell wall composition. In contrast to SO 2 , application of Fe increased cellulose while decreased lignin content of the leaf cell wall. This might be due to reduced oxidative stress induced by SO 2 in plants supplied with Fe compared with those unsupplied with Fe.

  19. In-Vitro Efficacy of Plantago lanceolata L. Extracts on Trichomonas Vaginalis

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    Mohammad Matini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common non viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Plantago lanceolata extracts on Trichomonas vaginalis. Materials and Methods: In this study, after collection and drying of P. lanceolata, n-hexanic, ethyl acetate, methanol and hydroalcoholic extracts, they were prepared by maceration. Five clinical T. vaginalis isoleates subjected to extract suscebtibility testing, in comparison of metronidazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum lethal concentration (MLC tests were carried out in duplicate and repeated two times for each T. vaginalis isolate. Results: The results showed that the extracts of P. lanceolata had potent antitrichomonal activity. The most antitrichomonal activity was related to ethyl acetate extract with the least MIC of 500 µg/ml and mean of 1525 µg/ml, after 48 hrs incubation. And also, the lowest antitrichomonal activity was related to hydroalcoholic and methanolic extract with the least and mean MIC of 2000 µg/ml. The results of MLC and MIC tests were identical and this finding confirmed the trichomonacidal activity of the extracts. The drug suscebtibility testing showed that the T. vaginalis isoleates were susceptibale to metronidazole ranging from 3.1 to 6.2 µg/ml with a mean and standard deviation of 4.2 ± 1.5 µg/ml. Conclusion: This study showed that the extracts of P. lanceolata hav e a considerable activity on T. vaginalis parasite. Hence, further studies are needed to clear more details of antimicrobial properties of P. lanceolata compounds.

  20. The female advantage in natural populations of gynodioecious Plantago coronopus: seed quantity vs. offspring quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Sascha; Sebrechts, Thomas; Vanderstraeten, Sylvette; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2017-12-01

    In gynodioecious plant species, females can only persist when they have a reproductive advantage in comparison with hermaphrodites. However, several studies have shown that females do not necessarily produce more seeds than hermaphrodites, since seed production can be affected by population characteristics, such as female frequency or population size. The aim of this study was to quantify the female advantage across a large number of natural populations, examine its relationship with population sex ratio and size, and to assess the role of competition on the magnitude of the female advantage. We sampled 27 populations of Plantago coronopus (nuclear-cytoplasmic gynodioecy) along the Belgian and Dutch coast. In each population, we estimated population sex ratio and size, and assessed seed production per flower and seed production per plant. Subsequently, germination, growth, and competition experiments were performed in the greenhouse to determine the female advantage regarding offspring quality. Females produced fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites (FA = 0.90), and seed production was negatively related to female frequency. Since both sex morphs were equally affected by pollen availability, the female advantage was not related to population sex ratio. On the other hand, offspring of females showed higher germination and growth rates, resulting in higher competitive abilities when seeds of a female and a hermaphrodite were grown together. Overall, these results indicate that differences in competitive abilities between the offspring of females and hermaphrodites may have contributed to the maintenance of females in relatively high frequencies in populations of this short-lived gynodioecious plant species.

  1. High incidence of teratologic changes in Plantago Lanceolata L. seedlings of the fifth post-disaster reproduction within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolova, N.P.; Popova, O.N.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    It was for the first time that of the fifth year of monitoring of Plantago Lanceolata L., reproduced within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl NPP disaster, the authors discovered incidence of seedlings with various morphological abnormalities. It is suggested that the damages observed are related to the cumulative effect of radiation

  2. Análise fitoquímica e avaliação da susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de diferentes tipos de extratos de Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Oliveira VENTURA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantago major L. é uma planta oriunda do continente europeu, utilizada para fins medicinais. Apresenta atividade hematopoiética, atividade no tratamento de leucemias, carcinomas e contra vírus, bem como atividade antiparasitária, diurética, hepatoprotetora e anti-inflamatória. O presente trabalho avaliou o perfil fitoquímico dos extratos aquoso, etanólico e hidroalcoólico das folhas de Plantago major L., como também a ação antimicrobiana frente a bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. Os resultados obtidos na análise fitoquímica demonstraram a presença de taninos, saponinas, alcaloides, flavonoides, terpenos e glicosídeos. A análise antimicrobiana mostrou que os extratos etanólico e hidroalcoólico de Plantago major L. possuem ação antimicrobiana frente ao Staphylococcus aureus, por meio da atuação de metabólitos bioativos com ação antimicrobiana, tais como taninos e flavonoides, o que torna Plantago major L. um possível candidato à obtenção de um novo fitoterápico.

  3. The Effects of Plantago major on the Activation of the Neutrophil Respiratory Burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Reina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantago major is a common plant that grows worldwide in temperate zones and is found in fields, lawns, and on the roadsides. Its leaves and seeds have been used in almost all parts of the world for centuries as a wound healer, analgesic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, as well as an immune system modulator, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agent. Baicalein and aucubin are the two most biologically active components of P. major, and both have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Neutrophils have a pivotal role in wound healing and inflammation. Their principal mechanism of host defense is the killing of pathogens via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro effects of P. major extract, baicalein, and aucubin on human neutrophil respiratory burst activity. The cytotoxicity of the agents was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. A standard luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL assay was utilized to monitor the respiratory burst of the neutrophils after exposure to P. major extract and its two active ingredients, baicalein and aucubin. Three replicates per group were included in each of the three runs of the experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. P. major and baicalein were not toxic to the cells at any of the concentrations examined. Aucubin was toxic to the cells only at the highest concentration tested (P=0.0081. However, genistein was toxic to the cells at all of the concentrations examined except for the lowest concentration of 16.9 μg/ml (P=0.985. P. major (−0.10±0.11, aucubin (0.06±0.16, baicalein (−0.10±0.11, and genistein (−0.18±0.07 all significantly (P<0.0001 inhibited ROS production from the neutrophils. P. major extract inhibited neutrophil ROS production, as did aucubin and baicalein. Therefore, these components should be investigated further with relation to

  4. Evaluation of the effect of various drying techniques on the composition of the psychoactive phenylpropylamino alkaloids of khat (Catha edulis Forsk chewing leaves

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    S. Chigome

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated that by freezing or drying under different conditions, cathinone could be detected in the khat (Catha edulis Forsk samples that have been harvested for more than four months. Freeze drying or freezing in the refrigerator (-20 oC yielded more than 73% of cathinone. Air drying, sun drying or oven drying at 60 oC resulted in a cathinone composition of 57%, 42% and 36%, respectively. The study confirmed that, freshly harvested tender leaves of khat contained exclusively of cathinone but upon sun drying, part of it decomposes to cathine and norephedrine leaving cathinone as a major component. Thus it is wrong to assume that sun drying the leaves can result complete conversion of cathinone to cathine and norephedrine. Furthermore, the results of the study confirmed that it was possible to preserve khat samples for longer periods after freeze drying or deep freezing without significant loss of cathinone.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i3.3

  5. Bioefficacy of ecbolin A and ecbolin B isolated from Ecbolium viride (Forsk. Alston on dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Appadurai Daniel Reegan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecbolin A and ecbolin B were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Ecbolium viride (Forsk. Alston root and evaluated for larvicidal and growth disturbance activities against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae. For larvicidal activity, the third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 ppm for each compound. Among the two compounds screened, ecbolin B recorded highest larvicidal activity with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.70 and 1.42 ppm, respectively. In control, the larval behaviour was normal. The active compound ecbolin B was tested for growth disruption activity at sub lethal concentrations viz., 0.5, 1.0 ppm and observed for malformation like larval gut elongation, larval longevity, intermediates, malformed adults, failed adult emergence and compared with methoprene. The results showed significant level of larva–pupa intermediates, pupa–adult intermediates, malformed adult emergence and less adult formation against A. aegypti. The histopathological results revealed a severe damage on the midgut epithelial columnar cells (CC and cuboidal cells (CU in ecbolin B treated larvae of A. aegypti. Similarly peritrophic membrane (pM was also observed to be damaged in the treated larvae. The present results suggest that, ecbolin B could be used as a larvicidal agent against dengue vector A. aegypti.

  6. Structural Features of Alkaline Extracted Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. and Its Rheological Properties

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    Jun-Yi Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. has many bioactivities, but few papers report on the structural and rheological characteristics of the alkaline extract. The alkaline extracted polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named herein as alkaline extracted polysaccharide from seeds of P. asiatica L. (PLAP. Its structural and rheological properties were characterized by monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS and rheometry. PLAP, as an acidic arabinoxylan, was mainly composed of 1,2,4-linked Xylp and 1,3,4-linked Xylp residues. PLAP solution showed pseudoplastic behavior, and weak gelling properties at high concentration. Sodium and especially calcium ions played a significant role in increasing the apparent viscosity and gel strength.

  7. Effects of fertilization and competition on plant biomass allocation and internal resources: Does Plantago lanceolata follow the rules of economic theory?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Patáčová, E.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 49-64 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GA526/07/0808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : allocation * Plantago lanceolata * plasticity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  8. Utilização de parâmetros morfoanatômicos na análise da fitotoxidez do flúor em folhas de Magnolia ovata (A. St.-Hil. Spreng. (Magnoliaceae Use of morphoanatomic parameters in the analysis of fluoride toxicity in leaves of Magnolia ovata (A. St.-Hil. Spreng. (Magnoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar o grau de suscetibilidade e caracterizar as injúrias na morfoanatomia de folhas de Magnolia ovata, mudas foram submetidas à chuva simulada com flúor (10 µg.ml-1 de F- por 10 dias consecutivos. No tratamento controle, utilizou-se apenas água deionizada. Folhas foram coletadas para quantificação de flúor na matéria seca e fixadas para análises em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. As folhas apicais apresentaram pequena porcentagem de necroses intervenais e marginais em uma ou ambas as faces e maior acúmulo de flúor, em relação ao controle, quando comparadas com as folhas da porção basal. A análise micromorfológica das folhas aparentemente sadias indicou alterações nas paredes periclinais externas da epiderme e formação de concavidades, além de cristas estomáticas danificadas, erosão de ceras epicuticulares e presença de esporos e hifas de fungos. A caracterização estrutural das injúrias evidenciou retração de protoplasto das células epidérmicas, colapso das células do mesofilo e da epiderme e acúmulo de compostos fenólicos em células das regiões necrosadas. As alterações micromorfológicas das folhas ocorreram antes que sintomas fossem observados, o que comprova a importância da micromorfologia na diagnose precoce da injúria. As plantas de M. ovata apresentaram poucos sintomas visuais em resposta ao flúor, entretanto as alterações morfoanatômicas indicam que essa espécie possui potencial para ser utilizada como bioindicadora.This work aimed to evaluate the degree of susceptibility and characterize the injuries caused by fluoride in the morphoanatomy of Magnolia ovata. Seedlings were subjected to fluoride simulated rain (10 µg.ml-1 of F- during 10 consecutive days. In the control treatment, only deionized water was used. Leaves were collected for quantification of fluoride in the dry weight and fixed for light and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The

  9. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

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    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  10. Evaluation of Plantago major L. seed mucilage as a rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Sagheb-Doust, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Plantago major L. (family Plantaginaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. HPMC K4M and tragacanth were used as standards for comparison. The hardness, tensile strength, and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased, indicating good compactibility of mucilage powders. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from P. major mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug/mucilage ratio. Formulations containing P. major mucilage were found to exhibit a release rate comparable to HPMC containing matrices at a lower drug/polymer ratio (drug/HPMC 2:1). These results demonstrated that P. major mucilage is a better release retardant compared to tragacanth at an equivalent content. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in F3 (containing 1:2 drug/mucilage) the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The DSC and FT-IR studies showed that no formation of complex between the drug and mucilage or changes in crystallinity of the drug had occurred.

  11. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  12. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-07-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  13. Evaluation of drug uptake and deactivation in plant: Fate of albendazole in ribwort plantain (Plantago laceolata) cells and regenerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlíková Raisová, Lucie; Podlipná, Radka; Szotáková, Barbora; Syslová, Eliška; Skálová, Lenka

    2017-07-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole anthelmintic widely used especially in veterinary medicine. Along with other drugs, anthelmintics have become one of a new class of micro-pollutants that disturb the environment but the information about their fate in plants remains limited. The present study was designed to test the uptake and biotransformation of ABZ in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lancelota), a common meadow plant, which can come into contact with this anthelmintic through the excrements of treated animals in pastures. Two model systems were used and compared: cell suspensions and whole plant regenerants. In addition, time-dependent changes in occurrence of ABZ and its metabolites in roots, basal parts of the leaves and tops of the leaves were followed up. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) led to the identification of 18 metabolites of ABZ formed in the ribwort. In both model systems, the same types of ABZ biotransformation reactions were found, but the spectrum and abundance of the ABZ metabolites detected in cell suspensions and regenerants differed significantly. Cell suspensions seem to be suitable only for qualitative estimations of drug biotransformation reactions while regenerants were shown to represent an adequate model for the qualitative as well as quantitative evaluation of drug uptake and metabolism in plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The rate of aucubin, a secondary metabolite in Plantago lanceolata and potential nitrification inhibitor, needed to reduce ruminant urine patch nitrous oxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, C. A.; Clough, T.; Cameron, K.; Di, H.; Edwards, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) losses derived from grazing ruminant livestock urine patches account for 40% of global N2O emissions. It has been shown that Plantago lanceolata, an herb species used in grazed pastures, contains an active secondary metabolite (aucubin) that has the potential to be excreted by grazing ruminants and inhibit nitrification in the urine patch, a key step in soil N2O production. However, the urinary excretion rate of aucubin needed to significantly reduce urine patch N2O emissions remains unknown. Aucubin was dissolved in bovine urine at three rates (47, 243, and 486 kg ha-1), based on rates used in Dietz et al. (2013) and the calculated highest potential aucubin application rate, from Gardiner et al. (2017). A control, along with a urine treatment and the three aucubin treatments (all urine applied at 700 kg N ha-1), was applied to 20 g soil and incubated in the laboratory for 35 d. Soils were monitored for surface pH, inorganic N concentration (NH4+/NO3-), and gas (N2O and CO2) fluxes. This experiment is currently underway and the results will be presented at the conference. Dietz M, Machill S, Hoffmann H, Schmidtke K 2013. Inhibitory effects of Plantago lanceolata L. on soil N mineralization. Plant and Soil 368: 445-458. Gardiner CA, Clough TJ, Cameron KC, Di HJ, Edwards GR, de Klein CAM 2017. The potential inhibitory effects of Plantago lanceolata and its active secondary metabolite aucubin on soil nitrification and nitrous oxide emissions under ruminant urine patch conditions. Manuscript submitted for publication.

  15. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  16. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, David J.; Moran, Bridget M.; Otte, Marinus L.

    2005-01-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. - Some wetland angiosperms are tolerant to high concentrations of metals, regardless of conditions in the plants' natural habitat

  17. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, David J. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: davematt00@hotmail.com; Moran, Bridget M. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Otte, Marinus L. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. - Some wetland angiosperms are tolerant to high concentrations of metals, regardless of conditions in the plants' natural habitat.

  18. Avaliação do potencial citotóxico e genotóxico de Plantago major L. em sistemas teste in vivo Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Plantago major L. in test systems in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Luz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A infusão das folhas de Plantago major (Plantaginaceae, conhecida como tansagem ou transagem, é usada como antibiótica, antiinflamatória, anti-séptica, anti-térmica, na prevenção de tumores e no tratamento de neoplasias. Este efeito é atribuído aos flavonóides encontrados em diversas espécies do gênero Plantago. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os potenciais efeitos, tóxico e mutagênico, do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de folhas de P. major, por meio dos testes in vivo de Allium cepa e do micronúcleo. Para o ensaio biológico vegetal, meristemas de raízes de A. cepa foram usados para o preparo de lâminas através da técnica de esmagamento. No ensaio do micronúcleo foram analisadas lâminas de células de medula óssea de roedores. As análises estatísticas seguiram o teste de Tukey (pThe infusion of leaves of Plantago major (Plantaginaceae, known as "tansagem" or "transagem", is used as antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, anti-thermal in the prevention of tumors and in the treatment of neoplasms. This effect is attributed to the flavonoids found in diverse species of the genus Plantago. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential toxic and mutagenic effects of the crude hydroalcoholic extract from P. major leaves by means of in vivo tests with Allium cepa and micronucleus. For the plant biological assay, meristems of A. cepa roots were used for the preparation of slides by adopting the crushing technique. In the micronucleus assay, slides of bone marrow cells from rodents were analyzed. Statistical analyses were carried out according to Tukey's test (ρ<0.05 for the Allium cepa assay and Scott-Knott test (ρ<0.05 for the micronucleus assay. Results of the A. cepa test demonstrate that there was a significant reduction in the germination index at all tested concentrations. P. major causes alteration in the cell cycle by inhibiting the division of cells, as indicated by the mitotic index. The indexes of

  19. Photosynthetic adaptation to light intensity in plants native to shaded and exposed habitats. [Rumex acetosa; Geum rivale; Lamium galeobdolon; Plantago lanceolata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkman, O; Holmgren, P

    1966-01-01

    Photosynthetic adaptation to light intensity has been studied in clones of populations from shaded and exposed habitats of Rumex acetosa and Geum rivale. Clones of the shade species Lamium galeobdolon and the sun species Plantago lanceolata were also included for comparison. The plants were grown under controlled conditions at a high and a low light intensity. The capacity of photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake at low as well as at saturating light intensities was determined on single attached leaves. As was previously demonstrated in Solidago virgaurea, clones of populations native to shaded and to exposed environments show differences in the photosynthetic response to light intensity during growth. The data provide evidence that populations of the same species native to habitats with contrasting light intensities differ in their photosynthetic properties in an adaptive manner in a similar mode as sun and shade species. 1 reference, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  20. Assessment of reproductive capacity of estuarine plants Butomus umbellatus L. and Alisma plantago-aquatica L. from radioactively contaminated flood plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneva, A.V.; Majstrenko, T.A.; Rachkova, N.G.; Belykh, E.S.; Zainullin, V.G. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of RAS, Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    It is known that the vegetation, along with the climatic conditions and soil type, is one of the key components of terrestrial ecosystems. They are also first to respond to the substrate contamination with radionuclides, metals and organic substances. Biological effects observed in natural plant populations are associated with both presence of mobile compounds of pollutants in abiotic components of the ecosystem and their role in the metabolism of the plant. The goal of the study was to assess the impact of water and sediment contamination with artificial radionuclides and toxic non-radioactive compounds, on the reproductive capacity of estuarial plants using seed germination. Contaminated sites are located in flood plain of the Techa River (Chelabinsk region, Russia) between Muslumovo and Brodokalmak settlements. Radioactive contamination of the territory resulted from increased specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and sediments due to the accidents on the Mayak Production Association. Reference sites were chosen in the flood plains of Brusianka and Sysert' rivers (Sverdlovsk region, Russia). Reference sites are located out of the Eastern Ural Radioactive Trace. Seeds of Butomus umbellatus L. and Alisma plantago-aquatica L., which are common estuarine plant communities in this area, were collected. Specific activities of dose-forming radionuclides in the Techa river water vary from 120 up to 200 mBq/l for {sup 137}Cs and from 26 up to 45 mBq/l for {sup 90}Sr; and in sediments 720-10150 Bq/kg and 600-1500 Bq/kg for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr correspondingly. Specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and sediments of both reference rivers do not exceed global fallout levels. B. umbellatus seeds germination was low for plant populations of both reference and contaminated sites. However, a significant (p<0.01) difference was found - the value was higher for reference populations (17.4 ±3.5 %) as compared with the ones from

  1. Accumulation of Pb, Cd and Zn from contaminated soil to various plants and evaluation of soil remediation with indicator plant (Plantago lanceolata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupan, M.; Lobnik, F.; Kadunc, V. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Agronomy Dept., Center for Soil and Environmental Science; Hudnik, V. [National Institute of Chemistry Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-12-31

    The accumulation of cadmium, lead, and zinc by different major cultivated plants from soils contaminated with heavy metals, is presented. The vegetables, crops, and the indicator plant narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) were used in a field experiment including 3 areas with different levels of pollution. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were observed in edible green parts of vegetables (endive, spinach, lettuce) and roots (carrot, red beet, radish). The heavy metal content in leguminous plants (pods and seeds) was very low compared to high soil concentrations. Wheat and maize showed lower concentrations in grains and kernels than in green parts. Lime and vermiculite were used for reduction of Cd availability to plants in polluted soil. The Cd concentration decreased in the narrow leaf plantain in the presence of both lime and vermiculite in acid soil. In the higher-pH soil the Cd availability to spinach was greatly reduced in the presence of vermiculite

  2. Mugwort (Artemisia L., nettle (Urtica L. and plantain (Plantago L. pollen in the atmosphere of Wrocław in the years 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Malkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes the results of pollen season analysis of the selected plants (mugwort, nettle, plantain regarded as the most allergenic in Wrocław in 2002-2004. The studies were carried out using volumetric method (Burkard trap. The results show strong variation in pollen seasons. The average duration of the pollen season of Artemisia was 82 days. The highest pollen concentration of mugwort was recorded in 2004 (156 grains × m-3. The start of nettle pollen seasons varied in studied period on average by 24 days, on average, but its end was almost the same. The pollen season of Urtica was the earliest in 2004. It started on 5th May and lasted 136 days. The annual pollen total of Plantago was relatively low, on average 0.2-0.4% in annual pollen totals.

  3. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  4. Camptothecin and khat (Catha edulis Forsk. induced distinct cell death phenotypes involving modulation of c-FLIPL, Mcl-1, procaspase-8 and mitochondrial function in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines

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    Fossan Kjell O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An organic extract of the recreational herb khat (Catha edulis Forsk. triggers cell death in various leukemia cell lines in vitro. The chemotherapeutics camptothecin, a plant alkaloid topoisomerase I inhibitor, was tested side-by-side with khat in a panel of acute myeloid leukemia cell lines to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Results Khat had a profound effect on MOLM-13 cells inducing mitochondrial damage, chromatin margination and morphological features of autophagy. The effects of khat on mitochondrial ultrastructure in MOLM-13 correlated with strongly impaired routine respiration, an effect neither found in the khat-resistant MV-4-11 cells nor in camptothecin treated cells. Enforced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein provided protection against camptothecin-induced cell death and partly against khat toxicity. Khat-induced cell death in MOLM-13 cells included reduced levels of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein, while both khat and camptothecin induced c-FLIPL cleavage and procaspase-8 activation. Conclusion Khat activated a distinct cell death pathway in sensitive leukemic cells as compared to camptothecin, involving mitochondrial damage and morphological features of autophagy. This suggests that khat should be further explored in the search for novel experimental therapeutics.

  5. Contribution à l'étude de l'activité biologique d'extraits de feuilles de Cestrum parqui L'Herit.(Solanaceae sur le criquet pélerin Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk

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    Barbouche N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to the study of the biological activity of Cestrum parqui L'Herit. extracts against the locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk. The leaves of Cestrum parqui L'Herit. (Solanaceae, a common ornamental shrub in North Africa showed strong insecticide activity against the locust Schistocerca gregaria. The first part of this paper deals with a phytochemical survey of C. parqui. The second one reports on the toxicity of methanolic extracts (EB of leaves and fractions thereof. The mortality in treated insects (at the 5th instar injected with aqueous solutions of EB or fractions reached 100/ within a period of 2 to 4 days. The bioassays undertaken with two fractions F37 (recovered from EB by solid phase extraction and ESB (resulting from the diethylether precipitation from EB methanolic solution exhibited a similar toxicity. The n-hexane extracts obtained after F37 and ESB acidic hydrolysis showed the same TLC patterns. The toxicity of C. parqui is related to the occurrence of saponins.

  6. Efficacy of Plantago major, chlorhexidine 0.12% and sodium bicarbonate 5% solution in the treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients with solid tumour: A feasibility randomised triple-blind phase III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Jaime, Sandra; Martínez, Cristina; Ferro-García, Tarsila; Giner-Boya, Pilar; Icart-Isern, Teresa; Estrada-Masllorens, Joan M; Fernández-Ortega, Paz

    2018-02-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Plantago major extract versus chlorhexidine 0.12% versus sodium bicarbonate 5% in the symptomatic treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in solid tumour cancer patients. Multicentre randomised controlled trial estimated sample of 45 solid tumour patients with grade II-III mucositis. The participants were randomised to one of three treatments, consisting of sodium bicarbonate 5% aqueous solution together with: an additional dose of sodium bicarbonate 5% aqueous solution, Plantago major extract, or chlorhexidine 0.12%. The primary outcomes were severity of mucositis, pain intensity, oral intake capacity and quality of life. The independent variable was treatment group, and confounders included sociodemographic data, neutrophil count, chemotherapy drug and dose received. Of the 50 patients enrolled, 68% (n = 34) achieved grade 0 mucositis (none), with those using the double sodium bicarbonate rinse healing in five days on average (95% CI 3.9, 6.5) versus seven days (95% CI 5.3, 9,0) for the chlorhexidine group and seven days (95% CI 5.3, 8.5) for the Plantago major group. The pain experienced by the participants lessened over the 14 days of treatment, but differences in pain intensity between the three groups did not show statistical significance (p = 0.762). Healing time was shorter with the double sodium bicarbonate solution compared to the other two rinses, but the differences were not significant. Our results suggest it may be time to reconsider the use of Plantago major extract in the management of oral mucositis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicidad sub-crónica y prueba de irritabilidad ocular del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Plantago major (Plantaginaceae

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    Mildred García González

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 20 ratones albinos de la cepa NGP, machos, distribuidos en dos grupos de diez ratones cada uno con peso promedio de 20.15 ± 0.059 g los animales que recibieron el tratamiento (2000 mg/kg y de 21.62 ± 0.03 g los animales que recibieron el control (0.5 ml de agua desionizada. Todos los tratamientos fueron administrados diariamente durante 5 días consecutivos por semana durante un período total de 40 días. No se presentó mortalidad con la dosis administrada por vía oral, sin embargo los animales presentaron disminución del reflejo de enderezamiento, de la actividad prensil anterior y posterior y de la reacción de alarma. Para la prueba de irritabilidad ocular se utilizaron 5 conejos de la cepa New Zeland, machos con peso promedio de 3.640 Kg. Se inoculó el ojo derecho con 200 µl del preparado acuoso (100 mg/ml y el ojo izquierdo se instiló con 200 µl de agua destilada. La inoculación se realizó diariamente por un periodo de 5 días consecutivos, no se observó ninguna manifestación de irritabilidad ocular en el ojo de los conejosFor the sub-chronic toxicity an aqueous preparation of Plantago major leaves was tested in 20 male NGP mice, with an average weight of 20.15 g and separated in two groups of ten individuals each. The dose used was 2000 mg/kg and the control group received 0.5 ml of distilled water. The extract administration was done daily during five days at week for a total period of 40 days. Signs of sub-chronic toxicity were observed in the days two and 12 of treatment. No significant change in corporal weight was observed. The ocular irritation was tested in five New Zeland male rabbits, with an average weight of 3.640 kg. The dose used was a 200 µl the preparation (100 mg/ml of Plantago major leaves, instill into the right eye and the control was used the left eye instill 200 µl of distilled water. The administration was done daily during five days. The extract shows no significant irritation during the

  8. Huerta del Rey: Edafic Characterization of a Historic Area of the Mercury Mining and Study of the Transfer of Mercury from the Soil to Plantago Major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Manero, L.; Sierra, M. J.; Rodriguez-Alonso, M.; Millan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this scientific-technical report is to carry out a characterization of study plot called Huerta del Rey in the mercury (Hg) mining district of Almaden. For this goal, an edaphic characterization has been performed and the Hg behavior in the soil study has been evaluated. Then, total Hg concentration and easily available Hg for plants have been determined and the absorption and distribution of Hg in Plantago major L (typical specie from the study area) have been studied. The results showed that the total Hg concentrations in the soil ranged from 530 ± 32 mg kg - 1 to 4300 ± 339 mg kg - 1 even to 12378 ± 1051mg kg - 1. It is in accordance with the normal values measured in a Hg mining area. Otherwise, the percentage of soluble Hg in soil with respect to the total Hg concentration is low ( - 1 that could mean a potential risk of pollution of groundwater by leaching process. Finally a brief description about different technologies for decreasing Hg concentration in the study soil, including phytoremediation, has been performed. (Author) 96 refs.

  9. Investigating genetic diversity and habitat dynamics in Plantago brutia (Plantaginaceae), implications for the management of narrow endemics in Mediterranean mountain pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, A; Bernardo, L; Gargano, D; Palermo, A M; Peruzzi, L; Musacchio, A

    2009-11-01

    Many factors have contributed to the richness of narrow endemics in the Mediterranean, including long-lasting human impact on pristine landscapes. The abandonment of traditional land-use practices is causing forest recovery throughout the Mediterranean mountains, by increasing reduction and fragmentation of open habitats. We investigated the population genetic structure and habitat dynamics of Plantago brutia Ten., a narrow endemic in mountain pastures of S Italy. Some plants were cultivated in the botanical garden to explore the species' breeding system. Genetic diversity was evaluated based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphisms in 150 individuals from most of known stands. Recent dynamics in the species habitat were checked over a 14-year period. Flower phenology, stigma receptivity and experimental pollinations revealed protogyny and self-incompatibility. With the exception of very small and isolated populations, high genetic diversity was found at the species and population level. amova revealed weak differentiation among populations, and the Mantel test suggested absence of isolation-by-distance. Multivariate analysis of population and genetic data distinguished the populations based on genetic richness, size and isolation. Landscape analyses confirmed recent reduction and isolation of potentially suitable habitats. Low selfing, recent isolation and probable seed exchange may have preserved P. brutia populations from higher loss of genetic diversity. Nonetheless, data related to very small populations suggest that this species may suffer further fragmentation and isolation. To preserve most of the species' genetic richness, future management efforts should consider the large and isolated populations recognised in our analyses.

  10. A novel strategy for target profiling analysis of bioactive phenylethanoid glycosides in Plantago medicinal plants using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Xiong, Aizhen; Geng, Fang; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2012-06-01

    Phenylethanoid glycosides are a group of phenolic compounds with diverse biological activities such as hypotensive, diuretic, and hypoglycemic effects. In this study, a target profiling analysis approach using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) was established on the basis of parent ion scanning for m/z 161, the characteristic product ion for phenylethanoid glycosides. It was successfully employed to discriminate the chemical composition of phenylethanoid glycosides between Plantaginis Herba and Plantaginis Semen, two medicinal parts of Plantago plants, which are widely used as herbal medicine in China. Totally, 34 phenylethanoid glycosides were characterized and tentatively identified by their retention times, MS, and tandem quadrupole MS (MS/MS) data. Combined with chemometrics analysis of principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis, eight of them, especially acteoside and plantamajoside, were picked out and contributed to the chemical distinction between Plantaginis Herba and Plantaginis Semen, which might be responsible for the differences in diuretic and hypotensive effects between the two medicinal parts. This new approach for target profiling provides not only a novel idea for specific analysis of active chemical constituents in the same type, but also a promising and reference method for quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Growth, respiration and nutrient acquisition by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and its host plant Plantago lanceolata in cooled soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, T; Hodge, A; Fitter, A H

    2012-04-01

    Although plant phosphate uptake is reduced by low soil temperature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are responsible for P uptake in many plants. We investigated growth and carbon allocation of the AM fungus Glomus mosseae and a host plant (Plantago lanceolata) under reduced soil temperature. Plants were grown in compartmented microcosm units to determine the impact on both fungus and roots of a constant 2.7 °C reduction in soil temperature for 16 d. C allocation was measured using two (13)CO(2) pulse labels. Although root growth was reduced by cooling, AM colonization, growth and respiration of the extraradical mycelium (ERM) and allocation of assimilated (13)C to the ERM were all unaffected; the frequency of arbuscules increased. In contrast, root respiration and (13)C content and plant P and Zn content were all reduced by cooling. Cooling had less effect on N and K, and none on Ca and Mg content. The AM fungus G. mosseae was more able to sustain activity in cooled soil than were the roots of P. lanceolata, and so enhanced plant P content under a realistic degree of soil cooling that reduced plant growth. AM fungi may therefore be an effective means to promote plant nutrition under low soil temperatures. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Effects of medicinal herbs "Plantago asiatica", "Houttuynia cordata" and "Mentha haplocalyx" on non-specific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Yin-Yu; Ueng, Pien-Sheng; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of orally administered Plantago asiatica, Houttuynia cordata, and Mentha haplocalyx on the growth and nonspecific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The nonspecific immune parameters assessed were weight gain, feed conversion ratio, superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic rate, phagocytic index, lysozyme activity, serum albumin and globulin, and albumin:globulin (A/G) ratio. The growth experiment indicated that 6-week dietary treatments did not significantly affect on the growth of cobia. Nonspecific immune responses showed that O 2 - production, SOD and lysozyme activity, and phagocytosis were significantly increased after the oral administration of P. asiatica and H. cordata, and the serum albumin:globulin ratio (A/G) gradually decreased. In this study, treatment of the Mentha haplocalyx on the cobia didn't present with the inducing of the phagocytosis ability compared with the treatment of P. asiatica and H. cordata. We suggest that oral administration of the 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg of the P. asiatica and H. cordata is exactly inducing the phagocytosis, ROS production, lysozyme activity and SOD production in the cobia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-Tuberculosis Activity of Extract Ethyl Acetate Kenikir Leaves (Cosmos caudatus H.B.K and Sendok Leaves (Plantago Major L. By In Vitro Test

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    Tatang Irianti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing therapy problem including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB has made it important to discover a new anti-TB drug candidate. The aim of this study was to acknowledge the activity of ethyl acetate extracts of kenikir (Cosmos caudatus H.B.K and sendok (Plantago major L. leaves against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis H37Rv. This research used Middlebrook (MB 7H9 media and observed the growth of M. tuberculosis using Lowenstein Jensen (LJ media. The concentration of extracts were 0.25 mg/ml, 0.50 mg/ml, and 1.00 mg/ml. The result of this study showed that ethyl acetate extracts exhibited anti-TB activity in 1000 µg/ml of both extracts. The active compound group was detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and the separation of compounds was shown by retardation factor (Rf and the color of the spots. Based on TLC chromatograms, it is known that there are types of compounds, such as ortho-dihydroxy compounds, phenolic compounds, and compound leads to terpenoids for both extracts.

  14. Descripción anatómica, propiedades medicinales y uso potencial de Plantago major (llantén mayor

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    Bárbara Blanco

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se colectó material vegetal de Plantago major en zonas de Heredia y San José con el objetivo de analizar preliminarmente la anatomía, los compuestos medicinales y el potencial de comercialización de P. major. Además, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre las características taxonómicas, ciclo de vida, propiedades medicinales de P. major. Además, se comparó su hábito de crecimiento con otras especies relacionadas. Empleando el microscopio de luz en cortes transversales de pecíolo se pudo visualizar una epidermis de tipo uniestratificada y los haces vasculares. A nivel de cortes paradermales en la hoja se observaron estomas diacíticos así como la presencia de tricomas unicelulares. Por medio de análisis de cromatografía de capa fina, se comprobó la presencia de los glucósidos aucubina y catalpol.

  15. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos de Melissa officinalis L. e Mentha x villosa L. na germinação e vigor de sementes de Plantago major L. Allelopathic effect of extracts of Melissa officinallis L. and Mentha x villosa L. on seed germination and vigor of Plantago major L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.G. Bonfim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos de hortelã e melissa na germinação e vigor de sementes de tanchagem. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no mês de abril de 2011. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100 % do extrato aquoso de hortelã e melissa e quatro repetições. Os extratos foram preparados utilizando a parte aérea das plantas, na proporção de 100g de planta para 1 L de água destilada. Foram utilizadas 50 sementes de tanchagem em cada caixa gerbox, previamente umedecido com os extratos aquosos (correspondentes aos tratamentos, estas foram levadas para germinar em câmara de germinação, em temperatura de 20°C, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz e 8 horas escuro, por 14 dias. Durante esse tempo foram feitas às contagens diárias das sementes germinadas para calcular o índice de velocidade de germinação e ao final dos 14 dias foi calculada a porcentagem de germinação. Sementes de tanchagem não submetidas aos extratos aquosos de melissa e hortelã apresentaram-se mais vigorosas quando comparado com as concentrações, evidenciando o potencial alelopático de melissa e hortelã sobre a sua qualidade fisiológica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of Melissa officinallis and Mentha x villosa for the germination and vigor of Plantago major seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Science Department, Federal University of Viçosa, in April 2011. The design was a completely randomized design with five treatments (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the aqueous extract of Mentha x villosa and Melissa Officinallis and four replications. The extracts were prepared utulizando the shoots of plants at the rate of 100g of plant to 1 L of distilled water. We used 50 Plantago major seeds in each box incubator and these were subsequently placed in a

  16. Photosynthesis and biochemical responses to elevated O3 in Plantago major and Sonchus oleraceus growing in a lowland habitat of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Benying; Zhou, Meihua; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xiujie; Li, Yonggeng; Su, Hua; Xiang, Bao

    2017-03-01

    A field experiment was carried out to compare the responses to ozone (O 3 ) in two common herbaceous plant species, Plantago major L. and Sonchus oleraceus L., by building open-top growth chambers in situ to simulate O 3 stress (+O 3 , 85±5ppb, 9hr/day for 30days) in a lowland habitat in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Responses to O 3 of gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment content, antioxidant capability, soluble protein content, membrane lipid peroxidation and dark respiration (R d ) were analyzed. Results showed that elevated O 3 exposure significantly reduced the light-saturated net photosynthesis (P Nsat ), stomatal conductance (g s ) and transpiration rate (E) in both species. Although non-significant interactive effect between species and O 3 on P Nsat was analyzed, the reduction in P Nsat in S. oleraceus might be due primarily to the higher fraction of close PSII reaction centers and impaired activities of plant mesophyll cells as evidences by decreased maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after dark adapted state (F v /F m ) and unchanged intercellular CO 2 concentration (C i ). Besides, biochemical analysis showed that S. oleraceus had lower antioxidant ability compared to P. major. As a result, S. oleraceus was damaged to the larger extent in terms of lipid peroxidation and visible O 3 injury, indicating that S. oleraceus was more sensitive to O 3 than P. major. Our results indicated that wild herbaceous plant species growing in a lowland habitat in sandy grassland were sensitive to O 3 stress and S. oleraceus can be considered as one of the bio-indicators for high O 3 concentration in semi-arid grassland of northern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC 50 , FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Huerta del Rey: Edafic Characterization of a Historic Area of the Mercury Mining and Study of the Transfer of Mercury from the Soil to Plantago Major; Huerta del Rey: Caracterizacion Edafica de una Zona Historica de la Mineria del Mercurio y Estudio de la Transferencia del Mercurio a Plantago Major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C; Manero, L; Sierra, M J; Rodriguez-Alonso, M; Millan, R

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this scientific-technical report is to carry out a characterization of study plot called Huerta del Rey in the mercury (Hg) mining district of Almaden. For this goal, an edaphic characterization has been performed and the Hg behavior in the soil study has been evaluated. Then, total Hg concentration and easily available Hg for plants have been determined and the absorption and distribution of Hg in Plantago major L (typical specie from the study area) have been studied. The results showed that the total Hg concentrations in the soil ranged from 530 {+-} 32 mg kg{sup -}1 to 4300 {+-} 339 mg kg{sup -}1 even to 12378 {+-} 1051mg kg{sup -}1. It is in accordance with the normal values measured in a Hg mining area. Otherwise, the percentage of soluble Hg in soil with respect to the total Hg concentration is low (< 0.3 %) although if concentration instead of percentage is taking into account, the soluble Hg reached values up to 1.33 {+-}0.14 mg kg{sup -}1 that could mean a potential risk of pollution of groundwater by leaching process. Finally a brief description about different technologies for decreasing Hg concentration in the study soil, including phytoremediation, has been performed. (Author) 96 refs.

  19. Plant-plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2: an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-06-01

    The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant-plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may benefit more from [CO2] elevation than others. The relative contribution of plastic (within the plant's lifetime) and genotypic (over several generations) responses to elevated [CO2] on plant performance was investigated and how these patterns are modified by plant-plant interactions was analysed. Plantago asiatica seeds originating from natural CO2 springs and from ambient [CO2] sites were grown in mono stands of each one of the two origins as well as mixtures of both origins. In total, 1944 plants were grown in [CO2]-controlled walk-in climate rooms, under a [CO2] of 270, 450 and 750 ppm. A model was used for upscaling from leaf to whole-plant photosynthesis and for quantifying the influence of plastic and genotypic responses. It was shown that changes in canopy photosynthesis, specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance in response to changes in growth [CO2] were mainly determined by plastic and not by genotypic responses. We further found that plants originating from high [CO2] habitats performed better in terms of whole-plant photosynthesis, biomass and leaf area, than those from ambient [CO2] habitats at elevated [CO2] only when both genotypes competed. Similarly, plants from ambient [CO2] habitats performed better at low [CO2], also only when both genotypes competed. No difference in performance was found in mono stands. The results indicate that natural selection under increasing [CO2] will be mainly driven by competitive interactions. This supports the notion that plant-plant interactions have an important influence on future vegetation functioning and species distribution. Furthermore, plant performance was mainly driven by plastic and not by genotypic responses to changes in

  20. Plant–plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2: an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Marloes P.; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U.; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant–plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may benefit more from [CO2] elevation than others. The relative contribution of plastic (within the plant’s lifetime) and genotypic (over several generations) responses to elevated [CO2] on plant performance was investigated and how these patterns are modified by plant–plant interactions was analysed. Methods Plantago asiatica seeds originating from natural CO2 springs and from ambient [CO2] sites were grown in mono stands of each one of the two origins as well as mixtures of both origins. In total, 1944 plants were grown in [CO2]-controlled walk-in climate rooms, under a [CO2] of 270, 450 and 750 ppm. A model was used for upscaling from leaf to whole-plant photosynthesis and for quantifying the influence of plastic and genotypic responses. Key Results It was shown that changes in canopy photosynthesis, specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance in response to changes in growth [CO2] were mainly determined by plastic and not by genotypic responses. We further found that plants originating from high [CO2] habitats performed better in terms of whole-plant photosynthesis, biomass and leaf area, than those from ambient [CO2] habitats at elevated [CO2] only when both genotypes competed. Similarly, plants from ambient [CO2] habitats performed better at low [CO2], also only when both genotypes competed. No difference in performance was found in mono stands. Conclusion The results indicate that natural selection under increasing [CO2] will be mainly driven by competitive interactions. This supports the notion that plant–plant interactions have an important influence on future vegetation functioning and species distribution. Furthermore, plant performance was mainly

  1. The effects of mineral nitrogen limitation, competition, arbuscular mycorrhiza, and their respective interactions, on morphological and chemical plant traits of Plantago lanceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankoke, Helga; Höpfner, Ingo; Matuszak, Agnieszka; Beyschlag, Wolfram; Müller, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that suffer from a multitude of challenges such as abiotic stress or the interactions with competitors, antagonists and symbionts, which influence their performance as well as their eco-physiological and biochemical responses in complex ways. In particular, the combination of different stressors and their impact on plant biomass production and the plant's ability to metabolically adjust to these challenges are less well understood. To study the effects of mineral nitrogen (N) availability, interspecific competition and the association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on biomass production, biomass allocation patterns (root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area) and metabolic responses, we chose the model organism Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Plants were grown in a full factorial experiment. Biomass production and its allocation patterns were assessed at harvest, and the influence of the different treatments and their interactions on the plant metabolome were analysed using a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Limited supply of mineral N caused the most pronounced changes with respect to plant biomass and biomass allocation patterns, and altered the concentrations of more than one third of the polar plant metabolome. Competition also impaired plant biomass production, yet affected the plant metabolome to a much lesser extent than limited mineral N supply. The interaction of competition and limited mineral N supply often caused additive changes on several traits. The association with AMF did not enhance biomass production, but altered biomass allocation patterns such as the root/shoot ratio and the specific leaf area. Interestingly, we did not find significant changes in the plant metabolome caused by AMF. A targeted analysis revealed that only limited mineral N supply reduced the concentrations of one of the main target defence

  2. Structure and Novel Biomineralization of Mnemiopsis Leidyi and Beroe Ovata Lithocyte Concretions (lcs) as Revealed by Polarization Lc-Pol Scanning Electron Microscopy (sem) and Electron Dispersion Spectroscopy (eds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ctenophore statocysts have multicellular statoliths borne on the tips of balancer compound cilia (Curr. Biol. 24:R951; Biol. Bull. 227:7). Lithocyte concretions (LCs) were prepared by three methods: 1) statocysts were microsurgically collected and washed w/0.2 µm filtered sea water (FSW), followed by 5 diH2O rinses in a deep well dish (DWD); 2) statocysts were treated with 50% Chlorox/FSW to release the statolith/LCs; 3) statocysts were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde or 1% paraformaldehyde-2.5% glutaraldehyde in 10 mM pH 7.8 HEPES-buffered FSW, and statoliths and LCs microsurgically released. LCs for SEM were glued to stubs, C-stabilized and Pt-coated to a thickness of 8 nm and viewed at 10 kVe. LCs for EDS were applied to carbon tape on aluminum stubs and analyzed by EDS at 3 and 10 kVe. SEM and EDS were performed on a Zeiss Supra 40 VP equipped with an EDS detector controlled by INCA software (Oxford). Results were compared against compounds of known elemental composition. LCs examined by LC-POL revealed no birefringence (BR). LCs viewed by SEM were either a lumpy mass (M. leidyi) or smooth ellipsoid (B. ovata). LCs on carbon tape typically shattered and released overlapping, layered, multi-oriented crystals. EDS of LC crystals from both species collected by all methods lacked Ca, Mn and Mg. Predominant elements were Na, K, O and S in ratios suggesting that LCs contain mixed sodium/potassium sulfates. The unique composition of ctenophore statoliths may have been critical for the 600+ million years persistence of these organisms (J. exp. Biol. 218:592) including survival through multiple global extinctions and related ocean acidifications. Thanks to L. Kerr, R. Oldenbourg, S. Mehta, A. Verma, M. Tran, A. Kuzirian and S. Tamm for stimulating discussion and technical advice. EDS stds compounds were curtesy of L. Amaral-Zettler, J. Huber and K. Gribble (Bay Paul Center/MBL). Funding: AU PIL Program, NSF-EPS-1158862.

  3. The Effect of Isabgol (Plantago psyllium Mucilage and Shiraz Thyme Essential Oils on Microbial Load and Improving Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fresh-cut produce graduated to retail during the1990s, especially for lettuce, cabbage, carrots and other similar vegetables. The high microbial loads of these products after harvest can be substantially reduced through a cleaning in flowing chlorinated water and adistribution under ensured controlledrefrigeration. Therefore, a good number of convenient ready-to-use greens were launched to the market in the past decade. Nowadays, theuse of this technology to achieve similar results in fruit products is one of the most challengingtargets for processors. However, there is anumber of issues that still need to beovercomebeforefresh-cut fruit commodities can be sparked off to anoutstanding position in the segment of lightly-treatedrefrigerated foods. The importance of freshly cut products increases day by day. Tissue and cell rupture leads to a decrease in the shelf life of these products. On the other hand, these products due to increased enzyme activity, respiration rate and microbiological considerations that affect the health of these productsrequires highly attention.To increase the shelf life of the products and prevent undesirable changes in cut slices of fruit or vegetables a coating on the surface of these products has been suggested. Mucilages and essential oils of herbs are natural compounds that can be used to create such covers. The advantages of these coatings are their bactericidal effect, maintenanceof pleasant taste and other physical and chemical characteristics of the product and even decrease of environmental pollution. In this research, the effect of natural compounds such as Zataria multiflora essential oil (EO and Plantagopsyllium mucilage on storage life and microbial load of fresh cut carrot was studied. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted in two separate experiments on fresh-cut carrot: In the first experiment, the effect of different concentrations of Plantago psyllium mucilage (0,100, 200, and

  4. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating optimal conditions for germination of medicinal plants seed is essential for their cultivation. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of two medicinal species, Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovata collected in 2009 from Tehran Province, an experiment with a factorial ...

  5. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Potential of a High Fiber Diet in Healthy versus Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Díez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate potential hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of Plantago ovata husk included in the diet, in healthy and diabetic rabbits. We also examined the effects of this fiber in other biochemical parameters. Two groups of 18 rabbits were used. The first group was fed with standard chow and the second with chow supplemented with Plantago ovata husk (3.5 mg/kg/day. On day 14 diabetes mellitus was induced by the intravenous administration of alloxan (80 mg/kg. After an oral glucose load (3 g, glucose, insulin, and other biochemical parameters were determined on day 14 (healthy rabbits and on day 28 (diabetic rabbits. In healthy rabbits, fiber did not modify glucose or insulin levels but decreased significantly total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, and glycosylated hemoglobin. In diabetic rabbits, fiber was more beneficial in mild diabetics than in severe diabetics with significant decreases in glucose levels and increases in insulin concentrations. In these animals fiber caused an important reduction in cholesterol, indicating a beneficial effect of Plantago ovata husk in diabetic rabbits. Although further studies in patients are necessary, we think that Plantago ovata husk offers interesting perspectives to be administered to patients with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 2. Molecular markers unravel intraspecific and interspecific genetic variability in Plantago ovata and some of its wild allies. Shivanjali Kotwal Manoj K. Dhar Balbir Kour Kuldeep Raj Sanjana Kaul. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 2 August 2013 pp 293-298 ...

  7. Observations on antifertility and abortifacient herbal drugs | Shah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plur., Buddleja asiatica Lour, Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh, Justacia adhatod L., Ricinus communis L., Zingiber officinale Roscol., Daucus crota L., Momordica charantia L., Plumbago zeylanica L., Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn., Plantago ovata Forssk, Tanacetum vulgare and Arctium lappa L. The most widely used ...

  8. Réduction des doses efficaces d'insecticides contre les larves de criquet pèlerin (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål, 1775 : Orthoptera, Acrididae par utilisation de quantités réduites de phénylacétonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocar Bal, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of effective doses of insecticide against desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål, 1775: Orthoptera, Acrididae nymphs using phenylacetonitrile. In order to reduce the amount of insecticides used during a locust upsurge, phenylacetonitrile (PAN was tested in 2007 and 2008, in the Niamey area (Niger. PAN was used, on the one hand, in topical applications on third stage nymphs (L3 of the desert locust, alone or in combination with reduced amounts of various insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin, malathion, chlorpyrifos-ethyl. In addition, experiments were carried out in semi-natural conditions, in field enclosures, and also on third stage nymphs of the desert locust. Insecticides were each applied at the recommended dose and at half of that dose with the addition or not of phenylacetonitrile. All topical applications of insecticides led to the total mortality of the nymphs within 1 to 24 h; the use of PAN alone caused a mortality rate of no higher than 18% within 120 h. In the field enclosures, mortality rates for the desert locust nymphs were the same both with the recommended doses and with half of the dose with the addition of 10 ml of PAN·ha-1. Results indicate that the addition of small quantities of phenylacetonitrile could make it possible to decrease by half the quantities of insecticides used in the control of desert locust nymphs, while preserving the same effectiveness.

  9. Effects of N source concentration and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio on phenylethanoid glycoside pattern in tissue cultures of Plantago lanceolata L.: a metabolomics driven full-factorial experiment with LC-ESI-MS(3.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Sándor; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Szűcs, Zsolt; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor

    2014-10-01

    Tissue cultures of a medicinal plant, Plantago lanceolata L. were screened for phenylethanoid glycosides (PGs) and other natural products (NPs) with LC-ESI-MS(3). The effects of N source concentration and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio were evaluated in a full-factorial (FF) experiment. N concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 60mM, and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratios of 0, 0.11, 0.20 and 0.33 (ratio of NH4(+) in total N source) were tested. Several peaks could be identified as PGs, of which, 16 could be putatively identified from the MS/MS/MS spectra. N source concentration and NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio had significant effects on the metabolome, their effects on individual PGs were different despite these metabolites were of the same biosynthethic class. Chief PGs were plantamajoside and acteoside (verbascoside), their highest concentrations were 3.54±0.83% and 1.30±0.40% of dry weight, on media 10(0.33) and 40(0.33), respectively. NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio and N source concentration effects were examined on a set of 89 NPs. For most NPs, high increases in abundance were observed compared to Murashige-Skoog medium. Abundances of 42 and 10 NPs were significantly influenced by the N source concentration and the NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio, respectively. Optimal media for production of different NP clusters were 10(0), 10(0.11) and 40(0.33). Interaction was observed between NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio and N source concentration for many NPs. It was shown in simulated experiments, that one-factor at a time (OFAT) experimental designs lead to sub-optimal media compositions for production of many NPs, and alternative experimental designs (e.g. FF) should be preferred when optimizing medium N source for optimal yield of NPs. If using OFAT, the N source concentration is to be optimized first, followed by NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio, as this reduces the likeliness of suboptimal yield results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plantago psyllium-secondary anaphylaxis. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Collado-Chagoya

    2018-04-01

    Discussion: Most cases of anaphylaxis have been reported with psyllium ingestion, since, through that route, antigenic burden is higher. It should be noted that, even when exposure in the described patient was only by inhalation, manifestations were life-threatening.

  11. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Restuccia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L., pea (Pisum sativum L., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control of this species. The information obtained especially concerns seed production, seed viability, seed longevity and dormancy, seed conditioning and germination, parasitism phases, the effects of parasite attacks on host plants and the means of control.

  12. Starch deposits in Themeda triandra Forsk | WRE | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Themeda triandra tillers were examined microscopically at one to two-weekly intervals to determine where starch was deposited. Large numbers of starch grains were always present but the position of these deposits varied according to growth activity and flowering time of the plant. Starch deposits in the roots were usually ...

  13. Evapotranspiration studies on Themeda triandra Forsk. under field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic non-floating lysimeters were used to determine the evapotranspiration (Et) of a Themeda triandra grass cover under field conditions. The highest evapotranspiration losses were recorded during December and January when the plants were in the reproductive phase, provided the soil moisture was not limiting.

  14. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Restuccia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L., pea (Pisum sativum L., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control of this species. The information obtained especially concerns seed production, seed viability, seed longevity and dormancy, seed conditioning and germination, parasitism phases, the effects of parasite attacks on host plants and the means of control.

  15. Creep Properties of Walikukun (Schouthenia ovata Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Awaludin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an evaluation of creep constants of Walikukun (Schoutheniaovata timber beams when rheological model of four solid elements, which is obtained byassembling Kelvin and Maxwell bodies in parallel configuration, was adopted. Creep behaviorobtained by this method was further discussed and compared with creep behavior developedusing phenomenological model of the previous study. Creep data of previous study was deformationmeasurement of Walikukun beams having cross-section of 15 mm by 20 mm with a clearspan of 550 mm loaded for three weeks period under two different room conditions: with andwithout Air Conditioner. Creep behavior given by both four solid elements model and phenomenological(in this case are power functions had good agreement during the period of creepmeasurement, but they give different prediction of creep factor beyond this period. The powerfunction of phenomenological model could give a reasonable creep prediction, while for the foursolid elements model a necessary modification is required to adjust its long-term creep behavior.

  16. Multiple CMS-restorer gene polymorphism in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van J.M.M.; Hundscheid, M.P.J.; Ivanovic, S.; Koelewijn, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The mode of inheritance of the male sterility trait is crucial for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of the sexual system gynodioecy, which is the co-occurrence of female and hermaphrodite plants in natural populations. Both cytoplasmic (CMS) and nuclear (restorer) genes are known to be

  17. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in the perennial Plantago lanceolata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latzel, Vít; Janeček, Štěpán; Doležal, Jiří; Klimešová, Jitka; Bossdorf, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2014), s. 41-46 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP505/10/P173 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : maternal effect * storage * evolution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.444, year: 2014

  18. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smekens, Marret; Van Tienderen, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions.

  19. In Vitro antibacterial activity of rumex nervosus, plantago lanceolata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determined by agar dilution assay based on the zone of bacterial growth inhibition. ... trees such as eucalyptus and acacia. The soil type is dominantly sandy loam .... However, a range of pharmacological properties has been found in.

  20. Importance of consumer perceptions in fiber-enriched food products. A case study with sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrega, Amparo; Quiles, Amparo; Morell, Pere; Fiszman, Susana; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-02-22

    Sponge cakes enriched with fiber from different sources (maltodextrin, wheat, apple, blackcurrant and a mixture of potato and Plantago ovata) were studied. Profiling of the different cakes was carried out, first using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question then evaluating the consumers' likings using a hedonic scale. The consumers also completed a nutrition knowledge (NK) questionnaire that was used to classify them according to their NK level. The instrumental texture of the cakes was evaluated by the texture profile analysis (TPA) method. The consumers' response was not linked to their NK level, but it mainly depended on the importance they gave to the cakes' distinctive sensory characteristics. In general, liking increased for samples considered easy to chew, spongy, soft and sweet, and decreased for samples perceived as tasteless, dry or having a fruity or an odd flavor. The sponge cakes containing maltodextrin or wheat fiber, which mostly resembled a conventional cake, were the most liked in general. Those containing the other three fibers were rejected by part of the consumers, for being tasteless in the case of potato plus Plantago ovata fiber, for being dry and doughy in the case of apple fiber and for having an odd flavor in the case of blackcurrant fiber.

  1. Systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine treatments in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, J; Wulfert, H; Lauche, R; Klose, P; Cramer, H; Dobos, G J; Korzenik, J

    2015-01-01

    We performed a systematic review for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [CAM] as defined by the National Institute of Health in Inflammatory Bowel Disease [IBD], ie Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements, and manipulative therapies. A computerized search of databases [Cochrane Library, Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Scopus] through March 2014 was performed. We screened the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews in English language for CAM in IBD, CD and UC. Randomized controlled trials [RCT] and controlled trials [CT] were referred and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A total of: 26 RCT and 3 CT for herbal medicine, eg aloe-vera gel, andrographis paniculata, artemisia absinthium, barley foodstuff, boswellia serrata, cannabis, curcumin, evening primrose oil, Myrrhinil intest®, plantago ovata, silymarin, sophora, tormentil, wheatgrass-juice and wormwood; 1 RCT for trichuris suis ovata; 7 RCT for mind/body interventions such as lifestyle modification, hypnotherapy, relaxation training and mindfulness; and 2 RCT in acupuncture; were found. Risk of bias was quite heterogeneous. Best evidence was found for herbal therapy, ie plantago ovata and curcumin in UC maintenance therapy, wormwood in CD, mind/body therapy and self-intervention in UC, and acupuncture in UC and CD. Complementary and alternative therapies might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases; however, given the low number of trials and the heterogeneous methodological quality of trials, further in-depth research is necessary. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Hvilke emner mener du som praktiserende læge, at der skal forskes i?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgod, Jutta

    1997-01-01

    Knapt 100 alment praktiserende læger angav i en enquete, at man efterlyste forskning på en lang række felter. De tre hyppigst nævnte var "lægernes udbrændthed og manglende trivsel", "rygproblemer" og "psykosomatiske problemstillinger". Derudover udtryktes også stor interesse for "læge-patient for......Knapt 100 alment praktiserende læger angav i en enquete, at man efterlyste forskning på en lang række felter. De tre hyppigst nævnte var "lægernes udbrændthed og manglende trivsel", "rygproblemer" og "psykosomatiske problemstillinger". Derudover udtryktes også stor interesse for "læge......-patient forholdet", "definition af lægernes arbejdsområder", "rollen som forebygger og sundhedsfremmer" og "samarbejdsforhold". Resultaterne blev fremlagt på det 3. almenmedicinske forskningsseminar i Køge i 1996. Udgivelsesdato: 1997/7/15...

  3. Micropropagation of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. - a tree of arid horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, N S; Shekhawat, N S

    1995-12-01

    A method for micropropagation of mature trees of Capparis decidua was developed. Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal explants on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium+0.1mgl(-1) NAA+5.0mgl(-1)BAP+additives (50mgl(-1) ascorbic acid and25 mgl(-1) each of adenine sulphate, L-arginine and citric acid) at 28 ± 2°C, 12 h/dphotoperiod and 35-40 μmol m(-2)s(-1) photon flux density. The shoots were multiplied by (i) subculture of nodal shoot segments onto MS +0.1 mgl(--1) IAA+1.0mgl(-1) BAPH+additives, and (ii) repeated transfer of original explant onto MS+ 0.1mgl(-1) IAA+mg l(-1) BAP+additives, at intervals of 3 weeks. Sixty to 70% of the shoots rooted when pulse treated with 100 mg l(-1) IBA in half strength MS liquid medium for 4h, and then transferred onto hormone-free half-strength agar-gelled MS basal saltmedium. Incubation in dark at 33 ± 2°C for 6d favoured root induction. In vitro hardened plants were transferred to pots.

  4. Continuous improvement in managing R&D: A TQM approach at SkogForsk, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Larsson

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement is an imperative process for any organization) even in the R&D field) who wants to stay competitive and alive. Our experience is that the most important ingredients in this process are engagement and participation by everybody) shared visions) and a holistic view of the organization. Structural changes and quick fixes cannot accomplish this....

  5. Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk. Edgew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms.

  6. Phenology of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. in a Disjunctly-zoned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avicennia marina in Gazi Bay, Kenya, displays a disjunct zonation pattern across the intertidal zone with a seaward and a landward A. marina fringe. Earlier studies revealed significant differences in its vegetation structure, physiognomy, root system and leaf morphology, which can be attributed to salinity and tidal ...

  7. Research2015. A basis for prioritizing strategic research; FORSK2015. Et prioriteringsgrundlag for strategisk forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-05-15

    This catalogue is based on a comprehensive mapping of the strategic research needs created by societal and business development. The mapping resulted in more than 300 contributions to strategic research themes from citizens, organizations, universities, businesses and scientists. The contributions have formed the basis for an extensive analysis and dialogue process, which has resulted in 21 proposals for strategic research themes divided among 6 general areas. Each theme consists of: 1) a significant challenge for society, 2) a research need created by the challenge, 3) Danish prerequisites for addressing the research need, and 4) long term perspectives for a potential strategic research effort in the area. (BA)

  8. Philometra ovata (Nematoda: Philometroidea): a potential sentinel species of heavy metal accumulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruš, Vlastimil; Jarkovský, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2007), s. 929-933 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MZe(CZ) QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * heavy metal accumulation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  9. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-04-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  10. Vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-02-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  11. vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  12. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  14. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.)Vierh.: biological indication potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, G.R.; Pulkownik, A.; Burchett, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Mangrove roots may serve as a sensitive bio-indicator for metal pollution in estuarine systems. - The accumulative partitioning of the heavy metals Cu, Pb and Zn in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, were studied under field conditions. Copper and Pb were accumulated in root tissue to levels higher than surrounding sediment levels. Zinc was accumulated to levels reflecting sediment concentrations. Strong linear relationships existed for all metals in sediments with metals in root tissue. Accumulation of Cu in leaf tissue followed a linear relationship at lower sediment concentrations, with an exclusion or saturation mechanism at higher sediment concentrations. Lead showed little mobility to leaf tissue. Zn showed restricted accumulation in leaf tissue, which correlated with sediment concentrations. Decreases in sediment pH were found to increase Zn accumulation to root tissue. Increasing concentrations of Pb and Zn in sediments resulted in a greater accumulation of Pb to both root and leaf tissue. A. marina roots may be employed as a biological indicator of environmental exposure of Cu, Pb and Zn and leaves for Zn, with temporal monitoring

  15. The genus Litophyton Forskål, 1775 (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Nephtheidae) in the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Litophyton species of the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean are revised, which includes species previously belonging to the genus Nephthea, which is synonymized with Litophyton. A neotype for both Litophyton arboreum, the type species of Litophyton, and Nephthea chabrolii, the type species of Nephthea, are designated. The new species Litophyton curvum sp. n. is described and depicted, and a key to all Litophyton species is provided. Of the 26 species previously described from the western Indian Ocean and Red Sea, 13 species are considered valid and 13 have been synonymized or placed in other genera. PMID:27103869

  16. [Biology and ecology of the terrestrial hermit crab coenobita scaevola forskål of the Red Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, Renate

    1968-06-01

    The terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita scaevola is very common on the coast of the Red Sea. The species depends on the sea for its source of food (wrack-fauna), source of drinking-water and water for moistening gills and abdomen. Only in the supra-litoral zone they find gastropod shells to protect their abdomen against insolation, desiccation and mechanical damage. Coenobita scaevola stays in one place for a long time if good living conditions are available. The time of activity of the juveniles differs from one place to another. Some are diurnal, others are nocturnal. There is no evident relation to the ecological factors. Most of the adults are nocturnal. No Coenobita could be collected in Barber traps. The avoidance of such traps by arthropodes has never been observed before. Coenobita scaevola can live for quite a long time under water of sufficient temperature and salinity. The osmotic regulation of the land-hermit crab differs from that of other shore animals. Coenobita can tolerate a wide range of blood concentrations (25-70‰). It controls the concentration of its blood by selecting water of the appropriate salinity.The static problems of Coenobita are solved by regular movement of the legs and special articulation of the legs.As Coenobita scaevola is a phylogenetically young land animal it carries many inhabitants of marine and terrestrial origin.

  17. A revision of the genera Salpa Forskål, 1775, Pegea Savigny, 1816, and Ritteriella Metcalf, 1919 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1974-01-01

    Based on material from all oceans the Salp genera Salpa, Pegea and Ritteriella are revised. Particularly the study of the number of muscle fibres has shown that Salpa maxima var. tuberculata, the subspecies Pegea confoederala bicaudata and the generally synonymized species Ritteriella retracta are

  18. Adaptation of the autotrophic acetogen Sporomusa ovata to methanol accelerates the conversion of CO2 to organic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Höglund, Daniel; Koza, Anna

    2015-01-01

    , and biochemical studies revealed that the molecular mechanisms responsible for the novel characteristics of the adapted strain were associated with the methanol oxidation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of acetogens along with biosynthetic pathways, cell wall components, and protein chaperones. The results...... to grow quicker autotrophically with methanol, a toxic C1 compound, as the sole substrate. Better growth on different concentrations of methanol and with H2-CO2 indicated the adapted strain had a more efficient autotrophic metabolism and a higher tolerance to solvent. The growth rate on methanol...

  19. Biotransformation of flubendazole and fenbendazole and their effects in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlíková Raisová, L.; Skálová, L.; Szotáková, B.; Syslová, Eliška; Vokřál, I.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 147, JAN (2018), s. 681-687 ISSN 0147-6513 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05325S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Drug metabolism * Drug uptake * Fenbendazole * Flubendazole * Phytotoxicity * uhplc-ms/ms Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2016

  20. Effect of Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn extract on chronic prostatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2017; 16 (5): 1091-1095 ... After treatment, prostate index (PI) and prostate-specific antigen. (PSA) of all the rats were ..... pathway in human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

  1. Plantago lagopus B Chromosome Is Enriched in 5S rDNA-Derived Satellite DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumke, K.; Macas, Jiří; Fuchs, J.; Altschmied, L.; Kour, J.; Dhar, M.K.; Houben, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 1 (2016), s. 68-73 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Polymorhpic A chromosome segment * Satellite repeat * Supernumerary chromosome * 5S rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.354, year: 2016

  2. Fitness costs of chemical defense in Plantago lanceolata L.: effects of nutrient and competition stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Fitness costs of defense are often invoked to explain the maintenance of genetic variation in levels of chemical defense compounds in natural plant populations. We investigated fitness costs of iridoid glycosides (IGs), terpenoid compounds that strongly deter generalist insect herbivores, in ribwort

  3. Effect of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake in Plantago maritima L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, Michael; Posthumus, F.S; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of plants to NaCl salinity reduces the rate of nitrate net uptake by the roots. Previous studies showed that this effect was due to a reduced nitrate influx, which could only partially be explained by a lower demand of nitrate for growth. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that

  4. Effects of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex on offspring fitness in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.; Damme, van J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    1 Male steriles (MS) must have a fitness advantage relative to hermaphrodites (H) if they are to be maintained in gynodioecious species. We report experiments in which we disentangle the relative contributions of seed size, inbreeding and maternal sex to the fitness advantage of male steriles in

  5. Association of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ with yellowing and phyllody of Plantago lanceolata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Šimková, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2009), s. 469-472 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : symptoms * electron microscopy * molecular identification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  6. Effects of different levels of inbreeding on progeny fitness in Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Inbreeding depression (delta) is a major selective force favoring outcrossing in flowering plants. Many phenotypic and genetic models of the evolution of selfing conclude that complete outcrossing should evolve whenever inbreeding depression is greater than one-half, otherwise selfing should evolve.

  7. Effects of different levels of inbreeding on progeny fitness in Plantago coronopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn, HP

    Inbreeding depression (delta) is a major selective force favoring outcrossing in flowering plants. Many phenotypic and genetic models of the evolution of selfing conclude that complete outcrossing should evolve whenever inbreeding depression is greater than one-half, otherwise selfing should evolve.

  8. Anti-hyperuricemic effect of Plantago depressa Willd extract in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... hyperuricemia in mice as previously reported. [11,12]. Sixty rats were ... Dunnett's t-test. .... Anzai N, Endou H. Urate transporters: an evolving field.

  9. Effects of Increased UVB radiation on plant-insect interactions: Plantago lanceolata and Junonia coenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloud, E.S.; Berenbaum, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of P. lanceolata were collected from a local population and 4 replicates of 42 maternal families were grown for 90 days in the greenhouse with at two levels of supplemental UVB radiation (6 and 12 kJ day -1 BE 300 ). Higher UVB radiation increased leaf hair density and decreased plant size during early growth; family identity affected these also. Leaves excised from a subset of the plants were fed to ultimate instar larvae of J. coenia and assayed for iridoids. Increased UVB radiation did not alter the iridoid content of the leaves or the growth of the larvae. In a separate experiment, P. lanceolata growing under the two levels of UVB irradiation were infested with neonate larvae and larval growth was monitored. Larval growth was not markedly altered by enhanced UVB. These findings suggest that increased UVB is unlikely to alter the suitability of P. lanceolata as a host for J. coenia

  10. Maternal effects alter progeny's response to disturbance and nutrients in two Plantago species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latzel, Vít; Klimešová, Jitka; Hájek, Tomáš; Gómez, S.; Šmilauer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 11 (2010), s. 1700-1710 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GPP505/10/P173 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Maternal effec * disturbance * nutrients Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2010

  11. Evaluation of Freeze Tolerance in Lancelot Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. Ecotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lancelot Plantain (Ribwort, narrow-leaf or English plantain is a deep-rooted, short-lived perennial herb from Plantaginaceae family which has been used for various medicinal purposes for centuries, especially in Europe and only more recently has been proposed as a forage plant. The leaf of plantain is highly palatable for grazing animals, providing mineral-rich forage. Recently two productive upright cultivars of plantain have been bred and introduced, Grasslands Lancelot and the more erect winter active Ceres Tonic. Plantain grows moderately in winter but its main growth periods beings in spring and autumn with opportunistic summer growth. Although it reveals suitable winter survival in natural conditions, but there is not a lot of information about cold tolerance of this plant. So it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of narrow leaf plantain for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Northeast of Iran. Determining LT50 point or critical temperature for survival of plant is the most reliable and simple method for evaluating cold tolerance of plants. Another reliable method for freeze tolerance of plants is estimation of temperature at which 50 % of dry matter reduces (RDMT50. This experiment was carried out to evaluate freeze tolerance of five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain according to the LT50su and RDMT50 indices. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance of Lancelot plantain, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under controlled conditions at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain (Bojnourd, Kalat, Mashhad, Ghayen and Birjand after three months growth and hardening in natural environment were transferred to a Thermo gradient freezer on January 20th, 2012 and exposed to eight freezing temperatures (Zero, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18 and -21°C. The initial temperature of programmable freezer was 5°C; but gradually decreased in a rate of 2°C.h-1 until reach to desired temperatures. When the temperature reached to -2°C, the plants were sprayed with the Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria (INAB to help the formation of ice nuclei in them. Then for recovery, plants were transferred to greenhouse and after one month, survival and growth traits of plants were determined by measuring characteristics such as survival percentage (Su%, the lethal temperature for 50% of plants according to the survival percentage (LT50su, number of leaf, leaf area, leaf dry weight and temperature at which 50% of dry matter reduces (RDMT50. LT50su and RDMT50 were determined after plotting survival percentage and dry weight data curves versus experimental temperatures respectively. Analysis of variance performed by MSTAT-C software and correlation between data carried out by MINITAB 15 program. Mean separation was conducted by least significant difference (LSD test at 1% probability level. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed significant difference between plantain ecotypes and freezing temperatures for survival %. Means comparison showed that survival percentage of Mashhad ecotype was more than other ecotypes. Interaction effects of ecotype and temperature on survival percentage was significant too and only Mashhad and Bojnourd ecotypes in -15°C were alive. Evaluating the temperature-survival curve allowed estimation of a LT50 value, similar to the LD50 (lethal dose for 50% of the subjects in a toxicity screen. In this experiment there was significant difference between ecotypes at the point of this indicator view and LT50su of Mashhad ecotype was 5.3°C lower than Birjand ecotype. With decreasing the temperature to less than -12°C, number of leaf and leaf area were decreased. In addition decreasing of temperature to less than -6°C, reduced dry weight of plants noticeably. Mashhad and Birjand ecotypes produced the most and the least leaf number and leaf dry weight but Kalat and Birjand ecotypes produced the most and the least leaf area respectively after the recovery period. Based on RDMT50 index, Bojnourd ecotype was the most tolerant and Birjand ecotype was the most sensitive ecotype. There was high and negative correlation between Survival percentage, LT50su and RDMT50 (r= -0.97*** and r= -0.53* respectively which confirmed that these indices were suitable alternatives for each other in estimating the freeze tolerance of narrow leaf plantain. Conclusions Based on these results, Lancelot plantain has the ability to withstand winters which are not colder than -16 °C. Despite this for better perception of Plantain freeze tolerance potential, more experiments under controlled and field conditions are required.

  12. Plant-plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Van Marloes P.; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U.; Anten, Niels P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant-plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated

  13. The intricate nomenclatural questions around Plantago holosteum (Plantaginaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamonico, Duilio; Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina

    2017-01-01

    on illustration by Bauhin & Cherler, P. wulfenii by Willdenow on a specimen preserved at B while P. maritima var. apennina was neotypified using a specimen deposited at RO. For P. holosteum, an accepted and widely used name both in the floristic and the vegetation literature of SE-Europe, an epitype is designated...

  14. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil, tragacanth, and xanthan gum. Esophageal obstruction and...

  15. The effect of aqueous extract of Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. leaves on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hamzevi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avicennia marina has antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This study was conducted to examine the effect of aqueous extract of A. marina on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 male rats were allocated into the equal groups of control, diabetic control and experimental diabetic 1 and 2. The diabetes in diabetic control and experimental diabetic groups was induced using an intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The experimental diabetic groups received the aqueous extract of A. marina (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. in alternate days for one month. Sterile distilled water was injected to the animals of control and diabetic control groups. At the end of the treatment period, serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP were measured. Then, levels of SOD, GST, CAT and MDA were measured in the liver tissue. The liver sections were prepared and examined by an optical microscope. Results: Results showed that administration of the A. marina extract (100 and 300 mg/kg, ip to the diabetic rats significantly decreased the serum levels of liver enzymes and tissue level of MDA. Also, the activity of the liver tissue's antioxidant enzymes was increased (P<0.05. The A. marina extract dose-dependently decreased liver damages in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Administration of the A. marina extract improves liver tissue oxidative stress indices and decreases the serum level of liver enzymes. Also, A. marina extract improves liver tissue injuries induced by diabetes.

  16. Report and characterization of alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler on avicennia marina (forsk.) vierh forests of industrial yanb'a city, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeer, H.; Huqail, A.A.; Allah, E.F.A.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the leaf spot disease of Avicennia marina (Forski) Vierh in Saudi Arabia. The leaf spot disease is reported for the first time in mangrove plants of SA. The symptoms of leaf spot disease and the morphological characters of the causal organism are also described. The radial growth and sporulation of A. alternata were variable with obvious trend on the different growth media. The optimum pH range for maximum growth was 6.0 to 6.5 and any fluctuation in pH caused significant decrease in linear growth of the mold. The chromatographic (TLC) analysis of chloroform extract of fungal culture broth indicated clearly that the mold was able to produce both alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. The gas liquid chromatographic analysis of mycelial fatty acids demonstrated the presence of caproic, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, margaric, stearic, arachidic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, ? linolenic, Cis-11 eicosenoic, eicosatrienoic and arachidonic fatty acids in the mycelia of the causal organism. The analysis of free amino acids in the mycelia of causal organism indicated the presence of 13 amino acids namely, alanine, threonine, valine, proline, methionine, tryptophan, tyrosine, lysin, cystin, glycine, asparatic acid, tyrosine, and phenyl alanine. The PCR product amplified with A. alternata DNA indicates that the 370-bp PCR product is a useful diagnostic tool to identify the causal organism in mangrove leaves. This study demonstrated that the causal organism of leaf spot disease of A. marina was typically similar to Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler via classical, biochemical and molecular characterization. (author)

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of thermal degradation of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Jamshed; Iqbal, Mohammad S; Massey, Shazma; Masih, Rashid

    2012-10-15

    This work aims at study of thermal degradation kinetics and mechanism of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers isolated from Plantago ovata (PO), Salvia aegyptiaca (SA) and Ocimum basilicum (OB). The analysis was performed by isoconversional method. The materials exhibited mainly two-stage degradation. The weight loss at ambient-115°C characterized by low activation energy corresponds to loss of moisture. The kinetic triplets consisting of E, A and g(α) model of the materials were determined. The major degradation stage represents a loss of high boiling volatile components. This stage is exothermic in nature. Above 340°C complete degradation takes place leaving a residue of 10-15%. The master plots of g(α) function clearly differentiated the degradation mechanism of hexose-based OB and SA polymers and pentose-based PO polymer. The pentose-based carbohydrate polymer showed D(4) type and the hexose-based polymers showed A(4) type degradation mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of chemical oxygen demand from textile wastewater using a natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramavandi, Bahman [Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjadfard, Sima [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A biomaterial was successfully synthesized from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl{sub 3}-induced crude extract (FCE). The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for the pretreatment of real textile wastewater. Tests were performed to evaluate the effects of FCE quantity, salt concentration, and wastewater pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction during a coagulation/flocculation process. Experimental results indicated that the wastewater could be effectively treated by using a coagulation/flocculation process, where the BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the effluent was improved to 0.48. A low coagulant dose, 1.5mg/L, achieved a high COD removal percentage, 89%, at operational conditions of neutral pH and room temperature. The experimental data revealed that the maximum COD removal occurred at water pH<8. Increasing the salt promoted the COD removal. The settling and filterability characteristics of the sludge were also studied. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies were conducted to determine the sludge structure and composition, respectively. Overall, FCE as an eco-friendly biomaterial was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant and a promising option for the removal of COD from wastewaters.

  19. Drug-Herb Interactions in the Elderly Patient with IBD: a Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Haider; Kim, Marina; Leung, Galen; Green, Jesse A; Katz, Seymour

    2017-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions. CAM includes herbal products, diet, dietary supplements, acupuncture, and prayer. In this paper, we will review common CAM, specifically herbs, that are used in patients with IBD including the herb background, suggested use, evidence in IBD, and most importantly, potential interactions with IBD medications used in elderly patients. Most important evidence-based adverse events and drug-herb interactions are summarized. The herbs discussed include Triticum aestivum (wheat grass), Andrographis paniculata (chiretta), Boswellia serrata, tormentil, bilberry, curcumin (turmeric), Plantago ovata (blond psyllium), Oenothera biennis (evening primrose oil), germinated barley foodstuff, an herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile and coffee extract, chios mastic gum, wormwood (absinthe, thujone), Cannabis sativa (marijuana, THC), tripterygium wilfordii (thunder god vine), Ulmus rubra (slippery elm bark), trigonella foenugraecum (fenugreek), Dioscorea mexicana (wild yam), Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), ginger, cinnamon, licorice, and peppermint.

  20. Evaluation of drug uptake and deactivation in plant: Fate of albendazole in ribwort plantain (Plantago laceolata) cells and regenerants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlíková Raisová, L.; Podlipná, Radka; Szotáková, B.; Syslová, Eliška; Skálová, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, JUL (2017), s. 37-42 ISSN 0147-6513 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05325S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Anthelmintics * Benzimidazoles * Drug metabolism * Drug uptake * Phytoremediation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Bioremediation, diagnostic biotechnologies (DNA chips and biosensing devices) in environmental management Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2016

  1. The effects of concentration and heating-cooling rate on rheological properties of Plantago lanceolata seed mucilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesarinejad, Mohammad Ali; Sami Jokandan, Maryam; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2018-01-01

    the given conditions. Mechanical spectra of PLSM were classified as weak gels based on the frequency sweep, complex viscosity (η*) and tan δ results. All variables had significant impacts on the rheological parameters. Chemical and monosaccharide compositions were also determined to provide more structural...... information. The results revealed that PLSM had high total sugar content (87.35%), and it is likely an arabinoxylomannan-type polysaccharide....

  2. Maternal and ambient environmental effects of light on germination in Plantago lanceolata: correlated responses to selection on leaf length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinsberg, A. van

    1998-01-01

    1. Seeds from artificial selection lines were exposed to different maternal and ambient conditions, simulating sunlight and vegetation shade. 2. Lines selected for longer leaves also produced larger seeds, indicating a positive genetic correlation between leaf length and seed size. 3. Light conditions during maturation had no large effect on seed size. 4. Seed germination was reduced by a low ratio of red to far-red light (R/FR ratio) in the ambient environment. 5. Seeds maturated under simulated vegetation shade germinated less readily and were more inhibited by a low ambient R/FR ratio than seeds maturated under full sunlight or R/FR-neutral shade. Thus, low R/FR-ratios in the maternal and ambient environment operated synergistically. 6. Large genotypic variation in the germination responses to both maternal and ambient light conditions was found among and within selection lines, indicating that such responses might have the potential to evolve in response to natural selection. 7. Artificial selection for leaf length had affected seed germination characteristics but correlated responses and thus genetic correlations largely depended on light conditions in the selective environment. Selection for longer leaves under a low R/FR ratio increased seed dormancy and plasticity of germination in response to the R/FR ratio. However, in the opposite selective environment selection for longer leaves reduced seed dormancy and plasticity to the R/FR ratio. It is argued that leaf length and seed germination characteristics are somehow linked by shared physiological mechanisms, which may facilitate concerted changes in shade avoidance responses

  3. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. F.; Garcia, M. B.; Ehlers, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations...... showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity...... water availability even among geographically close populations....

  4. Effects of CMS types and restorer alleles on plant performance in Plantago lanceolata L.: an indication for cost of restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, A.A.; Hundscheid, M.P.J.; Van Hinsberg, A.

    1997-01-01

    In gynodioecious species, male steriles co-occur with hermaphrodites. Usually, the male sterile trait is maternally inherited, hence it is called Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS). Nuclear loci restore male fertility in combination with their 'own' specific cytoplasmic types. In theory, two fitness

  5. Estudio sobre utilización y reacciones adversas de preparaciones de Plántago Ovata en oficinas de farmacia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Arqueros, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aunque no existe una definición única y consensuada, el estreñimiento consiste en la emisión difícil de heces en un número inferior a 3 veces por semana o con un intervalo superior a 48 horas entre ellas. Para poder considerar la existencia de estreñimiento, es importante tener en cuenta también que se haya producido una disminución del ritmo intestinal habitual; de hecho, en ocasiones puede ser el único indicio real del estreñimiento. La forma más común de manifestarse es un estreñimiento co...

  6. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Ajda; Ulrih, Nataša P

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or "natural" compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro ; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ), fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum ), gurmar ( Gymnema sylvestre ), ivy gourd ( Coccinia indica ), nopal ( Opuntia spp.), ginseng, Russian tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus ), cinnamon ( Cinnamomum cassia ), psyllium ( Plantago ovata ), and garlic ( Allium sativum ). In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can

  7. Efficacy and safety of laxatives for chronic constipation in long-term care settings: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalimy, N; Madi, L; Awaisu, A

    2018-06-09

    Constipation is a common disorder among long-term care (LTC) patients due to several factors. However, there are no systematic reviews investigating the use of laxatives for chronic constipation in LTC settings. This study aims to explore the safety and efficacy of laxatives in LTC patients. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) describing the efficacy and safety of laxatives for chronic constipation in LTC patients was conducted using the following databases and search engines: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Two of the investigators independently performed the searches, and the data were extracted using a standardized data abstraction tool. Seven RCTs involving 444 patients were included in the review. These studies included senna (with or without fibre, ie Plantago ovata), lactulose, sodium picosulphate, docusate sodium, docusate calcium, isotonic and hypotonic polyethylene glycol and Chinese herbal medicine. Senna and lactulose were the most studied laxatives in LTC patients, and senna was found to be superior to or as effective as other laxatives. Generally, the frequency and severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were similar between the arms of the studies, and no serious ADRs were reported. Considering the short duration of the trials, the lack of trials including newer laxatives and the low quality of some of the included trials, the long-term efficacy and safety of these laxatives are not conclusive. There is a need to conduct more robust RCTs that include newer agents to evaluate long-term outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. In vitro assay for the anti-Brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-07-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50-400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study.

  9. In vitro assay for the anti-brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50–400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study. PMID:20593515

  10. Effect of high relative humidity on dried Plantago lanceolata L. leaves during long-term storage: effects on chemical composition, colour and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Sándor; Tóth, László; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Braun, Mihály; Emri, Tamás; Vasas, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Modern phytotherapy and quality assurance requires stability data on bioactive metabolites to identify and minimise decomposing factors during processing and storage. A compound's stability in a complex matrix can be different from the stability of the purified compound. To test the stability of iridoids and acteoside and quantify changes in colour and microbiological quality in a common herbal tea, dried P. lanceolata leaves during exposure to high-humidity air. To test the contribution of fungi to metabolite decomposition. Dried P. lanceolata leaves were exposed to atmospheres of different relative humidity (75, 45 and 0%) for 24 weeks. Changes in aucubin and catalpol concentration were determined by CE-MEKC, and those in acteoside on TLC. Colour and chlorophyll-like pigments were measured by different spectrophotometric methods. The number of fungi was monitored; 10 strains were isolated from the plant drug, and their ability to decompose the analytes of interest was tested. During incubation at 75% relative humidity (RH), aucubin, catalpol and acteoside concentrations decreased by 95.7, 97.0 and 70.5%, respectively. Strong shifts were detected in CIELAB parameters a* and b* (browning) as a result of conversion of chlorophyll to pheophytin. Intensive microbial proliferation was also observed. Changes at 45 or 0% RH were typically insignificant. Seven of the 10 isolated fungal strains could decompose both iridoids, and five could decompose acteoside in vitro. It was shown that exposure to water results in loss of bioactive molecules of P. lanceolata dried leaves, and that colonising fungi are the key contributors to this loss. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Nutrients and disturbance history in two Plantago species: maternal effects as a clue for observed dichotomy between resprouting and seeding strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latzel, Vít; Hájek, Tomáš; Klimešová, Jitka; Gómez, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 11 (2009), s. 1669-1678 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : maternal effects * nutrients * disturbance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2009

  12. Variation in growth form in relation to spectral light quality (red/far-red ratio) in Plantago lanceolata L in sun and shade populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsberg, A.; Van Tienderen, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Plants from a sun and shade population were grown in two environments differing in the ratio of red to far-red light (R/FR ratio). A low R/FR ratio, simulating vegetation shade, promoted the formation of long, upright-growing leaves and allocation towards shoot growth, whereas a high R/FR ratio had

  13. Fecal microbiome of growing pigs fed a cereal based diet including chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, Johan; Jansson, Janet K.; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2015-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how inclusion of chicory forage or ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet influenced the fecal microbial community (microbiome) in newly weaned (35 days of age) piglets. The piglets were fed a cereal-based diet without (B) and with inclusion (80 and 160 g/kg air-dry forage) of vegetative shoots of chicory (C) and leaves of ribwort (R) forage in a 35-day growth trial. Fecal samples were collected at the start (D0), 17 (D17) and 35 (D35) days after weaning and profiles of the microbial consortia were generated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). 454-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to analyze the microbial composition in a subset of the samples already analyzed with T-RFLP. RESULTS: The microbial clustering pattern was primarily dependent on age of the pigs, but diet effects could also be observed. Lactobacilli and enterobacteria were more abundant at D0, whereas the genera Streptococcus, Treponema, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae1 and Coprococcus were present in higher abundances at D35. Pigs fed ribwort had an increased abundance of sequences classified as Treponema and a reduction in lactobacilli. However, the abundance of Prevotellaceae increased with age in on both the chicory and the ribwort diet. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the abundance of Bacteroides and the digested amount of galactose, uronic acids and total non-starch polysaccharides, and between the abundance of Bacteroidales and the digested amount of xylose. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that both chicory and ribwort inclusion in the diet of newly weaned pigs influenced the composition of the fecal microbiota and that digestion of specific dietary components was correlated with species composition of the microbiota. Moreover, this study showed that the gut will be exposed to a dramatic shift in the microbial community structure several weeks after weaning.

  14. Modulation of carbon and nitrogen allocation in Urtica dioica and Plantago major by elevated CO{sub 2}. Impact of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and ontogenetic drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, J. den; Stulen, I.; Fonseca, F.; Delea, P.

    1996-10-01

    Doubling the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration from 350 to 700 {mu} l{sup -1} increased the relative growth rate (RGR) of hydroponically grown Urtica dioica L. and Plantagomajor ssp. pleiospherma Pilger only for the first 10-14 days. Previous experiments with P. major indicated that RGR did not respond i proportion to the rate of photosynthesis. The impact of changes in leaf morphology, dry matter partitioning, dry matter chemical composition and ontogenetic drift on this discrepancy is analysed. Soon after the start of the treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were higher at elevated CO{sub 2}; largely due to starch accumulation. An increase in the percentage of leaf dry matter and decreases in the specific leaf area (SLA) and the shoot nitrogen concentration were correlated with an increase in the total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC). A combination of accumulation of soluble sugars and starch and ontogenetic drift explains the decrease in SLA at the elevated CO{sub 2} level. A similar ontogenetic effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was observed on the specific root length (SRL). Shoot nitrogen concentration and percentage leaf dry matter were not affected. The net diurnal fluctuation of the carbohydrate pool in P. major was equal for both CO{sub 2} concentrations, indicating that the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} may be ruled by other variables such as sink strength. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not greatly influence the partitioning of nitrogen between soluble and insoluble, reduced N and nitrate, nor the allocation of dry matter between leaf, stem and root. That the root to shoot ratio (F/S) was not affected by elevated CO{sub 2} implies that, to maintain a balanced activity between roots and shoot, no shift in partitioning of dry matter upon doubling of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is required. (AB)

  15. Functioning of Plantago major and Urtica dioica exposed to elevated CO{sub 2}. Analysis of growth pattern in relation to C and N allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hertog, J.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of this thesis deals with the growth response of P. major and U. dioica to a doubling of the ambient CO2 concentration grown with free access to nutrients (chapters 2 and 3). The questions, how relative growth rate (RGR) and other growth variables of wild plants are affected by elevated CO2 and what time course CO2 effects on the various growth variables have, are dealt with in chapter 2 for P. major. This analysis is extended to the relationship between the C and N metabolism in P. major and U. dioica, as affected by the CO2 concentration, in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the response of P. major to a combination of elevated CO2 and a growth-limiting dose of N. The analysis includes all factors needed to calculate a carbon balance, as well as data on nonstructural carbohydrates and total nitrogen concentrations. The use of fixed exponential addition rates for the supply of nitrate allows to establish relationships between growth variables and total plant nitrogen concentration (N), without interference of differences in plant size, such as often occurs in studies on growth under nutrient-limited conditions. The data from chapter 4 are used in a model study to evaluate the impact of the mode of nutrient limitation, as used in many studies, on the effect of elevated CO2, in combination with nutrient limitation, on plant growth. This chapter elucidates pitfalls in the experimental setup that are often overlooked and indicates possible causes for discrepancies between various studies concerned with the allocation of dry matter in relation to the CO2 treatment. The effect of an increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration on the rate of respiration has caused controversy over the last ten years. Data on root respiration are presented in chapter 6. The data are related to possible effects of elevated CO, on the degree of stimulation of the RGR and on the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates. A possible role for CO2 effects on cytochrome and alternative respiratory pathway activities is discussed as well. Chapter 7 provides an overview of the effects of elevated CO2 on the C and N metabolism in P. major and U. dioica and it evaluates the importance of different factors involved in the response in various periods during the exposure to elevated CO2. The data from this study and from other sources are used to evaluate which functional type of plant could respond with a large and lasting stimulation of the RGR to an increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. A final step in this analysis is to indicate how the data from this study can be used in studies at the level of plant communities and ecosystems. 20 refs.

  16. Optimizaión de un protocolo para el cultivo in vitro y la micropropagación masiva del llantén (Plantago major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garro M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Llantén (P. major posee propiedades medicinales antiinflamatorias y cicatrizantes que han sido aprovechadas en muchas latitudes desde épocas remotas. Los estudios del cultivo in vitro de esta especie son escasos, a pesar de las ventajas que este tipo de técnicas presenta en especies de uso medicinal. En este trabajo se logró desarrollar un protocolo para el establecimiento y la reproducción masiva in vitro del llantén. Se estableció un protocolo de desinfección de semillas y se obtuvo plántulas germinadas in vitro que se utilizaron como fuente de explantes para la fase de micropropagación masiva. Se evaluó el cultivo de ápices en medios de cultivo con sales y vitaminas de M & S (1962 al 100% y al 50%, suplementados con los siguientes reguladores de crecimiento: 1,2mg/l de ANA (Ácido naftalenacético, 0,6 mg/l y 0,4 mg/l de BAP (Bencil amino purina y 1mg/l de TDZ (Tidiazurón en diferentes combinaciones. Los mejores resultados en la inducción de brotes fueron obtenidos en 14,9 brotes promedio por explante en el medio con las sales y vitaminas M & S (1962 reducidas al 50% de su concentración y sin reguladores de crecimiento. Con este tratamiento, un total de 150 vitroplantas provenientes de distintos tratamientos han sido llevadas a condiciones de invernadero con un 100% de sobrevivencia.

  17. Plant-plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2 : an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant–plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may

  18. 31 strategiske forskningstemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; christensen, claus hviid; Højberg Christensen, Jesper

    Bedre grundlag for at prioritere den strategiske forskningInitiativet FORSK2015 Strategiske satsninger skal bidrage til at skabe bedre grundlag for at identificere og prioritere indsatsområderne for den strategiske forskning. FORSK2015 er et af de initiativer, VK-regeringen sammen med Dansk Folke...

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some urological diseases in the West Bank/Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Alqub, Malik A; Hussein, Fatima; Hamdan, Zakaria; Mustafa, Mahmoud; Qneibi, Mohammad; Ali, Iyad

    2017-05-08

    Throughout history, every civilization in the world used plants or their derivatives for treatment or prevention of diseases. In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal medicines are broadly used in the treatment of wide range of diseases including urological diseases. The main objective of this research is to study the use of herbal remedies by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urological diseases in the West Bank regions of Palestine and to assess their efficacy and safety through the literature review of the most cited plants. The study included a survey part, plant identification and a review study. The first part was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Face to face questionnaires were distributed to 150 traditional healers and herbalist in all regions of the West Bank of Palestine. The literature review part was to assess the most cited plants for their efficacy and toxicity. One hundred forty four herbalists and traditional healers accepted to participate in this study which was conducted between March and April, 2016. The results showed that 57 plant species belonging to 30 families were used by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urinary tract diseases in Palestine. Of these, Apiaceae family was the most prevalent. Paronychia argentea, Plantago ovata, Punica granatum, Taraxacum syriacum, Morus alba and Foeniculum vulgare were the most commonly used plant species in the treatment of kidney stones, while Capsella bursa-pastoris, Ammi visnaga and Ammi majus were the most recommended species for treatment of urinary tract infections and Portulaca oleracea used for renal failure. In addition Curcuma longa and Crocus sativus were used for enuresis while Juglans regia, Quercus infectoria, Sambucus ebulus and Zea mays were used for treatment symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. Fruits were the most common parts used, and a decoction was the most commonly used method of preparation. Through literature

  20. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Ota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or “natural” compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon (Momordica charantia, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum, gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre, ivy gourd (Coccinia indica, nopal (Opuntia spp., ginseng, Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, psyllium (Plantago ovata, and garlic (Allium sativum. In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can be

  1. A new species of Combretum from East Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exell, A.W.

    1954-01-01

    Combretum kostermansii Exell, sp. nov. Frutex scandens, ramulis primo fulvo-pilosis et tomentellis demum sparse pilosis, atro-rubris. Folia opposita breviter petiolata, petiolo 1—3 mm longo, piloso, lamina chartacea, ovata vel oblongo-ovata, basi cordata, apice acuminata, 2—7 X 1.8—3.6 cm, supra

  2. A Survey of the Freshwater Mussels of the Ohio River from Greenup Locks and Dam to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-06

    1823) X x Lampsilis ovata* (Say, 1817) x x Lampsilis fasciola Raf., 1820 x Epioblasma triguetra (Raf., 1820) x __ TOTALS . . . . 38 29 35 41 Summation of...Lampsilis ovata* (Say, 1817) Lainpsilis fasciola * Raf., 1820 Epioblasma triguetra* (Raf., 1820) 42 Summary of River Faunal Changes Three species and

  3. A new premna (Verbenaceae) from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.

    1954-01-01

    Premna brongersmai, nov. spec. — Frutex? Ramuli teretes conspicue subdistanter lenticellati 0.3—0.5 cm crassi, internodia in specimine 7—11 cm longa. Folia coriacea subrigida, decussatim opposita glaberrima petiolata, ovata vel oblongo-ovata vel subovata vel oblongo-lanceolata, basi plus minusve

  4. Relationships between food quality and fitness in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and its distribution over habitats on the Red Sea coastal plain of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Woldewahid, G.; Toleubayev, K.; Werf, van der W.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of millet, Pennisetum typhoideum Rich. (Poaceae), leaf nitrogen content on fitness parameters of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forsk. (Orthoptera: Acrididae), was studied under laboratory conditions. Locusts reared on high-nitrogen leaves were larger, developed faster, had

  5. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 27, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia - Vol 27, No 3 (2013) ... of the psychoactive phenylpropylamino alkaloids of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing ... Synthesis and characterization of CdTe quantum dots by one-step method · EMAIL ...

  6. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-01-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  7. Basic petroleum research. Final report; Grunnleggende petroleumsforskning. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-07-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  8. Essential oil of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Al-Mazroa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of the essential oils of Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris is reported. These oils were analyzed by GC/MS and most of them are being studied for the first time.

  9. Essential oil of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Al-Mazroa; L.H. Al-Wahaibi; A.A. Mousa; H.Z. Al-Khathlan

    2015-01-01

    The constituents of the essential oils of Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris is reported. These oils were analyzed by GC/MS and most of them are being studied for the first time.

  10. The seagrasses of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.; Rodrigues, R.

    and is dominated by Cymodocea rotundata, C. serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii, Halodule uninervis, H. pinifolia, Halophila beccarii, H. ovata and H. ovalis. Distribution occurs from the intertidal zone to a maximum depth of Ca 15 m. Maximum growth and biomass occur...

  11. Natural Areas Inventory 1981 (GREAT III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    lanuginosa 3 Campsis radicans Carpinus caroliniana Carya cordifonnis Carya illinoensis Carya laciniosa Carya ovalis 2. Carya ovata Carya ...texana Carya toraentosa Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens 2, Celtis laevigata ^Celtis occidentalis Celtis tenuifolia 3 Cephalanthus

  12. Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the root bark of Catalpa ovata G. Don by response surface methodology. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  13. Mapping of seagrass meadows from the Lakshadweep Islands (India), using aerial photographs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Inamdar, S.N.

    six major islands of Lakshadweep was estimated to be 112 ha with standing crop of ca 800 metric tonnes. The dominant seagrass species observed was Thalassia hemprichii while Cymodocea rotundata, Halophila ovata, Syringodium isoetifolium and Halodule...

  14. Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at Selected Sites Within the 9-Foot Navigation Channel Project for the St. Paul District, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1977 - 1979. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-10

    as caz’nata A J T R H Ligwnia recta L. subrost rat a Carunculina parva Lampsilis terea L. higginsi L. radiata siliquoidea L. ovata ventricosa Plagio ...radiata siZiquc’idea 1 1 0.?2 X L. ovata ventricosa 2 2 0. 3 Plagio Za trique tra X Arcidens con fragosus 2 2 0.3 Lasmiqona camptlcnata L. cost ata L

  15. Lipid content and cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos treated with forskolin before vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Meneghel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intracytoplasmic lipid content, development and cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos treated with different concentrations of forskolin before vitrification. Embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into four groups. In the treatment groups, forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 6 and incubated for 24 hours in one of the following concentrations: 2.5μM (Forsk 2.5 group, 5.0μM (Forsk 5.0 group or 10.0μM (Forsk 10.0 group. Embryos from the control group were cultured without forskolin. On Day 7 of culture, the expanded blastocysts were stained with the lipophilic dye Sudan Black B for determination of the intracytoplasmic lipid content or were cryopreserved via the Vitri-Ingá® procedure. Although there were no significant differences (P>0.05 in the blastocyst rates between the Control group (44.9% and the other treatments, the embryo production was lower (P0.05 to that found in Forsk 2.5 (0.92±0.03 and Forsk 10.0 groups (1.06±0.03 groups; however the lipid accumulation in blastocysts from Forsk 5.0 group (0.82±0.04 was lower than in the Control group (P<0.05. Based on these results, Forsk 5.0 treatment was tested for cryotolerance and it was observed that the blastocoel re-expansion rate evaluated 24 hours after warming was greater (P<0.05 in Forsk 5.0 group (72.2% compared to the Control group (46.2%. In conclusion, pre-treatment with forskolin at a concentration of 5.0 μM for 24 hours before vitrification is effective in reducing the intracytoplasmic lipid content and, consequently, improves cryotolerance of IVP bovine embryos.

  16. Interrelations between Herbage Yield, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, Lutein, Protein, and Fiber in Non-Leguminous Forbs, Forage Legumes, and a Grass−Clover Mixture as Affected by Harvest Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    , protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago...

  17. Hyperspectral predictors for monitoring biomass production in Mediterranean mountain grasslands: Majella national park, Italy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available species include Brachypodium genuense, Briza media, Bromus erectus and 101 Festuca sp. Herbs include Helichrysum italicum, Galium verum, Trifolium pratense, Plantago 102 lanceolata, Sanguisorba officinalis and Ononis spinosa. 103 104 2.2. Field data...

  18. Influence of Macchia eradication techniques on botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Themeda triandra Forsk. and Apochaetae hispida (L.f.) Phipps survived in a vegetative stae in unburned, control plots for about 20 years in spite of competition from a dense, bushy growth of macchia (Cliffortia paucistaminea H. Weim., C. linearifolia Eckl. & Zeyh. and Erica brownleeae Bolus). Themeda triandra was best ...

  19. In Hac Vita: Increasing Nordic Homeowners' Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neset, Tina; Linnér, Björn-Ola; Navarra, carlo

    2013-01-01

    The NordForsk funded research project In Hac Vita project is a collaboration between the Nordic insurance companies If, Gjensidige, Trygg-Hansa/ Codan and Tryg Insurance, and the Top-level Research Initiative the Nordic Centre of Excellence NORD-STAR. The project concerns climate change adaptatio...... to adapt to climate change and extreme weather effects....

  20. Preventing desert locust plagues: optimizing management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Cressman, K.; Magor, J.I.

    2007-01-01

    Solitarious desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), inhabit the central, arid, and semi-arid parts of the species¿ invasion area in Africa, the Middle East, and South-West Asia. Their annual migration circuit takes them downwind to breed sequentially where winter,

  1. Two new combinations in Asian Adenia (Passifloraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1967-01-01

    In the course of the revision of the Asian species of the genus Adenia Forsk. (tropical and subtropical Africa, tropical S.E. Asia, Malay Archipelago, N. Australia) it appeared that two valid old epithets have been overlooked which should have priority. Consequently the fairly well established names

  2. Udsatte børn og unge i den inkluderende skole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard-Sørensen, Lotte; Grumløse, Sine Penthin

    2017-01-01

    Denne artikel belyser, hvordan undervisningen i folkeskolen – mod de bedste politiske og pædagogiske (forskning og læ-reruddannelse) hensigter om inkludering – ekskluderer en gruppe udsatte børn og unge. Artiklen bygger på et forsk-ningsprojekt om inklusion og differentiering, som har haft fokus ...

  3. 12 Trace Metals Distribution in Fish Tissues, Bottom Sediments and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Abstract. Water samples, bottom sediments, Tilapia, and Cat Fish from Okumeshi River in Delta state of Nigeria were analysed ... Keywords: Trace metals, Fish Tissues, Water, Bottom sediments, Okumeshi River. Introduction ..... Grey Mangroove Avicemmia marina (Forsk). ... sewage treatment plant oulet pipe extension on.

  4. Utilisation de la Technique D\\'électrophorèse des Protéines Totales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation de la Technique D\\'électrophorèse des Protéines Totales sur Gel de Polyacrylamide-SDS (SDS-PAGE) pour L\\'étude de la Diversité des Rhizobiums D\\'Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne Subsp. Raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

  5. Il est beau le lavabo, il est laid le bidet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    1998-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer dislokering af subjektet på fransk. Der skelnes mellem tre hovedtyper: venstredislokering med og uden intonationsbrud og højre dislokering. I alle tilfælde indeholder sætningskernen principielt en pronominel kopi af subjektet. Det påvises, at de tre typer svarer til tre forske...

  6. Situerede perspektiver på ungdom, uddannelsespolitik og frafald i erhvervsuddannelserne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte; Klitmøller, Jacob; Grønborg, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    Uddannelse er en af de centrale aktiviteter, som samfundet forventer at unge mennesker tager del i. En stor del af unge uddannes på erhvervsskoler, som oplever højt frafald og lav prestige. Forskning i erhvervsuddannelserne generelt og frafaldet fra dem i særdeleshed har modtaget meget lidt forsk...

  7. Plastic solar cell research at Risø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    Plastiksolceller giver mulighed for direkte omdannelse af sol lys til elektrisk energi og består i sin enkelthed af et tyndt plastik lag der er lagt imellem to elektroder. På Risø forskes der i de grundlæggende principper for plastiksolceller samt ifremstillingsmetoder og stabiliteten under belys...

  8. Effect of imazapyr treated maize on Striga infestation and time of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... Falconer, D. S. (1989) Introduction to quantitative genetics, 3rd edition. Longman Scientific and. Technical Essex England. Garcia-Torres, L. and Lopez-Granados, F. (1991). Control of bromerape (Orobanche crenata. Forsk.) in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) with imadazolines and other herbicides. Weed. Res.

  9. Å skape et begrep om jam i utforskningen av en deleuziansk metode-ontologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Harstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Å forske med kunsten innebærer ikke bare valget av visse metoder for bruk i forskningsprosessen, men også om å ha til disposisjon spesifikke måter å tenke om metode. I denne artikkelen vil jeg synliggjøre en tenkemåte fundert i arbeidet med en skjønnlitterær lesesirkel for lærerstudenter, og min egen erfaring som improvisasjonsmusiker. Jazzens begrep om jam blir løftet frem som omdreiningspunkt for tenkemåten, som ellers har sitt teoretiske utspring i den franske filosofen Gilles Deleuze’s forestilling om bliven. Denne vitale forestillingen innebærer at verden produseres kontinuerlig, noe forskeren også bidrar til. Koblingen mellom jam, litteratur og Deleuze synliggjør dessuten en måte å tenke om metode på som understreker at det å forske med kunsten ikke bare betyr å forske på kunsten, men at kunsten på ulike måter kan virke inn på selve forskningen og slik også bidra til å affirmere verden i sin bliven. I tillegg til å tilby en måte å tenke om metode for den som skal forske med kunsten, er hensikten med artikkelen å gjøre forskeren bevisst sin egen tenkning om metode, noe som er viktig siden denne skaper mulighetsbetingelser for metodevalg og -bruk.

  10. Fundamental conditions required in extracting an alpha-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extracts of Cadaba farinosa, Forsk plant are used for their starch-reducing power in most tropic countries to liquefy/sweeten starch gruels. The extraction process is a time consuming osmotic rehydrating process characterized by fluctuating extract yield and consequently, an unstable inherent starch-reducing power.

  11. Wave conditions North of Brandsø island, DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report was prepared under the ForskVE project WEPTOS#1 aiming at testing for the first time the wave energy device at sea. The results of this report are used to give an indication on the wave conditions at the selected location of testing and may also further be used for extrapolation of wave...

  12. Range extension of Halophila stipulacea (Hydrocharitaceae) in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Halophila stipulacea (Forsk.) Aschers. is a sea-grass which is widely distributed along the coasts of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. In 1895 Fritsch (Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 45, 1895, p. 104) recorded the species from the Island of Rhodos in the Aegean Sea. This was the first record of

  13. Application of SmartGrid in Photovoltaic Power Systems on the Island of Bornholm–PVNET.dk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Lazar, Radu Dan; Constantin, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    . The background for the PVNET.dk project is the already ongoing EcoGrid EU project, the Danish Cell Project and the Photovoltaic Island Bornholm project. The project is in part financed under the Electrical Energy Research Program (ForskEL, grant number 10698), administrated by the Danish transmission network...

  14. 2068-IJBCS-Article-Saidou Ousseina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    que Schoenefeldia gracilis Kunth., Aristida mutabilis Trin. et Rupr., Dactyloctenium aegyptiaca (L.) Willd., Tribulus terrestris L. (Ousseina, 2012) parsemée de plantes ligneuses (Maerua crassifolia. Forsk.,. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne subsp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan,.

  15. BIOMONITORING OF URBAN AREA BY ANATOMICAL LEAF CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IRIZA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants play a vital role as indicators of pollution. The automobile emissions are high particularly at the traffic intersections. Plants growing under the stress of air pollution show differences in leaf surface characteristics. Light microscopic studies of leaf surface revealed an increase in the number of stomata and trichomes of polluted populations in comparison to control populations of Plantago major and Plantago lanceolata. These changes can be considered as indicators of environmental stress.

  16. Pickling process of capers (Capparis spp. flower buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized (8 < x < 13 mm buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and C. ovata var. canescens from June in brines containing 5,10,15 and 20% salt and from August in brines of 15% salt, and three different size (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, x > 13 mm buds of C. . ovata var. canescens from June in brines of 15% salt were pickled for two months fermentation. Some chemical and microbiological analyses were done in brines during fermentation. Most suitable salt concentration for lactic acid bacteria (LAB activity were 5% and partly 10%. Acidity, LAB activity, sedimentation and hardness were reduced by increasing bud size in C. ovata. Small buds of C. ovata for pickling product had advantage for colour and flavour, however, more sediment and partly softening showed disadvantage. For both species, pickling time was determined as 40 to 50 days in regard of end-product flavour and odour, brine acidity and pH, and LAB activity.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño medio (8 < x < 13 mm de Capparis spinosa var. spinosa y C. ovata var. canescens, los recolectados en Junio en salmueras conteniendo 5, 10, 15 y 20% de sal, y los de Agosto en salmueras de 15% de sal; y tres tamaños diferentes (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, X > 13 mm de C. ovata var. canescens de Junio en salmueras de 15% de sal. Se realizaron algunos análisis químicos y microbiológicos durante la fermentación. Las concentraciones de sal más adecuadas para la actividad de las bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB fueron 5% y parcialmente 10%. Acidez, actividad de LAB, sedimentación y firmeza (hardness se redujeron al incrementar el tamaño de las alcaparras de C. ovata. Los tamaños pequeños de C. ovata presentaron en el producto encurtido ventajas en color y sabor, pero desventajas por más sedimento y ablandamiento parcial. El tiempo de encurtido para ambas

  17. Bioelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide by pure culture at the cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Nabin; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chen, Leifeng

    2014-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is an innovative approach in which microbes use electricity toreduce carbon dioxide and produce chemical commodities. This process relies on the ability of electroautotrophic microbes to accept electron from an electrode. The concept of MES has already been...... to form robust biofilms. In preliminary results, 171.9mM ofacetate per day per m2 was produced by a previously uncharacterized strain of Sporomusa ovata which is approximatively 1.4 times better than S. ovata DSM-26621. This demonstrates that better electroautotrophic bacteria can still be uncovered...

  18. Cytological observations in relation to the taxonomy of the Orchids of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliphuis, E.

    1963-01-01

    1. The Orchids in the Netherlands have been subjected to a cytological investigation. 2. The division of the genera Orchis (L.) Klinge into two new genera: Orchis (L.) Vermln. and Dactylorchis (Kl.) Vermln. (Vermeulen, 1947), could be confirmed. 3. In Listera ovata (L.) R. Br. the diploid chromosome

  19. New species in Alectryon (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Descriptio typi: Arbor 11 m alta, 20 cm diam. Ramuli teretes, 4-5 mm crassi, glabrati. Folia 4-jugata; petiolus teres, ca. 7,5 cm longus, 2 mm crassus; petioluli 4-5 mm longi, supra applanati; axes foliorum pilosi, glabrati. Foliola opposita, 9,5-16 cm longa, 5-6 cm lata, ratione ca. 2-3, ovata vel

  20. Florae Malesianae precursores I. Xyridaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royen, van P.

    1953-01-01

    Xyris malmei sp. nov. — Folia ensiformia, 7—30 cm longa, subfalcata, minute papillosa. Scapus 20—45 cm longus, teres vel subteres, papillatus. Bracteae ovatae ad ellipticae, obtusae, emarginatae vel retusae; bracteae basales cum nervo uno completo et nervis 4 descendentibus incompletis. Sepala

  1. Vorläufige Beschreibungen neuer papuanischer Ericaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1915-01-01

    Fruticulus pusillus, 6—17 cm. altus, ramulis tenuibus, densius angulato-lepidotis. Folia minima, alterna, oblongo-ovata, utrinque obtusa, crenulata, sparse lepidota, rigide carnosa, 0.37—0.75 cm. longa, 0.2—0.3 cm. lata; petiolus lepidotus, 0.1—0.225 cm. longus. Inflorescentiae 1—2 florae, ramentis

  2. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  3. Environmental Impact Research Program. Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Section 4.7.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Palmetto Sabal spp. Pawpaw Asimina triloba Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Pine Pinus app. Loblolly pine P. taeda Red mulberry...grandifotia Bitter pecan Carya aquatica Blackberry Rubus app. Black cherry Prunus serotina Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Black walnut Jugtans nigra Blueberry...americana Hickory Carya Spp. Bitternut hickory C. cordiformis Shagbark hickory C. ovata Shellbark hickory C. Zaciniosa Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana

  4. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Carya illinoensis Carya cordiformis Carpinus caroliniana Carya ovata...americana sedges Carex spp. ironwood Carpinus caroliniana water hickory Carya aquatica bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis pecan Carya illinoensis ...and water hickory ( Carya aquatica). Less flooded sites are often dominated by green ash, Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii), or willow oak, and the driest

  5. Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC). Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Honohono) E Hedyotis coriacea Leather leaf sweet ear (Kio’ele) E Melicope hawiaiensis (Alani) SOC Neraudia ovata Spotted nettle bush (Ma’aloa...taro, lotus, shrimp, and fish ponds) supplement existing habitat and provide important feeding habitat. Hawaiian ducks eat mollusks, insects , and

  6. Communicación para el Cambio Social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denne antologi samler ialt 200 bidrag fra 150 forfattere som gennem tiderne har bidraget til udvikling af forskings- og praksisfeltet 'social forandringskommunikation'. Dette felt formulerer sig i opposition til den funktionalistisk orienterede strategiske kommunikations traditioner, og udvikles ...... omkring nøglebegreber som eksempelvis 'empowerment', dialog og borgerdeltagelse. Værket er det første af sin art der forsøger at skabe een samlet fortælling omkring 'communication for social change' set udfra et kritisk perspektiv.......Denne antologi samler ialt 200 bidrag fra 150 forfattere som gennem tiderne har bidraget til udvikling af forskings- og praksisfeltet 'social forandringskommunikation'. Dette felt formulerer sig i opposition til den funktionalistisk orienterede strategiske kommunikations traditioner, og udvikles...

  7. The Influence of the Ratio of Nitrate to Ammonium Nitrogen on Nitrogen Removal in the Economical Growth of Vegetation in Hybrid Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing vegetables economically in the use of constructed wetland for wastewater treatment can play a role in overcoming water and food scarcity. Allium porrum L., Solanum melongena L., Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Capsicum annuum L. plants were selected to grow in hybrid constructed wetland (CW under natural conditions. The impact of the ratio of nitrate to ammonium nitrogen on ammonium and nitrate nitrogen removal and on total nitrogen were studied in wastewater. Constructed wetland planted with Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and Solanum melongena L. showed higher removal efficiency for ammonium nitrogen under higher ammonium concentration, whereas Allium porrum L.-planted CW showed higher nitrate nitrogen removal when NO3–N concentration was high in wastewater. Capsicum annuum L.-planted CW showed little efficiency for both nitrogen sources compared to other vegetables.

  8. Leaf morphophysiology of a Neotropical mistletoe is shaped by seasonal patterns of host leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Marina Corrêa; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Domingos, Fabricius Maia Chaves Bicalho; Franco, Augusto Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Several mistletoe species are able to grow and reproduce on both deciduous and evergreen hosts, suggesting a degree of plasticity in their ability to cope with differences in intrinsic host functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of host phenology on mistletoe water relations and leaf gas exchange. Mistletoe Passovia ovata parasitizing evergreen (Miconia albicans) hosts and P. ovata parasitizing deciduous (Byrsonima verbascifolia) hosts were sampled in a Neotropical savanna. Photosynthetic parameters, diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance, pre-dawn and midday leaf water potential, and stomatal anatomical traits were measured during the peak of the dry and wet seasons, respectively. P. ovata showed distinct water-use strategies that were dependent on host phenology. For P. ovata parasitizing the deciduous host, water use efficiency (WUE; ratio of photosynthetic rate to transpirational water loss) was 2-fold lower in the dry season than in the wet season; in contrast, WUE was maintained at the same level during the wet and dry seasons in P. ovata parasitizing the evergreen host. Generally, mistletoe and host diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance were linked, although there were clear differences in leaf water potential, with mistletoe showing anisohydric behaviour and the host showing isohydric behaviour. Compared to mistletoes attached to evergreen hosts, those parasitizing deciduous hosts had a 1.4-fold lower stomatal density and 1.2-fold wider stomata on both leaf surfaces, suggesting that the latter suffered less intense drought stress. This is the first study to show morphophysiological differences in the same mistletoe species parasitizing hosts of different phenological groups. Our results provide evidence that phenotypical plasticity (anatomical and physiological) might be essential to favour the use of a greater range of hosts.

  9. Forskning indenfor Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahn, Annette

    Oplæg vil tage udgangspunkt i en artikel (vedhæftet) som er udgivet i december 2015 i tidsskriftet Læring og Medier (LOM) samt et paper, som skal præsenteres ved en konference i maj. Der vil være særligt fokus på metoden omkring design-based-research-approach, samt at være deltagende i eget forsk...

  10. Une évaluation de Criquets comestibles au Niger: Ornithacris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... www.comby.org/insect (03/06/2015). DeFoliart G.R., 1997. An overview of the role of edible insects in preserving biodiversity. Ecology of. Food and Nutrition, 36, 109-132. Dogo Issoufou., 2011. Étude biogéographique des zones potentielles de grégarisation du criquet pèlerin. (schistocerca gregaria, forsk ...

  11. Fødevareetik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fødevareetik er en grundbog, der beskriver fødevarer, mad og måltider i et etisk perspektiv. De etiske spørgsmål diskuteres i dag ikke kun i forbindelse med madindkøb, madlavning, omkring bordet og i medierne. Også forskerne har taget området til sig. I denne bog præsenterer førende danske forske...

  12. Review of 2 kW grid connected LOPF tests in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    This report has been prepared by Per Resen and Aalborg University for the ForskVE project 10878: 2 kW grid connected LOPF test buoy. AAU has the role of reviewing and advise on the data analysis, besides compiling this report. The purpose of this project was to document the mechanical power...... production against a target power curve of a 2kW grid connected wave energy buoy in Nissum Bredning at Helligsø....

  13. En procesorienteret miljøvurdering af F&U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Miljøperformance af fremtidens energiteknologier defineres i høj grad i de tidlige F&U aktiviteter. Energinet.dk har i flere år miljøvurderet ForskEL-programmet og i dette projekt forbedres systemets nytte ved at muliggøre øgede krav til programmets samlede performance og følge op på projekternes...

  14. Species-specific effects of live roots and shoot litter on soil decomposer abundances do not forecast plant litter-nitrogen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saj, Stéphane; Mikola, Juha; Ekelund, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    and bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes did not differ between the live plants, litter-N uptake differed, with Holcus being the most efficient compared to Plantago and Lotus. Hence, although microbes and their feeders unquestionably control N mineralization in the soil, and their growth differs among plant......Plant species produce litter of varying quality and differ in the quality and quantity of compounds they release from live roots, which both can induce different decomposer growth in the soil. To test whether differences in decomposer growth can forecast the amount of N species acquire from plant...... litter, as suggested by theory, we grew individuals of three grassland plants-Holcus lanatus, Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus-in soils into which (15)N-labelled litter of either Holcus, Plantago or Lotus was added. We measured the effects of live roots and litter of each species on soil...

  15. Влияние автотранспортного загрязнения биотопа на биохимическую активность Arctium lappa и Plantago major

    OpenAIRE

    Кириенко, Н.; Терлеева, П.; Первышина, Г.

    2009-01-01

    Установлено влияние автотранспортного загрязнения биотопа на содержание тяжелых металлов (свинца, кадмия, цинка, железа, меди) в почве и в лекарственных растениях (подорожник большой, лопух большой). Наиболее сильное превышение ПДК наблюдается по свинцу, которое составило в почвенных образцах 3,2 раза, в растительном сырье 5,4-9,7 раза....

  16. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates? Detritos foliares de cana-de-açúcar são bem colonizados por macroinvertebrados aquáticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.OBJETIVO: O principal objetivo foi comparar a cinética de decomposição e a colonização de detritos de duas espécies de plantas: a nativa Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo e a exótica Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar por macroinvertebrados; MÉTODOS: Para cada substrato, três recipientes de colonização foram retirados de um riacho e os espécimes identificados até o menor nível taxonômico nos dias 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 e 75. Os detritos foram pesados no início e ao final do experimento e determinadas suas frações de parede celular; RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de mineralização indicaram maior velocidade de decaimento da matéria orgânica refratária nos detritos de T. ovata. Os dois substratos não apresentaram diferenças na estrutura taxonômica da comunidade

  17. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates? Detritos foliares de cana-de-açúcar são bem colonizados por macroinvertebrados aquáticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.OBJETIVO: O principal objetivo foi comparar a cinética de decomposição e a colonização de detritos de duas espécies de plantas: a nativa Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo e a exótica Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar por macroinvertebrados; MÉTODOS: Para cada substrato, três recipientes de colonização foram retirados de um riacho e os espécimes identificados até o menor nível taxonômico nos dias 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 e 75. Os detritos foram pesados no início e ao final do experimento e determinadas suas frações de parede celular; RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de mineralização indicaram maior velocidade de decaimento da matéria orgânica refratária nos detritos de T. ovata. Os dois substratos não apresentaram diferenças na estrutura taxonômica da comunidade

  18. Untargeted metabolic profiling reveals geography as the strongest predictor of metabolic phenotypes of a cosmopolitan weed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrand, Natalie Eva Iwanycki; Havskov Reghev, Nicoline; Markussen, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Plants produce a multitude of metabolites that contribute to their fitness and survival, and play a role in local adaptation to environmental conditions. The effects of environmental variation is particularly well studied within the genus Plantago, however, previous studies have largely focused...

  19. New floristic records in the Balkans: 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    caespitosa subsp. alpina (34), Plantago maritima subsp. serpentina (38), Thymus callieri subsp. callieri (31); Montenegro - Asperula hercegovina (73); Serbia - Allium paniculatum subsp. villosum (98), Viola obliqua (57); Turkey-in-Europe - Chamaecytisus jankae (37). subsp. (98), (57); Turkey-in-Europe - (37...

  20. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  1. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., powdered extract Betaine hydrochloride Bismuth subcarbonate Bismuth subgallate Black radish powder Blessed... Pineapple enzymes Plantago seed Potassium citrate Pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) Riboflavin Rice... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), for which an approved new drug application under...

  2. Taxonomy, sexuality and mating types of Diaporthe adunca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, E.G.A.; Van der Aa, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    The perithecial stage of the pathogenic fungus Diaporthe adunca, found for the first time since 1851 in natural populations of its host Plantago lanceolata, is described. Analysis of artificial reciprocal crosses and progeny from naturally occurring perithecia indicated that D. adunca is

  3. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    carota), horseweed (Erigeron canadensis), plantain (Plantago lanceolata, P. virginica, P. aristata), horse nettle (Solanum carolinense), dog fennel... insects that are used for food by the red-eyed vireo, scarlet tanager, tufted titmouse, common flicker, and various warblers. The abundant birds and...Detritivores, including immature stages of aquatic insects , small arthropods, and annelid worms, which thrive in this wetland community are consumed

  4. Septoglomus fuscum and S. furcatum, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszkowski, Janusz; Chwat, Gerad; Kovacs, Gábor M

    2013-01-01

    ’s reagent. In the field, S. fuscum was associated with roots of Arctotheca populifolia colonizing maritime dunes located near Strand in South Africa and S. furcatum was associated with Cordia oncocalyx growing in a dry forest in the Ceará State, Brazil. In single-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata...

  5. Disposal and Reuse of Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Engelmannia bipinnatifida), wild honeysuckles ( Gaura spp.), mouse-eared chickweeds (Cerastium spp.), stork’s-bills (Erodium spp.), and plantains (Plantago spp...mesquite, other prominent vegetation includes Roosevelt weed (Baccharis neglecta), prickly pear (Opuntia lindheimeri ) and pencil cacti (0. leptocarpis

  6. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris.

  7. Horizontal acquisition of multiple mitochondrial genes from a parasitic plant followed by gene conversion with host mitochondrial genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is relatively common in plant mitochondrial genomes but the mechanisms, extent and consequences of transfer remain largely unknown. Previous results indicate that parasitic plants are often involved as either transfer donors or recipients, suggesting that direct contact between parasite and host facilitates genetic transfer among plants. Results In order to uncover the mechanistic details of plant-to-plant HGT, the extent and evolutionary fate of transfer was investigated between two groups: the parasitic genus Cuscuta and a small clade of Plantago species. A broad polymerase chain reaction (PCR) survey of mitochondrial genes revealed that at least three genes (atp1, atp6 and matR) were recently transferred from Cuscuta to Plantago. Quantitative PCR assays show that these three genes have a mitochondrial location in the one species line of Plantago examined. Patterns of sequence evolution suggest that these foreign genes degraded into pseudogenes shortly after transfer and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses demonstrate that none are detectably transcribed. Three cases of gene conversion were detected between native and foreign copies of the atp1 gene. The identical phylogenetic distribution of the three foreign genes within Plantago and the retention of cytidines at ancestral positions of RNA editing indicate that these genes were probably acquired via a single, DNA-mediated transfer event. However, samplings of multiple individuals from two of the three species in the recipient Plantago clade revealed complex and perplexing phylogenetic discrepancies and patterns of sequence divergence for all three of the foreign genes. Conclusions This study reports the best evidence to date that multiple mitochondrial genes can be transferred via a single HGT event and that transfer occurred via a strictly DNA-level intermediate. The discovery of gene conversion between co-resident foreign and native mitochondrial copies suggests

  8. Horizontal acquisition of multiple mitochondrial genes from a parasitic plant followed by gene conversion with host mitochondrial genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Weilong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is relatively common in plant mitochondrial genomes but the mechanisms, extent and consequences of transfer remain largely unknown. Previous results indicate that parasitic plants are often involved as either transfer donors or recipients, suggesting that direct contact between parasite and host facilitates genetic transfer among plants. Results In order to uncover the mechanistic details of plant-to-plant HGT, the extent and evolutionary fate of transfer was investigated between two groups: the parasitic genus Cuscuta and a small clade of Plantago species. A broad polymerase chain reaction (PCR survey of mitochondrial genes revealed that at least three genes (atp1, atp6 and matR were recently transferred from Cuscuta to Plantago. Quantitative PCR assays show that these three genes have a mitochondrial location in the one species line of Plantago examined. Patterns of sequence evolution suggest that these foreign genes degraded into pseudogenes shortly after transfer and reverse transcription (RT-PCR analyses demonstrate that none are detectably transcribed. Three cases of gene conversion were detected between native and foreign copies of the atp1 gene. The identical phylogenetic distribution of the three foreign genes within Plantago and the retention of cytidines at ancestral positions of RNA editing indicate that these genes were probably acquired via a single, DNA-mediated transfer event. However, samplings of multiple individuals from two of the three species in the recipient Plantago clade revealed complex and perplexing phylogenetic discrepancies and patterns of sequence divergence for all three of the foreign genes. Conclusions This study reports the best evidence to date that multiple mitochondrial genes can be transferred via a single HGT event and that transfer occurred via a strictly DNA-level intermediate. The discovery of gene conversion between co-resident foreign and native

  9. Development of Graphene-based novel cathode material in MES system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Leifeng; Aryal, Nabin; Ammam, Fariza

    2014-01-01

    Sporomusa ovata (S.O) typically have a negative outer-surface charge. The graphene oxide (GO) is the acceptor of the electron. If the GO accept electrons from the Sporomusa ovata and the GO can be reduced to graphene. This will lead to in situ construction of a bacteria/graphene network in the cathode......It has been reported that physical contact between unique nanostructures of electrode and bacteria isimportant for microbial electrosynthesis. The higher specific surface area of cathode can increase contact interface area with bacteria and enhance electron-exchange at the electrode surface...... and RamanSpectrum to character the GO and R-GO. The density of the Sporomusa ovate on the R-GO cathode can becharactered by the confocal laser-scanning fuorescence microscopyer. Acetate is measured via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The images of R-GO/Sporomusa ovate can be characterizedand...

  10. Diferencias en las historias de vida de dos especies de isópodos bopíridos (Isopoda: Epicaridea que parasitan al nape Neotrypaea uncinata (Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea Different life histories of two species of bopyrid isopods (Isopoda, Epicaridea, parasites of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En ambientes costeros de Concepción, Chile, se han registrado dos especies de isópodos, Ione ovata Shiino, 1964 e Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900, parásitos en las cámaras branquiales del nape Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. La prevalencia de parasitismo sin embargo, es mucho menor en Ione ovata quien además presenta menor frecuencia de parejas cohabitando una misma branquia, aunque posee una especificidad comparativamente menor que I. agassizi. Esto sugiere que ambas especies poseen historias de vida contrastantes. Para mejorar el entendimiento de las causas de estas diferencias, en este estudio se analizan y comparan algunos rasgos de la historia de vida de los isópodos (fecundidad, tamaño de los huevos, inversión reproductiva, y capacidad de los machos para colonizar napes no parasitados. Ione agassizi tuvo una menor fecundidad, y huevos de mayor tamaño que I. ovata. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias en la inversión reproductiva entre ambas especies, ni en su relación con el tamaño corporal del isópodo. Los machos de I. ovata poseen mayor habilidad que los de I. agassizi para colonizar nuevos napes no parasitados, ya que pudieron permanecer en nuevos hospedadores y rediferenciarse sexualmente en hembras. Se considera que sería necesario estimar la sobrevivencia durante el tiempo total de vida de estos parásitos para mejorar la interpretación de estos resultadosOn coastal habitats near Concepción city, Chile, there are two isopod species Ione ovata Shiino, 1964, and Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900 both occupying the gill chambers of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. However, in I. ovata, the prevalence is smaller, there is a low frequency of coupled isopods in the same gill chamber, and is less host specific than I. agassizi. These observations suggest that both isopod species have different life histories. To improve the understanding of the causes of these differences some life history

  11. Ephemeral wetland communities of Isoëto-Nano-Juncetea class – new data from south-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation data (70 relevés of ephemeral wetlands collected in both permanent and temporal water basins were analyzed. Numerical classification of the data revealed two distinct subsets, the first comprised communities of Eleocharition ovatae Philippi 1968 alliance, the second combined communities dominated by Alisma lanceolatum, Isolepis supina or Elatine alsinastrum (Alisma lanceolatum group. Phytocoenoses of Eleocharition ovatae were widely distributed in the study area and developed, most frequently, on exposed bottoms of fishponds. This group could be divided into four types of communities. Patches representing Alisma lanceolatum group were found only in mid-field depressions periodically filled with water and concentrated in Volhynian Upland. In this group, two lower vegetation units were distinguished.

  12. Systematics and biology of the African genus Ferraria (Iridaceae: Irideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following field and herbarium investigation of the subequatorial African and mainly western southern African Ferraria Burm. ex Mill. (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, a genus of cormous geophytes, we recognize 18 species, eight more than were included in the 1979 account of the genus by M.P. de Vos. One of these, F. ovata, based on Moraea ovata Thunb. (1800, was only discovered to be a species of Ferraria in 2001, and three more are the result of our different view of De Vos’s taxonomy. In tropical Africa, F. glutinosa is recircumscribed to include only mid- to late summer-flowering plants, usually with a single basal leaf and with purple to brown flowers often marked with yellow. A second summer-flowering species, F. candelabrum, includes taller plants with several basal leaves. Spring and early summer-flowering plants lacking foliage leaves and with yellow flowers from central Africa are referred to F. spithamea or F. welwitschii respectively.

  13. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water bu...

  14. Environmental Inventory and Analysis for Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Volume II. Appendices. Pine Bluff Metropolitan Area, Arkansas Urban Water Management Study. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    8217! COMMON NAME : F(Iw, jv.; ABL T :0" ACANTHACEAE Justicia ovata Shallw water Water Willow Ruellia humilis Open forests; 1I fiel Wild Petunia Ruellia ...pedunculata Open woods alotiC streams- Wild Petunia Ruellia strepen6 Rich woods Wild Petunia ACERACEAE Acer negundo River banks and floodolain A Box Elder...americana Bottomlands, wet woods C French Mulberry Lippia lanceolata Wet areas, streambanks C Fog Fruit Lippia nodiflora Wet areas, streambanks C Fog

  15. Indobis and its relevance to the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere reserve

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Kakodkar, A.; Nath, A.I.V.

    .ovata, H.beccari, H.spipulacea, Halodule uninervis, Cymodocea rotunds, C.serulata. All the 11 sea grasses of India occur here with Enhalus acoroides being endemic. The sea grass beds provide feeding grounds for the highly endangered sea-mammal Dugong... with algal communities, sea grasses, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves. It is one of the world's richest regions from a marine biodiversity perspective. 302 The Government of India, has established the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, in 1989...

  16. Indian satellite IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT). Monitoring algal blooms in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhat, S.R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Nayak, S.R.

    monotis, Prorocentrum lima on the macroalgae of artificial and natural reefs in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea • Italy Ostreopsis ovata, Coolia monotis, Prorocentrum lima, Prorocentrum sp., Amphidinium sp. have been detected on the Tuscany coast, Tyrrhenian... Sea, on macroalgae on the artificial reefs of Marina di Massa and Versilia, and on the natural reefs of Livorno. The same dinoflagellates have been found on the islands of the Tuscany archipelago: Elba, Giannutri, Giglio [1, 2]. During these blooms...

  17. Operation and Maintenance Pools 24, 25, and 26 Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    eight species, plus eight additional taxa identi- fied to genus only, were collected from these seven sites. Only eight species occurred at three or...occidentalis) 2 3 Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) 2 2 Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) 2 0 Persimmon ( Diospyros virginiana) 1 3 River birch (Betula nigra) 1 2...turtles, red-eared turtles, and map turtles were commonly observed in wetland areas. Four species of water snakes ( Genus Natrix) frequently utilized

  18. The Buffalo Creek Archaeological Project. Volume 1: Background and Testing at 3MS346 and 3CG847 Mississippi and Craighead Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    shagbark hickory ( Carya ovata), and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). These trees dominate the vegetation on well-drained elevated land such as tho-se areas...strongly acidic soil (Steyermark 1959:95, 120). Chinquapin (Castanea ozarkensis), black or sourgum (Nyssa sylvatica), black hickory ( Carya texana...white oak, mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), black hickory, white hickory ( Carya alba), flowering dogwoo-T-,whiT𔃻eFash(Fraxinus americana

  19. Comparison of Separation of Seed Oil Triglycerides Containing Isomeric Conjugated Octadecatrienoic Acid Moieties by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Anh Van Nguyen; Victor Deineka; Lumila Deineka; Anh Vu Thi Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    Relative retention analysis and increment approach were applied for the comparison of triglycerides (TGs) retention of a broad set of plant seed oils with isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acids (CLnA) by reversed-phase HPLC for “propanol-2-acetonitrile” mobile phases and Kromasil 100-5C18 stationary phase with diode array detection (DAD) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The subjects of investigation were TGs of seed oils: Calendula officinalis, Catalpa ovata, Jacaranda mimosifolia, ...

  20. An Adaptive Laboratory Evolution Method to Accelerate Autotrophic Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian; Tremblay, Pier-Luc

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) is an approach enabling the development of novel characteristics in microbial strains via the application of a constant selection pressure. This method is also an efficient tool to acquire insights on molecular mechanisms responsible for specific phenotypes. ALE...... autotrophically and reducing CO2 into acetate more efficiently. Strains developed via this ALE method were also used to gain knowledge on the autotrophic metabolism of S. ovata as well as other acetogenic bacteria....

  1. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Ulmus rubra slippery elm Ulmus thomasii rock elm Pinus strobus white pine Juglans cinerea. butternut Juglans nigra black walnut Carya ovata shagbark...West Seneca X : X : X Town of Elm : X X X Town of Aurora : X : Town of Boston X : Town of Colden : X : 5.i, Table 1 (cont’d) Flood Insurance Status for...grandidentata bigtooth aspen Populus deltoides eastern cottonwood Rhus typhina staghorn. sumc Betula alleghaniesis yellow birch Ulmus americana. American elm

  2. Culturing Toxic Benthic Blooms: The Fate of Natural Biofilms in a Microcosm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Pippo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A microcosm designed for culturing aquatic phototrophic biofilms on artificial substrata was used to perform experiments with microphytobenthos sampled during summer toxic outbreaks of Ostreopsis cf. ovata along the Middle Tyrrhenian coast. This dynamic approach aimed at exploring the unique and complex nature of O. cf. ovata bloom development in the benthic system. Epibenthic assemblages were used as inocula for co-cultures of bloom organisms on polycarbonate slides at controlled environmental conditions. Biofilm surface adhesion, growth, and spatial structure were evaluated along with shifts in composition and matrix production in a low disturbance regime, simulating source habitat. Initial adhesion and substratum colonisation appeared as stochastic processes, then community structure and physiognomy markedly changed with time. Dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms, and dense clusters of Amphidinium cf. carterae at the mature biofilm phases, were recorded by light and confocal microscopy, whilst O. cf. ovata growth was visibly limited in the late culture phases. Life-form strategies, competitiveness for resources, and possibly allelopathic interactions shaped biofilm structure during culture growth. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis of exopolysaccharidic matrix revealed variations in sugar total amounts and composition. No toxic compounds were detected in the final communities tested by LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time OF Flight Mass Spectroscopy techniques.

  3. Synergistic Effects of Natural Medicinal Plant Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Carcinoma (KB) Cells under Oxidative Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Medicinal plants with synergistic effects on growth inhibition of cancer cells under oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 51 natural medicinal plants, which were reported to have anticancer effect on hepatoma, stomach cancer or colon cancers which are frequently found in Korean, were prepared and screened for their synergistic activity on growth inhibition of cancer cells under chemically-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Twenty seven samples showed synergistic activity on the growth inhibition in various extent under chemically-induced oxidative stress. Among those samples, eleven samples, such as Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffiusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, Cridium officinale, showed decrease in IC 50 values more than 50%, other 16 samples showed decrease in IC 50 values between 50-25%, compared with the value acquired when medicinal plant sample was used alone. Among those 11 samples, extract of Catalpa ovata showed the highest activity. IC 50 values were decrease to 61% and 28% when carcinoma cells were treated with Catalpa ovata extract in combination of 75 and 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide, respectively

  4. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.

  5. Fast transdifferentiation of human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells into neurospheres and nerve-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Porras, A R; Velez-Pardo, C; Jimenez-Del-Rio, M

    2017-04-15

    The human mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly tissue (hWJ-MSCs) represent a tool for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. hWJ-MSCs form neurospheres (NSs) within 3-7 days. No data is available to establish the neuro-phenotypic markers and time of formation of nerve-like (NLCs) and glial cells from NSs derived from hWJ-MSCs. NEW METHOD: hWJ-MSCs were incubated with Fast-N-Spheres medium for 24 and 72h. The new formed NSs were in turn incubated with forskolin in neurogenic NeuroForsk medium for 1-7days. hWJ-MSCs cultured with Fast-N-Spheres medium trans-differentiated into NSs in just 24h compared to 72h for hWJ-MSCs cultured with classic growth factor medium. The NSs generated from the Fast-N-Spheres medium expressed reduced levels SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG, as markers of pluripotency compared to undifferentiated hWJ-MSCs. The formed NSs exposed to NeuroForsk medium differentiated into NLCs in 4days as evidenced by high levels of protein expression of the neuronal markers, and no expression of the glial marker GFAP. Currently, the formation and harvest of NSs is expensive and time consuming. Published protocols require 3-7days to form NSs from whole human umbilical cord MSCs. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, the differentiation of NSs-derived from hWJ-MSCs into NLCs. The fastest method to obtain NSs and NLCs from hWJ-MSCs takes only five days using the two-step incubation media Fast-N-Spheres and NeuroForsk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acquisitions de la Bibliothèque de l’Institut de Géographie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AfriqueAKYEAMPONG, Between the sea & the lagoon: an eco-social history of the Anlo of Southeastern Ghana: c. 1850 to recent times, Athens, Ohio University Press; Oxford, J. Currey, 2001, G19-3646Alawī, Guerre secrète au Sahara occidental, Paris, Encre d'Orient, 2010, G 19-3616Babah Ebbe, Biogéographie du criquet pèlerin en Mauritanie, schistocerca gregaria Forskäl, 1775 : identification, caractérisation et originalité d'un foyer grégarigène en Mauritanie centrale, Paris, Hermann, 2010, G 19-3...

  7. Aquabuoy Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    The work reported here is part of the contract agreement between the Finavera Renewables Ocean Energy Ltd. and the Department of Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory to instrument a model in scale 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY (AB) wave energy converter and to analyse...... its performances in real sea testing in Nissum Bredning, Denmark. This report is part of Fineveras contribution to ForskEl project no 6435 “AquaBuOY skala 1:10 forsøg I Nissum Bredning”....

  8. Hvad der ligner en kontrakt med djævlen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Holm

    2010-01-01

    Livet i de danske børnehaver har i de sidste 10-15 år været udsat for stor politisk opmærksomhed. I pædagogiske kredse har man ikke været udelt begejstret for den megen opmærksomhed, for i kølvandet på den fulgte nye målsætninger og krav, som udfordrede megen pædagogisk tænkning. Ifølge DPU-forsk......-forsker har udviklingen dog ikke kun været af det onde....

  9. Influences of image resolution on herbaceous root morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zeyou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Root images of four herbaceous species (including Plantago virginica,Solidago canadensis,Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus were obtained by using EPSON V7000 scanner with different resolutions.Root morphological parameters including root length,diameter,volume and area were determined by using a WinRhizo root analyzing software.The results show a distinct influence of image resolution on root morphological parameter.For different herbaceous species,the optimal resolutions of root images,which would produce an acceptable precision with relative short time,vary with different species.For example,a resolution of 200 dpi was recommended for the root images of Plantago virginica and S.Canadensis, while 400 dpi for Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus.

  10. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Deok

    2010-05-01

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  11. Seasonal Dynamics of Stress Proteins in Leaves of Medicinal Plants in a Natural Environment of Irkutsk and on the Shores of the Lake Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zhivetiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study leafs of five plant species, growing in Irkutsk city and on the southeastern shore of Lake Baikal. These species are Achillea asiatica Serg., Taraxacum officinale Wigg., Plantago major L., Veronica chamaedrys L. and Alchemilla subcrenata Buser. In its leafs we identify some types of stress-induced proteins. In autumn, the accumulation of stress proteins in leafs of plants both from shores of Lake Baikal and from Irkutsk have been registered.

  12. The Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive molecules may cause great damage to cell membranes and DNA and Result in inducing oxidation DNA mutations leading to cancer, degenerative, and other diseases. Plant antioxidant derived may be preventive of free radical damages. Methods & Materials: The Stems and flower sample of plants air-dried, finely ground and were extracted by ethanol: water (70:30 for 48 h. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum. The antioxidant activity of five ethanolic extract of medicinal plants (Descurainia Sophia, Plantago major, Trachyspermum copticum L, Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum from Iran were analysed by five different methods [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,2,azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power (RP]. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components total phenolic content was also analyzed. Results: The total phenolic content of medicinal plant ranges from 74 to 154.3 mg Gallic acid/g extract as measured by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Values of DPPH varied from 15.5 to 19.6 µmol trolex/g. FRAP ranged from 124.2 to 753 µmol of Fe(II/g extract. Antioxidant activity of the Plantago major was always higher compared to the other plants extracts values of total phenols content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, (154.33 mg GAE/g, 1856 µmol trolox, 750 µmol trolox and 1169 µmol of Fe(II/g, extract respectively. The range of total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method was 513.3 to 870 µmol trolox/g. The reducing ability of the tested extracts was between 0.31-1.26. Plantago majorwas also highest activity in both tests. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated that Plantago major crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  13. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Deok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  14. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  15. Root-shoot growth responses during interspecific competition quantified using allometric modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David; Davidson, Hazel; Trinder, Clare; Brooker, Rob

    2010-12-01

    Plant competition studies are restricted by the difficulty of quantifying root systems of competitors. Analyses are usually limited to above-ground traits. Here, a new approach to address this issue is reported. Root system weights of competing plants can be estimated from: shoot weights of competitors; combined root weights of competitors; and slopes (scaling exponents, α) and intercepts (allometric coefficients, β) of ln-regressions of root weight on shoot weight of isolated plants. If competition induces no change in root : shoot growth, α and β values of competing and isolated plants will be equal. Measured combined root weight of competitors will equal that estimated allometrically from measured shoot weights of each competing plant. Combined root weights can be partitioned directly among competitors. If, as will be more usual, competition changes relative root and shoot growth, the competitors' combined root weight will not equal that estimated allometrically and cannot be partitioned directly. However, if the isolated-plant α and β values are adjusted until the estimated combined root weight of competitors matches the measured combined root weight, the latter can be partitioned among competitors using their new α and β values. The approach is illustrated using two herbaceous species, Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata. Allometric modelling revealed a large and continuous increase in the root : shoot ratio by Dactylis, but not Plantago, during competition. This was associated with a superior whole-plant dry weight increase in Dactylis, which was ultimately 2·5-fold greater than that of Plantago. Whole-plant growth dominance of Dactylis over Plantago, as deduced from allometric modelling, occurred 14-24 d earlier than suggested by shoot data alone. Given reasonable assumptions, allometric modelling can analyse competitive interactions in any species mixture, and overcomes a long-standing problem in studies of competition.

  16. Early root overproduction not triggered by nutrients decisive for competitive success belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Padilla

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that plant species win competition for a shared resource by more quickly preempting the resource in hotspots and by depleting resource levels to lower concentrations than its competitors. Competition in natural grasslands largely occurs belowground, but information regarding root interactions is limited, as molecular methods quantifying species abundance belowground have only recently become available.In monoculture, the grass Festuca rubra had higher root densities and a faster rate of soil nitrate depletion than Plantago lanceolata, projecting the first as a better competitor for nutrients. However, Festuca lost in competition with Plantago. Plantago not only replaced the lower root mass of its competitor, but strongly overproduced roots: with only half of the plants in mixture than in monoculture, Plantago root densities in mixture were similar or higher than those in its monocultures. These responses occurred equally in a nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor soil layer, and commenced immediately at the start of the experiment when root densities were still low and soil nutrient concentrations high.Our results suggest that species may achieve competitive superiority for nutrients by root growth stimulation prior to nutrient depletion, induced by the presence of a competitor species, rather than by a better ability to compete for nutrients per se. The root overproduction by which interspecific neighbors are suppressed independent of nutrient acquisition is consistent with predictions from game theory. Our results emphasize that root competition may be driven by other mechanisms than is currently assumed. The long-term consequences of these mechanisms for community dynamics are discussed.

  17. Species-specific effects of live roots and shoot litter on soil decomposer abundances do not forecast plant litter-nitrogen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saj, Stéphane; Mikola, Juha; Ekelund, Flemming

    2009-08-01

    Plant species produce litter of varying quality and differ in the quality and quantity of compounds they release from live roots, which both can induce different decomposer growth in the soil. To test whether differences in decomposer growth can forecast the amount of N species acquire from plant litter, as suggested by theory, we grew individuals of three grassland plants-Holcus lanatus, Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus-in soils into which (15)N-labelled litter of either Holcus, Plantago or Lotus was added. We measured the effects of live roots and litter of each species on soil microbes and their protozoan and nematode feeders, and to link decomposer growth and plant nutrient uptake, we measured the amount of N taken up by plants from the added litter. We hypothesised that those species that induce the highest growth of microbes, and especially that of microbial feeders, will also take up the highest amount of N from the litter. We found, however, that although numbers of bacterial-feeding Protozoa and nematodes were on average lower after addition of Holcus than Plantago or Lotus litter, N uptake was higher from Holcus litter. Further, although the effects on Protozoa and bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes did not differ between the live plants, litter-N uptake differed, with Holcus being the most efficient compared to Plantago and Lotus. Hence, although microbes and their feeders unquestionably control N mineralization in the soil, and their growth differs among plant species, these differences cannot predict differences in litter-N uptake among plant species. A likely reason is that for nutrient uptake, other species-specific plant traits, such as litter chemistry, root proliferation ability and competitiveness for soil N, override in significance the species-specific ability of plants to induce decomposer growth.

  18. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  19. A NEGLECTED INDIAN SPECIES OF CYPERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. KERN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subgen. Cyperus; sect. Iriae Kunth. — Annuus. Culmi erecti, tenues, triquetri, laeves, 1—7 dm alti, 1—2 mm crassi, inferne paucifoliati. Folia culmo breviora vel aequilonga, plana, flaccida, longe acuminata, in supe- riore parte scabra, 1—5 mm lata. Anthela simplex vel subcomposita, laxa. Bracteae oblique patentes, 2—4 longissimae, foliis consimiles, anthelam valde superantes. Anthelae radii 3—9, e cladoprophyllis tubulosis ore oblique truncatis postice cuspidatis vel bidentatis basi bruneis 0.5—1.5 cm longis emergentes, inaequales, oblique patentes, graciles, compressi, laeves vel apice hispiduli, ad 16 cm longi, longiores nonnunquam apice pauci- ramosi; radioli brevissimi ab ochreolo caudato suffulti. Spicae ovatae vel oblonga-ovatae, laxae vel subdensae, 1—3 cm longae, 8—25(—30 mm latae, 5—20-spiculosae, rhachi flexuosa angulis hispida. Spiculae compressae, rectangule divaricatae vel imae subreflexae, ovatae usque ad oblongo-linea- res, 3—12 mm longae, 2—2.5 mm latae, 4—18-f lorae, basi saepe a seta su- buliformi suffultae. Rhachilla obscure brunea, recta, subexalata, internodiis 0.6—1 mm longis. Glumae membranaceae,1/3—1/2 parte imbricatae, patulae, concavae, fere orbiculatae, (1.75—2mm longae ac latae, sub apice emar- ginato mucronulatae, dorso viridi 7-nerviae, lateribus fulvae purpureo- notatae uninerviae, carina acuta arcuata superne angustissime alata, spinuloso-ciliata. Stamina 2; antherae breves, oblongae, interdum lineares; connectivum in appendicem brevem productum. Stylus fere nullus; stigmata 3, achenio multo breviora. Achenium ambitu obovatum, trique- trum, lateribus concavis, basi late stipitatum, apice mucronatum, atro- bruneum, nitidum, dense puncticulatum, 1.5 mm longum, 0.8—0.9 mm latum.

  20. Genetic and toxinological characterization of North Atlantic strains of the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis and allelopathic interactions with toxic and non-toxic species from the genera Prorocentrum, Coolia and Gambierdiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Portela, María; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José Mariano; Bañuelos, Rosa Mª; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The genus Ostreopsis includes several toxic species that can develop blooms in benthic ecosystems, with potential harmful consequences for human health and marine invertebrates. Despite of this, little is known about the allelopathic interactions between these organisms and other co-occurring microalgae that exploit similar spatial and nutrient resources in benthic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to follow these interactions in cultures of two Ostreopsis ribotypes with different toxin profiles (O. cf. ovata contained ovatoxins-a, b, c and e, while only ovatoxin-d was found in O .sp. "Lanzarote-type"), mixed with species of three benthic dinoflagellate genera (Coolia, Prorocentrum and Gambierdiscus), isolated from the same area (North East Atlantic, Canary Islands). In a first experiment, the potential allelopathic effects on growth rates were followed, in mixed cultures of Coolia monotis (a non toxic species) exposed to the clarified medium and to cells of O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata. Growth delayed in C. monotis was observed specially in clarified medium, while the O. sp. "Lanzarote-type" strain attained much lower densities in mixed cultures. In a second experiment, we examined the potential effects of clarified media from O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata on the adherence capacity in two toxic species (Prorocentrum hoffmannianum and Gambierdiscus excentricus). Contrasting effects were found: a significant increase of adherence capacity in P. hoffmannianum vs attachment decline in G. excentricus, that experienced also severe deleterious effects (cell lysis). Our results suggest the existence of weak to moderate allelopathic interactions between the studied organisms, although the outcome is dependent on the species involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The 1997 Excavations at the Big Eddy Site (23CE426) in Southwest Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-24

    Quercus spp. (red oak group) 3 12.5 Quercus spp. (indeterminate) 4 16.7 3 15.8 Carya spp. (true hickory) 9 37.5 6 31.6 Diospyros virginiana (persimmon...specimens identified to Carya spp., 89 comprise fragments of relatively thick-shelled hickory nuts such as shagbark hickory (C. ovata), mockernut hickory...relatively thin-shelled nuts, and several are from pecans (C. illinoensis ). Although not docu- mented as being present in Cedar County by Stey

  2. A new locality of orchid Orchis purpurea Huds. in Cieszyn Foothills (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beczała Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchis purpurea Huds. is protected species both in the Czech Republic and Poland. In 2014 a new locality was found in Kojkovice (district Třinec in the Cieszyn Foothils near border with Poland. The only one blooming individual was observed in 2014 and 2015 but it was accompanied by other 6 orchid species, that were much more abundant, as: Orchis pallens, Orchis mascula subsp. signifera, Listera ovata, Platanthera bifolia, Cephalanthera damasonium, Neottia nidus-avis. The Kojkovice forest deserves to be protected area due to abundant occurrence of many orchids.

  3. As espécies de Coccoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. ...

  4. The Species of Cocoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) from brasilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. para...

  5. Monitoring of Federally Threatened and Endangered Species on U.S. Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    0 0 Neonympha mitchellii francisci Saint Francis’ Satyr Insect E 1 0 0 Neraudia ovata None Plant E 1 0 0 Oncorhynchus clarki stomias Greenback...Onchorhynchus clarki henshawi Lahontian_cutthroat_trout Fish T 1 Oncorhynchus clarki stomias Greenback_Cutthroat_Trout Fish T 1 Oncorhynchus mykiss...G1 1 EN 1 Nototrichium humile E G2 2 NONE 2 Notropis topeka E G2 2 NONE 1 Oncorhynchus clarki stomias T G4T2T3 2 NONE 1 Oncorhynchus mykiss T G5 5

  6. Investigation of phagotrophy in natural assemblages of the benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis, Prorocentrum and Coolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliliane Vasconcelos Corrêa Almada

    Full Text Available Abstract Mixotrophy has been shown to be a common trait among dinoflagellates and its importance in the nutritional ecology of harmful algae has been hypothesized. Benthic harmful species have not been extensively investigated as their planktonic counterparts and there are major gaps in the knowledge of their nutritional strategies. In this study the occurrence of phagotrophy was investigated in natural assemblages of benthic dinoflagellates using epi-fluorescence microscopy with DAPI and LysoSensor staining. The study was conducted at five sites along the coast of Rio de Janeiro that were visited in January, August and December 2010. In total, 1659 dinoflagellate cells were observed. From these, only 0.4% of 1195 Ostreopsis cf. ovata and 2.2% of 134 Coolia spp. cells presented evidence of phagotrophy with vacuoles stained by LysoSensor or a DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole stained inclusion. Stained vacuoles were not registered in the 330 Prorocentrum spp. cells observed. Few O. cf. ovata cells contained round red inclusions ("red spots" that were not stained either by DAPI or LysoSensor, suggesting that these structures are not ingested prey. The results showed that phagotrophy was not a frequent nutritional strategy in benthic dinoflagellates during the study period.

  7. Potentially harmful Ostreopsis spp. in the coastal waters of Alexandria - Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ISMAEL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostreopsis spp. has been reported for the first time from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. Macroalgal samples were collected monthly between June 2005 and December 2007, from the rocks at Abu Qir, from less than 1.5 m depth, and their associated microalgae examined. Populations of two Ostreopsis morphotypes were found to occur in this location, east of Alexandria, viz., O. cf ovata Fukuyo and Ostreopsis morph1. The Ostreopsis spp. was abundant and dominant during the summer. They were more abundant as epiphytes of the brown algae Padina sp. and Sargassum sp., less abundant on the red algae Corallina sp., Jania sp., Laurencia sp. and even less so on the green algae Ulva spp. Ostreopsis cf. ovata was also identified during the summer months on the same macroalgal species, although in a much lower abundance. Ostreopsis spp. alternated in dominance with the benthic cyanobacteria Oscillatoria spp. and the diatom Licmophora sp. Other benthic dinoflagellates recorded at low abundance included Amphidinium carterae, Gymnodinium sp. and Prorocentrum lima.

  8. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW. According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6 leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE, and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1 and apigenin (2, respectively.

  9. Plectranthus (Labiatae and allied genera in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision is presented of the 40 species of Plectranthus, 1 species of Rabdosia and 3 species of Solenostemon which are indigenous, semi-naturalized or widely cultivated in Southern Africa. Descriptions, illustrations, keys and distribution data are provided. The following new names are published:  P. mutabilis Codd,  P. psammophilus Codd,  P. rubropunctatus Codd,  P. unguentarius Codd,  P. ornatus Codd (nom. nov. for Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Guerke, P. zatarhendi (Forsk. E. A. Bruce var.  tomentosus (Benth. Codd, —var.  woodii  (Guerke Codd,  P. madagascariensis (Pers. Benth. var.  aliciae  Codd,  Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd and  S. shirensis (Guerke Codd.

  10. Environmental Assessment of R&D Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Byriel, Inger Pihl

    2013-01-01

    cause severe negative environmental impacts. This paper presents an innovative environmental assessment practice on R&D programmes in Denmark. It reports on the challenges and experiences of assessing the Danish R&D programme ForskEL, which promotes R&D projects within the electricity sector......Despite their important role in shaping the technologies of the future, public research and development (R&D) programmes are rarely based on systematic assessments of the environmental effects. R&D programmes thus allocate a huge amount of financial resources to projects, which potentially may....... The programme is characterised by uncertainty about impacts and incomparable project types and technologies. A methodology for dealing with these challenges is presented, and experiences from a testing of the methodology on the 2012 programme are reflected upon. Finally the assessment is discussed in terms...

  11. Gene expression analysis of molecular mechanisms of defense induced in Medicago truncatula parasitized by Orobanche crenata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, José Vicente; González Verdejo, Clara I; Dita, Miguel A; Nadal, Salvador; Román, Belén

    2009-07-01

    The infection of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. roots with the obligate parasite Orobanche crenata Forsk. is a useful model for studying the molecular events involved in the legumes-parasite interaction. In order to gain insight into the identification of gene-regulatory elements involved in the resistance mechanism, the temporal expression pattern of ten defense-related genes was carried out using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. The induction of all of the analyzed transcripts significantly increased over a range from 2- to 321-fold higher than the control depending on the gene and time point. The transcriptional changes observed in response to O. crenata infection suggest that resistance could rely on both, the induction of general defense-related genes and more specific responses.

  12. Framing student dialogue and argumentation: Content knowledge development and procedural knowing in SSI inquiry group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Byhring

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the negotiation of the situated common ground in classroom conversations. Decision making on socioscientific issues (SSI includes norms of diverse funds of knowledge and interests. Arguments and justification may include warrants that cannot necessarily be weighed on the same scale. We discuss Roberts’ Visions 1 and 2 of scientific literacy as framing the common ground of classroom discussions. Two teacher–student dialogue sequences with 11th grade students from the Norwegian research project ElevForsk exemplify the negotiation of the situated common ground and the students’ deliberations. Our analysis examines what goes on in the thematic content, as well as at the interpersonal level of language use. Further, we suggest that different framings may complement each other and provide a space for the students’ emerging scientific conceptual development as well as for deliberation as a form of emerging procedural knowing.

  13. Efficiency of removing nitrogen and phosphorous and effects on extracellular enzyme activity in water body by five hydrophytes%5种水生植物的脱氮除磷效果及其对水体胞外酶活的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文强; 王子芳; 高明

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of hydrophytes in the purification of eutrophic water bodies,Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb.,Eichhornia crassipes,Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer,Ipomoea aquatica Forsk,and Lemna minor L.were planted in treated water to compare their effects on purification and their influence on extracellular enzyme activity.The results showed that all hydrophytes performed well during the purification process.For total nitrogen (TN),the order of removal efficiency was Eichhornia crassipes (81.6%) > Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (72.2%) > Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer (68.4%) > Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb.(65.8%) > Lemna minor L.(60.2%),and for total phosphorous (TP) removal,the order was Eichhornia crassipes (95.0%) > Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (89.7%) > Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer (78.4%) > Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb.(77.3%) > Lemna minor L.(70.5%).All five hydrophytes could enhance the activity of extracellular enzymes,and the treatment involving E.crassipes showed the maximum range and peak urease activity (UA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA).The range and peak UA were 19.70 μg · mL-1 and 10.33 μg · mL-1,respectively,and for APA,they were 8.12 μg · mL-1 and 5.95 μg · mL-1.The range and peak UA and APA for Ipomoea aquatica Forsk were the next highest.UA and APA were significantly negatively correlated with the concentrations of both NH4-N and dissolved active phosphorus (SRP),and the correlations were between-0.853 and-0.992 and -0.813 and-0.994,respectively.Eichhornia crassipes and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk may work better than Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb,Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer and Lemna minor L.,and have potential for application in the purification of eutrophic water bodies.%利用静态小区实验研究了菱角(Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb.)、凤眼莲(Eichhornia crassipes.)、水鳖(Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer)、空心菜(Ipomoea aquatica Forsk)和青萍(Lemna minor L.)5种不同植物对富营养水体的净

  14. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Genaveh Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinatary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Genaveh port in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 30 local informants by face to face interview. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 93 medicinal plants belonging to 55 families were identified. Plantago psyllium, Teucrium polium, Peganum harmala, Descuraninia sophia, Cichorium intybus, Achillea erophora DC, Matricarria charmomilla and Citrolus colocynthis had the highest cultural importance indices. Plantago psyllium, Descuraninia sophia and Zataria multiflora had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynocological diseases, respiratory disorders, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. In addition to the use of these plants to treat diseases as in Iran’s traditional medicine, people in the Genaveh port particularly use Plantago psyllium for drainage of infective boils and abscesses, cough, skin diseases, Teucrium polium for diabetes mellitus, wound washing and sterilizing, Peganum harmala for uterus infections and abdominal cramps, Descuraninia sophia for heart diseases and heatstroke, Cichorium intybus for heatstroke and liver diseases, Achillea eriophora DC for reflex, diabetes mellitus and wound healing, Matricarria charmomilla for seizure and dysmenorrhea, Citrolus colocynthis for hemorrhoid, diabetes mellitus and rheumatism and Zataria multiflora for sedation, abdominal pain and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Genaveh port. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Genaveh port are the

  15. Effects of migratory geese on plant communities of an Alaskan salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacheis, Amy B.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2001-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on two salt marsh plant communities in Cook Inlet, Alaska, a stopover area used during spring migration. From 1995 to 1997 we compared plant species composition and biomass on plots where geese were excluded from feeding with paired plots where foraging could occur. 2. Foraging intensity was low (650-1930 goose-days km-2) compared to other goose-grazing systems. 3. Canada geese fed mainly on above-ground shoots of Triglochin maritimum, Puccinellia spp. and Carex ramenskii, whereas the majority of the snow goose diet consisted of below-ground tissues of Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritimum. 4. Plant communities responded differently to goose herbivory. In the sedge meadow community, where feeding was primarily on above-ground shoots, there was no effect of grazing on the dominant species Carex ramenskii and Triglochin maritimum. In the herb meadow community, where snow geese fed on Plantago maritima roots and other below-ground tissues, there was a difference in the relative abundance of plant species between treatments. Biomass of Plantago maritima and Potentilla egedii was lower on grazed plots compared with exclosed, whereas biomass of Carex ramenskii was greater on grazed plots. There was no effect of herbivory on total standing crop biomass in either community. The variable effect of herbivory on Carex ramenskii between communities suggests that plant neighbours and competitive interactions are important factors in a species' response to herbivory. In addition, the type of herbivory (above- or below-ground) was important in determining plant community response to herbivory. 5. Litter accumulation was reduced in grazed areas compared with exclosed in both communities. Trampling of the previous year's litter into the soil surface by geese incorporated more litter into soils in grazed areas. 6. This study illustrates that even light herbivore

  16. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial.

  17. ERZURUM'DA SEBZE OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLEN YÖRESEL BAZI BİTKİLER / LOCAL VVILD PLANTS USED AS VEGETABLE IN ERZURUM

    OpenAIRE

    Güvenç, İsmail; Kaya, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    ÖZET 1 Bu çalışma, Erzurum vejetasyonunda doğal olarak yetişen ve sebze olarak kullanılan yöreselbitkileri belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirildi. Yöreden toplanan bitki örneklerinin tamtum teşhis edildi. Sebzeolarak değerlendirilen bu bitkilerin yöresel adları bağa yaprağı (Plantago majör), ısırgan (Urtica dioica), (Sinapis arvensis), kuzu kulağı (Rumex acetocella), çaşır (Prangos uechritzii), çir...

  18. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  19. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina.

  20. Daily variation patterns of airborne allergenic pollen in southwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Minero, F J; Candau, P; Tomás, C; Morales, J

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out using a Burkard sampler installed on the roof terrace of the School of Pharmacy, Seville, for two years (1995 and 1996). Eight pollen types described in the literature as having allergenic activity were chosen. They were Poaceae, Olea europaea, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Rumex, Urticaceae (including Parietaria), Cupressaceae, and Platanus hispanica. The types were grouped according to the similarity of their pattern of intradiurnal variation in pollen concentration. The following associations were established by multivariate analysis: Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae (appearing mainly between 11:00 and 20:00), Olea europaea and Plantago (12:00 to 19:00), Poaceae and Rumex (appearing throughout the day), and Cupressaceae and Platanus hispanica (8:00 to 14:00). The patterns of intradiurnal variation were similar both years for each type, despite the fact that the two years were climatologically different (1995 was dry and 1996 wet). We conclude that these behavior patterns are endogenous to the plants, and are hardly affected by meteorological parameters.

  1. Impact of common cytostatic drugs on pollen fertility in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišík, Miroslav; Kundi, Michael; Pichler, Clemens; Filipic, Metka; Rainer, Bernhard; Mišíková, Katarina; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2016-08-01

    Cytostatic drugs are among the most toxic chemicals which are produced. Many of them cause damage of the genetic material which may affect the fertility of higher organisms. To study the impact of the widely used anticancer drugs [cisplatin (CisPt), etoposide (Et), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)] on the reproduction of higher plants, pollen abortion experiments were conducted with species which belong to major plant families, namely with Tradescantia paludosa (Commelinaceae), Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae), and Alisma plantago-aquatica (Alismataceae). All compounds increased the frequencies of abortive grains. The lowest effective doses were in general in a narrow range (i.e., 1 and 10 mg/kg of dry soil). The effects of the individual drugs were similar in T. paludosa, A. plantago-aquatica, and Ch. majus, while A. thaliana was consistently less sensitive. The highest abortion rate was obtained in most experiments with CisPt, followed by 5-FU and Et. Comparisons of the doses which caused effects in the present experiments in the different species with the predicted environment concentrations and with the levels of the cytostatics which were detected in hospital wastewaters show that the realistic environmental concentrations of the drugs are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs affect the fertility of higher plants in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Peatlands of the Peruvian Puna ecoregion: types, characteristics and disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salvador

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands represent one of the most important water resources in the Puna grassland ecoregion, but this fact is not yet widely recognised. Puna peatlands also provide key environmental services such as increasing the regional biodiversity of the Andean Altiplano plateau and contributing to the wellbeing of high-altitude human populations by providing grazing land and cooking fuel. We conducted a study in the Peruvian Puna ecoregion to describe the current condition of peatlands in terms of their vegetation, physical and chemical characteristics and disturbance status. Our results suggest that peat thickness, organic matter and degree of humification are good indicators for identifying peatlands in the Puna ecoregion. In general, the peatland sites that we sampled were dominated by mixtures of cushion and acaulescent rosette forming plants such as Distichia muscoides Nees & Meyen and Plantago tubulosa Decne. These Distichia and Plantago peatland sites were characterised by a mean surface water pH of 6.3, corrected electrical conductivity (K corr. in the range 300–1814 μS cm-1 and presented the following mean exchangeable cation values: Ca2+ 48 mg L-1, Mg2+ 9.6 mg L-1, Na+ 8.2 mg L-1 and K+ 2.1 mg L-1. The most common causes of disturbance we encountered were grazing, peat extraction and roads. Disturbance was most severe in mining sites, where peatlands are especially vulnerable because they are not under legal protection.

  3. Allergenic pollen pollinosis in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiza, J; Jerez, M; Jiménez, J A; Narganes, M J; Cabrera, M; Varela, S; Subiza, E

    1995-07-01

    A 15-year pollen count was performed in the atmosphere of Madrid, Spain, to determine the months in which the highest concentrations of allergenic pollens occur. Pollen counts were done with a Burkard spore trap (Burkard Manufacturing, Rickmansworth, Herst., U.K.). The results were subsequently compared with results of skin tests in patients with pollinosis born and living in and around Madrid. The highest airborne presence (percent of total yearly pollen counts, mean of counts from 1979 to 1993) was for Quercus spp. (17%); followed by Platanus spp. (15%), Poaceae (15%), Cupressaceae (11%), Olea spp. (9%), Pinus spp. (7%), Populus spp. (4%), and Plantago spp. (4%). The most predominant pollens from January to April are tree pollens (Cupressaceae, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ulmus, Populus, Platanus, and Morus), although these are also abudant in May and June (Quercus, Olea, and Pinus spp.). The grass pollination period shows a double curve: the first peak occurs from February to April (8% of yearly grasses), and the second peak occurs from May to July (90% of yearly grasses). Among allergenically significant weeds, the most notable is Plantago; in contrast, Rumex, Urticaceae, Cheno-Amaranthaceae, and Artemisia spp. have very low concentrations (arizonica (20%). The population of Madrid is exposed to high concentrations of allergenic pollen from February to July, although the most intense period is from May to June. Grass pollens are the most important cause of pollinosis in this area.

  4. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  5. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on weeds growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiqing; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin; Chen, Jing; Yang, Ruyi; Hu, S

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the responses of different functional groups weeds to simulated nitrogen deposition (4.0 g N.m(-2).yr(-1)). Native weed species Poa annua, Lolium perenne, Avena fatua, Medicago lupulina, Trifolium repens, Plantago virginica, Veronica didyma, Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis, Eleusine indica and Amaranthus spinosus in orchard ecosystem were used test materials, and their above-and underground biomass and nitrogen uptake were measured. The results showed that under simulated N deposition, the total biomass, shoot biomass and root biomass of all weed species tended increase, while the total biomass was differed for different functional groups of weeds. The biomass of C4 grass, legumes and C3 grass was significantly increased under N deposition, while that of C3 and C4 forbs was not significantly impacted. The root/shoot biomass ratio of Avena fatua and Plantago virginica was enhanced by N deposition, but that of Poa annu, Lolium perenne, Medicago lupulina, Trifolium repens and Amarathus spinosus was not impacted significantly. N deposition had no significant effect on plant N concentration, but significantly enhanced the N uptake of all test weed species except Amarathus spinosus, Poa annua and Veronica didyma. was suggested that the further increase of N deposition might speed up the changes of the community structure weed species due to their different responses to N deposition.

  6. The Role of Endophytic Microorganisms of Medicinal Plants in the Adaptation of Host Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhivetev M.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultures of microorganisms were isolated from endosphere of Lake Baikal littoral zone plants: Veronica chamaedrys L., Alchemilla subscrenata Buser, Achillea asiatica Serg., Taraxacum officinale Wigg., Plantago major L. Morphology and biochemical properties of isolated bacteria were studied. For the majority of the endophytic bacterial cultures cellulolitic and proteolytic activity has been shown, which necessary for the effective colonization of plant tissue. For many cultures revealed ability in varying degrees to form a biofilm to improve survival in a vegetative organism. Their potencial role in adaptation of plant-hosts under conditions of climat Baikal region was shown. In particular, 9 of cultures demonstrated ability to act as nitrogen retainer. The vast majority of bacterial cultures did not have phytotoxicity or demonstrated its low level, reflecting and minimum negative effects of them on plant. Moreover, culture with encryption P3, isolated from Plantago major in August, showed a stimulatory effect in experiments on phytotoxicity. This same culture possessed the highest ability to secrete sugars as at +26°С and at +4°С.

  7. Heterogeneity of Soil and Vegetation in the Urban Habitats of New Industrial Cities in the Desert Landscape of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier Abd EL-GHANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.

  8. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  9. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasooriya, Gayani; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Takemae, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-09-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam.

  10. Freestanding and flexible graphene papers as bioelectrochemical cathode for selective and efficient CO2 conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Nabin; Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei

    2017-01-01

    During microbial electrosynthesis (MES) driven CO2 reduction, cathode plays a vital role by donating electrons to microbe. Here, we exploited the advantage of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) paper asnovel cathode material to enhance electron transfer between the cathode and microbe, which in turn...... facilitated CO2 reduction. The acetate production rate of Sporomusa ovata-driven MES reactors was 168.5 ± 22.4 mmol m−2 d−1 with RGO paper cathodes poised at −690 mV versus standard hydrogen electrode. This rate was approximately 8 fold faster than for carbon paper electrodes of the same dimension....... The current density with RGO paper cathodes of 2580 ± 540 mA m−2 was increased 7 fold compared to carbon paper cathodes. This also corresponded to a better cathodic current response on their cyclic voltammetric curves. The coulombic efficiency for the electrons conversion into acetate was 90.7 ± 9.3% with RGO...

  11. Diversity patterns and freshwater molluscs similarities in small water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Čejka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The survey presents the molluscan fauna from six impoundment systems of two sides (NW and SE of the Small Carpathians. Altogether 25 species (15 gastropod and 10 bivalve species were identified in reservoirs and their subsystems (inflows and outlets. The number of species per site ranged from 2 to 12, the mean number of species per site was 7. The mean number of individuals per site ranged from 15 to 905 (mean 174 ind/m2. Radix auricularia, R. ovata, Gyraulus albus, Gyraulus parvus/laevis, Hippeutis complanatus and Pisidium casertanum were present in more than 50% of reservoirs. The most abundant and frequent species in the entire area and all subsystems were Pisidium casertanum, Pisidium subtruncatum and Gyraulus parvus/laevis. Faunistic similarity indices indicate moderate degree of beta diversity i.e., differentiation among the sites; good separation of sites by cluster analysis indicates a different composition among inflows/outlets and littoral molluscan faunas of reservoirs.

  12. Public health intervention linked to a toxic microalgae bloom in Mijas beach (Malaga, Spain); Intervencion en salud publica relacionada con la proliferacion de microalgas toxicas en una playa de Mijas (Malaga; Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamez de la Hoz, J.; Padilla Fortes, A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper provide an overview of the surveillance environmental efforts and risk management for the public health linked to the register of a disease outbreak related to an episode of toxic potentially and harmful microalgae, identified during the summer of 2010 in a recreational beach of a touristic municipality in the coast of Malaga (Spain). Phytoplankton analyses showed the presence of different species producers of marine biotoxins, dominating Ostreopsis cf. ovata in the followed immediately days to the communication of 39 clinical cases of people that required health cares. The risks of the toxins produced by microalgae must be taken into account in the health networks surveillance for recreational waters. This study suggests the possibility to review the actions of the public health services from Public Administration, to the light of the increasing information on episodic harmful algal blooms. (Author)

  13. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Santala, Suvi; Zhang, Tian; Santala, Ville

    2017-11-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long chain alkyl esters. In the first stage, the carbon dioxide is reduced to organic compounds, mainly acetate, in a MES process by Sporomusa ovata. In the second stage, the liquid end-products of the MES process are converted to the final product by a second microorganism, Acinetobacter baylyi in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon-neutral chemicals or biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediment and organisms during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) at Kun Kaak Bay, Sonora, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jaqueline [Centro de investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo AC (CIAD) Guaymas Unit, Carretera al Varadero Nal. Km 6.6, Apdo. Postal 284, CP 85480 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: jaqueline@cascabel.ciad.mx; Garcia-Rico, Leticia [Centro de investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo AC (CIAD), Carretera a la Victoria Km 0.6, Apdo. Postal 1735, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: lgarciar@cascabel.ciad.mx; Jara-Marini, Martin E. [Centro de investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo AC (CIAD), Carretera a la Victoria Km 0.6, Apdo. Postal 1735, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: mjara@cascabel.ciad.mx; Barraza-Guardado, Ramon [Departamento de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas de la Universidad de Sonora (DICTUS), Rosales y Ninos Heroes s/n Col. Centro, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: rbarraza@rtn.uson.mx; Hudson Weaver, Amy [Comunidad y Biodiversidad AC - COBI, Terminacion Bahia de Bacochibampo s/m, Fraccionamiento Lomas de Cortes, CP 85450 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: ahw@cobi.org.mx

    2005-07-01

    In early April 2003, fishermen from Kino Bay Sonora alerted us about a massive die-off of fish and mollusks occurring at Kun Kaak Bay. Phytoplankton samples taken on 17 May 2003 reported the presence of a harmful algal bloom composed of Chatonella marina, Chatonella cf. ovata, Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium sanguineum. On 22 of May, we collected samples of water, sediment and organisms at the affected area. Physicochemical parameters and nutrients were measured in water samples from different depths. Sediment and benthic organisms were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg. We found concentrations of heavy metals higher than background levels for this area. Cadmium and Lead concentrations in sediment from the HAB area were up to 6x greater than background levels and Cd in mollusks was 8x greater than regulations allow. A relationship between elevated Cd and Pb concentrations in sediment and the survival of toxic dinoflagellates is suspected.

  15. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediment and organisms during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) at Kun Kaak Bay, Sonora, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jaqueline; Garcia-Rico, Leticia; Jara-Marini, Martin E.; Barraza-Guardado, Ramon; Hudson Weaver, Amy

    2005-01-01

    In early April 2003, fishermen from Kino Bay Sonora alerted us about a massive die-off of fish and mollusks occurring at Kun Kaak Bay. Phytoplankton samples taken on 17 May 2003 reported the presence of a harmful algal bloom composed of Chatonella marina, Chatonella cf. ovata, Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium sanguineum. On 22 of May, we collected samples of water, sediment and organisms at the affected area. Physicochemical parameters and nutrients were measured in water samples from different depths. Sediment and benthic organisms were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg. We found concentrations of heavy metals higher than background levels for this area. Cadmium and Lead concentrations in sediment from the HAB area were up to 6x greater than background levels and Cd in mollusks was 8x greater than regulations allow. A relationship between elevated Cd and Pb concentrations in sediment and the survival of toxic dinoflagellates is suspected

  16. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J. L.; Tomaszewski, E. K.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. PMID:19277175

  17. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J L; Tomaszewski, E K; Mundo-Ocampo, M; Baldwin, J G

    1996-12-01

    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

  18. Phytoplankton of the Boguchany reservoir in 2016-2017 at the stations in front of the hydroelectric dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Usoltseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The species structure and seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton of the dam area of the Boguchany Reservoir were studied in the first years of operation of the hydroelectric power station in 2016-2017. Two peaks of algal bloom are noted in spring and summer. Mass species were: diatom Stephanodiscus minutulus and dinophyte Gymnodinium baicalense in spring; diatoms Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria crotonensis, blue-green Dolichospermum lemmermannii, D. flosaquae, D. flosaquae f. spiroides and Aphanizomenon flosaquae; green Sphaerocystis planctonica and dinophyte Ceratium hirundinella in summer; diatoms F. crotonensis and A. formosa, cryptophytic Rhodomonas pusilla and Cryptomonas ovata in autumn. The cryptophyte R. pusilla and the Cryptomonas species were dominated under the ice. The maximum number of phytoplankton (9 million cells in liter was recorded in the spring. According to the indixes of saprobity, the purity of water corresponded to II-III quality classes (pure and moderately polluted water.

  19. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS SCHOUTENIA* Korth. (Tiliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROEKMOWATI ROEKMOWATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus consists of 8 species in Siam, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,Borneo, Java, and the Lesser Sunda Islands. It is here divided into 2 subgenera,the monotypic Schoutevia with S. cvata Korth. and Chartacalyx with S. accres-cens (Mast. Curtis as type species. Chartacalyx is divided into 2 sections, Char-tacalyx and A disci flora with S. kuiistleri King as type spscies.Three species, S. curtisii, corneri, and kostermansii are considered new.S. hypoleuca Pierre is reduced to synonymy of S. ovata Korth. S. peregrines Craib is reduced to a subspecies of S. glomerata King. The varieties of S. accrescens (Mast. Curtis are deleted. The species is dividedinto 3 subspecies: accrescens, stellata, and borneensis. A forma lepidota is reeog-nized for subspecies accrescens.. S. buurmanii K. et V. and S. kunstleri King- are considered to be differentspecies.

  20. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediment and organisms during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) at Kun Kaak Bay, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; García-Rico, Leticia; Jara-Marini, Martin E; Barraza-Guardado, Ramón; Hudson Weaver, Amy

    2005-07-01

    In early April 2003, fishermen from Kino Bay Sonora alerted us about a massive die-off of fish and mollusks occurring at Kun Kaak Bay. Phytoplankton samples taken on 17 May 2003 reported the presence of a harmful algal bloom composed of Chatonella marina, Chatonella cf. ovata, Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium sanguineum. On 22 of May, we collected samples of water, sediment and organisms at the affected area. Physicochemical parameters and nutrients were measured in water samples from different depths. Sediment and benthic organisms were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg. We found concentrations of heavy metals higher than background levels for this area. Cadmium and Lead concentrations in sediment from the HAB area were up to 6x greater than background levels and Cd in mollusks was 8x greater than regulations allow. A relationship between elevated Cd and Pb concentrations in sediment and the survival of toxic dinoflagellates is suspected.

  1. Limnologic-geologic excursion in the territory of the lower Erft River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, G.; Thome, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    The geography and hydrology of the area of the excursion are described. There is much damage due to brown coal strip mining operations. Ground water was drained through a canal leading to the Erft River. The water in nearby springs is rich in Fe which repels plant life. The canal contains only a few blue algae (Oscillatoria splendida) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix tenerrima) which tolerate high Fe concentrations. The Erft shore plant population includes Sparganium erectum, Potamogeton natans, P. pectinatus and Ranunculus fluitans. On flowering plants and stones, diatoms, various green algae (Cladophora glomerata, Stigeoclonium tenue, Oedogonium capillare) and the tropical red alga Compsopogon hookeri were found. The macrozoobenthos is composed mainly of snails (Bithynia tenaculata, Lumnaea ovata, Physa fontinalis, P. acuta and worms of North American origin (Dugesia tifrina, Dendrocoelum lacteum and Planaria lugubris). The Isopoda included Asellus coxalis and A. aquaticus. Leeches (Herpobdella octoculata) and insect larvae (Chironomids, Limnephilids) were also found.

  2. Enhanced microbial electrosynthesis with three-dimensional graphene functionalized cathodes fabricated via solvothermal synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Nabin; Halder, Arnab; Tremblay, Pier-Luc

    2016-01-01

    by 6.8 fold. It also significantly improved biofilm density and current consumption. A 2-fold increase in specific surface area of the 3D-graphene/carbon felt composite cathode explained in part the formation of more substantial biofilms compared to untreated control. Furthermore, in cyclic voltammetry...... must be implemented. Here, we report the development of a 3D-graphene functionalized carbon felt composite cathode enabling faster electron transfer to the microbial catalyst Sporomusa ovata in a MES reactor. Modification with 3D-graphene network increased the electrosynthesis rate of acetate from CO2...... analysis, 3D-graphene/carbon felt composite cathode exhibited higher current response. The results indicate that the development of a 3D-network cathode is an effective approach to improve microbe-electrode interactions leading to productive MES systems....

  3. Molecular diagnostics reveal spiders that exploit prey vibrational signals used in sexual communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virant-Doberlet, Meta; King, R Andrew; Polajnar, Jernej; Symondson, William O C

    2011-05-01

    Vibrational signalling is a widespread form of animal communication and, in the form of sexual communication, has been generally regarded as inherently short-range and a private communication channel, free from eavesdropping by generalist predators. A combination of fieldwork and laboratory experiments was used to test the hypothesis that predators can intercept and exploit such signals. First, we developed and characterized PCR primers specific for leafhoppers of the genus Aphrodes and specifically for the species Aphrodes makarovi. Spiders were collected from sites where leafhoppers were present and screened with these primers to establish which spider species were significant predators of this species during the mating period of these leafhoppers. Analysis using PCR of the gut contents of tangle-web spiders, Enoplognatha ovata (Theridiidae), showed that they consume leafhoppers in the field at a greater rate when signalling adults were present than when nymphs were dominant, suggesting that the spiders were using these vibrations signals to find their prey. Playback and microcosm experiments then showed that E. ovata can use the vibrational signals of male leafhoppers as a cue during foraging and, as a result, killed significantly more male than female A. makarovi. Our results show, for the first time, that arthropod predators can exploit prey vibrational communication to obtain information about prey availability and use this information to locate and capture prey. This may be a widespread mechanism for prey location, one that is likely to be a major unrecognized driver of evolution in both predators and prey. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cyanobacteria and algae in laboratory strains and in natural algal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácsi, István; B-Béres, Viktória; Kókai, Zsuzsanna; Gonda, Sándor; Novák, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Vasas, Gábor

    2016-05-01

    In recent years measurable concentrations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown in the aquatic environment as a result of increasing human consumption. Effects of five frequently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, diflunisal, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid and piroxicam in 0.1 mg ml(-1) concentration) in batch cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus, Microcystis aeruginosa, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), and eukaryotic algae (Desmodesmus communis, Haematococcus pluvialis, Cryptomonas ovata) were studied. Furthermore, the effects of the same concentrations of NSAIDs were investigated in natural algal assemblages in microcosms. According to the changes of chlorophyll-a content, unicellular cyanobacteria seemed to be more tolerant to NSAIDs than eukaryotic algae in laboratory experiments. Growth of eukaryotic algae was reduced by all drugs, the cryptomonad C. ovata was the most sensitive to NSAIDs, while the flagellated green alga H. pluvialis was more sensitive than the non-motile green alga D. communis. NSAID treatments had weaker impact in the natural assemblages dominated by cyanobacteria than in the ones dominated by eukaryotic algae, confirming the results of laboratory experiments. Diversity and number of functional groups did not change notably in cyanobacteria dominated assemblages, while they decreased significantly in eukaryotic algae dominated ones compared to controls. The results highlight that cyanobacteria (especially unicellular ones) are less sensitive to the studied, mostly hardly degradable NSAIDs, which suggest that their accumulation in water bodies may contribute to the expansion of cyanobacterial mass productions in appropriate environmental circumstances by pushing back eukaryotic algae. Thus, these contaminants require special attention during wastewater treatment and monitoring of surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of plants to high concentrations of uranium stress and the screening of remediation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yongjin; Luo Xuegang; Zeng Feng; Jiang Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the resistance and accumulation ability of different plant species to uranium (U) has important influence on the bioremediation of U contaminated soil. The resistance and enrichment ability of high concentrations of U (500 mg · kg"-"1 soil) in fourteen plant species were investigated and evaluated in this study in order to screen remediation plants for governance soil U contamination. The results showed that: (1) high concentrations of U stress had different effects on the emergence and survival of the different plants. The seed emergence of Hibiscus esculentus was reduced by 2/3, but the seed emergence of Gynura cusimbua (D. Don) S. Moore, Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not reduced. Under the contaminated soil, all the sesamum indicum died within a month after the emergence and the survival number of Amaranth and Iresine herbstii 'Aureo-reticulata' reduced by about 80%. But the survival number of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not influenced. (2) The biomass of the plants would be reduced by 8-99% in the uranium-contaminated soil. The anti-stress ability of Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef was the strongest in the fourteen plants, and Cucurbita pepo L., Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moench, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, Helianthus annuus, Chenopodium album L. and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. showed some the anti-stress ability. (3) Significant differences were found in the capacity of plants to absorb uranium between under high-uranium contaminated soil and under the non-uranium contaminated soil were. The plants with higher uranium content in thenon-contaminated soil were Gomphrena globosa, and Cucurbita pepo L., which were 2.249 mg · kg"-"1 DW and 1.620 mg · kg"-"1 DW, respectively. But the plants with higher uranium content in the high uranium contaminated soil were Cichorium intybus L., Amaranth and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, which

  6. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  7. Forage Quality Determined by Botanic Species’ Contribution on Permanent Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the forage obtained from permanent pastures is determined, in its turn, by the floristic structure consisted of species belonging to various botanic families. Each botanic species presents a specific chemical content and a certain contribution to the balancing of forage’s nutritional value. The chemical analyses performed, at species level, revealed the importance of the “diverse” species, which, with their content in mineral elements, may influence animals’ capacity of production and reproduction. Some of the species, considered to be weeds within the permanent pastures’ floristic composition, presented high crude protein content values: Achillea millefolium with 24.22%, Taraxacum officinale 24.06%, Urtica dioica with 32.46%, Plantago major with 17.04%, etc.

  8. Some extinct plant taxa on the territory of Novi Sad and their vulnerability status in Vojvodina and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đakić Žarko S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural habitats on the territory of Novi Sad are almost fully destroyed today, as well as their characteristic plant taxa. The reason for disappearance of natural habitats is the development of suburban communities, which is an irreversible process. Plant taxa, specific for wet, salty, and sandy ecosystems grew on those habitats twenty years ago and earlier. This paper presents the overview of 9 taxa (Suaeda maritima subsp. maritima, Androsace elongata subsp. elongata, Cirsium boujartii subsp. boujartii, Aster sedifolius subsp. canus, Blackstonia perfoliata subsp. serotina, Plantago maritima subsp. maritima, Salvia nutans, Allium angulosum, and Typha schuttleworthii. These taxa presented integral parts of autochthonous flora of Novi Sad. Since some of these taxa were found in the field 21 years ago and some even 93 years ago, they are extinct from the flora of Novi Sad.

  9. N transfer in three species grass-clover mixtures with chicory, ribwort plantain or caraway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aimsThere is substantial evidence that legume-derived Nitrogen (N) is transferred to neighboring non-legumes in grassland mixtures. However, there is sparse information about how deep rooted non-legume forage herbs (forbs) influence N transfer in multi-species grasslands. Methodology......Red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) was grown together with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one of three forb species: chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) or caraway (Carum carvi L.) in a field experiment. During the first year after the establishment, red...... clover leaves were labeled with 15N-urea to determine the N transfer from red clover to companion ryegrass and forbs. ResultsOn an annual basis, up to 15 % of red clover N was transferred to the companion ryegrass and forbs, but predominantly to the grass. The forb species did not differ in their ability...

  10. ERZURUM'DA SEBZE OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLEN YÖRESEL BAZI BİTKİLER / LOCAL VVILD PLANTS USED AS VEGETABLE IN ERZURUM

    OpenAIRE

    Güvenç, İsmail; Kaya, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET 1 Bu çalışma, Erzurum vejetasyonunda doğal olarak yetişen ve sebze olarak kullanılan yöreselbitkileri belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirildi. Yöreden toplanan bitki örneklerinin tamtum teşhis edildi. Sebzeolarak değerlendirilen bu bitkilerin yöresel adları bağa yaprağı (Plantago majör), ısırgan (Urtica dioica), (Sinapis arvensis), kuzu kulağı (Rumex acetocella), çaşır (Prangos uechritzii), çiriş (Asphodelus ramosus), (Rheum ribes), ...

  11. Estado de la diversidad de la flora vascular de los Pantanos de Villa (Lima - Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dámaso W. Ramirez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio de la flora vascular de los Pantanos de Villa realizadas en el 2007 y se analiza los cambios florísticos en los últimos años. Se registraron 47 especies silvestres comprendidas en 43 géneros y 27 familias. Las familias con mayor numero de especies fueron Poaceae (7, Cyperaceae (4 y Asteraceae (4. Se reportan 7 especies silvestres como nuevos registros para el humedal: Alternanthera pubiflora, Alternanthera halimifolia, Limnobium laevigatum, Colocasia esculenta, Rumex obtusifolius, Elodea potamogeton, Plantago major. Se encontraron 11 especies cultivadas en el ecosistema. En comparación con estudios anteriores, los resultados muestran una disminución en la riqueza florística, principalmente de las especies acuáticas. El análisis de similitud con anteriores estudios indica un cambio en la composición de la flora en el tiempo.

  12. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  13. Introduction of the flora, life forms and chorology of plants of some regions in western Chabahar (Sistan and Baluchestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Salimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Zarabad, Cheraghabad and Nogombecom plants of sub-basin watershed city of Chabahar, Iran. The studied flora included 78 species which belonged to 66 genera and 29 families. Poaceae with 16 genera and 19 species, Asteraceae with 7 genera and 8 species, Chenopodiaceae with 5 genera and 4 species, Papilionaceae, with 5 genera and 6 species, constituted the largest plant families respectively. The largest genera of the region were: Salsola, Heliotropium and Plantago, respectively. 42% of the flora belonged to Nobo-Sindian elements, 35%to Irano-Turanian, 18%were bioregional elements and 5% of the species were cosmopolitan. Flora of the studied area, included therophytes (56%, chamaephytes (15%, phanerophytes (14%, geophytes (12% and hemicryptophytes (3%.

  14. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)]. E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Serrano, Helena Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Pinto, Manuel Joao [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal)

    2007-03-15

    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. - Revisiting plant hyperaccumulation criteria.

  15. Provisional catalogue of the flora of San Ignacio de Huinay, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Morales

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to the vascular plants flora of San Ignacio de Huinay natural reserve, Comau fiord, Región de los Lagos, Chile. To date, 262 species with their herbaria sheets stored in 5 different American and European herbaria (CONC, M, MA, and SGO and that of Huinay, are known in the territory. In this work some first new records for the South Cone are included, such as Potentilla anglica, Plantago media, and Mentha x rotundifolia. Furthermore, some of the records are new for the Flora of Chile, such as Juncus burkartii, only known from Argentina. Other species very scarcely cited in Chile, such as Solanum nigrum and Bromus squarrosus, are also included.

  16. Aeropalynologic analysis of Timisoara (Romania during 2006 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a one year qualitative-quantitative study of airborne pollen. The objective of the investigation was to analyse the daily presence and distribution of pollen and to identify the pollen types that are abundantly represented in the atmosphere of the city of Timisoara. A continuous aeropalynologic survey was accomplished between 1 mai 2006 and 8 octombrie 2006. Plants with anemophilous pollination were the best represented: Pinaceae, Poaceae, Plantago, Rumex, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Artemisia, Ambrosia, Fraxinus, Salix, Betula, Carpinus, Quercus, Juglans, Platanus, Morus, Tilia. The total pollen spectrum was represented by 17 pollen types. Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen types was dominant. The highest level of pollen emission was recorded during August-September.

  17. Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

    2010-07-01

    Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

  18. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  19. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang

    2009-01-01

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with γ-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent

  20. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  1. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang; Kim Hae Kyoung

    2009-01-01

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response

  2. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang

    2009-01-01

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells

  3. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branquinho, Cristina; Serrano, Helena Cristina; Pinto, Manuel Joao; Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia

    2007-01-01

    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. - Revisiting plant hyperaccumulation criteria

  4. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  5. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  6. ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF FIVE TRADITIONALLY USED INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikarimayum Haripyaree

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, Methanol and Distilled water extracts of five Indian Medicinal plants viz., Mimosa pudica L, Vitex trifolia Linn, Leucas aspera Spreng, Centella asiatica (L Urban and Plantago major Linn belonging to different families were subjected to preliminary antimicrobial screening against six standard organisms viz., Ceratocystis paradoxa, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Macrophomina phaseoli, Trichoderma viride and Rhizopus nigricans. To evaluate antifungal activity agar well diffusion method was used. In addition LD50 of the same plant extracts were determined by using Range test on Mus musculus for cytotoxic activity. Methanolic extract of M. pudica showed the highest and significant inhibitory effect against some fungal species. Again, methanolic extract of M. pudica displayed the greatest cytotoxic activity.

  7. Association between khat chewing and intestinal parasitic infestations: a community based, cross-sectional study done in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossie, Andualem; Kebedez, Seleshi; Gobena, Teshome

    2013-07-01

    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk), is the psychostimulant herb cultivated in East Africa. Khat chewing could have health damaging effect. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between khat chewing and intestinal parasitic infestation. A cross sectional study was conducted in Jimma Town in July 2010. Structured questionnaire was administered to 991 individuals selected by a systematic sampling method. Stool samples were collected for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infestation. Data analysis was done using SPSS Version 16.0 for Windows. Among 991 respondents, 638 (64.4%) were females, 502 (50.7%) were Oromos, 486 (49%) were Orthodox and 475 (47.9%) of them were in the age group of 18-24 years old. The current prevalence of khat chewing was found to be 52.7%. The prevalence of single to multiple parasitic infestations was 33.4%. Negative association (p = 0.000) was recorded between the habit of khat chewing and intestinal parasitosis. Non-chewers were more affected than chewers. Higher proportion of non chewers was infested with parasites than chewers, suggesting that khat chewing might have a protective role against parasitic infestation. Further investigation on the effect of khat extract in in vitro and in vivo is recommended to disclose detail mechanisms.

  8. Toxic effect of khat (Catha edulis on memory: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhane Alem Berihu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People use khat (Catha edulis for its pleasant stimulant effect of physical activity, consciousness, motor, and mental functions. Although there are reports assessing the effect of khat on memory, there was no study based on formal systematic review and meta-analysis. Objective: We have therefore conducted this meta-analysis to determine the level of evidence for the effect of khat (C. edulis Forsk on memory discrepancy. Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to retrieve the papers for this review. Keywords utilized across database search were khat, cat, chat, long-term memory, short-term memory, memory deficit, randomized control trial, and cross-sectional survey. The search was limited to studies in humans and rodents; published in English language. Result: Finding of various studies included in our meta-analysis showed that the effect of acute, and subchronic exposure to khat showed that short-term memory appears to be affected depending on the duration of exposure. However, does not have any effect on long-term memory. Conclusion: Although a number of studies regarding the current topic are limited, the evidenced showed that khat (C. edulis induced memory discrepancy.

  9. Khat chewing and acculturation in East-African migrants living in Frankfurt am Main/Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, Stephan; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2015-04-22

    Khat (Catha edulis, Forsk) is a drug widely used in countries around the Red Sea (East-Africa and Arabian Peninsula). In Germany khat chewing is illegal but nevertheless an often observed habit in immigrants from this region. This study investigates the interrelation between immigrants acculturation processes and traditional khat chewing habits. Sixty-one khat chewers (14 female) from East-African countries were interviewed about their khat chewing habits and acculturation strategy using standardized questionnaires. Results indicate that immigrants׳ khat chewing behaviors are similar to what is common in countries with traditional khat use. But khat chewing tended to be less among immigrants who were relatively more oriented towards their cultures of origin. Chewing khat was subjectively considered to help coping with problems, to forget bad memories and to concentrate better. It was concluded that khat chewing serves a functional use of coping with stressful events in the present or in the past within this sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Time-varying span efficiency through the wingbeat of desert locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2012-06-07

    The flight performance of animals depends greatly on the efficacy with which they generate aerodynamic forces. Accordingly, maximum range, load-lifting capacity and peak accelerations during manoeuvres are all constrained by the efficiency of momentum transfer to the wake. Here, we use high-speed particle image velocimetry (1 kHz) to record flow velocities in the near wake of desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria, Forskål). We use the measured flow fields to calculate time-varying span efficiency throughout the wing stroke cycle. The locusts are found to operate at a maximum span efficiency of 79 per cent, typically at a plateau of about 60 per cent for the majority of the downstroke, but at lower values during the upstroke. Moreover, the calculated span efficiencies are highest when the largest lift forces are being generated (90% of the total lift is generated during the plateau of span efficiency) suggesting that the combination of wing kinematics and morphology in locust flight perform most efficiently when doing the most work.

  11. Structure and Composition of Mangrove Associations in Tubli Bay of Bahrain as Affected by Municipal Wastewater Discharge and Anthropogenic Sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Abou Seedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of municipal wastewater discharge and anthropogenic sedimentation on the structure and composition of gray mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. communities along Tubli Bay coastlines in Bahrain were investigated. Growth and regeneration of mangrove were measured, and its community was characterized. Sediment profile was analyzed for texture, pH, and salinity. Mangrove area covered by sand depositions was measured using Google Earth Pro. ANOVA and regression tests were employed in the analysis of the data. Results indicated that mangrove overwhelmingly dominated plant community in the study area, which was zoned by a community of other salt-tolerant species. Three main habitats exist in the study area with high similarity in their floristic composition. Species richness and the number of habitats were low due to the aridity and high sediment salinity. The dilution effect of the secondary treated wastewater had a favorable effect on height and diameters of mangrove trees. However, no differences were observed in leaf area index, basal area, and density of mangrove. The long-term accumulation of anthropogenic sedimentation had a detrimental effect on the mangrove community, expressed in swath death of mangrove trees due to root burials and formation of high topography within the community boundaries.

  12. Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants, superdispersant-25 and corexit 9527, to a range of coastal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Alan; Galloway, Tamara S; Canty, Martin; Smith, Emma L; Nilsson, Johanna; Rowland, Steven J

    2005-05-01

    The acute toxicity of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527 reported in the literature is highly variable. No peer-reviewed data exist for Superdispersant-25 (SD-25). This study compares the toxicity of the two dispersants to a range of marine species representing different phyla occupying a wide range of niches: The marine sediment-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas), the common mussel Mytilus edulis (L.), the symbiotic snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskål), and the seagrass Zostera marina (L.). Organisms were exposed to static dispersant concentrations for 48-h and median lethal concentration (LC50), median effect concentration (EC50), and lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC) values obtained. The sublethal effects of 48-h exposures and the ability of species to recover for up to 72 h after exposure were quantified relative to the 48-h endpoints. Results indicated that the anemone lethality test was the most sensitive with LOECs of 20 ppm followed by mussel feeding rate, seagrass photosynthetic index and amphipod lethality, with mussel lethality being the least sensitive with LOECs of 250 ppm for both dispersants. The results were consistent with current theory that dispersants act physically and irreversibly on the respiratory organs and reversibly, depending on exposure time, on the nervous system. Superdispersant-25 was found overall to be less toxic than Corexit 9527 and its sublethal effects more likely to be reversible following short-term exposure.

  13. Cadmium and lead accumulations and agronomic quality of a newly bred pollution-safe cultivar (PSC) of water spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Mu, Yang-Xiu; He, Chun-Tao; Fu, Hui-Ling; Wang, Xue-Song; Gong, Fei-Yue; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Breeding for pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) can reduce pollutant accumulation in crops. However, the PSC breeding would face the risk of nutritional quality reduction, which is usually ignored in conventional breeding programs targeting to increase crop yield or nutritional quality. Thus, the doubt whether the risk would exist has to be clarified for supporting the PSC breeding. In the present study, a newly bred Cd/Pb-PSC of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) and its parents (QLQ with low-Cd/Pb accumulation ability and T308 with high yield) of water spinach were employed to clarify the above-mentioned issue. Yields, and concentrations of Cd, Pb, nitrite, and organic and inorganic nutrients in shoots of the three experimental lines were determined. There were no significant differences in Cd/Pb concentration between the new PSC and QLQ, in nitrite content between the new PSC and its two parents and in yield between the new PSC and T308. It is decisively significant that shoot concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients in the Cd/Pb-PSC were as high as those in one of its parents. It is affirmed that the breeding operations (crossing and consequently continuous selfing) for lowering Cd/Pb accumulation capacity of water spinach would not lower the nutritional values of the obtained Cd/Pb-PSCs from the breeding, which should be a pillar that supports the feasibility to minimize Cd/Pb pollution in vegetables using PSC-breeding method.

  14. Validation of QTLs for Orobanche crenata resistance in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) across environments and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ruiz, Ramón; Torres, A M; Satovic, Z; Gutierrez, M V; Cubero, J I; Román, Belén

    2010-03-01

    Broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forsk.) is a major root-parasite of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), that seriously limits crop cultivation in the whole Mediterranean area. This parasitic weed is difficult to control, difficult to evaluate and the resistance identified so far is of polygenic nature. This study was conducted to identify genetic regions associated with broomrape resistance in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and to validate their previous location in the original F(2) population derived from the cross between lines Vf6 and Vf136. A progeny consisting of 165 F(6) RILs was evaluated in three environments across two locations in 2003 and 2004. Two hundred seventy seven molecular markers were assigned to 21 linkage groups (9 of them assigned to specific chromosomes) that covered 2,856.7 cM of the V. faba genome. The composite interval mapping on the F(6) map detected more quantitative trait loci (QTL) than in the F(2) analysis. In this sense, four QTLs controlling O. crenata resistance (Oc2-Oc5) were identified in the RI segregant population in three different environments. Only Oc1, previously reported in the F(2) population, was not significant in the advanced lines. Oc2 and Oc3 were found to be associated with O. crenata resistance in at least two of the three environments, while the remaining two, Oc4 and Oc5, were only detected in Córdoba-04 and Mengíbar-04 and seemed to be environment dependent.

  15. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  16. Variation in the resistance of some faba bean genotypes to orobanche crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Z.; Sellami, F.; Amri, M.; Kharrat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Four faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were tested for their reaction to Orobanche crenata Forsk., infestation. Evaluation was carried out for two cropping seasons at the Ariana research station, Tunisia in a field naturally infested with O. crenata and in pot experiments. At maturity, the genotypes Baraca, Giza 429 and the breeding line Bader carried 2-6 times less of number of emerged parasites and 3-7 less of dry weight of emerged parasites than the susceptible cv. Bader. The average yield observed for the three resistant genotypes was two to four-fold higher than the one observed for the susceptible genotype. These resistant genotypes seemed to flower earlier and to show late orobanche establishment which gave them an advantage over the parasite. The genotype Bader, which was selected for its resistance to O. foetida, was resistant to O. crenata, showing that selecting for O. foetida resistance can protect against O. crenata infection. Besides, the two genotypes Baraca and Giza 429 selected for their resistance to O. crenata in Spain and Egypt respectively, do not present tubercle necrosis on their roots, showing that they do not respond similarly to the Tunisian population of O. crenata. These partially resistant genotypes may provide breeders with additional sources of resistance to O. crenata, and can form appropriate material for an integrated control package. (author)

  17. Reproductive and bloom patterns of Pelagia noctiluca in the Strait of Messina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisenda, G.; Martinez-Quintana, A.; Fuentes, V. L.; Bosch-Belmar, M.; Aglieri, G.; Boero, F.; Piraino, S.

    2018-02-01

    Investigations on sexual reproduction of jellyfish are essential to understanding mechanisms and patterns of outbreaks formation. Pelagia noctiluca (Forskål, 1775) (Scyphozoa) is known as the predominant jellyfish species with direct development in Western and Central Mediterranean Sea. In this paper we used integrated morphometric, histological, and biochemical approaches to investigate the annual reproductive biology of P. noctiluca from the Strait of Messina (South Thyrrenian Sea), a key proliferation area for this species due to favourable temperatures and high productivity. From November 2011 to September 2012, P. noctiluca sexual reproduction occurred throughout the year, with two seasonal peaks (autumn, spring) of spawning and embryonic development. Gonads of female P. noctiluca were characterized by a large amount of mature eggs of small size (diameter 200 μm) were detected during low availability of prey. Two morphometric indexes were applied: the Gonad-Somatic Index (GSI, gonadal/somatic tissue dry weight ratio) and Fecundity Index (FI, n° eggs mm-2 * gonadal dry weight). The FI showed longer spawning periods than the GSI, providing a better causal-mechanistic explanation for the year-round occurrence of P. noctiluca in the Strait of Messina. Protein contents of the gonads changed seasonally, with the highest concentrations during the pre-spawning periods. We suggest that investigations on jellyfish sexual reproduction can provide biological information relevant for understanding mechanisms of jellyfish blooms as well as for the management of coastal zones affected by outbreaks of gelatinous species.

  18. Transferability of STS markers in studying genetic relationships of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Raghvendra; Chandra, Amaresh

    2011-11-01

    Transferability of sequence-tagged-sites (STS) markers was assessed for genetic relationships study among accessions of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum Forsk.). In total, 17 STS primers of Stylosanthes origin were tested for their reactivity with thirty accessions of Dichanthium annulatum. Of these, 14 (82.4%) reacted and a total 106 (84 polymorphic) bands were scored. The number of bands generated by individual primer pairs ranged from 4 to 11 with an average of 7.57 bands, whereas polymorphic bands ranged from 4 to 9 with an average of 6.0 bands accounts to an average polymorphism of 80.1%. Polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.222 to 0.499 and marker index (MI) from 1.33 to 4.49. Utilizing Dice coefficient of genetic similarity dendrogram was generated through un-weighted pairgroup method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) algorithm. Further, clustering through sequential agglomerative hierarchical and nested (SAHN) method resulted three main clusters constituted all accessions except IGBANG-D-2. Though there was intermixing of few accessions of one agro-climatic region to another, largely groupings of accessions were with their regions of collections. Bootstrap analysis at 1000 scale also showed large number of nodes (11 to 17) having strong clustering (> 50). Thus, results demonstrate the utility of STS markers of Stylosanthes in studying the genetic relationships among accessions of Dichanthium.

  19. PENGARUH LOGAM BERAT Cd, Pb TERHADAP PERUBAHAN WARNA BATANG DAN DAUN SAYURAN

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    Hening Widowati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cd, Pb heavy metal absorption in aquatic vegetables: Genjer (Limnocharis flava, Kangkung air (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk dan Selada air (Nasturtium officinale R. Br, studied to see the relationship with green figure scale. The research objective was to identify the accumulated Cd, Pb in the consumed organ vegetable, and their impacts to the levels of green figure scale. The research was undertaken by planting three kinds of the aquatic vegetables to the contaminated pure Cd,pure Pb media, mixture of Cd and Pb with factorial randomized block design. Data were analyzed by factorial One-Way Anova and further test of Duncan and HSD to see the difference of Cd, Pb and green figure scale, regression and correlation to know the contribution of Cd, Pb in influencing the green figure scale. Variety of vegetables, media, organ, and the interaction influences the accumulation of Cd, Pb and level of green figure scale. There is a relationship between Cd, Pb metal accumulation to the level of green figure scale of the aquatic vegetables, with negative correlation that Cd, Pb decreased the vegetable green figure scale.

  20. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  1. Granular formulation of Fusarium oxysporum for biological control of faba bean and tomato Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M; Shabana, Yasser M; Serag, Mamdouh M; Hassan, Nemat M; El-Hawary, Mohamed M

    2008-12-01

    Orobanche spp. represent a serious threat to a wide range of crops. They are difficult targets for herbicides, and biological control could provide a possible solution. This work therefore aimed to formulate mycoherbicides of Fusarium with adequate shelf life and virulence against Orobanche but safe to faba bean and tomato. Only two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. (Foxy I and Foxy II) obtained from diseased Orobanche shoots were found to be pathogenic to Orobanche crenata Forsk. and Orobanche ramosa L. Conidial suspension of both isolates significantly decreased germination, attachments and tubercles of Orobanche. Microconidia and chlamydospores of both isolates were formulated as mycoherbicides encapsulated in a wheat flour-kaolin matrix (four different formulations). All formulations greatly diminished Orobanche emerged shoots, total shoot number, shoot height, attachment of emerged shoots, the germinated seeds that succeeded in emerging above the soil surface and dry weight. Meanwhile, disease incidence and disease severity of emerged shoots were enhanced. The shelf life was adequate, particularly for coarse, freshly prepared, low-temperature-stored, microconidia-rich formulations. The induced growth reduction of Orobanche-infected host plants seemed to be nullified by formulations, particularly at the highest dose. These formulations seemed to destroy Orobanche but appeared harmless to host plants. Hence, they could be efficiently used as mycoherbicides for biological control of Orobanche in faba bean and tomato.

  2. Radiolytning i tal - og lytterundersøgelser

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    Henrik Dahl

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Mange tror, at radioen som medie er på vej ud. Hvis man ser på lytter- tallene, er dette ingenlunde tilfældet. Henrik Dahl, der er tidligere forsk- ningskonsulent i Danmarks Radio, gennemgår her dels de metoder der anvendes ved indsamling af lyttertal og dels udviklingen i radiolytning fra 85-89. I denne periode er radiolytningen totalt set øget ganske betydeligt, dog især pga. lokal(nær-radioerne. Men jvf. Stefan Samsøe-Petersens artikel i dette nummer, så har DR især mistet unge lyttere. Dahls artikel berører ikke ændringer i lytteomstændighederne, dvs. lyt- ningens "kvalitet". I dag høres radio - modsat tidligere - først og fremmest sammen med andre gøremål. Dette forhold kan belyses ved at sammen- holde DR´s lyttertal med de fritidsundersøgelser som Socialforsknings- instituttet har foretaget i 1964, 75 og 87. De viser et stærkt faldende tids- forbrug, for radioen som primær aktivitet.

  3. Driving under the influence of khat--alkaloid concentrations and observations in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F

    2004-02-10

    The use of the herbal stimulant khat (Catha edulis FORSK) is maintained by immigrants from countries where it is part of their cultural life (Arabian Peninsula and eastern Africa). In western countries the drug and its effects are largely unknown and no experience in evaluating impairment symptoms due to the khat-alkaloids, e.g. cathinone, cathine and norephedrine exists. Blood and urine samples from khat users involved in 19 cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs were analysed and correlated with the results of medical examination and police officer reports. In 3 cases impaired driving and in 10 cases marked impairment of psychophysical functions was observed such as effects on the nervous system (slow pupil reaction to light, dry mouth, increased heart-rate), trembling, restlessness/nervousness, daze/apathy/dullness, impairment of attention, walking and standing on one leg. However, the alkaloid concentrations assayed in blood did not correlate with the impairment symptoms. Apart from an acute phase of indirect sympathomimetic action the development of habituation and withdrawal symptoms must also be considered in explaining the diversity of effects observed. From these results it can be concluded that chewing khat may severely impair driving ability, but may also be without noticeable effects.

  4. Responses of different water spinach cultivars and their hybrid to Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Junliang; Huang, Baifei; Yang, Zhongyi; Yuan, Jiangang; Dai, Hongwen; Qiu, Qiu

    2010-03-15

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the stability of Cd and/or Pb accumulation in shoot of Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), the hereditary pattern of shoot Cd accumulation, and the transfer potentials of Cd and Pb in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.). A typical Cd-PSC, a typical non-Cd-PSC (Cd accumulative cultivar), a hybrid from the former two cultivars, and two typical Cd+Pb-PSCs were grown in seven soils with different concentrations of Cd and Pb. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb in shoot of the PSCs were always lower than the non-PSC and the highest Cd and Pb transfer factors were also always observed in the non-PSC, indicating the stability of the PSCs in Cd and Pb accumulation. Shoot Cd concentration seemed to be controlled by high Cd dominant gene(s) and thus crossbreeding might not minimize Cd accumulation in water spinach. Interaction between Cd and Pb in soils affected the accumulations of the metals in shoot of water spinach. Under middle Cd and Pb treatments, the presence of higher Pb promoted the accumulation of Cd. However, under high Pb treatment, accumulations of Cd and Pb were both restricted. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. "Det man hører, er man selv" - musik og identitet set gennem musikforskningens briller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Bonde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ”Det man hører, er man selv” er Danmarks Radios P3s yderst velkendte slogan. Det dukkede op i begyndelsen af (2000’erne som opfindsom og populær afspejling af en moderne forståelse af den rolle musik og medieforbrug spiller for den voksne dansker. Denne artikel handler ikke om P3 som musikkanal, men går bag om det populære slogan og undersøger hvordan musik og identitet spiller sammen. Hvilke (musikpsykologiske teorier belyser musikkens rolle i identitetsdannelsen? Hvordan forskes der i emnet, og hvilke resultater kan der peges på? Forskningen dokumenterer bl.a., at musik bruges aktivt af mange mennesker som en ressource til at konstruere selv-identitet og gruppe-identitet, og til at skabe, opretholde og regulere en mangfoldighed af følelser. Denne oversigtsartikel giver via præsentation af udvalgte teorier og konkrete undersøgelser en bred introduktion til emnet og viser, hvordan musikforskere gennem arbejde med interviews, dagbøger og (musikalske selvbiografier samt feltarbejde kan beskrive musik som en ofte meget vigtig brik i identitetsdannelsen.

  6. Carbon Stocks in the Small Estuarine Mangroves of Geza and Mtimbwani, Tanga, Tanzania

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    Edmond Alavaisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests offer important ecosystem services, including their high capacity for carbon sequestration and stocking. However, they face rapid degradation and loss of ecological resilience particularly at local scales due to human pressure. We conducted inventory of mangrove forests to characterise forest stand structure and estimate carbon stocks in the small estuarine mangroves of Geza and Mtimbwani in Tanga, Tanzania. Forest structure, above-ground carbon (AGC, and below-ground carbon (BGC were characterised. Soil carbon was estimated to 1 m depth using loss on ignition procedure. Six common mangrove species were identified dominated by Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. and Rhizophora mucronata Lamarck. Forest stand density and basal area were 1740 stems ha−1 and 17.2 m2 ha−1 for Geza and 2334 stems ha−1 and 30.3 m2 ha−1 for Mtimbwani. Total ecosystem carbon stocks were 414.6 Mg C ha−1 for Geza and 684.9 Mg C ha−1 for Mtimbwani. Soil carbon contributed over 65% of these stocks, decreasing with depth. Mid zones of the mangrove stands had highest carbon stocks. These data demonstrate that studied mangroves are potential for carbon projects and provide the baseline for monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV to support the projects.

  7. Effect of Salinity Stress on Growth Analysis of Isabgul, French Psyllium and Great Plantain

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    A. Rahimi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth indices are useful for interpreting plant reaction to environmental factor. Using Growing Degree Days (GDD for estimating the phonological growth stages is more valid instead of calendar time. In order to study effect of salinity on growth analysis in three different plantago species, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan in 2009. The study was carried out factorial experiment based on RCBD design with 4 replications to determine the influence of salinity (9, 15, 21 dS/m and control with distilled water and three plantago species (Isabgul, French psyllium, Great plantain. Polynomial equations with the 88 to 98 distinction coefficient (R2 were known as the best indicator for interpreting of growth indices fluctuation to GDD. In all three species, the highest dry matter accumulation, leaf area, Crop growth rates (CGR were observed in 900-1000 GDD at all salinity levels and in higher GDD, the decreeing trend of dry matter accumulation, leaf area and CGR were observed in all salinity levels. The lowest relative growth rate, crop growth rate, Leaf area ratio, dry matter accumulation were observed in 21 dS/m NaCl salinity. Results also indicated that maximum dry matter accumulation was observed in 800, 900 and 1100 degree day in Isabgul, French psyllium, Great plantain, respectively. No seed harvested from Isabgul and French psyllium in 21 dS/m. Among three species, great plantain could remain the highest leaf area consequently this species produced higher dry matter (0.4 gr per plant and relative growth rate (0.06 g.g-1.10GDD-1 compared to other species. In general, among three species, great plantain was better species from a growth and seed yield point of view in salinity stress.

  8. Surveying the Effect of the Phenol Compounds on Antibacterial Activity of Herbal Extracts: In vitro Assessment of Herbal Extracts in Fasa-Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Due to increase in  bacterial drug resistance, discovering new antibacterial compounds is really important. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phenol compounds effect on antibacterial activity of herbal extracts of Fasa-Fars province in vitro. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial activity of 26 plants was studied by disk diffusion, well, and MIC methods in compare with 13 standard antibiotics against S. aureus and E. coli as control bacteria. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods using Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: Inhibition zone of bacterial growth  against S. aureus in well and disk methods were 32 and 22 mm in using Zataria multiflora, respectively .And there were 23 and 16 mm against E. coli in Zataria multiflora, respectively. Less effects and inhibition zones, less than 15mm on both strains, were seen in using  Saturina hortensis, Cinamomum zeylanicum, ­Artemisia absinthium, ­Urtica dioica, Carum carvi L. cyminum Cuminum, Achillea fragrantissimia, Marticaria chamomilla, Zingiber officinale, Origanum majorana, and Plantago psyllium. Most effective MIC results, 7.8 µg/ml, were related to the extracts of Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum L. Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Laurus nobilis L. Phenol compound amounts were approximately between 66.51±1.9 and 233.15±5.1 mg/gr extract in Zataria multiflora and Plantago psyllium, respectively. Conclusion: Results of antibacterial activity of extracts and relation with phenol compound amounts indicate the antibacterial effect of phenol compounds in herbal extracts.

  9. Phenological records as a complement to aerobiological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo, Rafael; Silva, Inmaculada; Gonzalo, Ángela; Moreno, Alfonsa; Pérez, Remedios; Fernández, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Phenological studies in combination with aerobiological studies enable one to observe the relationship between the release of pollen and its presence in the atmosphere. To obtain a suitable comparison between the daily variation of airborne pollen concentrations and flowering, it is necessary for the level of accuracy of both sets of data to be as similar as possible. To analyse the correlation between locally observed flowering data and pollen counts in pollen traps in order to set pollen information forecasts, pollen was sampled using a Burkard volumetric pollen trap working continuously from May 1993. For the phenological study we selected the main pollen sources of the six pollen types most abundant in our area: Cupressaceae, Platanus, Quercus, Plantago, Olea, and Poaceae with a total of 35 species. We selected seven sites to register flowering or pollination, two with semi-natural vegetation, the rest being urban sites. The sites were visited weekly from March to June in 2007, and from January to June in 2008 and 2009. Pollen shedding was checked at each visit, and recorded as the percentage of flowers or microsporangia in that state. There was an association between flowering phenology and airborne pollen records for some of the pollen types ( Platanus, Quercus, Olea and Plantago). Nevertheless, for the other types (Cupressaceae and Poaceae) the flowering and airborne pollen peaks did not coincide, with up to 1 week difference in phase. Some arguments are put forward in explanation of this phenomenon. Phenological studies have shown that airborne pollen results from both local and distant sources, although the pollen peaks usually appear when local sources are shedding the greatest amounts of pollen. Resuspension phenomena are probably more important than long-distance transport in explaining the presence of airborne pollen outside the flowering period. This information could be used to improve pollen forecasts.

  10. Seasonal dynamic of the occurrence of the gregarines infection of Harpalus rufipes (Coleoptera, Carabidae in agroecosystem

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    D. Y. Reshetnyak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Relationships in the “parasite-host” system are closely interrelated and occur at all levels from the molecular to behavioral and population ones. There are two models of realization of these relations. The first case is when the parasites are uniformly distributed in the host population. High extensiveness of invasion is accompanied by its low intensity. The second case is when a part of host population is infected with parasites, but the negative impact is manifested to the maximum extent. Invasion of the ground beetle Harpalus rufipes (De Geer, 1774, dwelling in sweet corn agroecosystems located in the vicinity of Dnipropetrovsk near Doslidnoe village, by several gregarines species is investigated in this study. H. rufipes is an abundant, ubiquitous species, living in extremely wide range of terrestrial ecosystems, with especially high populations inhabiting anthropogenically transformed environments. H. rufipes has a wide range of feeding. This species is distributed in the Central and Eastern Europe, and introduced to North America. Gregarines were found in the intestines of 20 individuals of H. rufipes from 190 (10.5%: Gregarina ovata Dufour, 1828, G. steini Berndt, 1902, G. amarae (Hammerschmidt, 1839 Frantzius, 1848, Clitellocephalus ophoni (Tuzet and Ormieres, 1956 Clopton, 2002, Torogregarina sphinx Clopton, 1998, Gigaductus macrospora Filipponi, 1948 and G. elongatus (Moriggi, 1943 Filipponi, 1948. There is high level of infestation of C. ophoni and G. steini. At the same time, not more than three species of the gregarines were localized in the beetle body. Seasonal dynamic of occurrence of the gregarines is as follows. Maximal indices of occurrence are found at the end of August (22.2% and minimal ones at the end of June (4.8%. The highest total number of gregarines (383 ind. is recorded at the end of August, the lowest one is fixed at the beginning of September (33 ind.. Indices of gregarine species dominance are as follows

  11. World Checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida. Part 1: Laniatores – Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea

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    Adriano Kury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Comprising more than 6500 species, Opiliones is the third most diverse order of Arachnida, after the megadiverse Acari and Araneae. The database referred here is part 1 of 12 of a project containing an intended worldwide checklist of species and subspecies of Opiliones as Darwin Core archives, and it includes the superfamilies Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea. These two superfamilies are often treated together under the denomination of Insidiatores. In this Part 1, a total of 571 species and subspecies are listed. Briggsidae and Cladonychiidae are both downgraded to subfamilies of Travuniidae. Peltonychia Roewer, 1935 is an available name and senior synonym of Hadziana Roewer, 1935 and is herein revalidated. Seven genera of Triaenonychidae described by Lawrence between 1931 and 1933 originally failed to comply ICZN rules for availability (Art. 13.3. All of them only became available when Staręga (1992 designated a type species for each. Therefore, the correct authorships of Austromontia Lawrence, 1931, Biacumontia Lawrence, 1931, Graemontia Lawrence, 1931, Larifugella Lawrence, 1933, Mensamontia Lawrence, 1931, Monomontia Lawrence, 1931 and Rostromontia Lawrence, 1931 are all Staręga, 1992. Fumontana Shear, 1977, originally referred only to subfamily Triaenonychinae (as opposed to Soerensenellinae then and not corresponding to present Triaenonychinae, not to any tribe (which in turn correspond to modern subfamilies is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Picunchenops Maury, 1988 originally not included in any tribe of Triaenonychidae, is herein included in the subfamily Triaenonychinae. Trojanella Karaman, 2005, originally ranked as Travunioidea incertae sedis, is herein included in the Travuniidae Travuniinae. Nuncia ovata Roewer, 1915 (synonymized with Triaenonyx cockayni Hogg, 1920 by Forster (1954, but with inverted precedence is here combined as Nuncia coriacea ovata Roewer, 1915 as correct senior synonym instead of

  12. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

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    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  13. Molecular Phylogeny and Dating of Forsythieae (Oleaceae) Provide Insight into the Miocene History of Eurasian Temperate Shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Young-Ho; Kim, Changkyun; Choi, Kyung; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Tribe Forsythieae (Oleaceae), containing two genera ( Abeliophyllum and Forsythia ) and 13 species, is economically important plants used as ornamentals and in traditional medicine. This tribe species occur primarily in mountainous regions of Eurasia with the highest species diversity in East Asia. Here, we examine 11 complete chloroplast genome and nuclear cycloidea2 ( cyc2 ) DNA sequences of 10 Forsythia species and Abeliophyllum distichum using Illumina platform to provide the phylogeny and biogeographic history of the tribe. The chloroplast genomes of the 11 Forsythieae species are highly conserved, except for a deletion of about 400 bp in the accD - psaI region detected only in Abeliophyllum . Within Forsythieae species, analysis of repetitive sequences revealed a total of 51 repeats comprising 26 forward repeats, 22 palindromic repeats, and 3 reverse repeats. Of those, 19 repeats were common and 32 were unique to one or more Forsythieae species. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Forsythia and its sister group is Abeliophyllum using the concatenated dataset of 78 chloroplast genes. Within Forsythia , Forsythia likiangensis and F. giraldiana were basal lineages followed by F. europaea ; the three species are characterized by minutely serrate or entire leaf margins. The remaining species, which are distributed in East Asia, formed two major clades. One clade included F. ovata , F. velutina , and F. japonica ; they are morphologically supported by broadly ovate leaves. Another clade of F. suspensa , F. saxatilis , F. viridissima , and F. koreana characterized by lanceolate leaves (except F. suspensa which have broad ovate leaves). Although cyc2 phylogeny is largely congruent to chloroplast genome phylogeny, we find the discordance between two phylogenies in the position of F. ovata suggesting that introgression of the chloroplast genome from one species into the nuclear background of another by interspecific hybridization in East Asian

  14. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

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    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ≥ 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata

  15. Molecular Phylogeny and Dating of Forsythieae (Oleaceae Provide Insight into the Miocene History of Eurasian Temperate Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Ha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tribe Forsythieae (Oleaceae, containing two genera (Abeliophyllum and Forsythia and 13 species, is economically important plants used as ornamentals and in traditional medicine. This tribe species occur primarily in mountainous regions of Eurasia with the highest species diversity in East Asia. Here, we examine 11 complete chloroplast genome and nuclear cycloidea2 (cyc2 DNA sequences of 10 Forsythia species and Abeliophyllum distichum using Illumina platform to provide the phylogeny and biogeographic history of the tribe. The chloroplast genomes of the 11 Forsythieae species are highly conserved, except for a deletion of about 400 bp in the accD–psaI region detected only in Abeliophyllum. Within Forsythieae species, analysis of repetitive sequences revealed a total of 51 repeats comprising 26 forward repeats, 22 palindromic repeats, and 3 reverse repeats. Of those, 19 repeats were common and 32 were unique to one or more Forsythieae species. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Forsythia and its sister group is Abeliophyllum using the concatenated dataset of 78 chloroplast genes. Within Forsythia, Forsythia likiangensis and F. giraldiana were basal lineages followed by F. europaea; the three species are characterized by minutely serrate or entire leaf margins. The remaining species, which are distributed in East Asia, formed two major clades. One clade included F. ovata, F. velutina, and F. japonica; they are morphologically supported by broadly ovate leaves. Another clade of F. suspensa, F. saxatilis, F. viridissima, and F. koreana characterized by lanceolate leaves (except F. suspensa which have broad ovate leaves. Although cyc2 phylogeny is largely congruent to chloroplast genome phylogeny, we find the discordance between two phylogenies in the position of F. ovata suggesting that introgression of the chloroplast genome from one species into the nuclear background of another by interspecific hybridization in East Asian

  16. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike; Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté , Jaap S Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J M

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  17. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2010-08-03

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  18. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  19. Controlling factors of harmful microalgae distribution in water column, biofilm and sediment in shellfish production area (South of Sfax, Gulf of Gabes) from southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukil-Baklouti, Amira; Feki-Sahnoun, Wafa; Hamza, Asma; Abdennadher, Moufida; Mahfoudhi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmen; Jarboui, Othman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of harmful microalgae coupled with environmental factors in the most important area for natural stocks of the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus in southern Tunisia. Sampling was performed monthly from May 2010 to April 2011 in five stations through the Tunisian National Monitoring Stations Network of Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins along the southern coasts of Sfax (Gulf of Gabes). The presence of harmful microalgae species was explored in three compartments: water column, biofilm and sediment. Our results revealed fourteen species were identified belonging to dinoflagellates and diatoms with higher densities during the summer period. The co-inertia plot analysis exhibited that the seasonal fluctuations of these species were controlled by the temperature as well as the nutrients (particularly nitrogenous). Ternary diagrams showed that biofilm was the most colonized compartment by toxic benthic dinoflagellates species, namely Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum rathymum, Prorocentrum concavum, Prorocentrum lima, Ostreopsis cf. ovata and Coolia monotis. In addition, these species were recorded simultaneously in the water column and the sediment, a fact that could be explained by the resuspension of these benthic dinoflagellates from the biofilm by hydrodynamics. The data suggest that harmful microalgae could be the source of toxins in the studied stations, which provide support to the implication of these results on the future sampling strategy of harmful microalgae in shellfish collecting areas in Tunisia.

  20. Hostplant suitability and defensive chemistry of the Catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, M Deane

    2003-10-01

    The growth and survival of the Catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae (Sphingidae), were measured on five different species of Catalpa: C. bignonioides, C. bungeii, C. fargeseii, C. ovata, and C. speciosa. Larval growth varied significantly among these host plant species; however, survival did not differ. Quantification of the iridoid glycoside content of larvae, pupae, adults, larval frass, and leaves of the larval host plant, C. bignonioides, by gas chromatography showed that leaves contained both catalpol and catalposide; larvae, pupae, and frass contained only catalpol; and the adults contained no detectable iridoid glycosides. Amounts were highest in the larvae and declined in the pupal stage. Very small amounts of catalpol were detected in adults of the parasitoid, Cotesia congregata, and in the silken cocoons. The hemolymph in which the parasitoid larvae grew contained over 50% dry weight catalpol. Larvae of C. catalpae often regurgitate when disturbed. This may serve as a defense against predators. A comparison of the growth of larvae pinched with forceps to induce regurgitation with those that were not so treated showed that larvae that were pinched, and usually regurgitated, grew significantly more slowly than those that were not.

  1. Two propanediol utilization-like proteins of Moorella thermoacetica with phosphotransacetylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Ronja; Uhlig, Ronny; Drenckhan, Tina; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Moorella thermoacetica is one of the model acetogenic bacteria for the resolution of the Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway in which CO2 is autotrophically assimilated yielding acetyl-CoA as central intermediate. Its further conversion into acetate relies on subsequent phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase reactions. However, the genome of M. thermoacetica contains no pta homologous gene. It has been speculated that the moth_0864 and moth_1181 gene products sharing similarities with an evolutionarily distinct phosphotransacylase involved in 1,2-propanediol utilization (PDUL) of Salmonella enterica act as PTAs in M. thermoacetica. Here, we demonstrate specific PTA activities with acetyl-CoA as substrate of 9.05 and 2.03 U/mg for the recombinant enzymes PDUL1 (Moth_1181) and PDUL2 (Moth_0864), respectively. Both showed maximal activity at 65 °C and pH 7.6. Native proteins (90 kDa) are homotetramers composed of four subunits with apparent molecular masses of about 23 kDa. Thus, one or both PDULs of M. thermoacetica might act as PTAs in vivo catalyzing the penultimate step of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway toward the formation of acetate. In silico analysis underlined that up to now beside of M. thermoacetica, only Sporomusa ovata contains only PDUL like class(III)-PTAs but no other phosphotransacetylases or phosphotransbutyrylases (PTBs).

  2. Biotic and environmental stress induces nitration and changes in structure and function of the sea urchin major yolk protein toposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Ferraro, Giarita; Maffioli, Elisa; Marasco, Daniela; Merlino, Antonello; Zingone, Adriana; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Palumbo, Anna

    2018-03-15

    The major yolk protein toposome plays crucial roles during gametogenesis and development of sea urchins. We previously found that nitration of toposome increases in the gonads of a Paracentrotus lividus population living in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata, compared to control populations. This modification is associated with ovatoxin accumulation, high levels of nitric oxide in the gonads, and a remarkable impairment of progeny development. However, nothing is known about the environmental-mediated-regulation of the structure and biological function of toposome. Here, we characterize through wide-ranging biochemical and structural analyses the nitrated toposome of sea urchins exposed to the bloom, and subsequently detoxified. The increased number of nitrated tyrosines in toposome of sea urchins collected during algal bloom induced structural changes and improvement of the Ca 2+ -binding affinity of the protein. After 3 months' detoxification, ovatoxin was undetectable, and the number of nitric oxide-modified tyrosines was reduced. However, the nitration of specific residues was irreversible and occurred also in embryos treated with metals, used as a proxy of environmental pollutants. The structural and functional changes of toposome caused by nitration under adverse environmental conditions may be related to the defective development of sea urchins' progeny.

  3. Antarctic glossopterid diversity on a local scale: the presence of multiple megasporophyll genera, Upper Permian, Mt. Achernar, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Patricia E; Taylor, Edith L; Taylor, Thomas N

    2012-09-01

    The glossopterids are a group of plants that thrived during a time of global warming similar to what is happening on the Earth today as well as the transition from archaic plant groups to the ancestors of modern groups. The diversity of the glossopterid clade is based on the megasporangiate structures assigned to the group, because the vegetative and pollen-bearing structures vary little. The presence of numerous reproductive genera from a single Upper Permian locality in the central Transantarctic Mountains provides important data on local glossopterid diversity in Antarctica. Impression/compression fossils were imaged with a Leica 5000C digital camera on a dissecting microscope or a Fujifilm FinePix S1pro digital camera. Two megasporangiate taxa are described: Scutum leiophyllum, which represents the first confirmed record of the genus in Antarctica, and Lidgettoniopsis ramulus, a new morphology consisting of a pinnate structure with oppositely attached megasporophylls. Plumsteadia ovata specimens indicate that this genus can be larger than previously recorded and illustrate the vegetative surface with a distinct midrib. The presence of a laminar, multiovulate structure and a pinnate structure at the same site indicates that local-level glossopterid diversity in Antarctica is greater than previously hypothesized. The discovery of a new megasporophyll morphology in Antarctica (confirming the presence of three distinctive morphologies on the continent) shows that Antarctic glossopterid heterogeneity is on a par with other Gondwanan continents. The diversity of the Antarctic landscape reveals that high polar latitudes can sustain a diverse ecosystem during times of global warming.

  4. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Ben Gharbia

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis. The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella. Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  5. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Gharbia, Hela; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons; Cecchi, Philippe; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Herve, Fabienne; Rovillon, Georges; Nouri, Habiba; M'Rabet, Charaf; Couet, Douglas; Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa) and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis). The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella). Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  6. Alamethicin Suppresses Methanogenesis and Promotes Acetogenesis in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Siegert, Michael; Yates, Matthew D.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) systems with mixed cultures often generate a variety of gaseous and soluble chemicals. Methane is the primary end product in mixed-culture MES because it is the thermodynamically most favorable reduction product of CO2. Here, we show that the peptaibol alamethicin selectively suppressed the growth of methanogens in mixed-culture MES systems, resulting in a shift of the solution and cathode communities to an acetate-producing system dominated by Sporomusa, a known acetogenic genus in MES systems. Archaea in the methane-producing control were dominated by Methanobrevibacter species, but no Archaea were detected in the alamethicin-treated reactors. No methane was detected in the mixed-culture reactors treated with alamethicin over 10 cycles (∼ 3 days each). Instead, acetate was produced at an average rate of 115 nmol ml(-1) day(-1), similar to the rate reported previously for pure cultures of Sporomusa ovata on biocathodes. Mixed-culture control reactors without alamethicin generated methane at nearly 100% coulombic recovery, and no acetate was detected. These results show that alamethicin is effective for the suppression of methanogen growth in MES systems and that its use enables the production of industrially relevant organic compounds by the inhibition of methanogenesis.

  7. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.

    1974-01-01

    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  8. Assessment of harmful algal species using different approaches: the case study of the Sardinian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Satta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence and distribution of harmful algal species were investigated along the coasts of Sardinia in the summer of 2012. Fourteen potentially noxious taxa were identified at 74 beaches. The majority of the recovered taxa were potentially toxic and/or high biomass producers. Alexandrium taylorii, Gymnodinium instriatum, and Ostreopsis cf. ovata were the most frequent and abundant taxa, although Barrufeta bravensis reached the highest density (4.4 × 106 cells L−1. Barrufeta bravensis, A. taylorii, and G. instriatum were responsible for intense water discoloration at two of the beaches sampled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses supported the identification of several taxa and decisively identified B. bravensis. PCR assays increased the information available on the species distributions. The locations studied were heterogeneous in their prevailing environmental conditions and their morphodynamic profiles. Statistical analyses indicated that the distributions of harmful algal species correlated with gravel and medium-fine sand substrata. These data provide substantial knowledge on the distributions of harmful algal species on beaches, which have been poorly studied on a global scale. The apparent relationship between noxious species and grain size suggests that vegetative cells may be recruited from cyst beds in beach sediments.

  9. Methylomusa anaerophila gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic methanol-utilizing bacterium isolated from a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Nanako; Yamamuro, Ayaka; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2018-04-01

    Abacterial strain, designated MMFC1 T , was isolated from a methanol-fed microbial fuel cell that had been inoculated with sludge obtained from a wastewater-treatmentfacility in a chemical plant. The strain grows by fermenting methanol to produce acetate under anaerobic conditions, while homoacetogenic growth is not observed. MMFC1 T also grows on pyruvate and lactate but not on sugars and other organic acids. Cells are curved rods and motile, have peritrichous flagella, and form endospores. The genome sequence of strain MMFC1 T supports the physiological data. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that strain MMFC1 T is affiliated with the family Sporomusaceae, while the closest relative is Sporomusa ovata with nucleotide-sequencesimilarity of 93.5 %. Major fatty acids are iso-C13 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1ω9 and iso-C17 : 0. On the basis of its physiological, genomic and phylogenetic features, a novel genus and species are proposed to accommodate strain MMFC1 T , with the name Methylomusa anaerophila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Methylomusa anaerophila is MMFC1 T (=JCM 31821 T = KCTC 15592 T ).

  10. Alamethicin Suppresses Methanogenesis and Promotes Acetogenesis in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2015-03-27

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) systems with mixed cultures often generate a variety of gaseous and soluble chemicals. Methane is the primary end product in mixed-culture MES because it is the thermodynamically most favorable reduction product of CO2. Here, we show that the peptaibol alamethicin selectively suppressed the growth of methanogens in mixed-culture MES systems, resulting in a shift of the solution and cathode communities to an acetate-producing system dominated by Sporomusa, a known acetogenic genus in MES systems. Archaea in the methane-producing control were dominated by Methanobrevibacter species, but no Archaea were detected in the alamethicin-treated reactors. No methane was detected in the mixed-culture reactors treated with alamethicin over 10 cycles (∼ 3 days each). Instead, acetate was produced at an average rate of 115 nmol ml(-1) day(-1), similar to the rate reported previously for pure cultures of Sporomusa ovata on biocathodes. Mixed-culture control reactors without alamethicin generated methane at nearly 100% coulombic recovery, and no acetate was detected. These results show that alamethicin is effective for the suppression of methanogen growth in MES systems and that its use enables the production of industrially relevant organic compounds by the inhibition of methanogenesis.

  11. A survey for gregarines (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in arthropods in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Verdú-Expósito, C; Martin-Pérez, T; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J; Guàrdia-Valle, L; Panisello-Panisello, M

    2017-01-01

    Gregarines thrive in the digestive tract of arthropods and may be deleterious to their hosts, especially when present in high densities. The impact of parasites on these invertebrates may affect both the ecosystem equilibrium and human economic activities. However, information available on gregarines in Spain is limited. Therefore, a microscopic study on prevalence of gregarine infection in 560 insects and crustaceans was undertaken in Madrid and Tarragona.Gregarina ormierei (78 % prevalence), Stylocephalus gigas (56 %), Oocephalus hispanus (13 %) and Actinocephalus permagnus (only one infected out of six beetles examined) were found in coleopteran hosts. Gregarina ovata and G. chelidurellae showed moderate frequency of infection (35 %) in dermapterans. An undescribed Gregarina sp. (76 % prevalence) was observed for the first time in freshwater decapod crustaceans. Interestingly, G. ormierei showed a noticeable phenotypic dimorphism, which justifies its redescription based on modern taxonomic criteria. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene could be obtained only in the presence of highly prevalent gregarines. G. ormierei and Gregarina sp. were related (85 and 94 % identity by BLASTN, respectively) to G. basiconstrictonea and G. cloptoni, respectively, whereas S. gigas was closely related to both Xiphocephalus ellisi and S. giganteus (>97 % identity). Phylogenetic trees based on ribosomal sequences unequivocally grouped these new isolates either with the Gregarinidae (G. ormierei and Gregarina sp.) or the Stylocephalidae (S. gigas).

  12. Development of enhanced radioprotectors - Biochemical and molecular genetical approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jung A [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To identify radio-protective agent candidate among medicinal plants and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the candidate material by using modern biochemical and molecular biological methods, we screened radio-protective activity among 48 medicinal plants. Seven samples showed above 20% protective activities against oxidative cell damage: Euryale ferox, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Eucomia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Nelumbo nucifera. We also screened for oxidative stress sensitizing activity among other 51 medicinal plants. Among those samples, 11 samples showed good sensitizing effect; Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Cridium officinale. We also reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. 165 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization and antigenicity of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (Babesia cf. motasi) apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Guan, Guiquan; Pan, Yuping; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) has been described as a potential vaccine candidate in apicomplexan parasites. Here we characterize the ama-1 gene. The full-length ama-1 gene of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (BLTAMA-1) is 1785 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 65-kDa protein of 594 amino acid residues; by definition, the 5' UTR precedes the first methionine of the ORF. Phylogenetic analysis based on AMA-1 amino acid sequences clearly separated Piroplasmida from other Apicomplexa parasites. The Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 sequence is most closely associated with that of B. ovata and B. bigemina, with high bootstrap value. A recombinant protein encoding a conserved region and containing ectodomains I and II of BLTAMA-1 was constructed. BLTrAMA-1-DI/DII proteins were tested for reactivity with sera from sheep infected by Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan). In Western-blot analysis, native Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 proteins were recognized by antibodies raised in rabbits against BLTrAMA-1 in vitro. The results of this study are discussed in terms of gene characterization, taxonomy and antigenicity.

  14. A PCR method targeting internal transcribed spacers: the simultaneous detection of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junlong; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2014-03-01

    In this study, two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of Babesia bigemina and B. bovis isolates from China. The primers were used in a multiplex PCR to detect parasite DNA in blood samples from cattle. There was no cross reactions with B. ovata, B. major, B. sp. Kashi, Theileria annulata, T. sergenti, T. sinensis or normal bovine DNA. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR assay was 1 pg and 10 pg DNA for B. bigemina and B. bovis, respectively. A total of 260 field blood samples collected from cattle in five provinces of China were analyzed by multiplex PCR and light microscopy. PCR testing revealed that 7.3% (19/260) and 5.8% (15/260) of cattle were positive for B. bigemina and B. bovis and 1.2% (3/260) of cattle were co-infected with B. bigemina and B. bovis. Using light microscopy, 2.3% (6/260) and 1.5% (4/260) of cattle were infected by B. bigemina and B. bovis, respectively, and no co-infection was found. The results showed that the multiplex PCR developed in the present study could be an alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of B. bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle.

  15. Seed dispersal in six species of terrestrial orchids in Biebrza National Park (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Brzosko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about seed dispersal is required to explain problems in ecology, phylogeography, and conservation biology. Even though seed dispersal is a fundamental mechanism to understand problems at different levels of biological organization (individual, population, species, landscape, it remains one of the least recognized processes. Similar to other groups of plants, very little is known regarding patterns and distances of seed dispersal in orchids. Orchid seeds are generally assumed to be widely dispersed by wind because of their small size and low weight. Between 2006 and 2008, we conducted a field study of the distances at which orchid seeds are dispersed, and determined factors affecting dispersal. Investigations included 13 populations of six terrestrial orchid species – Cypripedium calceolus, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipactis helleborine, Goodyera repens, Neottia ovata, and Platanthera bifolia. To evaluate seed dispersal in orchid populations, 8.5-cm Petri dishes (traps with self-adhesive paper were placed along transects, starting from a group of fruiting plants, which were considered to be the dispersal source. Seeds of the investigated orchid species were dispersed over relatively short distances. There were statistically significant negative correlations between seed density and distance from the fruiting plants. Seeds of species with taller fruiting shoots were dispersed farther than those with shorter ones (R = 0.68, p < 0.05. We discuss the causes and consequences of the dispersal patterns of orchid seeds.

  16. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  17. Seasonal reproductive development of Lampsilis cardium, Amblema plicata plicata, and Potamilus alatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland Bartels, L. E.; Kammer, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    Adult specimens of three species of freshwater mussels common to the upper Mississippi River were examined histologically to determine seasonal patterns of development in gametogenesis and release of glochidia. Full maturation of gonadal materials in Lampsilis cardium (formerly L. ovata ventricosa), a long-term breeder, occurred when ambient river temperatures reached 24 degree to 26 degree C, between late July and early August. By mid-August, glochidia were present in the marsupia. Glochidia were released from late May through mid-June of the following year once water temperatures reached 20 degree C. The long-term breeder Potamilus alatus demonstrated full gonadal maturation earlier than seen in L. cardium with reproduction completed by late July (26 degree C). Glochidia of P. alatus were released over a period similar to that observed for L. cardium, late May through early July of the following year. Fully mature Amblema plicata plicata, a short-term breeder, were collected from late May through early July (18 degree to 21 degree C). (DBO).

  18. Estrutura fitossociológica do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa na mata sul de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Felix Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe physiognomy and structure of a Dense Ombrophyllous Forest fragment located in Catende, Pernambuco. All trees with DAP (breast height diameter ≥ 4.77 cm were measured in 40 10 x 25 m plots, systematically installed in five transects. A total of 1049 individuals were observed, distributed in 91 species, 64 genera and 37 botanical families. Mimosaceae and Lauraceae were the families with higher species number, while Anacardiaceae and Moraceae had the highest individuals numbers. Shannon index (H´ was 3.83 nats/ind. Total basal area, height and diameter (average and maximum were 23.59 m²/ha, 13.57 m (± 7.13, 45 m, 13.20 cm (± 10.60 and 127.32 cm, respectively. The species with higher importance values were Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith, Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl. Rusby, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth., Plathymenia foliolosa Benth., Brosimum discolor Schott, Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp., Schefflera morototoni (Aubl. Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers and Cecropia palmata Willd. Diametric distribution had an inverted-J-like curve, predicted for a forest unequal in ages in a secondary succession stage.

  19. Integrated Modelling in CRUCIAL Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mukhamedzhanova, Elena; Nerobelov, Georgiy; Sedeeva, Margarita; Suhodskiy, Alexander; Mostamandy, Suleiman; Smyshlyaev, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    The NordForsk CRUCIAL project (2016-2017) "Critical steps in understanding land surface - atmosphere interactions: from improved knowledge to socioeconomic solutions" as a part of the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX; https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex) programme activities, is looking for a deeper collaboration between Nordic-Russian science communities. In particular, following collaboration between Danish and Russian partners, several topics were selected for joint research and are focused on evaluation of: (1) urbanization processes impact on changes in urban weather and climate on urban-subregional-regional scales and at contribution to assessment studies for population and environment; (2) effects of various feedback mechanisms on aerosol and cloud formation and radiative forcing on urban-regional scales for better predicting extreme weather events and at contribution to early warning systems, (3) environmental contamination from continues emissions and industrial accidents for better assessment and decision making for sustainable social and economic development, and (4) climatology of atmospheric boundary layer in northern latitudes to improve understanding of processes, revising parameterizations, and better weather forecasting. These research topics are realized employing the online integrated Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) model within students' research projects: (1) "Online integrated high-resolution modelling of Saint-Petersburg metropolitan area influence on weather and air pollution forecasting"; (2) "Modeling of aerosol impact on regional-urban scales: case study of Saint-Petersburg metropolitan area"; (3) "Regional modeling and GIS evaluation of environmental pollution from Kola Peninsula sources"; and (4) "Climatology of the High-Latitude Planetary Boundary Layer". The students' projects achieved results and planned young scientists research training on online integrated modelling (Jun 2017) will be presented and

  20. Inoculating chlamydospores of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1 changes arsenic availability and enzyme activity in soils and improves water spinach growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiming; Zeng, Xibai; Bai, Lingyu; Williams, Paul N; Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Lili; Wu, Cuixia

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic (As)-contaminated agricultural soils threaten crop yields and pose a human health risk. Augmentation of exogenous microorganisms exhibiting plant-growth promoting and As speciation changing shows potential to improve crop growth and change soil As availability. Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1 exhibiting both traits was developed into chlamydospores to improve its persistence in contaminated soils. After inoculation, As availability and enzyme activity in two types of soils and the growth as well as As uptake of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) were investigated. The results indicated that inoculation significantly improved water spinach growth in both soils. Inoculating chlamydospores at 5% significantly increased As concentration (139%), bioconcentration factor (150%), and translocation factor (150%) in water spinach grown in Chenzhou (CZ) soils, while no significant change for these in Shimen (SM) soils. Inoculating chlamydospores at 5% caused a significant increase (16%) of available As content in CZ soils, while a significant decrease (13%) in SM soils. Inoculation significantly caused As methylation in both soils, while significant As reduction merely observed in CZ soils. The differential changes in available As contents in both soils were attributed to the soil pH, As fractionations and speciation characteristics. Furthermore, Inoculating chlamydospores at 5% significantly improved the activities of β-glucosidase (155%), chitinase (211%), and phosphatase (108%) in SM soils, while significant decreases in β-glucosidase (81%), phosphatase (54%), aminopeptidase (60%), and catalase (67%) in CZ soils. Bioaugmentation and As availability change were responsible for this result. These observations will be helpful for the application of fungal chlamydospores in the future bioremediation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Application of constructed wetlands to the treatment of leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, M K C

    2005-06-01

    Leachates are wastewater generated principally from landfills and solid waste disposal sites. Leachates emanating from municipal wastes are a major source of surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. Globally, leachates have been implicated in low yield of farm produce, developmental anomalies, low birth weights, leukemia incidence, and other cancers in communities around the site. They have also been implicated in hazards to the environment, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of water sources. At Aba-Eku in Nigeria, leachates are being discharged into the Omi Stream without treatment. A study was conducted on a method of leachate treatment that passes the leachate through constructed wetlands using Ipomoea aquatica (Forsk), a locally available plant found close to the landfill site. The aim of the study was to evolve a sustainable and cost-effective method of treatment whose effluents can be discharged into the Omi Stream with no or minimal impact. The study was descriptive and analytical in design. Samples were collected and analyzed with standard methods for pH, suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, nitrate, and trace metals. Raw leachates were turbid and amber in color and contained suspended solids (197.5 mg/L), ammonia (610.9 mg/L), lead (1.64 mg/L), iron (198.10 mg/L), and manganese (23.20 mg/L). When the leachates were passed through the constructed wetland with eight hours' detention time, effluents showed significant reductions in suspended solids (81.01 percent), BOD (86.03 percent), and ammonia (97.77 percent). The study shows that a constructed wetland is a feasible tool for the treatment of leachates before their disposal into the environment in Nigeria and can help safeguard environmental quality.

  2. Enhanced organic contaminants accumulation in crops: Mechanisms, interactions with engineered nanomaterials in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Lizhong

    2018-05-02

    The mechanism of enhanced accumulation of organic contaminants in crops with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) were investigated by co-exposure of crops (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (Swamp morning-glory), Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber), Zea mays L. (corn), Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach) and Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin))to a range of chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)) and ENMs (TiO 2 , Ag, Al 2 O 3 , graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) in soil. Induced by 50 mg kg -1 graphene co-exposure, the increase range of BDE-209, BaP, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PYR, FLU, ANT, and PHEN in the plants were increased in the range of 7.51-36.42, 5.69-32.77, 7.09-59.43, 11.61-66.73, 4.58-57.71, 5.79-109.07, 12.85-109.76, and15.57-127.75 ng g -1 , respectively. The contaminants in ENMs-spiked and control soils were separated into bioavailable, bound and residual fractions using a sequential ultrasonic extraction procedure (SUEP) to investigate the mechanism of the enhanced accumulation. The bioavailable fraction in spiked soils showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) from that in the control, while the bound fraction increased in equal proportion (p > 0.05) to the reduction in the residual fraction. These results implied that ENMs can competitively adsorbed the bound of organic contaminants from soil and co-transferred into crops, followed by a portion of the residual fraction transferred to the bound fraction to maintain the balance of different fractions in soils. The mass balance was all higher than 98.5%, indicating the portion of degraded contaminants was less than 1.5%. These findings could expand our knowledge about the organic contaminants accumulation enhancement in crops with ENMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening and antibacterial efficacy of selected Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh Mickymaray; Mohammad Saleh Al Aboody; Pradipta Kumar Rath; Panneerselvam Annamalai; Thajuddin Nooruddin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of five Indian medicinal plants such as Acalypha indica L.(A. indica), Aerva lanata(L.) Juss. ex Schult.(A. lanata), Clerodendrum inerme(L.) Gaertn., Pergularia daemia(Forsk.) Chiov. and Solanum surattense Burm. f. against opportunistic bacterial pathogens isolated from HIV infected patients for the potential phytoconstituents in plant extracts.Methods: The opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli(E. coli),Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens from Gramnegative group and Staphylococcus aureus from Gram-positive group were isolated from HIV infected patients. The antibacterial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of selected medicinal plants was carried out by disc diffusion method. The potential phytoconstituents of medicinal plant extracts were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry(GC–MS) analysis.Results: Among the five medicinal plants tested, A. indica and A. lanata showed the significant antibacterial activity. A. indica showed potential activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. A. lanata significantly exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 19 phytoconstituents were identified in the ethanolic extract of A. indica and A. lanata by GC–MS analysis respectively.Conclusions: The results of the present investigation revealed that A. indica and A. lanata, possessed significant antibacterial activity when compared with the other plant extracts tested. The presence of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by GC–MS analysis in both A. indica and A. lanata extracts has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and the findings in this study could be the first one to report.

  4. Amelioratory effect of flavonoids rich Pergularia daemia extract against CFA induced arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran; Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sripriya, Jaganathan; Bose, Prabaharan Chandra; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2016-05-01

    Pergularia daemia Forsk. (Asclepiadaceae) is a traditionally reported medicinal herb used to treat joint pain and arthritis. However, there are no scientific reports about anti-arthritic activity of P. daemia methanolic extract on rats as animal model. This study identifies bioactive compounds present in the P. daemia methanolic extract and evaluates its anti-arthritic potential in CFA induced arthritic rats. Phytoconstituents of P. daemia extract were examined using LC-ESI/MS method. Anti-arthritic activity of P. daemia extract was determined by various biochemical experiments (RF, ESR and CRP), ultrasonography and histological analysis. LC-ESI/MS analysis resulted in the identification of major flavonoids compounds such as formononetin, qurecetin, chrysoeriol, taxifolin and naringenin. Serum biomarker analysis, after the treatment with PDME (500mg/kg b.w.) revealed that the hemoglobin (11.84±0.42g/dL) and RBC (8.38±0.67million/mm(3)) levels were significantly increased whereas WBC (8.91±0.38thousands/mm(3)), RF (17.94±0.45IU/mL), ESR (7.91±0.12mm/h) and CRP (22.56±0.26mg/L) levels were decreased when compared with the CFA induced arthritic control group. Histology results revealed that treatment with PDME has resulted in significant prevention against bony destruction by decreasing soft tissue swelling and narrowing of joint spaces (250 and 500mg/kg b.w.). Anti-arthritic effect of P. daemia might be due to the presence of these bioactive flavonoids. These findings lend pharmacological support to the reported folkloric use of P. daemia in the treatment and management of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Structure and ultrastructure of eyes and brains of Thalia democratica (Thaliacea, Tunicata, Chordata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Katrin; Stach, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Salps are marine planktonic chordates that possess an obligatory alternation of reproductive modes in subsequent generations. Within tunicates, salps represent a derived life cycle and are of interest in considerations of the evolutionary origin of complex anatomical structures and life history strategies. In the present study, the eyes and brains of both the sexual, aggregate blastozooid and the asexual, solitary oozooid stage of Thalia democratica (Forskål, ) were digitally reconstructed in detail based on serial sectioning for light and transmission electron microscopy. The blastozooid stage of T. democratica possesses three pigment cup eyes, situated in the anterior ventral part of the brain. The eyes are arranged in a way that the optical axes of each eye point toward different directions. Each eye is an inverse eye that consists of two different cell types: pigment cells (pigc) and rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells (prcs). The oozooid stage of T. democratica is equipped with a single horseshoe-shaped eye, positioned in the anterior dorsal part of the brain. The opening of the horseshoe-shaped eye points anteriorly. Similar to the eyes of the blastozooid, the eye of the oozooid consists of pigment cells and rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells. The rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells possess apical microvilli that form a densely packed presumably photosensitive receptor part adjacent to the concave side of the pigc. We suggest correspondences of the individual eyes in the blastozooid stage to respective parts of the single horseshoe-shaped eye in the oozooid stage and hypothesize that the differences in visual structures and brain anatomies evolved as a result of the aggregate life style of the blastozooid as opposed to the solitary life style of the oozooid. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Molecular evidence for Lessepsian invasion of soritids (larger symbiont bearing benthic foraminifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gily Merkado

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is considered as one of the hotspots of marine bioinvasions, largely due to the influx of tropical species migrating through the Suez Canal, so-called Lessepsian migrants. Several cases of Lessepsian migration have been documented recently, however, little is known about the ecological characteristics of the migrating species and their aptitude to colonize the new areas. This study focused on Red Sea soritids, larger symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera (LBF that are indicative of tropical and subtropical environments and were recently found in the Israeli coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. We combined molecular phylogenetic analyses of soritids and their algal symbionts as well as network analysis of Sorites orbiculus Forskål to compare populations from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea and from a known hotspot in Shikmona (northern Israel that consists of a single population of S. orbiculus. Our phylogenetic analyses show that all specimens found in Shikmona are genetically identical to a population of S. orbiculus living on a similar shallow water pebbles habitat in the Gulf of Elat. Our analyses also show that the symbionts found in Shikmona and Elat soritids belong to the Symbiodinium clade F5, which is common in the Red Sea and also present in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Our study therefore provides the first genetic and ecological evidences that indicate that modern population of soritids found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian, and is less likely the descendant of a native ancient Mediterranean species.

  7. Characterization of vanadium flow battery. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2011-02-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project ''Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries'' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The efficiency was not influenced by the cycling of the battery. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. The battery was operated together with a 11kW stall-regulated Gaia wind turbine to smooth the output of the wind turbine and during the tests the battery proved capable of firming the output of the wind turbine. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  8. The neuropsychopharmacological effects of Catha edulis in mice offspring born to mothers exposed during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedada, Worku; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2010-02-01

    Chewing fresh leaves of the khat plant (Catha edulis Forsk) is a deep rooted and widespread habit in East Africa and the Middle East. Although a body of knowledge exists about the adverse effects of khat during pregnancy, data are sparse with regard to the consequences of long-term exposure during pregnancy and lactation. The present work, therefore, was initiated to evaluate the neuropsychopharmacological effects of Catha edulis exposure during pregnancy and lactation in mice at postnatal day 28. To this effect, a lyophilized extract of khat (100 mg/kg, K100 and 200 mg/kg, K200), amphetamine (1 mg/kg, positive control, AMP), and a similar volume of 2% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water (negative control, CONT) were administered daily to pregnant mice from gestational day 6 until weaning. Neuropsychopharmacological measurements were done by making use of a battery of neurobehavioural and cognitive tests. Moreover, toxicity to liver and kidney was also evaluated by determining biochemical markers for possible tissue damage. K200 produced significant motor in-coordination and emotional instability; as revealed by impairment in both cliff avoidance (p learning and the recall tests was observed with K200 and AMP. By contrast, both doses of khat and AMP equally affected performance in the Y-maze (p < 0.05). Alterations in the biochemical indices of liver and kidney function were also noted with AMP and K200. These findings indicate that khat exposure produces dose-related central and peripheral effects during pregnancy and lactation which might pose a serious impediment to the physical and mental development of the offspring. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  10. Evaluasi Keamanan dan Manfaat Ramuan Jamu untuk Hiperurisemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Fitriani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHyperuricemia is a condition where there is an elevated blood uric acid level above normal range. Hyperuricemia occurs due to increased uric acid metabolism, decreased uric acid expenditure, or a combination of both. The Jamu formula containingPiper retrofractum, Plantago majorandApiumgraveolens have the potential to overcome hyperuricemia. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of formula inhuman subjects with hyperuricemia. The method used was pre and posttest design for 28 days. Safety parameters were assessed by renal function (urea and creatinine and liver function (SGOT and SGPT. The parameters of efficacy were measured by uric acid change (H0, H14, and H28, improvement of clinical symptoms and quality of life (SF-36. This study showed that kidney and liver function still in the normal rangeafter28 days of intervention. The levels of uric acid showed a significant decrease (p <0.05. Clinical symptoms of the subjectsimproved after 17 daysofintervention. SF-36indicated significant improvement (p <0.05. It can be concluded that the formula was proved to be safe and effective for 28 daysof intervention.Key words: hyperuricemia, jamu, safety, efficacyAbstrakHiperurisemia adalah suatu keadaan dimana terjadi peningkatan kadar asam urat darah di atas rentang normal. Hiperurisemia terjadi karena adanya peningkatan metabolisme asam urat, penurunan pengeluaranasam urat, atau gabungan keduanya. Ramuan jamu yang terdiri dari buah cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum, daun sendok (Plantago major dan herba seledri (Apium graveolens berpotensi dalam mengatasi hiperurisemia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan evaluasi keamanan dan manfaat ramuan jamudengan subjek manusia dengan hiperurisemia. Metode yang digunakan adalah quasi eksperimental pre and post test design selama 28 hari dengan 50 subjek. Parameter keamanan dinilai berdasarkan fungsi ginjal (ureum dan kreatinin dan fungsi hati (SGOT dan SGPT. Parameter manfaat dilihat dari

  11. IMPACT OF TRIBE TRITICEAE VARIETIES ON STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVENESS OF SEGETAL GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z. Moskalets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of varieties of tribe Triticeae (Soft Wheat, Winter Rye and Winter Triticale on the structure and competitiveness of segetal vegetation. It is shown that in the conditions of Polissya, Forest-Steppe Polissya, and Forest-Steppe ecotopes the coenotic composition of plant communities was represented mostly by annual plants and at some extent by hemycryptophytes, cryptophytes, and geophytes. The dominant weed associations of Polissya are: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; Polissia-steppe: Viola-Capsella; Matricaria-Galium; Elytrigia-Galeopsis; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Thlaspi-Euphorbia; Forest-Steppe: Elytrigia-Viola; Matricaria-Taraxacum; Consolida-Convolvulus; Cirsium-Taraxacum; Galium-Stellaria; Thlaspi-Plantago, Linaria-Conyza. In terms of the Central Forest-Steppe and Eastern Polisya the medium-grown and medium ripe Wheat (Yuvivata 60 and Poliska 90, Rye (Borotba, Triticale (Slavetne, Slavetne Polipshene. and AD 256 is the most competitive towards segetal vegetation than other medium-grown and semi-dwarf varieties of such cultures. The introduction of Triticale and Rye in the structure of sown areas are an effective biological control towards segetal vegetation, particularly perennial weeds. We revealed that increasing doses of fertilizers on crops of the tribe Triticeae stimulates the growth of weeds, but the specific weight per unit area does not always correlate with density concerning cultural species. We registered the dominant competitive weeds associations in winter crops, regardless of grade, but their differentiation by population strategy and specific weight per unit area depends on the type and conditions of the specific ecotypes. We selected some six associations for the Polissya: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; five for Polissya Steppe

  12. Efeito de extratos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivada em meio definido Effect of plant extracts used in folk medicine on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivated in defined medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Barbieri Holetz

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, verificou-se o efeito de 15 plantas medicinais no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, um tripanosomatídeo não patogênico utilizado como modelo biológico, que apresenta antígenos semelhantes aos do Trypanosoma cruzi. Extratos brutos (1.000 g/ml ou óleo essencial (250 µg/ml foram adicionados ao meio definido. O crescimento celular foi determinado pela contagem em câmara de Newbauer e a diferenciação celular examinada por microscopia ótica. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, e Tanacetum vulgare mostraram atividade antiprotozoário, Psidium guajava e Punica granatum menor atividade e Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, e Spilanthes acmella não apresentaram atividade. Por outro lado, Arctium lappa, Erythrina speciosa, e Sambucus canadensis estimularam o crescimento de H. samuelpessoai e L. alba e S. acmella a diferenciação celular deste flagelado. Estes resultados indicam que plantas medicinais possuem princípios ativos contra H. samuelpessoai, o qual parece ser útil como modelo para seleção de plantas que contém drogas tripanomicidasThis work reports the effect of 15 medicinal plants on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid, used as biological model for its similar antigens to Trypanosoma cruzi. Crude extracts (1,000 g/ml or essential oil (250 g/ml were added in a defined medium. Cell growth was estimated by counting in Neubauer’s chamber and cell differentiation was examined by light microscope. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, and Tanacetum vulgare showed antiprotozoan activity, Psidium guajava and Punica granatum a lower activity and Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, and Spilanthes acmella had no activity. In contrast, Arctium lappa, Erythrina

  13. Efeito do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae em pomar de macieira Effect of weed management on Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae in apple orchard

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    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre o deslocamento de ácaros tetraniquídeos (Panonychus ulmi e Tetranychus urticae e do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus em um pomar de macieira 'Gala', onde foi implantado o controle biológico do ácaro vermelho, P. ulmi, por meio de liberações massais de N. californicus. As parcelas tiveram as plantas daninhas manejadas de três formas: sem manejo, com roçadas manuais e com herbicidas. As populações de ácaros foram avaliadas sobre as plantas daninhas, Plantago tormentosa e Erigeron sp, e sobre as folhas de macieira. As maiores populações de N. californicus foram observadas nas parcelas onde os manejos proporcionaram desenvolvimento de plantas daninhas na linha de plantio. Na parcela manejada com herbicida, houve maior população de ácaros tetraniquídeos sobre as macieiras, provavelmente, devido ao reduzido número de N. californicus. P. tormentosa foi o hospedeiro preferencial do ácaro predador. Concluiu-se que o manejo de plantas daninhas, na linha de plantio das macieiras, assume um importante papel no equilíbrio entre as populações de ácaros.The influence of weed management on tetranychid mites (Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus urticae and phytoseids movement was evaluated. Neoseiulus californicus populations were released in an apple orchard for biological control of tetranychid mites. Three kinds of weed management were used: no weed control at all, manual control and control with herbicide. The mites were evaluated in Plantago tormentosa, Erigeron sp, and apple tree leaves. The highest population of N. californicus was observed where weed was not controlled. Tetranychid mites populations were abundant on apple trees when herbicide was used, probably due to the low population of N. californicus. P. tormentosa was the preferred host of phytoseids. The conclusion was that weed management plays an important role in the regulation of mite species in apple

  14. An ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants on Suva planina mountain (south-eastern Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mačukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mitrović, Miroslava; Kostić, Olga; Karadžić, Branko; Pavlović, Pavle

    2015-12-04

    This study documents the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal importance of plants in the Suva planina mountain region (south-eastern Serbia). It is reflected in their high diversity and their wide range of uses in the treatment of the local population. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of data collected in the Suva planina region with relevant data from the Western Balkans, which included identifying the 'most popular' plants, as well as those species which are used specifically for treatment solely in the research area. Ethnobotanical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014 and data was collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with locals. A total of 66 people were interviewed (37 women and 29 men), aged between 49 and 90 (with a mean age of 71). This study identified 128 plants and 2 fungi which are used in ethnomedicine, 5 plant species used in ethnoveterinary medicine, and 16 plants used for 'other' purposes. Lamiaceae (20), Asteraceae (17), Rosaceae (16), Brassicaceae (5), Alliaceae (4) and Apiaceae (4) have the greatest diversity of species. Results showed that Achillea mellefolium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Gentiana lutea, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis, Sempervivum tectorum, Tilia cordata and Thymus sepyllum are the 'most popular' medicinal plants (UV=1). Those plants with the most phytotherapeutic uses are Gentiana cruciata (14), H. perforatum (11) and A. sativum (10), while the most common conditions treated with medicinal plants are respiratory (79), urogenital (53), gastrointestinal (51), skin (43) and those relating to the circulatory system (35). A comparative analysis of the data collected in the research area and that from other parts of the Western Balkans showed that there are great similarities within Serbia between Suva planina and the Zlatibor region (37.2%) and Kopaonik Mt. (32

  15. Rice field flora and vegetation in the provinces of Valencia and Tarragona

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    Carretero, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty nine emergent and twenty floating or submerged taxa , were found in the rice fields in Valencia and Tarragona provinces. Eleven of the se taxa, all them emergent, are alien Of introduced ones. Echinochloa oryzoides and E. oryzicola are the most important in both areas, together with Cyperus difformis and Echinochloa hispidula in Valencia. The remaining thirty eight taxa belong to the native flora. There are predominantly the emergent Scirpus maritimus, Alisma plantago-aquatica. Echinochloa crus-galli and Paspalum distichum; the floating Lemna minor and L. gibba; the submersed Potamogeton nodosus; Zannichellia palustris and Najas minor; and the macroscopical algae Chara vulgaris, Cladophora glomerata, Oedogonium capilliforme, Spirogyra spp., Pithophora oedogania and Hydrodictyon reticulatum. The flora evolution during the last years is analyzed and the present weed communities are studied. The contribution of the different phytosociological classes to the rice field weed flora is presented.

    De los 49 táxones registrados (29 emergentes y 20 flotantes o sumergidos 11 son exóticos introducidos, de los cuales los más importantes son Echinochloa oryzoides y E. oryzicolaen ambas zonas, además de Cyperus difformis y Echinochloa hispidula en Valencia, y el resto propios de la flora autóctona, predominando Scirpus maritimus, Alisma plantago-aquatica. Echinochloa crus-galli y Paspalum distichum como emergentes, Lemna minor y L. gibba como flotantes, Potamogeton nodosus, Zannichellia palustris y Najas minor como sumergidos y Chara vulgaris, Cladophora glomerata, Oedogonium capilliforme. Spirogyra spp., Pirhophora oedogonia e Hydrodictyon reticulatum como algas macroscópicas. Se analiza la evolución experimentada por la flora en los últimos años, además de estudiar las

  16. Traditional wound-healing plants used in the Balkan region (Southeast Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Kostić, Olga; Mataruga, Zorana; Pavlović, Dragana; Pavlović, Marija; Mitrović, Miroslava; Pavlović, Pavle

    2018-01-30

    The geographical and ecological specificity of the Balkan Peninsula has resulted in the development of a distinct diversity of medicinal plants. In the traditional culture of the Balkan peoples, plants have medicinal, economic and anthropological/cultural importance, which is reflected in the sound knowledge of their diversity and use. This study analyses the traditional use of medicinal plants in the treatment of wounds and the pharmacological characteristics of the most frequently used species. A detailed analysis of the literature related to ethnobhe uses of medicinal plants in the Balkan region was carried out. Twenty-five studies were analysed and those plants used for the treatment of wounds were singled out. An ethnobotanical analysis showed that 128 plant species (105 wild, 22 cultivated and 1 wild/cultivated) are used in the treatment of wounds. Their application is external, in the form of infusions, decoctions, tinctures, syrups, oils, ointments, and balms, or direct to the skin. Among those plants recorded, the most commonly used are Plantago major, Hypericum perforatum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Calendula officinalis, Sambucus nigra, Tussilago farfara and Prunus domestica. The study showed that the traditional use of plants in wound healing is confirmed by in vitro and/or in vivo studies for P. major and P. lanceolata (3 laboratory studies for P. major and 2 for P. lanceolata), H. perforatum (5 laboratory studies and 3 clinical trials), A. millefolium (3 laboratory studies and one clinical trial), C. officinalis (6 laboratory studies and 1 clinical trial), S. nigra (3 laboratory studies) and T. farfara (one laboratory study). The beneficial effects of using medicinal plants from the Balkan region to heal wounds according to traditional practices have been proven in many scientific studies. However, information on the quantitative benefits to human health of using herbal medicines to heal wounds is still scarce or fragmented, hindering

  17. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  18. Seasonal and intradiurnal variation of airborne pollen concentrations in Bodrum, SW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosunoglu, Aycan; Bicakci, Adem

    2015-04-01

    An aeropalynological study was performed in Bodrum, the famous tourism center in southwestern Turkey with a Hirst-type volumetric 7-day pollen and spore trap for 2 years (2007-2008). In Bodrum, 25,099 pollen grains as a mean value belonging to 41 taxa were recorded annually during the study period, and pollen grains from woody plant taxa had the largest atmospheric contribution of 86.99% and 24 taxa. However, 17 herbaceous plant taxa constituted 12.82% of the annual total pollen count, and 0.19% were unidentified. An average annual pollen index of 22.66% was recorded in March, despite differences from year to year. The highest pollen variability of 34 taxa was recorded in April and May. Predominant pollen types belonged to Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (42.73%), Quercus (15.95%), Pinus (9.78%), Olea europaea (9.04%), Poaceae (5.50%), Betula (1.82%), Pistacia (1.74%), Morus (1.72%), Urticaceae (1.46%), and Plantago (1.28%) and generated 91.03 of the annual total. In total, 32.59% of the mean annual total pollen index was recorded in the morning, and less pollen was recorded in the evening (18.71%). Maximum pollen concentration was recorded between 11:00 and 12:00 a.m.

  19. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

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    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  20. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time.

  1. ANTHROPOGENIC POLLEN INDICATORS (API FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AS LOCAL EVIDENCE OF HUMAN-INDUCED ENVIRONMENTS IN THE ITALIAN PENINSULA

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    A. M. Mercuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data from twenty-six archaeological sites are reviewed to investigate the development of human-induced environments through the presence of selected Anthropogenic Pollen Indicators (API. The sites are located in six Italian regions - Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Basilicata, Calabria, and Sicily - and in the Republic of San Marino. Their chronology spans from the Bronze to the Renaissance ages, from approximately 4200 to 500 years BP. The API which are common in these sites are properly considered important markers of human activity and anthropization in the Mediterranean area. The most frequent API taxa in pollen spectra are seven: Artemisia, Centaurea, Cichorieae and Plantago are ubiquitous and therefore they have the major relevance, followed by cereals and Urtica, and by Trifolium type. The spread of plants producing these pollen grains is sometimes marked by high percentage values in pollen spectra. Pollen records show that, as expected, cereals and wild synanthropic herbs were widespread near archaeological sites but local differences are evident. Ecological and chrono-cultural reasons may be at the base of the observed differences. In general, the synanthropic plants well represent the xeric environments that developed as a result of the continuous human pressure and changes in soil compositions. These changes have occurred especially during the mid and late Holocene.

  2. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartacci, Mike F.; Irtelli, Barbara; Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  3. Quality control and TLC profile data on selected plant species commonly found in the Brazilian market

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    Renato Braz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is a commonplace practice and can be of significant help to different laboratories with quality control, especially those that work with plant extracts and phytotherapeutics. This study evaluated ten species of plants (Schinus terebinthifolius; Arctium lappa; Trichilia catigua; Camellia sinensis; Mikania glomerata; Croton echioides; Achyrocline satureioides; Heteropterys aphrodisiaca; Plantago major; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi that are commonly sold by compounding pharmacies, using TLC with reference substances and pharmacopoeic physical and chemical tests (loss on drying, level of extractives, and total ash content. The results showed that the ten species showed losses on drying consonant with the literature. The level of extractives for two species and total ash for five species were also consonant with the literature, and those of the other species were established in this study. The semipurified extracts of the ten species were assayed by TLC, and the analysis with the use of reference substances proved to be effective, in addition to being practical, simple, versatile, and economically viable.

  4. Quality control and TLC profile data on selected plant species commonly found in the Brazilian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Braz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is a commonplace practice and can be of significant help to different laboratories with quality control, especially those that work with plant extracts and phytotherapeutics. This study evaluated ten species of plants (Schinus terebinthifolius; Arctium lappa; Trichilia catigua; Camellia sinensis; Mikania glomerata; Croton echioides; Achyrocline satureioides; Heteropterys aphrodisiaca; Plantago major; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi that are commonly sold by compounding pharmacies, using TLC with reference substances and pharmacopoeic physical and chemical tests (loss on drying, level of extractives, and total ash content. The results showed that the ten species showed losses on drying consonant with the literature. The level of extractives for two species and total ash for five species were also consonant with the literature, and those of the other species were established in this study. The semipurified extracts of the ten species were assayed by TLC, and the analysis with the use of reference substances proved to be effective, in addition to being practical, simple, versatile, and economically viable.

  5. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

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    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major. The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  6. Interactions between the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathway modulate the plant metabolome and affect herbivores of different feeding types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, R; Heise, A-M; Persicke, M; Müller, C

    2014-07-01

    The phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediate induced plant defences and the corresponding pathways interact in a complex manner as has been shown on the transcript and proteine level. Downstream, metabolic changes are important for plant-herbivore interactions. This study investigated metabolic changes in leaf tissue and phloem exudates of Plantago lanceolata after single and combined JA and SA applications as well as consequences on chewing-biting (Heliothis virescens) and piercing-sucking (Myzus persicae) herbivores. Targeted metabolite profiling and untargeted metabolic fingerprinting uncovered different categories of plant metabolites, which were influenced in a specific manner, indicating points of divergence, convergence, positive crosstalk and pronounced mutual antagonism between the signaling pathways. Phytohormone-specific decreases of primary metabolite pool sizes in the phloem exudates may indicate shifts in sink-source relations, resource allocation, nutrient uptake or photosynthesis. Survival of both herbivore species was significantly reduced by JA and SA treatments. However, the combined application of JA and SA attenuated the negative effects at least against H. virescens suggesting that mutual antagonism between the JA and SA pathway may be responsible. Pathway interactions provide a great regulatory potential for the plant that allows triggering of appropriate defences when attacked by different antagonist species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Last Hundred Years of Land Use History in the Southern Part of Valdai Hills (European Russia: Reconstruction by Pollen and Historical Data

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    Novenko Elena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The last one hundred years of land use history in the southern part of Valdai Hills (European Russia were reconstructed on the base of high resolution pollen data from the peat monolith taken from the Central Forest State Reserve supplementing with historical records derived from maps of the General Land Survey of the 18th and 19th centuries and satellite images. According to the created age model provided by dating using radio-nuclides 210Pb and 137Cs, pollen data of the peat monolith allow us to reconstruct vegetation dynamics during the last one hundred years with high time resolution. The obtained data showed that, despite the location of the studied peatland in the center of the forest area and rather far away from possible croplands and hayfields, the pollen values of plants – anthropogenic indicators (Secale sereale, Centaurea cyanus, Plantago, Rumex, etc. and micro-charcoal concentration are relatively high in the period since the beginning of the 20th century to the 1970s, especially in the peat horizon formed in the 1950s. In the late 1970s – the early 1980s when the pollen values of cereals gradually diminished in assemblages, the quantity of pollen of other anthropogenic indicators were also significantly reduced, which reflects the overall processes of the agriculture decline in the forest zone of the former USSR.

  8. The estimation of some wild flowers seed material from the natural-valuable meadow habitats

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    Janicka Maria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of the species composition of the meadow habitats is often linked to the introduction of the typical species’ seeds. The effectiveness of that treatment requires getting the acquired detailed knowledge of the germination biology of peculiar species. Eight typical plant species of four non-forest habitats of the river valleys, representing the following types: Cnidion dubii (6440, Molinion (6410, Arrhenatherion (6510 and Festuco-Brometea (6210 were investigated. The diasporas were collected in the years 2014–2015 on the meadows of PLH 140016 protection area near Mniszew (Kozienice county, Mazovian voivodeship. The ability of seeds’ germination in the laboratory conditions was studied. It was stated that Cnidion and Molinion meadows’ species require pre-chilling to break the seeds’ dormancy, while the Arrhenatherion meadows and xerotermophilous swards do not require such treatment. The Allium angulosum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium and Eryngium planum were characterized by high vigour and germination capability as well as the low share of dead seeds. The extremely drought in 2015 caused the decreasing in germination capability and increasing in the dead seeds’ share. The preliminary studies, presented in this paper, show that Cnidion and Molinion meadows may be most difficult to restore because of the necessity of breaking the seeds’ dormancy and higher sensitiveness for the unfavourable weather conditions during the seed ripening stage. The studies have practical significance for the works connected with the floristic diversity’ increasing of threatened communities and the restoration of the destroyed meadow habitats.

  9. Vegetation pattern and heavy metal accumulation at a mine tailing at Gyöngyösoroszi, hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, János; Kovács, Alza

    2005-01-01

    Vegetation at an abandoned heavy metal bearing mine tailing may have multifunctional roles such as modification of water balance, erosion control and landscape rehabilitation. Research on the vegetation of mine tailings can provide useful information on tolerance, accumulation and translocation properties of species potentially applicable at moderately contaminated sites. Analyses of the relationship between heavy metal content (Pb, Zn and Cu) and vegetation in a mine tailing were carried out. These analyses included: (1) spatial analysis of relationship among heavy metal distribution, pH and vegetation patterns, and (2) analysis of heavy metal accumulation and translocation in some plant species. Presence of vegetation was found to be significantly dependent on pH value, which confirms that phytotoxicity is a function of element concentration in solution, which is primarily controlled by pH value in mine tailings. Among the most abundant plant species, dewberry (Rubus caesius), vipersbugloss (Echium vulgare), scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis) and narrowleaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata) accumulate significant amounts of Pb, Cu and Zn, while in the case of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) only Pb can be measured in elevated contents. Considering the translocation features, scarlet pimpernel, narrowleaf plantain, and dewberry accumulate heavy metals primarily in their roots, while heavy metal concentration in vipersbugloss and annual bluegrass is higher in the shoots.

  10. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plants

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    A Dadkhah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in germinator in order to study the effects of water potential on seed germination, rate of germination and seedlings growth of four medicinal plants (Coriandrum sativum, Plantago psyllium, Discorinia sophia and Portulaca oleracea. Four water potential inclouding distilled water as control (0, -0.37, -0.59 and –0.81 Mpa which made by different salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and NaCl+CaCl2 in 5 to 1 molar ratio. The experiment was carried out based on completly randomized design with six replications. Results showed that the effects of water potential, type of salt on germination percentage, rate of germination, root and shoot length were significant. With decreasing water potential, germination percentage and rate of germination declined but the response of plant were differ. Germination of Portulaca oleracea was not affected by decreasing water potential where as other significantly decreased. The effect of salt composition was significant on rate and percentage germination. The percentage of germination at lower water potential (–0.37 MPa which made by NaCl + CaCl2 significantly was higher than the same water potential made by only NaCl and CaCl2. Although, percentage and rate germination of Portulaca oleracea were not affected by different water potential, seedling growth of Portulaca oleracea significantly decreased.

  11. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, San San; Than, Mar lar; Thwe, Moe Moe

    2011-12-15

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  12. La vegetación azonal paramunade la Cordillera Oriental colombiana: síntesis fitosociológica preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Humberto Pinto Zárate

    2006-01-01

    las familias Asteraceae (siete, Poaceae (seis, Cyperaceae (cinco y Scrophulariaceae (cuatro; los géneros con mayor número de morfoespecies en este tipo de vegetación son Isoetes (ocho, Juncus (siete y Eleocharis (cinco. Las familias con mayor representación de géneros en la vegetación terrestre son Asteraceae y Poaceae (25 y 15 respectivamente, seguidas por Scrophulariaceae (nueve y Cyperaceae (siete; los géneros más ricos en morfoespecies son Carex (12, Campylopus, Hypericum, Monticalia y Lachemilla (cada una con 11 morfoespecies. Especies como Crassula venezuelensis, Werneria pygmaea, Plantago rigida,  alamagrostis ligulata, Puya santosii, Blechnum loxense, Aragoa abietina, Chusquea tessellata y varias de los géneros Eleocharis, Isoetes, Carex y Sphagnum cobran gran importancia en el proceso sucesional entre comunidades acuáticas y etapas iniciales de colmatación hasta las fases avanzadas de terrización, transicionales a tipos propios de vegetación zonal.

  13. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  14. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyurko O.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L. by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 → C4 → CAM with commute possibilities: C3 → CAM; C4 → CAM.

  15. Pollen sources in the Bojanów forest complex identified on honeybee pollen load by microscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Stawiarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine sources of pollen for the honeybee in the Bojanów forest complex, Nowa Dęba Forest District (southeastern Poland. Sampling of pollen loads from bees extended from the beginning of May until the end of September 2016 and was carried out at 7-day intervals using pollen traps mounted at the entrance of beehives. A total of 73 pollen load samples were collected from the study area. Fifty-nine taxa from 31 plant families were identified in the analyzed material. From 4 to 21 taxa (average 9.5 were recorded in one sample. The pollen of Brassicaceae (“others”, Taraxacum type, Solidago type, and Rumex had the highest frequency in the pollen loads examined. Apart from these four taxa, pollen grains of Rubus type, Poaceae (“others”, Calluna, Fagopyrum, Trifolium repens s. l., Phacelia, Aster type, Melampyrum, Quercus, Cornus, and Veronica were recorded in the dominant pollen group. The forest habitat taxa that provided pollen rewards to honeybees in the Bojanów forest complex were the following: Rubus, Calluna, Prunus, Tilia, Frangula alnus, Pinus, Quercus, Cornus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix, and Vaccinium. Apart from forest vegetation, the species from meadows and wastelands adjacent to this forest complex, represented by Taraxacum, Rumex, Plantago, Poaceae, Trifolium repens, and Solidago, proved to be an important source of pollen. The study indicates that forest communities are a valuable source of pollen for pollinating insects from early spring through to late fall.

  16. The investigation of antibacterial activity of selected native plants from North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, H; Ghaemi, E A; Sadegh Sheshpoli, M; Jahedi, M; Zahiri, M

    2015-01-01

    Plant derived products have been used for medicinal purposes during centuries. Bacterial resistance to currently used antibiotics has become a concern to public health. The development of bacterial super resistant strains has resulted in the currently used antibiotic agents failing to end many bacterial infections. For this reason, the search is ongoing for new antimicrobial agents, both by the design and by the synthesis of new agents, or through the search of natural sources for yet undiscovered antimicrobial agents. Herbal medications in particular have seen a revival of interest due to a perception that there is a lower incidence of adverse reactions to plant preparations compared to synthetic pharmaceuticals. Coupled with the reduced costs of plant preparations, this makes the search for natural therapeutics an attractive option. This research was carried out to assess the antibacterial activity aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six Azadshahr township Native plants in north of Iran against six species of pathogen bacteria by using three methods of Disk diffusion, Well method and MBC. The results of this research indicated that the effect of ethanol extracts were more than aqueous extract and among six plants, Lippia citriodora and Plantago major ethanol extract had the most antibacterial activity in any of the three methods. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive than gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible Gram-positive bacteria.

  17. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  18. Effects of elevated ozone on leaf {delta}{sup 13}C and leaf conductance of plant species grown in semi-natural grassland with or without irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: maya.jaeggi@psi.ch; Saurer, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Volk, M. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C) and leaf conductance (g{sub s}) were measured (2002, 2003) in Holcus lanatus L., Plantago lanceolata L. Ranunculus friesianus (Jord.), and Trifolium pratense L. at two levels of ozone (O{sub 3}) with or without irrigation. In non-irrigated control plots, R. friesianus showed the least negative {delta}{sup 13}C, and the smallest response to the treatments. Irrigation caused more negative {delta}{sup 13}C, especially in H. lanatus. Irrespective of irrigation, O{sub 3} increased {delta}{sup 13}C in relationship to a decrease in g{sub s} in P. lanceolata and T. pratense. The strongest effect of O{sub 3} on {delta}{sup 13}C occurred in the absence of irrigation, suggesting that under field conditions lack of moisture in the top soil does not always lead to protection from O{sub 3} uptake. It is concluded that in species such as T. pratense plants can maintain stomatal O{sub 3} uptake during dry periods when roots can reach deeper soil layers where water is not limiting. - Under natural field conditions, lack of precipitation may not protect semi-natural vegetation from O{sub 3} effects on leaf gas exchange.

  19. A comprehensive review of plants and their active constituents with wound healing activity in traditional Iranian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein Farzaei, Mohammad; Abbasabadi, Zahra; Reza Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2014-07-01

    Wound healing is a complex cascade of events with various cellular and biochemical processes that result in reconstruction and regeneration of damaged tissue. The objective of the current study was to scientifically evaluate the medicinal plants said to produce wound healing activity in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM). Electronic databases were searched for the names of medicinal plants claimed in TIM literature for having wound healing activity. Articles were evaluated to obtain any in vitro, animal, or clinical evidence of their efficacy and possible mechanisms involved in would healing. Mechanisms of action for some of these plants, including Tamarix spp., Rosa spp., Piper betle, Plantago major, Oxalis spp., Olea europaea, Malva spp., Linum usitatissimum, and Tamarindus indica, have not been yet clarified. In contrast, some herbs such as Vitis vinifera, Quercus spp., Punica granatum, Pinus spp., Polygonum spp., Lilium spp., Gentiana lutea, Arnebia euchroma, Aloe spp., and Caesalpinia spp. have various biological and pharmacological mechanisms that have been verified for wound healing activity. Overall, TIM resources have introduced various medicinal plants for wounds with confirmed effectiveness according to current pharmacological studies. These herbal remedies could be considered as future drugs for healing of wounds. Further pharmacological and clinical investigations are recommended for exploring safety, exact mechanisms, and efficacy of these herbal remedies. .

  20. Multiscale patterns and drivers of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the roots and root-associated soil of a wild perennial herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Pil U; Hugerth, Luisa W; Blanchet, F Guillaume; Andersson, Anders F; Lindahl, Björn D; Tack, Ayco J M

    2018-03-24

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form diverse communities and are known to influence above-ground community dynamics and biodiversity. However, the multiscale patterns and drivers of AM fungal composition and diversity are still poorly understood. We sequenced DNA markers from roots and root-associated soil from Plantago lanceolata plants collected across multiple spatial scales to allow comparison of AM fungal communities among neighbouring plants, plant subpopulations, nearby plant populations, and regions. We also measured soil nutrients, temperature, humidity, and community composition of neighbouring plants and nonAM root-associated fungi. AM fungal communities were already highly dissimilar among neighbouring plants (c. 30 cm apart), albeit with a high variation in the degree of similarity at this small spatial scale. AM fungal communities were increasingly, and more consistently, dissimilar at larger spatial scales. Spatial structure and environmental drivers explained a similar percentage of the variation, from 7% to 25%. A large fraction of the variation remained unexplained, which may be a result of unmeasured environmental variables, species interactions and stochastic processes. We conclude that AM fungal communities are highly variable among nearby plants. AM fungi may therefore play a major role in maintaining small-scale variation in community dynamics and biodiversity. © 2018 The Authors New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  2. Determination of metallic elements in soils and plants in industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delearte, E; Nangniot, P; Impens, R

    1973-01-01

    The first phase of a program to study metals in soils and plants in industrial and urban sites is reported. The metals analyzed were copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, lead, and cadmium. The soil samples were taken at increasing distances from potential emission sources with respect to dominant wind directions. Ubiquitous plants, such as Tussilago farfara L., Plantago major L., Mercurialis annua L., and Agrostis velgaris With. were used as samples for differential oscillopolarographic analyses. Soil samples taken around a zinc ore roasting plant showed very high zinc contents, and irregular distribution of cadmium and copper. Plant samples taken at different distances from the plant revealed rapid reduction of the copper, zinc, and cadmium levels with increasing distance. Very high concentrations of copper were found in plants around a petroleum refinery. Leaves of Aeer platanoides variety Schwedlerii in a town contained an average of 14.1 ppM copper, 0.7 ppM cobalt, 5.4 ppM nickel, 160 ppM zinc, 145 ppM lead, and 0.08 ppM cadmium, relative to the dry weight. The findings indicate that samples should be obtained over a period of sufficient length.

  3. The weed species composition in a reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. plantation for energy purposes depending on its age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment, carried out in nine production fields of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea grown for energy purposes, evaluated the effect of plantation age on the occurrence and species composition of weeds. The selected plantations were divided into 3 groups that were conventionally called “young” (1–2 years old, “middle-aged” (3–5 years old, and “older” plantations (6–8 years old. Regardless of plantation age, altogether 43 species were found in the experimental fields. Moreover, 6 species were common for all the plantations and were found in them regardless of plantation age. The least species, only 18, were found on the “young” plantations, almost twice more on the “older” ones (30 species, whereas the largest spectrum of species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations (33 species. In the “young” plantations, annual weeds were the most common, with the highest constancy and coverage index found for Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora and Echinochloa crus-galli. The greatest variation in species was found in the “middle-aged” plantations. However, only 4 species achieved the highest constancy and coverage index: Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Cirsium arvense, Poa trivialis and Taraxacum officinale. Furthermore, perennial weeds were found to be dominant in the “older” plantations. Within this group, Poa trivialis, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Plantago maior, and Cirsium arvense had the highest constancy and coverage index.

  4. The effect of solar UV radiation of four plant species occurring in a coastal grassland vegetation in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosserams, M.; Rozema, J. [Vrije Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pais, A. de Sa [Univ. de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal)

    1996-09-01

    During the summer of 1992, growth and some physiological parameters of four native plant species occurring in a coastal grassland in The Netherlands, were studied after reduction of solar UV irradiance using different cut-off filters. Biomass production, morphology and photosynthesis of all species tested were unaffected by the different treatments. Litter production of Plantago lanceolata was increased in the absence of the total UV waveband, indicating a possible role for this waveband in plant senescence. Depletion of the total UV waveband from sunlight resulted in alterations in biomass allocation in Calamagrostis epigeios and Urtica dioica while no changes were observed in P. lanceolatata and Verbascum thapsus. In C. epigeios and increase in the specific leaf area was observed, whereas in U. dioica root weight per total plant weight was decreased resulting in an increase in the shoot/root ratio. Both photosynthetic and UV-absorbing pigment concentrations were altered by the different filter applications. When compared to control plants receiving full sunlight, depletion of UV-B resulted in a significant increase in chlorophyll concentration in U. dioica leaves, this however did not affect photosynthetic rate. The presence of UV-B radiation enhanced the UV-absorbance of leaf extract of all species except P. lanceolata. Optical characteristics of the leaves were also changed. Both the quantity (P. lanceolata and U. dioica) and the quality (all species) of radiation transmitted by the leaves was affected by the different treatments. (au) 44 refs.

  5. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  6. Do fungivores trigger the transfer of protective metabolites from host plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Marie; Pel, Roel; Ooms, Astra; Bücking, Heike; Jansa, Jan; Ellers, Jacintha; van Straalen, Nico M; Wouda, Tjalf; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Kiers, E Toby

    2013-09-01

    A key objective in ecology is to understand how cooperative strategies evolve and are maintained in species networks. Here, we focus on the tri-trophic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, host plants, and fungivores to ask if host plants are able to protect their mutualistic mycorrhizal partners from being grazed. Specifically, we test whether secondary metabolites are transferred from hosts to fungal partners to increase their defense against fungivores. We grew Plantago lanceolata hosts with and without mycorrhizal inoculum, and in the presence or absence of fungivorous springtails. We then measured fungivore effects on host biomass and mycorrhizal abundance (using quantitative PCR) in roots and soil. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure host metabolites in roots, shoots, and hyphae, focusing on catalpol, aucubin, and verbascoside. Our most striking result was that the metabolite catalpol was consistently found in AM fungal hyphae in host plants exposed to fungivores. When fungivores were absent, catalpol was undetectable in hyphae. Our results highlight the potential for plant-mediated protection of the mycorrhizal hyphal network.

  7. Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boestfleisch, Christian; Wagenseil, Niko B; Buhmann, Anne K; Seal, Charlotte E; Wade, Ellie Merrett; Muscolo, Adele; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-08-13

    Halophytes, salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants. However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. To address this, we analysed a range of metabolites with antioxidant capacity (including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate, reduced/oxidized glutathione and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes) in seedlings and plants from different families (Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rhizophoraceae) and habitats grown under different salt concentrations. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage. Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  8. The endophytic bacterium Serratia sp. PW7 degrades pyrene in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Wang, Wanqing; Crowley, David E; Sun, Kai; Hao, Shupeng; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-03-01

    This research was conducted to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading (PAH-degrading) endophytic bacteria and investigate their potential in protecting plants against PAH contamination. Pyrene-degrading endophytic bacteria were isolated from plants grown in PAH-contaminated soil. Among these endophytic bacteria, strain PW7 (Serratia sp.) isolated from Plantago asiatica was selected to investigate the suppression of pyrene accumulation in Triticum aestivum L. In the in vitro tests, strain PW7 degraded 51.2% of the pyrene in the media within 14 days. The optimal biodegradation conditions were pH 7.0, 30 °C, and MS medium supplemented with additional glucose, maltose, sucrose, and peptones. In the in vivo tests, strain PW7 successfully colonized the roots and shoots of inoculated (E + ) wheat plants, and its colonization decreased pyrene accumulation and pyrene transportation from roots to shoots. Remarkably, the concentration of pyrene in shoots decreased much more than that in roots, suggesting that strain PW7 has the potential for protecting wheat against pyrene contamination and mitigating the threat of pyrene to human health via food consumption.

  9. Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

    2008-01-10

    Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  10. Survival and death of seeds during liquid nitrogen storage: a case study on seeds with short lifespans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, D; Pence, V C

    The low temperature of liquid nitrogen is assumed to stop ageing and preserve viability indefinitely, however there are few validating data sets. The use of seeds to test these assumptions is important because other cryopreserved systems lack quantitative measures of viability to allow comparisons among timed points. To evaluate survival of a collection of seeds with short lifespans stored 12-20 years in liquid nitrogen. Seeds from 11 species (26 accessions) were removed from cryostorage and evaluated for germination and normal growth. Germination of Plantago cordata and Betula spp. seeds did not decrease significantly during cryostorage. However, Populus deltoides and most Salix spp. accessions showed a significant decrease in germination, with further loss observed when P. deltoides seedlings were followed to the young plant stage. Seeds of initial low quality showed greater deterioration during cryostorage. Cryostorage maintained viability of Salix and Populus seeds longer than other temperatures. However, ageing was not completely stopped and seed longevity was shorter than that predicted for many other species. A high initial seed quality is important in order to obtain the maximum benefit of cryostorage.

  11. Espécies vegetais indicadas na odontologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielda Q. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre plantas medicinais indicadas para afecções odontológicas, incluindo livros, artigos e sites científicos e populares. Os dados foram compilados em uma tabela contendo informações como nome científico, popular, família, parte utilizada e forma farmacêutica. Foram encontradas 132 espécies, distribuídas em 52 Famílias Botânicas citadas como úteis no tratamento de afecções odontológicas. As espécies mais citadas de acordo com a bibliografia consultada foram Punica granatum L. (10 citações, Althaea officinalis L.(8, Salvia officinalis L. (8, Calendula officinalis L.(8, Malva sylvestris L (7, Plantago major L. (6. O conjunto destes resultados deve permitir um perfil de espécies para uso em odontologia e contribuir para o direcionamento de pesquisas nesta área, culminando com o desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos de qualidade e validados para uso odontológico, bem como permitindo a divulgação destes estudos para a população e profissionais afins.

  12. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San Win; Mar lar Than; Moe Moe Thwe

    2011-12-01

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  15. Glomus drummondii and G. walkeri, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszkowski, Janusz; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François

    2006-05-01

    Two new ectocarpic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, Glomus drummondii and G. walkeri (Glomeromycota), found in maritime sand dunes of northern Poland and those adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea are described and illustrated. Mature spores of G. drummondii are pastel yellow to maize yellow, globose to subglobose, (58-)71(-85) micromdiam, or ovoid, 50-80x63-98 microm. Their wall consists of three layers: an evanescent, hyaline, short-lived outermost layer, a laminate, smooth, pastel yellow to maize yellow middle layer, and a flexible, smooth, hyaline innermost layer. Spores of G. walkeri are white to pale yellow, globose to subglobose, (55-)81(-95) micromdiam, or ovoid, 60-90x75-115 microm, and have a spore wall composed of three layers: a semi-permanent, hyaline outermost layer, a laminate, smooth, white to pale yellow middle layer, and a flexible, smooth, hyaline innermost layer. In Melzer's reagent, only the inner- and outermost layers stain reddish white to greyish rose in G. drummondii and G. walkeri, respectively. Both species form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in one-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata as the host plant. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and parts of the LSU of the nrDNA of spores placed both species in Glomus Group B sensu Schüssler et al. [Schüssler A, Schwarzott D, Walker C, 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycolological Research 105: 1413-1421.].

  16. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended.

  17. Efficacité de quelques séquences d’herbicides contre les mauvaises herbes du pois chiche et de la féverole conduits en semis direct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr HAJJAJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficacy of 18 sequences of pre and post emergence herbicides on weeds of no till faba bean and chickpea and their impact on crops grain yield, two trials were conducted during 2014-2015 growing season at Sidi El Aidi INRA research station and at a farmer’s farm in Ouled Said (Settat. Dominant species of weed flora in chickpea in Sidi El Aidi were: Bromus rigidus, Lolium rigidum, Avena sterilis, Cichorium endivia, Centaurea diluta, Emex spinosa and Papaver rhoeas. Dominant species of weed flora in faba bean at Ouled Said were: Avena sterilis, Plantago afra, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Centaurea diluta, Sonchus oleraceus and Silybum marianum. The obtained results showed that herbicides react differently on weed and crops. Treatments which showed good weed control and better selectivity provided the best crop yield. “Pendimethalin (1258,5 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” and “Acetochlor (2100 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” provided good weed control and good selectivity in horse bean crop. “Pendimethalin (1258,5 g/ha + Bentazon (960 g/ha” needs to be more tested on chickpea before its recommendation on this crop.

  18. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijin Lin

    Full Text Available Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  19. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillidis, John K.; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted. PMID:27366027

  20. Effects of elevated ozone on leaf δ13C and leaf conductance of plant species grown in semi-natural grassland with or without irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeggi, M.; Saurer, M.; Volk, M.; Fuhrer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13 C) and leaf conductance (g s ) were measured (2002, 2003) in Holcus lanatus L., Plantago lanceolata L. Ranunculus friesianus (Jord.), and Trifolium pratense L. at two levels of ozone (O 3 ) with or without irrigation. In non-irrigated control plots, R. friesianus showed the least negative δ 13 C, and the smallest response to the treatments. Irrigation caused more negative δ 13 C, especially in H. lanatus. Irrespective of irrigation, O 3 increased δ 13 C in relationship to a decrease in g s in P. lanceolata and T. pratense. The strongest effect of O 3 on δ 13 C occurred in the absence of irrigation, suggesting that under field conditions lack of moisture in the top soil does not always lead to protection from O 3 uptake. It is concluded that in species such as T. pratense plants can maintain stomatal O 3 uptake during dry periods when roots can reach deeper soil layers where water is not limiting. - Under natural field conditions, lack of precipitation may not protect semi-natural vegetation from O 3 effects on leaf gas exchange