WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant temperature instrumentation

  1. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor steam-cycle/cogeneration lead plant. Plant Protection and Instrumentation System design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Plant Protection and Instrumentation System provides plant safety system sense and command features, actuation of plant safety system execute features, preventive features which maintain safety system integrity, and safety-related instrumentation which monitors the plant and its safety systems. The primary function of the Plant Protection and Instrumentation system is to sense plant process variables to detect abnormal plant conditions and to provide input to actuation devices directly controlling equipment required to mitigate the consequences of design basis events to protect the public health and safety. The secondary functions of the Plant Protection and Instrumentation System are to provide plant preventive features, sybsystems that monitor plant safety systems status, subsystems that monitor the plant under normal operating and accident conditions, safety-related controls which allow control of reactor shutdown and cooling from a remote shutdown area

  2. Instrumentation enabling study of plant physiological response to elevated night temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarpley Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global climate warming can affect functioning of crops and plants in the natural environment. In order to study the effects of global warming, a method for applying a controlled heating treatment to plant canopies in the open field or in the greenhouse is needed that can accept either square wave application of elevated temperature or a complex prescribed diurnal or seasonal temperature regime. The current options are limited in their accuracy, precision, reliability, mobility or cost and scalability. Results The described system uses overhead infrared heaters that are relatively inexpensive and are accurate and precise in rapidly controlling the temperature. Remote computer-based data acquisition and control via the internet provides the ability to use complex temperature regimes and real-time monitoring. Due to its easy mobility, the heating system can randomly be allotted in the open field or in the greenhouse within the experimental setup. The apparatus has been successfully applied to study the response of rice to high night temperatures. Air temperatures were maintained within the set points ± 0.5°C. The incorporation of the combination of air-situated thermocouples, autotuned proportional integrative derivative temperature controllers and phase angled fired silicon controlled rectifier power controllers provides very fast proportional heating action (i.e. 9 ms time base, which avoids prolonged or intense heating of the plant material. Conclusion The described infrared heating system meets the utilitarian requirements of a heating system for plant physiology studies in that the elevated temperature can be accurately, precisely, and reliably controlled with minimal perturbation of other environmental factors.

  3. On-line testing of nuclear plant temperature and pressure instrumentation and other critical plant equipment. IAEA regional workshop. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    Under European regional TC project RER/4/011, IAEA and VUJE Training centre organized a workshop on On-line Testing of Nuclear Power Plant Temperature and Pressure Instrumentation and Other Critical Plant Equipment in Trnava, Slovak Republic, from 25 to 29 May 1998. The objective of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in NPP instrumentation, cover typical instrumentation problems and solutions, describe technical and regulatory requirements for verifying the performance of nuclear power plant instrumentation, describe new methods developed and applied in NPPs for on-line verification and performance of instrumentation and present new techniques using existing instrumentation to identify the on-set problems in the plant electrical, mechanical and thermal hydraulic systems. Particular emphasis was placed on temperature measurements by Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples and pressure measurements using motion-balanced and forced-balanced pressure transmitters. This proceedings includes papers presented by the invited speakers and the participants each with an abstract as wells as a summary of the Round-Table discussions Refs, figs, tabs

  4. On-line testing of nuclear plant temperature and pressure instrumentation and other critical plant equipment. IAEA regional workshop. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Under European regional TC project RER/4/011, IAEA and VUJE Training centre organized a workshop on On-line Testing of Nuclear Power Plant Temperature and Pressure Instrumentation and Other Critical Plant Equipment in Trnava, Slovak Republic, from 25 to 29 May 1998. The objective of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in NPP instrumentation, cover typical instrumentation problems and solutions, describe technical and regulatory requirements for verifying the performance of nuclear power plant instrumentation, describe new methods developed and applied in NPPs for on-line verification and performance of instrumentation and present new techniques using existing instrumentation to identify the on-set problems in the plant electrical, mechanical and thermal hydraulic systems. Particular emphasis was placed on temperature measurements by Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples and pressure measurements using motion-balanced and forced-balanced pressure transmitters. This proceedings includes papers presented by the invited speakers and the participants each with an abstract as wells as a summary of the Round-Table discussions

  5. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Mayn, B.G.

    1979-08-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  6. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Mayn, B.G.

    1979-08-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  7. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Salem nuclear power plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Salem nuclear power plant, Unit 1. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system include operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  8. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  9. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  10. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  11. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-07-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author) [pt

  12. Musical Intonation of Wind Instruments and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-01-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  13. Temperature documentation - instrument for quality assurance; Temperaturdokumentation - Instrument der Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegglin, A [Wurm AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2000-10-01

    Important inspection points of a HACCP concept are the temperatures. On the basis of the demands for a systematic temperature documentation, the application of control systems and instruments is described by several examples. (orig.) [German] Wichtige Kontrollpunkte eines HACCP-Konzepts sind die Temperaturen. Ausgehend von den Anforderungen, die an eine systematische Temperaturedokumentation gestellt werden, wird der Einsatz geeigneter Regel- und Ueberwachungsgeraete an mehreren Beispielen erlaeutert. (orig.)

  14. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-01-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those Plants, against the action of earthquakes is described. The instrumentation described is based on the nuclear standards in force. The minimum amount of sensors and other components used, as well as their general localization, is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The various devices used are not covered in detail, except for the accelerometer, which is the seismic instrumentation basic component. (Author) [pt

  15. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  16. Ambient temperature signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigge, Philip A

    2013-10-01

    Plants are exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Within the 'ambient' temperature range (about 12-27°C for Arabidopsis) temperature differences have large effects on plant growth and development, disease resistance pathways and the circadian clock without activating temperature stress pathways. It is this developmental sensing and response to non-stressful temperatures that will be covered in this review. Recent advances have revealed key players in mediating temperature signals. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been shown to be a hub for multiple responses to warmer temperature in Arabidopsis, including flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Changes in chromatin state are involved in transmitting temperature signals to the transcriptome. Determining the precise mechanisms of temperature perception represents an exciting goal for the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b) Automatic...

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna and was attended by 21 national delegates and observers from 18 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Vienna, 8-10 May 1989, (2) report of the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1987-89 in the NPPCI area, (3) terms of reference International Working Group on NPPCI and (4) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The paper and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economical aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers presented by members of the International Working Group. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. New technology in nuclear power plant instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The primary topic of this book is what can be done to improve nuclear power plant operation safety and the economic benefits that can be gained with the utilization of advance instrumentation and control technology. Other topics discussed are the industry's reluctance to accept new designs determining cost effective improvements, and difficulties in meeting regulatory standards with new technology control. The subjects will be useful when considering the area of instrumentation and control for enhancing plant operation and safety. Contents: Advanced Instrumention, Plant Control and Monitoring, Plant Diagnostics and Failure Detection, Human Factors Considerations in Instrumentation and Control, NRC and Industry Perspective on Advanced Instrumentation and Control

  20. Unattended safeguards instrumentation at centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L. Eric; Lebrun, Alain R.; Labella, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    As global uranium enrichment capacity under international safeguards expands, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is challenged to develop effective safeguards approaches at gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants, particularly high‑capacity plants, while working within budgetary constraints. New safeguards approaches should meet the high‑level verification objectives for such facilities (i.e., timely detection of: diversion of declared material, excess production beyond declared amounts, and production of enrichment levels higher than declared), but should also strive for efficiency advantages in implementation, for both the IAEA and operators. Under the Agency’s State- level approach to safeguards implementation, the Agency needs a flexible toolbox of technologies, allowing tailoring of safeguards measures for each individual enrichment facility. In this paper, the potential roles and development status for three different types of unattended measurement instrumentation are discussed. On‑Line Enrichment Monitors (OLEM) could provide continuous enrichment measurement for 100% of the declared gas flowing through unit header pipes. Unattended Cylinder Verification Stations (UCVS) could provide unattended verification of the declared uranium mass and enrichment of 100% of the cylinders moving through the plant, but also apply and verify an ‘NDA Fingerprint’ to preserve verification knowledge on the contents of each cylinder throughout its life in the facility. Sharing of the operator’s load cell signals from feed and withdrawal stations could count all cylinders introduced to the process and provide periodic monitoring of the uranium mass balance for in‑process material. The integration of load cell, OLEM and UCVS data streams offers the possibility for 100% verification of declared cylinder flow, and enables the periodic verification of the declared 235 U mass balance in the plant. These new capabilities would enhance the IAEA

  1. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharath Kumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of nucleonic signals is required to control and operate the reactor in a safe and reliable manner. To achieve this, parameters like Neutron flux, other radiation fields, contamination levels, source strength, release thru stack etc. are required to be monitored and controlled. The above are required to be monitored throughout the life of the reactor whether it is operational or in shutdown condition. In addition such monitoring is also required during decommissioning phase of the reactor as needed. To measure these parameters a large number of instruments are used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) which includes sensors and electronics for detecting alpha, beta, gamma and neutron radiation with qualification to withstand harsh environment

  2. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0202] Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants... Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 3.7.4, ``Seismic Instrumentation.'' DATES: Submit... Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to a new Revision 3). The proposed...

  3. Instrumentation control system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Tai, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of instrumentation control system in a nuclear power plant by using an optical fiber cable as a transmission path between a multiplexer and a central control room to thereby eliminate noises resulted from electromagnetic inductions or the likes. Constitution: Signals from neutron detectors are sent by way of ceramic-insulated cables to pre-amplifiers disposed outside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, converted into voltage pulse signals and then sent by way of coaxial cables to a multiplexer. The multiplexer receives a plurality of voltage pulse signals corresponding to the neutron detectors respectively, converts them into a time-shared electric signal train and sends it to an optical pulse transmitter. The transmitter converts the supplied signals into an optical pulse signal train corresponding to the electric signal train from the multiplexer and sends it by way of an optical fiber cable to an optical pulse receiver disposed in a central control room. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Field of Temperature Measurement by Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor HARGAŠ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces about temperature determination for given dot of picture through image analysis. Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a heated item to a cooler item. Main method of measurement of temperature in image is Pattern Matching, color scale detection and model detection. We can measure temperature dependency at time for selected point of thermo vision images. This measurement gives idea about the heat transfer at time dependences.

  5. Tritium instrumentation for a fusion reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, K.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1976-09-01

    A review of tritium instrumentation is presented. This includes a discussion of currently available in-plant instrumentation and methods required for sampling stacks, monitoring process streams and reactor coolants, analyzing occupational work areas for air and surface contamination, and personnel monitoring. Off-site instrumentation and collection techniques are also presented. Conclusions are made concerning the adequacy of existing instrumentation in relation to the monitoring needs for fusion reactors

  6. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  7. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel, M.; Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G.; Arnaldos, A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  8. Novel seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolleter, W.; Savary, C.

    1998-01-01

    Conforming to the latest issues of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide, a novel hardware and software solution for seismic instrumentation is presented. Both instrumentation and PC-based data evaluation software for post-earthquake actions are type-tested and approved by the German TUeV. Reference installations replacing obsolete analog instrumentation were successfully completed and are presented. The instrumentation consists of highly linear, solid-state capacitive accelerometers as well as digital recorders storing the signals from the sensors in situ. These recorders are linked in a star-topology network to a central unit that permanently communicates with them via fiber-optic cable or current-loop links. The central unit is responsible for alerting and synchronizes all recorders which otherwise act autonomously. Data evaluation is handled by a PC-based software package. It includes automatic data evaluation after earthquakes (batch mode), interactive data evaluation software for detailed data analysis, and software tools for remote operation, maintenance and data storage. (author)

  9. Use of fuel reprocessing plant instrumentation for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has a program for developing instrumentation to be used by safeguards inspectors at reprocessing facilities. These instruments have generally been individual pieces of equipment for improving the accuracy of existing measurement instrumentation or equipment to perform nondestructive assay on a selected basis. It is proposed that greater use be made of redundant plant instrumentation and data recovery systems that could augment plant instrumentation to verify the validity of plant measurements. Use of these methods for verfication must be proven as part of an operating plant before they can be relied upon for safeguards surveillance. Inspectors must be qualified in plant operations, or have ready access to those so qualified, if the integrity of the operation is to be properly assessed. There is an immediate need for the development and in-plant proof testing of an integrated gamma, passive neutron, and active neutron measurement system for drum quantities of radioactive trash. The primary safeguards effort should be limited to plutonium and highly enriched uranium

  10. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo, E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [ISIRYM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion, E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Valencia (Spain); Nieva, Marcelino Curiel, E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  11. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo; Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion; Nieva, Marcelino Curiel

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  12. New technology for BWR power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Murata, Fumio.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are facing strong demands for higher reliability and cost-performance in their control and instrumentation systems. To meet these needs, Hitachi is developing advanced control and instrumentation technology by rationalizing the conventional technology in that field. The rationalization is done through the utilization of reliable digital technology and optical transmission technology, and others, which are now commonly used in computer applications. The goal of the development work is to ensure safe, stable operation of the plant facilities and to secure harmony between man and machine. To alleviate the burdens of the operators, the latest electronic devices are being employed to create an advanced man-machine interface, and to promote automatic operation of the plant based upon the automatic operation of individual systems. In addition, the control and instrumentation system, including the safety system, incorporates more and more digital components in order to further enhance the reliability and maintainability of the plant. (author)

  13. Nuclear plant needs for new process instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.; Belew, M.

    1991-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is initiating projects to investigate new sensor designs for pressure and hydrogen measurements. The intent is to develop new sensors that are highly accurate with inherently low-maintenance requirements. Criteria have been developed, with utility review and input, for evaluating pressure sensor technology. The first phase will evaluate all pressure-sensing concepts, including new techniques such as fiber optics, digital silicon, reductance, acoustics, and others (exploratory research). Concepts that appear most attractive for meeting the utility criteria will be extended. The second phase would be conceptual development, laboratory testing, market surveys, manufacturing assessments, plant implementation assessments, and a cost/benefits assessment. Assuming positive results from phase 2, phase 3 would be prototype sensor development and host plant testing. Phase 4 (funded outside EPRI) would be qualification testing. Hydrogen sensor assessment studies are under way to determine the need for improved hydrogen sensor designs. If the results of the assessment indicate a need, a project to develop improved hydrogen sensors utilizing a similar multiphase approach will also be initiated

  14. Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

    2014-07-01

    Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

  15. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

    2006-12-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

  16. Malaysian Preparation for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Kamarudin Sulaiman; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation and Control System is required in Nuclear Power Plant for their safe and effective operation. The system is combination and integrated from detectors, actuators, analog system as well as digital system. Current design of system definitely follows of electronic as well as computer technology, with strictly follow regulation and guideline from local regulator as well as International Atomic Energy Agency. Commercial Off-The-Shelf products are extensively used with specific nucleonic instrumentation. Malaysian experiences depend on Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI Instrumentation and Control, Power Plant Instrumentation and Control as well as Process Control System. However Malaysians have capabilities to upgrade themself from Electronics, Computers, Electrical and Mechanical based. Proposal is presented for Malaysian preparation. (author)

  17. Instrumentation project of 3rd desalination plant at Tuas (Singapore)

    OpenAIRE

    Charco Iniesta, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This project consists on the description of instrumentation used in Tuas III desalination plant at Singapore and its flow process description. The project has been developed as part of the work of the instrumentation department of the responsible company of the engineering design of Tuas III desalination plant. First of all is important to know the water problems which suffer all the people who live in Singapore. Singapore is a city-state and is home to 5.5 million residents. The coun...

  18. Reactor instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.

    1993-01-01

    The pertinent legislation, guidelines and standards of importance for nuclear power plant construction as well as the relevant committees in Germany are covered. The impact of international developments on the German regulatory scene is mentioned. A series of 15 data sheets on reactor control, followed by 5 data sheets on instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants, which were drawn up for German plants, are compared and commented in some detail. Digitalization of instrumentation and control systems continues apace. To illustrate the results that can be achieved with a digitalized information system, a picture series that documents a plant test of behavior on simulated steam generator tube rupture is elaborately commented. An outlook on backfitting and upgrading applications concludes this paper. (orig.) [de

  19. IAEA experience with authentication of in-plant NDA instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustson, R.H.; Dermendjiev, E.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses IAEA experience with permanently installed measuring equipment, i.e. in-plant NDA instrumentation, which often has advantages over portable equipment, such as improved accuracy, automated sample handling and data collection, and capacity for higher throughput. In some cases, in-plant equipment is the only means of making a field measurement. However, the use of in-plant equipment requires an additional set of inspector procedures to ensure that the instrument is working correctly and has not been tampered with. This process of verifying instrument performance is called authentication. General guidelines for approaches to authentication have been studied and formulated by an IAEA Advisory Group Meeting held in November 1981. Procedures for specific instruments have been developed in some cases with the help of national support programmes. The field application of authentication is accomplished by incorporating specific actions into inspection procedures. Results are written down as part of the working papers and included in the final inspection report. For quantitative checks such as measurement of a working standard the results are sent along with the inspection measurements to the Agency for inclusion in the safeguards data base. The in-plant equipment may be owned by the facility, a State, a safeguards organization or the Agency. In each case, the use of the in-plant equipment will necessitate additional interactions between facility operator and inspector, in order to judge the impact on plant operation, and understand what is being measured and what can go wrong. The paper discusses the IAEA's experience gained in the field application of authentication procedures for instrument systems such as weighing and volume measuring devices, rod scanners, neutron activation systems and K-edge densitometers

  20. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1982. Proceedings of an international symposium on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Ever increasing demands for nuclear power plant safety and availability imply a need for the introduction of modern measurement and control methods, together with data processing techniques based on the latest advances in electronic components, transducers and computers. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation is therefore an extremely rapidly developing field. The present symposium, held in Munich, FR Germany, was prepared with the help of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation and organized in close co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Reaktorsicherheit, Federal Republic of Germany. A number of developments were highlighted at the Munich symposium: - The increased use of computers can bring clear advantages and this technique is now proven as a tool for supervising and controlling plant operation. Advanced computerized systems for operator support are being developed on a large scale in many countries. The progress in this field is quite obvious, especially in disturbance analysis, safety parameter display, plant operator guidance and plant diagnostics. The new trend of introducing computers and microprocessors in protection systems makes it easy to implement 'defence-in-depth' strategies which give better assurance of correct system responses and also prevent unnecessary reactor trips, thus improving plant availability. The introduction of computerized systems for control of reactor power, reactor water level and reactor pressure as well as for reactor start-up and shut-down could improve the reliability and availability of nuclear power plants. The rapid technical development in the area of control and instrumentation makes it necessary to plan for at least one replacement of obsolete equipment in the course of the 30 years lifetime of a nuclear power plant and retrofitting of currently operating reactors with new control systems. Major design improvements and regulatory requirements also require

  1. Recognition of Instrumentation Gauge in the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Nuclear emergency robots were developed in 2001 as the countermeasure following the criticality accident at the JCO (uranium refinery facility) in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. We assumed that these nuclear emergency robots were deployed (or put into) for a mitigation (or management) of severe accident, for example, occurred at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In the case, the image understanding using a color CCD camera, loaded on the nuclear emergency robot, is important. We proposed an image processing technique to read indication value of the IC water level gauges using the structural characteristics of the instrumentation panels (water level gauges) located inside the reactor building. At first, we recognized the scales on the instrumentation panel using the geometric shape of the panel. And then, we could read the values of the instrumentation gauge by calculating the slope of the needle on the gauge. Using the proposed algorithm, we deciphered instrumentation panels for the four water level gauges and indicators shown on the IC video released by TEPCO and Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Commission of Japan. In this paper, recognition of the instrumentation gauges inside reactor building of the nuclear power plant by an image processing technology is described.

  2. Advanced instrumentation and control techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Makino, Maomi

    1989-01-01

    Toshiba has been promoting the development and improvement of control and instrumentation (C and I) systems employing the latest technologies, to fulfill the requirements of nuclear power plants for increased reliability, the upgrading of functions, improved maintainability, and reasonable cost. Such development has been systematically performed based on a schematic view of integrated digital control and instrumentation systems, actively adopting state-of-the-art techniques such as the latest man-machine interfaces, digital and optical multiplexing techniques, and artificial intelligence. In addition, comprehensive feedback has been obtained from the accumulation of operating experience. This paper describes the purpose, contents and status of applications of representative newly-developed systems. (author)

  3. Instrumentation for chemical and radiochemical monitoring in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, F.; Ballard, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article details the instrumentation implemented in French nuclear power plants for the monitoring of chemical and radiochemical effluents with the aim of limiting their environmental impact. It describes the controls performed with chemical automata for the search for drifts, anomalies or pollution in a given circuit. The operation principles of the different types of chemical automata are explained as well as the manual controls performed on samples manually collected. Content: 1 - general considerations; 2 - objectives of the chemical monitoring: usefulness of continuous monitoring with automata, transmission to control rooms and related actions, redundancy of automata; 3 - instrumentation and explanations for the main circuits: principle of chemical automata monitoring, instrumentation of the main primary circuit, instrumentation of the main secondary circuit, instrumentation of the tertiary circuit, preparation of water makeup (demineralized water), other loops, instrumentation for effluents and environment monitoring, measurement principles of chemical automata, control and maintenance of chemical automata; 4 - manual controls after sampling; 5 - radiochemical monitoring: automatized radiochemical measurements, manual radiochemical measurements; 6 - conclusion

  4. Upgrading instrumentation and control systems for plant safety and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Prehler, H.J.; Schramm, W.

    1997-01-01

    Upgrading the electrical systems and instrumentation and control systems has become increasingly more important in the past few years for nuclear power plants currently in operation. As the requirements to be met in terms of plant safety and availability have become more stringent in the past few years, Western plants built in the sixties and seventies have been the subject of manifold backfitting and upgrading measures in the past. In the meantime, however, various nuclear power plants are facing much more thorough upgrading phases because of the difficulties in obtaining spare parts for older equipment systems. As digital technology has become widespread in many areas because of its advantages, and as applications are continuously expanding, conventional equipment and systems are losing more and more ground as a consequence of decreasing demand. Merely because of the pronounced decline in demand for conventional electronic components it is possible for equipment manufacturers to guarantee spare parts deliveries for older systems only for specific future periods of time. In addition, one-off manufacture entails high costs in purchases of spare parts. As a consequence of current thinking more and more focusing on availability and economy, upgrading of electrical systems and instrumentation and control systems is becoming a more and more topical question, for older plants even to ensure completion of full service life. (orig.) [de

  5. In-line analytical instrumentation in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.K.; Bhargava, V.K.; Marathe, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing plants where uranium and plutonium are separated from highly radioactive fission products, continuous monitoring of these constituents is helpful in many ways. Apart from quick detection of possible process malfunctions, in-line monitoring protects operating personnel from radiation hazards, reduces the cost of laboratory analysis and increases the overall efficiency of the process. A review of a proqramme of work on the design, fabrication and testing of some in-line instruments viz. gamma absorptiometer for uranium, neutron monitor for plutonium, acidity monitor for scrub nitric acid etc., their feasibility studies in the laboratory as well as in the pilot plant is presented. (auth.)

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqleem, J.; Hashmi, J.A.; Siddiqui, Z.H.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactors generate 15% of the world's supply electric power. The substantial growth in world energy demand is inevitably continuing throughout the next century. Nuclear power which has already paid more than enough for itself and its development, will provide increasing share of electricity production both in the developed and developing countries. For Pakistan with limited natural resources such as oil, gas, and fully tapped hydel power, nuclear power is the only viable option. However, things are not simple for developing countries which embark on nuclear power program. A technical infrastructure should be established as it has been shown by the experience of Control and Instrumentation of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. The national report describes the program of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission in (NPP) Computers, Control and Instrumentation for design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  8. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  9. Plant adaptation to temperature and photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. JUNTTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to environmental conditions both by adaptation and by acclimation. The ability of the plants to grow, reproduce and survive under changing climatic conditions depends on the efficiency of adaptation and acclimation. The adaptation of developmental processes in plants to temperature and photoperiod is briefly reviewed. In annual plants this adaptation is related to growth capacity and to the timing of reproduction. In perennial plants growing under northern conditions, adaptation of the annual growth cycle to the local climatic cycle is of primary importance. Examples of the role of photothermal conditions in regulation of these phenological processes are given and discussed. The genetic and physiological bases for climatic adaptation in plants are briefly examined.;

  10. Power plant instrumentation and control handbook a guide to thermal power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Swapan

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses instrumentation and control in modern fossil fuel power plants, with an emphasis on selecting the most appropriate systems subject to constraints engineers have for their projects. It provides all the plant process and design details, including specification sheets and standards currently followed in the plant. Among the unique features of the book are the inclusion of control loop strategies and BMS/FSSS step by step logic, coverage of analytical instruments and technologies for pollution and energy savings, and coverage of the trends toward filed bus systems and integratio

  11. Temperature and pressure instrumentation in WWERs and their testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.

    1998-01-01

    A description of WWER model V-213 reactors of second generation is presented and compared to analogous NPPs including description of temperature and pressure instrumentation which was tested at Paks NPP. From the experimental results it was concluded that measured response of in core neutron detector to bubbles strongly depends on the relative position of detector and point bubble injection. Neutron noise spectra show characteristic sink when the origin of bubbles is close to the detectors. Dependence of phase behaviour on the boiling conditions is included as well

  12. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemian, H M

    2006-01-01

    Compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. This book focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time.

  13. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  14. Surveillance of instrumentation channels at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    Surveillance activities at nuclear plants, involving-calibrations, functional tests, and simple checks, have many associated problems. These problems are of the following four types: administrative, equipment, human, and systemic. An extensive search of the literature has led to 63 generic classes of problems falling within these types and involving instrumentation department activities. The classification system is that which writers of incidents are essentially using, based on historical traditions, in naming their problems' causes. An interesting finding in the search was the strong correlation of this project to many aspects of industrial safety; technology transfer opportunities from the latter are identified. A survey of plant instrumentation experts was conducted to obtain a ranking of the most important problems. Classes of solutions to these problems are listed and discussed. Outlined is a possible methodology of matching these solutions to problems. Finally applications of this study are listed, and include extensions to training, operations, and maintenance departments of power plants. Appendices give several general examples for each problem class and many specific suggestions from experts on addressing the problems felt to be more important. 15 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Fact sheet on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are facing challenges in several instrumentation and control (I and C) areas with ageing and obsolete components and equipment. With license renewals and power uprates, the long-term operation and maintenance of obsolete I and C systems may not be a cost-effective and reliable option. The effort needed to maintain or increase the reliability and useful life of existing I and C systems may be greater in the long run than modernizing I and C systems or replacing them completely with new digital systems. The increased functionality of the new I and C systems can also open up new possibilities to better support the operation and maintenance activities in the plant. The IAEA recognizes the importance of the profound role the I and C systems play in the reliable, safe, efficient, and cost-effective operations of NPPs by supporting the activities of the Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI). The group was established in March 1970. Its membership currently includes thirty Member States and three international organizations. The most recent meeting of the TWG-NPPCI was held in May 2005 in Vienna. The meeting report is available at http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NENP/twg_nppc.html. The next meeting of the TWGNPPCI will be the 21st meeting of the advisory body, and it will be held in May 2007

  16. Design aid system for nuclear power plant instrumentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Ito, Toshiichiro; Fujii, Makoto; Shimada, Nobuhide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to provide design aid for the nuclear power plant instrumentation of high reliability with the minimum cost while eliminating unrequired condition even if there are no data for the ground of the instrumentation design. Constitution: The information data base for the design of process radiation ray monitors are administrated by a data base administration device. The conditions to be satisfied in the process radiation monitors designed based on the data for the circumstances where particular predetermined process radiation monitors are installed, are derived by deduction using information obtained from the data base by way of the data base administration device. The derived design conditions are displayed and the optimum conditions are again reduced and displayed. In this way, the designers are assisted such that optimum designs can be obtained while sufficiently satisfying the safety and also in view of the cost. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Advanced Instrumentation and control techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuyuki; Makino, Maomi; Naito, Norio

    1992-01-01

    Toshiba has been promoting the development of an advanced instrumentation and control system for nuclear power plants to fulfill the requirements for increased reliability, improved functionality and maintainability, and more competitive economic performance. This system integrates state-of-the-art technologies such as those for the latest man-machine interface, digital processing, optical multiplexing signal transmission, human engineering, and artificial intelligence. Such development has been systematically accomplished based on a schematic view of integrated digital control and instrumentation systems, and the development of whole systems has now been completed. This paper describes the purpose, design philosophy, and contents of newly developed systems, then considers the future trends of advanced man-machine systems. (author)

  18. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  19. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  20. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  1. Report on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in Germany. The general technology underlying most aspects of NPP C and I in Germany has not altered since the last progress report although there has been many improvements in detail. Since the beginning of 1990 the GRS carried out the safety investigations of NPPs in East Germany. The USSR as the vendor of the plants and France were also involved in the project. The following fields are briefly described: Status of nuclear power in Germany; training simulators; backfitting of computers and information systems; operator support/new control rooms. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  2. Survey on Johnson noise thermometry for temperature instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Moon, B. S.

    2002-01-01

    Johnson Noise Thermometry is an drift-free temperature measurement method which is able to maintain the best accuracy without calibration for a long period. Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and Thermocouples used widely in power plants have the drift problem which causes a measurement error. Despite the advantage of Johnson Noise thermometry, it has not been used because it is very sensitive to electromagnetic noise and environment. It also requires more complicated signal processing methods. This paper presents the characteristics of Johnson Noise thermometry and various implementation method proposed over the past decades time period. The key factor in development of a noise thermometer is how to extract the tiny noise signal from the sensor and discriminate out the unnecessary noise interference from the environments. The new digital technology of fast signal processing skill will useful to challenge the existing problems fir commercialization of noise thermometry

  3. Continuous high-temperature surveillance instrumentation for Dresden-2 hydrogen water chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, M.F.; Mitchell, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program (under EPRI Contract RP1930-11) is to install and operate a high-temperature surveillance instrumentation system capable of monitoring the length of cracks in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping during plant operation. The ability to measure crack growth in BWR power plant piping welds is important to rapidly identify the effectiveness of repairs (such as the Hydrogen Water Chemistry Program). The feasibility of a system capable of continuous ultrasonic instrumentation at 600 0 F (288 0 C) was successfully demonstrated at the Dresden-2 suction line known as N1B. This intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) surveillance instrumentation is sound in principal, because it survived on N1B for a time period of more than nine months from April 1985 to January 1986 (the last time data were recorded). The redesigned low-profile transducer system used for this system operated successfully for the same nine-month time period. This low profile transducer fits in the two-inch space normally occupied by insulation. As a result of poor routing of the coaxial cables running from the low-profile transducer to the electrical feed-throughs between the drywell and containment, these cables melted. Other instrument cables nearby were not damaged

  4. Experience with diagnostic instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, R.; Ciaramitaro, W.

    1977-01-01

    Over the past several years, Westinghouse has developed a coordinated system of on-line diagnostic instrumentation for the acquisition and analysis of data for diagnostics and incipient failure detection of critical plant equipment and systems. Primary motivation for this work is to improve NSSS availability and Maintainability through the detection of malfunctions at their inception. These systems encompass the following areas: (1) Vibration Monitoring System for detection of changes in vibrational characteristics of the major components of Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) and Balance of Plant (BOP); (2) Acoustic Monitoring System for detection and location of leaks in the primary system pressure boundary and other piping systems in PWRs; (3) Metal Impact Monitoring for detection of loose debris in the reactor vessel and steam generators; (4) Nuclear Noise Monitoring System for monitoring core barrel vibration; (5) Sensor Response Time Measurement System for detecting any degradation of process sensors; and (6) Transit Time Flow Meter for determining primary coolant flow rate. Summarized in this paper are some of the features of the systems and in-plant experience. These experiences demonstrate that diagnostic systems in combination with analytical and laboratory work for data interpretation do improve plant availability. (author)

  5. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The resurgence of the nuclear power industry at a time when the nuclear plant I and C workforce is diminishing due to aging and retirements has been the motivation for writing this book. This book compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. It focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time. In spite of great advances in electronics, computers, and measurement technologies, important process parameters such as temperature and pressure are still measured with conventional sensing techniques found in RTDs, thermocouples, and conventional pressure and differential pressure sensors. Furthermore, no improved technology providing comparable performance is currently on the horizon. Therefore, it is important to understand how these sensors function and the testing techniques for verifying their performance. This book is intended to help provide this understanding. (orig.)

  6. Managing modernization of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    There are many reasons why I and C systems need to be modernized in nuclear power plants, including obsolescence, results of aging technology, failure rates, and the need for additional functionality and improved performance. For many plants, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) modernization will be one of the largest and most important activities over the next decade or longer. Modernization of I and C systems will represent a major capital investment for the plants in the future. Therefore, good and informed management to determine what needs to be modernized, how it should be modernized, and then to do the actual modernization is essential in order to minimize the costs and maximize the benefits. While many reports have discussed I and C modernization topics, one topic that needs more work is how to management I and C modernization projects efficiently. In order to have an efficient modernization project, it is essential that the plant does strategic planning to determine what needs to be done with I and C systems in the context of the overall plant goals, objectives, and commitments. This includes determining what features the the overall I and C, and control room, of the plant should look like at the end of the time period considered by the strategic planning effort, what systems need to be modernized, what systems can be maintained, the priority order of the systems to be modernized, how the systems should be modernized, and so on. To ensure that the individual I and C and control room modernization projects are done consistently with the strategic plan and the overall plant goals, objectives, and commitments, it is important that management establishes a set of plant specific guidelines and generic requirements and processes that the project will need to follow and that can be used as part of the requirements specifications for the new systems. High level management leadership and support is needed for I and C modernization in order to maintain the high

  7. Managing modernization of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    There are many reasons why I and C systems need to be modernized in nuclear power plants, including obsolescence, results of aging technology, failure rates, and the need for additional functionality and improved performance. For many plants, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) modernization will be one of the largest and most important activities over the next decade or longer. Modernization of I and C systems will represent a major capital investment for the plants in the future. Therefore, good and informed management to determine what needs to be modernized, how it should be modernized, and then to do the actual modernization is essential in order to minimize the costs and maximize the benefits. While many reports have discussed I and C modernization topics, one topic that needs more work is how to management I and C modernization projects efficiently. In order to have an efficient modernization project, it is essential that the plant does strategic planning to determine what needs to be done with I and C systems in the context of the overall plant goals, objectives, and commitments. This includes determining what features the the overall I and C, and control room, of the plant should look like at the end of the time period considered by the strategic planning effort, what systems need to be modernized, what systems can be maintained, the priority order of the systems to be modernized, how the systems should be modernized, and so on. To ensure that the individual I and C and control room modernization projects are done consistently with the strategic plan and the overall plant goals, objectives, and commitments, it is important that management establishes a set of plant specific guidelines and generic requirements and processes that the project will need to follow and that can be used as part of the requirements specifications for the new systems. High level management leadership and support is needed for I and C modernization in order to maintain the high

  8. Low-temperature carbonization plant for lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotsuki, Y

    1949-01-01

    The design and operational data of a low-temperature carbonization plant for Japanese lignite are described. The retort had a vertical cylinder with a capacity of about 10 tons per day. By continuous operation, in which a part of the gas produced was circulated and burned in the lignite zone, about 40 percent semicoke and 3 to 4 percent tar were obtained. From the tar the following products were separated: Low-temperature carbonization cresol, 18.3; motor fuel, 1.00; solvent, 9.97; cresol for medical uses, 11.85; and creosote oil, 32 percent.

  9. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1993. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regular meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the Merlin-Gerin Headquarters in Paris and was attended by twenty one national delegates and observers from 17 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Paris, 21-22 October 1993, (2) report by the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1991-1993 in the NPPCI area, and (3) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The papers and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economic aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  11. Digital nuclear instrumentation application to nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burel, J.-P.; Fanet, H.

    1993-01-01

    The use of digital techniques for the control of nuclear reactors offers an interesting prospect in the improvement of the operation and safety of reactors. Thanks to close collaboration between Merlin Gerin and the French Atomic Energy Commission, a new piece of technology for nuclear instrumentation systems has been developed in order to meet the needs of different types of reactors. The principles of measurement are presented and the technology used is described. Other interesting points of this technology in addition to installation, operation and safety are examined. The digital neutron measurements are already operating in research reactors in France and will be installed in a different configuration in the new 1400 MW nuclear power plant. Integration into different designs is easily attainable by adapting the information transmission mode according to the technology present in the protection system and the treatment and visualization systems. (author)

  12. Extreme low temperature tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Richard Strimbeck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40˚C and minimum temperatures below -60˚C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196˚C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have important roles in survival at extreme low temperature. Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at extreme low temperature: 1. Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to 30˚C, preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. 2. High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. 3. Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane-membrane interactions.

  13. Report from the Netherlands [nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Y. van der

    2007-01-01

    A view is given on status and developments of NPP instrumentation and control related subjects in The Netherlands. Induced by a first periodic safety review NPP Borssele finalised an extensive upgrading programme in summer 1997. An additional optimisation in smaller parts of the I and C was completed in the 1998 outage. A second periodic safety review of Borssele was finished in 2004, concluding the plant applies to the current rules and regulations and to the state of the art. Nevertheless an improvement plan describing technical design and operational modifications by which nuclear safety has almost been finished now. The job was done in the long outage of autumn 2006 in combination with a turbine and turbine control upgrade. The latter led to a nett electric power output increase of around 7%. Also the HFR research reactor in Petten was subjected to an extensive first periodic safety review, leading to a new license. A major part of the resulting modification plan has been implemented now. Realisation of some safety enhancements in Petten are not easy and remained longer than expected in a stage of innovation. The electricity market was subjected to a liberalisation process. Production and transmission of electric energy has been separated. Electricity is produced now in a rather free market and many power plants have been sold to foreign investors. Only the Borssele power plants remained self- reliant in a period with a threat of closing. NPP Dodewaard is in decommissioning since 1997. It has been partially dismantled and entered a preservation period of 40 years. The radioactive waste storage organisation COVRA is further expanded for low radiating waste and also for storage of rest products from the Urenco enrichment facilities. This article concludes with mentioning some topics for IAEA's attention. (author)

  14. The Development of an ASSA Module as an Auxiliary Tool for Assessment of Existing Plant Instrumentation and enhancement of the instruments performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Young Ro; Cho, Young; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    2007-04-01

    A review of a plant's accident management capabilities is one of the key elements in achieving regulatory closure of severe accident issues. During accidents, information and data from plant's instruments, as well as others sources, are essential for assessing the plant's status and response. Unlike for design basis accidents, there are inherently some uncertainties to instrumentation capabilities for severe accident conditions. There are many ways to obtain information during a severe accident. Moreover, precise measurements are not necessary. The redundancy and ruggedness of a plant's instrumentation provides considerable depth in the capability of existing designs. The circuit simulation analysis and diagnosis methods are used to assess instruments in detail when they give apparently abnormal readings. A new simulator, ASSA(abnormal signal simulator analysis), through an analysis of the important circuits modeling under severe accident conditions has been designed. It has three main functions which are a signal processing tool, an accident management tool, and an additional guide from the initial screen. In this paper, it can be simulated to the temperature characteristic analysis procedure of the ASSA through EQ data comparative method and using specific signal processing under severe accident condition

  15. The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in liquid/liquid extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bradshaw, L.; Tolchard, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic instruments can be used to determine many of the parameters of interest in a liquid/liquid extraction plant, eg liquid levels, the position of interfaces between immiscible liquids and the concentration of solutions. The determinations can often be made non-invasively. A number of instruments developed for a liquid/liquid extraction plant used for nuclear fuel reprocessing is described. These instruments have a wider application in liquid/liquid extraction plant in general. (author)

  16. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating

  17. Authentication of nuclear-material assays made with in-plant instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Russo, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper develops a general approach for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) authentication of nuclear material assays made with in-plant instruments under facility operator control. The IAEA is evaluating the use of in-plant instruments as a part of international safeguards at large bulk-handling facilities, such as reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication plants, and enrichment plants. One of the major technical problems associated with IAEA use of data from in-plant instruments is the need to show that there has been no tampering with the measurements. Two fundamentally different methods are discussed that can be used by IAEA inspectors to independently verify (or authenticate) measurements made with in-plant instruments. Method 1, called external authentication, uses a protected IAEA measurement technique to compare in-plant instrument results with IAEA results. Method 2, called internal authentication, uses protected IAEA standards, known physical constants, and special test procedures to determine the performance characteristics of the in-plant instrument. The importance of measurement control programs to detect normally expected instrument failures and procedural errors is also addressed. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of factors that should be considered by the designers of new in-plant instruments in order to facilitate IAEA authentication procedures

  18. Applying Online Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, H. M.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a practical review of the state-of-the-art means for applying OLM data acquisition in nuclear power plant instrumentation and control, qualifying or validating the OLM data, and then analyzing it for static and dynamic performance monitoring applications. Whereas data acquisition for static or steady-state OLM applications can require sample rates of anywhere from 1 to 10 seconds to 1 minutes per sample, for dynamic data acquisition, higher sampling frequencies are required (e.g., 100 to 1000 Hz) using a dedicated data acquisition system capable of providing isolation, anti-aliasing and removal of extraneous noise, and analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. Qualifying the data for use with OLM algorithms can involve removing data `dead' spots (for static data) and calculating, examining, and trending amplitude probability density, variance, skewness, and kurtosis. For static OLM applications with redundant signals, trending and averaging qualification techniques are used, and for single or non-redundant signals physical and empirical modeling are used. Dynamic OLM analysis is performed in the frequency domain and/or time domain, and is based on the assumption that sensors' or transmitters' dynamic characteristics are linear and that the input noise signal (i.e., the process fluctuations) has proper spectral characteristics.

  19. Upgrading instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants. Design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, M.C.; Alvarez Menendez, A.

    1997-01-01

    The use of programmed digital technology in Protection, Control, Monitoring and Information Systems in new generation nuclear power plants, or the use of this technology to replace or upgrade existing systems based on wired analog instrumentation and electromechanical relays, has led to new international standards which establish new design requirements or adapt existing requirements to this technology. Additionally, both regulatory organisations and the industry are discussing the reliability of this technology, regarding common mode failures that may occur in redundant protection channels, due to the use of equipment and software with the same characteristics. The first part of this paper addresses the most important aspects of new international standards regarding classification criteria for I and C systems, equipment and functions, depending on their importance to safety and the design criteria applicable to each category. Special attention is drawn to requirements concerning software quality assurance and the design of new control rooms. The paper then goes on to discuss the different technical solutions being implemented, using equipment and software diversification, in order to prevent the possibility of common mode failures affecting the protection function. (Author)

  20. Development of a portable ambient temperature radiometric assaying instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Ruhter, W.D.; Paulus, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a strong need for portable radiometric instrumentation that can accurately confirm the presence of nuclear materials and allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. To fulfill this need, the authors are developing a hand-held, non-cryogenic, low-power gamma- and X-ray measurement and analysis instrument that can both search and then accurately verify the presence of nuclear materials. The authors report on the use of cadmium zinc telluride detectors, signal processing electronics, and the new field-portable instrument based on the MicroNOMAD Multichannel Analyzer from EG and G ORTEC. They will also describe the isotopic analysis that allows uranium enrichment measurements to be made accurately in the field. The benefits of this work are realized in a wide spectrum of applications that include Arms Control, Nuclear Safeguards, Environmental Management, Emergency Response, and Treaty Verification

  1. Aging management of instrumentation and control sensors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressure to improve plant efficiency and maximize safety and the increasing age of existing NPPs are forcing the global nuclear power industry to confront the challenges of aging - caused by stressors such as temperature, humidity, radiation, electricity, and vibration - in key instrument and control (I and C) components like pressure transmitters, temperature sensors, neutron detectors, and cables. Traditional aging management methods, such as equipment replacement, required the process to be shut down. Recent aging management technologies, collectively known as online monitoring (OLM), enable plants to monitor the condition and aging of their installed I and C while the plant is operating. Developed through R and D initiatives worldwide, such OLM techniques include low- and high-frequency methods that use existing sensors, such as noise analysis; methods based on test or diagnostic sensors, such as for vibration-measuring accelerometers; and methods, such as the power interrupt (PI) test, based on active measurements made by injecting a test signal into the component under test. A review of these aging management methods, their effectiveness, and their interrelation provides a foundation for understanding the next stage in the evolution of OLM: truly integrated hybrid OLM systems capable of robust condition monitoring in both novel and familiar operating conditions.

  2. Instrumentation in Heavy Water Plant at Hazira (Paper No. 3.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant at Hazira is based on monothermal ammonia-hydrogen exchange process and is hooked up to the two, 1350 T/day ammonia plants of M/s. KRIBHCO. An attempt is being made to highlight the salient features of instrumentation, philosophy of selection, brief description of the control system, operational experience, problems faced during commissioning and plant operation and few suggestions to improve the working and reliability of the instrumentation. (author)

  3. Possible effects of regulating hydroponic water temperature on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-29

    Dec 29, 2010 ... temperature on plant growth, accumulation of nutrients and other metabolites ... Padda and Picha, 2008), a defensive mechanism em- ployed by plants ..... and flower development will vary depending on the growth stage of ...

  4. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  5. Instrumented indentation for characterization of irradiated metals at room and high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacksteder, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and sustainability of future fusion power plants will highly depend on the aptitude of materials to withstand severe irradiation conditions induced by the burning plasma in reactors. The so-called reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels are the current promising candidates for the structural applications considering the reactor's first wall. These steels exhibit irradiation embrittlement and hardening for defined irradiation conditions that are mainly characterized by the irradiation temperature and the irradiation dose. A proper characterization of such irradiated steels implies the use of adapted mechanical testing tools. In the present study, the instrumented indentation technique makes use of a post-processing tool based on neural networks. This technique has been selected for its ability to examine tensile properties by multistage indents on miniaturized irradiated metallic samples. The steel specimens studied in this project have been neutron-irradiated up to a dose of 15 dpa. They have been subsequently tested at room temperature in a Hot Cell by means of an adapted commercial indentation device. The significant irradiation-induced hardening effect present in the range of 250-350 deg C could be observed in the hardness and material's strength parameters. These two material parameters show a similar evolution with increasing irradiation temperatures. Post-irradiation annealing treatments of Eurofer97 have been realized and leads to a partial recovery of the irradiation damage. Considering the demands for characterization in irradiated steels at high temperature and for post-irradiation annealing experiments, the existing instrumented indentation device has been further developed during this work. A conceptual design has been proposed for an indentation testing machine, operating at up to 650 deg C, while remaining the critical temperature limit for tensile strength of the newly developed oxide dispersion strengthening ferritic

  6. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  7. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L.G.

    1977-07-01

    Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP), development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. A Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work for several mass-flow and other on-line instruments is described: acoustic flowmeter, capacitive density flowmeter, neutron activation flowmeter and composition analysis system, gamma ray correlation flowmeter, optical flowmeter, and capacitive liquid interface level meter.

  8. PCPV instrumentation and measurement techniques at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemann, H.

    1978-11-01

    Strain measurement within the structural concrete of the prototype Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel have been performed during a one year operation at elevated temperatures up to 120 0 C. Laboratory investigations on the properties of the gauges and the concrete mix are applied to separate the different contributions to the strain data. A decrease of creep and loss of prestress and the arise of stable conditions is observed. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The National Energy Plan (PEN) approved by the Government of Italy in August 1988 provides a programme of research and industrial development or reactors with inherent and passive safety features. For the Control Systems and Instrumentation there is the aim to define rules and design criteria, by evaluating the impact of inherent safety goals on the C and I design. The effort on man-machine interface is considered essential to increase safety and efficiency of advanced reactors. The paper briefly describes the activity in control systems and in the instrumentation area. (author)

  10. Possible effects of regulating hydroponic water temperature on plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water temperature can affect many physiological processes during plant growth and development. Temperatures below or above optimum levels may influence plant metabolic activities positively or negatively. This may include accumulation of different metabolites such as phenolic compounds, reactive oxygen species ...

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1990-01-01

    Finland has achieved some remarkable achievements in nuclear power production. Existing four plants have some of the best operating records in the world - high capacity factors, low occupational doses and short refuelling outages. Although public opinion was strongly turned against nuclear power after Chernobyl accident, and no decisions for new nuclear plants can be made before next elections in 1991, the nuclear option is still open. Utility companies are maintaining readiness to start new construction immediately after a positive political decision is made. One important component of the good operation history of the Finnish nuclear power plants is connected to the continuous research, development, modification and upgrading work, which is proceeding in Finland. In the following a short description is given on recent activities related to the I and C-systems of the nuclear power plants. (author). 2 tabs

  12. Recent developments in the field of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellionisz, P.

    1992-01-01

    A considerable percentage (32.8% in 1989) of electric energy in Hungary is produced by nuclear power plant Paks. The paper presents an overview of activities on control and instrumentation in the following areas: Control and instrumentation upgrading; training simulators; diagnostic systems. (author). 1 tab

  13. Proceedings of the 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants was held at Newport Beach, California, June 19--21, 1978. It was sponsored by Argonne National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy - Fossil Energy, and the Instrument Society of America - Orange County Section. Thirty-nine papers have been entered individually into the data base. (LTN)

  14. Brazing refractory metals used in high-temperature nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A. J.; Woolstenhulme, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) TRISO fuel experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed. (authors)

  15. Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A.J.; Woolstenhulme, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed

  16. Brazing refractory metals used in high-temperature nuclear instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. J. [Idaho National Laboratory, MS 3840, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Woolstenhulme, C. J. [EG and G Services, Inc., (United States)

    2009-07-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) TRISO fuel experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed. (authors)

  17. Modernization of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The scope of the modernization activities described in this report includes the modernization of equipment in operating plants and partially built plants. It covers the full range of types of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems including protection, safety, control and information systems. It is applicable for a plant throughout its life. The report includes appropriate consideration of the increasingly international nature of the I and C systems supply industry and takes advantage of the activities and lessons learned in the different national approaches to develop general guidance and recommendations. An Annex includes 10 country reports which were separately indexed

  18. Modernization of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The scope of the modernization activities described in this report includes the modernization of equipment in operating plants and partially built plants. It covers the full range of types of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems including protection, safety, control and information systems. It is applicable for a plant throughout its life. The report includes appropriate consideration of the increasingly international nature of the I and C systems supply industry and takes advantage of the activities and lessons learned in the different national approaches to develop general guidance and recommendations. An Annex includes 10 country reports which were separately indexed Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirsky, P.; Karpeta, C.; Rubek, J.

    1990-01-01

    After giving a survey of the Czechoslovak nuclear power plants a description of I and C systems of the operating plants is presented together with a brief outlook for future developments to be implemented at plants which are under construction. Special attention is paid to the adopted techniques for power distribution investigation and control in the WWER 1000 reactor core in the case of load changes. Basic futures of the in-core measurement systems are outlined. Measures implemented in the I and C systems of the operating units to improve their performance are described. Information on the country's approach to NPP personnel training and training aids usage as well as information on development work in the area of surveillance and monitoring systems completes the paper. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

  1. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voumard, A.

    1992-01-01

    In Switzerland five NPPs are in operation and none is planned or is under construction. The three oldest NPPs are backfitted with an additional safety system. In the field of I and C, efforts are essentially directed to maintaining high performance and to improve the safety of the plants in operation. Three of these plants are about 20 years old and a significant part of their I and C equipment has to be replaced. This is an ongoing process which is carried out stage by stage mostly during the annual shutdown. Measures to avoid or mitigate severe accidents, including core melting, have been taken or are planned. (author). 1 tab

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  3. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1992-01-01

    Finland has remarkable achievements in nuclear power. The existing four plants have some of the best operating records in the world - high capacity factors, low occupational doses and short refuelling outages. Public opinion was strongly turned against nuclear power after Chernobyl accident, and the previous government decided not to allow for the construction of a fifth nuclear unit during its period of reign. The opposition has however slowly been diminishing. According to the latest polls the opinion is almost balanced. Finnish power companies are going to file an application for a decision-in-principle to build a new plant to the new government appointed in April 1991. A readiness to start new construction project immediately after a positive political decision is made has been maintained during the intermediate period. Continuous research, development, modification and upgrading work provide important components of the good operational history of the Finnish nuclear power plants. Efforts have also been devoted to identifying possible new problems arising from the use of distributed digital C and I technology. The following a short description is summarizing recent activities related to the C and I-systems of the nuclear power plants. (author). 3 tab

  4. Recent control and instrumentation systems for BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hiroaki; Higashikawa, Yuichi; Sato, Hideyuki

    1990-01-01

    For the needs of the more stable operation of nuclear power stations, the upgrading of the measurement and control system for BWRs has been promoted by positively introducing remarkably advancing electronic technology. Further, it is aimed at to construct the synthetic digitized measurement and control system for nuclear power stations to heighten the operation reliability in ABWRs. As the first step of the development in the synthetic digitization, the monitoring and control system for radioactive waste treatment was put in practical use for No.5 plant of Kashiwazaki, Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. Hitachi Ltd. has promoted the development and the application to actual plants of the measurement and control system for BWRs, in which digital control technology, optical information transmission technology and the operation-supporting technology using a computer were utilized. Hereafter, it is intended to expand the application of digital measurement and control aiming at improving the reliability, operation performance and maintainability. The nuclear power plant control complex with advanced man-machine interface-90 (NUCAMM-90) was developed, and its application to actual plants is planned. (K.I.)

  5. Digitization of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Buschhorn, W.; Pache, K.; Kimmel, W.; Hoeing, M.

    1997-01-01

    Unit 1 of the Chooz NPP was connected to the grid in August 1996. Unit 2 will soon be connected. In the western part of the center of France, not far from the town Poitiers, there is an identical construction site where likewise two NPP units are being erected. The French firm Sema Group is the supplier of the control and monitoring system (KIC) and as the prime contractor also is responsible for coordination of work and cooperation with the firm Hartmann and Braun. Hartmann and Braun developed the Contronic E automation system and are one of the major instrumentation and control suppliers for these units. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Application of Safety Instrumented System (SIS) approach in older nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, Elnara; Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Study Safety Instrumented System (SIS) design for older nuclear power plant. • Apply SIS on Reheater Drains (RD) system. • Apply IEC 61508/61511 to design safety system. • Evaluate risk reduction based on proposed SIS design. - Abstract: In order to remain economically effective and financially profitable, the modern industries have to take their safety culture to a higher level and consider production losses in addition to simple accident prevention techniques. Ideally, compliance with safety requirements start during early design stages, but in some older facilities provisions for Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) may not have been originally included. In this paper, a case study of a Reheater Drains (RD) system is used to illustrate such an example. Frequent failures of tank level controller lead to transients where the operation of shutting down RD pumps requires operators to manually isolate the quenching water and to close the main steam admission valves. Water in this system is at saturation temperature for the reheater steam side pressure, and any manual operation of the system is highly undesirable due to hazards of working with wet steam at approximately 758 kPa(g) pressure, preheated to 237 °C. Additionally, losses of inventory are highly undesirable as well and challenge other systems in the plant. In this paper, it is suggested that RD system can benefit from installation of an independent SIS system in order to address current challenges. This idea is being explored using IEC 61508 framework for “Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems” to provide assurance that the SIS will offer the necessary risk reduction required to achieve required safety for the equipment.

  7. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in Argentina during 1989-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzetti, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A brief resume of the activities in the different areas of control and instrumentation is included. As there was a delay in the construction of the new power plant most of the effort were dedicated to the plants that they are in operation. It has been added instrumentation to have better information in the control room and to check new variables of the plant according with the experience learned from the operation. It was dedicated special strength in the areas of training simulators and in service inspection. (author)

  8. Concept and structure of instrumentation and control of the Atucha II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, D.; Roca, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The general structure of instrumentation and control of Atucha II nuclear power plant as well as the technologies used, are described: concepts of functional decentralization and physical centralization; concept of functional group and functional complex; description of the technologies used (physical support) in the project of plant instrumentation and control; description of the different automation levels on the basis of concepts of control interface, automatism, regulation, group and subgroup controls; principles of signal conditioning; concept of announcement of alarms and state: supervisory computer, description of HAS (Hard wired Alarm System) and CAS (Computer Alarm System); application of the above mentioned structure to the project of another type of plants. (Author)

  9. Verification and validation of software related to nuclear power plant instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report is produced in response to a recommendation of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation. The report has objectives of providing practical guidance on the methods available for verification of the software and validation of computer based systems, and on how and when these methods can be effectively applied. It is meant for those who are in any way involved with the development, implementation, maintenance and use of software and computer based instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. The report is intended to be used by designers, software producers, reviewers, verification and validation teams, assessors, plant operators and licensers of computer based systems

  10. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry L. Hatfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler periods of the day or are indeterminate so flowering occurs over a longer period of the growing season. In controlled environment studies, warm temperatures increased the rate of phenological development; however, there was no effect on leaf area or vegetative biomass compared to normal temperatures. The major impact of warmer temperatures was during the reproductive stage of development and in all cases grain yield in maize was significantly reduced by as much as 80−90% from a normal temperature regime. Temperature effects are increased by water deficits and excess soil water demonstrating that understanding the interaction of temperature and water will be needed to develop more effective adaptation strategies to offset the impacts of greater temperature extreme events associated with a changing climate.

  11. Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

  12. Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program serves two purposes. The first is to track temperature trends during normal plant operation in areas where suspected deviations from established environmental profiles exist. This includes the use of Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots for evaluation of equipment qualified life for comparison with tested parameters and the established Environmental Design Profile. It also may be used to determine the location and duration of steam leaks for effect on equipment qualified life. The second purpose of this program is to aid HVAC design engineers in determining the source of heat outside anticipated design parameters. Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots are also used for this application but the results may include design changes to eliminate the excess heat or provide qualified equipment (cable) to withstand the elevated temperature, splitting of environmental zones to capture accurate temperature parameters, or continued environmental monitoring for evaluation of equipment located in hot spots

  13. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  14. Micro-XRD and temperature-modulated DSC investigation of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Satish B; Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Schricker, Scott R; Nusstein, John M; Li, Uei-Ming; Svec, Timothy A

    2009-10-01

    Employ Micro-X-ray diffraction and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry to investigate microstructural phases, phase transformations, and effects of heat treatment for rotary nickel-titanium instruments. Representative as-received and clinically used ProFile GT and ProTaper instruments were principally studied. Micro-XRD analyses (Cu Kalpha X-rays) were performed at 25 degrees C on areas of approximately 50 microm diameter near the tip and up to 9 mm from the tip. TMDSC analyses were performed from -80 to 100 degrees C and back to -80 degrees C on segments cut from instruments, using a linear heating and cooling rate of 2 degrees C/min, sinusoidal oscillation of 0.318 degrees C, and period of 60s. Instruments were also heat treated 15 min in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400, 500, 600 and 850 degrees C, and analyzed. At all Micro-XRD analysis regions the strongest peak occurred near 42 degrees , indicating that instruments were mostly austenite, with perhaps some R-phase and martensite. Tip and adjacent regions had smallest peak intensities, indicative of greater work hardening, and the intensity at other sites depended on the instrument. TMDSC heating and cooling curves had single peaks for transformations between martensite and austenite. Austenite-finish (A(f)) temperatures and enthalpy changes were similar for as-received and used instruments. Heat treatments at 400, 500 and 600 degrees C raised the A(f) temperature to 45-50 degrees C, and heat treatment at 850 degrees C caused drastic changes in transformation behavior. Micro-XRD provides novel information about NiTi phases at different positions on instruments. TMDSC indicates that heat treatment might yield instruments with substantial martensite and improved clinical performance.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and tolerance of temperature stress in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiancan; Song, Fengbin; Liu, Fulai

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the growth and productivity of plants across the globe. Many physiological and biochemical processes and functions are affected by low and high temperature stresses. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been shown...... to improve tolerance to temperature stress in plants. This chapter addresses the effect of AM symbiosis on plant growth and biomass production, water relations (water potential, stomatal conductance, and aquaporins), photosynthesis (photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll, and chlorophyll fluorescence), plasma...... tolerance of the host plants via enhancing water and nutrient uptake, improving photosynthetic capacity and efficiency, protecting plant against oxidative damage, and increasing accumulation of osmolytes are discussed. This chapter also provides some future perspectives for better understanding...

  16. Generating high temperature tolerant transgenic plants: Achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Anil; Mittal, Dheeraj; Negi, Manisha; Lavania, Dhruv

    2013-05-01

    Production of plants tolerant to high temperature stress is of immense significance in the light of global warming and climate change. Plant cells respond to high temperature stress by re-programming their genetic machinery for survival and reproduction. High temperature tolerance in transgenic plants has largely been achieved either by over-expressing heat shock protein genes or by altering levels of heat shock factors that regulate expression of heat shock and non-heat shock genes. Apart from heat shock factors, over-expression of other trans-acting factors like DREB2A, bZIP28 and WRKY proteins has proven useful in imparting high temperature tolerance. Besides these, elevating the genetic levels of proteins involved in osmotic adjustment, reactive oxygen species removal, saturation of membrane-associated lipids, photosynthetic reactions, production of polyamines and protein biosynthesis process have yielded positive results in equipping transgenic plants with high temperature tolerance. Cyclic nucleotide gated calcium channel proteins that regulate calcium influxes across the cell membrane have recently been shown to be the key players in induction of high temperature tolerance. The involvement of calmodulins and kinases in activation of heat shock factors has been implicated as an important event in governing high temperature tolerance. Unfilled gaps limiting the production of high temperature tolerant transgenic plants for field level cultivation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for Reduced Fatigue Resistance of Contemporary Rotary Instruments Exposed to Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Rafaela Andrade; Murphy, Sarah; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Govindjee, Rajiv G; Govindjee, Sanjay; Peters, Ove A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 different temperatures (20°C and 37°C) on the cyclic fatigue life of rotary instruments and correlate the results with martensitic transformation temperatures. Contemporary nickel-titanium rotary instruments (n = 20 each and tip size #25, including Hyflex CM [Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH], TRUShape [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK], Vortex Blue [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties], and ProTaper Universal [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties]) were tested for cyclic fatigue at room temperature (20°C ± 1°C) and at body temperature (37°C ± 1°C). Instruments were rotated until fracture occurred in a simulated canal with an angle curvature of about 60° and a radius curvature of 3 mm; the center of the curvature was 4.5 mm from the instrument tip. The number of cycles to fracture was measured. Phase transformation temperatures for 2 instruments of each brand were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Data were analyzed using the t test and 1-way analysis of variance with the significance level set at 0.05. For the tested size and at 20°C, Hyflex CM showed the highest resistance to fracture; no significant difference was found between TRUShape and Vortex Blue, whereas ProTaper Universal showed the lowest resistance to fracture. At 37°C, resistance to fatigue fracture was significantly reduced, up to 85%, for the tested instruments (P rotary instruments tested. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil–structure interaction analyses to locate nuclear power plant free-field seismic instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, James J., E-mail: jasjjoh@aol.com [James J. Johnson and Associates, Alamo, CA (United States); Ake, Jon P. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Maslenikov, Oleg R. [James J. Johnson and Associates, Alamo, CA (United States); Kenneally, Roger M. [Consultant, Seminole, FL (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Determine the location of seismic instrumentation so that recorded motion will be free-field motion. • Certified Designs of nuclear island for AP1000 and EPR; ABWR Reactor Building were analyzed. • Three site conditions and multiple recorded time histories were considered. • Instrumentation located 1-diameter from the edge of structure/foundation is adequate. • Acceptance criteria were probability of non-exceedance of response spectra values. - Abstract: The recorded earthquake ground motion at the nuclear power plant site is needed for several purposes. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.12, Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation for Earthquakes, NRC (1997a), describes acceptable instrumentation to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations pertaining to earthquake engineering criteria for nuclear power plants. The ground motion data recorded by the free-field seismic instrumentation are used to compare the actual earthquake motion at the site with the design input motion. The result of the comparison determines if the Operating Basis Earthquake ground motion (OBE) has been exceeded and plant shutdown is required per the guidance in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.166, Pre-Earthquake Planning and Immediate Nuclear Power Plant Operator Postearthquake Actions, NRC (1979b). The free-field is defined as a location on the ground surface or in the site soil column that is sufficiently distant from the site structures to be essentially unaffected by the vibration of the site structures.

  19. Distributed control and instrumentation systems for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, G.; L'Archeveque, J.V.R.

    1976-01-01

    The centralized dual computer system philosophy has evolved as the key concept underlying the highly successful application of direct digital control in CANDU power reactors. After more than a decade, this basis philosophy bears re-examination in the light of advances in system concepts--notably distributed architectures. A number of related experimental programs, all aimed at exploring the prospects of applying distributed systems in Canadian nuclear power plants are discussed. It was realized from the outset that the successful application of distributed systems depends on the availability of a highly reliable, high capacity, low cost communications medium. Accordingly, an experimental facility has been established and experiments have been defined to address such problem areas as interprocess communications, distributed data base design and man/machine interfaces. The design of a first application to be installed at the NRU/NRX research reactors is progressing well

  20. Replacement of the control and instrumentation system with the microprocessor based systems in Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.

    1998-01-01

    In Ohi Units 3 and 4, Ikata Unit 3, and Genkai Units 3 and 4, the latest of PWR plants now under operation in Japan, the reactor control system and turbine control system employ the microprocessor base digital control systems with a view to improving reliability, operability and maintainability. In the next stage plants, another application of such digital system is also planned for the instrumentation rack for the reactor protection system for further improvement. On the other hand, in Mihama Unit 1, the first of domestic PWR plants, and later plants except for the latest 5 plants, analog control systems are employed for the instrumentation racks. For the analog control systems of these plants, FOXBORO H-Line instruments, equivalent domestic box type instruments or WH7300 Series card type instruments were initially employed, and later replaced with domestic card type control systems after 10-15 year operation. However, 8-12 years have passed since these replacements, so the 15th year generally quoted as an interval for replacing C and I systems is near at hand. This is the time to consider next replacement. This replacement will be based on the latest digital technology. However, it is not practical way for the existing plants to apply the same integrated digital C and I system configuration for the next stage plants, because it requires the drastic change of the C and I system configuration and significant cost-up. Therefore, we must investigate the optimum digital C and I system configuration for the existing system. (author)

  1. Strategy for improving instrumentation and control in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad Bassols, L.; Nino Perote, R.

    1996-01-01

    There are three basic reasons why nuclear power plants need to systematically upgrade their instrumentation and control equipment: Obsolete instrumentation and lack spares Little capacity of flexibility for extension Possibility of attaining better systems integration and improving systems-operations interface This article shows how to approach these issues using the following strategies: Use of distributed control systems and PLCs for control, signalling, command, communications, etc, in both nuclear and conventional applications Upgrading of process instrumentation equipment, sensors, transmitters, etc Upgrading of alarm-signalling systems In each group of equipment items consideration should be given to: Aspects regarding manufacturers-suppliers Effects on design, adaptation and documentation of operating plants Effects on the training and handling skills of operation and maintenance staff Strategy for incorporating the new system into the Plant with minimum impact on operation (Author)

  2. The Relationship Between Radiative Forcing and Temperature. What Do Statistical Analyses of the Instrumental Temperature Record Measure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Kauppi, H.; Stock, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing statistical estimates for the long-run temperature effect of doubled CO2 with those generated by climate models begs the question, is the long-run temperature effect of doubled CO2 that is estimated from the instrumental temperature record using statistical techniques consistent with the transient climate response, the equilibrium climate sensitivity, or the effective climate sensitivity. Here, we attempt to answer the question, what do statistical analyses of the observational record measure, by using these same statistical techniques to estimate the temperature effect of a doubling in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide from seventeen simulations run for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 2 (CMIP2). The results indicate that the temperature effect estimated by the statistical methodology is consistent with the transient climate response and that this consistency is relatively unaffected by sample size or the increase in radiative forcing in the sample

  3. Studies of Behavior Melting Temperature Characteristics for Multi Thermocouple In-Core Instrument Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Donghyup; Chae, Myoungeun; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Kyulim

    2015-01-01

    Bottom-up type in-core instruments (ICIs) are used for the pressurized water reactors of OPR-1000, APR- 1400 in order to measure neutron flux and temperature in the reactor. It is a well-known technique and a proven design using years in the nuclear field. ICI consists of one pair of K-type thermocouple, five self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) and one back ground detector. K-type thermocouple's purpose is to measure the core exit temperature (CET) in the reactor. The CET is a very important factor for operating nuclear power plants and it is 327 .deg. C when generally operating the reactor in the nuclear power plant(NPP) in case of OPR- 1000. If the CET will exceed 650 .deg. C, Operators in the main control room should be considered to be an accident situation in accordance with a severe accident management guidance(SAMG). The Multi Thermocouple ICI is a new designed ICI assuming severe accident conditions. It consists of four more thermocouples than the existing design, so it has five Ktype thermocouples besides the thermocouple measuring CET is located in the same elevation as the ICI. Each thermocouple is able to be located in the desired location as required. The Multi Thermocouple ICI helps to measure the temperature distribution of the entire reactor. In addition, it will measure certain point of melted core because of the in-vessel debris of nuclear fuel when an accident occurs more seriously. In this paper, to simulate a circumstance such as a nuclear reactor severe accident was examined. In this study, the K-type thermocouples of Multi Thermocouple ICI was confirmed experimentally to be able to measure up to 1370 .deg. C before the thermocouples have been melted. And after the thermocouples were melted by debris, it was able to be monitored that the signal of EMF directed the infinite value of voltage. Therefore through the results of the test, it can be assumed that if any EMF data among the Multi Thermocouple ICI will direct the infinite value

  4. Studies of Behavior Melting Temperature Characteristics for Multi Thermocouple In-Core Instrument Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Donghyup; Chae, Myoungeun; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Kyulim [Woojin inc, Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Bottom-up type in-core instruments (ICIs) are used for the pressurized water reactors of OPR-1000, APR- 1400 in order to measure neutron flux and temperature in the reactor. It is a well-known technique and a proven design using years in the nuclear field. ICI consists of one pair of K-type thermocouple, five self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) and one back ground detector. K-type thermocouple's purpose is to measure the core exit temperature (CET) in the reactor. The CET is a very important factor for operating nuclear power plants and it is 327 .deg. C when generally operating the reactor in the nuclear power plant(NPP) in case of OPR- 1000. If the CET will exceed 650 .deg. C, Operators in the main control room should be considered to be an accident situation in accordance with a severe accident management guidance(SAMG). The Multi Thermocouple ICI is a new designed ICI assuming severe accident conditions. It consists of four more thermocouples than the existing design, so it has five Ktype thermocouples besides the thermocouple measuring CET is located in the same elevation as the ICI. Each thermocouple is able to be located in the desired location as required. The Multi Thermocouple ICI helps to measure the temperature distribution of the entire reactor. In addition, it will measure certain point of melted core because of the in-vessel debris of nuclear fuel when an accident occurs more seriously. In this paper, to simulate a circumstance such as a nuclear reactor severe accident was examined. In this study, the K-type thermocouples of Multi Thermocouple ICI was confirmed experimentally to be able to measure up to 1370 .deg. C before the thermocouples have been melted. And after the thermocouples were melted by debris, it was able to be monitored that the signal of EMF directed the infinite value of voltage. Therefore through the results of the test, it can be assumed that if any EMF data among the Multi Thermocouple ICI will direct the infinite value

  5. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  6. Long-term preventive maintenance of instrumentation control equipment for PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugitani, S.; Nanba, M.

    2006-01-01

    Since the PWR plants in Japan have been operated more than 30 years, main instrumentation control equipment of analog systems has been renewed to digital control systems. Renewal works had to be done in short period within periodical inspection term and for several facilities. The Mitsubishi LTD group had been provided with these market needs by its digital control system (MELTAC-NplusR 3) applicable to main instrumentation control equipment for primary and secondary systems and had already finished the renewal for practical plants. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Validation of smart sensor technologies for instrument calibration reduction in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Mitchell, D.W.; Petersen, K.M.; Shell, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a research and development project on the validation of new techniques for on-line testing of calibration drift of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. These techniques generally involve a computer-based data acquisition and data analysis system to trend the output of a large number of instrument channels and identify the channels that have drifted out of tolerance. This helps limit the calibration effort to those channels which need the calibration, as opposed to the current nuclear industry practice of calibrating essentially all the safety-related instrument channels at every refueling outage

  8. Selected nondestructive assay instrumentation for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Baker, M.P.; Strittmatter, R.; Jain, M.; Evans, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A selected set of nondestructive assay instruments for an international safeguards system at uranium enrichment plants is currently under development. These instruments are of three types: in-line enrichment meters for feed, product, and tails streams; area radiation monitors for direct detection of high-enriched uranium production, and an enrichment meter for spent alumina trap material. The current status of the development of each of these instruments is discussed, with supporting data, as well as the role each would play in a total international safeguards system. 5 figures

  9. Design methods for high temperature power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (scope of paper - reviews of design methods and design criteria currently in use for both nuclear and fossil fuelled power plant; examples chosen are (a) BS 1113, representative of design codes employed for power station boiler plant; (b) ASME Code Case N47, which is being developed for high temperature nuclear reactors, especially the liquid metal fast breeder reactor); design codes for power station boilers; Code Case N47 (design in the absence of thermal shock and thermal fatigue; design against cyclic loading at high temperature; further research in support of high temperature design methods and criteria for LMFBRs); concluding remarks. (U.K.)

  10. Studies on a double-interferometer and mesospheric temperature measurements with a sodium-LIDAR-instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serwazi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The first part of this report describes the integration and alignment of a second Fabry-Perot-Interferometer into the optical bench of the sodium LIDAR experiment in Northern Norway. The spectral efficiency of this double interferometer was instrumentally and theoretically examined. The second part of the report presents results of temperature measurements in March 1989, which were made jointly with a Rayleigh LIDAR from the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy. Measured temperatures and Na densities of three nights are presented. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of in-core coolant temperatures of FFTF instrumented fuels tests at full power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoth, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Two full size highly instrumented fuel assemblies were inserted into the core of the Fast Flux Test Facility in December of 1979. The major objectives of these instrumented tests are to provide verification of the FFTF core conditions and to characterize temperature patterns within FFTF driver fuel assemblies. A review is presented of the results obtained during the power ascents and during irradiation at a constant reactor power of 400 MWt. The results obtained from these instrumented tests verify the conservative nature of the design methods used to establish core conditions in FFTF. The success of these tests also demonstrates the ability to design, fabricate, install and irradiate complex, instrumented fuel tests in FFTF using commercially procured components

  12. Physicochemical analyses of plant biostimulant formulations and characterisation of commercial products by instrumental techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, H. S. S.; Selby, C.; Carmichael, E.; McRoberts, C.; Rao, J. R.; Ambrosino, P.; Chiurazzi, M.; Pucci, M.; Martin, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to develop instrumental protocols for evaluating physicochemical characteristics of plant biostimulant/biofertiliser formulations. Six formulations (Rygex, Algavyt, Ryzoset, Manek, Ecoryg and Algavyt Zn/Mn) containing algal/plant extracts, humic and amino acids, lipids and inorganic components were assessed for particle size distribution and zeta potential (ZP) by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and gross compositional differences by thermogravimetri...

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  14. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  15. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  16. Instrumentation and control systems for CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepp, R.M.; Watkins, L.M.

    1982-02-01

    The instrumentation and control of CANDU nuclear power plants takes advantage of modern electronics technology in the extensive computerization of important control and man-machine functions. A description of these functions as well as those of the four Special Safety Systems is provided

  17. Defense waste processing facility at Savannah River Plant. Instrument and power jumpers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorm, F.M. II.

    1983-06-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for waste vitrification at the Savannah River Plant is in the final design stage. Development of equipment interconnecting devices or jumpers for use within the remotely operated processing canyon is now complete. These devices provide for the specialized instrument and electrical requirements of the DWPF process for low-voltage, high-frequency, and high-power interconnections

  18. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Using PEANO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, Paolo F.; Hoffmann, Mario; Shankar, Ramesh; Davis, Eddie L.

    2002-01-01

    On-Line monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. On-Line monitoring of instrument channels provides information about the condition of the monitored channels through accurate, more frequent monitoring of each channel's performance over time. This type of performance monitoring is a methodology that offers an alternate approach to traditional time-directed calibration. On-line monitoring of these channels can provide an assessment of instrument performance and provide a basis for determining when adjustments are necessary. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labor costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure and reduce the potential for miss-calibration. PEANO is a system for on-line calibration monitoring developed in the years 1995-2000 at the Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE), Norway, which makes use of Artificial Intelligence techniques for its purpose. The system has been tested successfully in Europe in off-line tests with EDF (France), Tecnatom (Spain) and ENEA (Italy). PEANO is currently installed and used for on-line monitoring at the HBWR reactor in Halden. This paper describes the results of performance tests on PEANO with real data from a US PWR plant, in the framework of a co-operation among IFE, EPRI and Edan Engineering, to evaluate the potentials of PEANO for future installations in US nuclear plants. (authors)

  19. Project W-340 long reach arm retrieval system balance of plant instrumentation workshop engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study documents the results of a workshop held to resolve Issue No. 26 generated at a Arm Based Retrieval Functional Analysis Value Engineering Session. The issue deals with the scope of the Balance of Plant Instrumentation needs for the LRARS

  20. Improved instrumentation for intensity-, wavelength-, temperature-, and magnetic field-resolved photoconductivity spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottingham, Patrick; Morey, Jennifer R.; Lemire, Amanda; Lemire, Penny; McQueen, Tyrel M.

    2016-01-01

    We report instrumentation for photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy over a larger continuous range of wavelengths, temperatures, and applied magnetic fields than other instruments described in the literature: 350 nm≤λ≤1700 nm, 1.8 K≤T≤300 K, and B≤9 T. This instrument uses a modulated monochromated incoherent light source with total power<30 μW in combination with an LED in order to probe selected regions of non-linear responses while maintaining low temperatures and avoiding thermal artifacts. The instrument may also be used to measure a related property, the photomagnetoresistance. We demonstrate the importance of normalizing measured responses for variations in light power and describe a rigorous process for performing these normalizations. We discuss several circuits suited to measuring different types of samples and provide analysis for converting measured values into physically relevant properties. Uniform approaches to measurement of these photoproperties are essential for reliable quantitative comparisons between emerging new materials with energy applications. - Highlights: • A novel instrument for measuring photoconductivity and photocurrents of materials and devices. • Continuous parameter space: 350 nm≤λ≤1700, 1.8 K≤T≤300 K, and B≤9 T. • Methodology for treating non-linear responses and variable lamp intensity. • Mathematical detail for extracting properties of materials from measured values is provided.

  1. On-line calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    An on-line instrumentation monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the calibration status of instrument channels and determines whether or not they require manual calibrations. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each instrument channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the instrument channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the instrument is said to be {open_quotes}out of calibration{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the calibration. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the calibration of process instrumentation channels will reduce the number of manual calibrations currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.

  2. A Calculation of hydrodynamic noise of control valve on instrumentation and control system using smart plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demon Handoyo; Djoko H Nugroho

    2012-01-01

    It has been calculated characteristics of the control valve Instrumentation and Control Systems using Smart Plant software. This calculation is done in order to control the valve that will be installed as part of the instrumentation and control systems to provide the performance according to the design. The characteristics that have been calculated are Reynolds number factors which are related to the flow regime in the valve. Critical pressure factor, Valve Hydrodynamic cavitation and noise index. In this paper the discussion will be limited to matters relating to Hydrodynamic noise generation process using model of the instrumentation and control system in the plant design in yellow cake PIPKPP activities in 2012. The results of the calculation of the noise on the valves design are in the range between 9.58~70.1 dBA. (author)

  3. Report on the status of instrumentation and control in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroebeck, E.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants accounted for 46% of the total electric power production in Sweden in 1990. The availability of the Swedish reactors remains at a very high level. The oldest Swedish nuclear power plant has been in operation for nearly 20 years, and in the next 5 to 10 years a large portion of the NPP electrical equipment has to be replaced. The paper presents an overview of activities on control and instrumentation in the following: Future developments; implementation of computer-based systems; training simulators; nuclear safety research. The operating experience in Swedish nuclear power plants in 1991 is also presented. (author)

  4. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway Lamb, I. D.; Colless, J. I.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Pauka, S. J.; Waddy, S. J.; Reilly, D. J., E-mail: david.reilly@sydney.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Microsoft Station Q Sydney, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Frechtling, M. K. [Microsoft Station Q Sydney, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Electrical Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications.

  5. Instrument-free exothermic heating with phase change temperature control for paper microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jered; Zentner, Chris; Buser, Josh; Yager, Paul; LaBarre, Paul; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    2013-03-01

    Many infectious diseases, as well as some cancers, that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. There is a great need to simplify nucleic acid-based assay systems for use in global health in low-resource settings as well as in settings that do not have convenient access to laboratory staff and equipment such as doctors' offices and home care settings. In developing countries, unreliable electric power, inadequate supply chains, and lack of maintenance for complex diagnostic instruments are all common infrastructure shortfalls. Many elements of instrument-free, disposable, nucleic acid amplification assays have been demonstrated in recent years. However, the problem of instrument-free,1 low-cost, temperature-controlled chemical heating remains unsolved. In this paper we present the current status and results of work towards developing disposable, low-cost, temperature-controlled heaters designed to support isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays that are integrated with a two-dimensional paper network. Our approach utilizes the heat generated through exothermic chemical reactions and controls the heat through use of engineered phase change materials to enable sustained temperatures required for nucleic acid amplification. By selecting appropriate exothermic and phase change materials, temperatures can be controlled over a wide range, suitable for various isothermal amplification methods, and maintained for over an hour at an accuracy of +/- 1°C.

  6. Response of Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation Cables Exposed to Fire Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents the results of instrumentation cable tests sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The goal of the tests was to assess thermal and electrical response behavior under fire-exposure conditions for instrumentation cables and circuits. The test objective was to assess how severe radiant heating conditions surrounding an instrumentation cable affect current or voltage signals in an instrumentation circuit. A total of thirty-nine small-scale tests were conducted. Ten different instrumentation cables were tested, ranging from one conductor to eight-twisted pairs. Because the focus of the tests was thermoset (TS) cables, only two of the ten cables had thermoplastic (TP) insulation and jacket material and the remaining eight cables were one of three different TS insulation and jacket material. Two instrumentation cables from previous cable fire testing were included, one TS and one TP. Three test circuits were used to simulate instrumentation circuits present in nuclear power plants: a 4–20 mA current loop, a 10–50 mA current loop and a 1–5 VDC voltage loop. A regression analysis was conducted to determine key variables affecting signal leakage time.

  7. Summary of developments and future projects in nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Y. van der

    1990-01-01

    A general view is given on the developments and trends due to instrumentation and control of the two nuclear power plants in the Netherlands around the year 1989. Several projects, under which for classification of systems and components and for emergency operating procedures, are executed in both plants. An OSART mission initiated a project to make possible the periodic test of safety commands during operation. An other large project concerned the replacement of the process presentation system in Nuclear Power Plant Borssele. In the article several other developments due to the application of I and C in existing plants are outlined generally. Since 1974, no new nuclear power plants have been constructed in the Netherlands. (author). 2 figs

  8. Recent advances in design procedures for high temperature plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen papers cover several aspects of design for high temperature plant. These include design codes, computerized structural analysis and mechanical properties of materials at high temperatures. Seven papers are relevant for fast reactors and these are indexed separately. These cover shakedown design, design codes for thin shells subjected to cyclic thermal loading, the inelastic behaviour of stainless steels and creep and crack propagation in reactor structures under stresses caused by thermal cycling loading. (author)

  9. Research and development in the field of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Japan during 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper was provided for the 12th IAEA/IWG-NPPCI Meeting and aims to introduce an outline of recent R and D activities in Japan in the field of Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation. In the area of sensors, equipment and systems, various kinds of micro-processor based digital instrumentation and control components/systems have been developed for the distributed C and I systems for the Advanced LWR Plants under planning. Remarkable progress has been also obtained in the development of advanced sensors such as a Four Section Ex-core Neutron Chamber for PWR, some kinds of High-Temperature (600 - 800 deg. C) and Wide Range Neutron Counter Chambers for HTGR, and High-Temperature (1200 deg. C)/High-stability In-Core Thermocouples. Method of verification and validation of the micro-processor based protection and safety systems was studied and a proving test of the systems has been undertaken to use the systems for the Advanced LWR plants. Extensive studies have also been made in the field of Human Factors, Man-Machine Interface and Operator Support System. Operators' behaviour, performance and cognitive process were investigated and cognitive model and crew performance model have been provided for the advanced MMI design and evaluation. Development programme of the Advanced Man-Machine System was continued for the further improvement of the MMI of NPPs. The AI technology has been introduced widely into the operator support systems, and the performance and flexibility of the systems have been improved remarkably. As for the training equipment, high-performance on-site compact simulators have been developed and installed in plant sites. Various kinds of maintenance support systems have been also developed by the united efforts of utilities and manufacturers. A list of 131 references is provided in this paper for the convenience of readers. (author). 131 refs, 1 tab

  10. Implementing digital instrumentation and control systems in the modernization of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA encourages greater use of good engineering and management practices by Member States. In particular, it supports activities such as nuclear power plant (NPP) performance improvement, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational license renewal and the modernization of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems of NPPs in Member States. The subject of implementing digital I and C systems in nuclear power plants was suggested by the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) in 2003. It was then approved by the IAEA and included in the programmes for 2006-2008. As the current worldwide fleet of nuclear power plants continues ageing, the need for improvements to maintain or enhance plant safety and reliability is increasing. Upgrading NPP I and C systems is one of the possible approaches to achieving this improvement, and in many cases upgrades are a necessary activity for obsolescence management. I and C upgrades at operating plants require the use of digital I and C equipment. While modernizing I and C systems is a significant undertaking, it is an effective means to enhance plant safety and system functionality, manage obsolescence, and mitigate the increasing failure liability of ageing analog systems. Many of the planning and implementation tasks of a digital I and C upgrade project described here are also relevant to new plant design and construction since all equipment in new plants will be digital. This publication explains a process for planning and conducting an I and C modernization project. Numerous issues and areas requiring special consideration are identified, and recommendations on how to integrate the licensing authority into the process are made. To complement this report, a second publication is planned which will illustrate many of the aspects described here through experience based descriptions of I and C projects and lessons learned from those activities. It is upon these

  11. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement.

  12. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias; Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis

    2010-12-01

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement

  13. Instrumentation and control engineering at ENACE (Argentine Nuclear Enterprise of Electric Power Plants S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, J.L.; Garzon, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques used in the project of instrumentation and control for the Atucha II nuclear power plant, from the original flow diagram of the system whose instrumentation and control is requested to the functional binary diagrams and control loops, through measurement sheets and other documentation. An account of the organization and handling of this mass of information is given, using an electronic processing system of data file for the project. A brief description of the task implied in the completing and updating of these files defines the scheme in which all the documentation development associated with a given process is included. (Author)

  14. Optimization criteria for control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The system of dose limitation recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection includes, as a base for deciding what is reasonably achievable in dose reduction, the optimization of radioprotection systems. This paper, after compiling relevant points in the new system, discusses the application of optimization to control and instrumentation of radioprotection systems in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, an extension of the optimization criterion to nuclear safety systems is also presented and its application to control and instrumentation is discussed; systems including majority logics are particularly scrutinized. Finally, eventual regulatory implications are described. (author)

  15. Temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Republic during the period of instrumental measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Zahradníček, Pavel; Pisoft, P.; Štěpánek, Petr; Bělinová, M.; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, 1-2 (2012), s. 17-34 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : secular station * instrumental period * homogenization * air temperature * precipitation * fluctuation * cyclicity * wavelet analysis * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.759, year: 2012

  16. Control system for high-temperature slagging incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuji

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated in the nuclear generating plants are increasing year by year and to dispose them safely constitutes a big problem for the society. A few years ago, as the means of reducing them to as little volume as possible by incinerating and fusing the wastes, a high-temperature slagging incinerating method was developed, and this method is highly assessed. JGC Corp. has introduced that system technology and in order to prove the capacity of disposal and salubrity of the plant, and have constructed a full-sized pilot plant, then obtained the operational record and performance as they had planned. This report introduces the general processing of the wastes from their incineration and fusion as well as process control technology characteristic to high-temperature slagging incinerator furnaces and sensor technology. (author)

  17. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Jovanovic, A. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  18. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E; Maile, K; Jovanovic, A [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  19. Fine resolution 3D temperature fields off Kerguelen from instrumented penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrassin, Jean-Benoît; Park, Young-Hyang; Le Maho, Yvon; Bost, Charles-André

    2004-12-01

    The use of diving animals as autonomous vectors of oceanographic instruments is rapidly increasing, because this approach yields cost-efficient new information and can be used in previously poorly sampled areas. However, methods for analyzing the collected data are still under development. In particular, difficulties may arise from the heterogeneous data distribution linked to animals' behavior. Here we show how raw temperature data collected by penguin-borne loggers were transformed to a regular gridded dataset that provided new information on the local circulation off Kerguelen. A total of 16 king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) were equipped with satellite-positioning transmitters and with temperature-time-depth recorders (TTDRs) to record dive depth and sea temperature. The penguins' foraging trips recorded during five summers ranged from 140 to 600 km from the colony and 11,000 dives >100 m were recorded. Temperature measurements recorded during diving were used to produce detailed 3D temperature fields of the area (0-200 m). The data treatment included dive location, determination of the vertical profile for each dive, averaging and gridding of those profiles onto 0.1°×0.1° cells, and optimal interpolation in both the horizontal and vertical using an objective analysis. Horizontal fields of temperature at the surface and 100 m are presented, as well as a vertical section along the main foraging direction of the penguins. Compared to conventional temperature databases (Levitus World Ocean Atlas and historical stations available in the area), the 3D temperature fields collected from penguins are extremely finely resolved, by one order finer. Although TTDRs were less accurate than conventional instruments, such a high spatial resolution of penguin-derived data provided unprecedented detailed information on the upper level circulation pattern east of Kerguelen, as well as the iron-enrichment mechanism leading to a high primary production over the Kerguelen

  20. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination

  1. A performance improvement program applied to the Perry Nuclear Power Plant instrumentation and control section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The management at Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company sought to avoid problems typically encountered in the start-up of new nuclear generating units. In response to early indications that such problems may have been developing at their Perry Nuclear Power Plant, several performance improvement initiatives were undertaken. One of these initiatives was a performance improvement evaluation (PIE) for the instrumentation and control (IandC) section at Perry. The IandC PIE, which used a method designed to be adaptable to other disciplines as well, had important results that are applicable to other nuclear power plants

  2. Advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants. Design, verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on design, verification and validation of advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants was held in Espoo, Finland on 20 - 23 June 1994. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Working Group's (IWG) on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (NPPCI) and on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (ATWR). VTT Automation together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy responded about the practical arrangements of the meeting. In total 96 participants from 21 countries and the Agency took part in the meeting and 34 full papers and 8 posters were presented. Following topics were covered in the papers: (1) experience with advanced and digital systems, (2) safety and reliability analysis, (3) advanced digital systems under development and implementation, (4) verification and validation methods and practices, (5) future development trends. (orig.)

  3. Building of a CAD system for instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhicai; Hu Chunping; Zhang Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Base on the analysis of deign documents and process, a database for instrumentation and control system design can be developed with a popular desktop relational database management system (RDBMS). With the RDBMS, an instrumentation and control system CAD system can be built unitizing database link feature of popular CAD software, with the function of management of design data, output of list and forms. and design of drawings. A CAD system of this kind has been used in the design practice of nuclear power plant. With this system, it is shown that, the consistency of information has been controlled and the load on the engineer has been significantly reduced. The methodology used here can also be used in the CAD system for CAP1000 and CAP1400 plant. (authors) series

  4. Design of coordinated controller in nuclear power plant based on digital instrument and control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shouyu; Peng Minjun; Liu Xinkai; Zhao Qiang; Deng Xiangxin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) is a multi-input and multi-output, no-linear and time-varying complex system. The conventional PID controller is usually used in NPP control system which is based on analog instrument. The system parameters are easy to overshoot and the response time is longer in the control mode of the conventional PID. In order to improve this condition, a new coordinated control strategy which is based on expert system and the original controllers in the digital instrument and control technology was presented. In order to verify and validate it, the proposed coordinated control technology was tested by the full-scope real-time simulation system. The results prove that using digital instrument and control technology to achieve coordinated controller is feasible, the coordinated controller can effectively improve the dynamic operating characteristics of the system, and the coordinated controller is superior to the conventional PID controller in control performance. (authors)

  5. Gradual instrumentation and control upgrades in U.S. nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welk, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, US nuclear power plants have been struggling with the technical and licensing realities associated with installing digital protection and control systems into existing facilities. The industry, regulators and equipment vendors are finally reaching agreements regarding acceptable practices and requirements. The present paper explains the philosophy for gradual instrumentation and control replacements being pursued and the technical issues being addressed. It also describes some of the future challenges facing the industry. (author)

  6. Detection of instrument or component failures in a nuclear plant by Luenberger observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilburn, N.P.; Colley, R.W.; Alexandro, F.J.; Clark, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostic system, which will distinguish between instrument failures (flowmeters, etc.) and component failures (valves, filters, etc.) that show the same symptoms, has been developed for nuclear Plants using Luenberger observers. Luenberger observers are online computer based modules constructed following the technology of Clark [3]. A seventh order model of an FFTF subsystem was constructed using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) and was used to show through simulation that Luenberger observers can be applied to nuclear systems

  7. Recent activities in the field of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubek, J.

    1992-01-01

    The report presents a review of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants that are in operation and in the course of construction. The present state of the instrumentation of the newly built NPP's is described, and a special attention is given to work on the control of spatial power distribution in the reactor core of WWER 1000, the first unit to be installed in NPP Temelin. A project of a secondary circuit diagnostic system of this unit is described. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  8. Report on the status of instrumentation and control in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 the twelve nuclear power units in Sweden generated 69 TWh, which was 45% of the total electric power produced in Sweden. The production capacity of the nuclear power plants increased successively by upgrading the units to higher nominal power levels. The paper presents an overview of activities on control and instrumentation in the following: maintenance, renewal of the I and C systems, training. The operational data of Swedish reactor units are presented. (author). 1 tab

  9. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwall Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX. Research topics to be addressed include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs at prototypical operating conditions. Each loop will also include an interchangeable high-temperature test section that can be customized to address specific research issues associated with each working fluid. This paper also discusses needs and challenges associated with advanced instrumentation for the multi-loop facility, which could be further applied to advanced high-temperature reactors. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST facility. A preliminary design configuration of the ARTIST facility will be presented with the required design and operating characteristics of the various components. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750 °C, high-pressure (7 MPa helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4 flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa, at a temperature of ∼450 °C. The salt loop will be thermally integrated with the steam/water loop operating at PWR conditions. Experiment design challenges include identifying suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. The instrumentation needs to be highly accurate (negligible drift in measuring operational data for extended periods of times, as data collected will be

  10. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges - 15066

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, P.; O'Brien, J.E.; Yoon, S.J.; Sun, X.

    2015-01-01

    A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic, materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The 3 loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuits heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions. Each loop will also include an interchangeable high-temperature test section that can be customized to address specific research issues associated with each working fluid. This paper also discusses needs and challenges associated with advanced instrumentation for the multi-loop facility, which could be further applied to advanced high-temperature reactors. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integrated System Test (ARTIST) facility. A preliminary design configuration of the ARTIST facility will be presented with the required design and operating characteristics of the various components. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750 C. degrees), high-pressure (7 MPa) helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF 4 ) flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa), at a temperature of ∼ 450 C. degrees. The salt loop will be thermally integrated with the steam/water loop operating at PWR conditions. Experiment design challenges include identifying suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. The instrumentation needs to be highly accurate (negligible drift) in measuring operational data for extended periods of times, as data collected will be

  11. Instrumentation and control system upgrade plan for operating PWR plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirofumi

    1993-01-01

    Digital technology has been applied to all non-safety grade instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in the latest Japanese PWR plants, and has achieved more reliable and operable systems, easier maintenance and cable reductions. In the next stage APWR plants, the digital technology will be also applied to all the I ampersand C systems including safety grade systems. Parallel to the above efforts, many backfitting programs in which the digital technology is applied to operating plants are under way to improve reliability and operability. The backfitting programs for operating plants are proceeded in two phases, synthesizing various utility's needs to improve plant availability and operability, improvement of digital technology, and complexity of the practicable replacement procedures. Phase 1 is a partial application of digital technology, while Phase 2 is a complete application of digital technology. Phase 1 has been implemented in a number of operation plants, while Phase 2 studies are in the design stage, but have not been implemented at this point. This paper presents examples of the partial application of digital technology to operating plants, and the contents of basic design for the complete application of digital technology

  12. On-line instrument for control of water and steam quality at energy production plants - a market survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlgren, N.; Persson, F.

    1988-10-01

    Instruments for on-line measuring are today available for all water analyses that can be of intrerest in power stations. For some of the analyses instruments have been in operation for many years e.g. for determination of silica, sodium and oxygen. For other analyses no instruments or only a few have been in operation. Many instruments are developed under the last years. Operation experiences for many instruments are therefore limited. For mostly all instruments, also for instruments that have been in operation a long time, operation experiences from the same type of instruments differ from plant to plant. The reson is that most of the instruments need daily or weekly maintenance and that has not always been aquainted. The time for necessary maintenance is however not so long that it is deterrent. The time for necessary maintenance for an instrument is normally 1-2 hours a week. On-line measuring, improve supervision and reliability of service and are therefore to recommend in both big and small plants. In small plants it is very important to have a good supervision of pH-value, conductivity, harness and the content of oxygen in feed water. (authors)

  13. Probabilistic safety assessment for instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lixuan; Jiang, Jin

    2004-01-01

    Deregulation in the electricity market has resulted in a number of challenges in the nuclear power industry. Nuclear power plants must find innovative ways to remain competitive by reducing operating costs without jeopardizing safety. Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems not only play important roles in plant operation, but also in reducing the cost of power generation while maintaining and/or enhancing safety. Therefore, it is extremely important that I and C systems are managed efficiently and economically. With the increasing use of digital technologies, new methods are needed to solve problems associated with various aspects of digital I and C systems. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has proved to be an effective method for safety analysis and risk-based decisions, even though challenges are still present. This paper provides an overview of PSA applications in three areas of digital I and C systems in nuclear power plants. These areas are Graded Quality Assurance, Surveillance Testing, and Instrumentation and Control System Design. In addition, PSA application in the regulation of nuclear power plants that adopt digital I and C systems is also investigated. (author)

  14. High temperature degradation in power plants and refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado Heloisa Cunha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants and refineries around the world share many of the same problems, namely aging equipment, high costs of replacement, and the need to produce more efficiently while being increasingly concerned with issues of safety and reliability. For equipment operating at high temperature, there are many different mechanisms of degradation, some of which interact, and the rate of accumulation of damage is not simple to predict. The paper discusses the mechanisms of degradation at high temperature and methods of assessment of such damage and of the remaining safe life for operation.

  15. Development of Temperature Control Solutions for Non-Instrumented Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NINAAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Pardy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification tests (NINAAT are a novel paradigm in portable molecular diagnostics. They offer the high detection accuracy characteristic of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT in a self-contained device, without the need for any external instrumentation. These Point-of-Care tests typically employ a Lab-on-a-Chip for liquid handling functionality, and perform isothermal nucleic acid amplification protocols that require low power but high accuracy temperature control in a single well-defined temperature range. We propose temperature control solutions based on commercially available heating elements capable of meeting these challenges, as well as demonstrate the process by which such elements can be fitted to a NINAAT system. Self-regulated and thermostat-controlled resistive heating elements were evaluated through experimental characterization as well as thermal analysis using the finite element method (FEM. We demonstrate that the proposed solutions can support various NAAT protocols, as well as demonstrate an optimal solution for the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP protocol. Furthermore, we present an Arduino-compatible open-source thermostat developed for NINAAT applications.

  16. Use of ABB ADVANT Power for large scale instrumentation and controls replacements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucak, J.L.; Brown, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major issues facing plants planning for life extension is the viability and feasibility of modernization of a plant's existing I and C systems including the safety systems and the control room. This paper discusses the ABB approach to the implementation of large scale Instrumentation and Controls (I and C) modernization. ABB applies a segmented architecture approach using the ADVANT Power control system to meet the numerous constraints of a major I and C upgrade program. The segmented architecture and how it supports implementation of a complete I and C upgrade either in one outage or in a series of outages is presented. ADVANT Power contains standardized industrial control equipment that is designed to support 1E applications as well as turbine and non-1E process control. This equipment forms the basis for the architecture proposed for future new nuclear plant sales as well as large scale retrofits. (author)

  17. Study of Plant Waxes Using Low Temperature Method for ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Schiebertová, P.; Zajícová, I.; Schwarzerová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1180-1181 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1211 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ESEM * plant waxes * low temperature method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  18. Evaluation of a Kalman filter based power pressurizer instrument failure detection system implemented on a nuclear power plant training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegmiller, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of a nuclear power plant training simulator for developing and testing modern estimation and control applications for nuclear power plants is demonstrated. A Kalman filter based instrument failure detection technique for a pressurized water reactor pressurizer is implemented on the Department of Energy N Reactor Training Simulator. This real-time failure detection method computes the first two moments (mean and variance) of each element of a normalized filter innovations vector. Failed pressurizer instrumentation can be detected by comparing these moments to the known statistical properties of the steady state, linear Kalman fitler innovations sequence. The capabilities of the detection system are evaluated using simulated plant transients and instrument failures

  19. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brohan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc. and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected.

    One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC, and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

    The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C. This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions – supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this – such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

  20. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls technologies in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) technologies and associated human factors issues in the US and Canadian nuclear industries was carried out by a team from Oak Ridge national laboratory to provide background for the development of regulatory policy, criteria, and guides for review of advanced I ampersand C systems as well as human engineering guidelines for evaluating these systems. The survey found those components of the US nuclear industry surveyed to be quite interested in advanced I ampersand C, but very cautious in implementing such systems in nuclear facilities and power plants. The trend in the facilities surveyed is to experiment cautiously when there is an intuitive advantage or short-term payoff. In the control room, the usual practice is direct substitution of digital and microprocessor-based instruments or systems that are functionally identical to the analog instruments or systems being replaced. The most advanced I ampersand C systems were found in the Canadian CANDU plants, where the newest plant has digital system in almost 100% of its control systems and in over 70% of its plant protection system. The hypothesis that properly 'introducing digital systems increases safety' is supported by the Canadian experience. The performance of these digital systems was achieved using an appropriate quality assurance program for the software development. The ability of digital systems to detect impending failures and initiate a fail-safe action, is a significant safety issue that should be of special interest to every US utility as well as to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (orig.)

  1. High temperature reactor module power plant. Plant and safety concept June 1986 - 38.07126.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-06-15

    The modular HTR power plant is a universally applicable energy source for the co-generation of electricity, process steam or district heating. The modular HTR concept is characterized by the fact that standardized reactor units with power ratings of 200 MJ/s (so-called modules) can be combined to form power plants with a higher power rating. Consequently the special safety features of small high-temperature reactors (HTR) are also available at higher power plant ratings. The safety features, the technical design and the mode of operation are briefly described in the following, taking a power plant with two HTR-Modules for the co-generation of electricity and process steam as an example. Due to its universal applicability and excellent safety features, the modular HTR power plant is suitable for erection on any site, but particularly on sites near other industrial plants or in densely populated areas. The co-generation of electricity and process steam or district heating with a modular HTR power plant as described here is primarily tailored to the requirements of industrial and communal consumers. The site for such a plant is a typical industrial one. The anticipated features of such sites were taken into consideration in the design of the modular HTR power plant.

  2. High temperature reactor module power plant. Plant and safety concept June 1986 - 38.07126.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The modular HTR power plant is a universally applicable energy source for the co-generation of electricity, process steam or district heating. The modular HTR concept is characterized by the fact that standardized reactor units with power ratings of 200 MJ/s (so-called modules) can be combined to form power plants with a higher power rating. Consequently the special safety features of small high-temperature reactors (HTR) are also available at higher power plant ratings. The safety features, the technical design and the mode of operation are briefly described in the following, taking a power plant with two HTR-Modules for the co-generation of electricity and process steam as an example. Due to its universal applicability and excellent safety features, the modular HTR power plant is suitable for erection on any site, but particularly on sites near other industrial plants or in densely populated areas. The co-generation of electricity and process steam or district heating with a modular HTR power plant as described here is primarily tailored to the requirements of industrial and communal consumers. The site for such a plant is a typical industrial one. The anticipated features of such sites were taken into consideration in the design of the modular HTR power plant

  3. Method for controlling a coolant liquid surface of cooling system instruments in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monta, Kazuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To prevent coolant inventory within a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant from being varied depending on loads thereby relieving restriction of varied speed of coolant flow rate to lowering of a liquid surface due to short in coolant. Structure: Instruments such as a superheater, an evaporator, and the like, which constitute a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant, have a plurality of free liquid surface of coolant. Portions whose liquid surface is controlled and portions whose liquid surface is varied are adjusted in cross-sectional area so that the sum total of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as a superheater provided with an annulus portion in the center thereof and an inner cylindrical portion and a down-comer in the side thereof comes equal to that of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as an evaporator similar to the superheater. which is provided with an overflow pipe in its inner cylindrical portion or down-comer, thereby minimizing variation in coolant inventory of the entire coolant due to loads thus minimizing variation in varied speed of the coolant. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. About the automated instrumentation in nuclear power plants; Sobre la instrumentacion automatizada en plantas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia de los Rios, J. A.; Benitez R, J. S. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garduno G, M P., E-mail: armando.segovia@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologica de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The automation of the inspection processes and monitoring in nuclear facilities have as main objective the reduction of acquired radiation dose for the operators of the diverse work programs. For example, a typical maintenance task is the problems correction of leaks in the hydraulic facilities of the vapor circuits where is necessary the repair of pipes, measuring and control elements, as the valves. A program of effective maintenance should contemplate strategies of appropriate monitoring for the immediate detection of possible failures, with the purpose of the remedy them opportunely. For this function of failures detection is necessary to have instruments that allow the measuring of the parameters that facilitate their characterization. Given the prevailing conditions in the nuclear facilities, such instruments should possess special characteristics, reason why is necessary a study of them, as well as a careful selection of the susceptible apparatuses of being used. For this reason, this work presents a discussion about some of the existent conditions in the nuclear power plants, as well as the aspects to consider for the automated instrumentation of some places of a nuclear power plant. (Author)

  5. Modeling temperature variations in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; López-Cruz, Irineo L; Domaschko, Max

    2011-05-01

    A model that predicts temperature changes in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester was developed based on fundamental thermodynamic laws. The methodology utilized two simulation strategies. In the first, model equations were solved through a searching routine based on a minimal square optimization criterion, from which the overall heat transfer coefficient values, for both biodigester and heat exchanger, were determined. In the second, the simulation was performed with variable values of these overall coefficients. The prediction with both strategies allowed reproducing experimental data within 5% of the temperature span permitted in the equipment by the system control, which validated the model. The temperature variation was affected by the heterogeneity of the feeding and extraction processes, by the heterogeneity of the digestate recirculation through the heating system and by the lack of a perfect mixing inside the biodigester tank. The use of variable overall heat transfer coefficients improved the temperature change prediction and reduced the effect of a non-ideal performance of the pilot plant modeled.

  6. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17 degrees C nights, 23 degrees C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4 per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in (13)C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0 per thousand at 27 degrees C/33 degrees C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process

  7. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1985-09-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17/sup 0/C nights, 23/sup 0/C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4% per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0% per thousand at 27/sup 0/C/33/sup 0/C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. 28 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  8. Workshop on instrumentation and analyses for a nuclear fuel reprocessing hot pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, S.M.; Feldman, M.J.; Wymer, R.G.; Hoffman, D.

    1980-05-01

    In order to assist in the study of instrumentation and analytical needs for reprocessing plants, a workshop addressing these needs was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from May 5 to 7, 1980. The purpose of the workshop was to incorporate the knowledge of chemistry and of advanced measurement techniques held by the nuclear and radiochemical community into ideas for improved and new plant designs for both process control and inventory and safeguards measurements. The workshop was athended by experts in nuclear and radiochemistry, in fuel recycle plant design, and in instrumentation and analysis. ORNL was a particularly appropriate place to hold the workshop since the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is centered there. Requirements for safeguarding the special nuclear materials involved in reprocessing, and for their timely measurement within the process, within the reprocessing facility, and at the facility boundaries are being studied. Because these requirements are becoming more numerous and stringent, attention is also being paid to the analytical requirements for these special nuclear materials and to methods for measuring the physical parameters of the systems containing them. In order to provide a focus for the consideration of the workshop participants, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) being designed conceptually by the CFRP was used as a basis for consideration and discussions

  9. Ageing studies on materials, components and process instruments used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, J.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a compilation of test results of thermal and radiation ageing tests carried out in the laboratory over a period of 25 years on diverse engineering materials, components and instruments used in nuclear power plants. Test items covered are different types of electrical cables, elastomers, surface coatings, electrical and electronics components and process instruments. Effects of thermal and radiation ageing on performance parameters are shown in tabular forms. Apart from finding the characteristics, capabilities and limitations of test items, ageing research has helped in pin-pointing sub-standard and critical parts and necessary corrective action has been taken. This report is expected to be quite useful to the manufacturers users and researchers for reference and guidance. (author)

  10. Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The IERICS (Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control Systems) mission is a comprehensive engineering review service directly addressing strategy and the key elements for implementation of modern instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, noting in applicable cases, specific concerns related to the implementation of advanced digital I&C systems and the use of software and/or digital logic in safety applications of a nuclear power plant. The guidelines outlined in this publication provide a basic structure, common reference and checklist across the various areas covered by an IERICS mission. Publications referenced in these guidelines could provide additional useful information for the counterpart while preparing for the IERICS mission. A structure for the mission report is given in the Appendix. In 2016, this publication was revised by international experts who had participated in previous IERICS missions. The revision reflects experiences and lessons learned from the preparation and conduct of those missions

  11. Recent movements and some topics on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Japan from 1984 to 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, N.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive works have been carried out in Japan in the field of nuclear power plants control and instrumentation, and many fruitful results have been obtained. This paper aims to introduce such progress and topics obtained since 1984 in this field

  12. In-core failure of the instrumented BWR rod by locally induced high coolant temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    1985-12-01

    In the BWR type light water loop instrumented in HBWR, a current BWR type fuel rod pre-irradiated up to 5.6 MWd/kgU was power ramped to 50 kW/m. During the ramp, the diameter of the rod was expanded significantly at the bottom end. The behaviour was different from which caused by pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). In the post-irradiation examination, the rod was found to be failed. In this paper, the cause of the failure was studied and obtained the followings. (1) The significant expansion of the rod diameter was attributed to marked oxidation of cladding outer diameter, appeared in the direction of 0 0 -180 0 degree with a shape of nodular. (2) The cladding in the place was softened by high coolant temperature. Coolant pressure, 7MPa intruded the cladding into inside chamfer void at pellet interface. (3) At the place of the significant oxidation, an instrumented transformer was existed and the coolant flow area was very little. The reduction of the coolant flow was enhanced by the bending of the cladding which was caused in pre-irradiation stage. They are considered to be a principal cause of local closure of coolant flow and resultant high temperature in the place. (author)

  13. Technical and regulatory challenges for digital instrumentation and control and control room systems in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, R.; Naser, J.; Harris, T.; Keithline, K.

    2006-01-01

    There are several unsettled technical and licensing issues in the areas of instrumentation and control (I and C), human factors, and updated control room designs that need coordinated, proactive industry attention. Some of these issues are already causing protracted regulatory reviews for existing plants, and left untreated, may cause substantial delays and increased costs for new plant combined construction and operating license approvals. Both industry and the NRC will have roles in resolving the key issues and addressing them in future design efforts and regulatory reviews. Where action is needed, the industry will want to minimize costs and risks by defining industry consensus solutions with corresponding technical bases. NEI has formed a working group to coordinate industry efforts and communications with NRC staff. The working group will also help determine priorities and coordinate both new and existing plant resources. EPRI will provide technical input and guidance for the working group. In order to be able to conduct reviews in a timely fashion, the NRC will likely need to enhance and expand staff resources as existing plants are upgraded and new plant reviews become more active. The industry initiative began with a workshop sponsored by EPRI and NEI on March 28-29, 2006, which led to the creation of the NEI working group. The working group has now identified and prioritized important generic issues, established resolution paths and schedules, and identified the roles of various stakeholders including utility companies, EPRI, NEI, vendors and the NRC. Through the course of this initiative I and C issues for both existing and new plants are being addressed. This paper describes the key I and C related technical and regulatory issues and their implications for new and operating plants, and provides a status report on the efforts to resolve them. (authors)

  14. Technical requirements on knowledge base and instrumentation system for decision making in plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    A series of technical surveys and studies are described in this report to examine and identify technical requirements to be posed on knowledge base and instrumentation system as the fundamental in high reliability computational decision making in operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and diagnosis are focused as the important tasks among the operation/maintenance-related tasks. A concrete monitoring and diagnosis system configuration has been proposed consisting of distributed symptom database and of on-demand measurement subsystem. An prototype of the proposed system configuration has been successfully verified. (author)

  15. Cost benefit analysis of instrumentation, supervision and control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, P.

    1973-08-01

    A cost benefit analysis is carried out on a BWR type reactor power plant in which an on-line computer performs plant supervision, reporting, logging, calibration and control functions, using display devices and plotters, while an off-line computer is available for bigger jobs such as fuel management calculations. All on-line functions are briefly described and specified. Three types of computer system are considered, a simplex system, a dual computer system and a multi-processor system. These systems are analysed with respect to reliability, back-up instrumentation requirements and costs. While the multiprocessor system gave in all cases the lowest annual failure costs, the margin to the duplex system was so small that hardware, maintenance and software costs would play an important role in making a decision. (JIW)

  16. CONTROL TEMPERATURE ON PLANT BABY INCUBATOR WITH FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Yulita Dwi Setyaningsih

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inkubator bayi merupakan salah satu media medis yang digunakan untuk menjaga kondisi suhu dari bayi prematur atau bayi yang baru lahir. Suhu merupakan salah satu faktor yang sangat penting untuk dijaga bagi bayi baru lahir, karena kondisi bayi baru lahir yang tidak stabil dan belum bisa melakukan produksi panas sendiri untuk menghangatkan tubuhnya dan memproduksi panas untuk menjaga kestabilan tubuhnya. Kendali logika fuzzy digunakan untuk mengendalikan suhu pada penelitian ini, karena kebutuhan bayi yang berbeda-beda sehingga pemanfaatan sistem kendali fuzzy ini sangat mempermudah dalam melakukan pengendalian. Parameter yang digunakan dalam pengendalian ini adalah nilai Error, d-eror, dan sinyal kontrol. Hasil penggunaan sistem kendali logika fuzzy untuk pengendalian suhu pada plant inkubator bayi adalah kesalahan yang terjadi dapat dikurangi dan kestabilan dapat dipertahankan. Meskipun adanya gangguan yang diberikan pada sistem, dengan pemanfaatan sistem kendali fuzzy ini, dapat menjaga sistem pada keadaan yang stabil. Kata kunci: sistem kendali, temperature, inkubator bayi, plant, logika fuzzy, new born.

  17. Instrument surveillance and calibration verification through plant wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrest, D.J.; Hines, J.W.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The approach to instrument surveillance and calibration verification (ISCV) through plant wide monitoring proposed in this paper is an autoassociative neural network (AANN) which will utilize digitized data presently available in the Safety Parameter Display computer system from Florida Power Corporations Crystal River number 3 nuclear power plant. An autoassociative neural network is one in which the outputs are trained to emulate the inputs over an appropriate dynamic range. The relationships between the different variables are embedded in the weights by the training process. As a result, the output can be a correct version of an input pattern that has been distorted by noise, missing data, or non-linearities. Plant variables that have some degree of coherence with each other constitute the inputs to the network. Once the network has been trained with normal operational data it has been shown to successfully monitor the selected plant variables to detect sensor drift or failure by simply comparing the network inputs with the outputs. The AANN method of monitoring many variables not only indicates that there is a sensor failure, it clearly indicates the signal channel in which the signal error has occurred. (author). 11 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Instrument surveillance and calibration verification through plant wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrest, D J; Hines, J W; Uhrig, R E [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The approach to instrument surveillance and calibration verification (ISCV) through plant wide monitoring proposed in this paper is an autoassociative neural network (AANN) which will utilize digitized data presently available in the Safety Parameter Display computer system from Florida Power Corporations Crystal River number 3 nuclear power plant. An autoassociative neural network is one in which the outputs are trained to emulate the inputs over an appropriate dynamic range. The relationships between the different variables are embedded in the weights by the training process. As a result, the output can be a correct version of an input pattern that has been distorted by noise, missing data, or non-linearities. Plant variables that have some degree of coherence with each other constitute the inputs to the network. Once the network has been trained with normal operational data it has been shown to successfully monitor the selected plant variables to detect sensor drift or failure by simply comparing the network inputs with the outputs. The AANN method of monitoring many variables not only indicates that there is a sensor failure, it clearly indicates the signal channel in which the signal error has occurred. (author). 11 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs.

  19. Development and evaluation of high temperature materials for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Schubert, F.

    1992-01-01

    The development of high temperature materials requires the evaluation of the interaction of microstructure and mechanical properties, the implementation of the microstructural aspects in the constitutive equations for the analysis of loads in a high temperature component and verification of the materials reactions. In this way the full potential of materials properties can be better used. This fundamental method is the basis for the formulation of the structural design code KTA 3221 'Metallic HTR Components'. The method of 'design by analysis' is also activated for large internally cooled turbine blades for stationary gas turbines in combined cycle power plants. This kind of exploratory analysis during the dimensioning procedure are discussed with two examples: He/He-heat exchanger produced of NiCr23Co12Mo (Alloy 617) and turbine blades made of superalloys (e.g. IN 738 LC). (author)

  20. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line

  1. Impact of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on deriving anthropogenic warming rates from the instrumental temperature record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G.R.; Dolman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The instrumental surface air temperature record has been used in several statistical studies to assess the relative role of natural and anthropogenic drivers of climate change. The results of those studies varied considerably, with anthropogenic temperature trends over the past 25-30 years suggested

  2. Torsional resistance of XP-endo Shaper at body temperature compared with several nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, A M; Elsaka, S E

    2018-05-01

    To compare the torsional resistance of XP-endo Shaper (XPS; size 30, .01 taper, FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) instruments at body temperature with TRUShape (TRS; size 30, .06 taper, Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA), ProFile Vortex (PV; size 30, .04 taper, Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties) and FlexMaster (FM; size 30, .04 taper, VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany) nickel-titanium rotary instruments. A metal block with a square-shaped mould (5 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm) was positioned inside a glass container. Five millimetres of the tip of each instrument was held inside the metal block by filling the mould with a resin composite. The instruments were tested for torsional resistance in saline solution at 37 °C. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey post hoc tests. The significance level was set at P instruments tested (P instruments (P = 0.211). The ranking for torsional resistance values was: FM > PV > TRS > XPS. FlexMaster and ProFile Vortex instruments were more resistant to torsional stress compared with TRUShape and XP-endo Shaper instruments. The manufacturing process used to produce XP-endo Shaper instruments did not enhance their resistance to torsional stress as compared with the other instruments. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Routaboul Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The biophysical reactions of light harvesting and electron transport during photosynthesis take place in a uniquely constructed bilayer, the thylakoid. In all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the complement of atypical glycerolipid molecules that form the foundation of this membrane are characterised by sugar head-groups and a very high level of unsaturation in the fatty acids that occupy the central portion of the thylakoid bilayer. alpha-linolenic (18:3 or a combination of 18:3 and hexadecatrienoic (16:3 acids typically account for approximately two-thirds of all thylakoid membrane fatty acids and over 90% of the fatty acids of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, the major thylakoid lipid [1, 2]. The occurrence of trienoic fatty acids as a major component of the thylakoid membrane is especially remarkable since these fatty acids form highly reactive targets for active oxygen species and free radicals, which are often the by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is one of the most temperature-sensitive functions of plant [3, 4]. There remains a widespread belief that these trienoic fatty acids might have some crucial role in plants to be of such universal occurrence, especially in photosynthesis tolerance of temperature [5].

  4. Verifying the performance of instrumentation under adverse environmental conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navorro, S.M.; Gonzalez-Granda, C.

    1983-01-01

    The current standards concerning the environmental qualification of electrical equipment and instrumentation, although extensive and consistent, are likely to be modified or improved in the short term, but will certainly not undergo any fundamental changes. At present, there is a requirement that the condition of equipment in plants in operation or approaching operational status should be checked and monitored for compliance with the relevant standards. One method of checking and monitoring electrical equipment and instrumentation basically consists in determining the environmental conditions in the various areas where safety-related equipment is being installed and then carrying out a study, component by component, using a pre-established form which summarizes the qualification requirements. The form consists of three different columns: the first contains information on the component; the second, information on the environmental conditions for which the component is to be certified or has been certified; and the third, information on the reference documents relating to those conditions. This form makes it possible to determine deficiencies, which are then collated in a table. Once the criteria for acceptance or refusal have been established, the necessary justification or proposal for corrective action is drawn up. Tolerances, accessories and subsequent tests are examples of grounds for justifying requalification, a change of an instrument or of its position, protection of the instrument and additional analyses. These are the possible corrective measures, and a careful study has to be made in order to determine which is the most appropriate measure in each case. A study of this type calls for experts in various fields. Co-operation between the organizations dealing with environmental qualification is desirable in order to facilitate the gathering of data and the adoption of uniform approaches. (author)

  5. Instrumentation and control systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for establishing safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-1: Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (the Requirements for Design), which establishes the design requirements for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide describes how the requirements should be met for instrumentation and control (I and C) systems important to safety. This publication is a revision and combination of two previous Safety Guides: Safety Series Nos 50-SG-D3 and 50-SG-D8, which are superseded by this new Safety Guide. The revision takes account of developments in I and C systems important to safety since the earlier Safety Guides were published in 1980 and 1984, respectively. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the design of I and C systems important to safety in nuclear power plants, including all I and C components, from the sensors allocated to the mechanical systems to the actuated equipment, operator interfaces and auxiliary equipment. This Safety Guide deals mainly with design requirements for those I and C systems that are important to safety. It expands on paragraphs of Ref in the area of I and C systems important to safety. This publication is intended for use primarily by designers of nuclear power plants and also by owners and/or operators and regulators of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide provides general guidance on I and C systems important to safety which is broadly applicable to many nuclear power plants. More detailed requirements and limitations for safe operation specific to a particular plant type should be established as part of the design process. The present guidance is focused on the design principles for systems important to safety that warrant particular attention, and should be applied to both the design of new I and C systems and the modernization of existing systems. Guidance is provided on how design

  6. Homogenization of long instrumental temperature and precipitation series over the Spanish Northern Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigro, J.; Brunet, M.; Aguilar, E.; Stoll, H.; Jimenez, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Spanish-funded research project Rapid Climate Changes in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) Based on Proxy Calibration, Long Term Instrumental Series and High Resolution Analyses of Terrestrial and Marine Records (CALIBRE: ref. CGL2006-13327-C04/CLI) has as main objective to analyse climate dynamics during periods of rapid climate change by means of developing high-resolution paleoclimate proxy records from marine and terrestrial (lakes and caves) deposits over the IP and calibrating them with long-term and high-quality instrumental climate time series. Under CALIBRE, the coordinated project Developing and Enhancing a Climate Instrumental Dataset for Calibrating Climate Proxy Data and Analysing Low-Frequency Climate Variability over the Iberian Peninsula (CLICAL: CGL2006-13327-C04-03/CLI) is devoted to the development of homogenised climate records and sub-regional time series which can be confidently used in the calibration of the lacustrine, marine and speleothem time series generated under CALIBRE. Here we present the procedures followed in order to homogenise a dataset of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation data on a monthly basis over the Spanish northern coast. The dataset is composed of thirty (twenty) precipitation (temperature) long monthly records. The data are quality controlled following the procedures recommended by Aguilar et al. (2003) and tested for homogeneity and adjusted by following the approach adopted by Brunet et al. (2008). Sub-regional time series of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures for the period 1853-2007 have been generated by averaging monthly anomalies and then adding back the base-period mean, according to the method of Jones and Hulme (1996). Also, a method to adjust the variance bias present in regional time series associated over time with varying sample size has been applied (Osborn et al., 1997). The results of this homogenisation exercise and the development of the associated sub-regional time series

  7. New alloys for high temperature applications in incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinz, H.P.; Koeck, W.

    1993-01-01

    The hot components of incineration plants exposed to temperatures between 800 and 1,200 C like boilers, grates, thermocouple sheaths and nozzles suffer from severe joint slag and hot gas attack. Considering corrosion resistance only, ceramic materials show excellent performance under these conditions. But because of the ceramics' brittleness metallic materials exhibit an overall advantage although being corroded faster. Within the class of suitable metals PM-ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened)-superalloys based on iron or nickel and PM-Cr-base-alloys are among the most promising ones. This can be derived from various laboratory and field tests which were performed up to now. Laboratory oxidation tests indicate that these new alloys can be used at temperatures up to 1,300 C in hot air. High temperature erosion tests with quartz particles show that PM 2,000 (Fe 19,5Cr5,5Al0,5Ti0,5Y 2 O 3 ) and Ducropur (99.7% Cr) have almost the same resistance against particle impact as alumina or zirconia at 900 C. The corresponding laboratory and field tests under typical joint slag and hot gas conditions at temperatures up to 1,200 C show good results for PM 2,000 and already lead to the actual application of boiler components. Extensive testing has been performed in the field of municipal waste incineration. Depending on temperature, slag and hot gas composition selected grades of the PM-ODS and Cr-base-alloy-group give satisfactory results in the field tests. In the pulp industry black liquor, an alkaline solution with high concentrations of organic waste, is incinerated for the recovery of caustic soda. Flame sprayed coatings of Ducrolloy Cr50Ni give a sixfold increase of the lifetime of the burner nozzles compared to unprotected stainless steel

  8. LEITTEC '96. Digitization of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in operation in Germany have been commissioned in the years from 1968 until 1988. Their control and safety systems likewise correspond to the electronic technology available then, as e.g. discrete semi-conductor technology. The high reliability of those systems contributed a major share to the excellent operating results achieved by German nuclear power plants. However, aging of existing systems as well as spare part availability and integration of older and more recent hardware generations now are posing specific problems. Intensive work has been devoted to the retrofitting of existing systems and integration of computer-assisted control systems as well as conversion to programmable systems in order to achieve a basis permitting economically justifiable operation, acceptable also from the angle of hardware and software inspection requirements, so that the German Atomforum thought that these activities and the underlying problems would make a suitable topic for a conference. There were about 150 experts attending the one-day meeting for intensive discussion and exchange of information. The proceedings volume contains 11 of the conference papers and provides an overview of the current status and expected developments in the field of digitization of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants.(orig./CB) [de

  9. Probabilistic safety assessment for digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Jiang, J.

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation in electricity market has created a great deal of challenges for nuclear power industries [1]. To stay competitive, Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) will have to find ways to reduce their operational costs and to improve the plant safety. Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems play an important role in this regard. Thus, new methodologies need to be developed to manage the operation of I and C systems more economically without jeopardizing the overall plant safety. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique is one of the promising methods to deal with such an issue, because PSA analyzes various system operational issues from a probabilistic sense, rather than a worst-case approach. However, there are several limitations when PSA is applied to I and C systems directly. A possible solution to this problem can be found by incorporating PSA with several other approaches. To better understand the issues involved, an attempt has been made in this paper to carry out a literature survey on this and related subject, particularly the effort will be made on: 1) the development of digital I and C systems in NPP, 2) PSA and its potential benefits and limitations, and 3) applications of PSA in various aspects of I and C systems including the resource allocation, the determination of surveillance testing strategies and the design of I and C systems. Finally, some solutions to overcome the aforementioned obstacles when applying PSA in I and C systems are also examined critically. (author)

  10. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O& #39; Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing

  11. Specification of requirements for upgrades using digital instrument and control systems. Report prepared within the framework of the international working group on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The need to develop good specifications of requirements for instrument and control (I and C) systems applies throughout the world and is becoming more and more important as more upgrades are planned. Better guidance on how to develop good requirements specifications would support safer, more effective and more economical refits and upgrades. The need for this was pointed out by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). This report is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held by the IAEA in 1997 and 1998 in Vienna. The scope of the activities described covers a methodology for the determination of requirements and the development of the necessary specifications and plans needed through the life-cycle of digital instrumentation and control systems. It is restricted to technical aspects and indicates subjects which should be included in specifications and plans at different phases

  12. Correlation between Temperature-dependent Fatigue Resistance and Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis for 2 Contemporary Rotary Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Macorra, José C; Govindjee, Sanjay; Peters, Ove A

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in cyclic fatigue (CF) life of contemporary heat-treated nickel-titanium rotary instruments at room and body temperatures and to document corresponding phase transformations. Forty Hyflex EDM (H-EDM) files (Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH [#25/.08, manufactured by electrical discharge machining]) and 40 TRUShape (TS) files (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK [#25/.06v, manufactured by grinding and shape setting]) were divided into 2 groups (n = 20) for CF resistance tests in a water bath either at room (22°C ± 0.5°C) or body temperature (37°C ± 0.5°C). Instruments were rotated in a simulated canal (angle = 60°, radius = 3 mm, and center of the curvature 5 mm from the tip) until fracture occurred. The motor was controlled by an electric circuit that was interrupted after instrument fracture. The mean half-life and beta and eta Weibull parameters were determined and compared. Two instruments of each brand were subjected to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). While TS instruments lasted significantly longer at room temperature (mean life = 234.7 seconds; 95% confidence interval [CI], 209-263.6) than at body temperature (mean life = 83.2 seconds; 95% CI, 76-91.1), temperature did not affect H-EDM behavior (room temperature mean life = 725.4 seconds; 95% CI, 658.8-798.8 and body temperature mean life = 717.9 seconds; 95% CI, 636.8-809.3). H-EDM instruments significantly outlasted TS instruments at both temperatures. At body temperature, TS was predominantly austenitic, whereas H-EDM was martensitic or in R-phase. TS was in a mixed austenitic/martensitic phase at 22°C, whereas H-EDM was in the same state as at 37°C. H-EDM had a longer fatigue life than TS, which showed a marked decrease in fatigue life at body temperature; neither the life span nor the state of the microstructure in the DSC differed for H-EDM between room or body temperature. Copyright © 2017 American Association of

  13. Modernizing and Maintaining Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, Joseph; Torok, Raymond; Shankar, Ramesh

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation of the electric utilities has made a major impact on nuclear power plants. To be competitive, more emphasis is being put on cost-effective production of electricity with a more critical look at whether a system should be modernized due to obsolescence, reliability, or productivity concerns. Instrumentation and control (I and C) systems play an important role in reducing the cost of producing electricity while maintaining or enhancing safety. Systems that are well designed, reliable, enhance productivity, and are cost-effective to operate and maintain can reduce the overall costs. Modern technology with its ability to better provide and use real-time information offers an effective platform for modernizing systems. At the same time, new technology brings new challenges and issues, especially for safety systems in nuclear power plants. To increase competitiveness, it is important to take advantage of the opportunities offered by modern technology and to address the new challenges and issues in a cost-effective manner. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and its member utilities have been working together with other members of the nuclear industry since 1990 to address I and C modernization and maintenance issues. The EPRI I and C Program has developed a life-cycle management approach for I and C systems that involves the optimization of maintenance, monitoring, and capital resources to sustain safety and performance throughout the plant life. Strategic planning methodologies and implementation guidelines addressing digital I and C issues in nuclear power plants have been developed. Work is ongoing in diverse areas to support the design, implementation, and operation of new digital systems. Technology transfer is an integral part of this I and C program

  14. Pilot studies of management of ageing of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnay, S.G.; Simola, K.; Kossilov, A.; Pachner, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes pilot studies which have been implemented to study the aging behavior of safety related component parts of nuclear power plants. In 1989 the IAEA initiated work on pilot studies related to the aging of such components. Four components were identified for study. They are the primary nozzle of a reactor vessel; a motor operated isolating valve; the concrete containment building; and instrumentation and control cables within the containment facility. The study was begun with phase 1 efforts directed toward understanding the aging process, and methods for monitoring and minimizing the effects of aging. Phase 2 efforts are directed toward aging studies, documentation of the ideas put forward, and research to answer questions identified in phase 1. This paper describes progress made on two of these components, namely the motor operated isolation valves, and in-containment I ampersand C cables

  15. A risk-based review of Instrument Air systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMoss, G.; Lofgren, E.; Rothleder, B.; Villeran, M.; Ruger, C.

    1990-01-01

    The broad objective of this analysis was to provide risk-based information to help focus regulatory actions related to Instrument Air (IA) systems at operating nuclear power plants. We first created an extensive data base of summarized and characterized IA-related events that gave a qualitative indication of the nature and severity of these events. Additionally, this data base was used to calculate the frequencies of certain events, which were used in the risk analysis. The risk analysis consisted of reviewing published PRAs and NRC Accident Sequence Precursor reports for IA-initiated accident sequences, IA interactions with frontline systems, and IA-related risk significant events. Sensitivity calculations were performed when possible. Generically, IA was found to contribute less to total risk than many safety systems; however, specific design weaknesses in safety systems, non-safety systems, and the IA system were found to be significant in risk. 22 refs., 13 figs., 24 tabs

  16. Application of Field Programmable Gate Arrays in Instrumentation and Control Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are gaining increased attention worldwide for application in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, particularly for safety and safety related applications, but also for non-safety ones. NPP operators and equipment suppliers see potential advantages of FPGA based digital I&C systems as compared to microprocessor based applications. This is because FPGA based systems can be made simpler, more testable and less reliant on complex software (e.g. operating systems), and are easier to qualify for safety and safety related applications. This publication results from IAEA consultancy meetings covering the various aspects, including design, qualification, implementation, licensing, and operation, of FPGA based I&C systems in NPPs

  17. Experiences with 'on-line' diagnostic instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, R.; Ciaramitaro, W.; Smith, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Over the past several years, Westinghouse has developed a coordinated system of on-line diagnostic instrumentation for the acquisition and analysis of data for diagnostics and incipient failure detection of critical plant equipment and systems. Primary motivation for this work is to improve Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) availability and maintainability through the detection of malfunctions at their inception. These systems include: 1) Acoustic leak monitoring for detection and location of leaks in the primary system pressure boundary and other piping systems in PWR's; 2) Metal impact monitoring for detection of loose debris in the reactor vessel and steam generators; 3) Nuclear noise monitoring for monitoring core barrel vibration. Summarized in this paper are some of the features of the systems and inplant experience. (author)

  18. Determination of some elements in Ageratum conyziodes, a tropical medicinal plant, using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dim, L.A.; Funtua, I.I.; Umar, I.M.; Gwozdz, R.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was utilized for the multielemental determination of elements in the roots of Ageratum conyzoides, a tropical medicinal plant that is used locally for the cure of various diseases in Nigeria. The concentrations of Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, Sr, V and Zn were analyzed with the 250 kW Triga Reactor at the Atominstitut, Vienna. The essential elements K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn and the non-essential elements Al, Ba, Sr and Rb are present in significant concentrations. Other elements including Co, Cr, Sc and V are present at trace levels. The likely implication of these elements in restoring and maintaining good health is discussed. Quality control on the measurements was carried out by analyzing standard reference materials alongside the samples. (author)

  19. Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The mission for Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems (IERICS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been established with the aim of conducting peer reviews of I and C design documents, implementation processes, prototype I and C systems, and actual systems already deployed in operating NPPs. Organizations in IAEA Member States, such as nuclear utilities, regulators, and technical support organizations can benefit from I and C technical reviews through requesting IERICS missions that provide a detailed technical assessment on I and C systems, as well as recommendations for improvement. The IERICS mission is conducted by a team of international subject matter experts from various complementing technical areas. The review is based on appropriate IAEA documents, such as Safety Guides and Nuclear Energy Series, and the mission's findings are summarized in a mission report, including a list of recommendations, suggestions, and identified good practices. The review is not intended to be a regulatory inspection or an audit against international codes and standards. Rather, it is a peer review aimed at improving design and implementation procedures through an exchange of technical experiences and practices at the working level. The IERICS mission is applicable at any stages of the life cycle of I and C systems in NPPs and it is initiated based on a formal request through official IAEA channels from an organization of a Member State. The formation of the IERICS mission is based on the recommendation of the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control (TWG-NPPIC). The recommendation came from the recognition that the IAEA can play an important role in the independent assessment and review of NPP I and C systems in terms of their compliance with IAEA safety guides and technical documents.

  20. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritioff, A. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: fritioff@botan.su.se; Kautsky, L. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Greger, M. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants.

  1. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritioff, A.; Kautsky, L.; Greger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants

  2. Requirements and analysis of electromagnetic compatibility of safety-related instrumentation and control system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sujuan

    2002-01-01

    The state-of-the-art instrumentation and control system and the influence of their application to the electromagnetic compatibility is analyzed. Based on the present situation of nuclear safety in China and relevant experiences from other countries, the author tries to probe into the requirements and test methods about how safety-related instrument and control system to accommodate electromagnetic interference, radio-frequency interference and power surges in the environments of nuclear power plant so as to develop Chinese safety standards

  3. Progress of nuclear safety for symbiosis and sustainability advanced digital instrumentation, control and information systems for nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces advanced methods of computational and information systems allowing readers to better understand the state-of-the-art design and implementation technology needed to maintain and enhance the safe operation of nuclear power plants. The subjects dealt with in the book are (i) Full digital instrumentation and control systems and human?machine interface technologies (ii) Risk? monitoring methods for large and? complex? plants (iii) Condition monitors for plant components (iv) Virtual and augmented reality for nuclear power plants and (v) Software reliability verification and val

  4. Determination of Trace Elements In Soil and Plants In Coastal Basin of Syria By Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods have been used for the determination of some major, minor and trace elements (As, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Sb, Sc Ce, Ti, Fe, Mn and V) in some kinds of plant leaves with their soil. Accuracy of measurements have been evaluated by analyzing a number of plant and soil reference materials, precision have been estimated by triplicate the sample as well as the reference. The obtained accurate and reliable data in microgram quantities of some trace elements in plants and soil will serve as baseline values and will be helpful to monitor the changes in the trace elements content of soil and plant leaves. (Author)

  5. The impact of twenty years of noise research on nuclear power plant design, instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    Early investigations demonstrated that time constants and the dynamic characteristics of low energy nuclear systems could be elegantly determined by correlation of spectral analysis of fluctuating signals from ion chambers and proportional counters. Analyses of the time series information and the multi-filtering operations in the frequency domain were time consuming and tedious projects due to the lack of suitable data processing equipment. During the last decade, the significant advances were the recognition of the advantages of the two-channel cross-correlation technique and the realisation that the dynamic behaviour of nuclear power plant at power could be monitored and studied in depth by the cross-correlation of mechanical, thermal and hydrodynamic signals with neutronic information. The former concept led to the development of theoretical models for spatial and energy-dependent noise fields within a nuclear system. The latter opened a floodgate of potential advances in nuclear power plant design optimization, control and safety instrumentation, and control and safety diagnostic systems. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in Italy: Recent developments and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santandrea, E.

    1990-01-01

    The result of the ''referendum'' in Italy in November 1987 led to cut-back nuclear activities in Italy, as far as both construction and operation on nuclear plants are concerned. A new PEN (National Energy Plan), calls, however, for a programme of research and industrial development of reactors with inherent and passive safety features. ENEA is now engaged in a critical analysis and comparison of different concepts, particularly aimed on safety and environmental and social impact. A particular attention is devoted to relevant subsystems and components with high innovation degree. For the Control System and Instrumentation there is the aim to define rules and design criteria, by evaluating the impact of inherent safety goals on the C and I design. The effort on man-machine interface is considered essential to increase safety and efficiency of advanced reactors. In the frame of the new National Energy Plan, the ENEA effort in the CI area is part of a more general Industrial Promotion Program oriented to optimize the plant process, reducing the environmental impact of energy systems. In such an effort, some questions can be solved by knowledges originally developed in the nuclear and aero-spatial field. So, the national industrial promotion program, tends to transfer to industrial application the developed competencies on disciplines like: Software engineering and reliability; engineering of diffused systems and local networks; electromagnetical compatibility; industrial diagnostic; expert systems in industrial applications; modelling and simulators; ''intelligent'' detection systems and sensors; process optimization. (author). 3 tabs

  7. Regulatory perspective on digital instrumentation and control systems for future advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiramal, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of using digital technology in instrumentation and control systems for modern nuclear power reactors. The general opinion in the industry and among NRC staff is that such technology provides the opportunity for enhanced safety and reliable reactor operations. The major concern is the safe application of this technology so as to avoid common mode or common cause failures in systems. There are great differences between digital and analog system components. SECY-91-292 identifies some general regulatory concerns with regard to digital systems. There is clearly a lack of adequate regulatory direction on the application of digital equipment at this time, but the issue is being addressed by the industry, outside experts, and NRC staff. NRC staff presents a position on the issue of defense-in-depth and diversity with regard to insuring plant safety. Independent manual controls and readouts must be available to allow safe shutdown and monitoring of the plant in the event of safety system failures

  8. Methodology and development of instruments for the safety analysis of a nuclear reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics and overlapping aspects in the elaboration of safety analyses for the nuclear and conventional units are presented. The current methods are presented and their limits of applicability characterized. The transferability of individual methods or their elements to the analysis of the reference plant of Wackersdorf is examined and the procedure for the systems analysis is determined. It is of great importance to prove that the essential kinds of incidents and possibilities of release with potential effects in the environment are completely identified. The incidents are divided into basic incidents, which are characterized by superior physical/chemical release mechanisms. An essential objective is to systematize the safety analysis and to summarize the presentation of results. Selection criteria are presented, which allow a limitation of the analysis to essential influencing parameters without removing aspects from the overall safety-relevant statement. Besides the selection criteria, instruments and mathematical models are explained with the help of which the representative and possible incidents covering all potential risks for all areas of the plant, systems and components can be selected. These design-basis accidents (criticality, self-heating, fire, explosion, leakages, earth quakes) are decisive for the determination of potential damaging effects in the environment and thus for the overall statement on the licensability. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable

  10. Cost-effective instrumentation and control upgrades for commercial nuclear power plants surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Dalton, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants use instrument and control systems based on analog electronics. The state of the art in process control and instrumentation has advanced to use digital electronics and incorporate advanced technology. This technology includes: distributed microprocessors, fiber optics, intelligent systems (neutral networks), and advanced displays. The technology is used to optimize processes and enhance the man-machine interface while maintaining control and safety of the processes. Nuclear power plant operators have been hesitant to install this technology because of the cost and uncertainty in the regulatory process. This technology can be directly applied in an operating nuclear power plant provided a surety principle-based 'administrator' hardware system is included in parallel with the upgrade. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a rigorous approach to High Consequence System Surety (HCSS). This approach addresses the key issues of safety, security, and control while satisfying requirements for reliability and quality. We believe that HCSS principles can be applied to nuclear power plants in a manner that allows the off-the-shelf use of process control instrumentation while maintaining a high level of safety and enhancing the plant performance. We propose that an HCSS Administrator be constructed as a standardized approach to address regulatory issues. Such an administrator would allow a plant control system to be constructed with commercially available, state-to-the-art equipment and be customized to the needs of the individual plant operator. (author)

  11. Cost-effective instrumentation and control upgrades for commercial nuclear power plants using surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Dalton, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants use instrument and control systems based on analog electronics. The state of the art in process control and instrumentation has advanced to use digital electronics and incorporate advanced technology. This technology includes distributed microprocessors, fiber optics, intelligent systems (neural networks), and advanced displays. The technology is used to optimize processes and enhance the man-machine interface while maintaining control and safety of the processes. Nuclear power plant operators have been hesitant to install this technology because of the cost and uncertainty in the regulatory process. This technology can be directly applied in an operating nuclear power plant provided a surety principle-based open-quotes administratorclose quotes hardware system is included in parallel with the upgrade Sandia National Laboratories has developed a rigorous approach to High Consequence System Surety (HCSS). This approach addresses the key issues of safety, security, and control while satisfying requirements for reliability and quality. HCSS principles can be applied to nuclear power plants in a manner that allows the off-the-shelf use of process control instrumentation while maintaining a high level of safety and enhancing the plant performance. We propose that an HCSS administrator be constructed as a standardized approach to address regulatory issues. Such an administrator would allow a plant control system to be constructed with commercially available, state-of-the-art equipment and be customized to the needs of the individual plant operator

  12. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  13. Effect of different water temperatures on growth of aquatic plants Salvinia natans and Ceratophyllum demersum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Kadhem Hreeb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of some different water temperatures on growth of aquatic plants (Salvinia natans and Ceratophyllum demersum. Methods: The aquatic plants were brought from Shatt Al-Arab River in 2016. Equal weights of aquatic plants were aquacultured in aquaria, and were exposed to three different temperatures ( 12, 22 and 32 °C. Results: The results showed that the two plants did not show significant differences with respect to their effects on pH and electrical conductivity values. Time and temperature did not affect the values of pH and electrical conductivity. The values of dissolved oxygen was significantly influenced with variation of time and temperature, while the two plants did not have significant differences on dissolved oxygen values, nitrate ion concentration and was not significantly influenced with variation of plant species or temperature or time. Plant species and temperature significantly affected phosphate ion concentration, while the time did not significantly influence the concentration of phosphate ion. Chlorophyll a content and biomass were significantly influenced with the variation of plant species, and temperature . Conclusions: Aquatic plants has a species specific respond to temperatures change in their environment. Water plant, Ceratophyllum demersum is more tolerant to temperatures change than Salvinia natans.

  14. The role of instrumentation and control systems in power uprating projects for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA's activities in nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management are aimed at increasing Member State capabilities in utilizing good engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports activities focusing on the improvement of nuclear power plant (NPP) performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational licence renewal, and the modernization of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems of NPPs in Member States. The subject of the I and C systems' role in power uprating projects in NPPs was suggested by the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in 2003. The subject was then approved by the IAEA and included in the programmes for 2004-2007. The increasing importance of power uprating projects can be attributed to the general worldwide tendency to the deregulation of the electricity market. The greater demand for electricity and the available capacity and safety margins, as well as the pressure from several operating NPPs resulted in requests for licence modification to enable operation at a higher power level, beyond the original licence provisions. A number of nuclear utilities have already gone through the uprating process for their nuclear reactors, and many more are planning to go through this modification process. In addition to mechanical and process equipment changes, parts of the electrical and I and C systems and components may also need to be altered to accommodate the new operating conditions and safety limits. This report addresses the role of I and C systems in NPP power uprating projects. The objective of the report is to provide guidance to utilities, safety analysts, regulators and others involved in the preparation, implementation and licensing of power uprating projects, with particular emphasis on the I and C aspects of these projects. As the average age of NPPs is increasing, it is becoming common for

  15. Suggestions of radiation protection instruments in ships used for transporting spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants to central stores and further to fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenmo, G.

    1979-01-01

    Some radiation protection measures are necessary in ships which will be used for transporting spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants to central stores and further to fuel reprocessing plants in order to protect the crew from unnecessarily high radiation doses and to ensure that not allowable values occur. Such measures are discussed in this report as well as suitable radiation protection instruments for such ships. (E.R.)

  16. Compilation of three-dimensional coordinates and specific data of the instrumentation of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel/high temperature helium test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausinger, D.

    1977-04-01

    The positions of the thermoelements, strain gauges of various types, and of Gloetzl instruments installed by SGAE in the model vessel of the Common Project Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel/High Temperature Helium Test Rig are defined in cylindrical coordinates. The specific data of the instruments are given like configuration of multiple instruments; type, group and number of the instrument; number of cable and of channel; calibration factors; resistances of instruments and cables. (author)

  17. System for managing operation of instrument in atomic power plant facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinzawa, Katsuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the management of the operating state of instruments operated in a site without necessity of large revision and additional cables of the instruments. Constitution: Tag-shaped instrument recognition indicators and instrument operation indicators for indicating the operating states of the respective instruments are mounted on the instruments such as openable valves. Each instrument recognition indicator represents the type and symbol of the instrument, and each instrument operation indicator represents the operating state such as open state or closed state of the valve of theinstrument. A reader reads a recorded data when the reader is touched to a magnetic plate and a magnetic sheet, and the data is recorded by a recorder on the magnetic tape. In this manner, the leakage of checking the data can be prevented, and the load of an operator can be alleviated. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Analysis of trace elements in power plant and industrial incinerator fly ashes by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2008-01-01

    An elemental analysis of fly ash samples from Selangor and Perak coal-fired power plants and an industrial incinerator from Negeri Sembilan were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). All samples were irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency laboratory PUSPATI Reactor for 6 hours and later counted at the Nuclear Science Program, UKM using an HPGe detector with a relative efficiency of 10% and resolution of 1.8 KeV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coal fly ash 1633a reference material (SRM) was used as a standard for quantitative analysis. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Th and U) were determined in all three types of fly ashes. The concentration range of environmentally concern elements, As and Cr in the Selangor coal-fired power plant samples are 11.17 - 23.24 and 160.28 - 867.97 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of radioactive elements U and Th are 4.79 - 10.29 and 14.6 - 61.29 μg.g -1 respectively, and the concentration range of Co, Hf, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce, Ca are 11.88-83.61, 3.24 - 10.48, 30338 - 53885, 16.62 - 28.48, 178.97 - 8491, 127.41 - 217.2 and 10447 -20647 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of As, Cr, U, Th in the Perak samples were found to be 22.16 - 48.38, 44.37 - 74.78, 4.18 - 6.85, 8.71 - 11.43 μg.g -1 respectively, whereas the concentration range of Co, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce and Ca are 23.21 -29.66, 54621 - 71099, 30.9 - 31.77, 100.34 - 116.61 and 11533 -16423 μg.g -1 respectively. Differences exist in the elemental concentrations of both power plant fly ash samples due to the different feed coal and combustion temperature used. The concentration of Cr, Th and Ce in the Selangor fly ash samples was generally higher compared to the samples obtained from the Perak power plant. This study also shows that only As and Ca were detected in the Negeri Sembilan samples with the concentration ranging from 36.66 - 98.67 and 31709.10 - 45606 μg.g -1

  19. Advanced surveillance of Resistance Temperature Detectors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, C.; García-Berrocal, A.; Bermejo, J.A.; Queral, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two time constant transfer function is proposed to describe the Resistance Temperature Detector dynamics. • One constant is only related to the inner dynamics whereas the other one is related to the process and to the inner dynamics. • The two time constants have been found in several RTDs from a Nuclear Power Plant. • A Monte Carlo simulation is used to properly adjust the sampling time to find both constants. - Abstract: The dynamic response of several RTDs located at the cold leg of a PWR has been studied. A theoretical model for the heat transfer between the RTDs and the surrounding fluid is derived. It proposes a two real poles transfer function. By means of noise analysis techniques in the time domain (autoregressive models) and the Dynamic Data System methodology, the two time constants of the system can be found. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed in order to choose the proper sampling time to obtain both constants. The two poles are found and they permit an advance in situ surveillance of the sensor response time and the sensor dynamics performance. One of the poles is related to the inner dynamics whereas the other one is linked to the process and the inner dynamics. So surveillance on the process and on the inner dynamics can be distinguished

  20. Combined cycle power plant with integrated low temperature heat (LOTHECO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakaras, E.; Doukelis, A.; Leithner, R.; Aronis, N.

    2004-01-01

    The major driver to enhance the efficiency of the simple gas turbine cycle has been the increase in process conditions through advancements in materials and cooling methods. Thermodynamic cycle developments or cycle integration are among the possible ways to further enhance performance. The current paper presents the possibilities and advantages from the LOTHECO natural gas-fired combined cycle concept. In the LOTHECO cycle, low-temperature waste heat or solar heat is used for the evaporation of injected water droplets in the compressed air entering the gas turbine's combustion chamber. Following a description of this innovative cycle, its advantages are demonstrated by comparison between different gas turbine power generation systems for small and large-scale applications, including thermodynamic and economic analysis. A commercial gas turbine (ALSTOM GT10C) has been selected and computed with the heat mass balance program ENBIPRO. The results from the energy analysis are presented and the features of each concept are discussed. In addition, the exergy analysis provides information on the irreversibilities of each process and suggested improvements. Finally, the economic analysis reveals that the combined cycle plant with a heavy-duty gas turbine is the most efficient and economic way to produce electricity at base load. However, on a smaller scale, innovative designs, such as the LOTHECO concept, are required to reach the same level of performance at feasible costs

  1. Task 5c: measurement and instrumentation under subsystem design of the LLL safeguard material control program. [For fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-31

    A product survey was conducted of all security products currently available on the market. Documentation is presented of the survey and a printout of the data is included. A general description is given of new but recommended instrumentation and security devices for application to fuel reprocessing plants. Security systems and hardware recommended for development, assembly, and testing are discussed briefly. (DLC)

  2. Determination of elemental concentrations in environmental plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, J.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    The intake of leafy vegetables in daily diet is very important to meet our nutritional needs. Vegetables provide the essential elements which are necessary and recommended for human growth. However, due to rapid industrialization and urbanization our environment becomes polluted and this affects the normal growth of agricultural products and composition of environmental species. The elemental concentrations present in the environmental samples are good indicators to assess the toxicological levels due to pollution affects. In the present work we have analysed several vegetable plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the elemental concentrations at major, minor and trace levels. The leafy vegetables like spinach, red leafy vegetable, pui, gourd leaf, lettuce and katoua were chosen as these are extensively consumed by local people in eastern part of India. We have determined 15 elements in the above mentioned vegetable samples and some of these are essential elements and some are toxic elements. It was found that Na and K were present as major elements, Fe and Zn as minor elements and As, Ce, Cr, Co, La, Mo, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sr as trace elements. The concentration level of Cr was found to be higher than that of recommended value certified by WHO and National environment quality control for human consumption. The validation of our analytical results have been performed by the Z-score tests through the determination of concentrations of the elements of interest in certified reference materials. (author)

  3. Probabilistic safety assessment for instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lixuan; Jiang, Jin

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation in electricity market will create a great deal of challenges for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). To stay competitive, NPP will need to find new ways to reduce their operation costs. In NPP, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems play an important role in reducing the cost of producing electricity while maintaining and/or enhancing safety. Therefore, it is extremely important that one should manage the I and C systems more efficiently and economically. Meanwhile, obsolescence problem associated with I and C systems encouraged the usage of advanced digital techniques in I and C systems. Thus, new methodologies are needed to analyze the reliability and determine the maintenance strategy for the digital I and C systems. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has been probed to be a promising method to deal with this issue. This paper provides a literature survey on the development of digital I and C systems in NPP, followed by a detailed review of PSA including its benefits, limitations and the future direction of its development. Most importantly, potential applications of PSA in various aspects of I and C systems are brought into perspective throughout the paper. Furthermore, the applicability of PSA in the regulation of safety-related I and C systems is demonstrated. Detailed information on PSA applications in 1) the resource allocation for I and C systems: 2) the determination of surveillance testing strategies; and 3) I and C system designs, is provided. (author)

  4. Evaluation of modal properties of cabinet type instrument of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y. H.; Park, H. K.; Cho, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    The seismic qualification of safety-related equipment is usually achieved through analysis and testing. Analysis method is preferably adopted for structurally simple equipments which are easy to be mathematically modeled. However, even for relatively complex equipments, analysis method is occasionlly used for computing the input motion or supporting information for the component test followed. Electrical cabinet is a typical example for which analysis method is combinedly used with test to get modal properties of the enclosing cabinet structure. In this paper, with respect to a typical cabinet-type structure(instrumentation cabinet of nuclear power plant) a comparative study has been performed between three different state-of-the-art modeling techniques: lumped mass model, frame model, and FEM modal. From the study results, it has been found that the modal properties of the cabinet-type structure in the elastic behavior range can be reasonably computed through any type of modeling techniques in the practice with slight modification of model properties to get better accuracy. However, it needs additional modeling techniques to get reasonable results up to nonlinear range

  5. Key Regulatory Issues for Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, Kofi; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To help reduce the uncertainty associated with application of digital instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology in nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued six Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) documents that address the current regulatory positions on what are considered the significant digital I and C issues. These six documents address the following topics: Cyber Security, Diversity and Defense-in-Depth, Risk Informed Digital I and C Regulation, Communication issues, Human Factors and the Digital I and C Licensing Process (currently issued as Draft). After allowing for further refinement based on additional technical insight gathered by NRC staff through near-term research and detailed review of relevant experience, it is expected that updated positions ultimately will be incorporated into regulatory guides and staff review procedures. This paper presents an overview of the guidance provided by the NRC-issued ISGs on key technology considerations (i.e., the first five documents above) for safety-related digital I and C systems.

  6. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  7. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information

  8. Carbonization plant for low temperature carbonization of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-02-13

    A carbonization plant for the low-temperature carbonization of solid fuels, consists of a heat-treating retort including an outer vertical stationary tube, a second inner tube coaxial with the first tube, adapted to rotate round its axis and defining the first tube, and an annular gap where the solid fuel is treated. The inside of the inner tube is divided in two parts, the first fed with superheated steam which is introduced into the annular gap through vents provided in the wall of the inner tube, the second part communicating with the gap by means of vents provided in the wall of the inner tube through which gases and oil vapors evolved from the fuel are evacuated. A combustion furnace is provided in which the hot solid residues evacuated at the bottom of the annular gap are burned and from which hot fumes are evacuated, a conduit surrounding, in the form of a helical flue, outer cylinder of the retort, and in which flow hot fumes; a preliminary drier for the raw solid fuel heated by the whole or a part of the fumes evacuated from the combustion furnace. Means for bringing solid fuels from the outlet of the preliminary drier to the upper inlet of the gap of the retort a pipe line receiving steam and bringing it into the first inside part of the inner tube, this pipe line has portions located within the conduit for the fumes in order to superheat the steam, and an expansion chamber in which the gases and oil vapors are trapped at the bottom of the second inside part of the inner tube are included.

  9. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  10. Single event upset mitigation techniques for FPGAs utilized in nuclear power plant digital instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Holbert, Keith E.; Clark, Lawrence T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Triple modular redundancy (TMR) implementation is the best solution for digital I and C. → Maximal probability of two simultaneous errors with TMR maximum partition is 4.44%. → Dual modular redundancy minimum logic partitioning design is an additional option. - Abstract: Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are integrated circuits being increasingly used for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of low cost, re-configurability and low design turn-around time. However, to ensure reliability, proper design techniques must be employed since the memory and logic in FPGAs are susceptible to single event upsets (SEUs). Triple modular redundancy (TMR) has become a common SEU mitigation design technique because of its straightforward implementation and reliable results. Partitioned TMR approaches are introduced in this paper, and formulae derived indicate that the maximum probability of two simultaneous errors [P E ] max is inversely proportional to the number of logic partitions in a TMR design, when each redundant logic block in every logic partition has the same number of sensitive nodes. However, the maximum logic partitioning design cannot completely eliminate the possibility of two simultaneous upsets. For the example test circuit it is found that [P E ] max is reduced dramatically from 66.67% for minimum logic partitioning to 4.44% for maximum logic partitioning. Because TMR introduces significant overhead due to its full hardware redundancy, a dual modular redundancy approach is also examined for application to less demanding situations. By comparative analysis this study reaches the conclusion that the maximum logic partitioning TMR implementation is the best solution for digital I and C applications in NPPs where obtaining robustness is of the highest importance, despite its higher area overhead.

  11. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  12. Overexpression of monoubiquitin improves photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants following high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fengxia; Gong, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Yanan; Wang, Guokun; Guo, Qifang; Wang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (Ub/26S) is implicated in abiotic stress responses in plants. In this paper, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Ta-Ub2 from wheat were used to study the functions of Ub in the improvement of photosynthesis under high temperature (45°C) stress. We observed higher levels of Ub conjugates in transgenic plants under high temperature stress conditions compared to wild type (WT) as a result of the constitutive overexpression of Ta-Ub2, suggesting increased protein degradation by the 26S proteasome system under high temperature stress. Overexpressing Ub increased the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of transgenic tobacco plants, consistent with the improved ATPase activity in the thylakoid membrane and enhanced efficiency of PSII photochemistry. The higher D1 protein levels following high temperature stress in transgenic plants than WT were also observed. These findings imply that Ub may be involved in tolerance of photosynthesis to high temperature stress in plants. Compared with WT, the transgenic plants showed lower protein carbonylation and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, but higher antioxidant enzyme activity under high temperature stress. These findings suggest that the improved antioxidant capacity of transgenic plants may be one of the most important mechanisms underlying Ub-regulated high temperature tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize plants under low-temperature stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xian-Can; Song, Feng-Bin; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus tortuosum on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism of Zea mays L. grown under low-temperature stress was investigated. Maize plants inoculated or not inoculated with AM fungus were grown in a growth chamber at 258C for 4 weeks...... temperature regimes. AM symbiosis modulated C metabolic enzymes, thereby inducing an accumulation of soluble sugars, which may have contributed to an increased tolerance to low temperature, and therefore higher Pn in maize plants....

  14. Manual on quality assurance for installation and commissioning of instrumentation, control and electrical equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present Manual on Quality Assurance (QA) for Installation and Commissioning of Instrumentation, Control and Electrical (ICE) Equipment of Nuclear Power Plants contains supporting material and illustrative examples for implementing basic requirements of the quality assurance programme in procurement, receiving, installation and commissioning of this equipment. The Manual on Quality Assurance for Installation and Commissioning of ICE Equipment is designed to supplement and be consistent with the Guidebook as well as with the IAEA Code and Safety Guides on Quality Assurance. It is intended for the use of managerial staff and QA personnel of nuclear power plant owners or the organizations respectively responsible for the legal, technical, administrative and financial aspects of a nuclear power plant. The information provided in the Manual will also be useful to the inspection staff of the regulatory organization in the planning and performance of regulatory inspections at nuclear power plants

  15. Determination of trace elements in soil and plants in the Orontes basin of Syria by using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used for the determination of some major, minor and trace elements (As, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Sb, Sc, Ce, Ti, Fe, Mn and V) in various plant leaves together with their soil. The accuracy of the measurements have been evaluated by analyzing a number of plant and soil reference materials, precision have been estimated by triplicate analysis of the sample as well as that of the reference material. The obtained accurate and reliable data of some trace elements on microgram level for plants and soil will serve as baseline values and will be helpful to monitor the changes in the trace element content of soil and plant leaves. (author)

  16. Low-cost microprocessed instrument for evaluating soil temperature profile Instrumento microprocessado de baixo custo para avaliação da temperatura em perfil de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO ESTEVÃO CRUVINEL

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a low-cost microprocessed instrument for in situ evaluating soil temperature profile ranging from -20.0°C to 99.9°C, and recording soil temperature data at eight depths from 2 to 128 cm. Of great importance in agriculture, soil temperature affects plant growth directly, and nutrient uptake as well as indirectly in soil water and gas flow, soil structure and nutrient availability. The developed instrument has potential applications in the soil science, when temperature monitoring is required. Results show that the instrument with its individual sensors guarantees ±0.25°C accuracy and 0.1°C resolution, making possible localized management changes within decision support systems. The instrument, based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices as well as thermocouples, operates in either automatic or non-automatic mode.Este artigo descreve um instrumento microprocessado de baixo custo para avaliação in situ da temperatura em perfil de solo na faixa de -20,0°C a 99,9°C com armazenagem de dados de até oito profundidades, de 2 a 128 centímetros. A temperatura do solo é de grande importância para o crescimento de plantas, absorção de nutrientes, fluxo de gases e estrutura. O instrumento desenvolvido encontra várias aplicações na área da ciência do solo, onde o monitoramento de temperatura do solo é requerido. Resultados mostram que a caracterização do instrumento e seus sensores individuais garantem uma acurácia de ±0,25°C e uma resolução de 1,0°C. Também proporciona a produtores ou pesquisadores a oportunidade do manejo localizado para sistemas de tomada de decisão. O instrumento é baseado em dispositivos semicondutores com tecnologia de óxido metálico complementar e termopares. E pode operar tanto no modo manual quanto no modo automático.

  17. Tenth meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation, Vienna, 3-5 March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of NPP control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The papers and discussions mostly dealt with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economic aspects of the introduction of modern, highly automated control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 20 presentations of the meeting

  18. International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation: Recent activities and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossilov, A.

    1992-01-01

    The IWG-NPPCI working group exists to consider developments, disseminate and exchange experience in all aspects of instrumentation, control and information technology relevant to the safety and economics of NPP design and operation. The main topics dealt with are: nuclear instrumentation, control systems, protection systems, early failure detection and diagnosis, use of computer technology in NPP operation, instrumentation for accidental situation, operator support systems, man-machine interface. The main objectives of the IWG-NPPCI are: to assist the IAEA to provide the Member States with information and recommendations on technical aspects of the NPP control and instrumentation with the aim to assure reliable functions; to promote and exchange of information on national programs, new developments and experience from operating NPPs, and to stimulate the coordination of research on NPP control and instrumentation

  19. International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation: Recent activities and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossilov, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1992-07-01

    The IWG-NPPCI working group exists to consider developments, disseminate and exchange experience in all aspects of instrumentation, control and information technology relevant to the safety and economics of NPP design and operation. The main topics dealt with are: nuclear instrumentation, control systems, protection systems, early failure detection and diagnosis, use of computer technology in NPP operation, instrumentation for accidental situation, operator support systems, man-machine interface. The main objectives of the IWG-NPPCI are: to assist the IAEA to provide the Member States with information and recommendations on technical aspects of the NPP control and instrumentation with the aim to assure reliable functions; to promote and exchange of information on national programs, new developments and experience from operating NPPs, and to stimulate the coordination of research on NPP control and instrumentation.

  20. Automatic calibration system of the temperature instrument display based on computer vision measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihong; Li, Jinze; Bao, Changchun; Hou, Guifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Cheng, Fang; Xiao, Nianxin

    2010-07-01

    With the development of computers and the techniques of dealing with pictures and computer optical measurement, various measuring techniques are maturing gradually on the basis of optical picture processing technique and using in practice. On the bases, we make use of the many years' experience and social needs in temperature measurement and computer vision measurement to come up with the completely automatic way of the temperature measurement meter with integration of the computer vision measuring technique. It realizes synchronization collection with theory temperature value, improves calibration efficiency. based on least square fitting principle, integrate data procession and the best optimize theory, rapidly and accurately realizes automation acquisition and calibration of temperature.

  1. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and Tiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292. which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are ''being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.''

  2. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and fiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292, which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are open-quotes being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.close quotes

  3. Short-Term Impacts of the Air Temperature on Greening and Senescence in Alaskan Arctic Plant Tundra Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy L. May

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is warming the temperatures and lengthening the Arctic growing season with potentially important effects on plant phenology. The ability of plant species to acclimate to changing climatic conditions will dictate the level to which their spatial coverage and habitat-type dominance is different in the future. While the effect of changes in temperature on phenology and species composition have been observed at the plot and at the regional scale, a systematic assessment at medium spatial scales using new noninvasive sensor techniques has not been performed yet. At four sites across the North Slope of Alaska, changes in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI signal were observed by Mobile Instrumented Sensor Platforms (MISP that are suspended over 50 m transects spanning local moisture gradients. The rates of greening (measured in June and senescence (measured in August in response to the air temperature was estimated by changes in NDVI measured as the difference between the NDVI on a specific date and three days later. In June, graminoid- and shrub-dominated habitats showed the greatest rates of NDVI increase in response to the high air temperatures, while forb- and lichen-dominated habitats were less responsive. In August, the NDVI was more responsive to variations in the daily average temperature than spring greening at all sites. For graminoid- and shrub-dominated habitats, we observed a delayed decrease of the NDVI, reflecting a prolonged growing season, in response to high August temperatures. Consequently, the annual C assimilation capacity of these habitats is increased, which in turn may be partially responsible for shrub expansion and further increases in net summer CO2 fixation. Strong interannual differences highlight that long-term and noninvasive measurements of such complex feedback mechanisms in arctic ecosystems are critical to fully articulate the net effects of climate variability and climate change on

  4. Experiences with high temperature corrosion at straw‐firing power plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jensen, S. A.; Borg, U.

    2011-01-01

    to enable better lifetime prediction of vulnerable components in straw‐firing plants since the corrosion rates are so much faster than in coal firing plants. Therefore, there are continued investigations in recently commissioned plants with test tubes installed into actual superheaters. In addition...... temperature is measured on the specific tube loops where there are test tube sections. Thus a corrosion rate can be coupled to a temperature histogram. This is important since although a superheater has a defined steam outlet temperature, there is variation in the tube bundle due to variations of heat flux...

  5. Review of modern instrumentation for magnetic measurements at high pressure and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Kamenev, K.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure magnetic susceptibility experiments can provide insights into the changes in magnetic behavior and electric properties which can accompany extreme compressions of material. Instrumentation plays an important role in the experimental work in this field since 1990s. Here we present a comprehensive review of the high-pressure instrumentation development for magnetic measurement from the engineering perspective in the last 20 years. Suitable nonmagnetic materials for high pressure cell are introduced initially. Then we focus on the existing cells developed for magnetic property measurement system (MPMS) SQUID magnetometer from Quantum Design (USA). Two categories of high pressure cells for this system are discussed in detail respectively. Some high pressure cells with built-in magnetic measurement system are also reviewed

  6. Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate warming across Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Graae, Bente; Aarrestad, Per

    2013-01-01

    -change impacts. Is this local spatial buffering restricted to topographically complex terrains? To answer this, we here study fine-grained thermal variability across a 2500-km wide latitudinal gradient in Northern Europe encompassing a large array of topographic complexities. We first combined plant community...... data, Ellenberg temperature indicator values, locally measured temperatures (LmT) and globally interpolated temperatures (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant temperature conditions from plant assemblages within community-inferred temperatures: CiT). We...... temperature indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 46-72% of variation in LmT and 92-96% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km(2) units peaked at 60-65°N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 °C (SD = 0...

  7. Sensitivity of a soil-plant-atmosphere model to changes in air temperature, dew point temperature, and solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxmoore, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab.,TN); Stolzy, J.L.; Holdeman, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Air temperature, dew point temperature and solar radiation were independently varied in an hourly soil-plant-atmosphere model in a sensitivity analysis of these parameters. Results suggested that evapotranspiration in eastern Tennessee is limited more by meteorological conditions that determine the vapor-pressure gradient than by the necessary energy to vaporize water within foliage. Transpiration and soil water drainage were very sensitive to changes in air and dew point temperature and to solar radiation under low atmospheric vapor-pressure deficit conditions associated with reduced air temperature. Leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were reduced under conditions having high evapotranspiration. Representative air and dew point temperature input data for a particular application are necessary for satisfactory results, whereas irradiation may be less well characterized for applications with high atmospheric vapor-pressure deficit. The effects of a general rise in atmospheric temperature on forest water budgets are discussed.

  8. Survey and analysis on environmental and electromagnetic effect on instrumentation and control equipment of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Dong Young; Cha, Kyung Ho

    2001-03-01

    As the instrumentation and control (I and C) equipment suppliers tend to provide digital components rather than conventional analog type components for instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants(NPPs), it is unavoidable to adopt digital equipment for safety I and C systems as well as non-safety systems. However, the full introduction of digital equipment for I and C systems of nuclear power plants raises several concerns which have not been considered in conventional analog I and C equipment. The two major examples of the issues of digital systems are environmental/electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and software reliability. This report presents the survey and research results on environmental and electromagnetic effect on I and C equipment of nuclear power plants to give a guideline for aging management and design process. Electromagnetic site surveys were conducted to be used as a part of technical basis to demonstrate that I and C systems are compatible with the ambient electromagnetic noise in Korean nuclear power plants.

  9. Development and application of special instrumentation for materials accountancy and process control in spent fuel recycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.A.; Gardner, N.; Merrill, N.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    Safe and optimum operations of spent fuel recycle plants rely on the availability of real time measurement systems at key points in the process. More than thirty types of special instrument systems have been developed and commissioned on the THORP reprocessing plant at Sellafield. These systems are compiled together with the associated information on measurement purpose, measurement technique and plant performance. A number of these measurement systems are of interest to support Safeguards arrangements on the plant. A more detailed overview of two such instrument systems respectively within the Head End and Product Finishing Stages of THORP is provided. The first of these is the Hulls Monitor, based on high resolution gamma spectrometry, as well as active and passive neutron measurements, of the basket of leached fuel cladding. This provides vital data for criticality assurance, nuclear material accountancy and inventory determination for ultimate disposal of the cladding waste. The second system is the Plutonium Inventory Monitoring System (PIMS) which employs passive neutron counting from a distributed array of neutron detectors within the Pu Finishing Line. This provides a near real time estimate of Pu inventories both during operations and at clean out of the Finishing Line. Both the Hulls Monitor and PIMS technologies are applicable to MOX Fuel recycle. Both systems enhance the control of fissile material in key areas of the recycle process which are of interest to the Safeguards authorities. (author)

  10. Instrumentation development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) borehole plugging program (BHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.W.

    1979-11-01

    This report discusses the instrumentation development needs of the borehole testing program as it now exists. Although requirements may change as the program progresses, the items indicated are basic to any borehole plugging program. Instrumentation is discussed both for the plug environment and for the plug itself. For the plug environment, a probe for measuring the disturbed region and a coordinate logging tool are required. For the plug itself, instrumentation includes measurements above, within, and below the plug. Instrumentation for most measurements above the plug is currently available; for measurements within and below the plug, however, further development is required. Specifically, resistivity, induction, and acoustic probes; an in situ stressmeter; and a hardwire, feedthrough system need to be developed

  11. Computer-based liquid radioactive waste control with plant emergency and generator temperature monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnick, R.J.; Schneider, M.I.; Shaffer, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    At the start of the design of the liquid radwaste control system for a nuclear generating station under construction, several serious problems were detected. The solution incorporated a new approach utilizing a computer and a blend of standard and custom software to replace the existing conventionally instrumented benchboard. The computer-based system, in addition to solving the problems associated with the benchboard design, also provided other enhancements which significantly improved the operability and reliability of the radwaste system. The functionality of the computer-based radwaste control system also enabled additional applications to be added to an expanded multitask version of the radwaste computer: 1) a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement that all nuclear power plants have an emergency response facility status monitoring system; and 2) the sophisticated temperature monitoring and trending requested by the electric generator manufacturer to continue its warranty commitments. The addition of these tasks to the radwaste computer saved the cost of one or more computers that would be dedicated to these work requirements

  12. Root temperature and growth of young tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harssema, H.

    1978-01-01

    During recent years sophisticated techniques are applied in the glasshouse industry for the control of the glasshouse climate. Along with that development, extensive research programs were carried out to establish optimum conditions for growth. Air temperature, radiation, CO

  13. A visualization instrument to investigate the mechanical-electro properties of high temperature superconducting tapes under multi-fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xingyi, E-mail: zhangxingyi@lzu.edu.cn; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Wentao; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, YouHe [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China Attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, People’s Republic of China and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We construct a visible instrument to study the mechanical-electro behaviors of high temperature superconducting tape as a function of magnetic field, strain, and temperature. This apparatus is directly cooled by a commercial Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The minimum temperature of sample can be 8.75 K. A proportion integration differentiation temperature control is used, which is capable of producing continuous variation of specimen temperature from 8.75 K to 300 K with an optional temperature sweep rate. We use an external loading device to stretch the superconducting tape quasi-statically with the maximum tension strain of 20%. A superconducting magnet manufactured by the NbTi strand is applied to provide magnetic field up to 5 T with a homogeneous range of 110 mm. The maximum fluctuation of the magnetic field is less than 1%. We design a kind of superconducting lead composed of YBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductor and beryllium copper alloy (BeCu) to transfer DC to the superconducting sample with the maximum value of 600 A. Most notably, this apparatus allows in situ observation of the electromagnetic property of superconducting tape using the classical magnetic-optical imaging.

  14. An integrated high temperature environmental cell for atom probe tomography studies of gas-surface reactions: Instrumentation and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumpala, S.; Broderick, S.R.; Bagot, P.A.J.; Rajan, K.

    2014-01-01

    An integrated environmental cell has been designed and developed for the latest generation of Atom Probe Tomography LEAP™ instruments, allowing controlled exposure of samples to gases at high temperatures. Following treatment, samples can be transferred through the LEAP vacuum system for subsequent APT analysis, which provides detailed information on changes to chemical microstructures following the reactions with near-atomic resolution. A full description of the cell is presented, along with some sample results on the oxidation of aluminum and two platinum-group alloys, demonstrating the capability of combining exposure/characterization functionality in a single instrument. - Highlights: • Designed and built atom probe environmental cell for in situ reactions. • Investigated Al oxidation, and demonstrated improvement with new cell. • in situ APT analysis of Pt-alloys showed surface segregation of Rh and Ir

  15. Status for development of a capsule and instruments for high-temperature irradiation in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Lee, Chul Yong; Yang, Seong Woo; Shim, Kyue Taek; Chung, Hwan-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    As the reactors planned in the Gen-IV program will be operated at high temperature and under high neutron flux, the requirements for irradiation of materials at high temperature are recently being gradually increased. The irradiation tests of materials in HANARO up to the present have been performed usually at temperatures below 300degC at which the RPV materials of the commercial reactors are being operated. To overcome the restriction for high-temperature use of Al thermal media of the existing standard capsule, a new capsule with double thermal media composed of two kinds of materials such as Al-Ti and Al-graphite was designed and fabricated as a more advanced capsule than the single thermal media capsule. (author)

  16. Extreme Temperature Radiation Tolerant Instrumentation for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop and commercialize a high reliability, high temperature smart neutron flux sensor for NASA Nuclear Thermal Propulsion...

  17. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  18. Soil-plant relation in Cuban sugar cane by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows the result of soil-plant relation in samples from Cuban sugar canes of different soil types and cane varieties, using the INAA from thermal reactor. The behaviour of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves is uniform and independent of sugar cane variety or type of soil. The soil-plant relation shows four principal groups of micro elements, according to their absorption by the plant

  19. Information technology impact on nuclear power plant documentation. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    As the majority of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world were designed and constructed about twenty to forty years ago, these older power plants may have shortcomings in documentation on construction, commissioning, operations, maintenance, or decommissioning. Therefore, facility documentation does not always reflect actual plant status after years of plant operation, modification, and maintenance. To deal with these shortcomings, computer and information technologies that provide sophisticated and modern design tools as well as information processing and storage facilities can offer dramatic innovation from paper-centric documentation towards data-centric documentation. This report addresses all aspects of documentation associated with various life-cycle phases of NPPs and the information technology (IT) that are relevant to the documentation process. It also provides a guide for planning, designing, and executing an IT documentation project. Examples are given to demonstrate successful implementations at plants. Finally, it discusses the issues related to the application of the IT in NPPs and the trends for applications of the IT at NPPs as well as the technology itself. It is recognized that this can also improve configuration management. reliability of data, quality of personnel work, and ultimately plant performance reliability and safety. The aspects of using the IT for NPP documentation are closely related to configuration management at NPPs. The report consists of nine sections, a reference section, and five additional appendices. The development of this report which was initiated by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). It is the result of a series of consultants meetings held by the IAEA in Vienna (October 1999, November 2000). It was prepared with the participation and contributions of experts from Canada, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the United States of America. In addition, a

  20. Information technology impact on nuclear power plant documentation. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    As the majority of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world were designed and constructed about twenty to forty years ago, these older power plants may have shortcomings in documentation on construction, commissioning, operations, maintenance, or decommissioning. Therefore, facility documentation does not always reflect actual plant status after years of plant operation, modification, and maintenance. To deal with these shortcomings, computer and information technologies that provide sophisticated and modern design tools as well as information processing and storage facilities can offer dramatic innovation from paper-centric documentation towards data-centric documentation. This report addresses all aspects of documentation associated with various life-cycle phases of NPPs and the information technology (IT) that are relevant to the documentation process. It also provides a guide for planning, designing, and executing an IT documentation project. Examples are given to demonstrate successful implementations at plants. Finally, it discusses the issues related to the application of the IT in NPPs and the trends for applications of the IT at NPPs as well as the technology itself. It is recognized that this can also improve configuration management. reliability of data, quality of personnel work, and ultimately plant performance reliability and safety. The aspects of using the IT for NPP documentation are closely related to configuration management at NPPs. The report consists of nine sections, a reference section, and five additional appendices. The development of this report which was initiated by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). It is the result of a series of consultants meetings held by the IAEA in Vienna (October 1999, November 2000). It was prepared with the participation and contributions of experts from Canada, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the United States of America. In addition, a

  1. Simulation of temperature distribution, BOD, and DO by thermal effluents of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1977-01-01

    A transient one, two, or three dimensional numerical model for simulation of heat load by power plants is presented. Water quality is determined by three parameters: temperature, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and disolved oxygen (DO). (orig.) [de

  2. The challenge of introducing high-temperature reactor plants onto the international power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, J.; Stoelzl, D.

    1987-01-01

    Growth of world population increases energy demand until the year 2000 and afterwards. Electricity growth rates in industrialized nations are lower after the oil price escalation in 1973 and 1979, and in developing countries grid sizes are often too small for the operation of large LWR plants. This indicates a potential for small and medium-sized power reactors such as the HTR-100 and the HTR-500. These plants can compete with coal fired plants of comparable size. An HTR-500 is even competitive, considering the electricity generating cost of large LWR plants. The special advantages of HTR plants in the small and medium-capacity range are discussed. (orig.)

  3. The challenge of introducing high-temperature-reactor plants onto the international power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, J.; Stoelzl, D.

    1988-01-01

    Growth of world population increases energy demand until the year 2000 and afterwards. Electricity growth rates in industrialized nations are lower after the oil price escalation in 1973 and 1979, and in developing countries grid sizes are often too small for the operation of large LWR plants. This indicates a potential for small and medium-sized power reactors such as the HTR-100 and the HTR-500. These plants can compete with coal fired plants of comparable size. An HTR-500 is even competitive, considering the electricity generating cost of large LWR plants. The special advantages of HTR plants in the small and medium-capacity range are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Short-term acclimation to warmer temperatures accelerates leaf carbon exchange processes across plant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2017-11-01

    While temperature responses of photosynthesis and plant respiration are known to acclimate over time in many species, few studies have been designed to directly compare process-level differences in acclimation capacity among plant types. We assessed short-term (7 day) temperature acclimation of the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V cmax ), the maximum rate of electron transport (J max ), the maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation (V pmax ), and foliar dark respiration (R d ) in 22 plant species that varied in lifespan (annual and perennial), photosynthetic pathway (C 3 and C 4 ), and climate of origin (tropical and nontropical) grown under fertilized, well-watered conditions. In general, acclimation to warmer temperatures increased the rate of each process. The relative increase in different photosynthetic processes varied by plant type, with C 3 species tending to preferentially accelerate CO 2 -limited photosynthetic processes and respiration and C 4 species tending to preferentially accelerate light-limited photosynthetic processes under warmer conditions. R d acclimation to warmer temperatures caused a reduction in temperature sensitivity that resulted in slower rates at high leaf temperatures. R d acclimation was similar across plant types. These results suggest that temperature acclimation of the biochemical processes that underlie plant carbon exchange is common across different plant types, but that acclimation to warmer temperatures tends to have a relatively greater positive effect on the processes most limiting to carbon assimilation, which differ by plant type. The acclimation responses observed here suggest that warmer conditions should lead to increased rates of carbon assimilation when water and nutrients are not limiting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 'In vivo' and high resolution spectroscopy in solids by NMR: an instrument for transgenic plants study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colnago, L.A.; Herrmann, P.S.P.; Bernardes Filho, R.

    1995-01-01

    This work has developed a study on transgenic plants using two different techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance, in vivo NMR and high resolution NMR. In order to understand the gene mutations and characterize the plants constituents, NMR spectral data were analysed and discussed, then the results were presented

  6. EPRI's nuclear power plant instrumentation and control program and its applicability to advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.; Torok, R.; Wilkinson, D.

    1997-01-01

    I ampersand C systems in nuclear power plants need to be upgraded over the lifetime of the plant in a reliable and cost-effective manner to replace obsolete equipment, to reduce O ampersand M costs, to improve plant performance, and to maintain safety. This applies to operating plants now and will apply to advanced reactors in the future. The major drivers for the replacement of the safety, control, and information systems in nuclear power plants are the obsolescence of the existing hardware and the need for more cost-effective power production. Competition between power producers is dictating more cost-effective power production. The increasing O ampersand M costs to maintain systems experiencing obsolescence problems is counter to the needs for more cost-effective power production and improved competitiveness. This need for increased productivity applies to government facilities as well as commercial plants. Increasing competition will continue to be a major factor in the operation of both operating plants and advanced reactors. It will continue to dictate the need for improved productivity and cost-effectiveness. EPRI and its member nuclear utilities are working together on an industry wide I ampersand C Program to address I ampersand C issues and to develop cost-effective solutions. A majority of the I ampersand C products and demonstrations being developed under this program will benefit advanced reactors in both the design and operational phases of their life cycle as well as it will benefit existing plants. 20 refs

  7. Views on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a summary of the activities concerning human errors in test and maintenance in nuclear power plants, implementation of the advanced information technology and expanded use of on-site conceptual plant simulators in Sweden

  8. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  9. Novel instrument for high-pressure research at ultra-high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiferl, D.; Katz, A.I.; Mills, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A resistively heated diamond-anvil cell has been used to achieve pressures of 110 kbar at temperatures exceeding 1200 0 C for periods long enough to collect x-ray powder diffraction data with energy-dispersive techniques using ''white'' x-radiation produced at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig

  10. Progress in XRCS-Survey plant instrumentation and control design for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Sanjeev; Jha, Shivakant; Simrock, Stefan; Barnsley, Robin; Martin, Vincent; Mishra, Sapna; Patil, Prabhakant; Patel, Shreyas; Kumar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An identification of the major process functions system compliant to Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH) has been made for XRCS-Survey plant I&C. • I&C Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Operation Procedure (OP) have been drafted using Enterprise architect (EA). • I&C architecture, interface with ITER networks and Plants, configuration of cubicles are discussed towards nine design review deliverables. - Abstract: A real time, plasma impurity survey system based on X-ray Crystal Spectroscopy (XRCS) has been designed for ITER and will be made available in the set of first plasma diagnostics for measuring impurity ion concentrations and their in-flux. For the purpose of developing a component level design of XRCS-Survey plant I&C system that is compliant to the rules and guidelines defined in the Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH), firstly an identification of the major process functions has been made. The preliminary plant I&C Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Operation Procedure (OP) have been drafted using a system engineering tool, Enterprise Architect (EA). Conceptual I&C architecture, interface with the ITER networks and other Plants have been discussed along with the basic configuration of I&C cubicles aiming towards nine I&C deliverables for the design review.

  11. Progress in XRCS-Survey plant instrumentation and control design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeev.varshney@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 (India); Jha, Shivakant [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 (India); Simrock, Stefan; Barnsley, Robin; Martin, Vincent [ITER-Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-Lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Mishra, Sapna [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 (India); Patil, Prabhakant [ITER-Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-Lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Patel, Shreyas; Kumar, Vinay [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An identification of the major process functions system compliant to Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH) has been made for XRCS-Survey plant I&C. • I&C Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Operation Procedure (OP) have been drafted using Enterprise architect (EA). • I&C architecture, interface with ITER networks and Plants, configuration of cubicles are discussed towards nine design review deliverables. - Abstract: A real time, plasma impurity survey system based on X-ray Crystal Spectroscopy (XRCS) has been designed for ITER and will be made available in the set of first plasma diagnostics for measuring impurity ion concentrations and their in-flux. For the purpose of developing a component level design of XRCS-Survey plant I&C system that is compliant to the rules and guidelines defined in the Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH), firstly an identification of the major process functions has been made. The preliminary plant I&C Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Operation Procedure (OP) have been drafted using a system engineering tool, Enterprise Architect (EA). Conceptual I&C architecture, interface with the ITER networks and other Plants have been discussed along with the basic configuration of I&C cubicles aiming towards nine I&C deliverables for the design review.

  12. Protein adsorption on low temperature alpha alumina films for surgical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloud, A.N., E-mail: acloud@uark.ed [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Kumar, S. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Kavdia, M.; Abu-Safe, H.H.; Gordon, M.H. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)

    2009-08-31

    Bulk alumina has been shown to exhibit reduced protein adsorption, a property that can be exploited for developing alumina-coated surgical instruments and devices. Alpha alumina thin films were deposited on surgical stainless steel substrates to investigate the adsorption of a model protein (BSA, bovine serum albumin). The films were deposited at 480 {sup o}C by AC inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering. Films were obtained at 6 kW and 50% oxygen partial pressure by volume. The presence of alpha-phase alumina has been shown by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate that there was a 50% reduction in protein adsorption for samples with the alumina coating compared to those with no coating.

  13. Backfitting possibilities of process instrumentation during planning, construction or operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.E.; Schemmel, R.R.; Warren, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity for backfitting existing C and I equipment in nuclear power plants arises as a result of new licensing requirements being imposed or through a need for improved performance as experience with operating plants becomes available. These changes arise either because additional process variables need to be monitored; improved sensors need to be installed (to increase safety or operating margin); more directly sense the processes; or to address concerns in signal conditioning, control algorithms, control system strategy, or safety system design. This paper discusses examples of backfitting experiences on existing plants and some being developed for future improvements

  14. Effects of eutrophication and temperature on submersed rooted plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl

    nutrient levels facilitate the formation of pelagic alga blooms which lead to poor light conditions (Nielsen et al., 2002). However, the lack of re‐colonization after reduced nutrient loading for Zostera marina and other seagrasses indicates that other factors influence the pattern. Sedimentation...... in combination with high temperature affect internal oxygen concentrations, growth and survival of aquatic macrophytes. Measurements of internal oxygen levels were made on several north temperate and tropical marine seagrass species exposed to a range of water column oxygen concentrations. The combined effects...... of eutrophication and temperatures were clarified for the temporal seagrass Zostera marina. Furthermore, the direct effect of sediment enrichment with labile organic matter was examined for four freshwater species with different growth strategies (isoetids: Lobelia dortmanna and Littorella uniflora, and elodeids...

  15. Nonlinear Superheat and Evaporation Temperature Control of a Refrigeration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Thybo, Claus; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes novel control of the superheat of the evaporator in a refrigeration system. A new model of the evaporator is developed and based on this model the superheat is transferred to a referred variable. It is shown that control of this variable leads to a linear system independent...... of the working point. The model also gives a method for control of the evaporation temperature. The proposed method is validated by experimental results....

  16. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, Mary A; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J G; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2016-04-05

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration-temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates.

  17. Influence of planting date and temperature on inulin content in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower temperatures during the dry season in tropical regions might affect inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of planting dates during low temperature on inulin yield and content of Jerusalem artichoke. Two pot experiments...

  18. Design rules for high temperature plant - the implications of recent research in relation to current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    An historical summary is presented of design rules for high temperature plant, leading to the rules applicable to high temperature reactors, particularly the liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Special attention is given to creep rupture properties of ferritic and austenitic materials used for the construction of components such as boilers and pressure vessels. (author)

  19. Temperature conditions of foundation plates under nuclear power plant reactor compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsaulov, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Method for calculation of temperature conditions for foundation plates under reactor compartments located in the main building, used in construction of the second stage of the Kostroma nuclear power plant, is considered. The obtained calculation data can be used for determining the most suitable period of concrete placement, composition, initial temperature, manufacturing technology and ways of delivery of concrete mixture

  20. Trends in extremes of temperature, dew point, and precipitation from long instrumental series from central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürbis, K.; Mudelsee, M.; Tetzlaff, G.; Brázdil, R.

    2009-09-01

    For the analysis of trends in weather extremes, we introduce a diagnostic index variable, the exceedance product, which combines intensity and frequency of extremes. We separate trends in higher moments from trends in mean or standard deviation and use bootstrap resampling to evaluate statistical significances. The application of the concept of the exceedance product to daily meteorological time series from Potsdam (1893 to 2005) and Prague-Klementinum (1775 to 2004) reveals that extremely cold winters occurred only until the mid-20th century, whereas warm winters show upward trends. These changes were significant in higher moments of the temperature distribution. In contrast, trends in summer temperature extremes (e.g., the 2003 European heatwave) can be explained by linear changes in mean or standard deviation. While precipitation at Potsdam does not show pronounced trends, dew point does exhibit a change from maximum extremes during the 1960s to minimum extremes during the 1970s.

  1. Influence of the control bars on the fuel temperature instrumented in the C and D rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.C

    1991-12-01

    It was demonstrated that the influence on the fuel temperature to the movement of the control bars, this in direct relationship with the value in negative reactivity of each control bar for the different positions of the ring C. Consequently the influence of bigger to smaller, is given by the regulator bar, fine, of safety and transitory for the configuration of fuel No. 16. It was proven that the ring is the one that presents the biggest generation of power for ring of the reactor, for that in it is registered the fuel temperatures but high. Those were obtained response of different positions in the rings C and D in function of the route of the four control bars and safety of the reactor. (Author)

  2. Power plant instrumentation and control. Innovations shown at the Interkama '99 trade fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullemeyer, M.; Fritz, P.

    2000-01-01

    At the Interkama '99 trade fair, innovative software and hardware solutions for the power industry 'from power plant to the plug' were shown. The report mentions the companies and explains their new developments and systems. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Operational experience of human-friendly control and instrumentation systems for BWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, M.; Watanabe, T.; Suto, O.; Asahi, R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent BWR nuclear power plants in Japan, an advanced centralized monitoring and control system PODIA (Plant Operation by Displayed Information and Automation), which incorporates many operator aid functions, has been in operation since 1985. Main functions of the PODIA system as a computerized operator aid system are as follows. CRT displays for plant monitoring. Automatic controls and operation guides for plant operation. Stand-by status monitoring for engineered safety features during normal operation. Surveillance test procedure guides for engineered safety features. Integrated alarm display. The effectiveness of these functions have been proved through test and commercial operation. It has been obtained that operators have preferred PODIA much more than conventional monitoring and control systems

  4. Cyclic fatigue resistances of several nickel-titanium glide path rotary and reciprocating instruments at body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, K; Uslu, G; Gündoğar, M; Özyürek, T; Grande, N M; Plotino, G

    2018-01-31

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of the One G, ProGlider, HyFlex EDM and R-Pilot glide path NiTi files at body temperature. Twenty One G (size 14, .03 taper), 20 ProGlider (size 16, .02 taper), 20 HyFlex EDM (size 10, .05 taper) and 20 R-Pilot (size 12.5, .04 taper) instruments were operated in rotation at 300 rpm (One G, ProGlider and HyFlex) or in reciprocation (R-Pilot) at 35 °C in artificial canals that were manufactured by reproducing the size and taper of the instrument until fracture occurred. The time to fracture was recorded in seconds using a digital chronometer, and the length of the fractured fragments was registered. Mean data were analysed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Tukey tests via SPSS 21.0 software. The statistical significance level was set at 5%. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the R-Pilot files was significantly greater than the other instruments, and the One G was significantly lower (P EDM and the ProGlider (P > 0.05). No significant difference (P > 0.05) was evident in the mean length of the fractured fragments of the various instruments. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the R-Pilot reciprocating glide path file was significantly greater than that of the rotary HyFlex EDM, ProGlider and One G glide path files. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. An improved Peltier effect-based instrument for critical temperature threshold measurement in cold- and heat-induced urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerl, M; Abajian, M; Krause, K; Altrichter, S; Siebenhaar, F; Church, M K

    2015-10-01

    Cold- and heat-induced urticaria are chronic physical urticaria conditions in which wheals, angioedema or both are evoked by skin exposure to cold and heat respectively. The diagnostic work up of both conditions should include skin provocation tests and accurate determination of critical temperature thresholds (CTT) for producing symptoms in order to be able to predict the potential risk that each individual patient faces and how this may be ameliorated by therapy. To develop and validate TempTest(®) 4, a simple and relatively inexpensive instrument for the accurate determination of CTT which may be used in clinical practice. TempTest(®) 4 has a single 2 mm wide 350 mm U-shaped Peltier element generating a temperature gradient from 4 °C to 44 °C along its length. Using a clear plastic guide placed over the skin after provocation, CTT values may be determined with an accuracy of ±1 °C. Here, TempTest(®) 4 was compared with its much more expensive predecessor, TempTest(®) 3, in inducing wheals in 30 cold urticaria patients. Both TempTest(®) 4 and TempTest(®) 3 induced wheals in all 30 patients between 8 ° and 28 °C. There was a highly significant (P < 0.0001) correlation between the instruments in the CTT values in individual patients. The TempTest(®) 4 is a simple, easy to use, licensed, commercially available and affordable instrument for the determination of CTTs in both cold- and heat-induced urticaria. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Oesophageal cancer in the Transkei. Determination of trace element concentrations in selected plant material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renan, M.J.; Drennan, B.D.; Keddy, R.J.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analysis by instrumental neutron activation for the concentration of trace elements in plant materials from certain areas in the Transkei region of southern Africa are presented. These areas are selected for their characteristic high or low incidence of carcinoma of the oesophagus. To broaden the suite of elements for which analysed and to overcome some of the limitations of neutron activation analysis, certain other nuclear analyses and methods are suggested which, if utilized, would increase the number of elements determined, and so improve the information available. (author)

  7. Modelling fruit-temperature dynamics within apple tree crowns using virtual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudreau, M; Marquier, A; Adam, B; Sinoquet, H

    2011-10-01

    Fruit temperature results from a complex system involving the climate, the tree architecture, the fruit location within the tree crown and the fruit thermal properties. Despite much theoretical and experimental evidence for large differences (up to 10 °C in sunny conditions) between fruit temperature and air temperature, fruit temperature is never used in horticultural studies. A way of modelling fruit-temperature dynamics from climate data is addressed in this work. The model is based upon three-dimensional virtual representation of apple trees and links three-dimensional virtual trees with a physical-based fruit-temperature dynamical model. The overall model was assessed by comparing model outputs to field measures of fruit-temperature dynamics. The model was able to simulate both the temperature dynamics at fruit scale, i.e. fruit-temperature gradients and departure from air temperature, and at the tree scale, i.e. the within-tree-crown variability in fruit temperature (average root mean square error value over fruits was 1·43 °C). This study shows that linking virtual plants with the modelling of the physical plant environment offers a relevant framework to address the modelling of fruit-temperature dynamics within a tree canopy. The proposed model offers opportunities for modelling effects of the within-crown architecture on fruit thermal responses in horticultural studies.

  8. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions. [south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Emissive and reflective data for 10 days, and IR data for 6 nights in south Texas scenes were analyzed after procedures were developed for removing cloud-affected data. HCMM radiometric temperatures were: within 2 C of dewpoint temperatures on nights when air temperature approached dewpoint temperatures; significantly correlated with variables important in evapotranspiration; and, related to freeze severity and planting depth soil temperatures. Vegetation greenness indexes calculated from visible and reflective IR bands of NOAA-6 to -9 meteorological satellites will be useful in the AgRISTARS program for seasonal crop development, crop condition, and drought applications.

  9. Evolution of elevated containment temperatures at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, R.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the author describes the events which caused Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant engineers to recognize a need for monitoring of ambient temperatures within containment. The early attempts at temperature monitoring programs are discussed and critiqued. Primary failings of these early programs included a failure to collect temperature data under a variety of external conditions and a lack of quality assurance to make the data useful for design change. From these early attempts Calvert Cliffs developed a new, extensive temperature monitoring program designed to collect data over a two-year period. The author outlines the planned temperature monitoring program and discusses its expected results

  10. Tolerance of wheat and lettuce plants grown on human mineralized waste to high temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Sofya A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Shikhov, Valentin N.; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Golovko, Tamara K.; Dal'ke, Igor V.; Zakhozhii, Ilya G.

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of a life support system for space missions is to supply a crew with food, water and oxygen, and to eliminate their wastes. The ultimate goal is to achieve the highest degree of closure of the system using controlled processes offering a high level of reliability and flexibility. Enhancement of closure of a biological life support system (BLSS) that includes plants relies on increased regeneration of plant waste, and utilization of solid and liquid human wastes. Clearly, the robustness of a BLSS subjected to stress will be substantially determined by the robustness of the plant components of the phototrophic unit. The aim of the present work was to estimate the heat resistance of two plants (wheat and lettuce) grown on human wastes. Human exometabolites mineralized by hydrogen peroxide in an electromagnetic field were used to make a nutrient solution for the plants. We looked for a possible increase in the heat tolerance of the wheat plants using changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity during heat stress. At age 15 days, plants were subjected to a rise in air temperature (from 23 ± 1 °C to 44 ± 1 °С) under different PAR intensities for 4 h. The status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the plants was assessed by external СО2 gas exchange and fluorescence measurements. The increased irradiance of the plants during the high temperature period demonstrated its protective action for both the photosynthetic apparatus of the leaves and subsequent plant growth and development. The productivity of the plants subjected to temperature changes at 250 W m-2 of PAR did not differ from that of controls, whereas the productivity of the plants subjected to the same heat stress but in darkness was halved.

  11. High temperature alloys for the primary circuit of a prototype nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, P.J.; Schuster, H.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive materials test programme for the High Temperature Reactor Project 'Prototype Plant for Nuclear Process Heat' (PNP), high temperature alloys are being investigated for primary circuit components operating at temperatures above 750 0 C. On the basis of important material parameters, in particular corrosion behaviour and mechanical properties in primary coolant helium, the potential of candidate alloys is discussed. By comparing specific PNP materials data with the requirements of PNP and those of conventional plant, the implications for the materials programme and component design are given. (orig.)

  12. Special instrumentation developed for FARO and KROTOS FCI experiments: High temperature ultrasonic sensor and dynamic level sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Jorzik, E.; Anselmi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Development and application of special instrumentation for FARO and KROTOS fuel-coolant interaction experiments at JRC-Ispra are described. A temperature sensor based on ultrasonic techniques is described with the discussion on the improvements in sensor fabrication technique and design. The sensor can be used to measure temperatures in the range from 1800 deg C to 3100 deg C with an accuracy of ± 50 deg C. The design allows local temperature measurements in multiple zones along the sensor element. This sensor has been used successfully in a number of FARO experiments where temperature distributions in molten corium pools have been measured. It will be also used in the future Phebus FP tests. Furthermore, a water level meter sensor based on the time domain reflectometry technique is described. This high speed sensor allows monitoring of liquid level under very demanding ambient conditions, as e.g. 5MPa, 550 K in FARO. This sensor has been successfully applied in a number of FARO and KROTOS tests where the water level rise caused by a molten corium and Al 2 O 3 pours have been measured. (author)

  13. Friction and wear studies of nuclear power plant components in pressurized high temperature water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, P.L.; Zbinden, M.; Taponat, M.C.; Robertson, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is part of a series of papers aiming to present the friction and wear results of a collaborative study on nuclear power plant components tested in pressurized high temperature water. The high temperature test facilities and the methodology in presenting the kinetics and wear results are described in detail. The results of the same material combinations obtained from two very different high temperature test facilities (NRCC and EDF) are presented and discussed. (K.A.)

  14. Modernization of instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Working material. Report of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The report attempts to address a very wide range of circumstances from, old plant operating at very low powers that face major ageing issues, to new potentially high performance plant for which it has been decided I and C improvements are required to resolve safety issues. The process of change raises many issues as to what potentially might be achieved by such a change to overcome obsolescence, economic and safety problems. The report must also include appropriate consideration of the increasingly international nature of the instrumentation and control system supply industry. Consequently, it does not ignore the different national approaches that are used to demonstrate the systems are suitable to be brought into service. The report does not seek to provide advice on how the different national licensing processes should be approached

  15. Technical Challenges in the Application and Licensing of Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    With the modernization of existing analogue instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants through digital I&C technology, and the implementation of digital I&C systems in new plants, the industry is faced with significant challenges. These challenges appear in the form of difficulties in managing the necessarily incremental transition, highly integrated (and interdependent) architectures, the flexible configurability enabled by digital technology, and uncertainty and inconsistency in licensing digital I&C systems and equipment in the different Member States. This publication discusses 17 major issues that utilities, developers, suppliers and regulatory stakeholders need to consider, so that the industry can capture and benefit from shared experience, recent technological developments, and emerging best practices

  16. Job analysis of the instrument and control technician position for the nuclear power plant maintenance personnel reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Federman, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report is one of a series that is planned to describe the results of a program undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, to define, develop, validate, and disseminate a methodology for the quantitative prediction of human reliability in the conduct of maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants (NPPs). ORNL has subcontracted portions of this effort to Applied Psychological Services, Inc. This report on the job analysis of the Instrument and Control technician (NUREG/CR-3274) and a report on the job analysis of the electrician position (NUREG/CR-3275) comprise a part of the initial efforts of the development phase of this program. With the publication of the job analysis of the electrician position, the series of job analyses reports addressing nuclear power plant maintenance personnel will be complete. Subsequent reports addressing model development and validation are planned

  17. A plant distribution shift: temperature, drought or past disturbance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan W Schwilk

    Full Text Available Simple models of plant response to warming climates predict vegetation moving to cooler and/or wetter locations: in mountainous regions shifting upslope. However, species-specific responses to climate change are likely to be much more complex. We re-examined a recently reported vegetation shift in the Santa Rosa Mountains, California, to better understand the mechanisms behind the reported shift of a plant distribution upslope. We focused on five elevational zones near the center of the gradient that captured many of the reported shifts and which are dominated by fire-prone chaparral. Using growth rings, we determined that a major assumption of the previous work was wrong: past fire histories differed among elevations. To examine the potential effect that this difference might have on the reported upward shift, we focused on one species, Ceanothus greggii: a shrub that only recruits post-fire from a soil stored seedbank. For five elevations used in the prior study, we calculated time series of past per-capita mortality rates by counting growth rings on live and dead individuals. We tested three alternative hypotheses explaining the past patterns of mortality: 1 mortality increased over time consistent with climate warming, 2 mortality was correlated with drought indices, and 3 mortality peaked 40-50 years post fire at each site, consistent with self-thinning. We found that the sites were different ages since the last fire, and that the reported increase in the mean elevation of C. greggii was due to higher recent mortality at the lower elevations, which were younger sites. The time-series pattern of mortality was best explained by the self-thinning hypothesis and poorly explained by gradual warming or drought. At least for this species, the reported distribution shift appears to be an artifact of disturbance history and is not evidence of a climate warming effect.

  18. submitter Superconducting instrumentation for high Reynolds turbulence experiments with low temperature gaseous helium

    CERN Document Server

    Pietropinto, S; Baudet, C; Castaing, B; Chabaud, B; Gagne, Y; Hébral, B; Ladam, Y; Lebrun, P; Pirotte, O; Roche, P

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence is of common experience and of high interest for industrial applications, despite its physical grounds is still not understood. Cryogenic gaseous helium gives access to extremely high Reynolds numbers (Re). We describe an instrumentation hosted in CERN, which provides a 6 kW @ 4.5 K helium refrigerator directly connected to the experiment. The flow is a round jet; the flow rates range from 20 g/s up to 260 g/s at 4.8 K and about 1.2 bar, giving access to the highest controlled Re flow ever developed. The experimental challenge lies in the range of scales which have to be investigated: from the smallest viscous scale η, typically 1 μm at Re=107 to the largest L∼10 cm. The corresponding frequencies: f=v/η can be as large as 1 MHz. The development of an original micrometric superconducting anemometer using a hot spot and its characteristics will be discussed together with its operation and the perspectives associated with superconducting anemometry.

  19. Diverging temperature responses of CO2 assimilation and plant development explain the overall effect of temperature on biomass accumulation in wheat leaves and grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nicholas C; Parent, Boris

    2017-01-09

    There is a growing consensus in the literature that rising temperatures influence the rate of biomass accumulation by shortening the development of plant organs and the whole plant and by altering rates of respiration and photosynthesis. A model describing the net effects of these processes on biomass would be useful, but would need to reconcile reported differences in the effects of night and day temperature on plant productivity. In this study, the working hypothesis was that the temperature responses of CO 2 assimilation and plant development rates were divergent, and that their net effects could explain observed differences in biomass accumulation. In wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, we followed the temperature responses of photosynthesis, respiration and leaf elongation, and confirmed that their responses diverged. We measured the amount of carbon assimilated per "unit of plant development" in each scenario and compared it to the biomass that accumulated in growing leaves and grains. Our results suggested that, up to a temperature optimum, the rate of any developmental process increased with temperature more rapidly than that of CO 2 assimilation and that this discrepancy, summarised by the CO 2 assimilation rate per unit of plant development, could explain the observed reductions in biomass accumulation in plant organs under high temperatures. The model described the effects of night and day temperature equally well, and offers a simple framework for describing the effects of temperature on plant growth. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  20. Pulpar temperature changes during mechanical reduction of equine cheek teeth: comparison of different motorised dental instruments, duration of treatments and use of water cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, J M; Barnett, T P; Parkin, T D H; Dixon, P M; Barakzai, S Z

    2013-05-01

    Although equine motorised dental instruments are widely used, there is limited information on their thermal effect on teeth. The recently described variation in subocclusal secondary dentine depth overlying individual pulp horns may affect heat transmission to the underlying pulps. This study compared the effect of 3 different equine motorised dental instruments on the pulpar temperature of equine cheek teeth with and without the use of water cooling. It also evaluated the effect of subocclusal secondary dentine thickness on pulpar temperature changes. A thermocouple probe was inserted into the pulp horns of 188 transversely sectioned maxillary cheek teeth with its tip lying subocclusally. Pulpar temperature changes were recorded during and following the continuous use of 3 different equine motorised dental instruments (A, B and C) for sequential time periods, with and without the use of water cooling. Using motorised dental instrument B compared with either A or C increased the likelihood that the critical temperature was reached in pulps by 8.6 times. Compared with rasping for 30 s, rasping for 45, 60 and 90 s increased the likelihood that the critical temperature would be reached in pulps by 7.3, 8.9 and 24.7 times, respectively. Thicker subocclusal secondary dentine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75/mm) and water cooling (OR = 0.14) were both protective against the likelihood of the pulp reaching the critical temperature. Prolonged rasping with motorised dental instruments increased the likelihood that a pulp would be heated above the critical temperature. Increased dentinal thickness and water cooling had protective roles in reducing pulpar heating. Motorised dental instruments have the potential to seriously damage equine pulp if used inappropriately. Higher speed motorised dental instruments should be used for less time and teeth should be water cooled during or immediately after instrument use to reduce the risk of thermal pulpar damage. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Temperature optimum of algae living in the outfall of a power plant on Lake Monona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, T.D.; Hoffmann, J.

    1974-01-01

    Temperature optima for photosynthesis were measured for algal populations living in the outfall of a fossil-fuel electric power plant on Lake Monona and were compared with the temperature optima of algae living in a control area in the nearby Yahara River. The temperature of the power plant outfall averaged about 8 0 C higher than that of the Yahara River. In the winter, no differences in species composition between the two study areas could be detected, Cladophora and Ulothrix being the dominant algae. The temperature optima of the populations from the two locations were the same, around 27 0 C, although the habitat temperatures at both locations were considerably lower. The only difference in response to temperature seen between the two populations was that the population at the outfall was able to photosynthesize at higher temperature, still showing high photosynthesis at 35 0 C and detectable photosynthesis at 46 0 C, a temperature at which the population from the Yahara River showed no detectable photosynthesis. In the summer, the dominant algae at the power plant outfall were Stigeoclonium and filamentous blue-green algae (family Oscillatoriaceae), whereas at the Yahara River the algal population was almost exclusively Cladophora. The temperature optima of both summer populations were the same, 31.5 0 C, only slightly higher than the mid-winter optima. Again, the population from the power plant was able to photosynthesize at higher temperature than the control population, showing quite active photosynthesis at 42.5 0 C, a temperature at which the population from the Yahara River was completely inactive. (U.S.)

  2. Operational and reliability experience with reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, F.; Gow, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    In the last 15 years the CEGB has experienced progressive plant development, integration and changes in operating regime through nine nuclear (gas-cooled reactor) power stations with corresponding instrumentation advances leading towards more refined centralized control. Operation and reliability experience with reactor instrumentation is reported in this paper with reference to the progressive changes related to the early magnox, late magnox and AGR periods. Data on instrumentation reliability in terms of reactor forced outages are presented and show that the instrumentation contributions to loss of generating plant availability are small. Reactor safety circuits, neutron flux and temperature measurements, gas analysis and vibration monitoring are discussed. In reviewing the reactor instrumentation the emphasis is on reporting recent experience, particularly on AGR equipment, but overall performance and changes to magnox equipment are included so that some appreciation can be obtained of instrumentation requirements with respect to plant lifetimes. (author)

  3. Experience with digital instrumentation and control systems for CANDU power plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last years, Ontario Hydro CANDU power plants have gone through many modifications. This includes modification from analog hardwired controls to digital and solid state controls and replacement of the existing digital controls with the latest hardware and software technology. Examples of digital modifications at Bruce A and other CANDU power plants are briefly described and categorized. Most of the I and C technology development has been supported by the CANDU Owners Group (COG) a consortium of Canadian nuclear utilities and the Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). (author)

  4. Experience with digital instrumentation and control systems for CANDU power plant modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Over the last years, Ontario Hydro CANDU power plants have gone through many modifications. This includes modification from analog hardwired controls to digital and solid state controls and replacement of the existing digital controls with the latest hardware and software technology. Examples of digital modifications at Bruce A and other CANDU power plants are briefly described and categorized. Most of the I and C technology development has been supported by the CANDU Owners Group (COG) a consortium of Canadian nuclear utilities and the Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). (author).

  5. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is discussed. Sampling difficulties and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are reviewed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered

  6. Applying neural networks to optimize instrumentation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Start, S.E.; Peters, G.G.

    1995-06-01

    Well calibrated instrumentation is essential in providing meaningful information about the status of a plant. Signals from plant instrumentation frequently have inherent non-linearities, may be affected by environmental conditions and can therefore cause calibration difficulties for the people who maintain them. Two neural network approaches are described in this paper for improving the accuracy of a non-linear, temperature sensitive level probe ised in Expermental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that was difficult to calibrate.

  7. Applying neural networks to optimize instrumentation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Start, S.E.; Peters, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    Well calibrated instrumentation is essential in providing meaningful information about the status of a plant. Signals from plant instrumentation frequently have inherent non-linearities, may be affected by environmental conditions and can therefore cause calibration difficulties for the people who maintain them. Two neural network approaches are described in this paper for improving the accuracy of a non-linear, temperature sensitive level probe ised in Expermental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that was difficult to calibrate

  8. Comparison of signaling interactions determining annual and perennial plant growth in response to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid eWingler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature inhibits plant growth despite the fact that considerable rates of photosynthetic activity can be maintained. Instead of lower rates of photosynthesis, active inhibition of cell division and expansion is primarily responsible for reduced growth. This results in sink limitation and enables plants to accumulate carbohydrates that act as compatible solutes or are stored throughout the winter to enable re-growth in spring. Regulation of growth in response to temperature therefore requires coordination with carbon metabolism, e.g. via the signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate. The phytohormones gibberellins (GA and jasmonate (JA play an important role in regulating growth in response to temperature. Growth restriction at low temperature is mainly mediated by DELLA proteins, whose degradation is promoted by GA. For annual plants, it has been shown that the GA/DELLA pathway interacts with JA signaling and C-repeat binding factor (CBF dependent cold acclimation, but these interactions have not been explored in detail for perennials. Growth regulation in response to seasonal factors is, however, particularly important in perennials, especially at high latitudes. In autumn, growth cessation in trees is caused by shortening of the daylength in interaction with phytohormone signaling. In perennial grasses seasonal differences in the sensitivity to GA may enable enhanced growth in spring. This review provides an overview of the signaling interactions that determine plant growth at low temperature and highlights gaps in our knowledge, especially concerning the seasonality of signaling responses in perennial plants.

  9. Soybean mother plant exposure to temperature stress and its effect on germination under osmotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.K.; Rehman, A.; Khan, A.Z.; Mexal, J.G.; Zubair, M.; Wahab, S.; Khalil, I.H.; Mohammad, F.

    2010-01-01

    High temperature reduces quality of soybean seed developed at different positions on the plant. The objective of this research was to study the quality of seed produced under different temperature regimes located at different position in the canopy. Soybean plants grown in pots were transferred at first pod stage to three growth chambers fixed at 18/10, 25/15 and 32/20 deg. C day/night temperature having 13/11 hrs day/night length. The plants remained in growth chambers until physiological maturity. Seeds harvested from each growth chamber were exposed to osmotic stress having osmotic potential of -0.5 MPa and unstressed control. Both stressed and control treatments were germinated in three growth chambers fixed at 18, 25 and 35 deg. C. Seed developed at lowest temperature (18/10 deg. C day/night) had maximum germination. Germination decreased linearly with increased day/night temperature and lowest germination was recorded at highest temperature of 32/20 deg. C (day/night). Seed developed at bottom position was heaviest and had better germination compared with seed developed at middle and top position. Seed germination was highest at 25 deg. C and took fewer days to 50% germination than 18 and 25 deg. C. Osmotic stress decreased germination and delayed days to 50% germination than control. It can be concluded that optimum temperature for seed development was 18/10 deg. C (day/night) whereas best germination temperature was 25 deg. C. (author)

  10. Water Vapor, Temperature, and Ice Particles in Polar Mesosphere as Measured by SABER/TIMED and OSIRIS/Odin Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many new details on the properties of mesospheric ice particles that farm Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) and also cause polar mesospheric summer echoes have been recently revealed, certain aspects of mesospheric ice microphysics and dynamics still remain open. The detailed relation between PMC parameters and properties of their environment, as well as interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in PMC properties that are possibly related to global change, are among those open questions. In this work, mesospheric temperature and water vapor concentration measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to study the properties of PMCs with respect to the surrounding atmosphere. The cloud parameters, namely location, brightness, and altitude, are obtained from the observations made by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on the Odin satellite. About a thousand of simultaneous common volume measurements made by SABER and OSIRIS in both hemispheres from 2002 until 2008 are used. The correlation between PMC brightness (and occurrence rate) and temperatures at PMC altitudes and at the mesopause is analysed. The relation between PMC parameters, frost point temperature, and gaseous water vapor content in and below the cloud is also discussed. Interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in the above parameters, as well as in PMC peak altitudes and mesopause altitudes are evaluated.

  11. Identification of nuclear plant temperatures. Feedback parameters using experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Hamid, Sayed.

    1981-09-01

    This work is concerned with the identification of the fuel and moderator reactivity feedback coefficients of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using actual measurements. The main aim of this study is to examine the possibility to use a simplified model representing the reactor dynamics, which can be simulated on minicomputer and to supply an identification algorithm to get the feedback coefficients of PWR. The theoretical model of a PWR is built from the space independent reactor kinetics equation associated with six delayed neutron groups equations, as well as twelve equations describe the heat balance for the fuel and the moderator inside the reactor core, assuming that the core is composed from six successive axial zones. The reactor is externally perturbed by moving its control rods, and the corresponding changes in power and temperatures are recorded. The mathematical model has been solved numerically using fifth order Runge-Kutta integration technique by special developed package using Solar 16-40 computer (64 K memory size). As an identification algorithm, the Nelder-Mead Simplex method has been used to minimize the sum of the squares of the differences between measured and calculated reactor power. Hence, the feedback coefficients have been identified from off-line calculations

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in the United Kingdom. The general technology underlying most aspects of power reactor C and I in the UK has not altered since the last progress report although there have been many improvements in detail. In one field, however, that of computer applications, the change has almost been one of kind rather than degree. The following fields are briefly described: The status of nuclear power in the UK, the development of sensors, the development of electronic equipment, signal processing - information technology, quality assurance and the validation and verification of software, expert systems, training simulators. (author). 1 ref

  13. Power plant instrumentation for measurement of high-purity water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1981-01-01

    Work undertaken by Ontario Hydro, Toronto, to determine levels of feedwater impurities, including corrosion products and condenser cooling water in leakage contaminants, is reviewed. Corrosion product measurement using a grab method gave some useful data but was found to be too labor-intensive. Continuous analysis of corrosion products, in conjunction with a valveless capillary sampler, is now being evaluated as a method. Ion chromatography appears to be a promising technique to determine anions in feedwater. Tests to adapt such an instrument for continuous analysis are planned

  14. Proceedings of the 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of nuclear power systems. The ICHMI system, together with plant personnel, is the 'central nervous system' for operating plants. It senses basic parameters, monitors performance, integrates information, and makes adjustments to plant operations as necessary. It also responds to failures and off-normal events, thus ensuring goals of efficient power production and safety. The ICHMI system embodies the sensing, communications, monitoring, control, and presentation and command systems between the process (i.e., the reactor, heat transport, and energy conversion systems) and the plant personnel. It enables plant personnel to more effectively monitor the health of the plant and to identify opportunities to improve the performance of equipment and systems as well as to anticipate, understand, and respond to potential problems. Improved controls provide the basis to operate more closely to performance margins, and the improved integration of automatic and human response enables them to work cooperatively to accomplish production and safety goals. The ICHMI system thus directly impacts the performance of the entire plant and thereby the economics, safety, and security of current and future reactor designs. The 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Control and Human-Machine Interface Technology (NPIC and HMIT 2006) is specifically devoted to advances in these important technologies. In these proceedings, more than 200 papers and panel sessions from all over the world have been assembled to share the most recent information and innovations in ICHMI technology and to discuss the important issues that face the future of the industry. The papers fall into two major groupings: instrumentation and control (I and C) and human-machine interface technology (HMIT). The I and C papers are organized into five tracks. 'Systems

  15. Proceedings of the 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of nuclear power systems. The ICHMI system, together with plant personnel, is the 'central nervous system' for operating plants. It senses basic parameters, monitors performance, integrates information, and makes adjustments to plant operations as necessary. It also responds to failures and off-normal events, thus ensuring goals of efficient power production and safety. The ICHMI system embodies the sensing, communications, monitoring, control, and presentation and command systems between the process (i.e., the reactor, heat transport, and energy conversion systems) and the plant personnel. It enables plant personnel to more effectively monitor the health of the plant and to identify opportunities to improve the performance of equipment and systems as well as to anticipate, understand, and respond to potential problems. Improved controls provide the basis to operate more closely to performance margins, and the improved integration of automatic and human response enables them to work cooperatively to accomplish production and safety goals. The ICHMI system thus directly impacts the performance of the entire plant and thereby the economics, safety, and security of current and future reactor designs. The 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Control and Human-Machine Interface Technology (NPIC and HMIT 2006) is specifically devoted to advances in these important technologies. In these proceedings, more than 200 papers and panel sessions from all over the world have been assembled to share the most recent information and innovations in ICHMI technology and to discuss the important issues that face the future of the industry. The papers fall into two major groupings: instrumentation and control (I and C) and human-machine interface technology (HMIT). The I and C papers are organized into five tracks

  16. Preconceptual design of hyfire. A fusion driven high temperature electrolysis plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varljen, T.C.; Chi, J.W.H.; Karbowski, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has been engaged in a scoping study to investigate the potential merits of coupling a fusion reactor with a high temperature blanket to a high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Westinghouse is assisting this study in the areas of systems design integration, plasma engineering, balance of plant design and electrolyzer technology. The aim of the work done in the past year has been to focus on a reference design point for the plant, which has been designated HYFIRE. In prior work, the STARFIRE commercial tokamak fusion reactor was directly used as the fusion driver. This report describes a new design obtained by scaling the basic STARFIRE design to permit the achievement of a blanket power of 6000 MWt. The high temperature blanket design employs a thermally insulated refractory oxide region which provides high temperature (>1000 deg. C) steam at moderate pressures to high temperature electrolysis units. The electrolysis process selected is based on the high temperature, solid electrolyte fuel cell technology developed by Westinghouse. An initial process design and plant layout has been completed; component cost and plant economics studies are now underway to develop estimates of hydrogen production costs and to determine the sensitivity of this cost to changes in major design parameters. (author)

  17. Research and engineering application of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator on nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    The coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator (TG) usually is very significant and complicated for a new construction of nuclear power plant, because it carries the safety, economy and availability of nuclear power plant. Based on successful practice of a nuclear power plant, the experience on interface design and hardware architecture of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator was abstracted and researched. In this paper, the key points and engineering experience were introduced to give the helpful instructions for the new project. (author)

  18. Preliminary safety analysis report for project 89-GEB-610 Plutonium Finishing Plant instrumentation upgrade. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of an analysis of the MICON system upgrade. This project shall install a Micon Co. distributed process monitor and control system with Sparc Sun workstation operator interfaces. The Sparc workstations are housed in consoles custom designed to human factors specifications. The distributed control system (DCS) shall have the installed capacity to monitor and control all related instruments and equipment presently connected to the panels in the PFP Power Control Room 321A as listed in the input/output list. This also includes all devices monitored and controlled by the 2736-ZB Allen Bradley programmable logic controller. The system has since assumed the control and monitoring responsibilities for Projects B- 680H ''Low Level Waste Treatment Facility'' and C-031H ''PFP Liquid Effluent Facilities''. Part of the new en's change area in Building 234-5ZA, Room 712, has been remodeled to house two consoles and one supervisor console. Local control units containing the microprocontrollers and the input/output interface circuit boards shall be wired to the instrumentation and controlled equipment. These units communicate with the Sparc workstations via a redundant data communications highway and shall be strategic, throughout the PFP facility. The DCS has already been purchased from Micon Co., located in Houston Texas, presently on site

  19. National report on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper notes that, although no fundamental, NPPC and I technical developments have taken place in the UK since 1989, enormous organizational changes have occurred. The influence of these changes on instrumentation capability is discussed and the current situations on the Magnox, AGR and Fast Reactors and on the Sizewell PWR are described. Work on pulse-coded-logic reactor trip systems based on conventional microprocessor components is noted and a new, Dungeness B AGR, single channel trip systems which uses these principles is described. Other developments in sensors, instrumentation, ultrasonics and under-sodium viewing are also described as are studies on software reliability, human factors engineering and related topics. Comments are made on general aspects of computers in reactor safety systems. It is concluded that the last two years have seen considerable progress in the UK despite the interruptions and problems generated by organizational changes. It is felt that these changes may have produced a new sense of urgency and better insights into the needs of the industry. (author). 2 refs

  20. Azimuthal Signature of Coincidental Brightness Temperature and Normalized Radar Cross-Section Obtained Using Airborne PALS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; Kim, Seungbum; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Mike; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Coincidental airborne brightness temperature (TB) and normalized radar-cross section (NRCS) measurements were carried out with the PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument in the SMAPVEX08 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2008) field campaign. This paper describes results obtained from a set of flights which measured a field in 45(sup o) steps over the azimuth angle. The field contained mature soy beans with distinct row structure. The measurement shows that both TB and NRCS experience modulation effects over the azimuth as expected based on the theory. The result is useful in development and validation of land surface parameter forward models and retrieval algorithms, such as the soil moisture algorithm for NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. Although the footprint of the SMAP will not be sensitive to the small resolution scale effects as the one presented in this paper, it is nevertheless important to understand the effects at smaller scale.

  1. Ambient temperature effects on gas turbine power plant: A case study in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorji, M.; Fouladi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Actual thermal efficiency, electric-power output, fuel-air ratio and specific fuel consumption (SFC) vary according to the ambient conditions. The amount of these variations greatly affects those parameters as well as the plant incomes. In this paper the effect of ambient temperature as a seasonal variation on a gas power plant has been numerically studied. For this purpose, the gas turbine model and different climate seasonal variations of Ray in Iran are considered in this study. For the model, by using average monthly temperature data of the region, the different effective parameters were compared to those in standard design conditions. The results show that ambient temperature increase will decrease thermal efficiency, electric-power out put and fuel-air ratio of the gas turbine plant whereas increases the specific fuel consumption

  2. New instrument for the confirmation of declared power histories of central station nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, E.J.; Robba, A.A.; Hastings, R.D.; France, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    An operationally simple, portable, microprocessor-based, unattended reactor power monitor was developed for International Atomic Energy Agency inspector use in confirming operator records of the power history of nuclear power plants. The monitor is based on the principle that the leakage neutron flux outside the biological shield is proportional to the thermal power level. The leakage flux is detected and compared with the leakage flux from the same reactor for a confirmed calibration period. Several output options are available, and a record of more than three months of hourly measurements of the themal power of the plant can be obtained. The monitor has battery backup power for interruptions of host power of duration up to 18 hours

  3. Environmental policy instruments towards lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A proposition is made that Turkey considers a pilot emission trading system for SO 2 , Nox and/or PM emissions from its coal and lignite fired power plant in the efforts to comply with the EU Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC), the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and the National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directives. Model calculations indicate that this could yield substantial cost savings compared to a traditional command and control approach. However, requirements in the IPPC Directive would be a major obstacle against emissions trading. The Turkish emission permitting system needs a major overhaul, including improving monitoring and enforcement practices to comply with the directives and to be able to implement and operate an emission trading system

  4. Environmental policy instruments towards lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A proposition is made that Turkey considers a pilot emission trading system for SO{sub 2}, Nox and/or PM emissions from its coal and lignite fired power plant in the efforts to comply with the EU Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC), the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and the National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directives. Model calculations indicate that this could yield substantial cost savings compared to a traditional command and control approach. However, requirements in the IPPC Directive would be a major obstacle against emissions trading. The Turkish emission permitting system needs a major overhaul, including improving monitoring and enforcement practices to comply with the directives and to be able to implement and operate an emission trading system.

  5. Recent developments of and future prospects for nuclear power plant instrumentation and control in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naisse, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The production of electricity in Belgium is covered for almost 70% by seven nuclear power plants all of pressurized water reactor type. Four major topics are representative of the evolution of nuclear power production in Belgium: The suspentions of the studies for the new Belgian PWR unit (DOEL 5), the commissioning of the simulators in DOEL and TIHANGE, the revamping of the oldest nuclear units, the studies of new storage installations for radioactive waste. The delay imposed on the construction of DOEL 5 will allow to go further into the examination of the implications arising from the new technologies in I and C. The use modern I and C systems for modifications in existing plants will allow a better estimation of their advantages and disadvantages. (author)

  6. Advanced digital instrumentation and control system for nuclear power plant protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabino, D [VVER Engineering, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The Diverse Protection System is a back-up to the Primary Reactor Protection System developed for use at the Temelin nuclear power plant. The DPS is a digital system which provides a wealth of benefits from today`s advanced technology. These benefits include a compact hardware design with high performance microprocessors and a structured software design using a high level language. An overview of the DPS functions, hardware and software is provided. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  8. Using Plant Temperature to Evaluate the Response of Stomatal Conductance to Soil Moisture Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant temperature is an indicator of stomatal conductance, which reflects soil moisture stresses. We explored the relationship between plant temperature and soil moisture to optimize irrigation schedules in a water-stress experiment using Firmiana platanifolia (L. f. Marsili in an incubator. Canopy temperature, leaf temperature, and stomatal conductance were measured using thermal imaging and a porometer. The results indicated that (1 stomatal conductance decreased with declines in soil moisture, and reflected average canopy temperature; (2 the variation of the leaf temperature distribution was a reliable indicator of soil moisture stress, and the temperature distribution in severely water-stressed leaves exhibited greater spatial variation than that in the presence of sufficient irrigation; (3 thermal indices (Ig and crop water stress index (CWSI were theoretically proportional to stomatal conductance (gs, Ig was certified to have linearity relationship with gs and CWSI have a logarithmic relationship with gs, and both of the two indices can be used to estimate soil moisture; and (4 thermal imaging data can reflect water status irrespective of long-term water scarcity or lack of sudden rainfall. This study applied thermal imaging methods to monitor plants and develop adaptable irrigation scheduling, which are important for the formulation of effective and economical agriculture and forestry policy.

  9. Dynamic simulation of a low-temperature rectification Column as part of an IGCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, R. [Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, P.O. Box 300066, D-04251 Leipzig (Germany); Hannemann, F. [Siemens AG - Power Generation, PG CTET, P.O. Box 3220, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany); Sundmacher, K. [Max Planck Institute of Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstrasse 1, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Faculty of Process and Systems Engineering, P.O. Box 4120, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    IGCC plants offer the opportunity to utilize fossil energy sources, like coal or heavy refinery residues, to satisfy increasing energy demand while considering strict environmental constraints. Such a plant consists of a combined power cycle, a fuel gasifier with downstream fuel gas conditioning and an air separation unit (ASU), where the oxygen required for gasification is produced. The low-temperature rectification column as the core of the ASU strongly affects the transient behavior of the system. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garn, Troy G.; Meikrantz, Dave H.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell R.; Law, Jack D.

    2008-01-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a small

  11. Effects of foliage plants on human physiological and psychological responses at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeno, Desto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Escalation of task demands and time pressures tends to make a worker run into work stress, which leads to mental fatigue and depression. The mental fatigue can be reduced when attention capacity is restored. Nature can serve as a source of fascination which can restore the attention capacity. People bring plants indoors so they can experience nature in their workplace. The stress and fatigue are also affected by air temperatures. The increase or decrease of temperatures from the comfort zone may induce the stress and fatigue. The objective of this study is to investigate the intervention of using foliage plants placed inside a building at different air temperature levels. The effects of foliage plants on human stress and fatigue were measured by human physiological responses such as heart rate, amylase level, electroencephalography (EEG), and the secondary task-reaction time. Several different tasks, namely typing, math and logical sequences are included in the investigation of these studies. Fifteen subjects, with the age ranged from 22 to 38 years old have participated in the study using within subject design. From the study, it is revealed that the presence of foliage plants at several temperatures have different effects on meditation, secondary task reaction time and typing accuracy. This study also revealed that the presence of plants on several types of tasks has different effects of attention which are useful for increasing work performance.

  12. Design Configurations and Coupling High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Hydrogen Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Steven Sherman

    2008-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the high-temperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood

  13. Challenges using a 252Cf shuffler instrument in a plant environment to measure mixtures of uranium and plutonium transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    An active-passive 252 Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago at Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU) waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here

  14. In Plant Measurement and Analysis of Mixtures of Uranium and Plutonium TRU-Waste Using a 252Cf Shuffler Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The active-passive 252 Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here

  15. Design of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is a revision and combination of two Safety Guides, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-1.1 and No. NS-G-1.3. The revision takes into account developments in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems since the publication of the earlier Safety Guides. The main changes relate to the continuing development of computer applications and the evolution of the methods necessary for their safe, secure and practical use. In addition, account is taken of developments in human factors engineering and the need for computer security. This Safety Guide references and takes into account other IAEA Safety Standards and Nuclear Security Series publications that provide guidance relating to I&C design

  16. Take-up device for incore instruments for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeru.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a take-up device being capable of loading through the control rod inlet and operating with ease on a control rod exchange platform by detacheably mounting a reel-containing cask to a truck carrying a spool driving motor. Constitution: A take-up device is located while running a truck along guide rails from control rod inlet. A cask door is opened on a control rod exchange platform and a compression coupling tube is connected to the lower end of an instrument. Thereafter, a spool is rotated by a driving motor and a detection tube is taken up and wound into a spool through a take-up port. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Elevated service water temperature systems analysis for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, T.; Hurt, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes analyses performed to support the evaluation of the effects of elevated Service Water (SW) temperatures on the operation of a Pressurized Water Reactor. The purpose of the analyses is to provide justification of continued plant operation with SW temperatures up to 5 degrees F (3 degrees C) above the original temperature design limit. The study involved evaluation of the following major components or plant transients: Containment Design Basis Accident (DBA), Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG), Plant Cooldown, Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) Room Coolers, Engineered Safety Feature Pumps, and Assessment for Impact on Normal Operation. The principal objective was related to raising the design maximum temperature of the SW system from 95 degrees F (35 degrees C) to 100 degrees F (38 degrees C). since the Service Water system is safety related, an serves a plant during both normal and design basis conditions, a wide variety of components must be analyzed under various operating modes. The evaluation of systems and components affected by elevated SW temperature is presented, along with conclusions

  18. Application on electrochemistry measurement of high temperature high pressure condition in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuchun; Xiao Zhongliang; Jiang Ya; Yu Xiaowei; Pang Feifei; Deng Fenfang; Gao Fan; Zhou Nianguang

    2011-01-01

    High temperature high pressure electrochemistry testing system was comprehensively analyzed in this paper, according to actual status for supervision in primary and secondary circuits of PWR nuclear power plants. Three research methods were reviewed and discussed for in-situ monitor system. By combination with ECP realtime measurement it was executed for evaluation and water chemistry optimization in nuclear power plants. It is pointed out that in-situ electrochemistry measurement has great potential application for water chemistry evaluation in PWR nuclear power plants. (authors)

  19. National report on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirsky, P.; Karpeta, C.

    1986-01-01

    Research, development and design efforts in the field of nuclear power plant I and C systems in Czechoslovakia have been recently aimed at solving the following problems: setting the parameters of the WWER 440 units control and protection systems and testing them in the power phase of commissioning; design and simulation of the WWER 440 units control system performance under the conditions of steam bleeding for a centralized heat supply system; development of a simulation model of the unit WWER 1000 dynamics for the purpose of I and C systems investigation and design; design of innovated I and C systems for WWER 440 and WWER 1000 units

  20. Safety-related instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide deals mainly with design requirements for those I and C systems that are important to safety but are not safety systems. The Guide is intended to expand paragraphs 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-D) in the area of I and C systems important to safety and refers to them as safety-related I and C systems. It also gives guidance and enumerates requirements for multiplexing and the use of the digital computers employed in this area

  1. Advanced digital instrumentation and control system for nuclear power plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Diverse Protection System (DPS) is described. The DPS is a state-of-the-art digital protection system developed as a back-up to the primary reactor protection system at the Temelin nuclear power plant, featuring a compact hardware design based on VMEbus technology. This technology allows for ease in adding or modifying the number and type of input modules and processors. The DPS software is written in a high level language suitable for safety critical applications. The software is both modular and configurable allowing for potential future modifications and software reuse

  2. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Lessons Learned Applicable to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.M.; Collins, J.W.; Garcia, C.B.; Pincock, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) have been designed and operated throughout the world over the past five decades. These seven HTGRs are varied in size, outlet temperature, primary fluid, and purpose. However, there is much the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) has learned and can learn from these experiences. This report captures these various experiences and documents the lessons learned according to the physical NGNP hardware (i.e., systems, subsystems, and components) affected thereby.

  3. Determination of temperature measurements uncertainties of the heat transport primary system of Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantz, Marcelo E.; Coutsiers, Eduardo E.; Moreno, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the systematic errors in temperature measurements in inlet and outlet headers of HTPS coolant channels of Embalse nuclear power plant are evaluated. These uncertainties are necessary for a later evaluation of the channel power maps transferred to the coolant. The power maps calculated in this way are used to compare power distributions using neutronic codes. Therefore, a methodology to correct systematic errors of temperature in outlet feeders and inlet headers is developed in this work. (author)

  4. Study on extreme high temperature of cooling water in Chinese coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fan; Jiang Ziying

    2012-01-01

    In order to protect aquatic life from the harmful effects of thermal discharge, the appropriate water temperature limits or the scope of the mixing zone is a key issue in the regulatory control of the environmental impact of thermal discharge. Based on the sea surface temperature in the Chinese coastal waters, the extreme value of the seawater temperature change was analyzed by using the Gumbel model. The limit of the design temperature rise of cooling water in the outfall is 9 ℃, and the limit of the temperature rise of cooling water in the edge of the mixing zone is 4 ℃. The extreme high temperature of the cooling water in Chinese coastal nuclear power plant is 37 ℃ in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and is 40 ℃ in East China Sea, South China Sea. (authors)

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of coal and its combustion residues from a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.M.; Jeong, J.H.; Lee, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A growing demand of electrical energy derived from coal combustion led to a significant increase of coal ash as residues. Approximately 70 % of the fly ashes are recycled, while most of the bottom ashes have been land-filled in the ash pond in Korea. In this work, to evaluate the potential impacts of the residues from a coal power plant on the environment, its inorganic elemental components were determined by INAA and PGAA. Coal ash samples were collected from the biggest power plant complex in Korea. These samples were analyzed by using the NAA facilities in the HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A total of 31 elements were analyzed in the samples, and certified reference materials were used for the analytical quality control. The enrichment status of a given metal in fuel coal and ashes was investigated by its concentration ratio. In order to assess the impact of the coal combustion residues on ecosystem, their concentrations determined for each respective type of the samples were compared to both reference data and nearby beach sand samples. (author)

  6. Experience with seismic instrumentation and real earthquake data at nuclear power plant Beznau Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahgal, S.; Tinic, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the aspects of design specification, bid evaluation and, seismic criteria used for the generation of seismic alarms etc. The paper also describes how the recorded data is utilized to check the various assumptions made in conjunction with the seismic plant design and seismic load generation. Out of some 8 seismic events registered so far only one event had the maximum recorded acceleration of approximately 28% of OBE Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). From the real earthquakes experienced and the in-situ free-field ground accelerations recorded, the free-field response spectra were calculated. The calculated spectra are compared to the Regulatory Guide 1.60 Design Response Spectra scaled linearly to the site peak ground acceleration. The free field data recording units on the weathered rock and at the top of the soil provided a real data to calculate the site amplification factors. The in-situ amplification calculated is then compared to that used in the seismic design. The recorded acceleration time history at various plant grades were used to generate response spectra. The calculated response spectra were in turn compared to the spectra used in the seismic design. (authors)

  7. Verification and validation of software related to nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, N.; Kossilov, A.

    1994-01-01

    There has always been significant concern with introduction of software in industry and the nuclear industry is no different from any other sector save its safety demands are some of the most onerous. The problems associated with software have led to the well documented difficulties in the introduction of computer based systems. An important area of concern with software in systems is the processes of Verification and Validation. One of the many activities the IAEA is currently engaged in is the preparation of a document on the process of verification and validation of software. The document follows the safety classification of IEC 1226 but includes software important to plant operation to establish three levels of assurance. The software that might be deployed on a plant was then identified as one of four types: new software, existing software for which full access to the code and documentation is possible, existing software of a proprietary nature and finally configurable software. The document attempts to identify the appropriate methods and tools for conducting the verification and validation processes. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Report on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1986-01-01

    The overall situation in I and C of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany can be characterized by three aspects. a) The improvement of man-machine communication by introducing integral information concepts for the control room by means of VDUs. b) Along with a) new data acquisition systems based upon process computers which facilitate the integration of operator aids like alarm analyses, disturbance analyses, post-mortem analyses, etc. c) The penetration of programmable processors into limitation systems in order to provide soft setback measures. d) The transition to I and C systems making use of the new generation of electronic components. The most important step towards advanced control rooms was the development of the Process Information System (PRINS) by KWU, which will be used with the German convoi-plants. The main emphasis regarding further R and D work in the field of operator aids is placed upon expert systems. Work will begin with a two years project aiming at the development of a basic module for a laboratory prototype

  9. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  10. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, Michael G.; Harvego, Edwin A.; Gandrik, Anastasia A.

    2010-01-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322 C and 750 C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  11. Safety Philosophy in Process Heat Plants Coupled to High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    2011-01-01

    With the future availability of fossil fuel resources in doubt, high temperature nuclear reactors have the potential to be an important technology in the near term. Due to a high coolant outlet temperature, high temperature reactors (HTR) can be used to drive chemical plants that directly utilize process heat. Additionally, the high temperature improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the energy utilization. Many applications of high temperature reactors exist as a thermal driving vector for endothermic chemical process plants. Hydrogen generation using the General Atomics (GA) sulfur iodine (SI) cycle is one promising application of high temperature nuclear heat. The main chemical reactions in the SI cycle are: 1. I 2 +SO 2 + 2H 2 O → 2HI + H 2 SO 4 (Bunsen reaction) 2. H 2 SO 4 → H 2 O + SO 2 + 1/2O 2 (Sulfuric acid decomposition) 3. 2HI → H 2 + I 2 (Hydrogen Iodide decomposition). With the exception of hydrogen and oxygen, all relevant reactants are recycled within the process. However, there are many unresolved safety and operational issues related to implementation of such a coupled plant

  12. Lipid antioxidant and galactolipid remodeling under temperature stress in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia eSpicher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased temperatures are a major scenario in climate change and present a threat to plant growth and agriculture. Plant growth depends on photosynthesis. To function optimally the photosynthetic machinery at the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts continuously adapts to changing conditions. Here, we set out to discover the most important changes arising at the lipid level under high temperature (38°C in comparison to mild (20°C and moderately cold temperature (10°C using a non-targeted lipidomics approach. To our knowledge, no comparable experiment at the level of the whole membrane system has been documented. Here, 791 molecular species were detected by mass spectrometry and ranged from membrane lipids, prenylquinones (tocopherols, phylloquinone, plastoquinone, plastochromanol, carotenoids (β-carotene, xanthophylls to numerous unidentified compounds. At high temperatures, the most striking changes were observed for the prenylquinones (α-tocopherol and plastoquinone/-ol and the degree of saturation of fatty acids in galactolipids and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Photosynthetic efficiency at high temperature was not affected but at moderately cold temperature mild photoinhibition occurred. The results indicate that the thylakoid membrane is remodeled with regard to fatty acid saturation in galactolipids and lipid antioxidant concentrations under high temperature stress. The data strongly suggest that massively increased concentrations of α-tocopherol and plastoquinone are important for protection against high temperature stress and proper function of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  13. Survey of the state-of-the-art in aging of electronics with application to nuclear-power-plant instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.T. Jr.; Thome, F.V.; Craft, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present results of a study to evaluate the state-of-the-art and outline needed research on aging of electronics in nuclear power plants. The emphasis is on aging of electronics (e.g., semiconductors, capacitors, resistors) used in safety-related Class 1E instrumentation, particularly those used in harsh environments. Some attention is also given to encapsulants, printed circuit boards and bonds (e.g., solder joints) since they are integral parts of circuits. Four major tasks were addressed in this study and are the subject of this report. These include (1) selecting candidate electronic components for study and review; (2) defining the aging environment and initiating an effort to determine the state-of-the-art in aging degradation; (3) recommending follow-on investigations and research; and (4) outlining the first steps in defining a program on accelerated aging

  14. Contribution to the safety assessment of instrumentation and control software for nuclear power plants. Application to spin N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubies, B.; Boulc'h, J.; Elsensohn, O.; Le Meur, M.; Henry, J.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The process of licensing nuclear power plants for operation consists of mandatory steps featuring detailed examination of the instrumentation and control system. Significant changes were introduced by the operator in the process of designing and producing 1400 MWe pressurized water reactor safety systems and, in particular, in the case of the Digital Integrated Protection System, (French abbreviation SPIN). The methodology applied by the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) to examine the software of this system is described. It consists of the methods used by the manufacturer to develop SPIN software for the 1400 MWe PWRs, and the approach adopted by the IPSN to evaluate SPIN safety softwares of the protection system for the N4 series of reactors. (R.P.). 2 refs

  15. Power plant instrumentation and control. Highlights of the Interkama 2001; Kraftwerksleittechnik. Rueckblick auf die Interkama 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullemeyer, M. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany); Policnik, U.

    2002-01-28

    The exhibitors at the Interkama 2001 have shown a wide range indeed of systems and solutions supporting the power producers. The focus was on integrated solutions for systems automation and corporate information technology, encompassing business management, e-commerce, power plant control and generation scheduling, and power system control systems. (orig./CB) [German] Die Aussteller der Interkama 2001 haben gezeigt, dass sie umfangreiche Loesungen zur Unterstuetzung der Stromerzeuger bereitstellen. Hierbei wird die zentrale Forderung zugrunde gelegt, dass Automatisierungs- und Informationstechnologien innerhalb eines Unternehmens zusammenwirken sollen. Integrierte Loesungen fuer diese Business- und E-Commerce-Funktionen sind verfuegbar. Es muss allerdings von den Lieferanten noch einiges an Ueberzeugungsarbeit geleistet werden, damit auch die Betreiber bereit sind, in diese Thematik zu investieren und erkennen, dass die hier vorgestellten Loesungen messbaren Nutzen bringen. (orig.)

  16. Ozone effects on growth of radish plants as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and by temperature. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Adedipe, N.O.; Hofstra, G.

    1973-10-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish) plants were grown in sand culture at two temperatures and fed with nutrient solutions containing relatively low or high levels of either N or P. At the 4-leaf stage, the plants were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 25 pphm for 4 h. Ozone treatments resulted in decreased dry weight of low- and high-N plants at both temperatures and of low and high P plants only at the lower temperature. The study showed that air pollutant growth reduction is not necessarily accentuated by luxuriant growth resulting from high nutritional status. Responses to the nutrition of specific mineral nutrients depend on the modifying affect of temperature.

  17. Photosynthesis of crop plants as influenced by light, carbon dioxide, temperature, and stomatal diffusion resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, P.

    1959-01-01

    The effect was estimated of light intensity, leaf temperature, and C0 2 concentration on photosynthetic rate in leaves of crop plants. The potential capacities of photochemical and biochemical processes and of C0 2 transport were compared.

    Resistance to C0 2

  18. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Gerard N. J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  19. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerdt, ter Gerard N.J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; Putten, van der Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  20. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heerdt, Gerard N.J.; Veen, G.F.; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Abstract Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in

  1. Laboratory Investigation of High Temperature Corrosion in Straw fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in straw-fired power plants has been studied in the laboratory for Sandvik 8LR30 and Sanicro 28. The influence of HCl and SO2 was investigated at 600C metal temperature for upto 300 hours.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was examined in ash taken from a straw-fired...

  2. Innovative Hybrid CHP systems for high temperature heating plant in existing buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Santoli, Livio; Lo Basso, Gianluigi; Nastasi, B.; d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca R.; Mazzarella and Piercarlo, Livio

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the potential role of new hybrid CHP systems application providing both electricity and heat which are compatible with the building architectural and landscape limitations. In detail, three different plant layout options for high temperature heat production along with the

  3. Host range of Phytophthora parsiana: a new high temperature pathogen of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somieh HAJEBRAHIMI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Among several Phytophthora spp. reported previously from Pistacia vera in Iran, a high temperature species recently identified as P. parsiana (formerly known as high temperature P. cryptogea is becoming important in woody plants, including P. vera. The host range of this newly recognised species, including both annual and perennial plants, is reported here. The pathogen infected 4–5 month-old glasshouse grown seedlings of P. vera, Ficus carica, Malus pumila and Prunus dulcis, and detached stems of 23 woody plants collected during dormant and growing seasons. Nineteen field and vegetable crops and 17 weed species were not infected by  P. parsiana in these pathogenicity assays.

  4. Temperature fluctuations inside savanna termite mounds: Do size and plant shade matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, M; Pérez-Rodríguez, A

    2018-05-01

    Mound building termites are key ecosystem engineers of subtropical savanna regions. Mounds allow termites to maintain suitable conditions for termite reproduction and food cultivation ('fungus gardens'). We studied how the internal mound temperature of Macrotermes natalensis, a dominant mound-building termite of the subtropical savanna of southern Africa, responds to a number of environmental variables. We used general additive mixed models (GAMM) to determine how external temperature, mound size (volume) and the amount of vegetation shade affects mound internal temperature over a 24-h period. Internal mound temperature varied daily following changes of the external temperature, although the range of variation was much smaller. Active termite mounds maintained a higher internal temperature than inactive ones, and mound activity reinforced the positive effect of mound size and moderated the negative effect of vegetation shade on internal temperatures. In turn, external temperature fluctuations equally affected active and inactive mounds. Large mounds maintained near optimal internal temperatures compared to smaller sized mounds. We therefore conclude that termite mound size is a stronger determinant of internal mound temperature stability compared to plant shade cover. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interacting effects of temperature integration and light intensity on growth and development of single-stemmed cut rose plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Meinen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation in horticulture can be achieved by allowing temperatures to fluctuate within predefined bandwidths instead of using rigid set points for heating and ventilation. In temperature integration, plants are supposed to compensate effects of temporarily deviations of the average

  6. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%

  7. Nuclear power plants - Instrumentation and control systems important for safety - Classification (International Electrotechnical Commission Standard Publication 1226:1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1996-01-01

    This international standard established a method of classification of the information and command functions for nuclear power plants, and the I and C and equipment that provide those functions, into categories that designate the importance for safety of the functions, and the associated systems and equipment. The resulting classification then determines relevant design criteria. The design criteria are the measures of quality by which the adequacy of each functions, and the associated systems and equipment in relation to its importance to plant safety is ensured. In this standard, the criteria are those of functionality, reliability, performance, environmental durability and quality assurance. This standard is applicable to all the information and command functions, and the instrumentation and control systems and equipment that provide those functions. The functions, systems and equipment under consideration provide automated protection, closed or open loop control, and information to the operating staff. They keep the NPP conditions inside the safe operating envelope and provide automatic actions, or enable manual actions, that mitigate accidents or prevent or minimize radioactive releases to the site or wider environment. The functions, and the associated systems and equipment that fulfill these roles safeguard the health and safety of the NPP operators and the public. This standard complements, and does not replace or supersede, the Safety Guides and Codes of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  8. AgRISTARS: Early warning and crop condition assessment. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator); Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Emissive (10.5 to 12.5 microns) and reflective (0.55 to 1.1 microns) data for ten day scenes and infrared data for six night scenes of southern Texas were analyzed for plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration. Heat capacity mapping mission radiometric temperatures were: within 2 C of dewpoint temperatures, significantly correlated with variables important in evapotranspiration, and related to freeze severity and planting depth soil temperatures.

  9. Plant adaptation to frequent alterations between high and low temperatures: remodeling of membrane lipids and maintenance of unsaturation levels

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guowei; Tian, Bo; Zhang, Fujuan; Tao, Faqing; Li, Weiqi

    2011-01-01

    One major strategy by which plants adapt to temperature change is to decrease the degree of unsaturation of membrane lipids under high temperature and increase it under low temperature. We hypothesize that this strategy cannot be adopted by plants in ecosystems and environments with frequent alterations between high and low temperatures, because changes in lipid unsaturation are complex and require large energy inputs. To test this hypothesis, we used a lipidomics approach to profile changes ...

  10. Certification of temperature measuring techniques at thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preobrazhenskij, V.P.; Strigina, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Necessity for metrological certification of temperature measurement techniques (TMT) at thermal and nuclear energy plants is grounded. An order of TMT certification is stated and formulae for determining the accuracy of temperature measurements by the thermoelectric method are given. It is concluded that through there are also statistical characteristics of errors of a number of measurement properties, it is necessary to carry on statistical investigations into errors of thermoelectrode extending wires, planimeters, measurement conditions. Such kind investigation technigues have been developed. Besides, it is necessary to regulate a uniform approach to the usage of statistical characteristics of errors of means and conditions of measurements to minimize volume of work for the personnel of thermal and nuclear energy plants and provide reliable estimates of temperature measurement errors

  11. New Temperature References and Sensors for the Next Generation of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadli, M.; Deuze, T.; Failleau, G.; Mokdad, S.-A.; Podesta, M. de; Edwards, G.; Elliott, C.-J.; Pearce, J.-V.; Sutton, G.; Del Campo, D.; Garcia-Izquierdo, C.; Fourrez, S.; Laurie, M.

    2013-06-01

    In preparation for the new challenges posed by the higher temperature environments which are likely to be encountered in the next generation of nuclear power plants, to maintain the safety and to ensure the long-term reliability of such plants, it is crucial that new temperature sensors and methods for in-situ measurement are investigated and developed. This is the general objective of the first work package of the joint research project, ENG08 MetroFission, funded in the framework of the European metrology research program. This paper will review the results obtained in developing and testing new temperature sensors and references during the course of the project. The possible continuation of these activities in the future is discussed. (authors)

  12. Modernization of instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Working materials. Proceedings of a specialists` meeting held in Garching, Germany, 4-7 July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Specialists` Meeting on ``Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants`` was organized by the IAEA (jointly by Division of Nuclear Power and Division of Nuclear Safety) in co-operation with Institute for Safety Technology (ISTec) and held in Garching, Germany from 4 to 7 July 1995 (The Meeting Chairman - Dr. W. Bastl). The meeting brought together experts on power plant operation with experts on application of today`s instrumentation and control technology. In this way, a match was made between those knowing the industry needs and requirements and those knowing the potentials of the technology. Refs, figs and tabs.

  13. Status on the Component Models Developed in the Modelica Framework: High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis Plant & Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk Kim, Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report has been prepared as part of an effort to design and build a modeling and simulation (M&S) framework to assess the economic viability of a nuclear-renewable hybrid energy system (N-R HES). In order to facilitate dynamic M&S of such an integrated system, research groups in multiple national laboratories have been developing various subsystems as dynamic physics-based components using the Modelica programming language. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed a dynamic analysis of two region-specific N-R HES configurations, including the gas-to-liquid (natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel) and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination plants as industrial processes. In FY 2016, INL has developed two additional subsystems in the Modelica framework: a high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) plant and a gas turbine power plant (GTPP). HTSE has been proposed as a high priority industrial process to be integrated with a light water reactor (LWR) in an N-R HES. This integrated energy system would be capable of dynamically apportioning thermal and electrical energy (1) to provide responsive generation to the power grid and (2) to produce alternative industrial products (i.e., hydrogen and oxygen) without generating any greenhouse gases. A dynamic performance analysis of the LWR/HTSE integration case was carried out to evaluate the technical feasibility (load-following capability) and safety of such a system operating under highly variable conditions requiring flexible output. To support the dynamic analysis, the detailed dynamic model and control design of the HTSE process, which employs solid oxide electrolysis cells, have been developed to predict the process behavior over a large range of operating conditions. As first-generation N-R HES technology will be based on LWRs, which provide thermal energy at a relatively low temperature, complementary temperature-boosting technology was suggested for integration with the

  14. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  15. Self-Tuning Fully-Connected PID Neural Network System for Distributed Temperature Sensing and Control of Instrument with Multi-Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Cheng; Zhu, Rong

    2016-10-14

    High integration of multi-functional instruments raises a critical issue in temperature control that is challenging due to its spatial-temporal complexity. This paper presents a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) self-tuning temperature sensing and control system for efficiently modulating the temperature environment within a multi-module instrument. The smart system ensures that the internal temperature of the instrument converges to a target without the need of a system model, thus making the control robust. The system consists of a fully-connected proportional-integral-derivative (PID) neural network (FCPIDNN) and an on-line self-tuning module. The experimental results show that the presented system can effectively control the internal temperature under various mission scenarios, in particular, it is able to self-reconfigure upon actuator failure. The system provides a new scheme for a complex and time-variant MIMO control system which can be widely applied for the distributed measurement and control of the environment in instruments, integration electronics, and house constructions.

  16. Self-Tuning Fully-Connected PID Neural Network System for Distributed Temperature Sensing and Control of Instrument with Multi-Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High integration of multi-functional instruments raises a critical issue in temperature control that is challenging due to its spatial–temporal complexity. This paper presents a multi-input multi-output (MIMO self-tuning temperature sensing and control system for efficiently modulating the temperature environment within a multi-module instrument. The smart system ensures that the internal temperature of the instrument converges to a target without the need of a system model, thus making the control robust. The system consists of a fully-connected proportional–integral–derivative (PID neural network (FCPIDNN and an on-line self-tuning module. The experimental results show that the presented system can effectively control the internal temperature under various mission scenarios, in particular, it is able to self-reconfigure upon actuator failure. The system provides a new scheme for a complex and time-variant MIMO control system which can be widely applied for the distributed measurement and control of the environment in instruments, integration electronics, and house constructions.

  17. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Siewenie, Joan [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Xu, Hongwu [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Zhu, Jinlong [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, USA and National Lab for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Page, Katharine, E-mail: pagekl@ornl.gov [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO{sub 2} measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H{sub 2} and natural gas uptake/storage.

  18. Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

  19. Low-temperature nuclear heat applications: Nuclear power plants for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The IAEA reflected the needs of its Member States for the exchange of information in the field of nuclear heat application already in the late 1970s. In the early 1980s, some Member States showed their interest in the use of heat from electricity producing nuclear power plants and in the development of nuclear heating plants. Accordingly, a technical committee meeting with a workshop was organized in 1983 to review the status of nuclear heat application which confirmed both the progress made in this field and the renewed interest of Member States in an active exchange of information about this subject. In 1985 an Advisory Group summarized the Potential of Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Application; the relevant Technical Document reviewing the situation in the IAEA's Member States was issued in 1986 (IAEA-TECDOC-397). Programme plans were made for 1986-88 and the IAEA was asked to promote the exchange of information, with specific emphasis on the design criteria, operating experience, safety requirements and specifications for heat-only reactors, co-generation plants and power plants adapted for heat application. Because of a growing interest of the IAEA's Member States about nuclear heat employment in the district heating domaine, an Advisory Group meeting was organized by the IAEA on ''Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Application: Nuclear Power Plants for District Heating'' in Prague, Czechoslovakia in June 1986. The information gained up to 1986 and discussed during this meeting is embodied in the present Technical Document. 22 figs, 11 tabs

  20. Pressure and temperature analyses using GOTHIC for Mark I containment of the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Shu, E-mail: yschen@iner.org.t [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Yuann, Yng-Ruey; Dai, Liang-Che; Lin, Yon-Pon [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: The Chinshan Mark I containment pressure-temperature responses are analyzed. GOTHIC is used to calculate the containment responses under three pipe break events. This study is used to support the Chinshan Stretch Power Uprate (SPU) program. The calculated peak pressure and temperature are still below the design values. The Chinshan containment integrity can be maintained under SPU condition. - Abstract: Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan is a GE-designed twin-unit BWR/4 plant with original licensed thermal power (OLTP) of 1775 MWt for each unit. Recently, the Stretch Power Uprate (SPU) program for the Chinshan plant is being conducted to uprate the core thermal power to 1858 MWt (104.66% OLTP). In this study, the Chinshan Mark I containment pressure/temperature responses during LOCA at 105% OLTP (104.66% OLTP + 0.34% OLTP power uncertainty = 105% OLTP) are analyzed using the containment thermal-hydraulic program GOTHIC. Three kinds of LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) scenarios are investigated: Recirculation Line Break (RCLB), Main Steam Line Break (MSLB), and Feedwater Line Break (FWLB). In the short-term analyses, blowdown data generated by RELAP5 transient analyses are provided as boundary conditions to the GOTHIC containment model. The calculated peak drywell pressure and temperature in the RCLB event are 217.2 kPaG and 137.1 {sup o}C, respectively, which are close to the original FSAR results (219.2 kPaG and 138.4 {sup o}C). Additionally, the peak drywell temperature of 155.3 {sup o}C calculated by MSLB is presented in this study. To obtain the peak suppression pool temperature, a long-term RCLB analysis is performed using a simplified RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) volume to calculate blowdown flow rate. One RHR (Residual Heat Removal) heat exchanger is assumed to be inoperable for suppression pool cooling mode. The calculated peak suppression pool temperature is 93.2 {sup o}C, which is below the pool temperature used for evaluating the

  1. 3D Surface Temperature Measurement of Plant Canopies Using Photogrammetry Techniques From A UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, M.; Lagouarde, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface temperature of plant canopies and within canopies results from the coupling of radiative and energy exchanges processes which govern the fluxes at the interface soil-plant-atmosphere. As a key parameter, surface temperature permits the estimation of canopy exchanges using processes based modeling methods. However detailed 3D surface temperature measurements or even profile surface temperature measurements are rarely made as they have inherent difficulties. Such measurements would greatly improve multi-level canopy models such as NOAH (Chen and Dudhia 2001) or MuSICA (Ogée and Brunet 2002, Ogée et al 2003) where key surface temperature estimations, at present, are not tested. Additionally, at larger scales, canopy structure greatly influences satellite based surface temperature measurements as the structure impacts the observations which are intrinsically made at varying satellite viewing angles and solar heights. In order to account for these differences, again accurate modeling is required such as through the above mentioned multi-layer models or with several source type models such as SCOPE (Van der Tol 2009) in order to standardize observations. As before, in order to validate these models, detailed field observations are required. With the need for detailed surface temperature observations in mind we have planned a series of experiments over non-dense plant canopies to investigate the use of photogrammetry techniques. Photogrammetry is normally used for visible wavelengths to produce 3D images using cloud point reconstruction of aerial images (for example Dandois and Ellis, 2010, 2013 over a forest). From these cloud point models it should be possible to establish 3D plant surface temperature images when using thermal infrared array sensors. In order to do this our experiments are based on the use of a thermal Infrared camera embarked on a UAV. We adapt standard photogrammetry to account for limits imposed by thermal imaginary, especially the low

  2. Pressure and temperature analyses using GOTHIC for Mark I containment of the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey; Dai, Liang-Che; Lin, Yon-Pon

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The Chinshan Mark I containment pressure-temperature responses are analyzed. → GOTHIC is used to calculate the containment responses under three pipe break events. → This study is used to support the Chinshan Stretch Power Uprate (SPU) program. → The calculated peak pressure and temperature are still below the design values. → The Chinshan containment integrity can be maintained under SPU condition. - Abstract: Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan is a GE-designed twin-unit BWR/4 plant with original licensed thermal power (OLTP) of 1775 MWt for each unit. Recently, the Stretch Power Uprate (SPU) program for the Chinshan plant is being conducted to uprate the core thermal power to 1858 MWt (104.66% OLTP). In this study, the Chinshan Mark I containment pressure/temperature responses during LOCA at 105% OLTP (104.66% OLTP + 0.34% OLTP power uncertainty = 105% OLTP) are analyzed using the containment thermal-hydraulic program GOTHIC. Three kinds of LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) scenarios are investigated: Recirculation Line Break (RCLB), Main Steam Line Break (MSLB), and Feedwater Line Break (FWLB). In the short-term analyses, blowdown data generated by RELAP5 transient analyses are provided as boundary conditions to the GOTHIC containment model. The calculated peak drywell pressure and temperature in the RCLB event are 217.2 kPaG and 137.1 o C, respectively, which are close to the original FSAR results (219.2 kPaG and 138.4 o C). Additionally, the peak drywell temperature of 155.3 o C calculated by MSLB is presented in this study. To obtain the peak suppression pool temperature, a long-term RCLB analysis is performed using a simplified RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) volume to calculate blowdown flow rate. One RHR (Residual Heat Removal) heat exchanger is assumed to be inoperable for suppression pool cooling mode. The calculated peak suppression pool temperature is 93.2 o C, which is below the pool temperature used for evaluating the

  3. Activity of oxidizing processes in introduced plants under low hardening temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitseva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of oxidative enzymes’ activity at the dormancy phenological stage under conditions of low positive temperature were studied. Most effective methods (NPK, zircon growth regulator for enhancing the cold tolerance of the Swida, Deutzia, Buddleja and Hibiscus species have been determined. It has been established that activity of catalase and peroxidase depends on the cold adaptation of introduced arbo-real plants of different winter-resistance. The possibility to use the ratio of enzymatic activities Acold./Anorm. as a test-parameter in forecasting the winter-resistance of plants is displayed.

  4. Regional signatures of plant response to drought and elevated temperature across a desert ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Muldavin, Esteban H.; Belnap, Jayne; Peters, Debra P.C.; Anderson, John P.; Reiser, M. Hildegard; Gallo, Kirsten; Melgoza-Castillo, Alicia; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Christiansen, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of many desert plant species in North America may decline with the warmer and drier conditions predicted by climate change models, thereby accelerating land degradation and reducing ecosystem productivity. We paired repeat measurements of plant canopy cover with climate at multiple sites across the Chihuahuan Desert over the last century to determine which plant species and functional types may be the most sensitive to climate change. We found that the dominant perennial grass, Bouteloua eriopoda, and species richness had nonlinear responses to summer precipitation, decreasing more in dry summers than increasing with wet summers. Dominant shrub species responded differently to the seasonality of precipitation and drought, but winter precipitation best explained changes in the cover of woody vegetation in upland grasslands and may contribute to woody-plant encroachment that is widespread throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Temperature explained additional variability of changes in cover of dominant and subdominant plant species. Using a novel empirically based approach we identified ‘‘climate pivot points’’ that were indicative of shifts from increasing to decreasing plant cover over a range of climatic conditions. Reductions in cover of annual and several perennial plant species, in addition to declines in species richness below the long-term summer precipitation mean across plant communities, indicate a decrease in the productivity for all but the most drought-tolerant perennial grasses and shrubs in the Chihuahuan Desert. Overall, our regional synthesis of long-term data provides a robust foundation for forecasting future shifts in the composition and structure of plant assemblages in the largest North American warm desert.

  5. Comparison of instrumental and interpolated meteorological data-based summer temperature reconstructions on Mt. Taibai in the Qinling Mountains, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Bai, Hongying; Su, Kai; Liu, Rongjuan; Zhai, Danping; Wang, Jun; Li, Shuheng; Zhou, Qi; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Previous dendroclimatical studies have been based on the relationship between tree growth and instrumental climate data recorded at lower land meteorological stations, but the climate conditions somehow differ between sampling sites and distant population centers. Thus, in this study, we performed a comparison between the 152-year reconstruction of June to July mean air temperature on the basis of interpolated meteorological data and instrumental meteorological data. The reconstruction explained 38.7% of the variance in the interpolated temperature data (37.2% after the degrees of freedom were adjusted) and 39.6% of the variance in the instrumental temperature data (38.4% after adjustment for loss of degrees of freedom) during the period 1962-2013 AD. The first global warming (the 1920s) and recent warming (1990-2013) found from the reconstructed temperature series match reasonably well with two other reported summer temperature reconstructions from north-central China. Cold periods occurred three times during 1866-1885, 1901-1921, and 1981-2000, while hot periods occurred four times during 1886-1900, 1922-1933, 1953-1966, and 2001-2007. The extreme warm (cold) years are coherent with the documentary drought (flood) events. Significant 31-22-year, 22-18-year, and 12-8-year cycles indicate major fluctuations in regional temperatures may reflect large-scale climatic shifts.

  6. The Effect of Temperature and Host Plant Resistance on Population Growth of the Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Ashley R; Nechols, James R; McCornack, Brian P; Margolies, David C; Sandercock, Brett K; Yan, Donglin; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans. To assess indirect (plant-mediated) effects, soybean aphids were reared under a range of temperatures (15-30 °C) on soybean seedlings from a line expressing a Rag1 gene for resistance, and life history traits were quantified and compared to those obtained for soybean aphids on a susceptible soybean line. Direct effects of temperature were obtained by comparing relative differences in the magnitude of life-history traits among temperatures on susceptible soybeans. We predicted that temperature and host plant resistance would have a combined, but asymmetrical, effect on soybean aphid fitness and population growth. Results showed that temperature and plant resistance influenced preimaginal development and survival, progeny produced, and adult longevity. There also appeared to be a complex interaction between temperature and plant resistance for survival and developmental rate. Evidence suggested that the level of plant resistance increased at higher, but not lower, temperature. Soybean aphids required about the same number of degree-days to develop on resistant and susceptible plants. Our results will be useful for making predictions of soybean aphid population growth on resistant plants under different seasonal temperatures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Hydrogen Production System with High Temperature Electrolysis for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentaro, Matsunaga; Eiji, Hoashi; Seiji, Fujiwara; Masato, Yoshino; Taka, Ogawa; Shigeo, Kasai

    2006-01-01

    Steam electrolysis with solid oxide cells is one of the most promising methods for hydrogen production, which has the potential to be high efficiency. Its most parts consist of environmentally sound and common materials. Recent development of ceramics with high ionic conductivity suggests the possibility of widening the range of operating temperature with maintaining the high efficiency. Toshiba is constructing a hydrogen production system with solid oxide electrolysis cells for nuclear power plants. Tubular-type cells using YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized- Zirconia) as electrolyte showed good performance of steam electrolysis at 800 to 900 deg C. Larger electrolysis cells with present configuration are to be combined with High Temperature Reactors. The hydrogen production efficiency on the present designed system is expected around 50% at 800 to 900 deg C of operating temperature. For the Fast Reactors, 'advanced cell' with higher efficiency at lower temperature are to be introduced. (authors)

  8. Reliability analysis and computation of computer-based safety instrumentation and control used in German nuclear power plant. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yongjian; Krause, Ulrich; Gu, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    The trend of technological advancement in the field of safety instrumentation and control (I and C) leads to increasingly frequent use of computer-based (digital) control systems which consisting of distributed, connected bus communications computers and their functionalities are freely programmable by qualified software. The advantages of the new I and C system over the old I and C system with hard-wired technology are e.g. in the higher flexibility, cost-effective procurement of spare parts, higher hardware reliability (through higher integration density, intelligent self-monitoring mechanisms, etc.). On the other hand, skeptics see the new technology with the computer-based I and C a higher potential by influences of common cause failures (CCF), and the easier manipulation by sabotage (IT Security). In this joint research project funded by the Federal Ministry for Economical Affaires and Energy (BMWi) (2011-2014, FJZ 1501405) the Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg and Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences are therefore trying to develop suitable methods for the demonstration of the reliability of the new instrumentation and control systems with the focus on the investigation of CCF. This expertise of both houses shall be extended to this area and a scientific contribution to the sound reliability judgments of the digital safety I and C in domestic and foreign nuclear power plants. First, the state of science and technology will be worked out through the study of national and international standards in the field of functional safety of electrical and I and C systems and accompanying literature. On the basis of the existing nuclear Standards the deterministic requirements on the structure of the new digital I and C system will be determined. The possible methods of reliability modeling will be analyzed and compared. A suitable method called multi class binomial failure rate (MCFBR) which was successfully used in safety valve applications will be

  9. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman

    2006-09-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  10. An investigation of temperature measurement methods in nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, R.U.; Gill, W.; Sais, D.J.; Schulze, D.H.; Nakos, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project was to provide an assessment of several methods by which the temperature of a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel (RPV) could be measured during an annealing process. This project was a coordinated effort between DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology; DOE's Light Water Reactor Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories; and the Electric Power Research Institute's Non- Destructive Evaluation Center. Ball- thermocouple probes similar to those described in NUREG/CR-5760, spring-loaded, metal- sheathed thermocouple probes, and 1778 air- suspended thermocouples were investigated in experiments that heated a section of an RPV wall to simulate a thermal annealing treatment. A parametric study of ball material, emissivity, thermal conductivity, and thermocouple function locations was conducted. Also investigated was a sheathed thermocouple failure mode known as shunting (electrical breakdown of insulation separating the thermocouple wires). Large errors were found between the temperature as measured by the probes and the true RPV wall temperature during heat-up and cool-down. At the annealing soak temperature, in this case 454 degrees C [850'F], all sensors measured the same temperature within about ±5% (23.6 degrees C [42.5 degrees F]). Because of these errors, actual RPV wall heating and cooling rates differed from those prescribed (by up to 29%). Shunting does not appear to be a problem under these conditions. The large temperature measurement errors led to the development of a thermal model that predicts the RPV wall temperature from the temperature of a ball- probe. Comparisons between the model and the experimental data for ball-probes indicate that the model could be a useful tool in predicting the actual RPV temperature based on the indicated ball- probe temperature. The model does not predict the temperature as well for the spring-loaded and air suspended probes

  11. Structural health monitoring of power plant components based on a local temperature measurement concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Juergen; Bergholz, S.; Hilpert, R.; Jouan, B.; Goetz, A.

    2012-01-01

    The fatigue assessment of power plant components based on fatigue monitoring approaches is an essential part of the integrity concept and modern lifetime management. It is comparable to structural health monitoring approaches in other engineering fields. The methods of fatigue evaluation of nuclear power plant components based on realistic thermal load data measured on the plant are addressed. In this context the Fast Fatigue Evaluation (FFE) and Detailed Fatigue Calculation (DFC) of nuclear power plant components are parts of the three staged approach to lifetime assessment and lifetime management of the AREVA Fatigue Concept (AFC). The three stages Simplified Fatigue Estimation (SFE), Fast Fatigue Evaluation (FFE) and Detailed Fatigue Calculation (DFC) are characterized by increasing calculation effort and decreasing degree of conservatism. Their application is case dependent. The quality of the fatigue lifetime assessment essentially depends on one hand on the fatigue model assumptions and on the other hand on the load data as the basic input. In the case of nuclear power plant components thermal transient loading is most fatigue relevant. Usual global fatigue monitoring approaches rely on measured data from plant instrumentation. As an extension, the application of a local fatigue monitoring strategy (to be described in detail within the scope of this paper) paves the way of delivering continuously (nowadays at a frequency of 1 Hz) realistic load data at the fatigue relevant locations. Methods of qualified processing of these data are discussed in detail. Particularly, the processing of arbitrary operational load sequences and the derivation of representative model transients is discussed. This approach related to realistic load-time histories is principally applicable for all fatigue relevant components and ensures a realistic fatigue evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of interference on over-temperature protection value ΔT in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongwei; Fu Jingqiang

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear power plant, the over-temperature protection value ΔT prevents nucleate from boiling and protects the fuel cladding. This paper focused on the fluctuation of ΔT, which is one of the common-mode failures. After sensitivity analysis and simulations of explanatory variables on over-temperature protection value, the sources and objects of the interference are located. And according to investigations on the fluctuation phenomena, the cable layout design defects are confirmed as the causes. The solutions were thus given and successfully verified by on-site implementation. (authors)

  13. Binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, D; Dimitrov, K.; Armenski, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a field of binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells is presented. Special attention of application of height temperature SOFC fuel cells and binary co-generative units has been given. These units made triple electricity and heat. Principle of combination of fuel cells with binary cycles has been presented. A model and computer programme for calculation of BKPFC, has been created. By using the program, all the important characteristic-results are calculated: power, efficiency, emission, dimension and economic analysis. On base of results, conclusions and recommendations has been given. (Author)

  14. Binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, D; Dimitrov, K.; Armenski, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a field of binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells is presented. Special attention of application of height temperature SOFC fuel cells and binary co-generative units has been given. These units made triple electricity and heat. Principle of combination of fuel cells with binary cycles has been presented. A model and computer programme for calculation of BKPFC, has been created. By using the program, all the important characteristic-results are calculated: power, efficiency, emission, dimension and economic analysis. On base of results, conclusions and recommendations has been given. (Author)

  15. Krypton separation from waste gas of a reprocessing plant by low temperature rectification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    6 lectures at this seminar describe and evaluate the results of the research and development work on low temperature krypton separation from the waste gas of the reprocessing of nuclear fuels. They are used for making decisions for the process to be used in the future on a large scale at the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant. 2 further lectures deal with alternatives to this process, which were also developed: the freon washing and low temperature adsorption of krypton. All the lectures were included separately in the INIS and ENERGY databases. (RB) [de

  16. Alleviation of Low-Temperature Photoinhibition in Gamma-Irradiated Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; An, B.C.; Chung, B.Y.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the radiation-induced stress resistance in red pepper leaves under conditions of low-temperature photoinhibition or artificially induced photo-oxidative stress. Plants irradiated with 4, 8, or 16-Gy gamma rays were more resistant to both stress factors than were the controls. However, exposure to a low temperature for 12 h with illumination or photo-oxidative treatment for 1 h differentially affected the irradiated leaves, although they had similar stress intensities as defined by their maximal photochemical efficiencies (Fv/Fm)

  17. Visual interface for the automation of the instrumented pendulum of Charpy tests used in the surveillance program of reactors vessel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Sainz M, E.; Ruiz E, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Inside the Programs of Surveillance of the nuclear power stations periodic information is required on the state that keep the materials with those that builds the vessel of the reactor. This information is obtained through some samples or test tubes that are introduced inside the core of the reactor and it is observed if its physical characteristics remain after having been subjected to the radiation changes and temperature. The rehearsal with the instrumented Charpy pendulum offers information on the behavior of fracture dynamics of a material. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it has an instrumented Charpy pendulum. The operation of this instrument is manual, having inconveniences to carry out rehearsals with radioactive material, handling of high and low temperatures, to fulfill the normative ones for the realization of the rehearsals, etc. In this work the development of a computational program is presented (virtual instrument), for the automation of the instrumented pendulum. The system has modules like: Card of data acquisition, signal processing, positioning system, tempered system, pneumatic system, compute programs like it is the visual interface for the operation of the instrumented Charpy pendulum and the acquisition of impact signals. This system shows that given the characteristics of the nuclear industry with radioactive environments, the virtual instrumentation and the automation of processes can contribute to diminish the risks to the personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  18. Influencing governance of a public-private partnership in plant genomics: The societal interface group as a new instrument for public involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, L.; Gremmen, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG) is a Dutch public-private partnership in plant genomics active in potato and tomato research and exploitation. Its Societal Interface Group (SIG) has been developed to inform its communication strategy and governance practice. This new instrument identifies

  19. Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Ebrahim; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an H(∞) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of temperature, ultraviolet radiation and pectin methyl esterase on aerobic methane release from plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, D; Mikkelsen, T N; Obro, J; Willats, W G T; Ambus, P

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the effects of different irradiance types on aerobic methane (CH(4)) efflux rates from terrestrial plant material. Furthermore, the role of the enzyme pectin methyl esterase (PME) on CH(4) efflux potential was also examined. Different types of plant tissue and purified pectin were incubated in glass vials with different combinations of irradiation and/or temperature. Purified dry pectin was incubated in solution, and with or without PME. Before and after incubation, the concentration of CH(4) was measured with a gas chromatograph. Rates of CH(4) emission were found to depend exponentially on temperature and linearly on UV-B irradiance. UV-B had a greater stimulating effect than UV-A, while visible light had no effect on emission rates. PME was found to substantially reduce the potential for aerobic CH(4) emissions upon demethylation of pectin.

  1. Coal-fired power plants and the causes of high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakey, J E; Simms, N J [British Coal Corporation, Coal Technology Development Div., Cheltenham, Glos (United Kingdom); Tomkings, A B [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The heat exchangers in all types of coal-fired power plant operate in aggressive, high temperature environments where high temperature corrosion can severely limit their service lives. The extent of this corrosion is governed by the combined effects of the operating conditions of the heat exchanger and the presence of corrosive species released from the coal during operation. This paper reviews the coal-related factors, such as ash deposition, which influence the operating environments of heat exchangers in three types of coal-fired power plant - conventional pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers and coal gasification systems. The effects on the performance of the materials used for these heat exchangers are then compared. (au) 35 refs.

  2. Instrumentation, control and modellisation/simulation in waste water treatment plants; Instrumentacion, control y modelizacion/simulacion en plantas depuradoras de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, E.; Martinez, J. L.; Llorente, V.

    2002-07-01

    Controlling waste water treatment plants presents numerous problems as a result of the complexity of the task involved in managing them. The different instruments used in monitoring and controlling the flow, dissolved oxygen, pH, cloudiness and other parameters involved in the treatment process at level 0 are listed and described. The control and regulation equipment comprising level 1 is operated by the process computers of level 2. The different types of instruments are studied in relation to monitoring and control and the analysis and management o the data supplied by the instrumentation, the control strategies, operational margins and applicable software. Several case studies of activated sludge treatment processes are included to facilitate comprehension. Finally, the simulation models are presented with a view to aiding understanding, management and prediction of the operation of waste water treatment plants, particularly in regard to the problems of bulking and/or foaming. (Author)

  3. Study of some Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants for the essential trace elemental contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.; Andhele, M.L.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental analysis of some medicinal plants used in the Indian Ayurvedic system was performed by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Most of the medicinal plants were found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. The variation in elemental concentration in same medicinal plants samples collected in summer, winter and rainy seasons was studied and the biological effects of these elements on human beings are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Reliability analysis of the automatic control of the A-1 power plant coolant temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuklik, B.; Semerad, V.; Chylek, Z.

    Reliability analysis of the automatic control of the A-1 reactor coolant temperature is performed taking into account the effect of both the dependent failures and the routine maintenance of control system components. In a separate supplement, reliability analysis is reported of coincidence systems of the A-1 power plant reactor. Both safe and unsafe failures are taken into consideration as well as the effect of maintenance of the respective branch elements

  5. Digital simulation of a commercial scale high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.; Bowman, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of a commercial scale high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) steam power plant was derived in state-space form from fundamental principles. The plant model is 40th order, time-invariant, deterministic and continuous-time. Numerical results were obtained by digital simulation. Steady-state performance of the nonlinear model was verified with plant heat balance data at 100, 75 and 50 percent load levels. Local stability, controllability and observability were examined in this range using standard linear algorithms. Transfer function matrices for the linearized models were also obtained. Transient response characteristics of 6 system variables for independent step distrubances in 2 different input variables are presented as typical results

  6. Temperature-dependent performance of competitive native and alien invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-10-01

    To assess the likely impacts of environmental change, the responses of two well-known invasive plant species, native Pueraria lobata and alien Humulus japonicus, to differences in growth temperature were studied in South Korea. Habitat preferences, physiological responses such as photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll contents, growth rates, and nutrient contents were quantified for each species. A competition experiment was conducted to evaluate the temperature preferences of the two species. All results indicated that the alien species H. japonicus can take advantage of elevated temperatures (35 °C) to enhance its competitive advantage against the native species P. lobata. While H. japonicus took advantage of elevated temperatures and preferred high-temperature areas, P. lobata showed reduced performance and dominance in high-temperature areas. Therefore, in future, due to global warming and urbanization, there are possibilities that H. japonicus takes advantage of elevated temperature against P. lobata that could lead to increased H. japonicus coverage over time. Therefore, consistent monitoring of both species especially where P. lobata is dominated are required because both species are found in every continents in the world. Controlling P. lobata requires thorough inspection of H. japonicus presence of the habitat in advance to prevent post P. lobata management invasion of H. japonicus.

  7. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation that is presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is examined. Sampling difficulties including the inlet-probe arrangement and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are discussed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered. Monitoring requirements range from the detection of low-level, routine releases to high-level accidental releases. Both first and second kinds of detection errors are considered in a discussion of adequate detection limits. The presently deployed monitors are critically examined in this light and the drawbacks and limitations of each are noted. Prototype instrumentation is studied, including Argonne's mechanical separation technique, Battelle's mass separation by surface ionization method, and in particular, LLL's transuranic aerosol measurement system. The potentials, sensitivities, advantages, and limitations of each system are enumerated. The additional potential uses of the LLL system are also discussed

  8. Thermal analysis of heat and power plant with high temperature reactor and intermediate steam cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fic Adam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle, which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle. The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.

  9. CO2 and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO 2 influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38 degree, but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28 degree. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18 degree due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO 2 concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28 degree, resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28 degree, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but decreased at 38 degree. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO 2 , butt was greater at 38 degree. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38 degree relative to 28 degree, and elevated CO 2 levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28 degree but decreased leaf area at 38 degree

  10. Hybrid instrument applied to human reliability study in event of loss of external electric power in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Eduardo Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    The study projects in highly complex installations involves robust modeling, supported by conceptual and mathematical tools, to carry out systematic research and structured the different risk scenarios that can lead to unwanted events from occurring equipment failures or human errors. In the context of classical modeling, the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) seeks to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the project particularity and their operational facilities, including the identification of factors or scenarios that contribute to the risk and consequent comparison options for increasing safety. In this context, the aim of the thesis is to develop a hybrid instrument (CPP-HI) innovative, from the integrated modeling techniques of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), concepts of Human Reliability Analysis and Probabilistic Composition of Preferences (PCP). In support of modeling and validation of the CPP-HI, a simulation was performed on a triggering event 'Loss of External Electric Power' - PEEE, in a Nuclear Power plant. The results were simulated in a virtual environment (sensitivity analysis) and are robust to the study of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the PSA. (author)

  11. Experimentation of RT-LOTOS for a critical function of a power plant instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriantsiiferana, L.; Courtiat, J.P.; De Oliveira, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the final report of the contract between LAAS-CNRS and the EdF Direction of Researches and Studies about the experimentation of RT-LOTOS formal description technique on a critical function of a nuclear power plant instrumentation and control system. This report comprises 4 parts: part 1 describes the RT-LOTOS (Real Time-Language of Temporal Ordering Specifications) tutorial and its RTL tool environment, the different RT-LOTOS operators and semantics, and the RTL tool main functionalities; part 2 deals with the methodology and the global architecture for the specification and validation of the CCT (Central Calculator for Treatment); part 3 gives more details about the different processes identified in the specification architecture and presents the main results obtained for the validation of the nominal functioning; part 4 describes some exceptional situations and shows how some failures and their associated recovery mechanisms can be modelled. (J.S.). 6 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appends

  12. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  13. Performance acceptance test of a portable instrument to detect uranium in water at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.S.; Weeks, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Eppendorf-Biotronik Model IC 2001-2, a portable field ruggedized ion chromatography instrument, was rigorously tested at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio. This instrument rapidly detected the uranium concentration in water, and has a detection limit in the low ppb range without using the sample concentrating feature. The test set of samples analyzed included: ''Real World'' water samples from the AWWT containing uranium concentrations in the 9--110 ppb range, a sample blank, and a performance evaluation sample. The AWWT samples contained sets of both raw water and acid-preserved water samples. Selected samples were analyzed in quadruplicate to asses the instrument's precision, and these results were compared with the results from an off-site confirmatory laboratory to assess the instrument's accuracy. Additional comparisons with on-site laboratory instruments, Chemcheck KPA-11 and Scintrex UA-3 are reported. Overall, the Eppendorf-Biotronik IC 2001-2 performed exceptionally well providing a detection limit in the low ppb region (< 10 ppb) and giving rapid (< 5 minutes) accurate and reproducible analytical results for the AWWT, ''real world'', water samples with uranium concentrations in the region of interest (10--40 ppb). The per sample operating cost for this instrument is equivalent to the per sample cost for the currently used KPA. The time required to analyze a sample and provide a result is approximately the same for the CI 2001-2, KPA, and Scintrex instruments

  14. Methyl halide fluxes from tropical plants under controlled radiation and temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, Emanuel; Yokouchi, Yoko; Saito, Takuya; Nozoe, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    Methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I) contribute significantly to the halogen burden of the atmosphere and have the potential to influence the stratospheric ozone layer through their catalytic effect in the Chapman cycle. As such they have been studied over the years, and many plants and biota have been examined for their potential to act as a source of these gases. One of the potentially largest terrestrial sources identified was tropical vegetation such as tropical ferns and Dipterocarp trees. Most of these studies concentrated on the identification and quantification of such fluxes rather than their characteristics and often the chambers used in these studies were either opaque or only partially transparent to the full solar spectrum. Therefore it is not certain to which degree emissions of methyl halides are innate to the plants and how much they might vary due to radiation or temperature conditions inside the enclosures. In a separate development it had been proposed that UV-radiation could cause live plant materials to be become emitters of methane even under non-anoxic conditions. As methane is chemically very similar to methyl halides and had been proposed to be produced from methyl-groups ubiquitously found in plant cell material there is a relatively good chance that such a production mechanism would also apply to methyl halides. To test whether radiation can affect elevated emissions of methyl halides from plant materials and to distinguish this from temperature effects caused by heat build-up in chambers a set of controlled laboratory chamber enclosures under various radiation and temperature regimes was conducted on four different tropical plant species (Magnolia grandiflora, Cinnamonum camphora, Cyathea lepifera, Angiopteris lygodiifolia), the latter two of which had previously been identified as strong methyl halide emitters. Abscised leaf samples of these species were subjected to radiation treatments such UV-B, UV-A and broad spectrum radiation

  15. Low flows and water temperature risks to Asian coal power plants in a warming world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Byers, E.; Parkinson, S.; Wanders, N.; Wada, Y.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Thermoelectric power generation requires cooling, normally provided by wet cooling systems. The withdrawal and discharge of cooling water are subject to regulation. Therefore, operation of power plants may be vulnerable to changes in streamflow and rises in water temperatures. In Asia, about 489 GW of coal-fired power plants are currently under construction, permitted, or announced. Using a comprehensive dataset of these planned coal power plants (PCPPs) and cooling water use models, we investigated whether electricity generation at these power plants will be limited by streamflow and water temperature. Daily streamflow and water temperature time series are from the high-resolution (0.08ox0.08o) runs of the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model, driven by downscaled meteorological forcing from five global climate models. We compared three climate change scenarios (1.5oC, 2oC, and 3oC warming in global mean temperature) and three cooling system choice scenarios (freshwater once-through, freshwater cooling tower, and "business-as-usual" - where a PCPP uses the same cooling system as the nearest existing coal power plant). The potential available capacity of the PCPPs increase slightly from the 1.5oC to the 2oC and 3oC warming scenario due to increase in streamflow. The once-through cooling scenario results in virtually zero available capacity at the PCPPs. The other two cooling scenarios result in about 20% of the planned capacity being unavailable under all warming scenarios. Hotspots of the most water-limited PCPPs are in Pakistan, northwestern India, northwestern and north-central China, and northern Vietnam, where most of the PCPPs will face 30% to 90% unavailable nameplate capacity on annual average. Since coal power plants cannot operate effectively when the capacity factor falls below a minimum load level (about 20% to 50%), the actual limitation on generation capacity would be larger. In general, the PCPPs that will have the highest limitation on annual average

  16. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor core and high temperature instrumentation, Windermere, UK, 15-17 June 1982. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Gas-Cooled Reactor Core and High Temperature Instrumentation'' was held at the Beech Hill Hotel, Windermere in England on June 15-17 1982. The meeting was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors and was hosted by the Windscale Nuclear Power Development Laboratories of the UKAEA. The meeting was attended by 43 participants from Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum, both formal and informal, for the exchange and discussion of technical information relating to instrumentation being used or under development for the measurement of core parameters, neutron flux, temperature, coolant flow etc. in gas cooled reactors. The technical part of the meeting was divided into five subject sessions: (A) Temperature Measurement (B) Neutron Detection Instrumentation (C) HTR Instrumentation - General (D) Gas Analysis and Failed Fuel Detection (E) Coolant Mass Flow and Leak Detection. A total of twenty-five papers were presented by the participants on behalf of their organizations during the meeting. A programme of the meeting and list of participants are given in appendices to this report

  17. INSTRUMENTATION CONTROLLING INDUSTRIAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Владимировна Чувашлова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze theoretical and practical basis of controlling and to provide implementation guidelines for enterprise controlling. The problem of controlling implementation was considered by two criteria: sphere of application and time of validity.Taking into account sphere of application criterion the objectives can be achieved by certain tools, namely: management accounting in the form of profit and loss statement; information flow in the form of workflow system and mapping of business processes; planning which includes budgeting and monitoring that could in turn allow to compare performance to predetermined standards, plans or objectives; responsibility accounting.The second criterion that is time of validity is considered as strategic.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-39

  18. Differential responses of invasive and native plants to warming with simulated changes in diurnal temperature ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Ming; Gao, Yang; Liao, Hui-Xuan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Although many studies have documented the effects of global warming on invasive plants, little is known about whether the effects of warming on plant invasion differ depending on the imposed change in different diurnal temperature ranges (DTR). We tested the impact of warming with DTR change on seed germination and seedling growth of eight species in the family Asteraceae. Four of these are invasive ( Eupatorium catarium , Mikania micrantha , Biodens pilosa var. radiate , Ageratum conyzoides ) in China, and four are native ( Sonchus arvensis , Senecios candens , Pterocypsela indica , Eupatorium fortunei ). Four temperature treatments were set in growth chambers (three warming by 3 °C with different DTRs and control), and experiments were run to mimic wintertime and summertime conditions. The control treatment ( T c ) was set to the mean temperature for the corresponding time of year, and the three warming treatments were symmetric (i.e. equal night-and-day) (DTR sym ), asymmetric warming with increased (DTR inc ) and decreased (DTR dec ) DTR. The warming treatments did not affect seed germination of invasive species under any of the conditions, but DTR sym and DTR inc increased seed germination of natives relative to the control, suggesting that warming may not increase success of these invasive plant species via effects on seed germination of invasive plants relative to native plants. The invasive plants had higher biomass and greater stem allocation than the native ones under all of the warming treatments. Wintertime warming increased the biomass of the invasive and wintertime DTR sym and DTR inc increased that of the native plants, whereas summertime asymmetric warming decreased the biomass of the invasives but not the natives. Therefore, warming may not facilitate invasion of these invasive species due to the suppressive effects of summertime warming (particularly the asymmetric warming) on growth. Compared with DTR sym , DTR dec decreased the biomass of

  19. Effectiveness of cuticular transpiration barriers in a desert plant at controlling water loss at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Ann-Christin; Burghardt, Markus; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Bueno, Amauri; Hedrich, Rainer; Leide, Jana; Thomas, Jacob; Riederer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of the cuticular transpiration barrier even at elevated temperatures is of vital importance especially for hot-desert plants. Currently, the temperature dependence of the leaf cuticular water permeability and its relationship with the chemistry of the cuticles are not known for a single desert plant. This study investigates whether (i) the cuticular permeability of a desert plant is lower than that of species from non-desert habitats, (ii) the temperature-dependent increase of permeability is less pronounced than in those species and (iii) whether the susceptibility of the cuticular permeability barrier to high temperatures is related to the amounts or properties of the cutin or the cuticular waxes. We test these questions with Rhazya stricta using the minimum leaf water vapour conductance (gmin) as a proxy for cuticular water permeability. gmin of R. stricta (5.41 × 10(-5) m s(-1) at 25 °C) is in the upper range of all existing data for woody species from various non-desert habitats. At the same time, in R. stricta, the effect of temperature (15-50 °C) on gmin (2.4-fold) is lower than in all other species (up to 12-fold). Rhazya stricta is also special since the temperature dependence of gmin does not become steeper above a certain transition temperature. For identifying the chemical and physical foundation of this phenomenon, the amounts and the compositions of cuticular waxes and cutin were determined. The leaf cuticular wax (251.4 μg cm(-2)) is mainly composed of pentacyclic triterpenoids (85.2% of total wax) while long-chain aliphatics contribute only 3.4%. In comparison with many other species, the triterpenoid-to-cutin ratio of R. stricta (0.63) is high. We propose that the triterpenoids deposited within the cutin matrix restrict the thermal expansion of the polymer and, thus, prevent thermal damage to the highly ordered aliphatic wax barrier even at high temperatures. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  20. Harmonization of the licensing process for digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This report was prepared in response to the recommendation of the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI). This recommendation was based on the recognition of the present diversity in national practices in licensing digital Instrumentation and control (I and C). The goal of this report is to promote harmonization of I and C licensing requirements in the Member States. It applies to I and C modernization, retrofits, upgrades, replacement, new installation, and other aspects of digital I and C in both existing and new nuclear power plants. It should be pointed out that a single publication, like this report, can only take the first step towards initiating a process leading to licensing requirements, which are more harmonized. It is therefore hoped that that this report will get a broad readership among those who can influence requirements that are set on digital I and C. This report provides general and high level recommendations to assist senior officials at utilities, vendor organizations, regulatory bodies, and their support organizations who are involved in the licensing of digital I and C. It is also intended to be read by persons participating in technical committees which are writing standards. The authors of this report believe that harmonization can be achieved through a consideration of the technical and scientific basis of high integrity digital I and C systems. It is also believed that many benefits can be reached in resolving various issues of a technical and engineering nature, which presently are creating controversies in the licensing of digital I and C in NPP safety applications. This publication is based on a consideration of the licensing process of I and C in a top down fashion to discuss generic principles to be applied when assessing digital I and C in NPP safety applications. This report gives an overview of the confidence building process in which evidence is created that digital I and C fulfils

  1. Plant Pathogenic Microbial Communication Affected by Elevated Temperature in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, N D; Chaudhary, A; Singh, S D; Singh, D; Walia, S; Das, T K

    2015-11-01

    Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria regulate specific gene expression in a population density-dependent manner by sensing level of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone (HSL) molecules which they produce and liberate to the environment, called Quorum Sensing (QS). The production of virulence factors (extracellular enzyme viz. cellulase, pectinase, etc.) in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) is under strong regulation of QS. The QS signal molecule, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-Homoserine Lactone (OHHL) was found as the central regulatory system for the virulence factor production in Pcc and is also under strict regulation of external environmental temperature. Under seven different incubation temperatures (24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 35, and 37 °C) in laboratory condition, highest amount of OHHL (804 violacein unit) and highest (79 %) Disease Severity Index (DSI) were measured at 33 °C. The OHHL production kinetics showed accumulation of highest concentration of OHHL at late log phase of the growth but diminution in the concentration occurred during stationary phase onwards to death phase. At higher temperature (35 and 37 °C) exposure, OHHL was not at detectable range. The effect of temperature on virulence factor production is the concomitant effect of HSL production and degradation which justifies less disease severity index in cross-inoculated tomato fruits incubated at 35 and 37 °C. The nondetection of the OHHL in the elevated temperature may because of degradation as these signal molecules are quite sensitive and prone to get degraded under different physical factors. This result provides the rationale behind the highest disease severity up to certain elevated temperature and leaves opportunities for investigation on mutation, co-evolution of superior plant pathogen with more stable HSL signals-mediated pathogenesis under global warming context.

  2. Effect of temperature on the pathogenesis, accumulation of viral and satellite RNAs and on plant proteome in peanut stunt virus and satellite RNA-infected plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra eObrępalska-Stęplowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is an important environmental factor influencing plant development in natural and diseased conditions. The growth rate of plants grown at 27°C is more rapid than for plants grown at 21°C. Thus, temperature affects the rate of pathogenesis progression in individual plants. We have analyzed the effect of temperature conditions (either 21°C or 27°C during the day on the accumulation rate of the virus and satellite RNA (satRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected by peanut stunt virus (PSV with and without its satRNA, at four time points. In addition, we extracted proteins from PSV and PSV+satRNA-infected plants harvested at 21 dpi, when disease symptoms began to appear on plants grown at 21°C and were well developed on those grown at 27°C, to assess the proteome profile in infected plants compared to mock-inoculated plants grown at these two temperatures, using 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry approaches. The accumulation rate of the viral RNAs and satRNA was more rapid at 27°C at the beginning of the infection and then rapidly decreased in PSV-infected plants. At 21 dpi, PSV and satRNA accumulation was higher at 21°C and had a tendency to increase further. In all studied plants grown at 27°C, we observed a significant drop in the identified proteins participating in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism at the proteome level, in comparison to plants maintained at 21°C. On the other hand, the proteins involved in protein metabolic processes were all more abundant in plants grown at 27°C. This was especially evident when PSV-infected plants were analyzed, where increase in abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis, degradation, and folding was revealed. In mock-inoculated and PSV-infected plants we found an increase in abundance of the majority of stress-related differently-regulated proteins and those associated with protein metabolism. In contrast, in PSV+satRNA-infected plants the shift in the

  3. EPRI instruments reach commercial market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has developed instruments capable of verifying time responses of power plant pressure sensors and temperature sensors. A patent is pending on the pressure-sensor device, and the temperature-sensor device is already commercially available. The devices, EPRI's first hardware products to be marketed, are the result of research to find technological solutions to the problems of knowing the time period when temperature and pressure changes occur in light water reactors. The hydraulic pressure-sensor device is a portable unit that can conveniently test equipment in place. Utilities can obtain detailed information from EPRI's project report to construct their own. The loop current step response (LCSR), measuring resistance temperature, is also a compact system suitable for in-plant testing

  4. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Keith F.; McMahon, Andrew M.; Ely, Kim S.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Rogers, Alistair

    2017-09-01

    Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. However, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by ˜ 1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be ˜ 2-3 °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW) chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. The approach we describe is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming approaches is desired.

  5. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Lewin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. However, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by  ∼  1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be  ∼  2–3 °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. The approach we describe is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming

  6. Technical and economic analysis of integrating low-medium temperature solar energy into power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fu; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Jun; Deng, Shuai; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of solar thermal energy. • Economic analysis was conducted on new built plants and retrofitted power plants. • Using solar thermal energy to preheat high pressure feedwater shows the best performance. - Abstract: In order to mitigate CO_2 emission and improve the efficiency of the utilization of solar thermal energy (STE), solar thermal energy is proposed to be integrated into a power plant. In this paper, seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of STE. A 300 MWe subcritical coal-fired plant was selected as the reference, chemical absorption using monoethanolamine solvent was employed for CO_2 ​capture, and parabolic trough collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used for STE collection. Both technical analysis and economic evaluation were conducted. Results show that integrating solar energy with post-combustion CO_2​ capture can effectively increase power generation and reduce the electrical efficiency penalty caused by CO_2 capture. Among the different configurations, Config-2 and Config-6, which use medium temperature STE to replace high pressure feedwater without and with CO_2 capture, show the highest net incremental solar efficiency. When building new plants, integrating solar energy can effectively reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The lowest LCOE, 99.28 USD/MWh, results from Config-6, with a parabolic trough collector price of 185 USD/m"2. When retrofitting existing power plants, Config-6 also shows the highest net present value (NPV), while Config-2 has the shortest payback time at a carbon tax of 50 USD/ton CO_2. In addition, both LCOE and NPV/payback time are clearly affected by the relative solar load fraction, the price of solar thermal collectors and the carbon tax. Comparatively, the carbon tax can affect the configurations with CO_2 capture more clearly than those without CO_2 capture.

  7. On exergy analysis of industrial plants and significance of ambient temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rian, Berit

    2011-07-01

    The exergy analysis has been a relatively mature theory for more than 30 years. However, it is not that developed in terms of procedures for optimizing systems, which partly explains why it is not that common. Misconceptions and prejudices, even among scientists, are also partly to blame.The main objective of this work was to contribute to the development of an understanding and methodology of the exergy analysis. The thesis was mainly based on three papers, two of which provided very different examples from existing industrial systems in Norway, thus showing the societal perspective in terms of resource utilization and thermodynamics. The last paper and the following investigation were limited to certain aspects of ambient conditions. Two Norwegian operational plants have been studied, one operative for close to 30 years (Kaarstoe steam production and distribution system), while the other has just started its expected 30 years of production (Snoehvit LNG plant). In addition to mapping the current operational status of these plants, the study of the Kaarstoe steam production and distribution system concluded that the potential for increasing the thermodynamic performance by rather cautious actions was significant, whereas the study of the Snoehvit LNG plant showed the considerable profit which the Arctic location provided in terms of reduced fuel consumption. The significance of the ambient temperature led to the study of systems with two ambient bodies (i.e. ambient water and ambient air) of different temperatures, here three different systems were investigated: A regenerative steam injection gas turbine (RSTIG), a simple Linde air liquefaction plant (Air Liq) and an air-source heat pump water heater (HPWH). In particular, the effect of the chosen environment on exergy analysis was negligible for RSTIG, modest for Air Liq and critical for HPWH. It was found that the amount of exergy received from the alternative ambient body, compared to the main exergy flow of

  8. Fluid selection and parametric analysis on condensation temperature and plant height for a thermogravimetric heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Behzad; Obando Vega, Pedro; Guilizzoni, Manfredo; Rinaldi, Fabio; Arosio, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The Thermogravimetric Heat Pump (TGHP) is a non-conventional system, implementing a reverse cycle, the main difference of which from the usual vapor compression (Rankine) cycle is a quasi-isothermal compression of the working fluid by a high heat capacity carrier fluid. Previous studies showed that employing HFC134a or PF5050 as working fluids may be promising in terms of thermodynamic performance, though the corresponding required plant heights confine its application to tall buildings (from minimum height of 10–12 storeys to skyscrapers). Accordingly, an investigation has been carried out in the present study in order to determine a group of fluids which allow lower heights under the same input conditions. In order to investigate the performance of the system and the required plant height, operation of a 100 kW TGHP has been simulated for 17 different fluids. Accordingly, the corresponding COPs and required heights are determined and based on the achieved COPs, the optimum fluid for each range of building height is selected. The resulting plant heights range from 20 m to nearly 200 m and R245ca is shown to be the most promising fluid for the lowest plant height range. A parametric study is next carried out in order to study the effect of variations in the condensation temperature and the dimensionless plant height on the performance of the system. The obtained results demonstrate that an increase in the former from 313 K to 348 K, for almost all of the analyzed fluids, causes a reduction of around 50% in the COP. It is also shown that, almost independent of the employed fluid, the maximum values of COP are reached for a dimensionless plant height of around 1.8. Moreover, all the analyzed fluids show basically the same COP trend and, at the same operating conditions, the COP values for all fluids are within a 10% range of variation. This leads to the conclusion that the thermophysical properties of the employed fluid mainly influences the required height of

  9. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125 degrees C and 250 degrees C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110 degrees C to 270 degrees C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252 degrees C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

  10. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.

    1994-06-01

    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125{degrees}C and 250{degrees}C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110{degrees}C to 270{degrees}C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252{degrees}C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  11. Positive effects of temperature and growth conditions on enzymatic and antioxidant status in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Hee-Ock; Heo, Buk-Gu; Gorinstein, Shela; Chon, Sang-Uk

    2011-10-01

    The contents of two bioactive compounds (polyphenols and flavonoids) and their antioxidant and enzyme activities were determined in the leaves of six lettuce (Latuca sativa L.) cultivars subjected to 4 different day/night temperatures for 6 weeks. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin contents and the corresponding antioxidant activities were the highest at 13/10°C and 20/13°C, followed by 25/20°C and 30/25°C. The enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were also the highest at low day/night temperatures, but the peroxidase (POD) activity was decreased at low day/night temperatures and increased at high day/night temperatures. The most significant positive correlation existed between anthocyanin content and PPO activity, total polyphenols and their antioxidant activities. The results showed that at relatively low temperatures, lettuce plants have a high antioxidant and enzymatic status. These results provide additional information for the lettuce growers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nickel-base alloy forgings for advanced high temperature power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donth, B.; Diwo, A.; Blaes, N.; Bokelmann, D. [Saarschmiede GmbH Freiformschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The strong efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions lead to the demand for improved thermal efficiency of coal fired power plants. An increased thermal efficiency can be realised by higher steam temperatures and pressures in the boiler and the turbine. The European development aims for steam temperatures of 700 C which requires the development and use of new materials and also associated process technology for large components. Temperatures of 700 C and above are too high for the application of ferritic steels and therefore only Nickel-Base Alloys can fulfill the required material properties. In particular the Nickel-Base Alloy A617 is the most candidate alloy on which was focused the investigation and development in several German and European programs during the last 10 years. The goal is to verify and improve the attainable material properties and ultrasonic detectability of large Alloy 617 forgings for turbine rotors and boiler parts. For many years Saarschmiede has been manufacturing nickel and cobalt alloys and is participating the research programs by developing the manufacturing routes for large turbine rotor forgings up to a maximum diameter of 1000 mm as well as for forged tubes and valve parts for the boiler side. The experiences in manufacturing and testing of very large forgings made from nickel base alloys for 700 C steam power plants are reported. (orig.)

  13. Entropy generation minimization: A practical approach for performance evaluation of temperature cascaded co-generation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a practical tool that employs entropy generation minimization (EGM) approach for an in-depth performance evaluation of a co-generation plant with a temperature-cascaded concept. Co-generation plant produces useful effect production sequentially, i.e., (i) electricity from the micro-turbines, (ii) low pressure steam at 250 °C or about 8-10 bars, (iii) cooling capacity of 4 refrigeration tones (Rtons) and (iv) dehumidification of outdoor air for air conditioned space. The main objective is to configure the most efficient configuration of producing power and heat. We employed entropy generation minimization (EGM) which reflects to minimize the dissipative losses and maximize the cycle efficiency of the individual thermally activated systems. The minimization of dissipative losses or EGM is performed in two steps namely, (i) adjusting heat source temperatures for the heat-fired cycles and (ii) the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA), to seek out the sensitivity of heat transfer areas, flow rates of working fluids, inlet temperatures of heat sources and coolant, etc., over the anticipated range of operation to achieve maximum efficiency. With EGM equipped with GA, we verified that the local minimization of entropy generation individually at each of the heat-activated processes would lead to the maximum efficiency of the system. © 2012.

  14. Monoglyceride contents in biodiesel from various plants oil and the effect to low temperature properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, L.; Wibowo, C. S.; Bethari, S. A.; Ufidian, D.; Anggarani, R.

    2018-03-01

    Monoglyceride is a by-product component of biodiesel process that relates to sedimentation problem at low temperature environment. To prevent the problem in using biodiesel-diesel fuel blends, it is necessary to limit of the monoglyceride content. The factor affecting monoglyceride content in biodiesel is the transesterification reaction and also the plant that is used. In this study, we investigate the monoglyceride content in biodiesel made from 4 plant oils; kemiri sunan (Reutealis trisperma) oil, coconut oil, nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) oil, and waste cooking oil. These oils are purified and checked for its critical properties then converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel tested refer to Standard National of Indonesia for biodiesel (SNI 7182:2015). The monoglyceride content of biodiesel from kemiri sunan (Reutealis trisperma) oil, coconut oil, nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) oil, and waste cooking oil, are 8.86%, 0.69%, 4.0%, and 2.69% consecutively. The low temperature properties represented by viscosity (@40 0C) for the 4 samples in the same order as before are 6.1 cSt, 2.7 cSt, 4.71 cSt, and 4.90 cSt. The cloud point is measured with the result of 30 °C, -20 °C, -60 °C and 30 °C respectively. The conclusions indicate that monoglyceride content can affect the low temperature properties of biodiesel.

  15. Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jürgen; Ladinig, Ursula; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproductive shoot, ice propagated throughout that entire shoot, but not into neighboring shoots. However, anatomical ice barriers within cushions were not detected. The naturally occurring temperature gradient within the cushion appeared to interrupt ice propagation thermally. Consequently, every reproductive shoot needed an autonomous ice nucleation event to initiate freezing. Ice nucleation was not only influenced by minimum temperatures but also by the duration of exposure. At moderate subzero exposure temperatures (−4.3 to −7.7 °C) the number of frozen inflorescences increased exponentially. Due to efficient supercooling, single reproductive shoots remained unfrozen down to −17.4 °C (cooling rate 6 K h−1). Hence, the observed freezing pattern may be advantageous for frost survival of individual inflorescences and reproductive success of high alpine cushion plants, when during episodic summer frosts damage can be avoided by supercooling. PMID:21151351

  16. Entropy generation minimization: A practical approach for performance evaluation of temperature cascaded co-generation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2012-10-01

    We present a practical tool that employs entropy generation minimization (EGM) approach for an in-depth performance evaluation of a co-generation plant with a temperature-cascaded concept. Co-generation plant produces useful effect production sequentially, i.e., (i) electricity from the micro-turbines, (ii) low pressure steam at 250 °C or about 8-10 bars, (iii) cooling capacity of 4 refrigeration tones (Rtons) and (iv) dehumidification of outdoor air for air conditioned space. The main objective is to configure the most efficient configuration of producing power and heat. We employed entropy generation minimization (EGM) which reflects to minimize the dissipative losses and maximize the cycle efficiency of the individual thermally activated systems. The minimization of dissipative losses or EGM is performed in two steps namely, (i) adjusting heat source temperatures for the heat-fired cycles and (ii) the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA), to seek out the sensitivity of heat transfer areas, flow rates of working fluids, inlet temperatures of heat sources and coolant, etc., over the anticipated range of operation to achieve maximum efficiency. With EGM equipped with GA, we verified that the local minimization of entropy generation individually at each of the heat-activated processes would lead to the maximum efficiency of the system. © 2012.

  17. Helium circulator design concepts for the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.; Kaufman, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Two helium circulators are featured in the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) power plant - (1) the main circulator, which facilitates the transfer of reactor thermal energy to the steam generator, and (2) a small shutdown cooling circulator that enables rapid cooling of the reactor system to be realized. The 3170 kW(e) main circulator has an axial flow compressor, the impeller being very similar to the unit in the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) plant. The 164 kW(e) shutdown cooling circulator, the design of which is controlled by depressurized conditions, has a radial flow compressor. Both machines are vertically oriented, have submerged electric motor drives, and embody rotors that are supported on active magnetic bearings. As outlined in this paper, both machines have been conservatively designed based on established practice. The circulators have features and characteristics that have evolved from actual plant operating experience. With a major goal of high reliability, emphasis has been placed on design simplicity, and both machines are readily accessible for inspection, repair, and replacement, if necessary. In this paper, conceptual design aspects of both machines are discussed, together with the significant technology bases. As appropriate for a plant that will see service well into the 21st century, new and emerging technologies have been factored into the design. Examples of this are the inclusion of active magnetic bearings, and an automated circulator condition monitoring system. (author). 18 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  18. Information integration in control rooms and technical offices in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The majority of the nuclear power plants in the world were designed 25 to 45 years ago. The information, instrumentation, safety, and control systems in these plant designs were based on analog, relay, and primitive digital technology. Computers that were available when most of the nuclear power plants were built were unsophisticated compared with those currently available. These less powerful machines with limited computational capabilities and memory were used to collect and store information. The main means for obtaining information from the plant were analog meters and strip chart recorders. In many cases these pieces of data had to be integrated and correlated with other data manually, in order to be usable. Procedures and plant information resided on paper only and were frequently hard to find and access in a timely manner. This report provides guidance to help with the integration of information in order to enhance the usability and usefulness of the information. It can also be used to help avoid the pitfalls that can occur when implementing new systems with respect to the information they need and produce. This reports philosophy is based on three important issues that allow the convenient structuring of the problem and to keep all of its important features. The first issue is the process of information systems integration and use. This is achieved by long term planning and the creation of the plant infrastructure plan. The second is to take care of the end users' needs in relation to their abilities. This is realized through analyses of user needs. Third is the design of the human-system interface (HSI), for example to distinguish between types of information for use in the plant control room and in technical offices. The development of this report was initiated by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). It is a logical follow-up to IAEA-TECDOC-1016, Modernization of Instrumentation and Control

  19. Effects of temperature, plant configuration and loading on the effluent concentration of biological sewage treatment plants; Einfluss von Temperatur, Anlagenkonfiguration und Auslastung auf die Ablaufkonzentration bei der biologischen Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durth, A.

    2000-07-01

    The design of wastewater treatment plants is generally based on the maximum growth rate of the nitrifiers, which is smaller and shows a stronger dependency on temperature than the growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria. This 'kinetic temperature influence' is usually described by exponential equations with a temperature coefficient {theta}. Using these equations for the design of treatment plants results in large volumes of the aeration basin, followed by high investment cost and consumption of large space. On the other hand, long-term effluent data from various plants reveal a small or even no temperature influence on the effluent concentrations. This effect has to be attributed to other influences, which can only be taken into account by modelling the process as a whole. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the temperature influence on the effluent concentration of biological treatment by modelling the entire treatment process. (orig.)

  20. Application of high temperature phase change materials for improved efficiency in waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Xu, Haoxin; Nardin, Gioacchino; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    This study reports the thermal analysis of a novel thermal energy storage based on high temperature phase change material (PCM) used to improve efficiency in waste-to-energy plants. Current waste-to-energy plants efficiency is limited by the steam generation cycle which is carried out with boilers composed by water-walls (i.e. radiant evaporators), evaporators, economizers and superheaters. Although being well established, this technology is subjected to limitations related with high temperature corrosion and fluctuation in steam production due to the non-homogenous composition of solid waste; this leads to increased maintenance costs and limited plants availability and electrical efficiency. The proposed solution in this paper consists of replacing the typical refractory brick installed in the combustion chamber with a PCM-based refractory brick capable of storing a variable heat flux and to release it on demand as a steady heat flux. By means of this technology it is possible to mitigate steam production fluctuation, to increase temperature of superheated steam over current corrosion limits (450°C) without using coated superheaters and to increase the electrical efficiency beyond 34%. In the current paper a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis has been carried out in order to compare the performance of the PCM-based refractory brick against the traditional alumina refractory bricks. The PCM considered in this paper is aluminium (and its alloys) whereas its container consists of high density ceramics (such as Al 2 O 3 , AlN and Si 3 N 4 ); the different coefficient of linear thermal expansion for the different materials requires a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis to be carried out to ascertain the feasibility of the proposed technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ozone-induced growth suppression in radish plants in relation to pre- and post-fumigation temperatures. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) were fumigated with ozone at a concentration of 25 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 3 h, before or after subjecting the plants to two growth temperature regimes. In the cultivar ''Cavalier'' ozone decreased leaf weight at the lower pre-fumigation day/night growth temperature regime of 20/15/sup 0/, but had no significant effect when the plants were either pre- or post-fumigation conditioned at the high temperatures of 30/25/sup 0/. In the cultivar ''Cherry Belle'', ozone decreased the leaf weight of only low temperature post-fumigation conditioned plants. Ozone had no significant effect on the total soluble carbohydrate concentration of ''Cherry Belle'', while it increased that of pre-fumigation conditioned ''Cavalier'' plants.

  2. High temperature electromagnetic extraction of corrosion products in electronuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Chenouard, J.; Fauvet, P.; Darras, R.; Dubourg, M.

    1981-01-01

    The high potential of an electromagnetic filter application, in the peculiar case of a primary circuit at its operating temperature, appears in estimative calculations, and appreciated in relation with the dimensions of an industrial plant. The physical characteristics of the filter which exert the greatest effects on the efficiency factor, on the critical velocity and likewise on the utilizable capacity of the matrix, are determined. A semi-empirical operating equation is derived from systematic measurements with a reduced scale filter, and its relation with the fundamental equation of efficiency is brought out. (author)

  3. Heat exchanger design considerations for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.; Van Hagan, T.H.; King, J.H.; Spring, A.H.

    1980-02-01

    Various aspects of the high-temperature heat exchanger conceptual designs for the gas turbine (HTGR-GT) and process heat (HTGR-PH) plants are discussed. Topics include technology background, heat exchanger types, surface geometry, thermal sizing, performance, material selection, mechanical design, fabrication, and the systems-related impact of installation and integration of the units in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. The impact of future technology developments, such as the utilization of nonmetallic materials and advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction, is also discussed

  4. Future needs for inelastic analysis in design of high-temperature nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The role that inelastic analyses play in the design of high-temperature nuclear plant components is described. The design methodology, which explicitly accounts for nonlinear material deformation and time-dependent failure modes, requires a significant level of realism in the prediction of structural response. Thus, material deformation and failure modeling are, along with computational procedures, key parts of the methodology. Each of these is briefly discussed along with validation by comparisons with benchmark structural tests, and problem areas and needs are discussed for each

  5. Performance Evaluation of Fabry-Perot Temperature Sensors in Nuclear Power Plant Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Talnagi, Joseph W.

    2003-01-01

    The Fiso Fabry-Perot fiber-optic temperature sensor was selected for performance evaluation and for potential application in nuclear power plants because of its unique interferometric sensing mechanism and data-processing technique, and its commercial availability. It employs a Fizeau interferometer and a charge-coupled device array to locate the position of the maximum interference fringe intensity, which is directly related to the environmental temperature. Consequently, the basic sensing mechanism is independent of the absolute transmitted light intensity, which is the most likely parameter to be affected by external harsh environments such as nuclear irradiation, high pressure/temperature, and cyclical vibration.This paper reports research on the performance of two Fiso Fabry-Perot temperature sensors in environmental conditions expected in nuclear power plants during both normal and abnormal (i.e., accident) conditions. The environmental conditions simulated in this paper include gamma-only ( 60 Co) irradiation, pressure/temperature environmental transient, and mixed neutron/gamma field, respectively.The first sensor exhibited no failure or degradation in performance during and following gamma-only irradiation in which a total dose of 15 kGy was delivered at a dose rate of 2.5 kGy/h. Following gamma irradiation, this sensor was then tested for 10.75 days in a thermohydraulic environment prescribed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE323-1983. Intermittent behavior was observed throughout the latter portions of this test, and degradation in performance occurred after the test. Visual evaluation after opening the sensor head indicated that the internal welding methodology was the primary contributor to the observed behavior during this test. Further consultation with the vendor shows that the robustness and reliability of Fiso sensors can be substantially improved by modifying the internal welding methods.The second Fiso temperature

  6. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  7. High temperature corrosion in the service environments of a nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear process heat plant the heat-exchanging components fabricated from nickel- and Fe-Ni-based alloys are subjected to corrosive service environments at temperatures up to 950 0 C for service lives of up to 140 000 h. In this paper the corrosion behaviour of the high temperature alloys in the different service environments will be described. It is shown that the degree of protection provided by Cr 2 O 3 -based surface oxide scales against carburization and decarburization of the alloys is primarily determined not by the oxidation potential of the atmospheres but by a dynamic process involving, on the one hand, the oxidizing gas species and the metal and, on the other hand, the carbon in the alloy and the oxide scale. (orig.)

  8. Degradation evaluation of high temperature pipeline material for power plant using ultrasonic noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Chung, Min Hwa; Cho, Yong Sang; Lee, In Cheol

    2001-01-01

    Boiler high-temperature pipelines such as main steam pipe, header and steam drum in fossil power plants are degraded by creep and thermal fatigue damage due to severe operating conditions such as high temperature and high pressure for an extended period time. Conventional measurement techniques for measuring creep damage have such disadvantages as complex preparation and measurement procedures, too many control parameters. And also these techniques have low practicality and applied only to component surfaces with good accessibility. In this paper, artificial degradation test and ultrasonic measurement for their degraded specimens were carried out for the purpose of evaluation for creep and thermal fatigue damage. Absolute measuring method of quantitative ultrasonic measurement for material degradation was established, and long term creep/thermal fatigue degradation tests using life prediction formula were carried out. As a result of ultrasonic tests for crept and thermal fatigued specimens, we conformed that the ultrasonic noise linearly increased in proportion to the increase of degradation.

  9. The performance of alloy 625 in the high temperature application of Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, J.; Dey, G.K.; Sundararaman, M.; Dubey, J.S.; De, P.K.; Kumar, Niraj

    2006-01-01

    Wrought and centrifugally cast alloy 625 tubes are used in the cracker units of ammonia based Heavy Water Plants (HWP). During the service of about 100,000 h, the ammonia cracker tubes, predictably, have been exposed to temperatures below 600degC to above 765degC and have undergone several hundreds of start-shutdown cycles, producing several ordered phases in the alloy. To understand the effect of the ordered phases on the structure properties, Alloy 625 samples were aged at 540degC, 700degC and 850degC temperatures, for duration up to 1200 h. Results were compared with that of cast and wrought Alloy 625 samples, which aged during the service of 100,000 h and that failed during the service after about 24,000 h along with that of aged samples, which were resolutionised at 1170degC for 2h. (author)

  10. High temperature corrosion in straw-fired power plants: Influence of steam/metal temperature on corrosion rates for TP347H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Biede, O; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion in straw-fired boilers has been investigated at various straw-fired power plants in Denmark. Water/air-cooled probes, a test superheater and test sections removed from the actual superheater have been utilised to characterise corrosion and corrosion rates. This paper describes...... the corrosion rates measured for the TP347H type steel. The corrosion morphology at high temperature consists of grain boundary attack and selective attack of chromium. The corrosion rate increases with calculated metal temperature (based on steam temperature), however there is great variation within....... The difference in the results could be traced back to a lower flue gas temperature on one side of the boiler. Although metal temperature is the most important parameter with respect to corrosion rate, flue gas temperature also plays an important role. Efforts to quantify the effect of flue gas temperature...

  11. Improved flooding tolerance and carbohydrate status of flood-tolerant plant Arundinella anomala at lower water temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qi Ye

    Full Text Available Operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China imposes a new water fluctuation regime, including a prolonged winter submergence in contrast to the natural short summer flooding of the rivers. The contrasting water temperature regimes may remarkably affect the survival of submerged plants in the TGR. Plant survival in such prolonged flooding might depend on the carbohydrate status of the plants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water temperature on survival and carbohydrate status in a flood-tolerant plant species and predicted that both survival and carbohydrate status would be improved by lower water temperatures.A growth chamber experiment with controlled water temperature were performed with the flood-tolerant species Arundinella anomala from the TGR region. The plants were submerged (80 cm deep water above soil surface with a constant water temperature at 30°C, 20°C or 10°C. The water temperature effects on survival, plant biomass and carbohydrate content (glucose, fructose and sucrose and starch in the viable and dead tissues were investigated.The results showed that the survival percentage of A.anomala plants was greatly dependent on water temperature. The two-month submergence survival percentage was 100% at 10°C, 40% at 20°C and 0% at 30°C. Decreasing the water temperature led to both later leaf death and slower biomass loss. Temperature decrease also induced less reduction in glucose, fructose and sucrose in the roots and leaves (before decay, p 0.05. Different water temperatures did not alter the carbon pool size in the stems, leaves and whole plants (p > 0.05, but a clear difference was found in the roots (p < 0.05, with a larger pool size at a lower temperature.We concluded that (1 A. anomala is characterized by high flooding tolerance and sustained capability to mobilize carbohydrate pool. (2 The survival percentage and carbohydrate status of submerged A. anomala plants were remarkably improved by lower water

  12. Plant community responses to simultaneous changes in temperature, nitrogen availability, and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Gornish

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of change in climate have been observed across the planet and have contributed to the ongoing range shifts observed for many species. Although ecologists are now using a variety of approaches to study how much and through what mechanisms increasing temperature and nutrient pollution may influence the invasions inherent in range shifts, accurate predictions are still lacking.In this study, we conducted a factorial experiment, simultaneously manipulating warming, nitrogen addition and introduction of Pityopsis aspera, to determine how range-shifting species affect a plant community. We quantified the resident community using ordination scores, then used structural equation modeling to examine hypotheses related to how plants respond to a network of experimental treatments and environmental variables. Variation in soil pH explained plant community response to nitrogen addition in the absence of invasion. However, in the presence of invasion, the direct effect of nitrogen on the community was negligible and soil moisture was important for explaining nitrogen effects. We did not find effects of warming on the native plant community in the absence of invasion. In the presence of invasion, however, warming had negative effects on functional richness directly and invasion and herbivory explained the overall positive effect of warming on the plant community.This work highlights the variation in the biotic and abiotic factors responsible for explaining independent and collective climate change effects over a short time scale. Future work should consider the complex and non-additive relationships among factors of climate change and invasion in order to capture more ecologically relevant features of our changing environment.

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist's Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately

  14. Automated instruments for in-line accounting of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Sandford, E.L.; Stephens, M.M.; Brumfield, T.L.; Smith, S.E.; McCullough, E.E.; Jeter, I.W.; Bowers, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Two automated nondestructive assay instruments developed at Los Alamos in support of nuclear materials accounting needs are currently operating in-line at the Oak Ridge Y-12 facility for recovery of highly enriched uranium (HEU). One instrument provides the HEU inventory in the secondary solvent extraction system, and the other monitors HEU concentration in the secondary intermediate evaporator. Both instruments were installed in December 1982. Operational evaluation of these instruments was a joint effort of Y-12 and Los Alamos personnel. This evaluation included comparison of the solvent extraction system inventories with direct measurements performed on the dumped solution components of the solvent extraction system and comparison of concentration assay results with the external assays of samples withdrawn from the process. The function and design of the instruments and detailed results of the operational evaluation are reported

  15. Prediction of concrete compressive strength considering humidity and temperature in the construction of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seung Hee; Jang, Kyung Pil [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Jin-Wook [Department of Civil Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Hwa [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Yong, E-mail: yunkim@cnu.ac.kr [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Compressive strength tests for three concrete mixes were performed. • The parameters of the humidity-adjusted maturity function were determined. • Strength can be predicted considering temperature and relative humidity. - Abstract: This study proposes a method for predicting compressive strength developments in the early ages of concretes used in the construction of nuclear power plants. Three representative mixes with strengths of 6000 psi (41.4 MPa), 4500 psi (31.0 MPa), and 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) were selected and tested under various curing conditions; the temperature ranged from 10 to 40 °C, and the relative humidity from 40 to 100%. In order to consider not only the effect of the temperature but also that of humidity, an existing model, i.e. the humidity-adjusted maturity function, was adopted and the parameters used in the function were determined from the test results. A series of tests were also performed in the curing condition of a variable temperature and constant humidity, and a comparison between the measured and predicted strengths were made for the verification.

  16. Host Resistance and Temperature-Dependent Evolution of Aggressiveness in the Plant Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengping Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how habitat heterogeneity may affect the evolution of plant pathogens is essential to effectively predict new epidemiological landscapes and manage genetic diversity under changing global climatic conditions. In this study, we explore the effects of habitat heterogeneity, as determined by variation in host resistance and local temperature, on the evolution of Zymoseptoria tritici by comparing the aggressiveness development of five Z. tritici populations originated from different parts of the world on two wheat cultivars varying in resistance to the pathogen. Our results show that host resistance plays an important role in the evolution of Z. tritici. The pathogen was under weak, constraining selection on a host with quantitative resistance but under a stronger, directional selection on a susceptible host. This difference is consistent with theoretical expectations that suggest that quantitative resistance may slow down the evolution of pathogens and therefore be more durable. Our results also show that local temperature interacts with host resistance in influencing the evolution of the pathogen. When infecting a susceptible host, aggressiveness development of Z. tritici was negatively correlated to temperatures of the original collection sites, suggesting a trade-off between the pathogen’s abilities of adapting to higher temperature and causing disease and global warming may have a negative effect on the evolution of pathogens. The finding that no such relationship was detected when the pathogen infected the partially resistant cultivars indicates the evolution of pathogens in quantitatively resistant hosts is less influenced by environments than in susceptible hosts.

  17. Economic analysis of multiple-module high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTR) nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu; Dong Yujie

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, as the increasing demand of energy all over the world, and the pressure on greenhouse emissions, there's a new opportunity for the development of nuclear energy. Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTR) received recognition for its inherent safety feature and high outlet temperature. Whether the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor would be accepted extensively, its economy is a key point. In this paper, the methods of qualitative analysis and the method of quantitative analysis, the economic models designed by Economic Modeling Working Group (EMWG) of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), as well as the HTR-PM's main technical features, are used to analyze the economy of the MHTR. A prediction is made on the basis of summarizing High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor module characteristics, construction cost, total capital cost, fuel cost and operation and maintenance (O and M) cost and so on. In the following part, comparative analysis is taken measures to the economy and cost ratio of different designs, to explore the impacts of modularization and standardization on the construction of multiple-module reactor nuclear power plant. Meanwhile, the analysis is also adopted in the research of key factors such as the learning effect and yield to find out their impacts on the large scale development of MHTR. Furthermore, some reference would be provided to its wide application based on these analysis. (author)

  18. Deployment of quasi-digital sensor for high temperature molten salt level measurement in pyroprocessing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Ramesh; Agarwal, Sourabh; Sivaramakrishna, M.; Rao, G. Prabhakara

    2018-04-01

    Development of a liquid molten salt level sensor device that can detect the level of liquid molten salt in the process vessels of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent metallic fuels is detailed. It is proposed to apply a resistive-type pulsating sensor-based level measurement approach. There are no commercially available sensors due to limitations of high temperature, radiation, and physical dimensions. A compact, simple, rugged, low power, and high precise pulsating sensor-based level probe and simple instrumentation for the molten salt liquid level sensor to work in the extreme conditions has been indigenously developed, with high precision and accuracy. The working principle, design concept, and results have been discussed. This level probe is mainly composed of the variable resistor made up of ceramic rods. This resistor constitutes the part of resistance-capacitance-type Logic Gate Oscillator (LGO). A change in the molten salt level inside the tank causes a small change in the resistance which in turn changes the pulse frequency of the LGO. Thus the frequency, the output of the instrument that is displayed on the LCD of an embedded system, is a function of molten salt level. In the present design, the range of level measurement is about 10 mm. The sensitivity in position measurement up to 10 mm is ˜2.5 kHz/mm.

  19. Effects of Environmental Temperature Change on the Efficiency of Coal- and Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Candise L; Pratson, Lincoln F

    2016-09-06

    Modeling studies predict that droughts and hotter water and air temperatures caused by climate warming will reduce the efficiency (η) of thermoelectric plants by 0.12-0.45% for each 1 °C of warming. We evaluate these predictions using historical performance data for 39 open- and closed-loop coal and natural gas plants from across the U.S., which operated under daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations multiples greater than future average warming projections. Seven to 14 years of hourly water (Tw), dry-bulb air (Ta), and wet-bulb air (Twb) temperature recordings collected near each plant are regressed against efficiency to attain estimates of Δη per 1 °C increase. We find reductions in η with increased Tw (for open-loop plants) up to 1 order of magnitude less than previous estimates. We also find that changes in η associated with changes in Ta (open-loop plants) or Twb (closed-loop plants) are not only smaller than previous estimates but also variable; i.e., η rises with Ta or Twb for some plants and falls for others. Our findings suggest that thermoelectric plants, particularly closed-loop plants, should be more resilient to climate warming than previously expected.

  20. Application range affected by software failures in safety relevant instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jopen, Manuela; Mbonjo, Herve; Sommer, Dagmar; Ulrich, Birte

    2017-03-01

    This report presents results that have been developed within a BMUB-funded research project (Promotion Code 3614R01304). The overall objective of this project was to broaden the knowledge base of GRS regarding software failures and their impact in software-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. To this end, relevant definitions and terms in standards and publications (DIN, IEEE standards, IAEA standards, NUREG publications) as well as in the German safety requirements for nuclear power plants were analyzed first. In particular, it was found that the term ''software fault'' is defined differently and partly contradictory in the considered literature sources. For this reason, a definition of software fault was developed on the basis of the software life cycle of software-based I and C systems within the framework of this project, which takes into account the various aspects relevant to software faults and their related effects. It turns out that software failures result from latent faults in a software-based control system, which can lead to a non-compliant behavior of a software-based I and C system. Hereby a distinction should be made between programming faults and specification faults. In a further step, operational experience with software failures in software-based I and C systems in nuclear facilities and in nonnuclear sector was investigated. The identified events were analyzed with regard to their cause and impacts and the analysis results were summarized. Based on the developed definition of software failure and on the COMPSIS-classification scheme for events related to software based I and C systems, the COCS-classification scheme was developed to classify events from operating experience with software failures, in which the events are classified according to the criteria ''cause'', ''affected system'', ''impact'' and ''CCF potential''. This classification scheme was applied to evaluate the events identified in the framework of this project

  1. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S. [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R. [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  2. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  3. Oxidation performance of high temperature steels and coatings for future supercritical power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma; Toivonen, Aki; Penttilae, Sami [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Haekkilae, Juha [Foster Wheeler Energia, Varkaus (Finland); Aguero, Alina; Gutierrez, Marcos; Muelas, Raul [INTA, Madrid (Spain); Fry, Tony [NPL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The operating efficiency of current and future thermal power plants is largely dependent on the applied temperature and pressure, which are in part limited by the internal oxidation resistance of the structural materials in the steam systems. Alternative and reference materials for such systems have been tested within the COST 536 (ACCEPT) project, including bulk reference materials (ferritic P92 and austenitic 316 LN steels) and several types of coatings under supercritical combined (oxygen) water chemistry (150 ppb DO) at 650 C/300 bar. The testing results from a circulating USC autoclave showed that under such conditions the reference bulk steels performed poorly, with extensive oxidation already after relatively short term exposure to the supercritical medium. Better protection was attained by suitable coatings, although there were clear differences in the protective capabilities between different coating types, and some challenges remain in applying (and repairing) coatings for the internal surfaces of welded structures. The materials performance seems to be worse in supercritical than in subcritical conditions, and this appears not to be only due to the effect of temperature. The implications are considered from the point of view of the operating conditions and materials selection for future power plants. (orig.)

  4. Plant accident dynamics of high-temperature reactors with direct gas turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waloch, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    In the paper submitted, a one-dimensional accident simulation model for high-temperature reactors with direct-cycle gas turbine (single-cycle facilities) is described. The paper assesses the sudden failure of a gas duct caused by the double-ended break of one out of several parallel pipes before and behind the reactor for a non-integrated plant, leading to major loads in the reactor region, as well as the complete loss of vanes of the compressor for an integrated plant. The results of the calculations show especially high loads for the break of a hot-gas pipe immediately behind the flow restrictors of the reactor outlet, because of prolonged effects of pressure gradients in the reactor region and the maximum core differential pressure. A plant accident dynamics calculation therefore allows to find a compromise between the requirements of stable compressor operation, on the one hand, and small loads in the reactor in the course of an accident, on the other, by establishing in a co-ordinated manner the narrowing ratio of the flow restrictors. (GL) [de

  5. Time response prediction of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant temperature sensors using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: rcsantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the results of the time constants values predicted from ANN using Angra I Brazilian nuclear power plant data. The signals obtained from LCSR loop current step response test sensors installed in the process presents noise end fluctuations that are inherent of operational conditions. Angra I nuclear power plant has 20 RTDs as part of the protection reactor system. The results were compared with those obtained from traditional way. Primary coolant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector) typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. An in-situ test method called LCSR - loop current step response test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the response time of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat transfer model. For this reason, this calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. This work combines the two methodologies, Plunge test and LCSR test, using neural networks. With the use of neural networks it will not be necessary to use the LCSR transformation to determine sensor's time constant and this leads to more robust results. (author)

  6. Time response prediction of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant temperature sensors using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the time constants values predicted from ANN using Angra I Brazilian nuclear power plant data. The signals obtained from LCSR loop current step response test sensors installed in the process presents noise end fluctuations that are inherent of operational conditions. Angra I nuclear power plant has 20 RTDs as part of the protection reactor system. The results were compared with those obtained from traditional way. Primary coolant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector) typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. An in-situ test method called LCSR - loop current step response test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the response time of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat transfer model. For this reason, this calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. This work combines the two methodologies, Plunge test and LCSR test, using neural networks. With the use of neural networks it will not be necessary to use the LCSR transformation to determine sensor's time constant and this leads to more robust results. (author)

  7. Leaf temperature and transpiration of rice plants in relation to short-wave radiation and wind speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, D.; Haseba, T.

    1984-01-01

    Leaf temperature and transpiration amount of rice plants were measured in a steady environment in a laboratory and in field situations. The plants set in Wagner pots were used. Experiments were carried out at the tillering and booting stages, and on the date of maturity. Measured leaf temperatures and transpiration rates were analyzed in connection with incident short-wave radiation on a leaf and wind speed measured simultaneously.Instantaneous supplying and turning-off of steady artificial light caused cyclic changes in leaf temperature and transpiration. Leaf temperature dropped in feeble illumination compared with the steady temperature in the preceeding dark.On the date of maturity, a rice plant leaf was warmer than the air, even in feeble light. Then, the leaf-air temperature difference and transpiration rate showed approximately linear increases with short-wave radiation intensity. On the same date, an increase in wind speed produced a decrease in leaf-air temperature difference, i.e., leaf temperature dropped, and an increase in transpiration rate. The rates of both changes in leaf temperature and transpiration rate were fairly large in a range of wind speed below about 1m/s.For rice plants growing favorably from the tillering stage through the booting stage, the leaves were considerably cooler than the air, even in an intense light and/or solar radiation. The leaf temperature showed the lowest value at short-wave radiations between 0.15 and 0.20ly/min, at above which the leaf temperature rised with an increase in short-wave radiation until it approached the air temperature. Transpiration rate of rice plants increased rapidly with an increase in short-wave radiation ranging below 0.2 or 0.3ly/min, at above which the increase in transpiration rate slowed.The relationships between leaf temperature and/or transpiration rate and wind speed and/or incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) which were obtained experimentally, supported the relationships

  8. Joint implementation as an instrument for the market introduction of solar thermal power plants; Joint Implementation als Instrument zur Markteinfuehrung Solarthermischer Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trieb, F.; Nitsch, J.; Fischedick, M.; Luhmann, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    The term ``Joint implementation`` (JI) describes an international manageable tool to reduce the global emission of greenhouse gases, especially carbondioxide (CO{sub 2}). The principle idea of JI is based on the insight that it is of no importance where on earth CO{sub 2} is emitted or conserved. Hence it is only recommendable from the economic point of view to make investments at those locations where the highest conservation can be achieved by an equal use of capital. JI would help industrial countries to fulfil cost-effectively part of their obligation to reduce CO{sub 2} by higher investments in other countries (e.g. for the improvement of energy efficiency). Solar power plants meet all criteria of a successful JI-project approach and show several positive ecological and socio-economic side effects, which can lead in the medium term to environmentally friendly and economic electricity supply. One precondition is that the phase of market introduction will be soon followed by a phase of mass production which fully uses the present potential of this technology to reduce costs by approx. 50 %. The project THESUS on Crete is an important step towards market introduction and shows the importance of solar thermal power plants for climate protection. Above all it is an important European step towards a long-term energy supply. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Der Begriff `Joint Implementation` (JI) beinhaltet ein international handhabbares Instrumentarium zur Minderung des globalen Ausstosses von Treibhausgasen, insbesondere des Kohlendioxids (CO{sub 2}). Die Grundidee von JI beruht auf der Erkenntnis, dass es ohne Belang ist, an welcher Stelle der Erdoberflaeche CO{sub 2} emitiert oder eingespart wird. Aus oekonomischer Sichtweise liegt es daher nahe, Investitionen dort vorzunehmen, wo bei gleichem Kapitaleinsatz die groessten Einsparungen erzielt werden koennen. Mit JI koennten die Industrielaender einen Teil ihrer Verpflichtungen zur CO{sub 2}-Minderung durch verstaerkte

  9. Predicting plant performance under simultaneously changing environmental conditions – the interplay between temperature, light and internode growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eKahlen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant performance is significantly influenced by prevailing light and temperature conditions during plant growth and development. For plants exposed to natural fluctuations in abiotic environmental conditions it is however laborious and cumbersome to experimentally assign any contribution of individual environmental factors to plant responses. This study aimed at analyzing the interplay between light, temperature and internode growth based on model approaches. We extended the light-sensitive virtual plant model L-Cucumber by implementing a common Arrhenius function for appearance rates, growth rates and growth durations. For two greenhouse experiments, the temperature-sensitive model approach resulted in a precise prediction of cucumber mean internode lengths and number of internodes, as well as in accurately predicted patterns of individual internode lengths along the main stem. In addition, a system’s analysis revealed that environmental data averaged over the experimental period were not necessarily related to internode performance. Finally, the need for a species-specific parameterization of the temperature response function and related aspects in modelling temperature effects on plant development and growth is discussed.

  10. Instrument failure detection of flow measurement in the feedwater system of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, A.

    1990-12-01

    The applicability of two different methods for early detection of instrument failures of the flow measurement in feedwater systems are investigated. Both methods are based on Kalman filtering technique of stochastic processes. The reliability of the model for description of a feedwater system is checked by comparing calculated values with measured data. Possible instrument failures are simulated in order to show the capability of the proposed procedures. A practical measurement system arrangement is suggested. (author) 10 refs.; 16 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. Influencing governance of a public-private partnership in plant genomics: The societal interface group as a new instrument for public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Lucien; Gremmen, Bart

    2013-08-01

    The Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG) is a Dutch public-private partnership in plant genomics active in potato and tomato research and exploitation. Its Societal Interface Group (SIG) has been developed to inform its communication strategy and governance practice. This new instrument identifies and discusses early signals from society by bringing together people from different societal backgrounds with members of CBSG management. This interactive learning process facilitates the inclusion of public concerns and needs in scientific developments in the field of plant genomics, and simultaneously enables genomics scientists to search for more societal aims, meanings, and starting points for their research agenda. Analysis of the SIG sessions revealed that the input of public expertise is not threatening or irrational, but provides the opportunity to harness the creative potential of future users highly relevant for the development of societal practices in which plant genomics plays a role.

  12. Modeling the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat plant: a nuclear to chemical conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfremmer, R.D.; Openshaw, F.L.

    1982-05-01

    The high-temperature heat available from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) makes it suitable for many process applications. One of these applications is a large-scale energy production plant where nuclear energy is converted into chemical energy and stored for industrial or utility applications. This concept combines presently available nuclear HTGR technology and energy conversion chemical technology. The design of this complex plant involves questions of interacting plant dynamics and overall plant control. This paper discusses how these questions were answered with the aid of a hybrid computer model that was developed within the time-frame of the conceptual design studies. A brief discussion is given of the generally good operability shown for the plant and of the specific potential problems and their anticipated solution. The paper stresses the advantages of providing this information in the earliest conceptual phases of the design

  13. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  14. The effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on nutrient uptake by plants grown in basaltic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor Iribe, E.; Dontsova, K.; Juarez, S.; Le Galliard, J. F.; Chollet, S.; Llavata, M.; Massol, F.; Barré, P.; Gelabert, A.; Daval, D.; Troch, P.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Ferrière, R.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in soil formation. The interactions between the hydrologic, geologic and atmospheric cycles often determine the rate at which weathering occurs. Elements and nutrients weathered from the soil by water can be removed from soils in the runoff and seepage, but they can also remain in situ as newly precipitated secondary minerals or in biomass as a result of plant uptake. Here we present data from an experiment that was conducted at the controlled environment facility, Ecotron Ile-de-France (Saint-Pierre-les-Nemours, France) that studied mineral weathering and plant growth in granular basaltic material with high glass content that is being used to simulate soil in large scale Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) project. The experiment used 3 plant types: velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), green spangletop (Leptochloa dubia), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which were grown under varying temperature and CO2 conditions. We hypothesized that plants grown under warmer, higher CO2 conditions would have larger nutrient concentrations as more mineral weathering would occur. Results of plant digestions and analysis showed that plant concentrations of lithogenic elements were significantly influenced by the plant type and were different between above- and below-ground parts of the plant. Temperature and CO2 treatment effects were less pronounced, but we observed significant temperature effect on plant uptake. A number of major and trace elements showed increase in concentration with increase in temperature at elevated atmospheric CO2. Effect was observed both in the shoots and in the roots, but more significant differences were observed in the shoots. Results presented here indicate that climate change would have strong effect on plant uptake and mobility of weathered elements during soil formation and give further evidence of interactions between abiotic and biological processes in terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Development project HTR-electricity-generating plant, concept design of an advanced high-temperature reactor steam cycle plant with spherical fuel elements (HTR-K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The report gives a survey of the principal work which was necessary to define the design criteria, to determine the main design data, and to design the principal reactor components for a large steam cycle plant. It is the objective of the development project to establish a concept design of an edvanced steam cycle plant with a pebble bed reactor to permit a comparison with the direct-cycle-plant and to reach a decision on the concept of a future high-temperature nuclear power plant. It is tried to establish a largerly uniform basic concept of the nuclear heat-generating systems for the electricity-generating and the process heat plant. (orig.) [de

  16. Dynamic On-Chip micro Temperature and Flow Sensor for miniaturized lab-on-a-chip instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to design, fabricate, and characterize a Dynamic On-Chip Flow and Temperature Sensor (DOCFlaTS) to mature and enable miniaturized...

  17. Development of analytical code `ACCORD` for incore and plant dynamics of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Itakura, Hirofumi

    1996-11-01

    Safety demonstration test of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor will be carried out to demonstrate excellent safety features of a next generation High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Analytical code for incore and plant dynamics is necessary to assess the results of the safety demonstration test and to perform a design and safety analysis of the next generation HTGR. Existing analytical code for incore and plant dynamics of the HTGR can analyze behavior of plant system for only several thousand seconds after an event occurrence. Simulator on site can analyze only behavior of specific plant system. The `ACCORD` code has been, therefore, developed to analyze the incore and plant dynamics of the HTGR. The followings are the major characteristics of this code. (1) Plant system can be analyzed for over several thousand seconds after an event occurrence by modeling the heat capacity of the core. (2) Incore and plant dynamics of any plant system can be analyzed by rearranging packages which simulate plant system components one by one. (3) Thermal hydraulics for each component can be analyzed by separating heat transfer calculation for component from fluid flow calculation for helium and pressurized water systems. The validity of the `ACCORD` code including models for nuclear calculation, heat transfer and fluid flow calculation, control system and safety protection system, was confirmed through cross checks with other available codes. (author)

  18. Development of analytical code 'ACCORD' for incore and plant dynamics of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Itakura, Hirofumi.

    1996-11-01

    Safety demonstration test of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor will be carried out to demonstrate excellent safety features of a next generation High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Analytical code for incore and plant dynamics is necessary to assess the results of the safety demonstration test and to perform a design and safety analysis of the next generation HTGR. Existing analytical code for incore and plant dynamics of the HTGR can analyze behavior of plant system for only several thousand seconds after an event occurrence. Simulator on site can analyze only behavior of specific plant system. The 'ACCORD' code has been, therefore, developed to analyze the incore and plant dynamics of the HTGR. The followings are the major characteristics of this code. (1) Plant system can be analyzed for over several thousand seconds after an event occurrence by modeling the heat capacity of the core. (2) Incore and plant dynamics of any plant system can be analyzed by rearranging packages which simulate plant system components one by one. (3) Thermal hydraulics for each component can be analyzed by separating heat transfer calculation for component from fluid flow calculation for helium and pressurized water systems. The validity of the 'ACCORD' code including models for nuclear calculation, heat transfer and fluid flow calculation, control system and safety protection system, was confirmed through cross checks with other available codes. (author)

  19. HTGR nuclear power plants: features of the VGR-50 high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, V.P.; Bogoyavlenskii, R.G.; Glushkov, E.S.; Grebennik, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Vinogradov, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    Current developmental trends in the power industry are guided to an appreciable extent by the increasing shortages of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas) and by ecological problems. Assuming a continuing trend in worldwide consumption of energy resources, we see the electric power industry using up 20%, the other 80% (petroleum, coal, natural gas) going into generating industrial process heat and space heat, transportation, the chemical processing industry, the metallurgical industry, and other branches of industry. In the future, nuclear power will have the job of not only meeting the needs of the electric power industry, but also generating process heat. The most promising type of nuclear power plant available for solving complex problems in generation of electric power and heat for technological processes in the metallurgical processing industry and chemical processing industry is the one based around high-temperature reactors

  20. Plant nutrient mobilization in temperate heathland responds to elevated CO2, temperature and drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise C.; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Temperate terrestrial ecosystems are currently exposed to increased atmospheric CO2 and progressive climatic changes with increased temperature and periodical drought. We here present results from a field experiment, where the effects of these three main climate change related factors...... decreased in response to drought. These complex changes in availability and release of nutrients from soil organic matter turnover and mineralization in response to elevated CO2 and climate change may influence the future plant carbon sequestration and species composition at temperate heathlands....... in Deschampsia soil, and microbial immobilization of N and P decreased in warmed Calluna soil. Warming tended to increase microbial N and P in Calluna but not in Deschampsia soil in fall, and more microbial C was accumulated under drought in Calluna soil. The effects of warming were often counteracted or erased...