WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant stomata requires

  1. Closing plant stomata requires a homolog of an aluminum-activated malate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Mori, Izumi C; Furuichi, Takuya; Munemasa, Shintaro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-03-01

    Plant stomata limit both carbon dioxide uptake and water loss; hence, stomatal aperture is carefully set as the environment fluctuates. Aperture area is known to be regulated in part by ion transport, but few of the transporters have been characterized. Here we report that AtALMT12 (At4g17970), a homolog of the aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) of wheat, is expressed in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss-of-function mutations in AtALMT12 impair stomatal closure induced by ABA, calcium and darkness, but do not abolish either the rapidly activated or the slowly activated anion currents previously identified as being important for stomatal closure. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, AtALMT12 facilitates chloride and nitrate currents, but not those of organic solutes. Therefore, we conclude that AtALMT12 is a novel class of anion transporter involved in stomatal closure.

  2. [Coordination effect between vapor water loss through plant stomata and liquid water supply in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC): a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Min; Qi, Hua; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhang, Xuan

    2008-09-01

    Some important phenomena and behaviors concerned with the coordination effect between vapor water loss through plant stomata and liquid water supply in SPAC were discussed in this paper. A large amount of research results showed that plants show isohydric behavior when the plant hydraulic and chemical signals cooperate to promote the stomatal regulation of leaf water potential. The feedback response of stomata to the change of environmental humidity could be used to explain the midday depression of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis under drought condition, and also, to interpret the correlation between stomatal conductance and hydraulic conductance. The feed-forward response of stomata to the change of environmental humidity could be used to explain the hysteresis response of stomatal conductance to leaf-atmosphere vapor pressure deficit. The strategy for getting the most of xylem transport requires the rapid stomatal responses to avoid excess cavitation and the corresponding mechanisms for reversal of cavitation in short time.

  3. Stomata of the CAM plant Tillandsia recurvata respond directly to humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, O L; Medina, E

    1979-01-01

    Under controlled conditions, CO 2 exchange of Tillandsia recurvata showed all characteristics of CAM. During the phase of nocturnal CO 2 fixation stomata of the plant responded sensitively to changes in ambient air humidity. Dry air resulted in an increase, moist air in a decrease of diffusion resistance. The evaporative demand of the air affected the level of stomatal resistance during the entire night period. Due to stomatal closure, the total nocturnal water loss of T. recurvata was less at low than at high humidity. It is concluded that stomata respond directly to humidity and not via bulk tissue water conditions of the leaves. Such control of transpiration may optimize water use efficiency for this almost rootless, extreme epiphyte.

  4. Smaller stomata require less severe leaf drying to close: A case study in Rosa hydrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Fanourakis, D.

    2013-01-01

    Stomata formed at high relative air humidity (RH) close less as leaf dries; an effect that varies depending on the genotype. We here quantified the contribution of each stomatal response characteristic to the higher water loss of high RH-grown plants, and assessed the relationship between response...... characteristics and intraspecific variation in stomatal size. Stomatal size (length multiplied by width), density and responsiveness to desiccation, as well as pore dimensions were analyzed in ten rose cultivars grown at moderate (60%) or high (85%) RH. Leaf morphological components and transpiration at growth...... conditions were also assessed. High growth RH resulted in thinner (11%) leaves with larger area. A strong positive genetic correlation of daytime and nighttime transpiration at either RH was observed. Stomatal size determined pore area (r = 0.7) and varied by a factor of two, as a result of proportional...

  5. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss). Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d) and size (s), and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ⋅d), exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle.

  6. Co-ordination of physiological and morphological responses of stomata to elevated [CO2] in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Matthew; Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    Plant stomata display a wide range of short-term behavioural and long-term morphological responses to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]). The diversity of responses suggests that plants may have different strategies for controlling gas exchange, yet it is not known whether these strategies are co-ordinated in some way. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is co-ordination of physiological (via aperture change) and morphological (via stomatal density change) control of gas exchange by plants. We examined the response of stomatal conductance (G(s)) to instantaneous changes in external [CO(2)] (C(a)) in an evolutionary cross-section of vascular plants grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)] (1,500 ppm) and sub-ambient [O(2)] (13.0 %) compared to control conditions (380 ppm CO(2), 20.9 % O(2)). We found that active control of stomatal aperture to [CO(2)] above current ambient levels was not restricted to angiosperms, occurring in the gymnosperms Lepidozamia peroffskyana and Nageia nagi. The angiosperm species analysed appeared to possess a greater respiratory demand for stomatal movement than gymnosperm species displaying active stomatal control. Those species with little or no control of stomatal aperture (termed passive) to C(a) were more likely to exhibit a reduction in stomatal density than species with active stomatal control when grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)]. The relationship between the degree of stomatal aperture control to C(a) above ambient and the extent of any reduction in stomatal density may suggest the co-ordination of physiological and morphological responses of stomata to [CO(2)] in the optimisation of water use efficiency. This trade-off between stomatal control strategies may have developed due to selective pressures exerted by the costs associated with passive and active stomatal control.

  7. A possible CO2 conducting and concentrating mechanism in plant stomata SLAC1 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plant SLAC1 is a slow anion channel in the membrane of stomatal guard cells, which controls the turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought, high levels of carbon dioxide, and bacterial invasion. Recent study demonstrated that bicarbonate is a small-molecule activator of SLAC1. Higher CO(2 and HCO(3(- concentration activates S-type anion channel currents in wild-type Arabidopsis guard cells. Based on the SLAC1 structure a theoretical model is derived to illustrate the activation of bicarbonate to SLAC1 channel. Meanwhile a possible CO(2 conducting and concentrating mechanism of the SLAC1 is proposed. METHODOLOGY: The homology structure of Arabidopsis thaliana SLAC1 (AtSLAC1 provides the structural basis for study of the conducting and concentrating mechanism of carbon dioxide in SLAC1 channels. The pK(a values of ionizable amino acid side chains in AtSLAC1 are calculated using software PROPKA3.0, and the concentration of CO(2 and anion HCO(3(- are computed based on the chemical equilibrium theory. CONCLUSIONS: The AtSLAC1 is modeled as a five-region channel with different pH values. The top and bottom layers of channel are the alkaline residue-dominated regions, and in the middle of channel there is the acidic region surrounding acidic residues His332. The CO(2 concentration is enhanced around 10(4 times by the pH difference between these regions, and CO(2 is stored in the hydrophobic region, which is a CO(2 pool. The pH driven CO(2 conduction from outside to inside balances the back electromotive force and maintain the influx of anions (e.g. Cl(- and NO(3(- from inside to outside. SLAC1 may be a pathway providing CO(2 for photosynthesis in the guard cells.

  8. Unveiling stomata 24/7: can we use carbonyl sulfide (COS) and oxygen isotopes (18O) to constrain estimates of nocturnal transpiration across different evolutionary plant forms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E.; Ogee, Jerome; Bosc, Alexander; Genty, Bernard; Wohl, Steven; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have reported a continued flux of water through plants at night, suggesting that stomata are not fully closed. Growing evidence indicates that this nocturnal flux of transpiration might constitute an important fraction of total ecosystem water use in certain environments. However, because evaporative demand is usually low at night, nocturnal transpiration fluxes are generally an order of magnitude lower than rates measured during the day and perilously close to the measurement error of traditional gas-exchange porometers. Thus estimating rates of stomatal conductance in the dark (gnight) precisely poses a significant methodological challenge. As a result, we lack accurate field estimates of gnight and how it responds to different atmospheric drivers, indicating the need for a different measurement approach. In this presentation we propose a novel method to obtain detectable and robust estimates of gnight. We will demonstrate using mechanistic theory how independent tracers including the oxygen isotope composition of CO2 (δ18O) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be combined to obtain robust estimates of gnight. This is because COS and CO18O exchange within leaves are controlled by the light insensitive enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Thus, if plant stomata are open in the dark we will continue to observe COS and CO18O exchange. Using our theoretical model we will demonstrate that the exchange of these tracers can now be measured using advances in laser spectrometry techniques at a precision high enough to determine robust estimates of gnight. We will also present our novel experimental approach designed to measure simultaneously the exchange of CO18O and COS alongside the conventional technique that relies on measuring the total water flux from leaves in the dark. Using our theoretical approach we will additionally explore the feasibility of our proposed experimental design to detect variations in gnight during drought stress and across a variety of plant

  9. Compound Synthesis or Growth and Development of Roots/Stomata Regulate Plant Drought Tolerance or Water Use Efficiency/Water Uptake Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lai-Sheng

    2018-04-11

    Water is crucial to plant growth and development because it serves as a medium for all cellular functions. Thus, the improvement of plant drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency is important in modern agriculture. In this review, we mainly focus on new genetic factors for ameliorating drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency of plants and explore the involvement of these genetic factors in the regulation of improving plant drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency, which is a result of altered stomata density and improving root systems (primary root length, hair root growth, and lateral root number) and enhanced production of osmotic protectants, which is caused by transcription factors, proteinases, and phosphatases and protein kinases. These results will help guide the synthesis of a model for predicting how the signals of genetic and environmental stress are integrated at a few genetic determinants to control the establishment of either water use efficiency or water uptake efficiency. Collectively, these insights into the molecular mechanism underpinning the control of plant drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency may aid future breeding or design strategies to increase crop yield.

  10. Evolution of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development: implications for the expansion of developmental complexity of stomata in land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Ran

    Full Text Available Stomata play significant roles in plant evolution. A trio of closely related basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH subgroup Ia genes, SPCH, MUTE and FAMA, mediate sequential steps of stomatal development, and their functions may be conserved in land plants. However, the evolutionary history of the putative SPCH/MUTE/FAMA genes is still greatly controversial, especially the phylogenetic positions of the bHLH Ia members from basal land plants. To better understand the evolutionary pattern and functional diversity of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development, we made a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the homologous genes from 54 species representing the major lineages of green plants. The phylogenetic analysis indicated: (1 All bHLH Ia genes from the two basal land plants Physcomitrella and Selaginella were closely related to the FAMA genes of seed plants; and (2 the gymnosperm 'SPCH' genes were sister to a clade comprising the angiosperm SPCH and MUTE genes, while the FAMA genes of gymnosperms and angiosperms had a sister relationship. The revealed phylogenetic relationships are also supported by the distribution of gene structures and previous functional studies. Therefore, we deduce that the function of FAMA might be ancestral in the bHLH Ia subgroup. In addition, the gymnosperm "SPCH" genes may represent an ancestral state and have a dual function of SPCH and MUTE, two genes that could have originated from a duplication event in the common ancestor of angiosperms. Moreover, in angiosperms, SPCHs have experienced more duplications and harbor more copies than MUTEs and FAMAs, which, together with variation of the stomatal development in the entry division, implies that SPCH might have contributed greatly to the diversity of stomatal development. Based on the above, we proposed a model for the correlation between the evolution of stomatal development and the genes involved in this developmental process in land plants.

  11. Stomata: key players in the earth system, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Joseph A; Beerling, David J; Franks, Peter J

    2010-06-01

    Stomata have played a key role in the Earth System for at least 400 million years. By enabling plants to control the rate of evaporation from their photosynthetic organs, stomata helped to set in motion non-linear processes that led to an acceleration of the hydrologic cycle over the continents and an expansion of climate zones favorable for plant life. Global scale modeling of land-atmosphere interactions provides a way to explore parallels between the influence of vegetation on climate over time, and the influence of spatial and temporal variation in the activities of vegetation in the current Earth System on climate and weather. We use the logic in models that simulate land-atmosphere interactions to illustrate the central role played by stomatal conductance in the Earth System. In the modeling context, most of the activities of plants and their manifold interactions with their genomes and with the environment are communicated to the atmosphere through a single property: the aperture or conductance of their stomata. We tend to think of the controls on vegetation responses in the real world as being distributed among factors such as seasonal patterns of growth, the changing availability of soil water, or changes in light intensity and leaf water potential over a day. However, the impact of these controls on crucial exchanges of energy and water vapor with the atmosphere are also largely mediated by stomata. The decisions 'made by' stomata emerge as an important and inadequately understood component of these models. At the present time we lack effective ways to link advances in the biology of stomata to this decision making process. While not unusual, this failure to connect between disciplines, introduces uncertainty in modeling studies being used to predict weather and climate change and ultimately to inform policy decisions. This problem is also an opportunity.

  12. MAPK phosphatase AP2C3 induces ectopic proliferation of epidermal cells leading to stomata development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Umbrasaite

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells.

  13. Microscope image based fully automated stomata detection and pore measurement method for grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Jayakody

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomatal behavior in grapevines has been identified as a good indicator of the water stress level and overall health of the plant. Microscope images are often used to analyze stomatal behavior in plants. However, most of the current approaches involve manual measurement of stomatal features. The main aim of this research is to develop a fully automated stomata detection and pore measurement method for grapevines, taking microscope images as the input. The proposed approach, which employs machine learning and image processing techniques, can outperform available manual and semi-automatic methods used to identify and estimate stomatal morphological features. Results First, a cascade object detection learning algorithm is developed to correctly identify multiple stomata in a large microscopic image. Once the regions of interest which contain stomata are identified and extracted, a combination of image processing techniques are applied to estimate the pore dimensions of the stomata. The stomata detection approach was compared with an existing fully automated template matching technique and a semi-automatic maximum stable extremal regions approach, with the proposed method clearly surpassing the performance of the existing techniques with a precision of 91.68% and an F1-score of 0.85. Next, the morphological features of the detected stomata were measured. Contrary to existing approaches, the proposed image segmentation and skeletonization method allows us to estimate the pore dimensions even in cases where the stomatal pore boundary is only partially visible in the microscope image. A test conducted using 1267 images of stomata showed that the segmentation and skeletonization approach was able to correctly identify the stoma opening 86.27% of the time. Further comparisons made with manually traced stoma openings indicated that the proposed method is able to estimate stomata morphological features with accuracies of 89.03% for area

  14. Density, size and distribution of stomata in 35 rainforest trees species in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo; Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2011-01-01

    Stomata are turgor-operated valves that control water loss and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis, and thereby water relation and plant biomass accumulation is closely related to stomatal functioning. The aims of this work were to document how stomata are distributed on the leaf surface and to determine if there is any significant variation in stomatal characteristics among Amazonian tree species, and finally to study the relationship between stomatal density (S D) and tree height. Thirty five ...

  15. Density, size and distribution of stomata in 35 rainforest tree species in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Miguel Angelo Branco; Marenco, Ricardo Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Stomata are turgor-operated valves that control water loss and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis, and thereby water relation and plant biomass accumulation is closely related to stomatal functioning. The aims of this work were to document how stomata are distributed on the leaf surface and to determine if there is any significant variation in stomatal characteristics among Amazonian tree species, and finally to study the relationship between stomatal density (S D) and tree height. Thirty five ...

  16. How does the nectar of stomata-free nectaries cross the cuticle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Antônio Sousa Paiva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In many glandular structures, departure from the cell is only one step in the process of exudate release to the plant surface. Here the set of events that lead nectar to the external environment is presented and discussed mainly for stomata-free nectaries. After being synthesized, the nectar or some of its component needs to be released to the environment where it performs its functions. Nectar precursors derived from cell metabolism need to cross several barriers, such as the cell membrane and cell wall, in order to become nectar. Then the nectar must cross the cuticle or pass through stomata in order to be offered to plant mutualists. Release through stomata is a simple mechanism, but the ways by which nectar crosses the cuticle is still controversial. Hydrophilic pathways in the cuticle and repetitive cycles of rupture or cuticle detachment are the main routes for nectar release in stomata-free nectaries. In addition to nectar, there are other exogenous secretions that must leave the protoplast and reach the plant surface to perform their function. The ways by which nectar is released discussed herein are likely relevant to understanding the release of other hydrophilic products of the secretory process of plants.

  17. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  18. leaf epidermal members of the epidermal structures and stomata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    temperate regions of the world. ... Indeed, it can be fair accurately stated that ... Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 10(1): 670 - 675 ... lopment were examined and to estimate stomata frequency, stoma uated. .... examined under microscope.

  19. AKUMULASI TIMBAL (PB DAN STRUKTUR STOMATA DAUN PURING (CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM LAM. BLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Sulistiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman mempunyai kemampuan untuk mengatasi atau mengeliminir pencemaran udara yang terjadi di kota, salah satunya adalah tanaman puring. Stomata adalah salah satu organ tumbuhan yang digunakan untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungannya. Fungsi utama stomata adalah sebagai tempat pertukaran gas, seperti CO2 yang diperlukan oleh tumbuhan dalam proses fotosintesis. Namun, stomata juga bertindak sebagai salah satu jalur masuknya polutan khususnya polutan yang berasal dari udara. Untuk mempertegas pengaruh akumulasi timbal terhadap daun tanaman puring secara morfologi yang telah dilakukan oleh Sulistiana dan Setijorini tahun 2014, perlu dilakukan penelitian lanjutan dengan melakukan pengamatan anatomi daun terutama struktur stomata daun tanaman puring. Penelitian bertujuan membandingkan struktur stomata antar kultivar puring dan membuktikan adanya hubungan antara akumulasi timbal (Pb dengan struktur stomata daun dari beberapa kultivar puring. Bahan penelitian yang digunakan adalah daun segar dari 13 kultivar tanaman puring yang ditanam di Perumahan Batan Indah, Kecamatan Kademangan, Tangerang Selatan. Pengamatan struktur stomata daun dilakukan dengan cara pembuatan preparat paradermal Parameter yang diamati dalam penelitian meliputi jumlah stomata, jumlah sel epidermis, panjang stomata, lebar stomata, indeks stomata, dan kerapatan stomata. Hasil yang diperoleh adanya korelasi positif antara kadar Pb dan struktur stomata daun kultivar puring melalui parameter-paramater yang diamati terutama jumlah stomata, lebar stomata, indeks stomata, dan kerapatan stomata.

  20. Effects of stomata clustering on leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-09-01

    A general theoretical framework for quantifying the stomatal clustering effects on leaf gaseous diffusive conductance was developed and tested. The theory accounts for stomatal spacing and interactions among 'gaseous concentration shells'. The theory was tested using the unique measurements of Dow et al. (2014) that have shown lower leaf diffusive conductance for a genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana with clustered stomata relative to uniformly distributed stomata of similar size and density. The model accounts for gaseous diffusion: through stomatal pores; via concentration shells forming at pore apertures that vary with stomata spacing and are thus altered by clustering; and across the adjacent air boundary layer. Analytical approximations were derived and validated using a numerical model for 3D diffusion equation. Stomata clustering increases the interactions among concentration shells resulting in larger diffusive resistance that may reduce fluxes by 5-15%. A similar reduction in conductance was found for clusters formed by networks of veins. The study resolves ambiguities found in the literature concerning stomata end-corrections and stomatal shape, and provides a new stomata density threshold for diffusive interactions of overlapping vapor shells. The predicted reduction in gaseous exchange due to clustering, suggests that guard cell function is impaired, limiting stomatal aperture opening. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Size and Density of Artemisia annua Stomata Soaked in Water Extract of Gloriosa superba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indah Rahmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herbaceous plant that produces artemisinin as a malaria drug, haemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial. Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains high colchicine compounds, especially on the seeds. Gloriosa superba extracts of tubers, stems, seeds, and leaves were used as biomutagen for many plants. Colchicine contains of these plants as antimitotic have been studied and proven by the mitotic index plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds was used as a mutagen for Artemisia annua. The aim of this study was to determine the size and density of Artemisia annua stomata soaked in water extract of Gloriosa superba seeds as a mutagen. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained naturally on Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul by using a maceration method with water solvent (1:1. Artemisia annua sprouts were obtained from B2P2TOOT Tawangmangu. Variables treatment on sprouts using water extract concentration of Gloriosa superba seeds and soaking time of Artemisia annua sprouts. Measurements of stomatal length, width and density were conducted in epidermis of Artemisia annua leaf. Observation and measurements of the stomata were conducted by using a light microscope. The results showed that the length and width of stomata were 0.025 mm and 0.017 mm respectively. The stomatal density of the control leaf (174.69 amount/mm2 was lower than the other treated plants. Stomatal size and density has increased with the increasing concentration extracts on treated plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds proved the effects on stomatal size and density of treated plants.  

  2. Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Song, Jae Myung

    2005-01-01

    A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant

  3. Utility requirements for advanced LWR passive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidia, J.M.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    LWR Passive Plants are becoming an increasingly attractive and prominent option for future electric generating capacity for U.S. utilities. Conceptual designs for ALWR Passive Plants are currently being developed by U.S. suppliers. EPRI-sponsored work beginning in 1985 developed preliminary conceptual designs for a passive BWR and PWR. DOE-sponsored work from 1986 to the present in conjunction with further EPRI-sponsored studies has continued this development to the point of mature conceptual designs. The success to date in developing the ALWR Passive Plant concepts has substantially increased utility interest. The EPRI ALWR Program has responded by augmenting its initial scope to develop a Utility Requirements Document for ALWR Passive Plants. These requirements will be largely based on the ALWR Utility Requirements Document for Evolutionary Plants, but with significant changes in areas related to the passive safety functions and system configurations. This work was begun in late 1988, and the thirteen-chapter Passive Plant Utility Requirements Document will be completed in 1990. This paper discusses the progress to date in developing the Passive Plant requirements, reviews the top-level requirements, and discusses key issues related to adaptation of the utility requirements to passive safety functions and system configurations. (orig.)

  4. Cross-scale modelling of transpiration from stomata via the leaf boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Derome, Dominique; Verboven, Pieter; Carmeliet, Jan; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf transpiration is a key parameter for understanding land surface–climate interactions, plant stress and plant structure–function relationships. Transpiration takes place at the microscale level, namely via stomata that are distributed discretely over the leaf surface with a very low surface coverage (approx. 0·2–5 %). The present study aims to shed more light on the dependency of the leaf boundary-layer conductance (BLC) on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Methods An innovative three-dimensional cross-scale modelling approach was applied to investigate convective mass transport from leaves, using computational fluid dynamics. The gap between stomatal and leaf scale was bridged by including all these scales in the same computational model (10−5–10−1 m), which implies explicitly modelling individual stomata. Key Results BLC was strongly dependent on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Leaf BLC at low surface coverage ratios (CR), typical for stomata, was still relatively high, compared with BLC of a fully wet leaf (hypothetical CR of 100 %). Nevertheless, these conventional BLCs (CR of 100 %), as obtained from experiments or simulations on leaf models, were found to overpredict the convective exchange. In addition, small variations in stomatal CR were found to result in large variations in BLCs. Furthermore, stomata of a certain size exhibited a higher mass transfer rate at lower CRs. Conclusions The proposed cross-scale modelling approach allows us to increase our understanding of transpiration at the sub-leaf level as well as the boundary-layer microclimate in a way currently not feasible experimentally. The influence of stomatal size, aperture and surface density, and also flow-field parameters can be studied using the model, and prospects for further improvement of the model are presented. An important conclusion of the study is that existing measures of conductances (e.g. from artificial leaves) can be

  5. Natural gas infrastructure requirements for merchant plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukaly, B.

    1998-01-01

    Merchant power plants are complicated with diverse risks. Of course where there are risks there are opportunities for reward. Creating an effective merchant plant requires a strong organization that is committed to marketing, trading and risk management. The organization must have the infrastructure to capitalize on the opportunities a merchant plant provides. The market dynamics are ever changing and move at incredible speeds--what was a moneymaking deal yesterday is no longer valid today. The merchant plant owner is the expert in setting up the actual infrastructure for trading the various commodities, including forward pricing, cash and physical trades, transportation and operation for maximizing the plant's potential. Optionally, the plant's risk profile and a risk management program are the key factors in determining the sucres of the merchant plant project

  6. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  7. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  8. Xenon lighting adjusted to plant requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koefferlein, M.; Doehring, T.; Payer, H.D.; Seidlitz, H.K. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The high luminous flux and spectral properties of xenon lamps would provide an ideal luminary for plant lighting if not excess IR radiation poses several problems for an application: the required filter systems reduce the irradiance at spectral regions of particular importance for plant development. Most of the economical drawbacks of xenon lamps are related to the difficult handling of that excess IR energy. Furthermore, the temporal variation of the xenon output depending on the oscillations of the applied AC voltage has to be considered for the plant development. However, xenon lamps outperform other lighting systems with respect to spectral stability, immediate response, and maximum luminance. Therefore, despite considerable competition by other lighting techniques, xenon lamps provide a very useful tool for special purposes. In plant lighting however, they seem to play a less important role as other lamp and lighting developments can meet these particular requirements at lower costs.

  9. Pengaruh Stomata dan Klorofil pada Ketahanan Beberapa Varietas Jagung terhadap Penyakit Bulai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Agustamia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistant varieties are more advisable for controlling maize downy mildew compared with fungicides which is not effective and not environmentally friendly. This study is aimed to determine resistance of some varieties of maize against downy mildew. The maize varieties used were BS 0114, BS 0214, BS 0314, PAC 105, Sweet Corn and BISI 2. The parameters measured were disease incidence and intensity, chlorophyll content of leaves, stomatal density and plants dry weight. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The results indicated that PAC 105, BS 0214 and BS 0314 were resistant varieties, while BS 0114, Sweet Corn and BISI 2 were susceptible. PAC 105 variety has the lowest stomatal density (65.353/mm2, and Sweet Corn variety has the highest stomatal density (110.79/mm2. Stomatal density was positively correlated with the disease intensity. Higher disease intensity has lower chlorophyll content compared with the lower intensity. PAC 105 variety has the highest chlorophyll content and plant dry weight, while Sweet Corn variety has the lowest chlorophyll content and plant dry weight.   INTISARI   Penggunaan varietas tahan bulai lebih dianjurkan digunakan dalam pengendalian penyakit bulai pada jagung dibandingkan dengan penggunaan fungisida karena tidak efektif dan tidak ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ketahanan beberapa varietas jagung terhadap penyakit bulai. Varietas yang digunakan meliputi BS 0114, BS 0214, BS 0314, PAC 105, jagung manis, dan BISI 2. Parameter yang diamati adalah insidensi dan intensitas penyakit, kandungan klorofil setelah inokulasi, kerapatan stomata dan berat kering tanaman. Data yang diperoleh diuji dengan analisis varians (ANOVA dan uji lanjut dengan Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Hasil penelitian rumah kaca menunjukkan bahwa varietas PAC 105, BS 0214 dan BS 0314 merupakan varietas tahan, sedangkan varietas BS 0114, jagung manis dan

  10. QA manpower requirement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.

    1980-01-01

    To ensure the quality of the plant, QA activities are to be performed by the owner, the main contractor, the subcontractors and the Licensing Authority. The responsibilities of the QA-personnel of these organizations comprise as a minimum the control of the quality assurance systems and the proof of the quality requirements. Numbers of the required QA-personnel, designated for different tasks and recommended educational levels and professional qualifications will be given. (orig./RW)

  11. The use of pure carbon stomata (Biocarbon) in urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzmann, R; Bichler, K H; Ideler, V

    1978-12-01

    A new synthetic material, Biocarbon, has the advantages of tissue compatibility and chemical inactivity, so that there is minimal salt sedimentation. Experiments with animals extending over a period of more than 2 years showed good healing after various surgical and urological operations. Biocarbon stomata were then used for vesicostomies in 6 patients. The period of follow-up has been months. We conclude that Biocarbon implants used for ureterocutaneostomies and for various conduit operations can improve tthe care of stomapatients.

  12. Construction plant requirements for nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.; Harris, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and developing the temporary construction plant facilities for a nuclear project is equivalent to providing utility services for a small city. Provision of adequate facilities is an important factor in the productivity of both the manual and non-manual work force. This paper summarizes construction facility requirements for a two unit (1300 MWe each) nuclear project. Civil, mechanical and electrical facilities are described, including design, installation and operation. Assignment of responsibility for specific work tasks regarding the construction plant is also discussed. In presenting this data, the authors seek to transfer experience and assist in the provision of adequate facilities on future projects

  13. Balance of Plant Requirements for a Nuclear Hydrogen Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Ward

    2006-04-01

    This document describes the requirements for the components and systems that support the hydrogen production portion of a 600 megawatt thermal (MWt) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). These systems, defined as the "balance-of-plant" (BOP), are essential to operate an effective hydrogen production plant. Examples of BOP items are: heat recovery and heat rejection equipment, process material transport systems (pumps, valves, piping, etc.), control systems, safety systems, waste collection and disposal systems, maintenance and repair equipment, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical supply and distribution, and others. The requirements in this document are applicable to the two hydrogen production processes currently under consideration in the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. These processes are the sulfur iodide (S-I) process and the high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process. At present, the other two hydrogen production process - the hybrid sulfur-iodide electrolytic process (SE) and the calcium-bromide process (Ca-Br) -are under flow sheet development and not included in this report. While some features of the balance-of-plant requirements are common to all hydrogen production processes, some details will apply only to the specific needs of individual processes.

  14. Development of immature stomata: evidence for epigenetic selection of a spacing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, M L; Sachs, T

    1991-07-01

    In Sansevieria trifasciata as many as half the potential stomata remain immature. The development of all stomatal structures started at the same time and the early stages of the development of immature stomata had no special characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that the mature stomata were more evenly spaced than all potential stomata, both mature and immature. Furthermore, the distribution of mature stomata per unit area was more predictable or orderly than comparable structures of a random model that developed in the same way. These facts indicate that a nonrandom loss of many stomata by "immaturity" is a major determinant, acting during rather than preceding development, of the distribution of the mature, functional stomata. Thus in Sansevieria there is a selection of an epidermal pattern from an excess of cells that undergo the early stages of stomatal development.

  15. Characterization of the photosynthetic induction response in a Populus species with stomata barely responding to light changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Liang, N

    2000-08-01

    The photosynthetic induction response is constrained by stomatal and biochemical limitations. However, leaves in some plants like Populus koreana x trichocarpa cv. Peace (a hybrid clone) may have little stomatal limitation because their stomata barely respond to changes in photon flux density (PFD). We examined the induction responses of leaves of well-watered and dehydrated P. koreana x trichocarpa plants grown in a high-light or a low-light regime. With an increase in PFD from 50 to 500 micromol m(-2) s(-1), steady-state stomatal conductance (g(s)) increased by only 0.25-8.2%, regardless of the initial g(s), but steady-state assimilation rate (A) increased by 550-1810%. Photosynthetic induction times required to reach 50% (IT50) and 90% (IT90) of A at high PFD were 60-90 s and 210-360 s, respectively. Examination of the dynamic relationships between A and g(s), and between A and intercellular CO2 concentration, indicated that the induction limitation was imposed completely by the biochemical components within 30-40 s after the PFD increase. Values of IT50 and IT90 were significantly higher in low-light leaves than in high-light leaves, whereas the induction state at 60 s and the induction efficiency at 60 and 120 s after the increase in PFD were lower in low-light leaves than in high-light leaves. Dehydration reduced leaf water potential (psi) significantly, resulting in a significantly decreased initial g(s). Leaf water potential had no significant effects on induction time in high-light leaves, but a low psi significantly reduced the induction time in low-light leaves. We conclude that the photosynthetic induction response was limited almost completely by biochemical components because the stomata barely responded to light changes. The biochemical limitation appeared to be higher in low-light leaves than in high-light leaves. Mild water stress may have reduced steady-state A and g(s), but it had little effect on the photosynthetic induction response in high

  16. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW th , heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS

  17. Homologue Structure of the SLAC1 Anion Channel for Closing Stomata in Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Chen; L Hu; M Punta; R Bruni; B Hillerich; B Kloss; B Rost; J Love; S Siegelbaum; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 {angstrom} resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant System Requirements Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not Listed

    2008-01-01

    System Requirements Manual for the NGNP Project. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (H.R. 6; EPAct), which was signed into law by President George W. Bush in August 2005, required the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a project to be known as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. According to the EPAct, the NGNP Project shall consist of the research, development, design, construction, and operation of a prototype plant (to be referred to herein as the NGNP) that (1) includes a nuclear reactor based on the research and development (R and D) activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems initiative, and (2) shall be used to generate electricity, to produce hydrogen, or to both generate electricity and produce hydrogen. The NGNP Project supports both the national need to develop safe, clean, economical nuclear energy and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), which has the goal of establishing greenhouse-gas-free technologies for the production of hydrogen. The DOE has selected the helium-cooled High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as the reactor concept to be used for the NGNP because it is the only near-term Generation IV concept that has the capability to provide process heat at high-enough temperatures for highly efficient production of hydrogen. The EPAct also names the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the DOE's lead national laboratory for nuclear energy research, as the site for the prototype NGNP

  19. VGB-requirements regarding technical data for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richnow, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Much of the technical plant data resulting from the planning, construction and start-up of power plants is needed for subsequent management and maintenance. Because of this, VGB has taken the initiative and has defined standard minimum requirements from power plant operators for technical plant data. They relate to the details and structure of this data, the definition of material classes and characteristics for the main power plant components and IT implementation for delivery of the technical plant data. (orig.)

  20. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS

  1. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  2. Effects of salinity stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata size of grafted and ungrafted galia c8 melon cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarsi, G.; Sivaci, A.; Dasgan, H.Y.; Altuntas, O.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is known as the most important abiotic stress that decreases crop production and plant growth, and changes the anatomy and morphology of plants. In this study, the growth rate of grafted and ungrafted melon plants were studied under salinity stress. Maximus F1, Shintoza F-90 F1 and Nun 9075 F1 (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) were used as a rootstock and Galia C8 melon cultivar was used as a scion. In this study, the stomata size and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were investigated. According to the results, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata length and width of upper and lower surface of leaf were generally reduced under salinity stress. (author)

  3. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.

    2001-01-01

    The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the ‘consumption’ of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material...... requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m2/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m2/MW...... less ‘environment’ for the construction than renewable technologies, especially wind and solar....

  4. A study on the stomata mutation of peanut leaves and its relationship with drought resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qingshu; Li Zhengchao; Hu Wenguang; Wu Lanrong

    1999-12-01

    Stomata mutation of leaves and its relationship with drought resistance were studied with four peanut mutants as well as original variety Baisha 1016. Results showed that irradiation was able to cause peanut leaf stoma to mutate. By comparing with original variety Baisha 1016, some of the mutants have more stomas, and some have less ones; some mutants have bigger stomas, some have smaller ones. The stomata numbers of peanut leaf have close relation to the drought resistance, while the stomata size seems to have no relation to it. It's possible that more drought-resistant variety or line could be elected among peanut mutants

  5. Prechilling of Xanthium strumarium L. Reduces Net Photosynthesis and, Independently, Stomatal Conductance, While Sensitizing the Stomata to CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, B; Raschke, K

    1974-06-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were exposed in a growth cabinet to 10 C during days and 5 C during nights for periods of up to 120 hours. Subsequently, CO(2) exchange, transpiration, and leaf temperature were measured on attached leaves and in leaf sections at 25 or 30 C, 19 C dew point of the air, 61 milliwatts per square centimeter irradiance, and CO(2) concentrations between 0 and 1000 microliters per liter ambient air. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing duration of prechilling. The reduction in net photosynthesis was not a consequence of decreased stomatal conductance because the intercellular CO(2) concentration in prechilled leaves was equal to or greater than that in greenhouse-grown controls. The intercellular CO(2) concentration at which one-half maximum net photosynthesis occurred remained the same in prechilled leaves and controls (175 to 190 microliters per liter). Stomata of the control plants responded to changes in the CO(2) concentration of the air only slightly. Prechilling for 24 hours or more sensitized stomata to CO(2); they responded to changes in CO(2) concentration in the range from 100 to 1000 microliters per liter.

  6. Prechilling of Xanthium strumarium L. Reduces Net Photosynthesis and, Independently, Stomatal Conductance, While Sensitizing the Stomata to CO21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, B.; Raschke, K.

    1974-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were exposed in a growth cabinet to 10 C during days and 5 C during nights for periods of up to 120 hours. Subsequently, CO2 exchange, transpiration, and leaf temperature were measured on attached leaves and in leaf sections at 25 or 30 C, 19 C dew point of the air, 61 milliwatts per square centimeter irradiance, and CO2 concentrations between 0 and 1000 microliters per liter ambient air. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing duration of prechilling. The reduction in net photosynthesis was not a consequence of decreased stomatal conductance because the intercellular CO2 concentration in prechilled leaves was equal to or greater than that in greenhouse-grown controls. The intercellular CO2 concentration at which one-half maximum net photosynthesis occurred remained the same in prechilled leaves and controls (175 to 190 microliters per liter). Stomata of the control plants responded to changes in the CO2 concentration of the air only slightly. Prechilling for 24 hours or more sensitized stomata to CO2; they responded to changes in CO2 concentration in the range from 100 to 1000 microliters per liter. PMID:16658795

  7. Cooling water requirements and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is poised to scuttle the energy crisis of our time by proposing joint ventures for large power plants. Large fossil/nuclear power plants (NPPs) rely upon water for cooling and are therefore located near coastal areas. The amount of water a power station uses and consumes depends on the cooling technology used. Depending on the cooling technology utilized, per megawatt existing NPPs use and consume more water (by a factor of 1.25) than power stations using other fuel sources. In this context the distinction between 'use' and 'consume' of water is important. All power stations do consume some of the water they use; this is generally lost as evaporation. Cooling systems are basically of two types; Closed cycle and Once-through, of the two systems, the closed cycle uses about 2-3% of the water volumes used by the once-through system. Generally, water used for power plant cooling is chemically altered for purposes of extending the useful life of equipment and to ensure efficient operation. The used chemicals effluent will be added to the cooling water discharge. Thus water quality impacts on power plants vary significantly, from one electricity generating technology to another. In light of massive expansion of nuclear power programme there is a need to develop new ecofriendly cooling water technologies. Seawater cooling towers (SCT) could be a viable option for power plants. SCTs can be utilized with the proper selection of materials, coatings and can achieve long service life. Among the concerns raised about the development of a nuclear power industry, the amount of water consumed by nuclear power plants compared with other power stations is of relevance in light of the warming surface seawater temperatures. A 1000 MW power plant uses per day ∼800 ML/MW in once through cooling system; while SCT use 27 ML/MW. With the advent of new marine materials and concrete compositions SCT can be constructed for efficient operation. However, the

  8. [Study of Chinese herbal medicine in treating ascites and their mechanism in regulating lymphatic stomata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Li, J C; Mao, L G

    2001-09-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating ascites to elucidate its mechanism in regulating the lymphatic stomata and promoting the absorption of ascites from the peritoneal cavity. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and computerized image processing and quantitative analysis assays, the CHM extract consisting of Atractylodes macrocephala, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Codonopsis pilosula, Alismatis orientale and Leonurus heterophyllus were studied. Intraperitoneal injection of nitric oxide (NO) supplier or CHM administration could cause the average area of lymphatic stomata obviously enlarged (P inverted obviously, i.e. the average area and the density of lymphatic stomata were markedly reduced (P < 0.01). CHM might treat ascites through increasing the endogenous NO concentration to open the lymphatic stomata and in turn to conduct the peritoneal water through lymphatic path.

  9. Persistent drought monitoring using a microfluidic-printed electro-mechanical sensor of stomata in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Volodymyr B; Lew, Tedrick T S; Wong, Min Hao; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Giraldo, Juan P; Strano, Michael S

    2017-11-21

    Stomatal function can be used effectively to monitor plant hydraulics, photosensitivity, and gas exchange. Current approaches to measure single stomatal aperture, such as mold casting or fluorometric techniques, do not allow real time or persistent monitoring of the stomatal function over timescales relevant for long term plant physiological processes, including vegetative growth and abiotic stress. Herein, we utilize a nanoparticle-based conducting ink that preserves stomatal function to print a highly stable, electrical conductometric sensor actuated by the stomata pore itself, repeatedly and reversibly for over 1 week. This stomatal electro-mechanical pore size sensor (SEMPSS) allows for real-time tracking of the latency of single stomatal opening and closing times in planta, which we show vary from 7.0 ± 0.5 to 25.0 ± 0.5 min for the former and from 53.0 ± 0.5 to 45.0 ± 0.5 min for the latter in Spathiphyllum wallisii. These values are shown to correlate with the soil water potential and the onset of the wilting response, in quantitative agreement with a dynamic mathematical model of stomatal function. A single stoma of Spathiphyllum wallisii is shown to distinguish between incident light intensities (up to 12 mW cm -2 ) with temporal latency slow as 7.0 ± 0.5 min. Over a seven day period, the latency in opening and closing times are stable throughout the plant diurnal cycle and increase gradually with the onset of drought. The monitoring of stomatal function over long term timescales at single stoma level will improve our understanding of plant physiological responses to environmental factors.

  10. Utility/user requirements for the MHTGR desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Snyder, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) and the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD) in developing Utility/User (U/U) Requirements for the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR) Desalination Plant. This is a cogeneration plant that produces fresh water from seawater, and electricity. The U/U requirements for the reference MHTGR plant are used except for those changes necessary to: provide low-grade heat to a seawater desalination process, enable siting in a Southern California coastal area, take advantage of reduced weather extremes where substantial cost reductions are expected, and use seawater cooling instead of a cooling tower. The resulting requirements and the differences from the reference MHTGR requirements are discussed. The nuclear portion of the design is essentially the same as that for the reference MHTGR design. The major differences occur in the turbine-generator and condenser, and for the most part, the design parameters for the reference plant are found to be conservative for the desalination plant. The most important difference in requirements is in the higher seismic levels required for a Southern California site, which requires reassessment and possible modification of the design of some reference plant equipment for use in the desalination plant. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  11. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  12. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  13. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations; to be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; and to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  14. Stomata character and chlorophyll content of tomato in response to Zn application under drought condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakya, A. T.; Sulistyaningsih, E.; Indradewa, D.; Purwanto, B. H.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment was performed in order to evaluate the effects of Zn application under drought condition on tomato, especially its chlorophyll content and stomata character. This experiment was arranged in factorial using randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatment consisted of the Zn application method, namely: soil and foliar, the Zn dosage, namely: 0, 40 and 60 mg ZnSO4 kg-1 soil and two cultivars of tomato, namely: ‘Tyrana’ F1 and ‘Permata’ F1. The stress condition was induced by watering every 12 days of 3 weeks after transplanting until harvesting. The results showed that the soil with a Zn application under drought conditions increased the aperture stomata, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a/b ratio. The response of stomata character, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in both cultivars was similar.

  15. Future CANDU nuclear power plant design requirements document executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; S. A. Usmani

    1996-03-01

    The future CANDU Requirements Document (FCRED) describes a clear and complete statement of utility requirements for the next generation of CANDU nuclear power plants including those in Korea. The requirements are based on proven technology of PHWR experience and are intended to be consistent with those specified in the current international requirement documents. Furthermore, these integrated set of design requirements, incorporate utility input to the extent currently available and assure a simple, robust and more forgiving design that enhances the performance and safety. The FCRED addresses the entire plant, including the nuclear steam supply system and the balance of the plant, up to the interface with the utility grid at the distribution side of the circuit breakers which connect the switchyard to the transmission lines. Requirements for processing of low level radioactive waste at the plant site and spent fuel storage requirements are included in the FCRED. Off-site waste disposal is beyond the scope of the FCRED. 2 tabs., 1 fig. (Author) .new

  16. B plant standards/requirements identification document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) set forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ES{ampersand}H) standards/requirements for the B Plant. This S/RID is applicable to the appropriate life cycle phases of design, construction,operation, and preparation for decommissioning. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment.

  17. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (Safety Series No. 50-C-D (Rev. 1), issued in 1988). It takes account of developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for nuclear safety are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear power plants. It is recognized that technology and scientific knowledge advance, and nuclear safety and what is considered adequate protection are not static entities. Safety requirements change with these developments and this publication reflects the present consensus. This Safety Requirements publication takes account of the developments in safety requirements by, for example, including the consideration of severe accidents in the design process. Other topics that have been given more detailed attention include management of safety, design management, plant ageing and wearing out effects, computer based safety systems, external and internal hazards, human factors, feedback of operational experience, and safety assessment and verification. This publication establishes safety requirements that define the elements necessary to ensure nuclear safety. These requirements are applicable to safety functions and the associated structures, systems and components, as well as to procedures important to safety in nuclear power plants. It is expected that this publication will be used primarily for land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors designed for electricity generation or for other heat production applications (such as district heating or desalination). It is recognized that in the case of

  18. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (Safety Series No. 50-C-D (Rev. 1), issued in 1988). It takes account of developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for nuclear safety are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear power plants. It is recognized that technology and scientific knowledge advance, and nuclear safety and what is considered adequate protection are not static entities. Safety requirements change with these developments and this publication reflects the present consensus. This Safety Requirements publication takes account of the developments in safety requirements by, for example, including the consideration of severe accidents in the design process. Other topics that have been given more detailed attention include management of safety, design management, plant ageing and wearing out effects, computer based safety systems, external and internal hazards, human factors, feedback of operational experience, and safety assessment and verification. This publication establishes safety requirements that define the elements necessary to ensure nuclear safety. These requirements are applicable to safety functions and the associated structures, systems and components, as well as to procedures important to safety in nuclear power plants. It is expected that this publication will be used primarily for land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors designed for electricity generation or for other heat production applications (such as district heating or desalination). It is recognized that in the case of

  19. Overall quality assurance program requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This standard contains the requirements for the owner's overall quality assurance program for a nuclear power plant. This program encompasses all phases of a nuclear power plant life cycle, including site evaluation, design, procurement, manufacturing, construction and installation, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning. It covers the activities associated with specifying, directing, and administering the work to be done during these phases, and the evaluation and integrated of the activities and programs of participants

  20. Recommended general safety requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report presents recommendations for a set of general safety requirements that could form the basis for the licensing of nuclear power plants by the Atomic Energy Control Board. In addition to a number of recommended deterministic requirements the report includes criteria for the acceptability of the design of such plants based upon the calculated probability and consequence (in terms of predicted radiation dose to members of the public) of potential fault sequences. The report also contains a historical review of nuclear safety principles and practices in Canada

  1. Effects of radiation quality on the opening of stomata in intact Phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorska, K.; Kozłowska, B.; Ciereszko, I.; Maleszewski, S.

    1997-01-01

    In intact French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves blue radiation enhanced opening of stomata both when it was used individually and when it was used as preirradiation before ''white light'' irradiation. Effects of red radiation were just the contrary

  2. A role for stomata in regulating water use efficiency in Populus x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A role for stomata in regulating water use efficiency in Populus x euramericana and characterization of a related gene, PdERECTA. P Guo, X Xia, WL Yin. Abstract. The physiological mechanism of water use efficiency (WUE) remains elucidated, especially in poplar. We studied WUEi (instantaneous leaf transpiration ...

  3. Implications of fusion power plant studies for materials requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Ian; Ward, David; Dudarev, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the key requirements for fusion materials, as these have emerged from studies of commercial fusion power plants. The objective of the international fusion programme is the creation of power stations that will have very attractive safety and environmental features and viable economics. Fusion power plant studies have shown that these objectives may be achieved without requiring extreme advances in materials. But it is required that existing candidate materials perform at least as well as envisaged in the environment of fusion neutrons, heat fluxes and particle fluxes. The development of advanced materials would bring further benefits. The work required entails the investigation of many intellectually exciting physics issues of great scientific interest, and of wider application than fusion. In addition to giving an overview, selected aspects of the science, of particular physics interest, are illustrated

  4. International requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernicke, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Lifetime extension or long-term operation of nuclear facilities are topics of great international significance against the backdrop of a fleet of nuclear power plants of which many have reached 2/3 of their planned life. The article deals with the conditions for, and the specific requirements of, seeking long-term operation of nuclear power plants as established internationally and on the basis of IAEA collections. Technically, long-term operation is possible for many of the nuclear power plants in the world because, normally, they were built on the basis of conservative rules and regulations and, as a consequence, incorporate significant additional safety. Application of requirements to specific plants implies assessments of technical safety which show that conservative design philosophies created reserves and, as a consequence, there is an adequate level of safety also in long-term plant operation. For this purpose, the technical specifications must be revised, necessary additions made, and (international) operating experience taken into account and management of aging established. Two examples are presented to show how the approach to long-term plant operation is put into practice on a national level. (orig.)

  5. Drought tolerance studies through WSSI and stomata in upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Jatoi, W.A.; Soomro, Z.A.; Khan, N.U.; Hassan, G.; Khakwani, A.A.; Veesar, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    Water stress susceptibility index (WSSI) and stomatal conductance were used to determine the stress tolerance of 10 upland cotton cultivars during 2009 at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in spilt plot design with irrigations as main plots and cultivars as sub-plots. Two irrigation treatments were used i.e. one has two irrigations (water stress) and other has eight irrigations (non-stress). Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences about WSSI for all the traits. Non-significant interaction between irrigations and cultivars for seed cotton yield and boll weight exhibited varietals stability over irrigation regimes, whereas significant interactions between above parameters for plant height and bolls per plant suggested genotypic instability over irrigation treatments for these traits. Overall, cultivars mean performance for all the traits in stress conditions was poor as compared to non-stress conditions, nevertheless some cultivars exhibited nonsignificant mean differences in both irrigation regimes, thus showing higher stress tolerance. The WSSI values of seed cotton yield as displayed in bi plot revealed that cultivars CRIS-477, CRIS-483 and CRIS-486 were found highly susceptible to water stress. Cultivars CRIS-476, CRIS-482, CRIS-487 and NIAB-78 were characterized as highly susceptible with minimum production even under optimum irrigation conditions. Cultivar CRIS-9 was moderately tolerant as produced low production. However, cultivars CRIS-485 and CRIS-484 were found highly stress tolerant because of minimum WSSI value and lower stomatal conductance. Negative correlations between water stress and WSSI for seed cotton yield and plant height revealed that any increase in the degree of stress caused a corresponding decrease in WSSI. (author)

  6. Current USAEC seismic requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    The principal seismic and geologic considerations which guide the USAEC in its evaluation of the suitability of proposed sites for nuclear power plants and plant design bases are set forth as design criteria in the AEC regulatory guides. The basic requirements of seismic design and analysis for seismic Category I structures, components, and systems important to public safety have been established in the USAEC regulatory guides and Code of Federal Regulations. It is pointed out that the current state-of-art techniques, best available technology, and additional studies in the field of earthquake engineering can be utilized to resolve seismic concerns. The seismic design requirements for nuclear plants to withstand postulated earthquakes can be standardized and this will be a significant milestone in the continuation of the Nuclear Standardization Program. (author)

  7. Discussion of important safety requirements for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Jia Xiang; Yan Tianwen; Li Wenhong; Li Chun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of several important safety requirements and improvement direction. Technical view of security goals on site safety evaluation, internal and external events fortification, serious accident prevention and mitigation, as well as the core, containment system and instrument control system design and engineering optimization, and etc are indicated. It will be useful for new plant design, construction and safety improvement. (authors)

  8. Neutronics requirements for a DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion Consortium , Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Villari, R. [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Discussion and specification of neutronic requirements for a DEMO power plant. • TBR uncertainties are reviewed/discussed and design margins are elaborated. • Limits are given for radiation loads to super-conducting magnets and steel structural components. • Available DEMO results are compared to recommended limits and TBR design target. - Abstract: This paper addresses the neutronic requirements a DEMO fusion power plant needs to fulfil for a reliable and safe operation. The major requirement is to ensure Tritium self-sufficiency taking into account the various uncertainties and plant-internal losses that occur during DEMO operation. A further major requirement is to ensure sufficient protection of the superconducting magnets against the radiation penetrating in-vessel components and vessel. Reliable criteria for the radiation loads need to be defined and verified to ensure the reliable operation of the magnets over the lifetime of DEMO. Other issues include radiation induced effects on structural materials such as the accumulated displacement damage, the generation of gases such as helium which may deteriorate the material performance. The paper discusses these issues and their impact on design options for DEMO taking into account results obtained in the frame of European Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) 2013 programme activities with DEMO models employing the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB), the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL), and the water-cooled (WCLL) blanket concepts.

  9. A Proposed Additional Requirement for the Publication of New Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Proposed Additional Requirement for the Publication of New Plant Names. LE Newton. Abstract. Journal of East African Natural History Vol. 85 (1&2) 1996: 95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317(1996)85[95:APARFT]2.0.CO;2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for ...

  10. Laser requirements for a laser fusion energy power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; E.Bodner; Andrew; J.Schmitt; John; D.Sethian

    2013-01-01

    We will review some of the requirements for a laser that would be used with a laser fusion energy power plant, including frequency, spatial beam smoothing, bandwidth, temporal pulse shaping, efficiency, repetition rate, and reliability. The lowest risk and optimum approach uses a krypton fluoride gas laser. A diode-pumped solid-state laser is a possible contender.

  11. Compiling Utility Requirements For New Nuclear Power Plant Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, Eero

    2002-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted in November 2000 to the Finnish Government an application for a Decision-in-Principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Finland. The actual investment decision can be made first after a positive decision has been made by the Government and the Parliament. Parallel to the licensing process, technical preparedness has been upheld so that the procurement process can be commenced without delay, when needed. This includes the definition of requirements for the plant and preliminary preparation of bid inquiry specifications. The core of the technical requirements corresponds to the specifications presented in the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document, compiled by major European electricity producers. Quite naturally, an amount of modifications to the EUR document are needed that take into account the country- and site-specific conditions as well as the experiences gained in the operation of the existing NPP units. Along with the EUR-related requirements concerning the nuclear island and power generation plant, requirements are specified for scope of supply as well as for a variety of issues related to project implementation. (author)

  12. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempker, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  13. Safety and regulatory requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.V.; Bhardwaj, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A pre-requisite for a nuclear power program in any country is well established national safety and regulatory requirements. These have evolved for nuclear power plants in India with participation of the regulatory body, utility, research and development (R and D) organizations and educational institutions. Prevailing international practices provided a useful base to develop those applicable to specific system designs for nuclear power plants in India. Their effectiveness has been demonstrated in planned activities of building up the nuclear power program as well as with unplanned activities, like those due to safety related incidents etc. (author)

  14. Cellular growth in plants requires regulation of cell wall biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2017-02-01

    Cell and organ morphogenesis in plants are regulated by the chemical structure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, the cell wall. The two primary load bearing components in the plant cell wall, the pectin matrix and the cellulose/xyloglucan network, are constantly remodelled to generate the morphological changes required during plant development. This remodelling is regulated by a plethora of loosening and stiffening agents such as pectin methyl-esterases, calcium ions, expansins, and glucanases. The tight spatio-temporal regulation of the activities of these agents is a sine qua non condition for proper morphogenesis at cell and tissue levels. The pectin matrix and the cellulose-xyloglucan network operate in concert and their behaviour is mutually dependent on their chemical, structural and mechanical modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Wijnhoven, F.

    2005-01-01

    Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and/or that their cuticle is

  16. Pseudomonas syringae Catalases Are Collectively Required for Plant Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Block, Anna; Bryan, Crystal D.; Becker, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 must detoxify plant-produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in order to survive in its host plant. Candidate enzymes for this detoxification include the monofunctional catalases KatB and KatE and the bifunctional catalase-peroxidase KatG of DC3000. This study shows that KatG is the major housekeeping catalase of DC3000 and provides protection against menadione-generated endogenous H2O2. In contrast, KatB rapidly and substantially accumulates in response to exogenous H2O2. Furthermore, KatB and KatG have nonredundant roles in detoxifying exogenous H2O2 and are required for full virulence of DC3000 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, the nonredundant ability of KatB and KatG to detoxify plant-produced H2O2 is essential for the bacteria to survive in plants. Indeed, a DC3000 catalase triple mutant is severely compromised in its ability to grow in planta, and its growth can be partially rescued by the expression of katB, katE, or katG. Interestingly, our data demonstrate that although KatB and KatG are the major catalases involved in the virulence of DC3000, KatE can also provide some protection in planta. Thus, our results indicate that these catalases are virulence factors for DC3000 and are collectively required for pathogenesis. PMID:22797762

  17. Regulatory requirement of the Juragua nuclear Power Plant PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valhuerdi Debesa, C.

    1996-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment has proved to be a powerful tool for improving the knowledge of the safety insides of Nuclear Power Plants and increasing the efficiency of the safety measures adopted by both operators and regulators. In this paper the regulatory approach adopted in Cuba with regard to the PSA , the scope of the requirement and the basis and proposal of this decision are presented

  18. [Carbon polymer stomata in vesicostomy and other urinary diversion procedures (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzmann, R; Bichler, K H

    1979-01-01

    Implants of pure carbon are ideal for prosteses because of their tissue acceptability and lack of incrustation. Animal experiments with biocarbon implants were tested as subfascial implantations, coeco-, ileo-, and vesicostomies, (n = 37). The results showed lack of reaction and good healing of the stomata, lack of incrustation, and water tight urinary diversion. Based on these animal experiments biocarbon vesicostomies were carried out successfully in six patients. The follow up period was 3--16 months.

  19. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Bačić; Ljiljana Krstin; Jadranka Roša; Željko Popović

    2011-01-01

    Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.), both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fuse...

  20. Forecasting manpower requirements for nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, N.; Schriver, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents both the methodology and results of a segment of a comprehensive construction manpower demand forecasting system aimed at forecasting virtually all construction manpower requirements in the United States of America. The part of the system dealing with the demand for construction workers needed to build nuclear powered electricity generating plants is discussed here. The object of the system is to forecast manpower construction needs for each of 29 construction crafts on a monthly basis in each of 10 geographical regions of the United States. The method used is to establish profiles of the types of workers and time phasing required in the past. Profiling was done for different types of plants, different capacity classes, and different geographical locations. An appropriate worker profile matrix cannot simply be multiplied by the capacity of the proposed plant if the number of man-hours required per kilowatt of generating capacity is not constant. The value of this latter variable has changed considerably recently - presumably because of an increased awareness of environmental and safety considerations. Econometric techniques are used to forecast values for man-hours per kilowatt which are then multiplied by projected new capacity to be put in place. The resulting total man-hour requirement is then allocated over time and by craft through use of a worker profile matrix. The summary results indicate that 20 percent increases in man-hours required per kilowatt of capacity can be expected between 1977 and 1981. Total construction labour demand will rise from 65,700 work-years in 1977 to nearly 96,600 work-years in 1981. Forecasts of the actual number of different types of workers to be demanded in each month and in each region are available from the system. (author)

  1. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid depletion affects stomata closure and drought tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Dereje Worku; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Ludewig, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A rapid accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during biotic and abiotic stresses is well documented. However, the specificity of the response and the primary role of GABA under such stress conditions are hardly understood. To address these questions, we investigated the response of the GABA-depleted gad1/2 mutant to drought stress. GABA is primarily synthesized from the decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) which exists in five copies in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, only GAD1 and GAD2 are abundantly expressed, and knockout of these two copies dramatically reduced the GABA content. Phenotypic analysis revealed a reduced shoot growth of the gad1/2 mutant. Furthermore, the gad1/2 mutant was wilted earlier than the wild type following a prolonged drought stress treatment. The early-wilting phenotype was due to an increase in stomata aperture and a defect in stomata closure. The increase in stomata aperture contributed to higher stomatal conductance. The drought oversensitive phenotype of the gad1/2 mutant was reversed by functional complementation that increases GABA level in leaves. The functionally complemented gad1/2 x pop2 triple mutant contained more GABA than the wild type. Our findings suggest that GABA accumulation during drought is a stress-specific response and its accumulation induces the regulation of stomatal opening thereby prevents loss of water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A method to identify important dynamical states in Boolean models of regulatory networks: application to regulation of stomata closure by ABA in A. thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugs, Cristhian A; Librelotto, Giovani R; Mombach, José C M

    2011-12-22

    We introduce a method to analyze the states of regulatory Boolean models that identifies important network states and their biological influence on the global network dynamics. It consists in (1) finding the states of the network that are most frequently visited and (2) the identification of variable and frozen nodes of the network. The method, along with a simulation that includes random features, is applied to the study of stomata closure by abscisic acid (ABA) in A. thaliana proposed by Albert and coworkers. We find that for the case of study, that the dynamics of wild and mutant networks have just two states that are highly visited in their space of states and about a third of all nodes of the wild network are variable while the rest remain frozen in True or False states. This high number of frozen elements explains the low cardinality of the space of states of the wild network. Similar results are observed in the mutant networks. The application of the method allowed us to explain how wild and mutants behave dynamically in the SS and determined an essential feature of the activation of the closure node (representing stomata closure), i.e. its synchronization with the AnionEm node (representing anion efflux at the plasma membrane). The dynamics of this synchronization explains the efficiency reached by the wild and each of the mutant networks. For the biological problem analyzed, our method allows determining how wild and mutant networks differ 'phenotypically'. It shows that the different efficiencies of stomata closure reached among the simulated wild and mutant networks follow from a dynamical behavior of two nodes that are always synchronized. Additionally, we predict that the involvement of the anion efflux at the plasma membrane is crucial for the plant response to ABA. The algorithm used in the simulations is available upon request.

  4. Requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemicalseparation plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiotti, G.; Cahalan, J.; Pfeiffer, P.; Sofu, T.; Taiwo, T.; Wei,T.; Yacout, A.; Yang, W.; Siegel, A.; Insepov, Z.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland,P.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.; Copple, J.; Willamson, M.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants that are of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. Justification for advanced simulation and some examples of grand challenges that will benefit from it are provided. An integrated software tool that has its main components, whenever possible based on first principles, is proposed as possible future approach for dealing with the complex problems linked to the simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants. The main benefits that are associated with a better integrated simulation have been identified as: a reduction of design margins, a decrease of the number of experiments in support of the design process, a shortening of the developmental design cycle, and a better understanding of the physical phenomena and the related underlying fundamental processes. For each component of the proposed integrated software tool, background information, functional requirements, current tools and approach, and proposed future approaches have been provided. Whenever possible, current uncertainties have been quoted and existing limitations have been presented. Desired target accuracies with associated benefits to the different aspects of the nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants were also given. In many cases the possible gains associated with a better simulation have been identified, quantified, and translated into economical benefits.

  5. Hygiene and sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixen, H J

    1997-08-01

    According to Danish regulations, systematic pathogen reducing treatment is required, when industrial by-products and waste products, and urban waste, ie garbage from households and sewage sludge, are processed, before being used - without restrictions - as fertilizers on agricultural land. An adequate pathogen reducing effect (PRE) can be achieved in the digestion tanks and sanitation tanks of the biogas plants, provided they are operated correctly and respect the criteria of the official requirements. The FS-method is a microbiological indicator method based on faecal streptococci (enterococci) (FS). It may be used to check the sanitation effect achieved by the treatment in a tank. The effect is expressed numerically by the log{sub 10}-reduction of the numbers of FS measured in the biomass before and after treatment. The PRE was examined in 10 large-scale biogas plants during a period of 2-3 years. It was demonstrated that properly directed and well-functioning thermophilic digestion tanks ensure the removal of most pathogenic microorganisms from organic waste and slurry. The removal of pathogens by the treatment in mesophilic digestion tanks is incomplete. Systematic studies of the processes of inactivation of bacteria and virus in slurry and in animal tissues gave evidence that the PRE is enhanced in the microbiological environment of thermophilic digestion tanks. The sanitation criteria, ie combinations of temperature/time, for the processing of biomass in digestion tanks and sanitation tanks in biogas plants are specified. (au) 19 refs.

  6. Deriving human resource requirements for new nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodnight, Ch.T.

    2007-01-01

    For those contemplating the deployment of a new nuclear plant, critical issues include the development of the operational staff and its organization. This paper will discuss the key elements of deriving an appropriate staff plan for steady state operations. There are five areas that must be analyzed, and each area has unique requirements. These key areas are 1) Operations, 2) Engineering, 3) Maintenance, 4) Regulatory/Oversight, and 5) Site Support. After the analysis for each area is complete, and the human resource requirements are identified, an organizational structure must be developed to support the necessary management, potential centralization, and appropriate functional alignments for effective and safe plant operation. Four organizational design principals have been defined. The first design principal relates to the organizational structure: no more than 7 layers of management between an individual contributor and the senior nuclear manager in the NPP. The second design principal relates to the grouping of activities in order to ensure appropriate management of related or supporting activities. The third design principal relates to out-sourcing support activities when these activities comply with particular conditions for instance when they are not mission critical to day-to day plant operations. The fourth design principal relates to the centralization of some activities when there is more than one NPP operated by the same parent company

  7. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  8. Identification of Radioactive Pilot-Plant test requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Riebling, E.F.

    1995-05-09

    Radioactive Pilot-Plant testing needs and alternatives are evaluated for enhanced Sludge Washing and High and Low-Level Vitrification efforts. Also investigated was instrument and equipment testing needs associated with the vitrification and retrieval process. The scope of this document is to record the existing March 1994 letter report for future use. A structured Kepner-Trego{trademark} decision analysis process was used to assist analysis of the testing needs. This analysis provided various combinations of laboratory and radioactive (hot) and cold pilot testing options associated with the above need areas. Recommendations for testing requirements were made.

  9. Identification of Radioactive Pilot-Plant test requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Riebling, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive Pilot-Plant testing needs and alternatives are evaluated for enhanced Sludge Washing and High and Low-Level Vitrification efforts. Also investigated was instrument and equipment testing needs associated with the vitrification and retrieval process. The scope of this document is to record the existing March 1994 letter report for future use. A structured Kepner-Trego trademark decision analysis process was used to assist analysis of the testing needs. This analysis provided various combinations of laboratory and radioactive (hot) and cold pilot testing options associated with the above need areas. Recommendations for testing requirements were made

  10. Safety requirements for a nuclear power plant electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, L F; Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    This work aims at identifying the safety requirements for the electric power system in a typical nuclear power plant, in view of the UNSRC and the IAEA. Description of a typical system is provided, followed by a presentation of the scope of the information required for safety evaluation of the system design and performance. The acceptance and design criteria that must be met as being specified by both regulatory systems, are compared. Means of implementation of such criteria as being described in the USNRC regulatory guides and branch technical positions on one hand and in the IAEA safety guides on the other hand are investigated. It is concluded that the IAEA regulations address the problems that may be faced with in countries having varying grid sizes ranging from large stable to small potentially unstable ones; and that they put emphasis on the onsite standby power supply. Also, in this respect the Americans identify the grid as the preferred power supply to the plant auxiliaries, while the IAEA leaves the possibility that the preferred power supply could be either the grid or the unit main generator depending on the reliability of each. Therefore, it is found that it is particularly necessary in this area of electric power supplies to deal with the IAEA and the American sets of regulations as if each complements and not supplements the other. (author)

  11. Parametric requirements for noncircular tokamak commercial fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, R.F.

    1978-05-01

    Systems analyses have been performed in order to determine the parameter ranges for economical operation of equilibrium commercial fusion power plants using noncircular tokamak reactors. The fully-integrated systems code SCOPE was employed in which costs of electricity were used as the critical dependent variable by which the effects of changes in system parameters were observed. The results of these studies show that many of the operating parameters required for economical operation can be considerably relaxed from what has been thought necessary. For example: (1) Neutron wall loadings over about 2 megawatts per square meter are unnecessary for economical tokamak operation; (2) electrical power levels beyond 1000 MW(e) are not required. In fact, power levels as low as 100 MW(e) may be acceptable; (3) total beta values of 10 to 12 percent are adequate for economic operation; (4) duty cycles as low as 50 percent have only a small effect on plant economics; (5) an acceptable first wall lifetime is 15 MW-yr per square meter

  12. Carbon dioxide diffusion across stomata and mesophyll and photo-biochemical processes as affected by growth CO2 and phosphorus nutrition in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Badgujar, Girish; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Fleisher, David H; Bunce, James A

    2013-06-15

    Nutrients such as phosphorus may exert a major control over plant response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), which is projected to double by the end of the 21st century. Elevated CO2 may overcome the diffusional limitations to photosynthesis posed by stomata and mesophyll and alter the photo-biochemical limitations resulting from phosphorus deficiency. To evaluate these ideas, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) was grown in controlled environment growth chambers with three levels of phosphate (Pi) supply (0.2, 0.05 and 0.01mM) and two levels of CO2 concentration (ambient 400 and elevated 800μmolmol(-1)) under optimum temperature and irrigation. Phosphate deficiency drastically inhibited photosynthetic characteristics and decreased cotton growth for both CO2 treatments. Under Pi stress, an apparent limitation to the photosynthetic potential was evident by CO2 diffusion through stomata and mesophyll, impairment of photosystem functioning and inhibition of biochemical process including the carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxyganase and the rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration. The diffusional limitation posed by mesophyll was up to 58% greater than the limitation due to stomatal conductance (gs) under Pi stress. As expected, elevated CO2 reduced these diffusional limitations to photosynthesis across Pi levels; however, it failed to reduce the photo-biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in phosphorus deficient plants. Acclimation/down regulation of photosynthetic capacity was evident under elevated CO2 across Pi treatments. Despite a decrease in phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations in leaf tissue and reduced stomatal conductance at elevated CO2, the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf area when measured at the growth CO2 concentration tended to be higher for all except the lowest Pi treatment. Nevertheless, plant biomass increased at elevated CO2 across Pi nutrition with taller plants

  13. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of...

  14. Stomata open at night in pole-sized and mature ponderosa pine: implications for O{sub 3} exposure metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, N. E.; Alonso, R.; Nguyen, T.; Dobrowolski, W. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station, Riverside, CA (United States); Cascio, C. [University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Nighttime stomatal behaviour in two tree size stands of ponderosa pine are described. Ponderosa pine is one of the most ozone-sensitive conifers in western North America. The study involved measurement of time required to reach equilibrium in response to small increases in low irradiances at sites differing in environmental stressors. The contribution of nighttime ozone uptake to total daily ozone uptake in early and later summer was also investigated. Nighttime stomata conductance ranged between one tenth and one fifth that of maximum day-time values. Pole-size trees (i.e. less than 40 years old) showed greater ozone conductance than mature trees (i.e. over 250 years old). In June, nighttime ozone uptake accounted for 9, 5, and 3 per cent of the total daily ozone uptake of pole-sized trees. In late summer, ozone uptake at night was less than two percent of daily uptake at all sites. It is suspected that nighttime uptake of oxidants may have harmful physiological effects, such as contributing to the declining health of forest trees, owing to the fact that oxidants absorbed at night are not detoxified as well during the day. 67 refs.,1 tab., 8 figs.

  15. Special safety requirements applied to Brazilian nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepecki, W.P.S.; Hamel, H.J.E.; Koenig, N.; Vieira, P.C.R.; Fritzsche, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Some safety aspects of the Angra 2 and 3 nuclear power plants are presented. An analysis of the civil and mechanical project of these nuclear power plant having in view a safety analysis is done. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Cost regulation on the inspection of plants requiring supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    According to annexes I to VI of this regulation, TUeVs (technical control authorities) (2nd sentence of para. 1 of sect. 24 c of the trade law) collect fees for inspections ordered by the authorities for the following plants and installations: 1. steam boiler plants, 2. pressure vessels, high-pressure gas vessels, feeders, 3. lifts, 4. acetylene plants, 5. plants for the storage, racking and transport of combustile liquids, 6. electrical installations on hazardous location. (orig.) [de

  17. Shield requirement estimation for pin storage room in fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanthi, M.M.; Keshavamurthy, R.S.; Sivashankaran, G.

    2012-01-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF) is an upcoming project in Kalpakkam. It has the facility to recycle the fuel from PFBR. It is an integrated facility, consists of fuel reprocessing plant, fuel fabrication plant (FFP), core subassembly plant, Reprocessed Uranium plant (RUP) and waste management plant. The spent fuel from PFBR would be reprocessed in fuel reprocessing plant. The reprocessed fuel material would be sent to fuel fabrication plant. The main activity of fuel fabrication plant is the production of MOX fuel pins. The fuel fabrication plant has a fuel pin storage room. The shield requirement for the pin storage room has been estimated by Monte Carlo method. (author)

  18. Coordination of plant mitochondrial biogenesis: keeping pace with cellular requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina eWelchen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant mitochondria are complex organelles that carry out numerous metabolic processes related with the generation of energy for cellular functions and the synthesis and degradation of several compounds. Mitochondria are semiautonomous and dynamic organelles changing in shape, number and composition depending on tissue or developmental stage. The biogenesis of functional mitochondria requires the coordination of genes present both in the nucleus and the organelle. In addition, due to their central role, all processes held inside mitochondria must be finely coordinated with those in other organelles according to cellular demands. Coordination is achieved by transcriptional control of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins by specific transcription factors that recognize conserved elements in their promoter regions. In turn, the expression of most of these transcription factors is linked to developmental and environmental cues, according to the availability of nutrients, light-dark cycles and warning signals generated in response to stress conditions. Among the signals impacting in the expression of nuclear genes, retrograde signals that originate inside mitochondria help to adjust mitochondrial biogenesis to organelle demands. Adding more complexity, several nuclear encoded proteins are dual localized to mitochondria and either chloroplasts or the nucleus. Dual targeting might establish a crosstalk between the nucleus and cell organelles to ensure a fine coordination of cellular activities. In this article, we discuss how the different levels of coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis interconnect to optimize the function of the organelle according to both internal and external demands.

  19. Coordination of plant mitochondrial biogenesis: keeping pace with cellular requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchen, Elina; García, Lucila; Mansilla, Natanael; Gonzalez, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant mitochondria are complex organelles that carry out numerous metabolic processes related with the generation of energy for cellular functions and the synthesis and degradation of several compounds. Mitochondria are semiautonomous and dynamic organelles changing in shape, number, and composition depending on tissue or developmental stage. The biogenesis of functional mitochondria requires the coordination of genes present both in the nucleus and the organelle. In addition, due to their central role, all processes held inside mitochondria must be finely coordinated with those in other organelles according to cellular demands. Coordination is achieved by transcriptional control of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins by specific transcription factors that recognize conserved elements in their promoter regions. In turn, the expression of most of these transcription factors is linked to developmental and environmental cues, according to the availability of nutrients, light–dark cycles, and warning signals generated in response to stress conditions. Among the signals impacting in the expression of nuclear genes, retrograde signals that originate inside mitochondria help to adjust mitochondrial biogenesis to organelle demands. Adding more complexity, several nuclear encoded proteins are dual localized to mitochondria and either chloroplasts or the nucleus. Dual targeting might establish a crosstalk between the nucleus and cell organelles to ensure a fine coordination of cellular activities. In this article, we discuss how the different levels of coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis interconnect to optimize the function of the organelle according to both internal and external demands. PMID:24409193

  20. Safety related requirements on future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power has the potential to significantly contribute to the future energy supply. However, this requires continuous improvements in nuclear safety. Technological advancements and implementation of safety culture will achieve a safety level for future reactors of the present generation of a probability of core-melt of less than 10 -5 per year, and less than 10 -6 per year for large releases of radioactive materials. There are older reactors which do not comply with present safety thinking. The paper reviews findings of a recent design review of WWER 440/230 plants. Advanced evolutionary designs might be capable of reducing the probability of significant off-site releases to less than 10 -7 per year. For such reactors there are inherent limitations to increase safety further due to the human element, complexity of design and capability of the containment function. Therefore, revolutionary designs are being explored with the aim of eliminating the potential for off-site releases. In this context it seems to be advisable to explore concepts where the ultimate safety barrier is the fuel itself. (orig.) [de

  1. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant in...

  2. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  3. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (French Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  4. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  5. Stomatal Blue Light Response Is Present in Early Vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Michio; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Light is a major environmental factor required for stomatal opening. Blue light (BL) induces stomatal opening in higher plants as a signal under the photosynthetic active radiation. The stomatal BL response is not present in the fern species of Polypodiopsida. The acquisition of a stomatal BL response might provide competitive advantages in both the uptake of CO2 and prevention of water loss with the ability to rapidly open and close stomata. We surveyed the stomatal opening in response to strong red light (RL) and weak BL under the RL with gas exchange technique in a diverse selection of plant species from euphyllophytes, including spermatophytes and monilophytes, to lycophytes. We showed the presence of RL-induced stomatal opening in most of these species and found that the BL responses operated in all euphyllophytes except Polypodiopsida. We also confirmed that the stomatal opening in lycophytes, the early vascular plants, is driven by plasma membrane proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase and K(+) accumulation in guard cells, which is the same mechanism operating in stomata of angiosperms. These results suggest that the early vascular plants respond to both RL and BL and actively regulate stomatal aperture. We also found three plant species that absolutely require BL for both stomatal opening and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, including a gymnosperm, C. revoluta, and the ferns Equisetum hyemale and Psilotum nudum. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Advanced passive technology: A global standard for nuclear plant requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, V.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1984, Westinghouse has been developing AP8OO, a 800 MW, two-loop advanced passive plant, in response to an initiative established by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy' (DOE). The preliminary design was cornpleved in 1989. AP6OO's Standard Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk analysis Reports were submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for design certification in 1992. Design simplification is the key strategy behind the AP6OO. The basic technical concept Of simplification has resulted in a simplified reactor coolant systems, simplified plant systems, a simplified plant arrangement, reduced number of components, simplified operation and maintenance

  7. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions stated...

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Design Requirements Document (DRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

  9. The impact of technical specification surveillance requirements and allowable outage times on plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.A.; Finnicum, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Surveillances required to be conducted by a plant's Technical Specifications have resulted in plant shutdowns and lost availability. This paper looks at shutdowns which have occurred due to required surveillance testing and insufficient repair time allowed by Technical Specifications. A loss of plant availability of almost 3% per plant year was found for U.S. pressurized water reactors during the five year period, 1979 to 1984. This figure excludes major problems which required plant shutdown whether or not mandated by the Technical Specifications. In addition to their affect on availability, such shutdowns can add to the challenges to plant safety systems and can affect plant aging by increasing the thermal cycles on plant components

  10. Advanced passive technology: A global standard for nuclear plant requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V

    1994-12-31

    Since 1984, Westinghouse has been developing AP8OO, a 800 MW, two-loop advanced passive plant, in response to an initiative established by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy` (DOE). The preliminary design was cornpleved in 1989. AP6OO`s Standard Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk analysis Reports were submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for design certification in 1992. Design simplification is the key strategy behind the AP6OO. The basic technical concept Of simplification has resulted in a simplified reactor coolant systems, simplified plant systems, a simplified plant arrangement, reduced number of components, simplified operation and maintenance.

  11. Investigation of the transportation requirements for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, R.E.; Davis, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    This report presents a general investigation of the transport requirements associated with the construction and operation of conceptual fusion reactors. Projections of amounts of construction and operating materials requiring transportation are presented for several proposed designs. The material to be shipped is described along with the shipping containers that might be used, the transport modes and the expected impact of transporting these materials. Transportation of both radioactive and nonradioactive materials will be required. Most of these materials are routinely shipped by the transportation industry. Transportation requirements of a representative fusion reactor are also compared with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) requirements

  12. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phytotoxicity Tier I: Seed germination/seedling emergence (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-1 Vegetative vigor (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-1 Aquatic plant growth (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-2 Tier II: Seed germination/seedling... Nonfood Greenhouse Food crop Nonfood Forestry Domestic outdoor Indoor Test substance Data to support MP...

  13. Overview of Prairie Planting Techniques and Maintenance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    districts have these drills 6 ERDC TN-EMRRP-ER-05 February 2007 available for rent. A three-point broadcast seeder or a fertilizer spreader can...lengthens the growing season for prairie plants but shortens it for many weedy species (Pauly 1997). Fire allows for nutrient recycling in the ecosystem by

  14. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  15. Requirements and concepts for a nuclear plant surveillance and diagnostic system (NPSDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Lanning, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced plant surveillance and diagnostic system has been postulated for the purpose of aiding operator response to unanticipated plant upsets. The plant operator is described as an information processor that needs plant status information represented by symbolic outputs. These will be compatible with modern visual processing techniques, such as CRTs. Preferrred methods of estimating the state-of-the-plant and verifying measurements require on-line real-time models which are simple dynamical relationships based on energy and mass conservation laws. Implementation of on-line state estimation techniques using such models probably requires a distributed microcomputer system whose features are described. (auth)

  16. Current trends in codal requirements for safety in operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivasista, K.; Shah, Y.K.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Code of practice on safety in nuclear power plant operation states the requirements to be met during operation of a nuclear power plant for assuring safety. Among various stages of authorization, regulatory body issues authorization for operation of a nuclear power plant, monitors and enforces regulatory requirements. The responsible organization shall have overall responsibility and the plant management shall have the primary responsibility for ensuring safe and efficient operation of its nuclear power plants. A set of codal requirements covering technical and administrative aspects are mandatory for the plant management to implement to ensure that the nuclear power plant is operated in accordance with the design intent. Requirements on operating procedures and instructions establish operation and maintenance, inspection and testing of the plant in a planned and systematic way. The requirements on emergency preparedness programme establish with a reasonable assurance that, in the event of an emergency situation, appropriate measures can be taken to mitigate the consequences. Commissioning requirements verify performance criteria during commissioning to ensure that the design intent and QA requirements are met. Several modifications in systems important to safety required during operation of a nuclear power plant are regulated. However new operational codal requirements arising out of periodic safety review, operational experience feedback, life management, probabilistic safety assessment, physical security, safety convention and obligations and decommissioning are not covered in the present code of practice for safety in nuclear power plant operation. Codal provisions on 'Review by operating organization on aspects of design having implications on operability' are also required to be addressed. The merits in developing such a methodology include acceptance of the design by operating organization, ensuring maintainability, proper layout etc. in the new designs

  17. Evaluation of the energy required for constructing and operating a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1982-09-01

    The energy required for constructing and operating a tokamak fusion power plant is appraised with respect to the energy output during the lifetime of the plant. A harvesting factor is deduced as a relevant figure of energetic merit and is used for a comparison between fusion, fission, and coal-fired power plants. Because fusion power plants involve considerable uncertainties the comparison is supplemented by a sensitivity analysis. In comparison with Light Water Reactor plants fusion power plants appear to be rather favourable in this respect. The energy required for providing the fuel is relatively low for fusion plants, thus overcompensating the considerable higher amount of energy necessary for constructing the fusion power plant. (orig.)

  18. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  19. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  20. Supplementing the energy and plant nutrient requirements through organic recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, S. S.; Misra, R. V.

    1980-03-15

    In context of dwindling non-renewable energy resources and increasing health hazards because of environmental pollution, recycling of organic residues obtained through various sources like crops, animals, and human beings is becoming increasingly important. The organic residues obtained as wastes through these sources can be recycled effectively to meet scarce resources of energy and the plant nutrients, so vitally needed for our day-to-day activities and for raising agricultural production. Agriculture is the main stay of the Indian economy. Considerable quantities of crop residues available from agriculture can be utilized to serve as a source of organic fertilizers which not only provide plant nutrients but also improve soil health. The country has a large animal and human population. The animal and human wastes can be successfully used for production of energy and organic fertilizer by routing through biogas system. There is a need to develop an integrated energy and nutrient supply program. An action program is outlined.

  1. Education and training requirements of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, R.; Perlas, C.A.; Conti, E.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled by the Scientific Library staff to help in the intensified training program being undertaken by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for the nuclear power plant personnel of the Philippines' first nuclear power reactor. This bibliography covers the period 1955 - 1976 of the Nuclear Science Abstracts and is composed of 281 entries. Arrangement of these entries is by broad subject category

  2. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bačić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill., both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fused and agglomerated rapidly to various extents of morphologically different types of amorphous wax crusts, primarily compact and particulate ones. This process begins very early, especially in polluted Risnjak site, and may be interpreted as a possible result of air pollution. However, the recrystalization, or production of new tubules, also appears relatively quickly in mostly cases. Quantitative estimations indicate a very large total amount of amorphous wax crusts in the current-year needles, and a very high percentage of the same wax in previous-year needles. Amorphous wax crusts cover stomatal pores, as well as the rims, disturbing the normal gas exchange. Statistically there is a signicant tendency of increase in wax degradation in the needles of the polluted site in comparison with those of the unpolluted one, but there is an insignificant wax degradation among the needles of damaged trees within each site. These results confirmed most of the research done in our preliminary report.

  3. Requirements for containment system components in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    This Standard specifies the requirements and establishes the rules for design, fabrication, and installation of pressure-retaining containment system components. In this Standard the term 'components' includes non registered items

  4. Requirements for containment system components in CANDU nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-02-01

    This Standard specifies the requirements and establishes the rules for design, fabrication, and installation of pressure-retaining containment system components. In this Standard the term `components` includes non registered items.

  5. Safety requirements to the operation of hydropower plants; Sicherheit beim Betrieb von Wasserkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Reinhard [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse (BG ETEM), Koeln (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Employers have to take into account various safety and health requirements relating to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of hydropower plants. Especially the diversity of the hydropower plant components requires the consideration of different safety and health aspects. In 2011 the ''Fachausschuss Elektrotechnik'' (expert committee electro-technics) of the institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention presented a new ''BG-Information'' dealing with ''Safe methods operating hydropower plants''. The following article gives an introduction into the conception and the essential requirements of this new BG-Information. (orig.)

  6. Selection criteria and requirements for floors in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.

    1987-01-01

    As a surface protection of floors in nuclear facilities coatings, rubber and PVC coverings, respectively, are normally used, whereas stoneware tiles are still provided in rare cases only. All floor materials must be well decontaminable according to the German standard DIN 25415, Part 1. The general requirement is that low-porous, smooth products with little filler content, made of chemically resistant material, are very well decontaminable. Further investigations will be necessary for heavily loaded floor coatings. They include above all examinations for decontaminability after radiation and for wear and resistance to chemicals. These requirements have been compiled in DIN 55991. The examination of about 200 industrial products has revealed that the decontaminability of covering materials is frequently poor. Investigations have shown that the decontaminability is always deteriorated by additions of hygroscopic fillers. Additions of non-hygroscopic fillers and pigments may result in an excellent to poor decontaminability. The pore-free bonding of the covering materials by welding or jointing is of great importance with respect to the decontaminability of these floors. Care should be taken that the jointing compounds are as well decontaminable as the rubber coverings and stonewares. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear design and technical development required for ISER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Yamano, Naoki.

    1987-01-01

    The report outlines some results of a study carried out by the ISER (intrinsically safe and economical reactor) Investigation Group. In particular, nuclear design concepts are examined in relation to the fuel cycle. Discussion is also made on technical development efforts to be made for realizing an ISER. Calculation of some basic nuclear design parameters is performed and results are used to examine the reactor core and fuel for ISER. As a result, it is indicated that a high-burnup type reactor core should be used on a 4.5-batch replacement, 15 EFPM (effective full power month) scheme to optimize an ISER. For technical development, consideration is made on various tests to be performed with an experimental reactor, called ISER-E, as well as other tests to provide basic data required for demonstrating the inherent safety of ISER. The study also deals with the possibility of the application of currently available light water reactor techniques to experiments with a critical assembly, non-nuclear test loop, and the experimental reactor ISER-E. It is revealed that many of the required experiments can be carried out by using test facilities and light water reactor techniques which are currently, or will be readily, available. It is stressed that international cooperation is necessary to accomplish these tests. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Technical assessment of compliance with work place air sampling requirements at T Plant. Revision No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE requires its contractors to conduct air sampling to detect and evaluate airborne radioactive material in the workplace. Hanford Reservation T Plant compliance with workplace air sampling requirements has been assessed. Requirements, basis for determining compliance and recommendations are included

  9. 50 CFR 23.19 - What CITES documents are required to export Appendix-I plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What CITES documents are required to... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.19 What CITES documents are required to export Appendix-I plants? Answer the questions in the following decision...

  10. Design requirements, criteria and methods for seismic qualification of CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Duff, C.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes the requirements and criteria for the seismic design and qualification of systems and equipment in CANDU nuclear power plants. Acceptable methods and techniques for seismic qualification of CANDU nuclear power plants to mitigate the effects or the consequences of earthquakes are also described. (auth)

  11. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  12. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  13. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It takes into account developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  14. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It takes into account developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication

  15. Guideline on radiation protection requirements for ionizing radiation shielding in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The guideline which entered into force on 1 May 1988 stipulates the radiation protection requirements for shielding against ionizing radiation to be met in the design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants

  16. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  17. Lithuanian requirements for ageing management of systems and components important to safety of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanauskiene, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the Lithuanian requirements for ageing management of systems and components important to safety of Ignalina nuclear power plant (two RBMK-1500 water-cooled graphite moderated channel-type power reactors) are presented

  18. General requirements for pressure-retaining systems and components in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This standard specifies the general requirements for the design, fabrication and installation of pressure-retaining systems, components, and their supports in CANDU nuclear power plants. (16 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.)

  19. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, E.H.; Young, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the reports required by Federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed were the two Semiannual Effluent Release Reports for 1983 and the annual Kewaunee Environmental Radioactivity Survey. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS and NRC guidance given in NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  20. Leaf surface anatomy in some woody plants from northeastern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H.G.; Balboa, P.C.R.; Kumari, A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on leaf surface anatomy of woody plants and its significance are rare. The present study was undertaken in the Forest Science Faculty Experimental Research Station, UANL, Mexico, with objectives to determine the variability in leaf surface anatomy in the woody plants of the Tamaulipan thornscrub and its utility in taxonomy and possible adaptation to the prevailing semiarid conditions. The results show the presence of large variability in several leaf anatomical traits viz., waxy leaf surface, type of stomata, its size, and distribution. The species have been classified on the basis of various traits which can be used in species delimitation and adaptation to the semiarid condition such as waxy leaf surface, absence sparse stomata on the leaf surface, sunken stomata. The species identified as better adapters to semi-arid environments on the basis of the presence and absence of stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surface viz., Eysenhardtia texana, Parkinsonia texana, Gymnosperma glutinosum, Celtis laevigata, Condalia hookeri and Karwinskia humboldtiana. (author)

  1. ICT Requirements and Challenges for Provision of Grid Services from Renewable Generation Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Petersen, Lennart

    2018-01-01

    The penetration of renewable energy into the electricity supply mix necessitates the traditional power grid to become more resilient, reliable and efficient. One way of ensuring this is to require renewable power plants to have similar regulating properties as conventional power plants...... applications – in terms of data payloads, sampling rates, latency and reliability. Therefore, this paper presents a brief survey on the control and communication architectures for controlling renewable power plants in the future power grid, including the communication network technologies, requirements...... and to coordinate their grid support services (GSS) as well. Among other requirements, the coordination of GSS will highly depend on the communication between renewable plants and system operators’ control rooms, thereby imposing high responsibility on the under lying communication infrastructure. Despite...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1583 - What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1583 Section 63.1583 Protection of... Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1583 What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a...

  3. Open or close the gate – stomata action under the control of phytohormones in drought stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata eDaszkowska-Golec

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two highly specialized cells, the guard cells that surround the stomatal pore, are able to integrate environmental and endogenous signals in order to control the stomatal aperture and thereby the gas exchange. The uptake of CO2 is associated with a loss of water by leaves. Control of the size of the stomatal aperture optimizes the efficiency of water use through dynamic changes in the turgor of the guard cells. The opening and closing of stomata is regulated by the integration of environmental signals and endogenous hormonal stimuli. The various different factors to which the guard cells respond translates into the complexity of the network of signaling pathways that control stomatal movements. The perception of an abiotic stress triggers the activation of signal transduction cascades that interact with or are activated by phytohormones. Among these, abscisic acid (ABA, is the best-known stress hormone that closes the stomata, although other phytohormones, such as jasmonic acid, brassinosteroids, cytokinins or ethylene are also involved in the stomatal response to stresses. As a part of the drought response, ABA may interact with jasmonic acid and nitric oxide in order to stimulate stomatal closure. In addition, the regulation of gene expression in response to ABA involves genes that are related to ethylene, cytokinins and auxin signaling. In this paper, recent findings on phytohormone crosstalk, changes in signaling pathways including the expression of specific genes and their impact on modulating stress response through the closing or opening of stomata, together with the highlights of gaps that need to be elucidated in the signaling network of stomatal regulation, are reviewed.

  4. Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed

  5. A framework for regulatory requirements and industry standards for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Felicia A.; Camp, Allen L.; Apostolakis, George E.; Golay, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a framework for risk-based regulation and design for new nuclear power plants. Probabilistic risk assessment methods and a rationalist approach to defense in depth are used to develop a framework that can be applied to identify systematically the regulations and standards required to maintain the desired level of safety and reliability. By implementing such a framework, it is expected that the resulting body of requirements will provide a regulatory environment that will ensure protection of the public, will eliminate the burden of requirements that do not contribute significantly to safety, and thereby will improve the market competitiveness of new plants. (author)

  6. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants

  7. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) sets forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ESH) standards/requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This S/RID is applicable to the appropriate life cycle phases of design, construction, operation, and preparation for decommissioning. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment.

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) sets forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ESH) standards/requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This S/RID is applicable to the appropriate life cycle phases of design, construction, operation, and preparation for decommissioning. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment

  10. Test requirements for the integral effect test to simulate Korean PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J.; Kwon, T. S.; Yun, B. J.; Chung, M. K

    2001-02-01

    In this report, the test requirements are described for the design of the integral effect test facility to simulate Korean PWR plants. Since the integral effect test facility should be designed so as to simulate various thermal hydraulic phenomena, as closely as possible, to be occurred in real plants during operation or anticipated transients, the design and operational characteristics of the reference plants (Korean Standard Nuclear Plant and Korean Next Generation Reactor)were analyzed in order to draw major components, systems, and functions to be satisfied or simulated in the test facility. The test matrix is set up by considering major safety concerns of interest and the test objectives to confirm and enhance the safety of the plants. And the analysis and prioritization of the test matrix leads to the general design requirements of the test facility. Based on the general design requirements, the design criteria is set up for the basic and detailed design of the test facility. And finally it is drawn the design requirements specific to the fluid system and measurement system of the test facility. The test requirements in this report will be used as a guideline to the scaling analysis and basic design of the test facility. The test matrix specified in this report can be modified in the stage of main testing by considering the needs of experiments and circumstances at that time.

  11. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA’s Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.

  12. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA’s Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.

  13. Test requirements for the integral effect test to simulate Korean PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J.; Kwon, T. S.; Yun, B. J.; Chung, M. K.

    2001-02-01

    In this report, the test requirements are described for the design of the integral effect test facility to simulate Korean PWR plants. Since the integral effect test facility should be designed so as to simulate various thermal hydraulic phenomena, as closely as possible, to be occurred in real plants during operation or anticipated transients, the design and operational characteristics of the reference plants (Korean Standard Nuclear Plant and Korean Next Generation Reactor)were analyzed in order to draw major components, systems, and functions to be satisfied or simulated in the test facility. The test matrix is set up by considering major safety concerns of interest and the test objectives to confirm and enhance the safety of the plants. And the analysis and prioritization of the test matrix leads to the general design requirements of the test facility. Based on the general design requirements, the design criteria is set up for the basic and detailed design of the test facility. And finally it is drawn the design requirements specific to the fluid system and measurement system of the test facility. The test requirements in this report will be used as a guideline to the scaling analysis and basic design of the test facility. The test matrix specified in this report can be modified in the stage of main testing by considering the needs of experiments and circumstances at that time

  14. Aging plant life management - the requirements defined to date by the KTA nuclear engineering codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, I.

    1996-01-01

    German nuclear engineering codes so far do not enclose a specific aging plant life management programme. However, the existing codes and standards do contain a number of applicable requirements and principles of relevance to objectives and principles of such programmes, as they also cover aging-induced effects on power plants. The major principles relating to preventive safety engineering and quality assurance are laid down in the publications KTA 1401, 1404, 1201, 1202, and KTA 3211. (DG) [de

  15. Property, Plant and Equipment disclosure requirements and firm characteristics: the Portuguese Accounting Standardization System

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Rafaela; Azevedo, Graça; Costa, Alberto J.; Oliveira, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    In the new Portuguese accounting frame of reference (Portuguese Accounting Standardization System – Sistema de Normalização Contabilística), the issues related to Property, Plant and Equipment assets are dealt with in the Accounting and Financial Reporting Standard (Norma Contabilística de Relato Financeiro – NCRF) 7 (Property, Plant & Equipment). The present study intends to assess the degree of compliance with the disclosure requirements of this accounting standard by Portuguese unlisted co...

  16. Flood control design requirements and flood evaluation methods of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ailing; Wang Ping; Zhu Jingxing

    2011-01-01

    Effect of flooding is one of the key safety factors and environmental factors in inland nuclear power plant sitting. Up to now, the rule of law and standard systems are established for the selection of nuclear power plant location and flood control requirements in China. In this paper flood control standards of China and other countries are introduced. Several inland nuclear power plants are taken as examples to thoroughly discuss the related flood evaluation methods. The suggestions are also put forward in the paper. (authors)

  17. Structural materials requirements for in-vessel components of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der

    2000-01-01

    The economic production of fusion energy is determined by principal choices such as using magnetic plasma confinement or generating inertial fusion energy. The first generation power plants will use deuterium and tritium mixtures as fuel, producing large amounts of highly energetic neutrons resulting in radiation damage in materials. In the far future the advanced fuels, 3 He or 11 B, determine power plant designs with less radiation damage than in the first generation. The first generation power plants design must anticipate radiation damage. Solid sacrificing armour or liquid layers could limit component replacements costs to economic levels. There is more than radiation damage resistance to determine the successful application of structural materials. High endurance against cyclic loading is a prominent requirement, both for magnetic and inertial fusion energy power plants. For high efficiency and compactness of the plant, elevated temperature behaviour should be attractive. Safety and environmental requirements demand that materials have low activation potential and little toxic effects under both normal and accident conditions. The long-term contenders for fusion power plant components near the plasma are materials in the range from innovative steels, such as reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels, to highly advanced ceramic composites based on silicon carbide, and chromium alloys. The steels follow an evolutionary path to basic plant efficiencies. The competition on the energy market in the middle of the next century might necessitate the riskier but more rewarding development of SiCSiC composites or chromium alloys

  18. Water management requirements for animal and plant maintenance on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Rasmussen, D.; Curran, G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-duration Space Station experiments that use animals and plants as test specimens will require increased automation and advanced technologies for water management in order to free scientist-astronauts from routine but time-consuming housekeeping tasks. The three areas that have been identified as requiring water management and that are discusseed are: (1) drinking water and humidity condensate of the animals, (2) nutrient solution and transpired water of the plants, and (3) habitat cleaning methods. Automation potential, technology assessment, crew time savings, and resupply penalties are also discussed.

  19. Manpower requirements of quality assurance personnel for the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.E.; El-sayed, A.A.; Shabaan, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    Basic principles for structuring and staffing of the quality assurance (Q.A.)organisation in the nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. the manpower requirements of the Q.A.organisation in the NPP during both construction and operational stages are determined. the manpower requirements for Q.A./Q.C. functions in a NPP are found to be proportional to the number of craft workers needed to perform the required level of the construction. The Q.A./Q.C. personnel are about 15% of the total number of the craft workers required during construction

  20. Foliar spray of sodium antagonistic essential mineral elements- a technique to induce salt tolerance in plants growing under saline environment (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Jabeen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Plants growing at saline substrate practice deficiencies in absorption of some essential mineral elements through roots due to presence of excessive sodium in rhizosphere. Sodium being antagonistic to other cations does not let them enter in roots and hence apart from its own toxicity in metabolism, the plants suffer with deficiencies of some mineral elements, which are necessary for growth. Potassium being essential mineral element is much effected due to this antagonistic behavior of sodium ion. Lagenaria siceraria (var. Loki) being a broad leaf vegetable was selected for these experiments. Plant growing at saline substrate was sprayed with specially prepared spray materials containing different dilutions of potassium nitrate. The anatomy of leaf with special reference to that of stomata was also studied to ensure absorption of required minerals. Growth of plants in terms of leaf area is being monitored at present. Some preliminary experiments show betterment in production of fruits in plants undergoing foliar spray. This hypothesis has opened a new chapter demanding series of experiments dealing with recipe of spray materials, mechanism of minerals uptake through stomata, participation of absorbed minerals in metabolic activities around palisade tissue probably by activating potassium dependent enzyme system which otherwise is blocked by replaced sodium, translocation of these minerals from leaves through petiole in rest of plants and overall effect of such spray on vegetative as well as reproductive growth in plants under saline environment. Some of this work is in progress. (author)

  1. Safety requirement of the nuclear power plants, after TMI-2 accident and their possible implementation on Bushehr NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirhabibi, N.; Tochai, M.T.M.; Ashrafi, A.; Farnoudi, E.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the lessons learned from the TMI-2 accident and other research and developments, many improvements have been required for the design, manufacturing and operation of nuclear power plants in recent years. These requirements have already been implemented to the plants in operation and considered as new safety requirements for new plants. In the present paper these requirements and their possible implementation on Bushehr NPP are discussed. (Author)

  2. The european passive plant (EPP) design: compliance with the european utilities requirements (EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, L.; Oyarzabal, M.

    1996-01-01

    Back 1986, most of the European firms have participated to the American program called the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) including the development of the Utilities Requirements as well as four projects as for instance AP600. Later, in the year 1990, seven European firms have begun to develop the European Utilities Requirements. This development is justified by the fact that the lessons learned by the nuclear power plants designs programs of the years 1980 can be incorporated and the European specific conditions can be taken into consideration. Thus, in 1994, eight European firms - Westinghouse and their industrial partners - have decided to launch a multiphase program in order to check the AP600 compliance with the European Utilities Requirements (EUR) and to develop the required alterations. Today, the phase I of the EPP (European Passive Plant) program has been completed. In this phase, the main important objectives have been reached. (O.M.)

  3. A chitinase is required for Xylella fastidiosa colonization of its insect and plant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroussaa, Fabien; Ionescu, Michael; Zeilinger, Adam R; Lindow, Steven E; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2017-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa colonizes the xylem network of host plant species as well as the foregut of its required insect vectors to ensure efficient propagation. Disease management strategies remain inefficient due to a limited comprehension of the mechanisms governing both insect and plant colonization. It was previously shown that X. fastidiosa has a functional chitinase (ChiA), and that chitin likely serves as a carbon source for this bacterium. We expand on that research, showing that a chiA mutant strain is unable to grow on chitin as the sole carbon source. Quantitative PCR assays allowed us to detect bacterial cells in the foregut of vectors after pathogen acquisition; populations of the wild-type and complemented mutant strain were both significantly larger than the chiA mutant strain 10 days, but not 3 days, post acquisition. These results indicate that adhesion of the chiA mutant strain to vectors may not be impaired, but that cell multiplication is limited. The mutant was also affected in its transmission by vectors to plants. In addition, the chiA mutant strain was unable to colonize host plants, suggesting that the enzyme has other substrates associated with plant colonization. Lastly, ChiA requires other X. fastidiosa protein(s) for its in vitro chitinolytic activity. The observation that the chiA mutant strain is not able to colonize plants warrants future attention to be paid to the substrates for this enzyme.

  4. International requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants; Internationale Anforderungen zur Lebensdauerverlaengerung von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Robert [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Abt. Festigkeit und Konstruktion, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Lifetime extension or long-term operation of nuclear facilities are topics of great international significance against the backdrop of a fleet of nuclear power plants of which many have reached 2/3 of their planned life. The article deals with the conditions for, and the specific requirements of, seeking long-term operation of nuclear power plants as established internationally and on the basis of IAEA collections. Technically, long-term operation is possible for many of the nuclear power plants in the world because, normally, they were built on the basis of conservative rules and regulations and, as a consequence, incorporate significant additional safety. Application of requirements to specific plants implies assessments of technical safety which show that conservative design philosophies created reserves and, as a consequence, there is an adequate level of safety also in long-term plant operation. For this purpose, the technical specifications must be revised, necessary additions made, and (international) operating experience taken into account and management of aging established. Two examples are presented to show how the approach to long-term plant operation is put into practice on a national level. (orig.)

  5. Development of regulatory requirements/guides for desalination unit coupled with nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik

    2005-10-01

    The basic design of System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), a small-to-medium sized integral type pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capacity of 330MWth, has been developed in Korea. In order to demonstrate the safety and performance of the SMART design, 'Development Project of SMART-P (SMART-Pilot Plant)' has been being performed as one of the 'National Mid and Long-term Atomic Energy R and D Programs', which includes design, construction, and start-up operation of the SMART-P with the capacity of 65MWth, a 1/5 scaled-down design of the SMART. At the same time, a study on the development of regulatory requirements/guides for the desalination unit coupled with nuclear plant has been carried out by KINS in order to prepare for the forthcoming SMART-P licensing. The results of this study performed from August of 2002 to October of 2005 can be summarized as follows: (1) The general status of desalination technologies has been survey. (2) The design of the desalination plant coupled with the SMART-P has been investigated. (3) The regulatory requirements/guides relevant to a desalination unit coupled with a nuclear plant have been surveyed. (4) A direction on the development of domestic regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit has been established. (5) A draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit has been developed. (6) Expert technical reviews have been performed for the draft regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit. The draft regulatory requirements/guides developed in this study will be finalized and can be applied directly to the licensing of the SMART-P and SMART. Furthermore, it will be also applied to the licensing of the desalination unit coupled with the nuclear plant

  6. The basic design and requirement for plant tissue culture laboratory in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azraf Azman; Rosli Darmawan; Rusli Ibrahim; Mohd Nazir Basiran; Azhar Mohamad; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin

    2005-01-01

    The production of multiple species plantlets involves a relatively complex process and it is a highly specialized operation. Tissue culture technology is rapidly becoming a commercialized method for propagating new cultivars, rare species and difficult-to-propagate plant. Not only are skills and knowledge essential but the laboratory itself also plays an important role to ensure the successful growth of the plantlets. To produce quality plantlets, plant tissue culture laboratories should fulfill the basic requirements. The laboratory should have proper building and layout which comprise of media preparation and washing room, sterilization or autoclave room, transfer room and culture or growth room. The scope of this paper is to compare these fundamental requirements with the plant tissue culture laboratory in MINT. All the basic needs and differences will be discussed and the proposal for corrective actions will be presented. (Author)

  7. Utilization of respiratory energy in higher plants : requirements for 'maintenance' and transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of both photosynthesis and respiration is required to understand plant growth and resulting crop yield. However, especially the nature of the energy demanding processes that are dependent on dark respiration in full-grown tissues is largely unknown. The main objective

  8. General requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This standard provides the general requirements used in the design, construction, testing, and commissioning of concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants designated as class containment and is directed to the owners, designers, manufacturers, fabricators, and constructors of the concrete components and parts

  9. Quality assurance requirements for the operation of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    An adaption of NRC's 10 CFR 50, Appendis B (Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power and Fuel Reprocessing Plants) to Swedish conditions is presented. No references are given to regulations standards etc that influence the requirements and their adaption to local conditions. (Aa)

  10. Requirements for auditing of quality assurance programs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Requirements and guidance are provided for establishing and implementing a system of internal and external audits of quality assurance programs for nuclear power plants, including the preparation, performance, reporting and follow-up of audits by both the auditing and the audited organizations. This standard is to be used in conjunction with ANSI N45.2

  11. Plant design and layout of the different buildings with respect to safety, operational and maintenance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebich, H.

    1981-01-01

    The descriptions and pictures in this lecture show that the arrangement of the buildings and the location of components and systems are based on proven ideas with the aim to fulfil safety, operational and maintenance requirements also from the point of view of plant layout. (orig.)

  12. Method to control the persons permitted to enter plants with increased security requirements and personnel lock for such plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, E.; Eickhoff, H.; Tretschoks, W.

    1978-01-01

    The personnel lock for a plant with increased security requirements, e.g. a nuclear power plant, has got two lock gates. Only persons whose right to enter has been established by the control equipment will be admitted to the lock chamber. For this purpose an identification recess is built in front of the first access to the lock chamber, where size, weight and the contours of the persons wanting to enter are roughly measured and compared with a code card carried along. The weight is established by a balance forming part of the base of the recess. By means of contact surfaces in the region of knees, upper thigh, chest and shoulder an upright position of the person is guaranteed. Scanning of the physical dimensions is performed with laser, infrared and light barriers. (DG) [de

  13. Requirements for the support power systems of CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    This Standard covers principal criteria and requirements for design, fabrication, installation, qualification, inspection, and documentation for assurance that support power will be available as required. The minimum requirements for support power are determined by the special safety systems and other safety-related systems that must function to ensure that the public health risk is acceptably low. Support power systems of a CANDU nuclear power plant include those parts of the electrical systems and instrument air systems that are necessary for the operation of safety-related systems

  14. Quality assurance program preparation - review of requirements and plant systems - selection of program levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmuss, G.

    1980-01-01

    The establishment and implementation for a practicable quality assurance program for a nuclear power plant demands a detailed background in the field of engineering, manufacturing, organization and quality assurance. It will be demonstrated with examples to define and control the achievement of quality related activities during the phases of design, procurement, manufactoring, commissioning and operation. In general the quality assurance program applies to all items, processes and services important to safety of nuclear power plant. The classification for safety related and non-safety related items and services demonstrate the levels of quality assurance requirements. The lecture gives an introduction of QA Program preparation under the following topics: -Basic criteria and international requirements - Interaction of QA activities - Modular and product oriented QA programs - Structuring of organization for the QA program - Identification of the main quality assurance functions and required actions - Quality Assurance Program documentation - Documentation of planning of activities - Control of program documents - Definitions. (orig./RW)

  15. Impact of extreme load requirements and quality assurance on nuclear power plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Definitive costs, applicable to nuclear power plant concrete structures, as a function of National Regulatory Requirements, standardization, the effect of extreme load design associated with both design basis accidents and extreme external events and quality assurance are difficult to develop since such effects are interrelated and not only differ widely from country to country, project to project but also vary in time. Table 1 shows an estimate of the of the overall plant cost effects of external event extreme load design on nuclear power plant design for the U.S -and selected foreign countries for which experience with LWRs exist- Germany is the most expensive primarily due to a military aircraft crash resistance. However, the German requirement for 4 safeguards trains rather than 2 and the containment design requirement to consider one Steam Generator blowdown concurrent with a RCS blowdown. This presentation will concentrate on the direct current impact extreme load design and quality assurance have on concrete structures, systems and components for nuclear plants. This presentation is considered timely due to the increased interest in the c potential backfit of Eastern European nuclear power stations of the WWER 440 and WWER 1000 types which typically did not consider the extreme loads identified in Table 1 and accident loads in Table 3 and quality assurance in Table 5 in their original design. Concrete structures in particular are highlighted because they typically form the last barrier to radioactive release from the containment and other Safety Related Structures

  16. Correct safety requirements during the life cycle of heating plants; Korrekta saekerhetskrav under vaermeanlaeggningars livscykel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegehall, Jan; Hedberg, Johan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The safety of old steam boilers or hot water generators is in principle based on electromechanical components which are generally easy to understand. The use of safety-PLC is a new and flexible way to design a safe system. A programmable system offers more degrees of freedom and consequently new problems may arise. As a result, new standards which use the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) concept for the level of safety have been elaborated. The goal is to define a way of working to handle requirements on safety in control systems of heat and power plants. SIL-requirements are relatively new within the domain and there is a need for guidance to be able to follow the requirements. The target of this report is the people who work with safety questions during new construction, reconstruction, or modification of furnace plants. In the work, the Pressure Equipment Directive, 97/23/EC, as well as standards which use the SIL concept have been studied. Additionally, standards for water-tube boilers have been studied. The focus has been on the safety systems (safety functions) which are used in water-tube boilers for heat and power plants; other systems, which are parts of these boilers, have not been considered. Guidance has been given for the aforementioned standards as well as safety requirements specification and risk analysis. An old hot water generator and a relatively new steam boiler have been used as case studies. The design principles and safety functions of the furnaces have been described. During the risk analysis important hazards were identified. A method for performing a risk analysis has been described and the appropriate content of a safety requirements specification has been defined. If a heat or power plant is constructed, modified, or reconstructed, a safety life cycle shall be followed. The purpose of the safety life cycle is to plan, describe, document, perform, check, test, and validate that everything is correctly done. The components of the safety

  17. Consideration of the legal system required for achievement of current nuclear power plant construction programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellon Fernandez, E.; Forum Atomico Espanol, Madrid)

    1976-01-01

    The extensive nuclear power plant construction programmes currently in progress in western countries require updating of the legislation in force in this field, especially as regards the following: acquisition of the sites necessary by means of a national planning programme of available sites; simplification of formalities concerning issuance of administrative licenses; revision of the principle of absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator which forms the basis of the third party liability system for nuclear damage; radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear plants. Furthermore, this new legislation should be harmonized between the different countries concerned. (N.E.A.) [fr

  18. Implementation of requirements of environmental management (ISO 14000) for the decommissioning of the heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria I.; Otero de Eppenstein, Marta; Tosi, Lidia E.; Sabio, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina has a project of decommissioning in the heavy water plant (Planta Experimental de Agua Pesada - PEAP). The aim of this project is to get some experience for decommissioning of nuclear plants and to achieve knowledge about the application of the requirements in environmental management. The project is being carried out according to ISO 14001 standards 'Environmental Management Systems'. The objectives were taken from the model without any expectation of achieving the complete implementation or certification of the system. This report is a description of the acts that have been done. (author)

  19. Hydraulic patterns and safety margins, from stem to stomata, in three eastern US tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Johnson; K.A. McCulloh; F.C. Meinzer; D.R. Woodruff; D.M. Eissenstat

    2011-01-01

    Adequate water transport is necessary to prevent stomatal closure and allow for photosynthesis. Dysfunction in the water transport pathway can result in stomatal closure, and can be deleterious to overall plant health and survival. Although much is known about small branch hydraulics, little is known about the coordination of leaf and stem hydraulic function....

  20. Superimposed behaviour of g(m) under ABA-induced stomata closing and low CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tazoe, Y.; Šantrůček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2015), s. 385-387 ISSN 0140-7791 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1261 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mesophyll conductance * Carbon-isotope discrimination * Photosnthesis * Plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.169, year: 2015

  1. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver panel test requirements document solar thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-25

    Testing plans for a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally, the design planned for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. Testing is to include operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the panel's transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. Test hardware are described, including the pilot plant receiver, the test receiver assembly, receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and structural assembly. Requirements for the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. The safety of the system is briefly discussed, and procedures are described for assembly, installation, checkout, normal and abnormal operations, maintenance, removal and disposition. Also briefly discussed are quality assurance, contract responsibilities, and test documentation. (LEW)

  2. Analysis of the Possibility of Required Resources Estimation for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Applying BIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Estimation of decommissioning cost, decommissioning strategy, and decommissioning quantity at the time when entering into any decommissioning plans are some elements whose inputs are mandatory for nuclear power plant decommissioning. Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. This study aims at analyzing whether required resources for decommissioning nuclear power plants can be estimated, applying BIM. To achieve this goal, this study analyzed the status quo of BIM such as definition, characteristics, and areas applied, and made use of them when drawing out study results by examining types and features of the tools realizing BIM. In order to review how BIM could be used for decommissioning nuclear power plants, the definition, characteristics and applied areas of BIM were discussed. BIM designs objects of the structures (walls, slabs, pillars, stairs, windows and doors, etc.) by 3D technology and endows attribute (function, structure and usage) information for each object, thereby providing visualized information of structures for participants in construction projects. Major characteristics of BIM attribute information are as follows: - Geometry: The information of objects is represented by measurable geometric information - Extensible object attributes: Objects include pre-defined attributes, and allow extension of other attributes. Any model that includes these attributes forms relationships with other various attributes in order to perform analysis and simulation. - All information including the attributes are integrated to ensure continuity, accuracy and accessibility, and all information used during the life cycle of structures are supported. This means that when information of required resources is added as another attributes other than geometric

  3. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J D

    1976-04-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria.

  4. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria. (Auth.)

  5. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.1 Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction...

  6. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources

  7. Ergonomic requirements on computer-based information- and handling engineering in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This project provides regulatory authorities with a set of criteria for evaluating hybrid man-machine interfaces in nuclear power plant control rooms from a human factors point of view. Such standards are necessary for two reasons: (1) More and more computerised information and control systems have been and will be introduced in nuclear power plant control rooms. One possible result of this trend will be the creation of hybrid man machine interfaces which will provide both conventional and computer-based display and control devices. (2) Available rules and regulations do not contain detailed requirements on how to integrate both types of interface in such a way that plant operation by means of hybrid interfaces will be performed at least as reliably and safely as by means of conventional ones. To fill this gap, criteria and methods were developed which support practical checks of requirements to be applied to hybrid control rooms. This approach is based on state of the art methods and criteria in ergonomics. It makes it possible to analyse and to describe personnel's actions in a consistent and structured way in order to provide the information which is necessary for evaluating human reliability of task performance. Reliability can be evaluated with respect to - accuracy of required information on displays, - networking of tasks, - possibilities of interrupting and cancelling measures which have already been initiated, - possibility to carry out required manuel actions, - level of mental work-strain, - workload level, - probability of erroneous actions. This method is part of a catalogue of recommendations for evaluating hybrid nuclear power plant control rooms. The catalogue also contains recommendations for the design of computerised parts of the man-machine-interface. Application of these design recommendations will help create favourable conditions for an acceptable level of work-strain and for reliable task performance. (orig.) [de

  8. Systems required during and after an earthquake. Summary report. WWER-1000 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, P.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of this document is to list the mechanical, instrumentation and electrical components required during and after earthquake, in order to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions of a WWER-1000 type nuclear power plant. The main objective pursued in establishing the systems and equipment list is to provide guidance for the design and implementation of the backfits which are necessary to increase seismic resistance of the components required after earthquake. The presented list is established on generic basis, i.e. it is applicable to any specific WWER-1000

  9. New requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents new requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards. It is concluded that: - New set of IAEA Safety Standards is close to completion: around 40 standards for NPPs; - Different interpretation of IAEA Safety Standards at present: best world practices instead of previous 'minimum common denominator'; - A number of safety improvements required for NPPs; - Requirements related to BDBAs and severe accidents are the most demanding due to degradation of barriers: hardware modifications and accident management; - Large variety between countries in implementation of accident management programmes: from minimum to major hardware modifications; -Distinction between existing and new NPPs is essential from the point of view of the requirements; WWER 440 reactors have potential to reflect IAEA Safety Standards for existing NPPs; relatively low reactor power offers broader possibilities

  10. Discussion on several important safety requirements for the new nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Tianwen; Li Jigen; Zhang Lin; Feng Youcai; Jia Xiang; Li Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    Post the Fukushima nuclear accident, the Chinese government raised higher safety goals and safety requirements for the new nuclear power plant to be constructed. The paper expounded the important indicators of safety requirements and the aspects of safety modification that had been developed for the new NPPs. It also discussed and analyzed the main fields required by the new NPPs safety requirements in the safety goals, safety evaluation of sites, defenses of internal and external events, severe accident prevention and mitigation, design of reactor core, containment system and I and C system, and optimization of engineering measure, which gave some references to the design, construction and safety modifications of new NPPs in China. (authors)

  11. New requirements, rules and regulations, and vested rights of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, C.

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with the question whether new requirements can be imposed on existing nuclear power plants. It was promoted by the fact that the German Federal Ministry for the Environment currently is working on a thorough revision of German nuclear regulations. When looking at backfitting requirements, the all-important question is whether new findings show that the provisions taken in the license to guarantee the 'necessary precautions' (as defined in the German Atomic Energy Act) contain errors or omissions; only in this case can the authority demand that remedial measures, including backfitting, be taken. Beyond that, German nuclear law contains no obligation for operators to improve and develop safety still further. This applies regardless of whether new requirements are justified by new technical possibilities or new scientific analyses or whether they are prompted by a mere abstract re-evaluation of the safety level to be achieved. In the former case, if there are good technical or scientific reasons, the operators, as a rule, will perform backfitting voluntarily. Pursuant to these criteria, the article covers three categories of backfitting requirements and illustrates them by examples. These general principles are also valid when a new set of regulations - as planned by the BMU - are put into effect and applied. They may lead to existing plants not having to comply fully with the requirements contained in new regulations. (orig.)

  12. Design of a requirements system for decommissioning of a nuclear power plant based on systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Seong; Park, Seung Kook; Jin, Hyung Gon; Song, Chan Ho; Choi, Jong won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The nuclear industry has required an advanced system that can manage decommissioning information ever since the Korean government decide to decommission the Gori No.1 nuclear power plant. The D and D division at KAERI has been developing a system that can secure the reliability and sustainability of the decommissioning project based on the engineering system of the KRR-2 (Korean Research Reactor-2). To establish a decommissioning information system, a WBS that needs to be managed for the decommissioning of an NPP has been extracted, and requirements management research composed of system engineering technology has progressed. This paper propose a new type of system based on systems engineering technology. Even though a decommissioning engineering system was developed through the KRR-2, we are now developing an advanced decommissioning information system because it is not easy to apply this system to a commercial nuclear power plant. An NPP decommissioning is a project requiring a high degree of safety and economic feasibility. Therefore, we have to use a systematic project management at the initial phase of the decommissioning. An advanced system can manage the decommissioning information from preparation to remediation by applying a previous system to the systems engineering technology that has been widely used in large-scale government projects. The first phase of the system has progressed the requirements needed for a decommissioning project for a full life cycle. The defined requirements will be used in various types of documents during the decommissioning preparation phase.

  13. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition); Bezopasnost' atomnykh ehlektrostantsij: proektirovanie. Konkretnye trebovaniya bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  14. Unique responsiveness of angiosperm stomata to elevated CO2 explained by calcium signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Brodribb

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca(2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2.

  15. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance...

  16. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  17. Requirements and Possibilities for Operational Experience Feedback from the Plant's Manufacturer's Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimann, P.

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of nations has realized that nuclear energy can contribute sustainable to secure their national energy supply. In the last few years, apart from the established nuclear nations, other, often smaller countries have also decided for themselves to apply the nuclear option to secure their energy supply. This partly takes place in multi-national cooperation between neighboring countries on one side, as well as otherwise between different companies on the manufacturers'/utilities' side. The endeavor of building absolutely safe reactors and of operating them safely requires the necessity on different levels of considering existing and up to date experiences gained in all the nuclear projects' phases. The long time period of many years between the decision on building a nuclear power plant, the licensing procedure, the detailed planning, the construction phase and the commissioning of the plants, results in the necessity of having to incorporate the constant experience gain on all technical and administrative levels. This applies to the safety-related boundary conditions in the frame of a new-build project in the same way as for updating measures performed on existing plants. An often neglected fact, this also applies to the right choice of the guidelines to be applied, to an efficient and competent authority and utility body or to the integration of the appropriate technical specialists and experts. Therefore the utilities and their tasks are confronted with different requirements, depending on whether they are located in the country of responsible nuclear power plant utilities' head quarters or whether they are simply co-owners of a foreign plant. AREVA as company covering the complete nuclear cycle including the corresponding plant construction supports its partners in all project phases including the development of national institutions and knowledge transfer. All of AREVA's existing knowledge - even the recently obtained - is integrated directly in the

  18. Iron Requirement and Iron Uptake from Various Iron Compounds by Different Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Rudolf A.

    1974-01-01

    The Fe requirements of four monocotyledonous plant species (Avena sativa L., Triticum aestivum L., Oryza sativa L., Zea mays L.) and of three dicotyledonous species (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Cucumis sativus L., Glycine maxima (L.) Merr.) in hydroponic cultures were ascertained. Fe was given as NaFe-EDDHA chelate (Fe ethylenediamine di (O-hydroxyphenylacetate). I found that the monocotyledonous species required a substantially higher Fe concentration in the nutrient solution in order to attain optimum growth than did the dicotyledonous species. Analyses showed that the process of iron uptake was less efficient with the monocotyledonous species. When the results obtained by using chelated Fe were compared with those using ionic Fe, it was shown that the inefficient species were equally inefficient in utilizing Fe3+ ions. However, the differences between the efficient and the inefficient species disappeared when Fe2+ was used. This confirms the work of others who postulated that Fe3+ is reduced before uptake of chelated iron by the root. In addition, it was shown that reduction also takes place when Fe is used in ionic form. The efficiency of Fe uptake seems to depend on the efficiency of the root system of the particular plant species in reducing Fe3+. The removal of Fe from the chelate complex after reduction to Fe2+ seems to present no difficulties to the various plant species. PMID:16658933

  19. How Many Model Evaluations Are Required To Predict The AEP Of A Wind Power Plant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, J P; Réthoré, P E; Natarajan, A; Sørensen, J D

    2015-01-01

    Wind farm flow models have advanced considerably with the use of large eddy simulations (LES) and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations. The main limitation of these techniques is their high computational time requirements; which makes their use for wind farm annual energy production (AEP) predictions expensive. The objective of the present paper is to minimize the number of model evaluations required to capture the wind power plant's AEP using stationary wind farm flow models. Polynomial chaos techniques are proposed based on arbitrary Weibull distributed wind speed and Von Misses distributed wind direction. The correlation between wind direction and wind speed are captured by defining Weibull-parameters as functions of wind direction. In order to evaluate the accuracy of these methods the expectation and variance of the wind farm power distributions are compared against the traditional binning method with trapezoidal and Simpson's integration rules.The wind farm flow model used in this study is the semi-empirical wake model developed by Larsen [1]. Three test cases are studied: a single turbine, a simple and a real offshore wind power plant. A reduced number of model evaluations for a general wind power plant is proposed based on the convergence of the present method for each case. (paper)

  20. Considerations on the Application of the IAEA Safety Requirements for the Design of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    Revised to take into consideration findings from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-2/1 (Rev. 1), Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, has introduced some new concepts with respect to the earlier safety standard published in the year 2000. The preparation of SSR-2/1 (Rev. 1) was carried out with constant and intense involvement of IAEA Member States, but some new requirements, because of the novelty of the concepts introduced and the complexity of the issues, are not always interpreted in a unique way. The IAEA is confident that a complete clarification and a full understanding of the new requirements will be available when the supporting safety guides for design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants are prepared. The IAEA expects that the effort devoted to the preparation of this publication, which received input and comments from several Member States and experts, will also facilitate and harmonize the preparation or revision of these supporting standards

  1. Licensing requirements regarding the qualification of operating personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The legal requirements regarding the qualifications of operating personnel in nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are outlined as in article 7 of the Atomic Energy Act. For the responsible operating personnel the requisite competence and reliability are legally required; for subordinate personnel the law requires only the necessary knowledge. The requisite competence and the necessary knowledge have been further specified in a set of guidelines by the authorities; work on specification of reliability requirements is under way. Essential elements of the requisite competence of responsible operating personnel are their professional qualification, their safety-related knowledge, their abilities, their practical experience, and - for the responsible shift personnel - their nuclear, plant-related training as well as a written and oral examination. Requalification is indispensible for keeping the requisite competence on a level in accordance with the current state of science and technology. Facts concerning the personal reliability of the responsible operating personnel are assessed by the competent authorities on the basis of information available at other state institutions. For the responsible shift personnel, physical and psychological fitness are important factors contributing to their reliability. The necessary knowledge subordinate operating personnel must possess with respect to plant safety and safety of the personnel is assured via instruction on safety and via special briefings at the working place. Lack of safety-related knowledge has to be compensated for by assigning an experienced permanent supervisor for each activity in question. Current work on qualification of operating personnel concentrates on training, including simulator training, of responsible shift personnel. (author)

  2. Licensing evaluation of CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants relative to U.S. regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, J.B. van

    1978-01-01

    Differences between the U.S. and Canadian approach to safety and licensing are discussed. U.S. regulatory requirements are evaluated as regards their applicability to CANDU-PHW reactors; vice-versa the CANDU-PHW reactor is evaluated with respect to current Regulatory Requirements and Guides. A number of design modifications are proposed to be incorporated into the CANDU-PHW reactor in order to facilitate its introduction into the U.S. These modifications are proposed solely for the purpose of maintaining consistency within the current U.S. regulatory system and not out of a need to improve the safety of current-design CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants. A number of issues are identified which still require resolution. Most of these issues are concerned with design areas not (yet) covered by the ASME code. (author)

  3. Plant design and layout of the different buildings with respect to safety, operational and maintenance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, C.

    1981-01-01

    Design and layout of the buildings of a nuclear power plant are governed by the safety requirements regarding nearby population as called for by government regulations as well as by operational and maintenance requirements called for by the power utilities in order to assure smooth operation and easy service conditions. The lecture will focus on the different functional circumstances to be considered, their relative importance, criteria to be applied, pertinent regulations etc. and also give examples on the solutions to the above requirements. Main topics to be covered will be those circumstances that impose the highest demands on the civil engineering layout and design: airplane impact, earthquake, loss of coolant accident, pipe whipping, fuel cask transfer, annual overhaul, leak detection etc. (orig./RW)

  4. Regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection in Malaysia-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, N A; Hashim, S; Ramli, A T; Bradley, D A; Hamzah, K

    2016-12-01

    Malaysia has initiated a range of pre-project activities in preparation for its planned nuclear power programme. Clearly one of the first steps is the selection of sites that are deemed suitable for the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Here we outline the Malaysian regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection, emphasizing details of the selection procedures and site characteristics needed, with a clear focus on radiation safety and radiation protection in respect of the site surroundings. The Malaysia Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) site selection guidelines are in accord with those provided in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and United Stated Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents. To enhance the suitability criteria during selection, as well as to assist in the final decision making process, possible assessments using the site selection characteristics and information are proposed.

  5. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures......Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport...... accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development....

  6. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2016-07-06

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development.

  7. How Many Model Evaluations Are Required To Predict The AEP Of A Wind Power Plant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murcia Leon, Juan Pablo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Natarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    (AEP) predictions expensive. The objective of the present paper is to minimize the number of model evaluations required to capture the wind power plant's AEP using stationary wind farm flow models. Polynomial chaos techniques are proposed based on arbitrary Weibull distributed wind speed and Von Misses...... distributed wind direction. The correlation between wind direction and wind speed are captured by defining Weibull-parameters as functions of wind direction. In order to evaluate the accuracy of these methods the expectation and variance of the wind farm power distributions are compared against...... the traditional binning method with trapezoidal and Simpson's integration rules. The wind farm flow model used in this study is the semi-empirical wake model developed by Larsen [1]. Three test cases are studied: a single turbine, a simple and a real offshore wind power plant. A reduced number of model...

  8. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  9. Assay of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Plant Tissues under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Małgorzata; Wdowikowska, Anna; Kłobus, Grażyna

    2018-01-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase, which generates the proton gradient across the outer membrane of plant cells, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of many physiological processes fundamental for growth and development of plants. It is involved in the uptake of nutrients from external solutions, their loading into phloem and long-distance transport, stomata aperture and gas exchange, pH homeostasis in cytosol, cell wall loosening, and cell expansion. The crucial role of the enzyme in resistance of plants to abiotic and biotic stress factors has also been well documented. Such great diversity of physiological functions linked to the activity of one enzyme requires a suitable and complex regulation of H + -ATPase. This regulation comprises the transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional levels. Herein, we describe the techniques that can be useful for the analysis of the plasma membrane proton pump modifications at genetic and protein levels under environmental factors.

  10. Aconitase B is required for optimal growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Kirchberg

    Full Text Available The aerobic plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv colonizes the intercellular spaces of pepper and tomato. One enzyme that might contribute to the successful proliferation of Xcv in the host is the iron-sulfur protein aconitase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and might also sense reactive oxygen species (ROS and changes in cellular iron levels. Xcv contains three putative aconitases, two of which, acnA and acnB, are encoded by a single chromosomal locus. The focus of this study is aconitase B (AcnB. acnB is co-transcribed with two genes, XCV1925 and XCV1926, encoding putative nucleic acid-binding proteins. In vitro growth of acnB mutants was like wild type, whereas in planta growth and symptom formation in pepper plants were impaired. While acnA, XCV1925 or XCV1926 mutants showed a wild-type phenotype with respect to bacterial growth and in planta symptom formation, proliferation of the acnB mutant in susceptible pepper plants was significantly impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of acnB led to reduced HR induction in resistant pepper plants and an increased susceptibility to the superoxide-generating compound menadione. As AcnB complemented the growth deficiency of an Escherichia coli aconitase mutant, it is likely to be an active aconitase. We therefore propose that optimal growth and survival of Xcv in pepper plants depends on AcnB, which might be required for the utilization of citrate as carbon source and could also help protect the bacterium against oxidative stress.

  11. Verification of voltage/ frequency requirement for emergency diesel generator in nuclear power plant using dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, J.S.; Roh, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: One major cause of the plant shutdown is the loss of electrical power. The study is to comprehend the coping action against station blackout including emergency diesel generator, sequential loading of safety system and to ensure that the emergency diesel generator should meet requirements, especially voltage and frequency criteria using modeling tool. This paper also considered the change of the sequencing time and load capacity only for finding electrical design margin. However, the revision of load list must be verified with safety analysis. From this study, it is discovered that new load calculation is a key factor in EDG localization and in-house capability increase. (author)

  12. Technical requirements on knowledge base and instrumentation system for decision making in plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    A series of technical surveys and studies are described in this report to examine and identify technical requirements to be posed on knowledge base and instrumentation system as the fundamental in high reliability computational decision making in operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and diagnosis are focused as the important tasks among the operation/maintenance-related tasks. A concrete monitoring and diagnosis system configuration has been proposed consisting of distributed symptom database and of on-demand measurement subsystem. An prototype of the proposed system configuration has been successfully verified. (author)

  13. A PLC generic requirements and specification for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jea Bok; Lee, C. K.; Lee, D. Y.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents the requirements and specification to be applied to the generic qualification of programmable Logic Controller(PLC), which is being developed as part of the KNICS project, 'Development of the Digital Reactor Safety Systems' of which purpose is the application to safety-related instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. This report defines the essential and critical characteristics that shall be included as part of a PLC design for safety-related application. The characteristics include performance, reliability, accuracy, the overall response time from an input to the PLC exceeding it trip condition to the resulting outputs, and the specification of processors and memories in digital controller. It also specifies the quality assurance process for software development, dealing with executive software, firmware, application software tools for developing the application software, and human machine interface(HMI). In addition, this report reviews the published standards and guidelines that are required for the PLC development and the quality assurance processes such as environment requirements, seismic withstand requirements, EMI/RFI withstand requirements, and isolation test

  14. TASS/SMR Code Topical Report for SMART Plant, Vol II: User's Guide and Input Requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Rae

    2008-10-01

    The TASS/SMR code has been developed with domestic technologies for the safety analysis of the SMART plant which is an integral type pressurized water reactor. It can be applied to the analysis of design basis accidents including non-LOCA (loss of coolant accident) and LOCA of the SMART plant. The TASS/SMR code can be applied to any plant regardless of the structural characteristics of a reactor since the code solves the same governing equations for both the primary and secondary system. The code has been developed to meet the requirements of the safety analysis code. This report describes the overall structure of the TASS/SMR, input processing, and the processes of a steady state and transient calculations. In addition, basic differential equations, finite difference equations, state relationships, and constitutive models are described in the report. First, the conservation equations, a discretization process for numerical analysis, search method for state relationship are described. Then, a core power model, heat transfer models, physical models for various components, and control and trip models are explained

  15. Site infrastructure as required during the construction and erection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.; Wagner, H.

    1978-01-01

    In general, in an exchange of experience on constructing nuclear power plants priority is given to design and lay-out, financing, quality assurance etc., but in this paper an attempt has been made to describe range and type of site infrastructure required during construction and erection. Site infrastructure will make considerable demands on the planning, supply of material and maintenance that may result from the frequently very isolated location of power plant sites. Examples for specific values and experiences are given for a nuclear power plant with two units on the 1300-MW type at present under construction of the Persian Gulf in Iran. Data concerning the site infrastructure, including examples, are given and explained on the basis of graphs. The site is split up into a technical and a social infrastructure. The main concern of the technical site infrastructure is the timely provision and continuous availability of electric energy, water, communication grids, workshops, warehouses, offices, transport and handling facilities, as well as the provision of heavy load roads, harbour facilities, etc. The social site infrastructure in general comprises accommodation, food supplies and the care and welfare of all site personnel, which includes a hospital, school, self-service shop, and sport and recreation facilities. (author)

  16. Biometry of stomata in Blechnum species (Blechnaceae with some taxonomic and ecological implications for the ferns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Gabriel y Galán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological stomatal traits, such as size, form and frequency, have been subject of much literature, including their relationships with environmental factors. However, little effort have focused on ferns, and very few in the genus Blechnum. Stomatal length, width and frequency (as stomatal index of a number of specimens of fourteen Neotropical species of Blechnum were measured in adult pinnae. The aim of the work was to find biometrical relationships between stomatal traits and between stomatal traits and habit, habitat and ecosystem of the plants. Statistical analyses of data were conducted using Exploratory Data Analysis and Multivariate Statistical Methods. Stomatal length and width showed a very high correlation, suggesting an endogenous, genetic control, thus giving these traits a considerable diagnostic utility. With respect to the relationships between stomatal traits and environment, we found significant statistical relationships between altitude and stomatal index. We also addressed the interpretation of the ecological- selective significance of various assemblages of stomatal traits in a diverse conjunction of habits, habitats and ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 403-415. Epub 2011 March 01.Los caracteres morfológicos estomáticos, tales como tamaño, forma y frecuencia, han sido objeto de abundante investigación, incluyendo su relación con los factores ambientales. Sin embargo, poco esfuerzo se ha realizado en esta materia en helechos y menos todavía en el género Blechnum. En este trabajo se midieron la longitud, anchura y frecuencia (como índice estomático de estomas de pinnas adultas de un número de individuos en catorce especies de Blechnum neotropicales. El objetivo fue encontrar relaciones biométricas entre los caracteres estomáticos, y entre los caracteres estomáticos y el hábito, hábitat y ecosistema de las plantas. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos como Análisis Exploratorios de Datos y Métodos Estad

  17. Power requirements of biogas upgrading by water scrubbing and biomethane compression: Comparative analysis of various plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzianowski, Wojciech M.; Wylock, Christophe E.; Marciniak, Przemysław A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Insights into power requirements of biomethane production from biogas are provided. • Process model is constructed, validated and simulated. • High-pressure and low-pressure plant operation in different configurations is compared. - Abstract: Biogas upgrading by water scrubbing followed by biomethane compression is an environmentally benign process. It may be achieved using various plant configurations characterised by various power requirements with associated effects on biomethane sustainability. Therefore, the current study has been undertaken to systematically investigate the power requirements of a range of water scrubbing options. Two groups of water scrubbing are analysed: (1) high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) and (2) near-atmospheric pressure water scrubbing (NAPWS). A water scrubbing plant model is constructed, experimentally validated and simulated for seven upgrading plant configurations. Simulation results show that the power requirement of biogas upgrading in HPWS plants is mainly associated with biogas compression. In contrast, in NAPWS plants the main power is required for water pumping. In both plants the compression of the biomethane from atmosphereic pressure to 20 MPa also contributes remarkably. It is observed that the lowest specific power requirement can be obtained for a NAPWS plant without water regeneration (0.24 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas) but this plant requires cheap water supply, e.g. outlet water from a sewage treatment plant or river. The second is HPWS without flash (0.29 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas). All other HPWS with flash and NAPWS with water regeneration plants have specific power requirements between 0.30 and 0.33 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas. Biogas compression without upgrading requires about 0.29 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas. The thermodynamic efficiency of biogas upgrading is between 2.2% and 9.8% depending on the plant configuration while biomethane compression efficiency is higher, about 55%. This result implies that the

  18. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  19. Design concept and its requirements of the integrated SMART nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chon, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-02-01

    The integrated SMART desalination plant consists of four(4) units of Multi Effect Distillation Process combined with Thermal-Vapor Compressor(MED-TVC) and coupled with the extracted steam from turbine through the steam transformer. Steam transformer produces the main pressure steam and supplies to the MED-TVC unit. Each distillation unit has the production the capacity of 10,000 m3/day of distilled water per day at top brine temperature of 65 deg C using the seawater supplied at temperature of 33 deg C. MED-TVC was selected as a desalination process coupled with SMART, since the thermal vapor compression is very effective where the steam is available at high temperature and pressure conditions than required in the evaporator. The MED-TVC unit is consisted of the steam supply system, vapor and condensate system, seawater supply system, brine system and chemical dosing system. The standard design of the SMART desalination plant is under development as a part of the SMART project. This report describes design concept of these systems and their requirements

  20. Design concept and its requirements of the integrated SMART nuclear desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chon, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-02-01

    The integrated SMART desalination plant consists of four(4) units of Multi Effect Distillation Process combined with Thermal-Vapor Compressor(MED-TVC) and coupled with the extracted steam from turbine through the steam transformer. Steam transformer produces the main pressure steam and supplies to the MED-TVC unit. Each distillation unit has the production the capacity of 10,000 m3/day of distilled water per day at top brine temperature of 65 deg C using the seawater supplied at temperature of 33 deg C. MED-TVC was selected as a desalination process coupled with SMART, since the thermal vapor compression is very effective where the steam is available at high temperature and pressure conditions than required in the evaporator. The MED-TVC unit is consisted of the steam supply system, vapor and condensate system, seawater supply system, brine system and chemical dosing system. The standard design of the SMART desalination plant is under development as a part of the SMART project. This report describes design concept of these systems and their requirements.

  1. ALSTOM supercritical steam plants meet Polish market challenges and power generator's requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twardowski, A.

    2007-07-01

    From the early 1990s the age and technical performance of most of the Polish power plants required urgent investment including rehabilitation and/or replacement. This was necessary as power demand was increasing continuously in parallel with country GDP growth. Poland's joining the EU in May 2005 caused additional obligations related to limitation of emissions by Poland as a country and specifically by the Polish power sector. The first big project focussed on replacement of old equipment, improvement of electricity production efficiency and reduction of environmental impact by rehabilitation of Units 1-6 in Turow power plant. This is briefly described in the presentation. The latest and the biggest project is the construction of a new supercritical, lignite fired 833 MW unit in BOT Belchatow PP awarded to ALSTOM in December 2004 as a full term key contract. In addition to a new power block the project included: a new desulfurisation plant; a complete close circle cooling system; a new electrical system control system, and water treatment system; a coal handling system connecting the new unit with lignite transportation system from the open mine to the existing plant; hydraulic ash and slug systems; and an electrostatic precipitator. The unit has reduced NOx emissions to the level below 200 mg/Nm{sup 3} thanks to low emission burners. Particulate emissions are below 30 mg/Nm{sup 3}, SOx emissions are below 220 mg/Nm{sup 3}; CO{sub 2} emissions are lowered and cooling water consumption reduced. Special noise protection systems and special design of some systems has greatly reduced the noise level. 2 photos.

  2. The RNA silencing enzyme RNA polymerase v is required for plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM is an epigenetic control mechanism driven by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs that influence gene function. In plants, little is known of the involvement of the RdDM pathway in regulating traits related to immune responses. In a genetic screen designed to reveal factors regulating immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified NRPD2 as the OVEREXPRESSOR OF CATIONIC PEROXIDASE 1 (OCP1. NRPD2 encodes the second largest subunit of the plant-specific RNA Polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V, which are crucial for the RdDM pathway. The ocp1 and nrpd2 mutants showed increases in disease susceptibility when confronted with the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Studies were extended to other mutants affected in different steps of the RdDM pathway, such as nrpd1, nrpe1, ago4, drd1, rdr2, and drm1drm2 mutants. Our results indicate that all the mutants studied, with the exception of nrpd1, phenocopy the nrpd2 mutants; and they suggest that, while Pol V complex is required for plant immunity, Pol IV appears dispensable. Moreover, Pol V defective mutants, but not Pol IV mutants, show enhanced disease resistance towards the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Interestingly, salicylic acid (SA-mediated defenses effective against PsDC3000 are enhanced in Pol V defective mutants, whereas jasmonic acid (JA-mediated defenses that protect against fungi are reduced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that, through differential histone modifications, SA-related defense genes are poised for enhanced activation in Pol V defective mutants and provide clues for understanding the regulation of gene priming during defense. Our results highlight the importance of epigenetic control as an additional layer of complexity in the regulation of plant immunity and point towards multiple components of the RdDM pathway being involved in plant immunity based on genetic evidence

  3. The RNA silencing enzyme RNA polymerase v is required for plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana; Ramírez, Vicente; García-Andrade, Javier; Flors, Victor; Vera, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an epigenetic control mechanism driven by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that influence gene function. In plants, little is known of the involvement of the RdDM pathway in regulating traits related to immune responses. In a genetic screen designed to reveal factors regulating immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified NRPD2 as the OVEREXPRESSOR OF CATIONIC PEROXIDASE 1 (OCP1). NRPD2 encodes the second largest subunit of the plant-specific RNA Polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V), which are crucial for the RdDM pathway. The ocp1 and nrpd2 mutants showed increases in disease susceptibility when confronted with the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Studies were extended to other mutants affected in different steps of the RdDM pathway, such as nrpd1, nrpe1, ago4, drd1, rdr2, and drm1drm2 mutants. Our results indicate that all the mutants studied, with the exception of nrpd1, phenocopy the nrpd2 mutants; and they suggest that, while Pol V complex is required for plant immunity, Pol IV appears dispensable. Moreover, Pol V defective mutants, but not Pol IV mutants, show enhanced disease resistance towards the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Interestingly, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defenses effective against PsDC3000 are enhanced in Pol V defective mutants, whereas jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defenses that protect against fungi are reduced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that, through differential histone modifications, SA-related defense genes are poised for enhanced activation in Pol V defective mutants and provide clues for understanding the regulation of gene priming during defense. Our results highlight the importance of epigenetic control as an additional layer of complexity in the regulation of plant immunity and point towards multiple components of the RdDM pathway being involved in plant immunity based on genetic evidence, but whether

  4. Survey on maintenance skills required for nuclear power plant periodic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a trend survey regarding the problem of passing on senior workers' skills and knowledge to young employees in industries in general, and an interview survey of skilled workers engaged in maintenance work during periodic inspections at a nuclear power plant. These surveys aimed to obtain useful information for maintaining and improving the quality of future maintenance work during nuclear power plant periodic inspections. The trend survey of industries found that the 'Year 2007 Problem (difficulties associated with the start of mass retirements of baby-boomers)' was often takenup in various fields and that many companies were concerned about losing their accumulated skills and know-how. To ensure that skills are smoothly passed on to the younger generation, companies have taken various measures, such as development of plans for passing on skills and knowledge, introduction of the Meister system and implementation of workshops by skilled workers. The interview survey of skilled workers engaged in maintenance work of mechanical equipment during periodic inspections at Nuclear Power Plant A found that various skills were required in maintenance work. Regarding perceived differences between skilled and unskilled maintenance workers, many respondents believed that the largest difference was in terms of time taken to carry out specific procedures. Some maintenance companies have increasingly fewer skilled workers than before or face aging of skilled personnel. As future concerns, respondents cited the loss of skills that have been acquired through experience in construction and in handling of troubles and failures. Differences were observed among companies in the degree to which skills have been passed on to the younger generation. As a reason why skills are not successfully passed on, respondents cited communication problems due to age differences between senior and young workers and other problems that were also observed in other industries

  5. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mark Schanfein; Philip Casey Durst

    2012-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to be constructed near Idaho Falls, Idaho The NGNP is intrinsically safer than current reactors and is planned for startup ca. 2021 Safety is more prominent in the minds of the Public and Governing Officials following the nuclear reactor meltdown accidents in Fukushima, Japan The authors propose that the NGNP should be designed with International (IAEA) Safeguards in mind to support export to Non-Nuclear-Weapons States There are two variants of the NGNP design; one using integral Prismatic-shaped fuel assemblies in a fixed core; and one using recirculating fuel balls (or Pebbles) The following presents the infrastructure required to safeguard the NGNP This infrastructure is required to safeguard the Prismatic and Pebble-fueled NGNP (and other HTGR/VHTR) The infrastructure is based on current Safeguards Requirements and Practices implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for similar reactors The authors of this presentation have worked for decades in the area of International Nuclear Safeguards and are recognized experts in this field Presentation for INMM conference in July 2012.

  6. Impact of New Radiation Safety Standards on Licensing Requirements of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohal, P.; Subasic, D.; Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    As the outcomes of the newly introduced safety philosophies, new and more strict safety design requirements for nuclear installation are expected to be introduced. New in-depth defence measures should be incorporated into the design and operation procedure for a nuclear installation, to compensate for potential failures in protection or safety measures. The new requirements will also apply to licensing of NPP's operation as well as to licensing of nuclear sites, especially for radioactive waste disposal sites. This paper intends to give an overview of possible impacts of new internationally agreed basic safety standards with respect to NPP and related technologies. Recently issued new basic safety standards for radiation protection are introducing some new safety principles which may have essential impact on future licensing requirements regarding nuclear power plants and radioactive waste installations. These new standards recognize exposures under normal conditions ('practices') and intervention conditions. The term interventions describes the human activities that seek to reduce the existing radiation exposure or existing likelihood of incurring exposure which is not part of a controlled practice. The other new development in safety standards is the introduction of so called potential exposure based on the experience gained from a number of radiation accidents. This exposure is not expected to be delivered with certainty but it may result from an accident at a source or owing to an event or sequence of events of a probabilistic nature, including equipment failures and operating errors. (author)

  7. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, T.E.; Magleby, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the reports required by federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed for the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant were the Annual Radiological Environmental Operating Report for 1983 and the Semiannual Radioactive Effluent Release Reports for 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS, NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants'', and NRC Guidance on the Review of the Process Control Programs. The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines. 7 refs

  8. Formation of virions is strictly required for turnip yellows virus long-distance movement in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipper, Clémence; Monsion, Baptiste; Bortolamiol-Bécet, Diane; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2014-02-01

    Viral genomic RNA of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV; genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) is protected in virions formed by the major capsid protein (CP) and the minor component, the readthrough (RT*) protein. Long-distance transport, used commonly by viruses to systemically infect host plants, occurs in phloem sieve elements and two viral forms of transport have been described: virions and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. With regard to poleroviruses, virions have always been presumed to be the long-distance transport form, but the potential role of RNP complexes has not been investigated. Here, we examined the requirement of virions for polerovirus systemic movement by analysing CP-targeted mutants that were unable to form viral particles. We confirmed that TuYV mutants that cannot encapsidate into virions are not able to reach systemic leaves. To completely discard the possibility that the introduced mutations in CP simply blocked the formation or the movement of RNP complexes, we tested in trans complementation of TuYV CP mutants by providing WT CP expressed in transgenic plants. WT CP was able to facilitate systemic movement of TuYV CP mutants and this observation was always correlated with the formation of virions. This demonstrated clearly that virus particles are essential for polerovirus systemic movement.

  9. The expert inspecting plants which require supervision - is he invested with special rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.P.; Seitz, F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors investigate as to whether the TUeV (technical control authorities) or individual experts are sub-contractors as defined by Sect. 24 (3) of the Industrial Code as they control plants requiring supervision. If they were, consequences for liability and the right opposing party in court would result from this fact. The question has to be settled as to whether the expert was given competencies under Public Law, be it coercive power, the authority to issue acts of administration or the authority to exercise other competencies under Public Law outside the law of public regulating authority. The authors come to the conclusion that the TUeV experts' activities amount to pure statements of facts, having a supportive effect for the supervisory authorities. The term sub-contracting is out of the question; moreover, there is no legal basis for it. (HSCH) [de

  10. Main phases of siting for nuclear power plants with review of required investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbasa, N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the article is a short description of the main phases in the process of siting for nuclear power plants as interpreted and applied by the Institut za elektroprivredu, Zagreb in the screening, comparison and evaluation of the sites for NPPs in the SR of Croatia. The scope and purpose, as well as review of required data and investigations for each particular phase are given. Common used methods for the comparison of sites are described and example of rejection criteria applicable for early phases of the siting is proposed. It is given a list of the most important activities which detailed analysis id indispensable for ending of the evaluation and getting a site permit from the regulatory body. A legal and regulatory basis for carrying out the siting process is also described. (author)

  11. Investigative study on the technical code requirements of natural events hazards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kunio; Aoki, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Technical codes and standards on natural phenomena, in particular, earthquake and tsunami for nuclear power plants in the other developed countries including IAEA safety standards were investigated. Then, the results were compared with the corresponding Japanese technical codes and standards. As a results, it was found that: (1) technical codes and standards on natural phenomena, especially those for earthquakes and tsunami/flooding in those foreign countries and their requirements are all included in the Japanese technical codes and standards. (2) Nevertheless, the actual measures against tsunami/flooding in those foreign countries are more advanced than those in Japan which had been taken before Fukushima accident. Therefore, further investigation is needed to clarify the reason why there are such differences by investigating the details of the basic ideas and evaluation methods for the protection of tsunami/flooding. (author)

  12. Plant condition assessments as a requirement before major investment in life extension for a CANDU nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubray, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since, to extend the life of a CANDU-6 reactor beyond its original design life requires the replacement of reactor components (380 pressure and calandria tubes), a major investment will have to be done. After a preliminary technical and economical feasibility study, Hydro- Quebec, owner of the Gentilly-2 NPP, has decided to perform a more detailed assessment to: 1. Get assurance that it is technically and economically viable to extend Gentilly-2 for another 20 years beyond the original design life; 2. Identify the detailed work to be done during the refurbishment period planned in 2008-2009; 3. Define the overall cost and the general schedule of the refurbishment phase; 4. Ensure an adequate licensing strategy to restart after refurbishment; 5. Complete all the Environmental Impact Studies required to obtain the government authorizations. The business case to support the refurbishment of Gentilly-2 has to take in consideration the reactor core components, which will be the major work to be completed during refurbishment. In summary the following main component will have to be changed or refreshed: The pressure and calandria tubes and the feeders (partial replacement only) (ageing mechanisms); The control computers (obsolescence); The condenser tubes (tubes plugging); The turbine control and electric-governor (obsolescence). An extensive campaign is under way to assess the 'health' of the station systems, structures and components (SSC). Two processes have been used for this assessment: Plant Life Management Studies (PLIM) for approximately 10 critical SSC or families of SSC (PLIM Studies); Condition Assessment Studies for other SSC with a lower impact on the Plant production or safety). The PLIM Studies are done on SSC's, which were judged critical because they are not replaceable (Reactor Building, Calandria), or that their failure could have a significant impact on safety or production (electrical motors, majors pumps, heat exchangers and pressure

  13. Impact of solid waste burning air pollution on some physio-anatomical characteristics of some plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, S.K.; Zaidi, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Present study evaluated the effect of solid waste burning pollution on carbohydrate, stomata and chlorophyll contents of seven different plant species. Leaf samples of Artemisia maritima L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Amaranthus viridis L., Cynodon dactylon L., Chenopodium album L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker, growing in the (1m, 500m and 1000m distance) vicinity of burning points at residential colony, University of Baluchistan Quetta were collected. Results revealed that the carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll contents in the leaves of selected plant species were found to be significantly low at 1m distance, but as the distance from the source of pollution increased (500m and 1000m) these contents increased accordingly. Generally the percentage of completely and partially clogged stomata was found higher near the pollution source (1m distance). The percentage of open stomata in all investigated plant species was noticed lower near the pollution source (1m distance), while with the increase of distance (500m-1000m) the percentage of open stomata increased accordingly. As regard to carbohydrate and chlorophyll contents, the Artemisia maritima L., were found most sensitive to air pollution in all four directions at 1m distances as compared to the other species. While plant species, Cynodon dactylon L. showed more resistant to air pollution effect as regard to carbohydrate contents and high percentage of open stomata at 1m distances with respect to other species. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 63.1586 - What are the emission points and control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1586 Section 63.1586 Protection of... Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works Non-Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Requirements § 63.1586 What are the emission points and control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant? There are...

  15. Standards for deuterium analysis requirements of heavy water plants (Preprint No. CA-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, B N; Gopalakrishnan, V T; Alphonse, K P; Pawar, P L; Sadhukhan, H K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Heavy Water Div.

    1989-04-01

    Accurate analysis of deuterium, covering the entire range, is of great importance in production of heavy water. Most of the methods for determination of deuterium in gas or liquid samples require appropriate standards. Since density of pure protium oxide and pure deuterium oxide has been determined very accurately by a large number of workers and density of mixtures of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O follows a linear relation, it is possible to use accurate density determination for measurement of deuterium content. Float method for density measurements was improved further and used for the preparation of primary heavy water standards in high and low deuterium ranges. Heavy water plant laboratories require gas standards (ammonia synthesis gas matrix), in addition to low deuterium water standards, for calibration of mass spectrometers. SLAP (Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation, D/D+H = 89.02+-0.05ppm) and SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water, D/D+H =155.76+-0.05ppm) available from IAEA, Vienna, along with water practically free from deuterium, were used as standards to prepare secondary liquid standards. These secondary standards were subsequently reduced and mixed with pure nitrogen to obtain D/D+H standards in syngas matrix. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Requirements for, and training and certification of, quality assurance technicians for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz, A.; Mir, A.; Serrano, J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper examines the requirements for, and training and certification of, technicians working in a quality assurance department at periods when the site, the main supplier and the engineering firm are being selected for construction, commissioning and operation of a light-water nuclear power plant with an output of approximately 1000 MW(e). In determining the system to be applied for the present work, account is taken of the special fields of engineering, supply, commissioning and operation. To this end, an analysis is made of the necessary organization, pointing out the number of technicians in each of the phases mentioned, and the necessary experience and knowledge required for discharging the functions indicated and for obtaining the appropriate certification. The second generation of Spanish nuclear power stations - about 7500MW(e) - demonstrated the need for quality assurance technicians. The Spanish Atomic Forum, a member of Foratom, is the first Spanish body to deal with the problem of training of such technicians at the national level through holding of seminars. This led to the appearance (in April 1974) of the first publication in Spanish on these techniques, a document which is still being used for teaching purposes. Later, it was the university and the professional associations which, with the support of the State Administration, undertook to provide this instruction. The paper also analyses Spanish experience in the teaching of quality assurance techniques during the period 1975-80, describing the programmes and contents of the courses

  17. Strobilurin fungicides induce changes in photosynthetic gas exchange that do not improve water use efficiency of plants grown under conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Mark A; Farrar, John; Bartlett, David

    2007-12-01

    The effects of five strobilurin (beta-methoxyacrylate) fungicides and one triazole fungicide on the physiological parameters of well-watered or water-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and soya (Glycine max Merr.) plants were compared. Water use efficiency (WUE) (the ratio of rate of transpiration, E, to net rate of photosynthesis, A(n)) of well-watered wheat plants was improved slightly by strobilurin fungicides, but was reduced in water-stressed plants, so there is limited scope for using strobilurins to improve the water status of crops grown under conditions of drought. The different strobilurin fungicides had similar effects on plant physiology but differed in persistence and potency. When applied to whole plants using a spray gun, they reduced the conductance of water through the epidermis (stomatal and cuticular transpiration), g(sw), of leaves. Concomitantly, leaves of treated plants had a lower rate of transpiration, E, a lower intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, c(i), and a lower net rate of photosynthesis, A(n), compared with leaves of control plants or plants treated with the triazole. The mechanism for the photosynthetic effects is not known, but it is hypothesised that they are caused either by strobilurin fungicides acting directly on ATP production in guard cell mitochondria or by stomata responding to strobilurin-induced changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. The latter may be important since, for leaves of soya plants, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F(v)/F(m) (an indication of the potential quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry) was reduced by strobilurin fungicides. It is likely that the response of stomata to strobilurin fungicides is complex, and further research is required to elucidate the different biochemical pathways involved. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Operating requirements for power plants in the liberalised electricity market; Einsatzanforderungen an Kraftwerke im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzbach, G. [Vereinigte Energiewerke AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The onset of liberalisation in the German electricity market now dates back one and a half years. All processes related to this event are still in a process of rapid change. These developments have already led to a substantial drop in electricity prices, especially for large customers, leaving suppliers with modest margins. Power supply companies such as VEAG, whose operations in East Germany include power transmission, electricity production from brown coal and wholesale trade, are taking measures to meet the new demands placed on them. Unbundling regulations and market processes are forcing companies to review their organisational and operational structures. Risk management, controlling and DP support for processes are indispensable. Profit centre structures and internal performance accounting systems are being used to distribute the market pressure evenly across the company's divisions. Companies' future success will be determined by their success in trading and selling. These developments will also have an impact on power plants, i.e. on the first stage of the supply chain. For one thing, the costs of power plant operation have to be reduced significantly. Reductions in staff costs will necessitate a review of technological processes. Furthermore, maintenance strategies and availability goals have to be reassessed. Another crucial factor is to be seen in power plants' operational flexibility, and this will also have an impact on fuel supply contracts. A particular concern of single-plant companies and small generation systems will be how to deal with strong fluctuations in demand and meet the hourly supply schedules agreed on with the customer without having to resort to the expensive regulating services of the grid operators. Electricity produced in excess of demand will find not always find buyers, not even after the establishment of physical electricity exchanges. Another factor which will increase the volatility of required power generation

  19. Projections of cost and on-site manual-labor requirements for constructing electric-generating plants, 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This report represents part of a continuing effort by the Federal Government to forecast the capital and labor required for constructing electric generating capacity additions necessary to accommodate projected economic and population growth in the US and its regions. Information is included on anticipated additions to electric generating capacity, labor requirements for these additions, capital cost requirements, and forecasting models. Coal-fired, nuclear, hydro, and pumped storage power plants are considered in these forecasts

  20. European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

  1. Status for seismic design requirements of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental purpose for the aseismic design of the nuclear power plants is to protect the inhabitants near the plant from radiation accidents during and after earthquake vibrations. In order to achieve the above purpose, the following considerations have been made. All buidlings, structures, system and components are classified into three Classes A, B and C according to their degree of importance for plant safety, and are designed to meet the requirements specified for each class, respectively. Magnitude and epicenter of the design basis earthquake are determined based upon seismological and geological investigations and observation of ground motion in the site, and the maximum ground acceleration which could be expected can be calculated empirically. With respect to time history waves, more than three are selected referring to dynamic characteristic of base rock in the site, observed ground motion records in the site or other strong motion seismographs.The figures of horizontal seismic coefficients to be used in determining design forces on Class A buildings and structures are 3 Co (where Co. is as defined in the Japan Building Standard Law). On the other hand the horizontal design force should not be less than those determined as the results of the dynamic analyses based on DEGM (Design Earthquake Ground Motion). The figures of horizontal seismic coefficient and forces for Class A system and components are usually determined based on the dynamic analyses for DEGM. The buildings and structures treated as an elastic column system with masses, and the bottom mass is supported by elastic springs representing the soil-foundation interaction characteristics. DEGM is used as the input disturbance in the dynamic response analysis, and the model analysis or time history method is worked out. System and components are modeled as elastic bars with lumped masses of 3 dimensional degree of freedom, and the response analysis is carried out using floor respone spectra

  2. Comparative genomics of pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato reveals novel chemotaxis pathways associated with motility and plant pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of bacterial foliar plant pathogens must invade the apoplast of host plants through points of ingress, such as stomata or wounds, replicate to high population density and cause disease. How pathogens navigate plant surfaces to locate invasion sites remains poorly understood. Many bacter...

  3. Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations Require Conservation and Reintroduction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qianmei Zhang; Hongfang Lu; Hongxiao Liu; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang; Shuguang Jian; Hai’ou Bao

    2012-01-01

    China is exceptionally rich in biodiversity, with more than 30000 vascular plant species that include many endemic genera, species of ancient origin, and cultivated plants (Yang et al. 2005). Because of rapid economic development, population growth, pollution, and continuing resource exploitation, China’s plant diversity faces severe threats. According to the Chinese...

  4. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power plant... corrective action shall be taken. For a nuclear power plant for which the licensee has submitted the...

  5. Fire protection requirements of the insurance industry and their impact on nuclear power plant design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitchman, J.V.; King, W.T. Jr.; Nashman, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    The insurance industry, with its wealth of knowledge and experience in the fire protection area and with preservation of its funds at stake, has always been heavily involved in the fire protection programs of nuclear power plants. Since it was concerned with property preservation in addition to nuclear safety, the insurance industry placed more detailed emphasis on fire protection requirements than did the nuclear regulatory bodies. Since the Browns Ferry fire, however, the insurance industry, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the utilities themselves have re-examined their approaches to fire protection. A more coordinated approach seems to have emerged, which is based largely upon insurance industry specifications and guidelines. The paper briefly summarizes the fire protection requirements of the insurance industry as they apply to nuclear power plants. Some of the ways these requirements affect project planning, plant design, and construction timing are reviewed, as well as some of the more controversial fire protection areas

  6. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ► Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ► Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ► Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ► In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ► Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

  7. Current trends and future requirements for the mass spectrometric investigation of microbial, mammalian and plant metabolomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Warwick B

    2008-01-01

    The functional levels of biological cells or organisms can be separated into the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. Of these the metabolome offers specific advantages to the investigation of the phenotype of biological systems. The investigation of the metabolome (metabolomics) has only recently appeared as a mainstream scientific discipline and is currently developing rapidly for the study of microbial, plant and mammalian metabolomes. The metabolome pipeline or workflow encompasses the processes of sample collection and preparation, collection of analytical data, raw data pre-processing, data analysis and data storage. Of these processes the collection of analytical data will be discussed in this review with specific interest shown in the application of mass spectrometry in the metabolomics pipeline. The current developments in mass spectrometry platforms (GC–MS, LC–MS, DIMS and imaging MS) and applications of specific interest will be highlighted. The current limitations of these platforms and applications will be discussed with areas requiring further development also highlighted. These include the detectable coverage of the metabolome, the identification of metabolites and the process of converting raw data to biological knowledge. (review article)

  8. Transportin-SR is required for proper splicing of resistance genes and plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportin-SR (TRN-SR is a member of the importin-β super-family that functions as the nuclear import receptor for serine-arginine rich (SR proteins, which play diverse roles in RNA metabolism. Here we report the identification and cloning of mos14 (modifier of snc1-1, 14, a mutation that suppresses the immune responses conditioned by the auto-activated Resistance (R protein snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1. MOS14 encodes a nuclear protein with high similarity to previously characterized TRN-SR proteins in animals. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MOS14 interacts with AtRAN1 via its N-terminus and SR proteins via its C-terminus. In mos14-1, localization of several SR proteins to the nucleus was impaired, confirming that MOS14 functions as a TRN-SR. The mos14-1 mutation results in altered splicing patterns of SNC1 and another R gene RPS4 and compromised resistance mediated by snc1 and RPS4, suggesting that nuclear import of SR proteins by MOS14 is required for proper splicing of these two R genes and is important for their functions in plant immunity.

  9. Influence of regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants on the backfitting of Austrian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1985-01-01

    In general the licensing and backfitting activities have once more demonstrated the fact that safety assessment of a research reactor is by no means just a scaled-down version of a nuclear power plant licensing procedure. Naturally the risk potential is much lower, however, the very nature of research calls for much more flexibility in operation, for temporary installations and for experimental methods which cannot be covered by detailed regulations in advance. Therefore the application of nuclear power reactor criteria to such facilities has to be considered with extreme caution. If NPP standards are applicable at all, they have to be carefully interpreted in each individual case. It is interesting to compare the original reactor safety reports with their modern versions: emphasis has shifted from reactivity accident calculations to thermal-hydraulic considerations, to better instrumentation (both in quality and quantity) and to more effort in reducing, measuring and documenting all radioactive effluents. This tendency is also reflected in most of the backfitting requirements. In summary, the result of the lengthy licensing and backfitting process is certainly a considerable improvement in performance and safety of the Austrian research reactors

  10. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants

  11. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  12. Analysis of requirements for teaching materials based on the course bioinformatics for plant metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Widodo, Lukiati, Betty; Amin, Mohamad

    2017-05-01

    A way to improve the quality of learning in the course of Plant Metabolism in the Department of Biology, State University of Malang, is to develop teaching materials. This research evaluates the needs of bioinformatics-based teaching material in the course Plant Metabolism by the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) development model. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed to the students in the Plant Metabolism course of the Department of Biology, University of Malang, and analysis of the plan of lectures semester (RPS). Learning gains of this course show that it is not yet integrated into the field of bioinformatics. All respondents stated that plant metabolism books do not include bioinformatics and fail to explain the metabolism of a chemical compound of a local plant in Indonesia. Respondents thought that bioinformatics can explain examples and metabolism of a secondary metabolite analysis techniques and discuss potential medicinal compounds from local plants. As many as 65% of the respondents said that the existing metabolism book could not be used to understand secondary metabolism in lectures of plant metabolism. Therefore, the development of teaching materials including plant metabolism-based bioinformatics is important to improve the understanding of the lecture material in plant metabolism.

  13. Requirements for the coatings of a nuclear power plant containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orantie, K.; Kuosa, H.; Haekkae-Roennholm, E.

    2001-06-01

    The report presents the criteria for the inside coatings of nuclear power plant containment buildings including: radiation resistance, decontamination, chemical resistance in accident situations and fire resistance

  14. Sucrose-induced anthocyanin accumulation in vegetative tissue of Petunia plants requires anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Naing, Aung Htay; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2016-11-01

    The effects of three different sucrose concentrations on plant growth and anthocyanin accumulation were examined in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T 2 ) specimens of the Petunia hybrida cultivar 'Mirage rose' that carried the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1. Anthocyanin accumulation was not observed in NT plants in any treatments, whereas a range of anthocyanin accumulation was observed in transgenic plants. The anthocyanin content detected in transgenic plants expressing the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors (B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1) was higher than that in NT plants. In addition, increasing sucrose concentration strongly enhanced anthocyanin content as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, wherein increased concentrations of sucrose enhanced transcript levels of the transcription factors that are responsible for the induction of biosynthetic genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis; this pattern was not observed in NT plants. In addition, sucrose affected plant growth, although the effects were different between NT and transgenic plants. Taken together, the application of sucrose could enhance anthocyanin production in vegetative tissue of transgenic Petunia carrying anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors, and this study provides insights about interactive effects of sucrose and transcription factors in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the transgenic plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The RxLR effector Avh241 from Phytophthora sojae requires plasma membrane localization to induce plant cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Wang, Qunqing; Ye, Wenwu; Tao, Kai; Duan, Shuyi; Lu, Chenchen; Yang, Xinyu; Dong, Suomeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-10-01

    • The Phytophthora sojae genome encodes hundreds of RxLR effectors predicted to manipulate various plant defense responses, but the molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here we have characterized in detail the P. sojae RxLR effector Avh241. • To determine the function and localization of Avh241, we transiently expressed it on different plants. Silencing of Avh241 in P. sojae, we determined its virulence during infection. Through the assay of promoting infection by Phytophthora capsici to Nicotiana benthamiana, we further confirmed this virulence role. • Avh241 induced cell death in several different plants and localized to the plant plasma membrane. An N-terminal motif within Avh241 was important for membrane localization and cell death-inducing activity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases, NbMEK2 and NbWIPK, were required for the cell death triggered by Avh241 in N. benthamiana. Avh241 was important for the pathogen's full virulence on soybean. Avh241 could also promote infection by P. capsici and the membrane localization motif was not required to promote infection. • This work suggests that Avh241 interacts with the plant immune system via at least two different mechanisms, one recognized by plants dependent on subcellular localization and one promoting infection independent on membrane localization. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3, for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, E.H.; Young, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A review was performed on the reports required by Federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted at Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, during 1983. The three periodic reports reviewed were (1) the Effluent and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, January 1-June 30, 1983, (2) the Effluent and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, July 1-December 31, 1983, and (3) the Annual Environmental Operating Report, Radiological, 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS and NRC guidance given in NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  17. Fuel requirements (without reprocessing) for Iran 1, 2, 3 and 4 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroomian, M.; Roustayian, S.

    1976-10-01

    By use of a computer program written by the Nuclear Power Plant Management of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, the Yellow Cake, natural uranium and separative work unit (SWU) for the first core and ten reloads of the Iran 1, 2, 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plants have been calculated for different tail assays. (author)

  18. 40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the... pheromone Z-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutaneethanol; Z-3,3-dimethyl-Δ1,β-cyclohexaneethanol; Z-3,3-dimethyl...

  19. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vigor R R R TEP 1, 2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant... CR CR TEP 1, 4, 5, 7 850.4150 Vegetative vigor CR CR CR TEP 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic... methods used to generate data must include the results of a successful confirmatory method trial by an...

  20. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  1. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require ''immediate'' shutdown of the plant. In this paper, the authors present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion

  2. Requirements for the training simulator of the new nuclear power plants of the convoi/pre-convoi type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon; Buettner; Vallana; Reppmann; Emmerich.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements have been investigated with regard to the training aspect only and therefore no proposals concerning the technical realisation are given. Within these investigations aspects of simulator training, simulator hardware and software, and plant simulation have been considered. The experiences gathered up to now with simulators are included and already existing studies on this area have been evaluated. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Determination of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and institutional requirements documents for contact-handled (CH) critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document lists the critical requirements documents applicable to the receipt of contact-handled waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. It also describes the processes used to determine the applicability of each document. This analysis is based on the applicable documents that were in effect in the February 1988 time frame. 2 refs

  4. Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila Hernández, Lina M; Sanders, Jon G; Miller, Gabriel A; Ravenscraft, Alison; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-12-01

    Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to defend their host plants against herbivores, or whether plant defense is a by-product benefit of ant foraging for insect prey. Because the food offered by ant-plants is usually nitrogen-poor, arboreal ants may balance their diets by consuming insect prey or associating with microbial symbionts to acquire nitrogen, potentially shifting the costs and benefits of plant defense for the ant partner. To determine the effect of ant diet on an ant-plant mutualism, we compared the behavior, morphology, fitness, stable isotope signatures, and gaster microbiomes of A. octoarticulatus ants nesting in Cordia nodosa trees maintained for nearly a year with or without insect herbivores. At the end of the experiment, ants from herbivore exclosures preferred protein-rich baits more than ants in the control (i.e., herbivores present) treatment. Furthermore, workers in the control treatment were heavier than in the herbivore-exclusion treatment, and worker mass predicted reproductive output, suggesting that foraging for insect prey directly increased ant colony fitness. The gaster microbiome of ants was not significantly affected by the herbivore exclusion treatment. We conclude that the defensive behavior of some phytoecious ants is a by-product of their need for external protein sources; thus, the consumption of insect herbivores by ants benefits both the ant colony and the host plant. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Booker, Matthew A.; Brandt, Benjamin; Waadt, Christian; Nusinow, Dmitri A.; Kay, Steve A.; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schumacher, Karin; DeLong, Alison; Yates, John R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. These analyses, which were confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. These analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26175513

  6. ABA Is Required for Plant Acclimation to a Combination of Salt and Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat or salinity are a major cause of yield loss worldwide. Recent studies revealed that the acclimation of plants to a combination of different environmental stresses is unique and cannot be directly deduced from studying the response of plants to each of the different stresses applied individually. Here we report on the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to a combination of salt and heat stress using transcriptome analysis, physiological measurements and mutants deficient in abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid or ethylene signaling. Arabidopsis plants were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress compared to each of the different stresses applied individually. The stress combination resulted in a higher ratio of Na+/K+ in leaves and caused the enhanced expression of 699 transcripts unique to the stress combination. Interestingly, many of the transcripts that specifically accumulated in plants in response to the salt and heat stress combination were associated with the plant hormone abscisic acid. In accordance with this finding, mutants deficient in abscisic acid metabolism and signaling were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress than wild type plants. Our study highlights the important role abscisic acid plays in the acclimation of plants to a combination of two different abiotic stresses.

  7. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk (requirements of safety and reliability)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Starting out from the given safety objectives as they have evolved during the past few years and from the present legal and regulatory provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the hazards involved in regular operation, accidents and emergency situations are discussed. In compliance with the positive safety balance of nuclear power plants in the FRG, special attention is focused on the preventive safety analysis within the frame of the nuclear licensing procedure. Reference is made to the beginnings of a comprehensive hazard concept for an unbiased plant assessment. Emergency situations are discussed from the point of view of general hazard comparisons. (orig.) [de

  9. Comparison of implementation of selected TMI action plan requirements on operating plants designed by Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, J.O.

    1984-05-01

    This report provides the results of a study conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to compare the degree to which eight Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) designed licensed nuclear power plants have complied with the requirements in NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements. The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1). The purpose of this audit was to establish the progress of the TMI-1 licensee, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear Corporation, in completing the long-term requirements in NUREG-0737 relative to the other B and W licensees examined

  10. Software requirements specifications of a proposed plant property management information system for the Naval Postgraduate School

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, James B.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The current system used to administer Plant Account equipment for academic departments at the Naval Postgraduate School involves four categories of system users and accountability for more than 2000 individual equipment items worth over seven million dollars. Implementation of a management information system (MIS) to support Plant Account equipment related functions could eliminate data handling redundancy and improve Pl...

  11. Quality assurance requirements for the reliability of nuclear power plants in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Quality Assurance (QA) has not been taken very seriously in developing countries despite their having significant nuclear power programmes. This may affect plant reliability and demands that urgent and serious attention be given to the development and implementation of Quality Assurance programmes according to local conditions. Confusion has been created by the differences in definitions and interpretations of terminologies of Quality Assurance and Control. Problems have been aggravated by the lack of clearly defined responsibilities and accountabilities during the projects execution phases of site selection, data collection, design, equipment fabrication and construction, etc. Therefore, reliability of nuclear power plants in developing countries is relatively low. But whenever some programme of QA has been implemented it has helped to improve the plant performance. This is highlighted in this paper by the practical examples for the experience of Karachi Nuclear Power Plant whose forced outages have been reduced by over a half within a period of 3 years. In view of the benefits, a QA programme for Chashma Nuclear Power Project has also been initiated. In this paper urgency is emphasized for the establishment and implementation of a formal QA programme in the developing countries if the reactor suppliers and purchasers both want to ensure higher reliability of their plants. The best way that management can play its role effectively is by setting up a strong QA organization with local personnel, thus helping to attain self-reliance and higher reliability during plant operation. (author)

  12. Committed emissions from existing and planned power plants and asset stranding required to meet the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Alexander; Hepburn, Cameron; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Caldecott, Ben

    2018-05-01

    Over the coming decade, the power sector is expected to invest ~7.2 trillion USD in power plants and grids globally, much of it into CO2-emitting coal and gas plants. These assets typically have long lifetimes and commit large amounts of (future) CO2 emissions. Here, we analyze the historic development of emission commitments from power plants and compare the emissions committed by current and planned plants with remaining carbon budgets. Based on this comparison we derive the likely amount of stranded assets that would be required to meet the 1.5 °C–2 °C global warming goal. We find that even though the growth of emission commitments has slowed down in recent years, currently operating generators still commit us to emissions (~300 GtCO2) above the levels compatible with the average 1.5 °C–2 °C scenario (~240 GtCO2). Furthermore, the current pipeline of power plants would add almost the same amount of additional commitments (~270 GtCO2). Even if the entire pipeline was cancelled, therefore, ~20% of global capacity would need to be stranded to meet the climate goals set out in the Paris Agreement. Our results can help companies and investors re-assess their investments in fossil-fuel power plants, and policymakers strengthen their policies to avoid further carbon lock-in.

  13. Direction for the Estimation of Required Resources for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning based on BIM via Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. As demands on efficient management and use of complicated construction information increased these days, demands on the introduction of Building Information Modeling (herein after referred to as BIM) technology has increased. In the area of quotation, considerable effects are expected as to the accuracy and reliability predicting construction costs through the characteristics that can automatically estimate quantities by using attribute information of BIM model. BIM-based estimation and quotation of required resources is more accurate than the existing 2D-based quotations and have many advantages such as reviews over constructability and interference. It can be desirable to estimate decommissioning required resources in nuclear power plants using BIM as well as using tools that are compatible with usual international/industrial standards. As we looked into the cases where required resources were estimated, using BIM in Korea and abroad, they dealt with estimation of required resources, estimation of construction cost and process management at large. In each area, methodologies, classification systems, BIM, and realization tests have been used variably. Nonetheless, several problems have been reported, and among them, it is noticeable that although BIM standard classification system exists, no case was found that has used standard classification system. This means that no interlink among OBS (Object Breakdown Structure), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS (Cost Breakdown Structure) was possible. Thus, for nuclear power plant decommissioning, decommissioning method and process, etc. shall be defined clearly in the stage of decommissioning strategy establishment, so that classification systems must be set up

  14. Direction for the Estimation of Required Resources for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning based on BIM via Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Insu; Kim, Woojung

    2014-01-01

    Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. As demands on efficient management and use of complicated construction information increased these days, demands on the introduction of Building Information Modeling (herein after referred to as BIM) technology has increased. In the area of quotation, considerable effects are expected as to the accuracy and reliability predicting construction costs through the characteristics that can automatically estimate quantities by using attribute information of BIM model. BIM-based estimation and quotation of required resources is more accurate than the existing 2D-based quotations and have many advantages such as reviews over constructability and interference. It can be desirable to estimate decommissioning required resources in nuclear power plants using BIM as well as using tools that are compatible with usual international/industrial standards. As we looked into the cases where required resources were estimated, using BIM in Korea and abroad, they dealt with estimation of required resources, estimation of construction cost and process management at large. In each area, methodologies, classification systems, BIM, and realization tests have been used variably. Nonetheless, several problems have been reported, and among them, it is noticeable that although BIM standard classification system exists, no case was found that has used standard classification system. This means that no interlink among OBS (Object Breakdown Structure), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS (Cost Breakdown Structure) was possible. Thus, for nuclear power plant decommissioning, decommissioning method and process, etc. shall be defined clearly in the stage of decommissioning strategy establishment, so that classification systems must be set up

  15. Land Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Jackson, M.; Ong, S.

    2009-08-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with modern, large wind power plants (defined as greater than 20 megawatts (MW) and constructed after 2000). The analysis discusses standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature, and then discusses their applicability to wind power plants. The report identifies two major 'classes' of wind plant land use: 1) direct impact (i.e., disturbed land due to physical infrastructure development), and 2) total area (i.e., land associated with the complete wind plant project). The analysis also provides data for each of these classes, derived from project applications, environmental impact statements, and other sources. It attempts to identify relationships among land use, wind plant configuration, and geography. The analysts evaluated 172 existing or proposed projects, which represents more than 26 GW of capacity. In addition to providing land-use data and summary statistics, they identify several limitations to the existing wind project area data sets, and suggest additional analysis that could aid in evaluating actual land use and impacts associated with deployment of wind energy.

  16. Volatile-Mediated within-Plant Signaling in Hybrid Aspen: Required for Systemic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D

    2017-04-01

    Plant volatiles play crucial roles in signaling between plants and their associated community members, but their role in within-plant signaling remains largely unexplored, particularly under field conditions. Using a system comprising the hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) and the specialized herbivorous leaf beetle (Phratora laticollis) and, combining field, greenhouse and laboratory experiments, we examined whether local damage triggered systemic responses in undamaged branches that lack vascular connection to the damaged branches, and to what extent this was caused by airborne volatile signals versus internal signals. An experiment tracing dye through the vasculature of saplings revealed no downward movement of the dye from upper to lower branches, suggesting a lack of vascular connectivity among branches. However, we found under both field and laboratory conditions that herbivore feeding on upper branches elicited volatile emissions by undamaged lower branches. Greenhouse experiments manipulating air contact between damaged and undamaged branches showed that systemic induction of volatiles was almost eliminated when air contact was interrupted. Our findings clearly demonstrate that herbivore-induced volatiles overcome vascular constraints and mediate within-plant signaling. Further, we found that volatile signaling led to induction of different classes of volatiles under field and environment controlled conditions, with a weaker response observed in the field. This difference not only reflects the dose- and time-dependent nature of volatile signaling, but also points out that future studies should focus more on field observations to better understand the ecological role of volatile-mediated within-plant signaling.

  17. Tolerancing requirements for remote handling at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Katwijk, C.; Keenan, R.M.; Bullis, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. with Waste Chem Corporation as Fluor Daniel, Inc.'s major subcontractor specializing in vitrification and remote system technologies. United Engineers and Constructors (UE ampersand C)/Catalytic (UCAT) will construct the plant. Westinghouse Hanford Company is the Project Integration manager and Business manager, and as the plant operator it provides technical direction to the Architect/ Engineer team (A/E) and constructor on behalf of the US Department of Energy - Richland Field Office. The A/E has developed, in cooperation with UE ampersand C, Westinghouse Hanford Company, and the US Department of Energy, a new and innovative approach to installations of the many remote nozzles and electrical connectors that must be installed to demanding tolerances. This paper summarizes the key elements of the HWVP approach

  18. Hypothetical requirements on number of personnel in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halik, J.

    1990-01-01

    The structural changes of Czechoslovak power prevent prediction of labor force development by extrapolating the existing development trends. Nuclear power demands a different qualification and occupation structure of the labor force than conventional power generation. The prediction of the number of personnel is based on data on the expected installed capacity and on its commissioning. The following organizational structures are envisaged for a nuclear power plant: the divisions of the Director, of production, maintenance, radiation safety and quality control, technology and investment, economics and personnel. A total of 15,654 personnel are envisaged for nuclear power plants in 2005. A brief comparison is submitted of labor demands in nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia and in the world. (M.D.). 1 fig., 4 tabs., 3 refs

  19. Improvement of availability of PWR nuclear plants through the reduction of the time required for refueling/maintenance outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.B.; Soth, L.G.

    1978-04-01

    The objective of the project, conducted by Commonwealth Research Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, is to identify improvements in procedures and equipment which will reduce the time required for refueling/maintenance outages at PWR nuclear power plants. The outage of Commonwealth Edison Zion Station Unit 1 in March through May of 1976 was evaluated to identify those items which caused delays and those work activities that offer the potential for significant improvements that could reduce the overall duration of the outage and achieve an improvement in the plant's availability for power production. Modifications in procedures have been developed and were evaluated during one or more outages in 1977. Conceptual designs have been developed for equipment modifications to the refueling system that could reduce the time required for the refueling portion of the outage. The purpose of the interim report is to describe those conceptual designs and to assess their impact upon future outages. Recommendations are included for the implementation of these equipment improvements in a continuation of this program as a demonstration of plant availability benefits that can be realized in PWR nuclear plants already in operation or under construction

  20. Thermography to explore plant-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J Miguel; Grant, Olga M; Chaves, M Manuela

    2013-10-01

    Stomatal regulation is a key determinant of plant photosynthesis and water relations, influencing plant survival, adaptation, and growth. Stomata sense the surrounding environment and respond rapidly to abiotic and biotic stresses. Stomatal conductance to water vapour (g s) and/or transpiration (E) are therefore valuable physiological parameters to be monitored in plant and agricultural sciences. However, leaf gas exchange measurements involve contact with leaves and often interfere with leaf functioning. Besides, they are time consuming and are limited by the sampling characteristics (e.g. sample size and/or the high number of samples required). Remote and rapid means to assess g s or E are thus particularly valuable for physiologists, agronomists, and ecologists. Transpiration influences the leaf energy balance and, consequently, leaf temperature (T leaf). As a result, thermal imaging makes it possible to estimate or quantify g s and E. Thermal imaging has been successfully used in a wide range of conditions and with diverse plant species. The technique can be applied at different scales (e.g. from single seedlings/leaves through whole trees or field crops to regions), providing great potential to study plant-environment interactions and specific phenomena such as abnormal stomatal closure, genotypic variation in stress tolerance, and the impact of different management strategies on crop water status. Nevertheless, environmental variability (e.g. in light intensity, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) affects the accuracy of thermal imaging measurements. This review presents and discusses the advantages of thermal imaging applications to plant science, agriculture, and ecology, as well as its limitations and possible approaches to minimize them, by highlighting examples from previous and ongoing research.

  1. A study for the establishment of regulatory requirement and evaluation guide for station blackout in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J. H.; Koo, C. S.; Joo, W. P.; Oh, S. H.; Shin, W. K.

    1999-01-01

    The consequence of SBO event could be a severe accident unless AC power was restored within a proper time, because many safety systems depend upon AC power. Based on the severity, the SBO has been extensively studied since it was identified as Unresolved Safety Issue at USNRC. The resolution of those studies is a rule-making such as 10 CFR 50.63 and Regulatory Guide 1.155. But there is no regulatory requirements of SBO for an operating domestic nuclear power plant up to the present time. This tudy has established SBO rule(regulatory requirements and evaluation guides) for an operating PWR type of the operating nuclear power plants in Korea

  2. Organic Highbush Blueberry Production Systems Research – Management of Plant Nutrition, Irrigation Requirements, and Weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 0.4 ha planting of blueberry was established in October 2006 to evaluate the effects of cultivar (Duke and Liberty), bed type (flat versus raised beds), weed management (sawdust mulch and hand-weed control; sawdust+compost mulch with acetic acid, flaming, and hand control used as needed; and weed ...

  3. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate management practices for organic production of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). The factorial experiment included two planting bed treatments (flat and raised beds), source and rate of fertilizer (feather meal and fish emuls...

  4. A plant plasma membrane Ca2+ pump is required for normal pollen tube growth and fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Bækgaard, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome...... and a high frequency of aborted fertilization, resulting in a >80% reduction in seed set. These findings identify a plasma membrane Ca(2+) transporter as a key regulator of pollen development and fertilization in flowering plants.......Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome......-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] gene disruptions of ACA9 were found to result in partial male sterility. Complementation was observed by using a ACA9-yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) fusion that displayed plasma membrane localization. Mutant aca9 pollen displayed a reduced growth potential...

  5. 50 CFR 23.42 - What are the requirements for a plant hybrid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Application Procedures, Criteria, and Conditions § 23.42 What are the... import of a plant hybrid of a CITES species must be accompanied by a valid CITES document that shows the... a hybrid that includes two or more CITES species or taxa in its lineage? (1) YES. Consider the...

  6. 46 CFR 62.50-30 - Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... include machinery plants and spaces that are automated to the degree that they are self-regulating and... engineers' accommodations. Other than fire or flooding alarms, this may be accomplished by summarized visual... in § 111.103 of this chapter; and (7) Voice communications with the bridge. (i) Oil leakage. Leakages...

  7. 10 CFR 73.56 - Personnel access authorization requirements for nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assessment. (2) The psychological assessment must be conducted in accordance with the applicable ethical...) Initial and refresher training may be delivered using a variety of media, including, but not limited to... communication systems and networks as identified in § 73.54, including— (i) Plant network systems administrators...

  8. Plant-Associated Symbiotic Burkholderia Species Lack Hallmark Strategies Required in Mammalian Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Stephanie; Yerrapragada, Shailaja; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina; Yang, Paul; Song, Nannie; Kano, Stephanie; de Faria, Sergio M.; Dakora, Felix D.; Weinstock, George; Hirsch, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia is a diverse and dynamic genus, containing pathogenic species as well as species that form complex interactions with plants. Pathogenic strains, such as B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause serious disease in mammals, while other Burkholderia strains are opportunistic pathogens, infecting humans or animals with a compromised immune system. Although some of the opportunistic Burkholderia pathogens are known to promote plant growth and even fix nitrogen, the risk of infection to infants, the elderly, and people who are immunocompromised has not only resulted in a restriction on their use, but has also limited the application of non-pathogenic, symbiotic species, several of which nodulate legume roots or have positive effects on plant growth. However, recent phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that Burkholderia species separate into distinct lineages, suggesting the possibility for safe use of certain symbiotic species in agricultural contexts. A number of environmental strains that promote plant growth or degrade xenobiotics are also included in the symbiotic lineage. Many of these species have the potential to enhance agriculture in areas where fertilizers are not readily available and may serve in the future as inocula for crops growing in soils impacted by climate change. Here we address the pathogenic potential of several of the symbiotic Burkholderia strains using bioinformatics and functional tests. A series of infection experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans and HeLa cells, as well as genomic characterization of pathogenic loci, show that the risk of opportunistic infection by symbiotic strains such as B. tuberum is extremely low. PMID:24416172

  9. Metal uptake by plants from sludge-amended soils: caution is required in the plateau interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamon, R.E.; Holm, Peter Engelund; Lorenz, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    by increased sorption sites provided by the sludge constituents at the high sludge loading rates. We grew Raphanus sativus L. in a soil historically amended with sewage sludge at different rates and examined concentrations of Cd and Zn in the plants and in corresponding rhizosphere soil solution. Metal...

  10. Upgrade and optimization of control systems help E.ON's Scholven plant to increase plant lifecycle and meet new market requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Frick; Joerg Orth

    2006-07-01

    A large percentage of Germany's installed base of power stations will continue to operate well into the next decade. E.ON therefore continues to focus on optimizing and maintaining its operating plants. A key component is the process control system - the data, information and nerve center of these plants. Parts shortages related to outdated technology and new, added process and operational requirements demand focused capital investment. E.ON has therefore implemented a program to upgrade a large part of the process control infrastructure at the Scholven facility. An important step was the successful replacement of the Unit C process control system during a ten-week maintenance outage in fall 2005. The new power station control system selected was ABB's System 800xA. 7 figs.

  11. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING and SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  12. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  13. Requirements and analysis of electromagnetic compatibility of safety-related instrumentation and control system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sujuan

    2002-01-01

    The state-of-the-art instrumentation and control system and the influence of their application to the electromagnetic compatibility is analyzed. Based on the present situation of nuclear safety in China and relevant experiences from other countries, the author tries to probe into the requirements and test methods about how safety-related instrument and control system to accommodate electromagnetic interference, radio-frequency interference and power surges in the environments of nuclear power plant so as to develop Chinese safety standards

  14. Testing, licensing, and code requirements for seismic isolation systems (for nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of seismic isolation as an earthquake hazard mitigation strategy for nuclear reactor power plants is rapidly receiving interest throughout the world. Seismic isolation has already been used on at least two French PWR plants, was to have been used for plants to be built in Iran, and is under serious consideration for advanced LMR plants (in the US, UK, France, and Japan). In addition, there is a growing use of seismic isolation throughout the world for other critical facilities such as hospitals, emergency facilities, buildings with very high-cost equipment (e.g., computers) and as a strategy to reduce loss of life and expensive equipment in earthquakes. Such a design approach is in complete contrast to the conventional seismic design strategy in which the structure and components are provided with sufficient strength and ductility to resist the earthquake forces and to prevent structural collapses or failure. The use of seismic isolation for nuclear plants can, therefore, be expected to be a significant licensing issue. For isolation, the licensing process must shift away in large measure from the superstructure and concentrate on the behavior of the seismic isolation system. This paper is not intended to promote the advantages of seismic isolation system, but to explore in some detail those technical issues which must be satisfactorily addressed to achieve full licensability of the use of seismic isolation as a viable, attractive and economical alternative to current traditional design approaches. Special problems and topics associated with testing and codes and standards development are addressed. A positive program for approach or strategy to secure licensing is presented

  15. Testing, licensing, and code requirements for seismic isolation systems (for nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of seismic isolation as an earthquake hazard mitigation strategy for nuclear reactor power plants is rapidly receiving interest throughout the world. Seismic isolation has already been used on at least two French PWR plants, was to have been used for plants to be built in Iran, and is under serious consideration for advanced LMR plants (in the US, UK, France, and Japan). In addition, there is a growing use of seismic isolation throughout the world for other critical facilities such as hospitals, emergency facilities, buildings with very high-cost equipment (e.g., computers) and as a strategy to reduce loss of life and expensive equipment in earthquakes. Such a design approach is in complete contrast to the conventional seismic design strategy in which the structure and components are provided with sufficient strength and ductility to resist the earthquake forces and to prevent structural collapses or failure. The use of seismic isolation for nuclear plants can, therefore, be expected to be a significant licensing issue. For isolation, the licensing process must shift away in large measure from the superstructure and concentrate on the behavior of the seismic isolation system. This paper is not intended to promote the advantages of seismic isolation system, but to explore in some detail those technical issues which must be satisfactorily addressed to achieve full licensability of the use of seismic isolation as a viable, attractive and economical alternative to current traditional design approaches. Special problems and topics associated with testing and codes and standards development are addressed. A positive program for approach or strategy to secure licensing is presented.

  16. Requirements for class 1, 2, and 3 pressure-retaining systems and components in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This third edition of CAN/CSA-N285.1 supersedes the 1981 and 1975 editions. It provides the specific requirements for design, fabrication, and installation of Class 1, 2 and 3 pressure-retaining systems and components in CANDU nuclear power plants, and over pressure protection of the heat transport system. The general requirements for pressure-retaining systems and components are given in CSA Standard CAN/CSA-N285.0, with which Class 1, 2 and 3 systems and components must also comply

  17. Toward the ultimate goal of tritium self-sufficiency: Technical issues and requirements imposed on ARIES advanced power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, Laila A.; Malang, Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    Due to the lack of external tritium sources, all fusion power plants must demonstrate a closed tritium fuel cycle. The tritium breeding ratio (TBR) must exceed unity by a certain margin. The key question is: how large is this margin and how high should the calculated TBR be? The TBR requirement is design and breeder-dependent and evolves with time. At present, the ARIES requirement is 1.1 for the calculated overall TBR of LiPb systems. The Net TBR during plant operation could be around 1.01. The difference accounts for deficiencies in the design elements (nuclear data evaluation, neutronics code validation, and 3D modeling tools). Such a low Net TBR of 1.01 is potentially achievable in advanced designs employing advanced physics and technology. A dedicated R and D effort will reduce the difference between the calculated TBR and Net TBR. A generic breeding issue encountered in all fusion designs is whether any fusion design will over-breed or under-breed during plant operation. To achieve the required Net TBR with sufficient precision, an online control of tritium breeding is highly recommended for all fusion designs. This can easily be achieved for liquid breeders through online adjustment of Li enrichment.

  18. QTL mapping provides evidence for lack of association of the avoidance of leaf rust in Hordeum chilense with stomata density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Rubiales, D.; Martin, A.; Hernandez, P.; Lindhout, W.H.; Niks, R.E.; Stam, P.

    2003-01-01

    In cereals, rust fungi are among the most harmful pathogens. Breeders usually rely on short-lived hypersensitivity resistance. As an alternative, "avoidance" may be a more durable defence mechanism to protect plants to rust fungi. In Hordeum chilense avoidance is based on extensive wax covering of

  19. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Spanish Edition); Seguridad de las centrales nucleares: Diseno. Requisitos de seguridad especificos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  20. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Cheol Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Won Phil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College Cultural Studies, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Current status of regulatory aspects of life extension and upgrading of NPPs is reviewed for major foreign countries. Most countries require similar technical requirements; however, procedural aspects differ country by country. Regulatory systems suitable for NPP life extension is investigated. The procedure and requirements for reassessment of design life should be established first; then it can be incorporated into the PSR system. The concept of 'Current Licensing Basis (CLB)' can be adopted in Korea, but further elaboration for terms and definitions is needed for common understanding between interested groups. The procedure for maintenance and backfitting should also be improved. The Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) that require development of regulatory requirements for life extension are identified based on extensive analysis of foreign experiences. By analyzing the rules and regulations related to life extension. Basic directions are suggested to harmonize or establish regulatory systems for life extension, two-step licensing, PSR, and backfitting.

  1. The ABC's required for establishing a practical computerized plant engineering management data base system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiocco, F. R.; Hume, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A system's approach is outlined in the paper to assist facility and Plant Engineers improve their organization's data management system. The six basic steps identified may appear somewhat simple; however, adequate planning, proper resources, and the involvement of management will determine the success of a computerized facility management data base. Helpful suggestions are noted throughout the paper to insure the development of a practical computerized data management system.

  2. Supplementary quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    This standard sets forth the supplementary quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel for nuclear power plant construction. The requirements may also be extended to other appropriate parts of nuclear power plants when specified in contract documents. This standard is intended to be used in conjunction with ANSI N45.2

  3. 40 CFR 174.510 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.510 Section 174.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...

  4. 40 CFR 174.511 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.511 Section 174.511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...

  5. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  6. System requirement specifications for the Z-plant materials information tracking system (ZMITS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NEGIN, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    This is a system requirement specification for a database which will be developed to track classified information related to nuclear materials stored at PFP. The system will supplement existing databases to support both processing and disposition information needs

  7. Input data requirements for performance modelling and monitoring of photovoltaic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Anamaria Florina; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates the input data requirements in the context of performance modeling of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the PVWatts performance model, well suited for on-line performance monitoring of PV strings, due to its low number of parameters and high......, modelling the performance of the PV modules at high irradiances requires a dataset of only a few hundred samples in order to obtain a power estimation accuracy of ~1-2\\%....

  8. Efeito de sistemas de consórcio e inseticida na formação dos estômatos em plântulas de erva-doce (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Effects of intercropping systems and insecticide in formation of stomata in fennel seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    fennel and has great medicinal and commercial importance, both in Brazil and in several other countries. The objective of this research was to study the development of stomata of F. vulgare seedlings grown from seeds produced in intercropping systems fennel and cotton, with application of insecticide monocrotophos. The fennel was grown in association with colored cotton BRS Safira, with the following treatments: 1A2E, one rows of cotton and two fennel; 2A1E, two rows of cotton and one fennel; ES, fennel single; were distributed with and without application of insecticide, total six treatments. The seeds were sown in sand and kept in a greenhouse for 25 days. Parts of seedlings (transition zone, stem, cotyledons and leaves were cut freehand, stained and mounted on slides with glycerol for observation under microscope. Were evaluated the following characteristics: stomata number, polar and equatorial diameter of the stomata and chloroplasts number in guard cells. The data were analyzed in completely randomized and distributed in factorial 3x2, being conducted Tukey test at 5% probability. The transition zone and stem showed an increase of the stomata number and polar diameter the when consortium systems were used. In cotyledons, fennel single provided the highest stomata number, but with smaller diameter and fewer chloroplasts. In leaf, the consortia have positively influenced the stomata and chloroplasts number. In general, the intercropping systems and insecticide positively influenced the development of stomata in fennel plants.

  9. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Chang, Keun Sun; Ham, Chul Hoon; Chang, Soon Hong

    2002-03-01

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts

  10. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Chul Hoon [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Hong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts.

  11. 1E Qualification of Electrical Equipment - Requirement for Safety Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geambasu, C.; Segarceanu, D.; Albu, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the qualification methods of the safety related equipment according to the safety class 1E. There are presented the qualification principles, procedure and documents, emphasis being laid on the qualification approach by type tests. This approach assumes the equipment test under both normal and accident conditions (design basis events) simulating the operational conditions and covers the largest part of electrical equipment from a nuclear power plant.The safety related equipment is to be qualified is subjected to a sequential test that will be detailed in the paper. (author)

  12. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferric reductase activity, an indicator of Fe demand, was inhibited at insufficient or high Cu supply. Surprisingly, plants grown without Fe were more susceptible to Cu toxicity.

  13. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  14. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  15. Material property requirements for application leak-before-break technology on nuclear power plant high-energy piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chengliang; Deng Xiaoyun; Yin Zhiying; Liu Meng

    2012-01-01

    The application of leak-before-break (LBB) technology on nuclear power plant high-energy piping systems can improve their safety and economy, while propose some new requirements on testing material properties. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's LBB related standard review plan and implementation specifications were analyzed, and test items, object, temperature, quantity and thermal aging effect of five general requirements were summarized. In addition, four key testing technical requirements, such as specimen size, side grooves, strain range and the orientation of specimens were also discussed to ensure the test data usefulness, representativeness and integrity. This study can provide some guidance for the aforementioned test program on domestic materials. (authors)

  16. Conditions of external loading of nuclear power plant structures by vapor cloud explosions and design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, W.

    1977-01-01

    In the design of nuclear power plant structures in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the external loading by pressure waves from unconfined vapor cloud explosions is taken into account. The loading conditions used are based on simplified model considerations for the sequence of events which generates the pressure wave. The basic assumption is that the explosion of unconfined vapor clouds can evolve only in the form of a deflagration wave with a maximum overpressure of 0.3 bar. The research on gas explosions conducted in the FRG with a view to external reactor safety just as similar work in other countries demonstrates that there are still various problems which need further clarification. The principal issues are the maximum conceivable load and the modes of structrual response. This paper presents the main results of a status report commissioned by the German Ministry of the Inertior in which the whole sequence of events leading to the external loading of nuclear power plants and the corresponding response of the structure was scrutinized. Constitutive in establishing the status report have been thorough discussions with experts of the various fields. The following problem areas are discussed in the paper. Incidents leading to the release of large amounts of liquefied gas; Formation of explosive vapor clouds, ignition conditions; Development of the explosion, generation of the pressure wave; Interaction between pressure wave and reactor building. It is outlined where definite statements are possible and where uncertainties and information gaps exist. (Auth.)

  17. Current summary of international extreme load design requirements for nuclear power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of extreme load design criteria both as to rate and depth within any national jurisdiction as applied to nuclear power plant design is a function of several factors. The prime factor is the number of nuclear power plant facilities which are operating, under construction or planned in a given country. The second most important factor seems to be the degree of development of a domestic independent nuclear steam system supplier, NSSS vendor. Finally, countries whose domestic NSSS firms are active in the export market appear to have more active criteria development programs or at least they appear more visible to the foreign observer. For the purposes of this paper, extreme loads are defined as those loads having probability of occurence less than 10 -1 /yr and whose occurence could result in radiological consequences in excess of those permitted by national health standards. The specific loads considered include earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), airplane crash, detonation, and high energy system rupture. The paper identifies five national centers for extreme load criteria development; Canada, Great Britian, USA, USSR, and West Germany with both France and Japan also about to appear as independent centers of criteria development. Criteria under development by each national center are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  18. Removal of trimethylamine (fishy odor) by C₃ and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2015-08-01

    From screening 23 plant species, it was found that Pterocarpus indicus (C3) and Sansevieria trifasciata (crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)) were the most effective in polar gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) uptake, reaching up to 90% uptake of initial TMA (100 ppm) within 8 h, and could remove TMA at cycles 1-4 without affecting photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry. Up to 55 and 45% of TMA was taken up by S. trifasciata stomata and leaf epicuticular wax, respectively. During cycles 1-4, interestingly, S. trifasciata changed its stomata apertures, which was directly induced by gaseous TMA and light treatments. In contrast, for P. indicus the leaf epicuticular wax and stem were the major pathways of TMA removal, followed by stomata; these pathways accounted for 46, 46, and 8%, respectively, of TMA removal percentages. Fatty acids, particularly tetradecanoic (C14) acid and octadecanoic (C18) acid, were found to be the main cuticular wax components in both plants, and were associated with TMA removal ability. Moreover, the plants could degrade TMA via multiple metabolic pathways associated with carbon/nitrogen interactions. In CAM plants, one of the crucial pathways enabled 78% of TMA to be transformed directly to dimethylamine (DMA) and methylamine (MA), which differed from C3 plant pathways. Various metabolites were also produced for further detoxification and mineralization so that TMA was completely degraded by plants.

  19. Probabilistic safety analysis of DC power supply requirements for nuclear power plants. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowsky, P.W.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Fedele, M.A.

    1981-04-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment was performed as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission generic safety task A-30, Adequacy of Safety Related DC Power Supplies. Event and fault tree analysis techniques were used to determine the relative contribution of DC power related accident sequences to the total core damage probability due to shutdown cooling failures. It was found that a potentially large DC power contribution could be substantially reduced by augmenting the minimum design and operational requirements. Recommendations included (1) requiring DC power divisional independence, (2) improved test, maintenance, and surveillance, and (3) requiring core cooling capability be maintained following the loss of one DC power bus and a single failure in another system

  20. An analysis of Technical Security Control Requirements For Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jaegu; Lee, Jungwoon; Park, Geeyong; Kwon, Keechoon; Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Cheolkwon

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants have been digitalized for the purpose of maintenance and precise operation. This digitalization, however, brings out issues related to cyber security. In the most recent past, international standard organizations, regulatory institutes, and research institutes have performed a number of studies addressing these systems cyber security. In order to provide information helpful to the system designers in their application of cyber security for the systems, this paper presents methods and considerations to define attack vectors in a target system, to review and select the requirements in the Regulatory Guide 5.71, and to integrate the results to identify applicable technical security control requirements. In this study, attack vectors are analyzed through the vulnerability analyses and penetration tests with a simplified safety system, and the elements of critical digital assets acting as attack vectors are identified. Among the security control requirements listed in Appendices B and C to Regulatory Guide 5.71, those that should be implemented into the systems are selected and classified in groups of technical security control requirements using the results of the attack vector analysis. For the attack vector elements of critical digital assets, all the technical security control requirements are evaluated to determine whether they are applicable and effective, and considerations in this evaluation are also discussed. The technical security control requirements in three important categories of access control, monitoring and logging, and encryption are derived and grouped according to the elements of attack vectors as results for the sample safety system

  1. An analysis of Technical Security Control Requirements For Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jaegu; Lee, Jungwoon; Park, Geeyong; Kwon, Keechoon; Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Cheolkwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants have been digitalized for the purpose of maintenance and precise operation. This digitalization, however, brings out issues related to cyber security. In the most recent past, international standard organizations, regulatory institutes, and research institutes have performed a number of studies addressing these systems cyber security. In order to provide information helpful to the system designers in their application of cyber security for the systems, this paper presents methods and considerations to define attack vectors in a target system, to review and select the requirements in the Regulatory Guide 5.71, and to integrate the results to identify applicable technical security control requirements. In this study, attack vectors are analyzed through the vulnerability analyses and penetration tests with a simplified safety system, and the elements of critical digital assets acting as attack vectors are identified. Among the security control requirements listed in Appendices B and C to Regulatory Guide 5.71, those that should be implemented into the systems are selected and classified in groups of technical security control requirements using the results of the attack vector analysis. For the attack vector elements of critical digital assets, all the technical security control requirements are evaluated to determine whether they are applicable and effective, and considerations in this evaluation are also discussed. The technical security control requirements in three important categories of access control, monitoring and logging, and encryption are derived and grouped according to the elements of attack vectors as results for the sample safety system.

  2. Responses of air humidity and light quality on growth and stomata function of greenhouse grown Rosa*hybrida

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Madhu Sudhan

    2013-01-01

    Single node stem segment with one mature leaf of Rosa x hybrida, cv. Toril were grown in chambers. Plants were exposed to 100 μmol m-2 s-1 for 20 h day-1 followed by a 4 h dark period and supplementary light was provided by LED (20% blue light and 80% red light), HPS and HPS+UV-B Lamp. Each light source was provided by moderate (60%) and high (90) RH in different chambers. The UV-B light was provided 1 hour twice a day, in the middle of the dark period and in the middle of ligh...

  3. Behavior of radionuclides and related elements in plants. Screening and characterization of cesium requirement mutants from mutagenized arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Mutsumi; Yanai, Masumi; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Inaba, Jiro [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of climate on the metabolic behavior of various elements in a specific plant. The following items have been examined: the effect of climate conditions including Yamase (prevailing windows from the Pacific Ocean side area of Aomori Prefecture) on the elemental transfer factor of rice, the effect of light conditions on metabolism of elements in a plant, the effect of environmental factors on elemental movements at a cell level, and establishment of a mutant plant strain to obtain elemental requirement. This paper describes the development of a method for screening and characterizing cesium resistance mutants from Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small herbaceous plant which is used for experimental molecular botany. To isolate mutant in cesium uptake or accumulation, we have devised a screening method using energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX) of mutagenized Arabidopsis leaves. The seeds for the selection were M{sub 2} seeds derived from ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-treated plants. A double screening method was used to isolate about 50 Cs-resistant mutants. In the first screening experiment, EMS-mutagenized seeds were grown in medium containing 3 mM Cs. The wild type Arabidopsis usually died, but Cs-resistant mutants survived. These were transferred into soil for harvest of first-screening-seeds. In the successive experiment, first-screening-seeds were grown in medium containing 1 mM Cs, and Cs of the leaves was analyzed by EDX. We identified about 50 mutants in Cs uptake or accumulation after screening over 100,000 seedlings. These mutants showed either excessive accumulation of Cs in leaves or an inability to accumulate Cs at a normal concentration. The uptake rates of Cs in those mutants were also examined by using {sup 134}Cs radioactive tracer. (author)

  4. Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material in evaluation of the safety analysis report of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widia Lastana Istanto

    2011-01-01

    Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material that must be met by applicants for nuclear power plants construction permit has been investigated in this paper. The fracture toughness should be described in the Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) document that will be evaluated by the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Because BAPETEN does not have a regulations or standards/codes regarding the material used for the reactor vessel, especially in the fracture toughness requirements, then the acceptance criteria that applied to evaluate the fracture toughness of reactor vessel material refers to the regulations/provisions from the countries that have been experienced in the operation of nuclear power plants, such as from the United States, Japan and Korea. Regulations and standards used are 10 CFR Part 50, ASME and ASTM. Fracture toughness of reactor vessel materials are evaluated to ensure compliance of the requirements and provisions of the Regulatory Body and the applicable standards, such as ASME or ASTM, in order to assure a reliability and integrity of the reactor vessels as well as providing an adequate safety margin during the operation, testing, maintenance, and postulated accident conditions over the reactor vessel lifetime. (author)

  5. Manpower and training requirements for operation and maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The experience in India with regard to the staffing of nuclear power station operations and maintenance is encouraging in the sense that given the effort and time, developing countries should not find it unduly difficult to meet their requirements. (orig.) [de

  6. Examination and testing requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    This Standard provides the examination and testing requirements that will apply to the work of any organization participating in the construction, installation, and fabrication of parts or components of concrete containment structures, or both, that are defined as class containment. 2 tabs.

  7. Examination and testing requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This Standard provides the examination and testing requirements that will apply to the work of any organization participating in the construction, installation, and fabrication of parts or components of concrete containment structures, or both, that are defined as class containment. 2 tabs

  8. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  9. 3D Core Model for simulation of nuclear power plants: Simulation requirements, model features, and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994-1996, Thomson Training and Simulation (TT and S) earned out the D50 Project, which involved the design and construction of optimized replica simulators for one Dutch and three German Nuclear Power Plants. It was recognized early on that the faithful reproduction of the Siemens reactor control and protection systems would impose extremely stringent demands on the simulation models, particularly the Core physics and the RCS thermohydraulics. The quality of the models, and their thorough validation, were thus essential. The present paper describes the main features of the fully 3D Core model implemented by TT and S, and its extensive validation campaign, which was defined in extremely positive collaboration with the Customer and the Core Data suppliers. (author)

  10. Accuracy requirements on operational measurements in nuclear power plants with regard to balance methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holecek, C.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate in-service measurement is necessary for power balancing of nuclear power plants, i.e., the determination of fuel consumption, electric power generation, heat delivery and the degree of fuel power utilization. The only possible method of determining the input of total consumed energy from the fuel is the balance of the primary coolant circuit. This is because for the purposes of power balancing it is not possible to measure the amount of power generated from nuclear fuel. Relations are presented for the calculation of basic indices of the power balance. It is stated that for the purposes of power balancing and analyses the precision of measuring instrument at the input and output of balancing circuits is of primary importance, followed by the precision of measuring instruments inside balancing circuits and meters of auxiliary parameters. (Z.M.). 7 refs., 1 tab

  11. A direct methodology to establish design requirements for human–system interface (HSI) of automatic systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kim, Jonghyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A systematic method to identify the design requirements for human–system interface is proposed. • Eight combinations of control agents in each control stage (levels of automation) are defined. • The use of Itemized Sequence Diagram (ISD) is discussed for task allocation to control agents. • The design requirements of human–system interface are established based on the produced ISD. - Abstract: This paper suggests a systematic approach to establish design requirements for the human–system interface (HSI) between operators and automatic systems. The role of automation in the control of a nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is to support the human operator and act as an efficient team player to help reduce the human operator’s workload. Some of the problems related to the interaction between the human operator and automation are out-of-the-loop performance, mode errors, role change to supervisory role and final authority issues. Therefore, the design of HSI is critical to avoiding breakdowns in communication between the human operator and the system. In this paper, the design requirements for human–system interface of automatic systems are constructed with the help of a tool called Itemized Sequence Diagram (ISD). Eight levels of automation (LOA) are initially defined in the function allocation and an ISD is drawn for each of the LOA for task allocation. The ISD is a modified version of sequence diagram, which is widely used in systems engineering as well as software engineering. The ISD elements of arrows, messages, actors and alternative boxes collectively show the interactions between the control agents, which are decomposed into four different roles: information acquiring, plant diagnosing, response selecting and response implementing. Eleven design requirements to optimize the human–automation interaction are suggested by using this method. The design requirements produced from the identified interaction points in the ISD are

  12. Microalgae Oil Production: A Downstream Approach to Energy Requirements for the Minamisoma Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhani S. Wibawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of microalgae oil production as an alternative renewable energy source, in a pilot project located at Minamisoma City in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan. The algal communities used in this research were the locally mixed species, which were mainly composed of Desmodesmus collected from the Minamisoma pilot project. The microalgae oil-production processes in Minamisoma consisted of three stages: cultivation, dewatering, and extraction. The estimated theoretical input-energy requirement for extracting oil was 137.25 MJ to process 50 m3 of microalgae, which was divided into cultivation 15.40 MJ, centrifuge 13.39 MJ, drum filter 14.17 MJ, and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL 94.29 MJ. The energy profit ratio (EPR was 1.41. The total energy requirement was highest in the HTL process (68% followed by cultivation (11% and the drum filter (10%. The EPR value increased along with the yield in the cultivation process. Using HTL, the microalgae biomass could be converted to bio-crude oil to increase the oil yield in the extraction process. Therefore, in the long run, the HTL process could help lower production costs, due to the lack of chemical additions, for extracting oil in the downstream estimation of the energy requirements for microalgae oil production.

  13. Technical requirements for the ASME PRA standard for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Karl N.; Bernsen, Sidney A.; Simard, Ronald L.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) formed the Committee on Nuclear Risk Management (CNRM) and a Project Team to develop a standard on PRAs for use in risk informed applications. This ASME standard is being developed to help provide an adequate level of quality in PRAs that are being used to support ASME initiatives to risk informed in-service inspection (ISI) and in-service testing (IST) of nuclear power plant components. A related need supported by the industry and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is to reduce the level of effort that is being expended in pilot applications of risk informed initiatives to address questions about the sufficiency of quality in the supporting PRA models. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the authors' views on some of the technical issues that were encountered in the effort to develop the ASME PRA standard. Draft 12 of this standard has been issued for comment, and is currently being finalized with the aim of releasing the standard in early 2001. (author)

  14. The technical requirements concerning severe accident management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Kamata, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0 (The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the beyond design-basis tsunami descended on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant by the earthquake. Eventually, the core cooling systems of the units 1, 2 and 3 could not operate stably, they all suffered severe accident, and hydrogen explosions were triggered in the reactor buildings of units 1, 3 and 4. In the light of these circumstances, Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) decided to establish a standard that consolidates the concept of maintaining and improving severe accident management. In the SAM standard, the combination of hardware and software measures based on the risk assessment enables a scientific and rational approach to apply to scenarios of various severe accidents including low-frequency, high-impact events, and assures safety with functionality and flexibility. The SAM standard is already established in March, 2014. After publication of the SAM standard, with regard to effectiveness assessment for accident management and treatment of the uncertainty of severe accident analysis code, for example, the detailed guideline will be prepared as appendices of the standard. (author)

  15. Growth is required for perception of water availability to pattern root branches in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Neil E; Dinneny, José R

    2018-01-23

    Water availability is a potent regulator of plant development and induces root branching through a process termed hydropatterning. Hydropatterning enables roots to position lateral branches toward regions of high water availability, such as wet soil or agar media, while preventing their emergence where water is less available, such as in air. The mechanism by which roots perceive the spatial distribution of water during hydropatterning is unknown. Using primary roots of Zea mays (maize) we reveal that developmental competence for hydropatterning is limited to the growth zone of the root tip. Past work has shown that growth generates gradients in water potential across an organ when asymmetries exist in the distribution of available water. Using mathematical modeling, we predict that substantial growth-sustained water potential gradients are also generated in the hydropatterning competent zone and that such biophysical cues inform the patterning of lateral roots. Using diverse chemical and environmental treatments we experimentally demonstrate that growth is necessary for normal hydropatterning of lateral roots. Transcriptomic characterization of the local response of tissues to a moist surface or air revealed extensive regulation of signaling and physiological pathways, some of which we show are growth-dependent. Our work supports a "sense-by-growth" mechanism governing hydropatterning, by which water availability cues are rendered interpretable through growth-sustained water movement. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. GDP-L-fucose is required for boundary definition in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Beatriz; Maugarny-Calès, Aude; Adroher, Bernard; Cortizo, Millán; Borrega, Nero; Blein, Thomas; Hasson, Alice; Gineau, Emilie; Mouille, Grégory; Laufs, Patrick; Arnaud, Nicolas

    2017-12-16

    The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) transcription factors control plant boundary formation, thus allowing the emergence of novel growth axes. While the developmental roles of the CUC genes in different organs and across species are well characterized, upstream and downstream events that contribute to their function are still poorly understood. To identify new players in this network, we performed a suppressor screen of CUC2g-m4, a line overexpressing CUC2 that has highly serrated leaves. We identified a mutation that simplifies leaf shape and affects MURUS1 (MUR1), which is responsible for GDP-L-fucose production. Using detailed morphometric analysis, we show that GDP-L-fucose has an essential role in leaf shape acquisition by sustaining differential growth at the leaf margins. Accordingly, reduced CUC2 expression levels are observed in mur1 leaves. Furthermore, genetic analyses reveal a conserved role for GDP-L-fucose in different developmental contexts where it contributes to organ separation in the same pathway as CUC2. Taken together, our results reveal that GDP-L-fucose is necessary for proper establishment of boundary domains in various developmental contexts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements

  18. U.S. regulatory requirements for nuclear plant license renewal: The B and W Owners Group License Renewal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudinger, Deborah K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the current U.S. Regulatory Requirements for License Renewal and describes the Babcock and Wilcox Owners Group (B and WOG) Generic License Renewal Program (GLRP). The B and W owners, recognizing the need to obtain the maximum life for their nuclear generating units, embarked on a program to renew the licenses of the seven reactors in accordance with the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and further defined by Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulation Part 54 (10 CFR 54). These reactors, owned by five separate utilities, are Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) ranging in net rated capacity from approximately 800 to 900 MW. The plants, predominately constructed in the 70s, have USNRC Operating Licenses that expire between 2013 to 2017. (author)

  19. TASS/SMR Code Topical Report for SMART Plant, Vol II: User's Guide and Input Requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Rae (and others)

    2008-10-15

    The TASS/SMR code has been developed with domestic technologies for the safety analysis of the SMART plant which is an integral type pressurized water reactor. It can be applied to the analysis of design basis accidents including non-LOCA (loss of coolant accident) and LOCA of the SMART plant. The TASS/SMR code can be applied to any plant regardless of the structural characteristics of a reactor since the code solves the same governing equations for both the primary and secondary system. The code has been developed to meet the requirements of the safety analysis code. This report describes the overall structure of the TASS/SMR, input processing, and the processes of a steady state and transient calculations. In addition, basic differential equations, finite difference equations, state relationships, and constitutive models are described in the report. First, the conservation equations, a discretization process for numerical analysis, search method for state relationship are described. Then, a core power model, heat transfer models, physical models for various components, and control and trip models are explained.

  20. Regulatory requirements on the design and construction of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation systems in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Reactor Safety of the Institute of Radiation Protection, being the nuclear regulatory authority in Finland, has set up regulations which govern the design and construction of NPP systems and components. The regulations are partly compiled from existing codes and standards, published primarily in the United States and Federal Republic of Germany, and partly worked out at the Institute. The regulations are collected to a special set of YVL guides (guides for nuclear power plants), and one of these gives requirements on the design and construction of NPPCI systems and components. The scope of the requirements is based on the safety classification of the CI systems and components. Three safety classes have been singled out: the first for CI systems which take part in reactor protection, the second for other directly safety related, and the third for remaining CI systems important enough to deserve supervision. The safety class for CI components is inherited from the system they belong to. The safety classification of IC systems has direct bearing on the initial assumptions of plant accident analysis. The design principles of IC systems are inspected as part of the preliminary and final safety reports. Focus is directed on the principles of redundancy, separation, diversity, testability, etc. The requirements on IC components are directed to different stages of manufacture, installation and operation. The type tests shall be adequate and acceptably documented. The manufacture of components is followed, the test reports reviewed and the efficiency of manufacturers quality assurance program evaluated. Further requirements concern the installation phase and tests at the end of it, and finally guides include directions for maintenance and testing during the operations phase. (author)

  1. Load following operation of nuclear power plants for meeting power system requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, Hachiro

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a calculating program on the availability factors of nuclear, thermal and pumed storage hydro power stations and some calculated results for typical three load factors, 55 %, 60 % and 71 %, are provided when the share of the nuclea power station in the generation facilities is increased. The load following requirement of the nuclear power station is also provided. Load following requirement: If there is a 10 % pumped storage hydro power station, the nuclear power station enables to be operated with its rated output up to 30 % - 35 % of its share. Its daily load following operation for 40 % and 50 % nuclear power station needs every weekend and every day respectively. Availability factor: The availability factor of the nuclear power station manages to get 80 % (maximum availability factor of the nuclear power station in this study) up to 30 % share of it with 10 % pumpued storage hydro power station. When the nuclear power station shares 40 % and 50 %, its availability factor decreases down 1 % and 5 % respectively. (author)

  2. A chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein is required for proper photosynthetic acclimation of plants under fluctuating light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2017-09-19

    Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530 ) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments. Evidence is presented that mph2 mutant light stress susceptibility results from a defect in photosystem II (PSII) repair, and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MPH2 is involved in disassembling monomeric complexes during regeneration of dimeric functional PSII supercomplexes. Moreover, mph2 -and previously characterized PSII repair-defective mutants-exhibited reduced growth under fluctuating light conditions, while PSII photoprotection-impaired mutants did not. These findings suggest that repair is not only required for PSII maintenance under static high-irradiance light conditions but is also a regulatory mechanism facilitating photosynthetic adaptation under fluctuating light environments. This work has implications for improvement of agricultural plant productivity through engineering PSII repair.

  3. The required rate of return for new nuclear investment, and the choice between nuclear and gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimson, E.; Staunton, M.

    1995-01-01

    The British Government is in the process of reviewing its strategy for nuclear power, which is largely in the hands of Nuclear Electric, a candidate for early privatisation. We estimate that the after-tax real return which must be earned on new investment by Nuclear Electric is at least 11 percent. The corresponding pre-tax required rate of return is at least 13 percent in real terms. The fact that some of the investment risks of nuclear power can be shifted onto competitors or consumers should not, in a regulated industry, be allowed to lower the discount rate. Nuclear Electric's current required rate of return of 8 percent before tax is too low, and leads to an overstatement of the value of the Sizewell C and Hinkley Point C proposals. Based on Nuclear Electric's own plant parameter assumptions, going ahead with both stations will be some Pound 4 billion more expensive than the gas alternative. Incorporating best estimates of capital cost and plant performance, we estimate the two proposals would result in a combined loss in value of approximately Pound 6-7 billion. (author)

  4. An Approach to Establish Design Requirements for Human-System Interface (HSI) of Automatic Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This paper aims to demonstrate an approach to establish the design requirements for automatic systems in nuclear power plant (NPP) by using a powerful tool called Itemized Sequence Diagram (ISD). The process starts with function allocation by defining a set of levels of automation (LOAs). Then, task allocation is done using the ISD and finally the design requirements are established by examining the interaction points between human operator and automation, which are all located on the interface as modeled in the ISD. The strengths of this approach are discussed and a suggestion to integrate with that of the methodology employed to produce the existing guidelines or guidance is included in this paper. Some issues of automation have been addressed earlier in this paper and 12 design requirements that address human-system interaction were suggested by using the ISD as a tool to identify the interaction points between human operator and automation. The integration of the proposed approach in this paper with that of existing guidance could result in the new issue identification that would call for the establishment of new guidance. For example, Requirement 11 states that the HSI should provide the means for take-over from automatic to manual control was not mentioned in the existing guidance.

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL SECURITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS FOR DIGITAL I&C SYSTEMS IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAE-GU SONG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants have been digitalized for the purpose of maintenance and precise operation. This digitalization, however, brings out issues related to cyber security. In the most recent past, international standard organizations, regulatory institutes, and research institutes have performed a number of studies addressing these systems cyber security. In order to provide information helpful to the system designers in their application of cyber security for the systems, this paper presents methods and considerations to define attack vectors in a target system, to review and select the requirements in the Regulatory Guide 5.71, and to integrate the results to identify applicable technical security control requirements. In this study, attack vectors are analyzed through the vulnerability analyses and penetration tests with a simplified safety system, and the elements of critical digital assets acting as attack vectors are identified. Among the security control requirements listed in Appendices B and C to Regulatory Guide 5.71, those that should be implemented into the systems are selected and classified in groups of technical security control requirements using the results of the attack vector analysis. For the attack vector elements of critical digital assets, all the technical security control requirements are evaluated to determine whether they are applicable and effective, and considerations in this evaluation are also discussed. The technical security control requirements in three important categories of access control, monitoring and logging, and encryption are derived and grouped according to the elements of attack vectors as results for the sample safety system.

  6. Quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for complying with the Commission's regulations with regard to quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants. This guide applies to all types of nuclear power plants. (U.S.)

  7. Thematic strategy on sustainable use of plant protection products. Prospects and requirements for transferring proposals for plant protection products to biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Lueskow, Heike [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany); Gross, Rita [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The sustainable use of pesticides pursues, independent of the authorisation of single products, the aim to minimise existing environmental risks of pesticide use and therefore contribute to the reduction of its impact on the environmental protection goals. The Thematic Strategy (TS) and the Framework Directive 2009/128/EC (FWD) on sustainable use of pesticides have so far only been implemented for plant protection products (PPP). For biocides there exists no harmonised approach. Within the project the possibilities and requirements for transferring measures of the FWD to the biocide area have been analysed, with specific focus on wood preservatives, insecticides, and antifouling products. Several biocidal active substances are found in the outlets of sewage treatment plants and in surface water, but an inventory of the present environmental impact as well as reliable data on biocide consumption and use patterns, which could be used to identify key action areas, are generally missing. These data are urgently needed for the development of suitable indicators and the definition of the objectives. Sustainable use of biocides addresses the three issues; social, environmental and economic impact at which the ecological background assigns the borderline and beam barrier of the economic and social development. A systematic analysis of the instruments for improving sustainable use of pesticides described in TS and FWD indicated that many issues can be transferred to the biocide area. This concerns e.g. education and training, requirements for sales, the establishment of awareness programmes, control of the machinery for biocide application, the development of best practice standards based on integrated pest management principles, and the collection of statistics on biocide consumption. Some biocide specific characteristics need to be considered: E.g. unlike PPP, the intended use of some biocides is to be directly applied in water bodies or indoors. Furthermore for some

  8. Requirement analysis of the safety-critical software implementation for the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hoon Seon; Jung, Jae Cheon; Kim, Jae Hack; Nam, Sang Ku; Kim, Hang Bae

    2005-01-01

    The safety critical software shall be implemented under the strict regulation and standards along with hardware qualification. In general, the safety critical software has been implemented using functional block language (FBL) and structured language like C in the real project. Software design shall comply with such characteristics as; modularity, simplicity, minimizing the use of sub-routine, and excluding the interrupt logic. To meet these prerequisites, we used the computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tool to substantiate the requirements traceability matrix that were manually developed using Word processors or Spreadsheets. And the coding standard and manual have been developed to confirm the quality of software development process, such as; readability, consistency, and maintainability in compliance with NUREG/CR-6463. System level preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is performed by analyzing preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) and FMEA document. The modularity concept is effectively implemented for the overall module configurations and functions using RTP software development tool. The response time imposed on the basis of the deterministic structure of the safety-critical software was measured

  9. Enzymes from Fungal and Plant Origin Required for Chemical Diversification of Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in Grass-Epichloë Symbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  10. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B; Schardl, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  11. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pan

    Full Text Available The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline, -NHCH3 (loline, -N(CH32 (N-methylloline, -N(CH3Ac (N-acetylloline, -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline, and -N(CH3CHO (N-formylloline. Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for

  12. Stomatal kinetics and photosynthetic gas exchange along a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric regulation of plant water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Meinzer; Duncan D. Smith; David R. Woodruff; Danielle E. Marias; Katherine A. McCulloh; Ava R. Howard; Alicia L. Magedman

    2017-01-01

    Species’ differences in the stringency of stomatal control of plant water potential represent a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviours. However, little is known about how quasi-steady-state stomatal regulation of water potential may relate to dynamic behaviour of stomata and photosynthetic gas exchange in species operating at different positions along this...

  13. Cultivar Differences in Plant Transpiration Rate at High Relative Air Humidity Are Not Related to Genotypic Variation in Stomatal Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH) often show disturbed water relations due to less responsive stomata. The attenuation of stomatal responsiveness as a result of high RH during leaf expansion depends on the cultivar. We hypothesized that tolerant cultivars to high RH experience a low...

  14. Requirements on future energy supply. Analysis on the demand of future power plant capacity and strategy for a sustainable power utilization in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This strategy paper was drawn up with a view to maximum ecological compatibility of pwer plant modernization and sustainable power generation and use. The first part of the paper analyzes the power plants to be decommissioned on a medium-term basis and - against the background of several different scenarios for future power demand - an estimate of power plant capacities required by 2020. The second part describes the goals and concrete requirements of sustainable energy use. In the final part, the available instruments are presented, and those instruments are recommended that will be best suited for making power demand and supply efficient, sustainable and environment-friend.y [de

  15. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  16. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  17. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  18. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100, must...

  19. TRU [transuranic] waste certification compliance requirements for acceptance of newly generated contact-handled wastes to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Compliance requirements are presented for certifying that unclassified, newly generated (NG), contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) solid wastes from defense programs meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Where appropriate, transportation and interim storage requirements are incorporated; however, interim storage sites may have additional requirements consistent with these requirements. All applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders must continue to be met. The compliance requirements for stored or buried waste are not addressed in this document. The compliance requirements are divided into four sections, primarily determined by the general feature that the requirements address. These sections are General Requirements, Waste Container Requirements, Waste Form Requirements, and Waste Package Requirements. The waste package is the combination of waste container and waste. 10 refs., 1 fig

  20. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI action plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, a program was established whereby an annual NUREG report would be published on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was compiled and reported in three NUREG volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). This annual NUREG report combines these volumes into a single report and provides updated information as of September 30, 1991. The data contained in these NUREG reports are a product of the NRC's Safety Issues Management System (SIMS) database, which is maintained by the Project Management Staff in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and by NRC regional personnel. This report is to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan Requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, and GSIs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. An additional purpose of this NUREG report is to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  1. Reevaluation of the plant "gemstones": Calcium oxalate crystals sustain photosynthesis under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-09-01

    Land plants face the perpetual dilemma of using atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and losing water vapors, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis and thus growth. The reason behind this dilemma is that this simultaneous exchange of gases is accomplished through the same minute pores on leaf surfaces, called stomata. In a recent study we provided evidence that pigweed, an aggressive weed, attenuates this problem exploiting large crystals of calcium oxalate as dynamic carbon pools. This plant is able to photosynthesize even under drought conditions, when stomata are closed and water losses are limited, using carbon dioxide from crystal decomposition instead from the atmosphere. Abscisic acid, an alarm signal that causes stomatal closure seems to be implicated in this function and for this reason we named this path "alarm photosynthesis." The so-far "enigmatic," but highly conserved and widespread among plant species calcium oxalate crystals seem to play a crucial role in the survival of plants.

  2. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum M. Computer system and data processing requirements for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.

    1977-06-01

    Data-processing requirements for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) dictate a computing system that can provide a wide spectrum of data-processing needs on a 24-hour-day basis over an indeterminate time. A computer system is defined as a computer or computers complete with all peripheral equipment and extensive software and communications capabilities, including an operating system, compilers, assemblers, loaders, etc., all applicable to real-world problems. The computing system must be extremely reliable and easily expandable in both hardware and software to provide for future capabilities with a minimum impact on the existing applications software and operating system. The computer manufacturer or WIPP operating contractor must provide continuous on-site computer maintenance (maintain an adequate inventory of spare components and parts to guarantee a minimum mean-time-to-repair of any portion of the computer system). The computer operating system or monitor must process a wide mix of application programs and languages, yet be readily changeable to obtain maximum computer usage. The WIPP computing system must handle three general types of data processing requirements: batch, interactive, and real-time. These are discussed. Data bases, data collection systems, scientific and business systems, building and facilities, remote terminals and locations, and cables are also discussed

  3. The general transcriptional repressor Tup1 is required for dimorphism and virulence in a fungal plant pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical step in the life cycle of many fungal pathogens is the transition between yeast-like growth and the formation of filamentous structures, a process known as dimorphism. This morphological shift, typically triggered by multiple environmental signals, is tightly controlled by complex genetic pathways to ensure successful pathogenic development. In animal pathogenic fungi, one of the best known regulators of dimorphism is the general transcriptional repressor, Tup1. However, the role of Tup1 in fungal dimorphism is completely unknown in plant pathogens. Here we show that Tup1 plays a key role in orchestrating the yeast to hypha transition in the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. Deletion of the tup1 gene causes a drastic reduction in the mating and filamentation capacity of the fungus, in turn leading to a reduced virulence phenotype. In U. maydis, these processes are controlled by the a and b mating-type loci, whose expression depends on the Prf1 transcription factor. Interestingly, Δtup1 strains show a critical reduction in the expression of prf1 and that of Prf1 target genes at both loci. Moreover, we observed that Tup1 appears to regulate Prf1 activity by controlling the expression of the prf1 transcriptional activators, rop1 and hap2. Additionally, we describe a putative novel prf1 repressor, named Pac2, which seems to be an important target of Tup1 in the control of dimorphism and virulence. Furthermore, we show that Tup1 is required for full pathogenic development since tup1 deletion mutants are unable to complete the sexual cycle. Our findings establish Tup1 as a key factor coordinating dimorphism in the phytopathogen U. maydis and support a conserved role for Tup1 in the control of hypha-specific genes among animal and plant fungal pathogens.

  4. Modeling the water use efficiency of soybean and maize plants under environmental stresses: application of a synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui-Rui; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Zhuang, Jie

    2004-03-01

    Understanding the variability of plant WUE and its control mechanism can promote the comprehension to the coupling relationship of water and carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem, which is the foundation for developing water-carbon coupling cycle model. In this paper, we made clear the differences of net assimilation rate, transpiration rate, and WUE between the two species by comparing the experiment data of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants under water and soil nutrient stresses. WUE of maize was about two and a half times more than that of soybean in the same weather conditions. Enhancement of water stresses led to the marked decrease of Am and Em of two species, but water stresses of some degree could improve WUE, and this effect was more obvious for soybean. WUE of the two species changed with psiL in a second-order curve relation, and the WUE at high fertilization was higher than that at low fertilization, this effect was especially obvious for maize. Moreover, according to the synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior (SMPTSB) presented by Yu et al. (2001), the WUE model and its applicability were discussed with the data measured in this experiment. The WUE estimated by means of the model accorded well with the measured values. However, this model underestimated the WUE for maize slightly, thus further improvement on the original model was made in this study. Finally, by discussing some physiological factors controlling Am and WUE, we made clear the physiological explanation for differences of the relative contributions of stomata- and mesophyll processes to control of Am and WUE, and the applicability of WUE model between the two species. Because the requirement to stomatal conductance by unit change of net assimilation rate is different, the responses of opening-closing activity of stomata to environmental stresses are different between the two species. To obtain the same level of net assimilation

  5. Analysis of technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla'

    OpenAIRE

    Grbić, Maja; Antić, Radoslav; Ponoćko, Jelena; Mikulović, Jovan; Đurišić, Željko

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla' in Belgrade. Calculation of solar irradiation is performed and the conceptual design of the disposition of solar panels on the roof of the building is shown as well as their connections to the inverters. Conditions for connecting the plant to the distribution network are checked and an eco...

  6. Performance assessment requirements for the identification and tracking of transuranic waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, C.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Weston, W.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To demonstrate compliance with environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes, a performance assessment (PA) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was made of waste-waste and waste-repository interactions and impacts on disposal system performance. An estimate of waste components and accumulated quantities was derived from a roll-up of the generator/storage sites` TRU waste inventories. Waste components of significance, and some of negligible effect, were fixed input parameters in the model. The results identified several waste components that require identification and tracking of quantities to ensure that repository limits are not exceeded. The rationale used to establish waste component limits based on input estimates is discussed. The distinction between repository limits and waste container limits is explained. Controls used to ensure that no limits are exceeded are identified. For waste components with no explicit repository based limits, other applicable limits are contained in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The 10 radionuclides targeted for identification and tracking on either a waste container or a waste stream basis include Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, U-233, U-234, U-238, Sr-90, and Cs-137. The accumulative activities of these radionuclides are to be inventoried at the time of emplacement in the WIPP. Changes in inventory curie content as a function of radionuclide decay and ingrowth over time will be calculated and tracked. Due to the large margin of compliance demonstrated by PA with the 10,000 year release limits specified, the quality assurance objective for radioassay of the 10 radionuclides need to be no more restrictive than those already identified for addressing the requirements imposed by transportation and WIPP disposal operations in Section 9 of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. 6 refs.

  7. The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2014-06-17

    We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions.

  8. Evaluation of the applicability of existing nuclear power plant regulatory requirements in the U.S. to advanced small modular reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Middleton, Bobby D.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Baum, Gregory A.

    2013-05-01

    The current wave of small modular reactor (SMR) designs all have the goal of reducing the cost of management and operations. By optimizing the system, the goal is to make these power plants safer, cheaper to operate and maintain, and more secure. In particular, the reduction in plant staffing can result in significant cost savings. The introduction of advanced reactor designs and increased use of advanced automation technologies in existing nuclear power plants will likely change the roles, responsibilities, composition, and size of the crews required to control plant operations. Similarly, certain security staffing requirements for traditional operational nuclear power plants may not be appropriate or necessary for SMRs due to the simpler, safer and more automated design characteristics of SMRs. As a first step in a process to identify where regulatory requirements may be met with reduced staffing and therefore lower cost, this report identifies the regulatory requirements and associated guidance utilized in the licensing of existing reactors. The potential applicability of these regulations to advanced SMR designs is identified taking into account the unique features of these types of reactors.

  9. Plant cell wall glycosyltransferases: High-throughput recombinant expression screening and general requirements for these challenging enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Ditte Hededam; Shin, David; Tomaleri, Giovani P.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular characterization of plant cell wall glycosyltransferases is a critical step towards understanding the biosynthesis of the complex plant cell wall, and ultimately for efficient engineering of biofuel and agricultural crops. The majority of these enzymes have proven very difficult to obta...

  10. Clear-cut and practice-oriented organization - the connecting link between man and nuclear power plant operation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, E.K.

    1994-01-01

    Practice-oriented plant organization takes into account the human spheres of task and responsibility, training and qualification, communication and exchange of experience, setting of targets, management and control as well as motivation and loyalty. It constitutes the basis for meeting the demands on a safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation. This is demonstrated by the organization at the Grafenrheinfeld NPP. (DG) [de

  11. Controlling chemistry parameters in nuclear reactors and power plants, plant chemistry specification requirements and compliance - an overview of TAPS 1 and 2 experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranath; Muralidharan, K.; Save, C.B.; Patil, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station -TAPS 1 and 2 is a twin unit Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Nuclear Power Plant commissioned in the year 1969. Both units are running with capacity factor of more than 90 % in their 20 th cycle of operation as on today. The 220 MWe units were derated to 160 MWe during 1984 consequent to isolation of Secondary Steam Generators (SSG) in the 10 th cycle of operation due to SSG tube leaks. This paper presents an overview of Plant Chemistry Control measures and experiences during the last 38 years of operation. The overall plant chemistry performance of TAPS 1 and 2 observed is very good; which is evident from the material condition of various systems reflected in QC and I reports, NDT and ISI reports. This is also supported by the fact that both Units are showing excellent performance continuously during recent years. (author)

  12. Process control analysis requirement in NH3-H2 exchange bi-thermal Heavy Water Plant (Talcher) (Paper No. 6.8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnaik, S.P.; Mishra, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Talcher is based on bithermal NH 3 -H 2 exchange process. Isotopic exchange of deuterium takes place between gaseous hydrogen and liquid ammonia with potassium amide as catalyst. The process control analysis requirement in NH 3 -H 2 exchange dual temperature process is described. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  13. 32. The scheme of quality control of technical purity aluminum in electrolysis shop of Tajik aluminium Plant in accordance with the requirements of State Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The scheme of quality control of technical purity aluminum in electrolysis shop of Tajik aluminium Plant in accordance with the requirements of State Standards was discussed. The place of sampling or control was defined. The periodicity of sampling or control was defined as well. The characteristics of probe were studied.

  14. 33. The scheme of quality control of silumin in electrolysis shop of Tajik aluminium Plant in accordance with the requirements of State Standard 1521-76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The scheme of quality control of silumin in electrolysis shop of Tajik aluminium Plant in accordance with the requirements of State Standard 1521-76 was discussed. The place of sampling or control was defined. The periodicity of sampling or control was defined as well. The characteristics of probe were studied.

  15. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market; Anforderungen und Einsatz dezentraler Kraftwerke im veraenderten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian [E.ON Energy Projects GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  16. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have reported that stomata regulate leaf gas-exchange around “set...

  17. Comparison of EMI/RFI requirements to qualify the equipment for nuclear power plant. (RG 1.180, EPRI TR 102323, IEC 62003 and GB/T 11684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Tae Heon [Korea Testing Laboratory, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Seog [Research Institute of Korea Electric Power Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jeong Ho; Cho, Kyoung Youn [Korea Electric Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    One issue that has been problematic for new plant equipment and especially for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in recent years is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). In some reports for nuclear power plant (NPP), electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference (RFI), and power surges have been identified as environmental conditions that can affect the performance of safety-related electrical equipment. There are mainly two reference guides for applying to qualify EMI/RFI requirements of the equipment used in a NPP: US NRC RG 1.180 and EPRI TR 102323. Recently, IEC published the standard for the equipment in the NPP, IEC 62003. This paper has compared the requirements of these, including comparing of the requirement of the Chinese national standard, GB/T 11684

  18. Comparison of EMI/RFI requirements to qualify the equipment for nuclear power plant. (RG 1.180, EPRI TR 102323, IEC 62003 and GB/T 11684)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jong Seog; Seo, Jeong Ho; Cho, Kyoung Youn

    2011-01-01

    One issue that has been problematic for new plant equipment and especially for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in recent years is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). In some reports for nuclear power plant (NPP), electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference (RFI), and power surges have been identified as environmental conditions that can affect the performance of safety-related electrical equipment. There are mainly two reference guides for applying to qualify EMI/RFI requirements of the equipment used in a NPP: US NRC RG 1.180 and EPRI TR 102323. Recently, IEC published the standard for the equipment in the NPP, IEC 62003. This paper has compared the requirements of these, including comparing of the requirement of the Chinese national standard, GB/T 11684

  19. Pep1, a secreted effector protein of Ustilago maydis, is required for successful invasion of plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Doehlemann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize. Colonization of the host plant is initiated by direct penetration of cuticle and cell wall of maize epidermis cells. The invading hyphae are surrounded by the plant plasma membrane and proliferate within the plant tissue. We identified a novel secreted protein, termed Pep1, that is essential for penetration. Disruption mutants of pep1 are not affected in saprophytic growth and develop normal infection structures. However, Deltapep1 mutants arrest during penetration of the epidermal cell and elicit a strong plant defense response. Using Affymetrix maize arrays, we identified 116 plant genes which are differentially regulated in Deltapep1 compared to wild type infections. Most of these genes are related to plant defense. By in vivo immunolocalization, live-cell imaging and plasmolysis approaches, we detected Pep1 in the apoplastic space as well as its accumulation at sites of cell-to-cell passages. Site-directed mutagenesis identified two of the four cysteine residues in Pep1 as essential for function, suggesting that the formation of disulfide bridges is crucial for proper protein folding. The barley covered smut fungus Ustilago hordei contains an ortholog of pep1 which is needed for penetration of barley and which is able to complement the U. maydis Deltapep1 mutant. Based on these results, we conclude that Pep1 has a conserved function essential for establishing compatibility that is not restricted to the U. maydis / maize interaction.

  20. An ancestral stomatal patterning module revealed in the non-vascular land plant Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Caspar C.; Kamisugi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    The patterning of stomata plays a vital role in plant development and has emerged as a paradigm for the role of peptide signals in the spatial control of cellular differentiation. Research in Arabidopsis has identified a series of epidermal patterning factors (EPFs), which interact with an array of membrane-localised receptors and associated proteins (encoded by ERECTA and TMM genes) to control stomatal density and distribution. However, although it is well-established that stomata arose very early in the evolution of land plants, until now it has been unclear whether the established angiosperm stomatal patterning system represented by the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module reflects a conserved, universal mechanism in the plant kingdom. Here, we use molecular genetics to show that the moss Physcomitrella patens has conserved homologues of angiosperm EPF, TMM and at least one ERECTA gene that function together to permit the correct patterning of stomata and that, moreover, elements of the module retain function when transferred to Arabidopsis. Our data characterise the stomatal patterning system in an evolutionarily distinct branch of plants and support the hypothesis that the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module represents an ancient patterning system. PMID:27407102

  1. Framework of orientation for the discussion of measures required to maintain and further the expert knowledge and qualification of nuclear power plant managers and supervisors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, G.

    1984-01-01

    This report is focussed on the important aspects of the training and retraining of nuclear power plant managers and supervisors. The functional levels of the onsite operating organization of nine nuclear power plants are described and analyzed in order to determine the comparability of management positions as well as the responsibilities of the job incumbents. Retraining requirements are suggested depending on position, responsibilities, and relevance to safety. The manager's role in case of emergencies leads to specific demands with regard to regular training to cope with inadequate core cooling and to mitigate accidents. (orig.) [de

  2. Analysis of technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla' in Belgrade. Calculation of solar irradiation is performed and the conceptual design of the disposition of solar panels on the roof of the building is shown as well as their connections to the inverters. Conditions for connecting the plant to the distribution network are checked and an economic analysis of the project is performed.

  3. Evaluation of Seed and Forage Yield of Perennial Plants with Low Water Requirement in Abandoned Farming Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali gazanchian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is a natural phenomenon in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is created by low precipitation, high evaporation and reduced soil moisture. Today, they are the major threats to agricultural lands due to fluctuations in rainfall, limited water resources, wells salinization and subsequently abandoned farming lands. Iran is located on the world's dry belt and more than 90 percent of its area is located in the arid and semi-arid climatic regions. It has been reported that the annual rate of soil erosion is up to 33 tons per hectare and 5 to 6 times more than the standard limit. Also, 90% of the country's protein production comes from animals sources. Due to the lack of adequate forage production, the main burden of protein production is imposed on the natural resources and pastures. Therefore, In order to enhance soil stabilization and maintain its fertility, optimum use of off-season precipitations, preventing the flow of water and protecting the abandoned farming lands from the flood risk, increasing the water permeability in the soil, and helping to feed the underwater aquifers and finally the production of forage and seeds, the development of perennial plants cultivation is an important conservative practice. The aim of this study is to emphasize on the selection of the best perennial forage species with low water requirements and acceptable performance for renovation of the abandoned farming lands and moving towards sustainable agriculture approaches. Materials and Methods In this experiment, 10 species of perennial grasses (Agropyron elongatum Host., Secale montanum Guss., Festuca arundinaceae Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., Agropyron intermedium Host., Agropyron repense L., Agropyron cristatum L., Panicum antidutale Retz., Bromus inermis Leyss., Bromus riparius Rehmann, Agropyron cristatum L. and two legumes includes Trifolium pratense L., Onobrychis sativa Lam. were studied at Asatan-e-Ghods Razavi farm in

  4. A novel high-affinity sucrose transporter is required for virulence of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Wahl

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause massive yield losses and affect both quality and safety of food and feed produced from infected plants. The main objective of plant pathogenic fungi is to get access to the organic carbon sources of their carbon-autotrophic hosts. However, the chemical nature of the carbon source(s and the mode of uptake are largely unknown. Here, we present a novel, plasma membrane-localized sucrose transporter (Srt1 from the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis and its characterization as a fungal virulence factor. Srt1 has an unusually high substrate affinity, is absolutely sucrose specific, and allows the direct utilization of sucrose at the plant/fungal interface without extracellular hydrolysis and, thus, without the production of extracellular monosaccharides known to elicit plant immune responses. srt1 is expressed exclusively during infection, and its deletion strongly reduces fungal virulence. This emphasizes the central role of this protein both for efficient carbon supply and for avoidance of apoplastic signals potentially recognized by the host.

  5. Redox and the circadian clock in plant immunity: A balancing act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, Sargis; Dong, Xinnian

    2018-05-01

    Plants' reliance on sunlight for energy makes their light-driven circadian clock a critical regulator in balancing the energy needs for vital activities such as growth and defense. Recent studies show that the circadian clock acts as a strategic planner to prime active defense responses towards the morning or daytime when conditions, such as the opening of stomata required for photosynthesis, are favorable for attackers. Execution of the defense response, on the other hand, is determined according to the cellular redox state and is regulated in part by the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species upon pathogen challenge. The interplay between redox and the circadian clock further gates the onset of defense response to a specific time of the day to avoid conflict with growth-related activities. In this review, we focus on discussing the roles of the circadian clock as a robust overseer and the cellular redox as a dynamic executor of plant defense. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconstructing Middle Eocene Climate and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration: Application of a mechanistic theoretical approach to fossil plants from the Messel Pit (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, M.; Roth-Nebelsick, A.; Wilde, V.; Konrad, W.; Utescher, T.

    2009-12-01

    It is assumed that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations (from now on expressed as Ca) strongly influenced the development of global temperatures during parts of the Cenozoic. Thus, detailed knowledge of ancient Ca and its variations is of utmost importance for exploring the coupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate change. Numerous techniques (such as carbon and boron isotopes) were applied in order to obtain Ca, with varying and sometimes even conflicting results. Stomatal density (number of stomata per leaf area) represents another promising proxy for the calculation of ancient Ca since many plants reduce the number of stomata (pores on the leaf surface used for gas exchange) under increasing Ca. As a reason it is assumed that plants try to adjust stomatal conductance in order to optimize their gas exchange (which means maximal assimilation at minimal transpiration). The common technique for calculating Ca from fossil stomatal frequency is to create empirical transfer functions of living plants derived from herbar material or greenhouse experiments. In the presented project, Ca of the Middle Eocene is calculated by applying a different approach which utilizes a mechanistic-theoretical calibration. It couples the processes of a) C3-photosynthesis, b) diffusion and c) transpiration with palaeoclimatic and leaf-anatomical data. The model also includes an optimisation principle supported by ecophysiological data. According to this optimisation principle, plants adjust their stomatal conductance in such a way that photosynthesis rates are constrained by optimal water use (transpiration). This model was applied in the present study to fossil plants from the Messel Pit near Darmstadt (Germany). In order to reconstruct Ca by using fossil plant taxa from Messel, numerous parameters which represent model input have to be estimated from measurements of living representatives. Furthermore, since climate parameters are also required by the model, quantitative

  7. SABP2, a methyl salicylate esterase is required for the systemic acquired resistance induced by acibenzolar-S-methyl in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Diwaker; Jiang, Yu-Lin; Kumar, Dhirendra

    2010-08-04

    Tobacco SABP2, a 29kDa protein catalyzes the conversion of methyl salicylic acid (MeSA) into salicylic acid (SA) to induce SAR. Pretreatment of plants with acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), a functional analog of salicylic acid induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Data presented in this paper suggest that SABP2 catalyzes the conversion of ASM into acibenzolar to induce SAR. Transgenic SABP2-silenced tobacco plants when treated with ASM, fail to express PR-1 proteins and do not induce robust SAR expression. When treated with acibenzolar, full SAR is induced in SABP2-silenced plants. These results show that functional SABP2 is required for ASM-mediated induction of resistance. Copyright (c) 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by actions spectra for growth and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T. [Kobe Women`s Univ., Higashisuma (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    It is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to an economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.

  9. Review on the Strength Development Required for the Concrete Structure of Nuclear Power Plant under Cold Weather Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyung Teak; Park, Chun Jin; Ryu, Gum Sung; Kim, Do Gyeum; Lee, Jang Hwa [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of a Department of Energy-Nuclear According to the specifications for the construction execution for a nuclear power plant (NPP), the cold weather concrete should be facilitated that comply with the regulations of ACI-306R. Here, in terms of the standards applied to the cold weather concrete, such concrete should be applied in the case where the daily average temperature is 5 .deg. C or less. So, according to the analysis on the average temperature in winter over the last one year at each NPP construction area, it was found that such had lowered by about 0.5 - 2 .deg. C as compared to the temperature during the normal years (the last ten years) and the number of days applied to the cold weather concrete according to the ACI regulations was shown as 83, so as around 1/4 of year falls into the cold weather conditions and furthermore the recent weather is getting severe, it is necessary to perform the appropriate insulation curing for the cold weather concrete. On the other hand, according to the regulations with regards to the curing conditions for cold weather concrete, the insulation curing of such should be appropriately performed under an environment of 5 .deg. C or greater until the strength of 3.5 MPa (500 Psi) develops. Likewise, according to the regulations regarding the cold weather concrete in the domestic concrete specifications, the insulation curing should be performed until a strength development of 5 MPa (715 Psi) considering the safety factor indicated to the ACI regulation under the temperature of 5 .deg. C or greater. According to the above-mentioned regulations, the NPP structure is required to develop a minimum strength of 5 MPa or greater, and to maintain such important qualities, including strength development, early anti-freezing and duality under cold weather conditions. However, even though the early strength of 5 MPa or greater is secured under the recent abnormal weather conditions and cold weather conditions, if the structure is

  10. Stomatal Function Requires Pectin De-methyl-esterification of the Guard Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsbury, Sam; Hunt, Lee; Elhaddad, Nagat; Baillie, Alice; Lundgren, Marjorie; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Scheller, Henrik V; Knox, J Paul; Fleming, Andrew J; Gray, Julie E

    2016-11-07

    Stomatal opening and closure depends on changes in turgor pressure acting within guard cells to alter cell shape [1]. The extent of these shape changes is limited by the mechanical properties of the cells, which will be largely dependent on the structure of the cell walls. Although it has long been observed that guard cells are anisotropic due to differential thickening and the orientation of cellulose microfibrils [2], our understanding of the composition of the cell wall that allows them to undergo repeated swelling and deflation remains surprisingly poor. Here, we show that the walls of guard cells are rich in un-esterified pectins. We identify a pectin methylesterase gene, PME6, which is highly expressed in guard cells and required for stomatal function. pme6-1 mutant guard cells have walls enriched in methyl-esterified pectin and show a decreased dynamic range in response to triggers of stomatal opening/closure, including elevated osmoticum, suggesting that abrogation of stomatal function reflects a mechanical change in the guard cell wall. Altered stomatal function leads to increased conductance and evaporative cooling, as well as decreased plant growth. The growth defect of the pme6-1 mutant is rescued by maintaining the plants in elevated CO 2 , substantiating gas exchange analyses, indicating that the mutant stomata can bestow an improved assimilation rate. Restoration of PME6 rescues guard cell wall pectin methyl-esterification status, stomatal function, and plant growth. Our results establish a link between gene expression in guard cells and their cell wall properties, with a corresponding effect on stomatal function and plant physiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic highbush blueberry production systems research – management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, weeds, and economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 0.4 ha planting was established in October 2006 to evaluate the effects of cultivar (Duke and Liberty), bed type ("flat ground" and raised beds), weed management [sawdust mulch and hand weed control; compost plus sawdust mulch with acetic acid, flaming, and hand control used as needed; and landsca...

  12. Fault ride-through requirements for onshore wind power plants in Europe: the needs of the power system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemer, J.C.; Meer, van der A.A.; Rawn, B.G.; Hendriks, R.L.; Ciupuliga, A.R.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Wind power plants show different behavior than conventional (synchronous) generators. As the traditional power systems mainly consisted of centralized generation by synchronous machines feeding passive loads, it was well-understood how the system reacted in normal operation as well as during

  13. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs. 2...

  14. Catalogue of requirements for a plant-specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events; Anforderungskatalog fuer anlagenbezogene Ueberpruefungen deutscher Kernkraftwerke unter Beruecksichtigung der Ereignisse in Fukushima-I (Japan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-30

    The catalogue of requirements for a plant-specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events worked out by the German RSK (reactor safety commission) includes the following inspection topics: natural events like earth quakes, floods, weather-based consequences and possible superposition; civilization-based events like airplane crash, gas release, reactor accident consequences for neighboring units, terroristic impacts, external attacks on computer-based control systems. Further event-independent assumptions have to be considered: station blackout, long-term emergency power supply requirement, failure of auxiliary cooling water supply, efficacy of preventive measures, aggravating boundary conditions for the performance of emergency measures.

  15. Modeling identifies optimal fall planting times and irrigation requirements for canola and camelina at locations across California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In California, Brassica oilseeds may be viable crops for growers to diversify their cool-season crop options, helping them adapt to projected climate change and irrigation water shortages. Field trials have found germination and establishment problems in some late-planted canola, but not camelina at the same locations. We used computer modeling to analyze fall seedbed conditions to better understand this phenomenon. We found seedbeds may be too dry, too cold, or both, to support germination of canola during late fall. Based on seedbed temperatures only, canola should be sown no later than the last week of November in the Central Valley. Camelina has broader temperature and moisture windows for germination and can be sown from October to December with less risk, but yields of camelina are lower than canola yields. In areas without irrigation, growers could plant canola opportunistically when seedbed conditions are favorable and use camelina as a fallback option.

  16. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

    2009-09-01

    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  17. MtZIP6 is a novel metal transporter required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in nodules of Medicago truncatula plants

    OpenAIRE

    Saez Somolinos, Ángela; Imperial Ródenas, Juan; Gonzalez Guerrero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) carried out by the interaction rhizobia-legumes takes place in legume root nodules. Many of the enzymes involved in SNF are metalloproteins that obtain their metal cofactor from the host plant. Metals reach the nodule through the vasculature, where they are released in the apoplast on the infection/differentiation zone (zone II) of the nodule (Rodriguez-Haas et al., 2013). From there, these oligonutrients have to cross a number of membranes to be used for met...

  18. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants; Fukushima, dos anos despues, requerimientos de modificacion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A., E-mail: jerson.sanchez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  19. The Arabidopsis eukaryotic initiation factor (iso)4E is dispensable for plant growth but required for susceptibility to potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat, Anne; Caranta, Carole; Revers, Frédéric; Menand, Benoît; Browning, Karen S; Robaglia, Christophe

    2002-12-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana line bearing a transposon insertion in the gene coding for the isozyme form of the plant-specific cap-binding protein, eukaryotic initiation factor (iso) 4E (eIF (iso) 4E), has been isolated. This mutant line completely lacks both eIF(iso)4E mRNA and protein, but was found to have a phenotype and fertility indistinguishable from wild-type plants under standard laboratory conditions. In contrast, the amount of the related eIF4E protein was found to increase in seedling extracts. Furthermore, polysome analysis shows that the mRNA encoding eIF4E was being translated at increased levels. Given the known interaction between cap-binding proteins and potyviral genome-linked proteins (VPg), this plant line was challenged with two potyviruses, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) and was found resistant to both, but not to the Nepovirus, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) and the Cucumovirus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Together with previous data showing that the VPg-eIF4E interaction is necessary for virus infectivity and upregulates genome amplification, this shows that the eIF4E proteins are specifically recruited for the replication cycle of potyviruses.

  20. The Activation of Phytophthora Effector Avr3b by Plant Cyclophilin is Required for the Nudix Hydrolase Activity of Avr3b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Guanghui; Zhao, Yao; Jing, Maofeng; Huang, Jie; Yang, Jin; Xia, Yeqiang; Kong, Liang; Ye, Wenwu; Xiong, Qin; Qiao, Yongli; Dong, Suomeng; Ma, Wenbo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-08-01

    Plant pathogens secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to impair host immunity. Some effectors possess enzymatic activities that can modify their host targets. Previously, we demonstrated that a Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector Avr3b acts as a Nudix hydrolase when expressed in planta; and this enzymatic activity is required for full virulence of P. sojae strain P6497 in soybean (Glycine max). Interestingly, recombinant Avr3b produced by E. coli does not have the hydrolase activity unless it was incubated with plant protein extracts. Here, we report the activation of Avr3b by a prolyl-peptidyl isomerase (PPIase), cyclophilin, in plant cells. Avr3b directly interacts with soybean cyclophilin GmCYP1, which activates the hydrolase activity of Avr3b in a PPIase activity-dependent manner. Avr3b contains a putative Glycine-Proline (GP) motif; which is known to confer cyclophilin-binding in other protein substrates. Substitution of the Proline (P132) in the putative GP motif impaired the interaction of Avr3b with GmCYP1; as a result, the mutant Avr3bP132A can no longer be activated by GmCYP1, and is also unable to promote Phytophthora infection. Avr3b elicits hypersensitive response (HR) in soybean cultivars producing the resistance protein Rps3b, but Avr3bP132A lost its ability to trigger HR. Furthermore, silencing of GmCYP1 rendered reduced cell death triggered by Avr3b, suggesting that GmCYP1-mediated Avr3b maturation is also required for Rps3b recognition. Finally, cyclophilins of Nicotiana benthamiana can also interact with Avr3b and activate its enzymatic activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that cyclophilin is a "helper" that activates the enzymatic activity of Avr3b after it is delivered into plant cells; as such, cyclophilin is required for the avirulence and virulence functions of Avr3b.

  1. Pre-operational proof and leakage rate testing requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This Standard provides the requirements for pre-operational proof tests and leakage rate tests of concrete containment structures of a containment system designed as Class Containment components. 1 fig

  2. Instruction of the CSN on the requirements of the system of management of the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Santo, A. de; Gil Montes, B.; Toca, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Western European Nations Regulatory Authorities (WENRA) performed a nuclear safety requirements harmonization task, as a result of this work and its implementation, the Spanish Nuclear Safety Counsel (CSN) has the commitment to issue its own Regulation Safety Instructions) to identify the WENRA to level nuclear safety requirements, and to incorporate it in the Spanish regulatory pyramid. However, the Spain nuclear installations meet these requirements through the original criteria to fulfill the regulation of the country that supply the NSSS design, these requirements are not incorporated in our regulation. One of the issues, identified by WENRA, is the implementation of the management system requirements in accord with the IAEA GS-R-3 The Management System for Facilities and Activities. As these regards, the CSN has developed a Safety Instruction, basically endorsing the IAEA GS-R-3. The Safety Instruction is actually in a phase of external comments and should be issued by june 2008. This paper describes the bases for the Safety Instruction, summarises the requirements that would meet the management system for nuclear installations and the activities to perform for its implementations. (Author)

  3. Existing nuclear power plants and new safety requirements - an international survey. A description of the legal situation and of the regulatory practice in eight countries and in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, C.; Micklinghoff, M.

    2006-01-01

    In our days, the question of whether existing nuclear power plants can be expected to comply with new standards is relevant for many reasons. The idea of writing this report was sparked by the fact that the German Federal Ministry of the Environment is planning a thorough revision of the regulations concerning nuclear safety. Since in Germany, according to the latest amendment to the Nuclear Act, a licence for a new plant cannot be granted, this project inevitably raises the basic question of whether the existing plants can be forced to comply with new safety regulation, if necessary by performing substantial backfitting. Aim of the enquiry is to find out how the question outlined above - new requirements for existing nuclear power plants - is dealt with in nine countries, namely Germany, Switzerland, France, Sweden, Finland, the United Kingdom, the USA, Spain and Belgium. In order to give a legible and qualified account, the authors have also investigated and depicted the general legislative and regulatory framework for nuclear of each country. Therefore, the book can also be read as a general introduction into the legal system and regulatory practice of these countries. (orig.)

  4. Emergency planning requirements and short-term countermeasures for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, F.; Hogan, R.; Mohseni, A.

    1995-01-01

    Since the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit, the United States Nuclear Regulatory's Commission (NRC's) emergency planning regulations are now considered and an important part of the regulatory framework for protecting the public health and safety. Many aspects of the countermeasures are presented: Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ), off-Site emergency planning and preparedness, responsibilities of nuclear power plants operators and states and local government. Finally, protective action recommendations are given as well as the federal response to an emergency. The authors noted that the use of potassium iodide is not considered as an effective countermeasure for the public protection in the US. (TEC). 1 fig

  5. Pleistocene sea level fluctuation and host plant habitat requirement influenced the historical phylogeography of the invasive species Amphiareus obscuriceps (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danli; Ye, Zhen; Yamada, Kazutaka; Zhen, Yahui; Zheng, Chenguang; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-08-31

    On account of repeated exposure and submergence of the East China Sea (ECS) land bridge, sea level fluctuation played an important role in shaping the population structure of many temperate species across the ECS during the glacial period. The flower bug Amphiareus obscuriceps (Poppius, 1909) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an invasive species native to the Sino-Japanese Region (SJR) of East Asia. We tested the hypothesis of the ECS land bridge acting as a dispersal corridor or filter for A. obscuriceps during the glacial period. Specifically, we tested whether and the extent to which dispersal ability and host plant habitat requirement influenced the genetic structure of A. obscuriceps during the exposure of the ECS land bridge. Phylogenetic and network analyses indicated that A. obscuriceps is composed of two major lineages, i.e., China and Japan. Divergence time on both sides of the ECS was estimated to be approximately 1.07 (0.79-1.32) Ma, which was about the same period that the sea level increased. No significant Isolation by Distance (IBD) relationship was found between Фst and Euclidean distances in the Mantel tests, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this species has a good dispersal ability. Our Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) niche modeling of plants that constitute preferred habitats for A. obscuriceps exhibited a similar habitat gap on the exposed ECS continental shelf between China and Japan, but showed a continuous distribution across the Taiwan Strait. Our results suggest that ecological properties (habitat requirement and dispersal ability), together with sea level fluctuation during the Pleistocene across the ECS, have shaped the genetic structure and demographic history of A. obscuriceps in its native area. The host plant habitat requirement could also be a key to the colonization of the A. obscuriceps species during the exposure of the ECS land bridge. Our findings will shed light on the potential role of habitat requirement in the process of

  6. Specification of requirements for upgrades using digital instrument and control systems. Report prepared within the framework of the international working group on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The need to develop good specifications of requirements for instrument and control (I and C) systems applies throughout the world and is becoming more and more important as more upgrades are planned. Better guidance on how to develop good requirements specifications would support safer, more effective and more economical refits and upgrades. The need for this was pointed out by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). This report is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held by the IAEA in 1997 and 1998 in Vienna. The scope of the activities described covers a methodology for the determination of requirements and the development of the necessary specifications and plans needed through the life-cycle of digital instrumentation and control systems. It is restricted to technical aspects and indicates subjects which should be included in specifications and plans at different phases

  7. Requirements for a reactor simulator of the konvoi generation of nuclear power plants according to training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, S.J.; Reinartz, G.

    1984-01-01

    This report is based an a review of the literature published on simulator training and on discussions with representatives from the German nuclear power plant operator training schools. A brief description of the organisation and content of the simulator training of control room operators in a number of countries, together with a categorisation of the various types of simulators which are used. The concepts of the systems approach to training and simulator fidelity are discussed. Some general training principles which are considered important for simulator training are summarised. From the available descriptions and analyses of control room operator tasks, the skills (in most general terms) which can be trained on simulators have been identified. Methods for training these skills which are used in the simulator training programmes in various industries and which have been developed in research work in the area of training psychology have been summarised. Using these methods as a basis, the necessary instructor facilities which should be included in the design of a full simulator for the Konvoi generation of nuclear power plants have been derived. (orig.) [de

  8. The plant cuticle is required for osmotic stress regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenyu

    2011-05-01

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). One major step in ABA biosynthesis is the carotenoid cleavage catalyzed by a 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the mechanism for osmotic stress activation of ABA biosynthesis, we screened for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that failed to induce the NCED3 genee xpression in response to osmotic stress treatments. The ced1 (for 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxy genase defective 1) mutant isolated in this study showed markedly reduced expression of NCED3 in response to osmotic stress (polyethylene glycol)treatments compared with the wild type. Other ABA biosynthesis genes are also greatly reduced in ced1 under osmotic stress. ced1 mutant plants are very sensitive to even mild osmotic stress. Map-based cloning revealed unexpectedly thatCED1 encodes a putative a/b hydrolase domain-containing protein and is allelic to the BODYGUARD gene that was recently shown to be essential for cuticle biogenesis. Further studies discovered that other cut in biosynthesis mutants are also impaired in osmotic stress induction of ABA biosynthesis genes and are sensitive to osmotic stress. Our work demonstrates that the cuticle functions not merely as a physical barrier to minimize water loss but also mediates osmotic stress signaling and tolerance by regulating ABA biosynthesis and signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Balanced nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of EDS1 are required for a complete plant innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An important layer of plant innate immunity to host-adapted pathogens is conferred by intracellular nucleotide-binding/oligomerization domain-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors recognizing specific microbial effectors. Signaling from activated receptors of the TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor-NB-LRR class converges on the nucleo-cytoplasmic immune regulator EDS1 (Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1. In this report we show that a receptor-stimulated increase in accumulation of nuclear EDS1 precedes or coincides with the EDS1-dependent induction and repression of defense-related genes. EDS1 is capable of nuclear transport receptor-mediated shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus. By enhancing EDS1 export from inside nuclei (through attachment of an additional nuclear export sequence (NES or conditionally releasing EDS1 to the nucleus (by fusion to a glucocorticoid receptor (GR in transgenic Arabidopsis we establish that the EDS1 nuclear pool is essential for resistance to biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens and for transcriptional reprogramming. Evidence points to post-transcriptional processes regulating receptor-triggered accumulation of EDS1 in nuclei. Changes in nuclear EDS1 levels become equilibrated with the cytoplasmic EDS1 pool and cytoplasmic EDS1 is needed for complete resistance and restriction of host cell death at infection sites. We propose that coordinated nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of EDS1 enable the plant to mount an appropriately balanced immune response to pathogen attack.

  10. Nuclear energy research initiative, an overview of the cooperative program for the risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, Stanley E.

    2000-01-01

    EPRI sstudies have shown that nuclear plant capital costs will have to decrease by about 35% to 40% to be competitive with fossil-generated electricity in the Unite States. Also, the ''first concrete'' to fuel load construction schedule will have to be decreased to less than 40 months. Therefore, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiate the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) and ABB CENP proposed a cooperative program with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and Duke Engineering and Services (DE and S) to begin an innovative research effort to drastically cut the cost of new nuclear power plant construction for the U. S. de-regulated market place. This program was approved by the DOE through three separate but coordinated ''cooperative agreements.'' They are the ''Risk-Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants'' (Risk-Informed NPP), the ''Smart Nuclear Power Plant Program'' (Smart-NPP), and ''Design, Procure, Construct, Install and Test'' (DPCIT) Program. DOE funded the three cooperative agreements at a level of $2.6 million for the first year of the program. Funding for the complete program is durrently at a level $6.9 million, however, ABB CENP and all partners anticipate that the scope of the NERI program will be increased as a result of the overall importance of NERI to the U. S. Government. The Risk-Informed NPP program, which is aimed at revising costly regularory and design requirements without reducing overall plant safety, has two basic tasks: ''development of Risk-Informed Methods'' and ''strengthening the Reliability Database.'' The overall objective of the first task is to develop a scientific, risk-informed approach for identifying and simplifying deterministic industry standards, regulatory requirements, and safety systems that do not significantly contribute to nuclear power plant reliability and safety. The second basic task is to develop a means for strengthening the reliability database

  11. A novel-type phosphatidylinositol phosphate-interactive, Ca-binding protein PCaP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana: stable association with plasma membrane and partial involvement in stomata closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisako; Miwa, Chika; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Suito, Momoe; Tsuchihira, Ayako; Sato, Yori; Segami, Shoji; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2016-05-01

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein-1 (PCaP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana is a new type protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and Ca(2+)-calmodulin complex as well as free Ca(2+). Although biochemical properties, such as binding to ligands and N-myristoylation, have been revealed, the intracellular localization, tissue and cell specificity, integrity of membrane association and physiological roles of PCaP1 are unknown. We investigated the tissue and intracellular distribution of PCaP1 by using transgenic lines expressing PCaP1 linked with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) at the carboxyl terminus of PCaP1. GFP fluorescence was obviously detected in most tissues including root, stem, leaf and flower. In these tissues, PCaP1-GFP signal was observed predominantly in the plasma membrane even under physiological stress conditions but not in other organelles. The fluorescence was detected in the cytosol when the 25-residue N-terminal sequence was deleted from PCaP1 indicating essential contribution of N-myristoylation to the plasma membrane anchoring. Fluorescence intensity of PCaP1-GFP in roots was slightly decreased in seedlings grown in medium supplemented with high concentrations of iron for 1 week and increased in those grown with copper. In stomatal guard cells, PCaP1-GFP was strictly, specifically localized to the plasma membrane at the epidermal-cell side but not at the pore side. A T-DNA insertion mutant line of PCaP1 did not show marked phenotype in a life cycle except for well growth under high CO2 conditions. However, stomata of the mutant line did not close entirely even in high osmolarity, which usually induces stomata closure. These results suggest that PCaP1 is involved in the stomatal movement, especially closure process, in leaves and response to excessive copper in root and leaf as a mineral nutrient as a physiological role.

  12. Anatomical Basis for Optimal Use of Water for Maintenance of Three Xerophytic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three xerophytic plant species namely Agave americana Linn., Aloe vera Tourn. and Linn. and Euphorbia milii Des Moul. were propagated in a greenhouse each with 5 varying soil moisture contents i.e. 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% and subjected to 4 watering frequencies i.e. daily, weekly, biweekly and monthly. Euphorbia milii was the most xerophytic species having relatively lower rate of transpiration than Aloe vera and Agave americana. It was suggested that the high rate of transpiration in Aloe vera and Agave americana may be due to the large tetracytic stomata as compared to the small paracytic stomata of Euphorbia milii. It was also observed that Aloe vera was least tolerant of high soil moisture in daily watering as well as low soil moisture in monthly regime. Agave americana and Euphorbia milii were species that were more robust with capacity to cope well with low and high watering regimes than Aloe vera.

  13. Influence of the 6 Bencilaminopurina on the in vitro behavior of Henequen plants obtained by embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo González

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the acclimatization phase, a group of derived plants from henequen embryos, germinated in a medium with different concentrations of 6 BAP, was evaluated. In these results it is evidenced that the content of 6 BAP in the germination medium determined the behaviour of the vitroplants. The lower concentrations provoked an significative increase in the height and width of the base from plants, superior surviver percentage and minor stomata opening. These results suggest that high concentations of 6 BAP prevents the development of the acclimatization phase in derived plants from henequen embryos. Key words: somatic embryogenesis, 6 BAP, aclimatization. Agave

  14. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. AGO1, QDE-2, and RDE-1 are related proteins required for post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, M; Boutet, S; Morel, J B; Bellini, C; Vaucheret, H

    2000-10-10

    Introduction of transgene DNA may lead to specific degradation of RNAs that are homologous to the transgene transcribed sequence through phenomena named post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference (RNAi) in animals. It was shown previously that PTGS, quelling, and RNAi require a set of related proteins (SGS2, QDE-1, and EGO-1, respectively). Here we report the isolation of Arabidopsis mutants impaired in PTGS which are affected at the Argonaute1 (AGO1) locus. AGO1 is similar to QDE-2 required for quelling and RDE-1 required for RNAi. Sequencing of ago1 mutants revealed one amino acid essential for PTGS that is also present in QDE-2 and RDE-1 in a highly conserved motif. Taken together, these results confirm the hypothesis that these processes derive from a common ancestral mechanism that controls expression of invading nucleic acid molecules at the post-transcriptional level. As opposed to rde-1 and qde-2 mutants, which are viable, ago1 mutants display several developmental abnormalities, including sterility. These results raise the possibility that PTGS, or at least some of its elements, could participate in the regulation of gene expression during development in plants.

  16. 9 CFR 590.411 - Requirement of formulas and approval of labels for use in official egg products plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... composition) is added to a liquid or frozen egg product or to an ingredient of such products (in excess of the... bulk packaged product. Nutrition labeling is required when nutrients, such as proteins, vitamins, and... consumers in such bulk form or containers. (2) Products containing an added vitamin, mineral, or protein, or...

  17. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia V, M.A.; Hernandez M, I.A.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2004-01-01

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  18. Does a plant for mechanical-biological waste treatment require a sanitary landfill?; Braucht die MBA eine Deponie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Burkart [GVoA mbH und Co. KG, Hille (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In mechanical-biological waste treatment, an interesting recyclable fraction is dumped in landfill together with other treatment residues. This may be 10-20% depending on the energy content of the initial material. Some operators of mechanical-biological waste treatment plants are currently working on modifying their waste treatment processes. Results so far have shown that this may also reduce the cost. (orig.) [German] Bei der bisherigen Abfallentsorgung mittels einer MBA (mechanisch-biologische Abfallbehandlung) wird immer noch ein interessanter Wertstoffanteil mit dem Deponat auf der Deponie abgelagert. Je nach Qualitaet der Vorbehandlung sind dies alleine vom Energieinhalt des Eingangsmaterials ca. 10-20%. Um auch diesen Anteil zu verwerten, sind aktuell einige MBA-Betreiber dabei, ihre Verfahren entsprechend umzustellen. Erste Ergebnisse zeigen, dass dies auch noch zu Kosteneinsparungen fuehren kann. (orig.)

  19. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  20. Capability of Several Plant Species in Absorbing Gas Pollutant (NO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astra Dwi Patra; Nizar Nasrullah; EIsje L Sisworo

    2004-01-01

    Increasing pollutant from vehicles, especially NO 2 , could cause environmental quality degradation. NO 2 is disastrous for human health due to its capability to trigger long diseases. Due to this, it is important to reduce this pollutant, which could be done among others by plants. The objectives of this experiment was to find plants which have the highest capacity to absorb NO 2 and factors affecting this such as, stomata density, chlorophyll, leave thickness, leave specific density, light and dark condition. The plants exposure to NO 2 used 15 N - labelled NO 2 ( 15 NO 2 ). Twelve plant species were exposed to 15 NO 2 at a rate of 3 ppm in a gas chamber for 60 minutes. The environmental conditions in the chamber were controlled at 30 o C, 1000 lux light intensity, and 60% initial relative humidity. The total nitrogen of each plant part was analysed using the Kjeldahl method, while the 15 N content of these parts was done by emission spectrometer (YASCO - N 151). The results of this experiment showed that all the plants used in this experiment has the capacity in absorbing the pollutant gas at dark as well as light conditions. The evident showed that stomata density, leave thickness, and leave specific density affect the absorbing capacity of the pollutant gas. The higher the stomata density, the thinner the leaves, and the lower the leave specific density, the higher the capacity of plants to absorb NO 2 . It is recommended to use these 12 plants as an element of roadside green belt in towns. (author)

  1. Several requirements made on the quality of nuclide-specific gamma radiation measuring rigs with germanium detectors for nuclear power plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    The measuring set-ups are used for nuclide-specific analysis of all samples from nuclear power plants, i.e. solid, liquid, or gaseous. Depending on the nature of the sample, various requirements made by ordinances and guidelines discussed in detail must be met, relating to emission monitoring, environmental monitoring, system monitoring, room air monitoring, and contamination monitoring. The state-of-the-art is shown emphasizing the resolution and the evaluation scheme. Experience gained in the control of such systems is reported on in brief. The quality of in-service inspections is discussed. (orig./PW) [de

  2. Science and Measurement Requirements for a Plant Physiology and Functional Types Mission: Measuring the Composition, Function and Health of Global Land and Coastal Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Rogez, Francois; Green, Rob; Ungar, Steve; Knox, Robert; Asner, Greg; Muller-Karger, Frank; Bissett, Paul; Chekalyuk, Alex; Dierssen, Heidi; hide

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed Plant Physiology and Functional Types (PPFT) Mission. The National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, placed a critical priority on a Mission to observe distribution and changes in ecosystem functions. The PPFT satellite mission provides the essential measurements needed to assess drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystem services that affect human welfare. The presentation reviews the science questions that the mission will be designed to answer, the science rationale, the science measurements, the mission concept, the planned instrumentation, the calibration method, and key signal to noise ratios and uniformity requirements.

  3. New source terms and the implications for emergency planning requirements at nuclear power plants in the United State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.D.; Cheok, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review of current approaches to source term driven changes to NRC emergency planning requirements and addresses significant differences between them. Approaches by IDCOR and EPRI, industry submittals to NRC and alternative risk-based evaluations have been considered. Important issues are discussed, such as the role of Protective Action Guides in determining the radius of the emergency planning zone (EPZ). The significance of current trends towards the prediction of longer warning times and longer durations of release in new source terms is assessed. These trends may help to relax the current notification time requirements. Finally, the implications of apparent support in the regulations for a threshold in warning time beyond which ad hoc protective measures are adequate is discussed

  4. Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators. Results from a Qualitative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Oxstrand, J.H.; Waicosky, T.

    2012-01-01

    Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians. (author)

  5. Federal and state regulatory requirements for the D ampersand D of the Alpha-4 Building, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; Houlberg, L.M.; Bock, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) at the Oak Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, The Alpha-4 Building was used from 1953--1962 to house a column exchange (Colex) process for lithium isotope separation. This process involved electrochemical and solvent extraction processes that required substantial quantities of mercury. Presently there is no law or regulation mandating decommissioning at DOE facilites or setting de minimis or ''below regulatory concern'' (BRC) radioactivity levels to guide decommissioning activities at DOE facilities. However, DOE Order 5820.2A, Chap. V (Decommissioning of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities), requires that the regulatory status of each project be identified and that technical engineering planning must assure D ampersand D compliance with all environmental regulations during cleanup activities. To assist in the performance of this requirement, this paper gives a brief overview of potential federal and state regulatory requirements related to D ampersand D activities at Alpha-4. Compliance with other federal, state, and local regulations not addressed here may be required, depending on site characterization, actual D ampersand D activities, and wastes generated

  6. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues, other multiplant action issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs), Generic Safety Issues(GSIs), and other Multiplant Actions (MPAs) that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. An additional purpose of this NUREG report is to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  7. Improvement of availability of PWR nuclear plants through the reduction of the time required for refueling/maintenance outages, Phase 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.A.

    1978-08-01

    The objective of this project is to identify improvements in procedures and equipment which will reduce the time required for refueling/maintenance outages at PWR nuclear power plants. The outage of Commonwealth Edison Zion Station Unit 1 in March through May of 1976 was evaluated to identify those items which caused delays and those work activities that offer the potential for significant improvements toward reducing its overall duration. Thus, the plant's availability for power production would be increased. Revisions in procedures and some equipment modifications were implemented and evaluated during the Zion Unit 2 refueling/maintenance outage beginning in January 1977. Analysis of the observed data has identified benefits available through improved refueling equipment and also areas where additional new, innovative refueling, or refueling-related equipment should be beneficial. A number of specific design concepts are recommended as a result of Phase 1. In addition, a new master planning mechanism is described for implementation during subsequent planned outages at Zion Station. This final report describes the recommended conceptual designs and planning mechanism and assesses their impact upon future outages. Their effect on savings in refueling time, labor, and radiation exposure is discussed. The estimated economic payoff for these concepts was found to be of such significance that an additional phase of the program is warranted. During this extended phase, a more detailed engineering study should be undertaken to determine the cost of implementation along with more specific estimates of the benefits for PWR plants already in operation or under construction

  8. Type I J-domain NbMIP1 proteins are required for both Tobacco mosaic virus infection and plant innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Du

    Full Text Available Tm-2² is a coiled coil-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat resistance protein that confers durable extreme resistance against Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV by recognizing the viral movement protein (MP. Here we report that the Nicotiana benthamiana J-domain MIP1 proteins (NbMIP1s associate with tobamovirus MP, Tm-2² and SGT1. Silencing of NbMIP1s reduced TMV movement and compromised Tm-2²-mediated resistance against TMV and ToMV. Furthermore, silencing of NbMIP1s reduced the steady-state protein levels of ToMV MP and Tm-2². Moreover, NbMIP1s are required for plant resistance induced by other R genes and the nonhost pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000. In addition, we found that SGT1 associates with Tm-2² and is required for Tm-2²-mediated resistance against TMV. These results suggest that NbMIP1s function as co-chaperones during virus infection and plant immunity.

  9. The Cytoplasmic Carbonic Anhydrases βCA2 and βCA4 Are Required for Optimal Plant Growth at Low CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMario, Robert J; Quebedeaux, Jennifer C; Longstreth, David J; Dassanayake, Maheshi; Hartman, Monica M; Moroney, James V

    2016-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc metalloenzymes that interconvert CO2 and HCO3 (-) In plants, both α- and β-type CAs are present. We hypothesize that cytoplasmic βCAs are required to modulate inorganic carbon forms needed in leaf cells for carbon-requiring reactions such as photosynthesis and amino acid biosynthesis. In this report, we present evidence that βCA2 and βCA4 are the two most abundant cytoplasmic CAs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. Previously, βCA4 was reported to be localized to the plasma membrane, but here, we show that two forms of βCA4 are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and that the two proteins encoded by βCA4 localize to two different regions of the cell. Comparing transfer DNA knockout lines with wild-type plants, there was no reduction in the growth rates of the single mutants, βca2 and βca4 However, the growth rate of the double mutant, βca2βca4, was reduced significantly when grown at 200 μL L(-1) CO2 The reduction in growth of the double mutant was not linked to a reduction in photosynthetic rate. The amino acid content of leaves from the double mutant showed marked reduction in aspartate when compared with the wild type and the single mutants. This suggests the cytoplasmic CAs play an important but not previously appreciated role in amino acid biosynthesis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. A plan for the implementation of assurance requirements in compliance with 40 CFR 191.14 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Assurance Requirements Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Plan addresses the requirements that have been promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard ''Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes; Final Rule'' (The Standard). It should be pointed out that portions of this standard have been vacated and remanded to the EPA by the First Circuit Court (NRDC vs EPA). The reasons for remanding were unrelated to the Assurance Requirement provisions. As a result, it is anticipated that when a new Standard is promulgated, the Assurance Requirements in the current Standard will remain intact. The Second Modification to the Consultation and Cooperation Agreement with the State of New Mexico acknowledges the necessity for continuing ''as though the provisions remain applicable''. The Plan will be revised as necessary in response to any changes in the Standard resulting from the court's decision. The WIPP Project was authorized by Public Law as a defense activity of the US Department of Energy (DOE) with the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes that result from defense activities of the US. The WIPP Project is exempted from regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The mission of the WIPP Project is to conduct research, demonstration, and siting studies relevant to permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. 4 refs

  11. Ecologically justified regulatory provisions for riverine hydroelectric power plants and minimum instream flow requirements in diverted streams; Oekologisch begruendete, dynamische Mindestwasserregelungen bei Ausleitungskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, K.

    1997-12-31

    The study was intended to develop a model versatile enough to permit quantification of various water demand scenarios in connection with operation of riverine hydroelectric power plants. Specific emphasis was to be placed on defining the minimum instream flow to be maintained in river segments because of the elementary significance to flowing water biocinoses. Based on fictitious minimum water requirements, various scenarious were simulated for flow regimes depending on power plant operation, so as to establish a system for comparative analysis and evaluation of resulting economic effects on power plant efficiency on the one hand, and the ecologic effects on the aquatic habitat. The information derived was to serve as a basis for decision-making for regulatory purposes. For this study, the temporal and spatial variability of the flow regime at the river bed in a river segment was examined for the first time. Based on this information, complemented by information obtained from habitat simulations, a method was derived for determination of ecologic requirements and their incorporation into regulatory water management provisions. The field measurements were carried out with the FST hemisphere as a proven and most efficient and reliable method of assessing flow regimes at river beds. Evaluation of the measured instream flow data characterising three morphologically different segments of diverted rivers was done with the CASIMIR computer code. The ASS models derived were used for comparative assessment of existing regulatory provisions and recommended amendments determining required minimum instream flow in diverted rivers. The requirements were defined taking as a basis data obtained for three different years. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Ziel der Arbeit war die Entwicklung eines Modellverfahrens, das flexibel die Quantifizierung unterschiedlicher Nutzansprueche an Laufwasserkraftanlagen ermoeglicht. Insbesondere der Erhalt einer gewissen Dynamik, die fuer

  12. Ecologically justified regulatory provisions for riverine hydroelectric power plants and minimum instream flow requirements in diverted streams; Oekologisch begruendete, dynamische Mindestwasserregelungen bei Ausleitungskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, K

    1998-12-31

    The study was intended to develop a model versatile enough to permit quantification of various water demand scenarios in connection with operation of riverine hydroelectric power plants. Specific emphasis was to be placed on defining the minimum instream flow to be maintained in river segments because of the elementary significance to flowing water biocinoses. Based on fictitious minimum water requirements, various scenarious were simulated for flow regimes depending on power plant operation, so as to establish a system for comparative analysis and evaluation of resulting economic effects on power plant efficiency on the one hand, and the ecologic effects on the aquatic habitat. The information derived was to serve as a basis for decision-making for regulatory purposes. For this study, the temporal and spatial variability of the flow regime at the river bed in a river segment was examined for the first time. Based on this information, complemented by information obtained from habitat simulations, a method was derived for determination of ecologic requirements and their incorporation into regulatory water management provisions. The field measurements were carried out with the FST hemisphere as a proven and most efficient and reliable method of assessing flow regimes at river beds. Evaluation of the measured instream flow data characterising three morphologically different segments of diverted rivers was done with the CASIMIR computer code. The ASS models derived were used for comparative assessment of existing regulatory provisions and recommended amendments determining required minimum instream flow in diverted rivers. The requirements were defined taking as a basis data obtained for three different years. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Ziel der Arbeit war die Entwicklung eines Modellverfahrens, das flexibel die Quantifizierung unterschiedlicher Nutzansprueche an Laufwasserkraftanlagen ermoeglicht. Insbesondere der Erhalt einer gewissen Dynamik, die fuer

  13. Scientific Opinion on a technical file submitted by the US Authorities to support a request to list a new option among the EU import requirements for wood of Agrilus planipennis host plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    This document presents the scientific opinion of the Panel on Plant Health on the technical file submitted by the US Authorities to support a request to list a new option among the EU import requirements for wood of Agrilus planipennis host plants. The option under consideration is a heat treatme...

  14. Phytophthora capsici homologue of the cell cycle regulator SDA1 is required for sporangial morphology, mycelial growth and plant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lv, Rongfei; Li, Zhuang; Ding, Xiaomeng; Tyler, Brett M; Zhang, Xiuguo

    2016-04-01

    SDA1 encodes a highly conserved protein that is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. SDA1 is essential for cell cycle progression and organization of the actin cytoskeleton in yeasts and humans. In this study, we identified a Phytophthora capsici orthologue of yeast SDA1, named PcSDA1. In P. capsici, PcSDA1 is strongly expressed in three asexual developmental states (mycelium, sporangia and germinating cysts), as well as late in infection. Silencing or overexpression of PcSDA1 in P. capsici transformants affected the growth of hyphae and sporangiophores, sporangial development, cyst germination and zoospore release. Phalloidin staining confirmed that PcSDA1 is required for organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and PcSDA1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions revealed that PcSDA1 is involved in the regulation of nuclear distribution in hyphae and sporangia. Both silenced and overexpression transformants showed severely diminished virulence. Thus, our results suggest that PcSDA1 plays a similar role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear division in this filamentous organism as in non-filamentous yeasts and human cells. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation.

  16. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements; unresolved safety issues; generic safety issues; other multiplant action issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. This third annual NUREG report, Supplement 3, presents updated information as of September 30, 1993. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  17. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues, other multiplant action issues. Supplement 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. Supplement 3 gives status as of September 30, 1993. This annual report, Supplement 4, presents updated information as of September 30, 1994. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  18. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ''applicable'' and ''relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed

  19. Rumor has it...: relay communication of stress cues in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Quansah, Lydia; Fait, Aaron; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that plants are able not only to perceive and adaptively respond to external information but also to anticipate forthcoming hazards and stresses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that unstressed plants are able to respond to stress cues emitted from their abiotically-stressed neighbors and in turn induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants located further away from the stressed plants. Pisum sativum plants were subjected to drought while neighboring rows of five unstressed plants on both sides, with which they could exchange different cue combinations. On one side, the stressed plant and its unstressed neighbors did not share their rooting volumes (UNSHARED) and thus were limited to shoot communication. On its other side, the stressed plant shared one of its rooting volumes with its nearest unstressed neighbor and all plants shared their rooting volumes with their immediate neighbors (SHARED), allowing both root and shoot communication. Fifteen minutes following drought induction, significant stomatal closure was observed in both the stressed plants and their nearest unstressed SHARED neighbors, and within one hour, all SHARED neighbors closed their stomata. Stomatal closure was not observed in the UNSHARED neighbors. The results demonstrate that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted by the roots of their drought-stressed neighbors and, via 'relay cuing', elicit stress responses in further unstressed plants. Further work is underway to study the underlying mechanisms of this new mode of plant communication and its possible adaptive implications for the anticipation of forthcoming abiotic stresses by plants.

  20. Responses of seedlings of tropical woody plants to environmental stresses with emphasis on Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena Gomes, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Relative humidity, flooding, temperature, wind, and SO/sub 2/ variously influenced physiological processes and growth of tropical woody plants, with emphasis on three Theobroma cacao varieties and three Hevea brasiliensis families. Stomata were smaller and more numerous in Theobroma than in Hevea. In Theobroma, but not Heavea, stomatal frequency decreased from the leaf base to the apex and from the midrib outward. Stomata of Theobroma cacao var. Catongo opened in high relative humidity (RH) and closed in low RH. The more open stomata in high RH were associated with high rates of photosynthesis, low leaf water potential, high water use efficiency (WUE), and low transpiration rate (TR). Variations in TR and WUE were correlated with changes in vapor pressure deficit. Other responses included stomatal closure, decreased chlorophyll content, leaf epinasty, production of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots, and acceleration of ethylene production. Responses to flooding varied with species, Theobroma varieties and Hevea families. Effects of temperature regimes on growth varied with species, varieties and families, plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Optimal temperatures for dry weight increase of stems or roots of Theobroma cacao var. Comum were 22.2 C; and 33.3 C for dry weight increase or relative growth rates of leaves or seedlings. Optimal temperatures for growth varied for Hevea families. Wind injured leaves of Theobroma cacao, with more injury by wind of 6.0 than 3.0 m s/sup -1/. Stomata were more open on windy than on calm days, but tended to close at high wind speeds. Wind lowered transpiration rate but the reduction was not correlated with leaf dehydration. SO/sub 2/ at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm for 24 h did not injure Theobroma leaves but reduced dry weight increment of leaves of var. Catongo but not Catongo/Sial.

  1. SUV2, which encodes an ATR-related cell cycle checkpoint and putative plant ATRIP, is required for aluminium-dependent root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Caroline A; Larsen, Paul B

    2017-09-01

    A suppressor mutagenesis screen was conducted in order to identify second site mutations that could reverse the extreme hypersensitivity to aluminium (Al) seen for the Arabidopsis mutant, als3-1. From this screen, it was found that a loss-of-function mutation in the previously described SUV2 (SENSITIVE TO UV 2), which encodes a putative plant ATRIP homologue that is a component of the ATR-dependent cell checkpoint response, reversed the als3-1 phenotype. This included prevention of hallmarks associated with als3-1 including Al-dependent terminal differentiation of the root tip and transition to endoreduplication. From this analysis, SUV2 was determined to be required for halting cell cycle progression and triggering loss of the quiescent centre (QC) following exposure to Al. In conjunction with this, SUV2 was found to have a similar role as ATR, ALT2 and SOG1 in Al-dependent stoppage of root growth, all of which are required for promotion of expression of a suite of genes that likely are part of an Al-dependent DNA damage transcriptional response. This work argues that these Al response factors work together to detect Al-dependent damage and subsequently activate a DNA damage response pathway that halts the cell cycle and subsequently promotes QC differentiation and entrance into endocycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Storage on maternal plants affects light and temperature on requirements during germination in two small seeded halophytes in the arabian deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Gairola, S.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds are either stored in a soil seed bank or retained on maternal plants until they are released (aerial seed bank). Though there are extensive studies on the germination requirements of seeds in soil banks of saline habitats, studies conducted for halophytes with aerial seed banks are rare. We assessed the impact of aerial and room-temperature storages on the light and temperature requirements during germination in two small-seeded halophytes: Halocnmum strobilaceum having a short-term aerial seed bank (less than one year) and Halopeplis perfoliata having a longer term aerial seed bank (up to two years). Seed storage in the aerial bank reduced the germination in H. strobilaceum, but either increased it (5-months storage) or had no effect (17-months storage) in H. perfoliata. Seeds of both species that were stored in aerial bank germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness, indicating that considerable portions of the seed populations are light sensitive. Seeds of H. perfoliata attained less than 5.0 percentage germination in darkness at higher temperatures, compared to more than 90.0 percentage in light. The results support the hypothesis that the aerial seed bank is an adaptive strategy for survival in the saline habitats of the two species. (author)

  3. Rice gene SDL/RNRS1, encoding the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, is required for chlorophyll synthesis and plant growth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ran; Zeng, Dongdong; Liang, Rong; Yang, Chengcong; Akhter, Delara; Alamin, Md; Jin, Xiaoli; Shi, Chunhai

    2017-09-05

    A new mutant named sdl (stripe and drooping leaf) was characterized from indica cultivar Zhenong 34 by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis. The mutant sdl exhibited development defects including stripe and drooping leaf, dwarfism and deformed floral organs. The gene SDL was found allelic to RNRS1 by map-based cloning, which was homologous to Arabidopsis TSO2 encoding the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. The gDNA sequencing results of sdl in mutant showed that there was a repetitive sequence insertion of 138-bp at the 475 th bp in the exon. The redundant sequence was conserved in SDL homologous proteins, which contained the active site (tyrosine), as well as two amino acids glutamate and histidine involved in the binding of iron. There were fewer chloroplasts and grana lamellas in sdl leaf compared with those of wild-type. Additionally, the stripe leaves of sdl seedlings were highly sensitive to temperature, since the chlorophyll content was increased with the temperature rising. The drooping leaf of sdl might be resulted from the disappearance of vascular bundles and mesophyll cells in both leaf midrib and lateral veins. Fittingly to the phenotypes of mutant sdl, the expression levels of genes associated with photosynthesis and chlorophyll synthesis were found to be down- or up-regulated at different temperatures in mutant sdl. Also, the transcriptional levels of genes related to plant height and floral organ formation showed obvious differences between wild-type and sdl. The "SDL/RNRS1" was, hence, required for the chlorophyll biosynthesis and also played pleiotropic roles in the regulation of plant development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. TmpL, a transmembrane protein required for intracellular redox homeostasis and virulence in a plant and an animal fungal pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Hyung Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS is critical for developmental differentiation and virulence of many pathogenic fungi. In this report we demonstrate that a novel transmembrane protein, TmpL, is necessary for regulation of intracellular ROS levels and tolerance to external ROS, and is required for infection of plants by the necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola and for infection of mammals by the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In both fungi, tmpL encodes a predicted hybrid membrane protein containing an AMP-binding domain, six putative transmembrane domains, and an experimentally-validated FAD/NAD(P-binding domain. Localization and gene expression analyses in A. brassicicola indicated that TmpL is associated with the Woronin body, a specialized peroxisome, and strongly expressed during conidiation and initial invasive growth in planta. A. brassicicola and A. fumigatus DeltatmpL strains exhibited abnormal conidiogenesis, accelerated aging, enhanced oxidative burst during conidiation, and hypersensitivity to oxidative stress when compared to wild-type or reconstituted strains. Moreover, A. brassicicola DeltatmpL strains, although capable of initial penetration, exhibited dramatically reduced invasive growth on Brassicas and Arabidopsis. Similarly, an A. fumigatus DeltatmpL mutant was dramatically less virulent than the wild-type and reconstituted strains in a murine model of invasive aspergillosis. Constitutive expression of the A. brassicicola yap1 ortholog in an A. brassicicola DeltatmpL strain resulted in high expression levels of genes associated with oxidative stress tolerance. Overexpression of yap1 in the DeltatmpL background complemented the majority of observed developmental phenotypic changes and partially restored virulence on plants. Yap1-GFP fusion strains utilizing the native yap1 promoter exhibited constitutive nuclear localization in the A. brassicicola DeltatmpL background. Collectively, we

  5. The signal peptide-like segment of hpaXm is required for its association to the cell wall in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Miao, Weiguo; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Shujian

    2017-01-01

    Harpins, encoded by hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes of Gram-negative plant pathogens, are elicitors of hypersensitive response (HR). HpaXm is a novel harpin-like protein described from cotton leaf blight bacteria, Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum-a synonym of X. campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith 1901-1978). A putative signal peptide (1-MNSLNTQIGANSSFL-15) of hpaXm was predicted in the nitroxyl-terminal (N-terminal)by SignalP (SignalP 3.0 server). Here, we explored the function of the N-terminal leader peptide like segment of hpaXm using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc.). Transgenic tobacco lines expressing the full-length hpaXm and the signal peptide-like segment-deleted mutant hpaXmΔLP were developed using transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The target genes were confirmed integrated into the tobacco genomes and expressed normally. Using immune colloidal-gold detection technique, hpaXm protein was found to be transferred to the cytoplasm, the cell membrane, and organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nucleus, as well as the cell wall. However, the deletion mutant hpaXmΔLP expressed in transgenic tobacco was found unable to cross the membrane to reach the cell wall. Additionally, soluble proteins extracted from plants transformed with hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were bio-active. Defensive micro-HR induced by the transgene expression of hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were observed on transgenic tobacco leaves. Disease resistance bioassays to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) showed that tobacco plants transformed with hpaXm and with hpaXmΔLP exhibited enhanced resistance to TMV. In summary, the N-terminal signal peptide-like segment (1-45 bp) in hpaXm sequence is not necessary for transgene expression, bioactivity of hpaXm and resistance to TMV in transgenic tobacco, but is required for the protein to be translocated to the cell wall.

  6. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  7. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  8. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Tarafdar, Jagadish C.; Biswas, Pratim

    2013-01-01

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles ( d p watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  9. Survival strategies of plants during water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuermann, R.; Stuhlfauth, T.; Sueltemeyer, D.; Fock, H.

    1989-01-01

    Fluorescence and gas exchange of bean, maize, sunflower and wooly foxglove were simultaneously measured at 250 μmol quanta/m 2 /s. Under severe water stresses conditions about 40% of the photochemical energy was converted to heat at PS II. This is interpreted as a protective mechanism against photoinhibitory damage when net CO 2 uptake is reduced by about 70%. After 14 CO 2 gas exchange, only in bean was a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity over the leaf observed. In all other plants we found a patchy distribution of regions with either an intensive or a reduced gas exchange. We conclude that CO 2 -recycling (photorespiration and reassimilation) behind closed stomata also contributed to energy dissipation under severe stress conditions

  10. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Eaton, L.A.; Martin, J.A.; McDonald, E.P.; Etnier, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1990 (CERCLA) specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) has not at this time been proposed for inclusion on the US Environmental Protection Agency National Priorities List, under Sect. I of an administrative consent order signed by DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency on September 29, 1989, effective October 4, 1989, any necessary response actions at PORTS stipulated in the administrative consent order must be performed in a manner consistent with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and CERCLA. Section 121 of CERCLA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PORTS. A description of the terms ''applicable'' and ''relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARs. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Ohio are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Clean Water Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed

  11. A study for good regulatin of the CANDU's in Korea. Development of safety regulatory requirement for CANDU nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Ki; Shin, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Yu, Y. J.; Lee, Y. J. [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The objective of project is to derive the policy recommendations to improve the efficiency of CANDU plants regulation. These policy recommendations will eventually contribute to the upgrading of Korean nuclear regulatory system and safety enhancement. During the first phase of this 2 years study, following research activities were done. On-site survey and analysis on CANDU plants regulation. Review on CANDU plants regulating experiences and current constraints. Review and analysis on the new Canadian regulatory approach.

  12. Reevaluation of the plant “gemstones”: Calcium oxalate crystals sustain photosynthesis under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G.; Kontoyannis, Christos G.; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I.; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Land plants face the perpetual dilemma of using atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and losing water vapors, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis and thus growth. The reason behind this dilemma is that this simultaneous exchange of gases is accomplished through the same minute pores on leaf surfaces, called stomata. In a recent study we provided evidence that pigweed, an aggressive weed, attenuates this problem exploiting large crystals of calcium oxalate as dynamic carbon pools. This plant is able to photosynthesize even under drought conditions, when stomata are closed and water losses are limited, using carbon dioxide from crystal decomposition instead from the atmosphere. Abscisic acid, an alarm signal that causes stomatal closure seems to be implicated in this function and for this reason we named this path “alarm photosynthesis.” The so-far “enigmatic,” but highly conserved and widespread among plant species calcium oxalate crystals seem to play a crucial role in the survival of plants. PMID:27471886

  13. Effects of oils on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J M

    1970-01-01

    Oils vary in their toxicity according to the content of low-boiling compounds, unsaturated compounds, aromatics, and acids. The higher the concentration of these constituents, the more toxic the oil. After penetrating into a plant, the oil may travel in the intercellular spaces and possibly also in the vascular system. Cell membranes are damaged by penetration of hydrocarbon molecules, leading to leakage of cell contents, and oil may enter the cells. Oils reduce the transpiration rate, probably by blocking the stomata and intercellular spaces. This may also be the reason for the reduction of the photosynthesis which occurs, though there are other possible explanations of this - such as disruption of chloroplast membranes and inhibition caused by accumulation of end-products. The effects of oils on respiration are variable, but an increase of respiration rate often occurs, possibly due to mitochondrial damage resulting in an uncoupling effect. Oils inhibit translocation probably by physical interference. The severity of the above effects depends on the constituents and amount of the oil, on the environmental conditions, and on the species of plant involved. 88 references, 3 tables.

  14. Agronomical and Botanical Characteristics of Cuminum setifolium (Boiss. Kos.-Pol. a Plant with Potentially Medicinal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas SAFARNEJAD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine. Cuminum setifolium ( Boiss. Kos.-Pol. with common name of white cumin, a member of the Apiaceae family, growing wild on mountains was investigated as a species having capability for cultivation and crop breeding. Generally, there is not information about Cuminum setifolium species. The aim of this study was to found plant identification and distribution in Iran, phenology, best treatment for seeds germination, farm cultivation and anatomical description. Cuminum setifolium plant is a annual herb which is distributed in Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tien-Shan and central Asia. In our studied region, the plant is generally grown on calcareous marl soils with climatic conditions of desert cold, semi-arid to arid having hot summer and cold winter. The effects of different treatment on seed germination showed significant highest germination percentage (54.4%, germination rate (6.4% were obtained from seeds that had exposed for 3 weeks at 4�C after omit of seeds hairs. The experiment of cultivation showed the best time for sowing in Mashhad was autumn and growing time was from middle of March until end of June and ripening seeds were end of June at 2005. Microscopic observation of the root structure showed lacking secondary structures and having epidermis tissue with only a row of cells along with relatively thick cuticle and for stem and leaf structure with stomata without any hairs. Parenchyma cells contained 2-3 rows of irregular oblong cells. Stomata type of epidermis was diacytic and distance between stomata was measured 5 ?m in average.

  15. Operating experience and systems analysis at Trillo NPP: A program intended for systematic review of plant safety systems to assess design basis requirements compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, R. de la

    1996-01-01

    The program was defined to apply to all plant safety systems and/or systems included in plant Technical Specifications. The goal of the program was to ensure, by systematic design, construction, and commissioning review, the adequacy of safety systems, structures and components to fulfill their safety functions. Also, as a result of the program, it was established that a complete, unambiguous, systematic, design basis definition shall take place. And finally, a complete documental review of the plant design shall result from the program execution

  16. Requirements for and prospects of further development of training of personnel for start-up, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metke, E.

    1983-01-01

    The results are assessed of the work of training centres and of the training power plant. Since 1979, 1100 persons have undergone training. The planned recruitment quotas have not been fulfilled, the problems being caused by the uneven time distribution of the construction of units of nuclear power plants, the varying quality and number of trainers and tutors; there are problems with simulator training in the USSR. It will be necessary to integrate existing training capacity for all categories of nuclear power plant personnel in one organization unit. (M.D.)

  17. Diverse roles of ERECTA family genes in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Elena D

    2013-12-01

    Multiple receptor-like kinases (RLKs) enable intercellular communication that coordinates growth and development of plant tissues. ERECTA family receptors (ERfs) are an ancient family of leucine-rich repeat RLKs that in Arabidopsis consists of three genes: ERECTA, ERL1, and ERL2. ERfs sense secreted cysteine-rich peptides from the EPF/EPFL family and transmit the signal through a MAP kinase cascade. This review discusses the functions of ERfs in stomata development, in regulation of longitudinal growth of aboveground organs, during reproductive development, and in the shoot apical meristem. In addition the role of ERECTA in plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors is examined. Elena D. Shpak (Corresponding author). © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K; Dahms, Tanya E S; Silva, Roberto N; Singh, Harikesh B; Upadhyay, Ram S; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak S, Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant-fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant-fungal interactions. © FEMS 2015.

  19. Anchorage of equipment - requirements and verification methods with emphasis on equipment of existing and constructed VVER-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1999-01-01

    Criteria and verification methods which are recommended for use in the capacity evaluation of anchorage of safety-related equipment at WWER-type nuclear power plants are presented. Developed in compliance with the relevant basic standards documents specifically for anchorage of WWER-type equipment components, the criteria and methods cover different types of anchor bolts and other anchorage elements which are typical of existing, constructed, or reconstructed WWER-type nuclear power plants

  20. A molecular basis behind heterophylly in an amphibious plant, Ranunculus trichophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhyun; Joo, Youngsung; Kyung, Jinseul; Jeon, Myeongjune; Park, Jong Yoon; Lee, Ho Gyun; Chung, Doo Soo; Lee, Eunju; Lee, Ilha

    2018-02-01

    Ranunculus trichophyllus is an amphibious plant that produces thin and cylindrical leaves if grown under water but thick and broad leaves if grown on land. We found that such heterophylly is widely controlled by two plant hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene, which control terrestrial and aquatic leaf development respectively. Aquatic leaves produced higher levels of ethylene but lower levels of ABA than terrestrial leaves. In aquatic leaves, their distinct traits with narrow shape, lack of stomata, and reduced vessel development were caused by EIN3-mediated overactivation of abaxial genes, RtKANADIs, and accompanying with reductions of STOMAGEN and VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VDN7). In contrast, in terrestrial leaves, ABI3-mediated activation of the adaxial genes, RtHD-ZIPIIIs, and STOMAGEN and VDN7 established leaf polarity, and stomata and vessel developments. Heterophylly of R.trichophyllus could be also induced by external cues such as cold and hypoxia, which is accompanied with the changes in the expression of leaf polarity genes similar to aquatic response. A closely-related land plant R. sceleratus did not show such heterophyllic responses, suggesting that the changes in the ABA/ethylene signaling and leaf polarity are one of key evolutionary steps for aquatic adaptation.

  1. Cumulative input/output balance of a mechanical-biological waste treatment plant. Comparison of construction material requirements, operating energy expenditure, and the requirement of auxiliary materials in comparison with waste combustion; Kumulative Bilanzierung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung - Baumaterialien und betrieblicher Energie- und Hilfsstoffaufwand im Vergleich zur Muellverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, R.; Fricke, K. [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen (Germany); Vogtmann, H. [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Regionalentwicklung und Landwirtschaft, Kassel (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The study strikes a cumulative input/output balance of an existing waste conditioning plant considering not only operating energy demand but also the required construction materials for erecting the plant. In operation since 1996, the waste conditioning plant is entirely state of the art; hence the data obtained are up to date. The results are compared with relevant results for a waste processing plant and evaluated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Untersuchung erfolgt eine kumulative Bilanzierung einer bestehenden MBA-Anlage, wobei neben den betrieblichen Energieaufwendungen auch die Baumaterialien zur Herstellung der Anlage beruecksichtigt werden. Die seit 1996 in Betrieb befindliche Abfallbehandlungsanlage entspricht weitestgehend dem Stand der Technik der MBA, wodurch die Aktualitaet der Daten gegeben ist. Die Ergebnisse der Bilanzierung werden im Vergleich zu einer MVA dargestellt und bewertet. (orig.)

  2. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Requirements for low-cost electricity and hydrogen fuel production from multiunit inertial fusion energy plants with a shared driver and target factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, G.B.; Moir, R.W.; Hoffmman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The economy of scale for multiunit inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants is explored based on the molten salt HYLIFE-II fusion chamber concept, for the purpose of producing lower cost electricity and hydrogen fuel. The cost of electricity (CoE) is minimized with a new IFE systems code IFEFUEL5 for a matrix of plant cases with one to eight fusion chambers of 250 to 2000-MW (electric) net output each, sharing a common heavy-ion driver and target factory. Improvements to previous HYLIFE-II models include a recirculating induction linac driver optimized as a function of driver energy and rep-rate (average driver power), inclusion of beam switchyard costs, a fusion chamber cost scaling dependence on both thermal power and fusion yield, and a more accurate bypass pump power scaling with chamber rep-rate. A CoE less than 3 cents/kW(electric)-h is found for plant outputs greater than 2 GW(electric), allowing hydrogen fuel production by wafer electrolysis to provide lower fuel cost per mile for higher efficiency hydrogen engines compared with gasoline engines. These multiunit, multi-GW(electric) IFE plants allow staged utility plant deployment, lower optimum chamber rep-rates, less sensitivity to driver and target fabrication costs, and a CoE possibly lower than future fission, fossil, and solar competitors. 37 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  4. The Applications to Increase Drought Tolerance of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Yavaş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal drought is a major threat that adversely affects crop growth and metabolism, and limits the yield. Water stress causes many morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in plants. Plant height, root length, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass are reduced under drought stress. Besides, water stress causes the reduction of relative water content, the closure of stomata and decrease in photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, ascorbat peroxidase (ASC, glutatiton (GSH, catalase (CAT enzyme activities, the indicator of oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA and proline levels also changes in drought conditions. Nutrient uptake by plants is prevented or restricted before grain development stage during drought conditions. Therefore the application of plant nutrients followed by micronutrient remobilization within plant is great importance. Osmoprotectants (cytokinin, mannitol, abscisic acid, proline, glycine betaine, polyamine etc. detoxify adverse effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS and alleviate drought stress. Exogenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR application encourage plant growth by colonizing the plant root and increase plants’ resistance to water stress. Besides, the farmers can use conservation tillage system in dry periods.

  5. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  6. Plant γH2AX foci are required for proper DNA DSB repair responses and colocalize with E2F factors

    OpenAIRE

    Smetana, Ondrej; Sanchez-Calderon, Lenin; Lincker, Frédéric; Genestier, Julie; Schmit, Anne-Catherine; Houlné, Guy; Chabouté, Marie Edith

    2012-01-01

    Cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are linked in mammals and yeasts to the phosphorylated histones H2AX (cH2AX) repair foci which are multiproteic nuclear complexes responsible for DSB sensing and signalling. However, neither the components of these foci nor their role are yet known in plants. In this paper, we describe the effects of cH2AX deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana plants challenged with DSBs in terms of genotoxic sensitivity and E2F-mediated transcriptional respo...

  7. Stomatal uptake and stomatal deposition of ozone in isoprene and monoterpene emitting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S; Loreto, F; Kleist, E; Wildt, J

    2008-01-01

    Volatile isoprenoids were reported to protect plants against ozone. To understand whether this could be the result of a direct scavenging of ozone by these molecules, the stomatal and non-stomatal uptake of ozone was estimated in plants emitting isoprene or monoterpenes. Ozone uptake by holm oak (Quercus ilex, a monoterpene emitter) and black poplar (Populus nigra, an isoprene emitter) was studied in whole plant enclosures (continuously stirred tank reactors, CSTR). The ozone uptake by plants was estimated measuring ozone concentration at the inlet and outlet of the reactors, after correcting for the uptake of the enclosure materials. Destruction of ozone at the cuticle or at the plant stems was found to be negligible compared to the ozone uptake through the stomata. For both plant species, a relationship between stomatal conductance and ozone uptake was found. For the poplar, the measured ozone losses were explained by the uptake of ozone through the stomata only, and ozone destruction by gas phase reactions with isoprene was negligible. For the oak, gas phase reactions of ozone with the monoterpenes emitted by the plants contributed significantly to ozone destruction. This was confirmed by two different experiments showing a) that in cases of high stomatal conductance but under low CO(2) concentration, a reduction of monoterpene emission was still associated with reduced O(3) uptake; and b) that ozone losses due to the gas phase reactions only can be measured when using the exhaust from a plant chamber to determine the gas phase reactivity in an empty reaction chamber. Monoterpenes can therefore relevantly scavenge ozone at leaf level contributing to protection against ozone.

  8. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  9. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity assessment strategies, data requirements, and risk assessment approaches to derive health based guidance values for non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Melching-Kollmuss, Stephanie; Kalberlah, Fritz

    2010-03-01

    In Europe, limits for tolerable concentrations of "non-relevant metabolites" for active ingredients (AI) of plant protection products in drinking water between 0.1 and 10 microg/L are discussed depending on the toxicological information available. "Non-relevant metabolites" are degradation products of AIs, which do not or only partially retain the targeted toxicities of AIs. For "non-relevant metabolites" without genotoxicity (to be confirmed by testing in vitro), the application of the concept of "thresholds of toxicological concern" results in a health-based drinking water limit of 4.5 microg/L even for Cramer class III compounds, using the TTC threshold of 90 microg/person/day (divided by 10 and 2). Taking into account the thresholds derived from two reproduction toxicity data bases a drinking water limit of 3.0 microg/L is proposed. Therefore, for "non-relevant metabolites" whose drinking water concentration is below 3.0 microg/L, no toxicity testing is necessary. This work develops a toxicity assessment strategy as a basis to delineate health-based limits for "non-relevant metabolites" in ground and drinking water. Toxicological testing is recommended to investigate, whether the metabolites are relevant or not, based on the hazard properties of the parent AIs, as outlined in the SANCO Guidance document. Also, genotoxicity testing of the water metabolites is clearly recommended. In this publication, tiered testing strategies are proposed for non-relevant metabolites, when drinking water concentrations >3.0 microg/L will occur. Conclusions based on structure-activity relationships and the detailed toxicity database on the parent AI should be included. When testing in animals is required for risk assessment, key aspects are studies along OECD-testing guidelines with "enhanced" study designs addressing additional endpoints such as reproductive toxicity and a developmental screening test to derive health-based tolerable drinking water limits with a limited number

  11. Optimal plant water use across temporal scales: bridging eco-hydrological theories and plant eco-physiological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Palmroth, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through stomata, thus creating an inherent hydrologic constrain to carbon (C) gains and productivity. While such a constraint cannot be overcome, evolution has led to a number of adaptations that allow plants to thrive under highly variable and often limiting water availability. It may be hypothesized that these adaptations are optimal and allow maximum C gain for a given water availability. A corollary hypothesis is that these adaptations manifest themselves as coordination between the leaf photosynthetic machinery and the plant hydraulic system. This coordination leads to functional relations between the mean hydrologic state, plant hydraulic traits, and photosynthetic parameters that can be used as bridge across temporal scales. Here, optimality theories describing the behavior of stomata and plant morphological features in a fluctuating soil moisture environment are proposed. The overarching goal is to explain observed global patterns of plant water use and their ecological and biogeochemical consequences. The problem is initially framed as an optimal control problem of stomatal closure during drought of a given duration, where maximizing the total photosynthesis under limited and diminishing water availability is the objective function. Analytical solutions show that commonly used transpiration models (in which stomatal conductance is assumed to depend on soil moisture) are particular solutions emerging from the optimal control problem. Relations between stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit, and atmospheric CO2 are also obtained without any a priori assumptions under this framework. Second, the temporal scales of the model are expanded by explicitly considering the stochasticity of rainfall. In this context, the optimal control problem becomes a maximization problem for the mean photosynthetic rate. Results show that to achieve maximum C gains under these

  12. The flexibility requirements for power plants with CCS in a future energy system with a large share of intermittent renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. S.; van den Broek, M.; Seebregts, A.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates flexibility issues of future low-carbon power systems. The short-term power system impacts of intermittent renewables are identified and roughly quantified based on a review of wind integration studies. Next, the flexibility parameters of three types of power plants with CO2

  13. Identification of minimal sequences of the Rhopalosiphum padi virus 5' untranslated region required for internal initiation of protein synthesis in mammalian, plant and insect translation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppelli, Elisabetta; Belsham, Graham; Roberts, Lisa O.

    2007-01-01

    Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) is a member of the family Dicistroviridae. The genomes of viruses in this family contain two open reading frames, each preceded by distinct internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements. The RhPV 5' IRES is functional in mammalian, insect and plant translation syste...

  14. Aquatic plants: Test species sensitivity and minimum data requirement evaluations for chemical risk assessments and aquatic life criteria development for the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytotoxicity results from the publicly-available ECOTOX database were summarized for 20 chemicals and 188 aquatic plants to determine species sensitivities and the ability of a species-limited toxicity data set to serve as a surrogate for a larger data set. The lowest effect con...

  15. Simultaneous requirement of carbon dioxide and abscisic acid for stomatal closing in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, K

    1975-01-01

    Open stomata of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. closed only when carbon dioxide and abscisic acid (ABA) were presented simultaneously. Three parameters of stomatal closing were determined after additions of ABA to the irrigation water of detached leaves, while the leaves were exposed to various CO2 concentrations ([CO2]s) in the air; a) the delay between addition of ABA and a reduction of stomatal conductance by 5%, b) the velocity of stomatal closing, and c) the new conductance. Changes in all three parameters showed that stomatal responses to ABA were enhanced by CO2; this effect followed saturation kinetics. Half saturation occurred at an estimated [CO2] in the stomatal pore of 200 μl l(-1). With respect to ABA, stomata responded in normal air with half their maximal amplitude at [ABA]s between 10(-6) and 10(-5) M(+-)-ABA. The amounts of ABA taken up by the leaves during the delay increased with a power strumarium.Based on earlier findings and on the results of this investigation it is suggested that stomata close if the cytoplasm of the guard cells contains much malate and H(+). The acid content in turn is determined by the relative rates of production of malic acid (from endogenous as well as exogenous CO2) and its removal (by transport of the anion into the vacuole and exchange of the H(+) for K(+) with the environment of the guard cells). The simultaneous requirement of CO2 and ABA for stomatal closure leads to the inference that ABA inhibits the expulsion of H(+) from guard cells.

  16. The Nuclear Safety Council's Instruction IS-30 on program requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plants; La instruccion IS-30 del consejo de Seguridad Nuclear sobre requisitos del programa de proteccion contraincendios en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peco, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Councils Instrumentation IS-30 is the standard that establishes the fire protection program requirements for the Spanish nuclear power plants with operating license in order to satisfy the two fire protection objectives, which are the adoption of the defense-in-depth principle for fire protection and, by fire area confinement, to ensure that one train of components needed to achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions is free of fire damage, and that radioactive liberation is minimized. (Author)

  17. Scientific Opinion on a technical file submitted by the Japanese Authorities to support a derogation request from the EU import requirements for bonsai and topiary trees that are host plants of Anoplophora chinensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    Following a request from the EU Commission, the EFSA PLH Panel conducted a scientific opinion on risk analysis and supporting documents provided by APHIS/USDA in support of the request to remove the Union's plant health import requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from...... host is rare. But the withdrawal of the current EU requirement that citrus fruit imported into the EU be sourced from groves where no symptoms of citrus canker have been observed in the field of production and in its immediate vicinity since the beginning of the last cycle of vegetation, will increase...

  18. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  19. Reassessment and suspension of the nuclear power plant design requirement of the constraint of collective dose per unit of practice. (Requirement 6 (b), Standard AR 3.1.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, Valeria A.; Canoba, Analia C.; Curti, Adriana R.; Biaggio, Alfredo L.

    2009-01-01

    By the middle of 2005, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) decided to re-assess the basis of a design requirement applicable to the limitation of nuclear power reactor radioactive discharges. Such requirement, aimed at restricting the discharge of globally dispersed long-lived radionuclides, was in force in Argentina since 1979 and was expressed as a limitation of the collective dose commitment per unit of electrical energy generated. The practical result of such regulatory action was the need to retain C-14 in the Atucha II power reactor under construction as well as in future heavy water reactors to be built in the country, and, later on, to manage it as to assure its isolation from the biosphere during an appropriate period of time. For the above-mentioned reassessment, an ad hoc task group was created and an internal report was presented to the Board of Directors by the middle of 2007. Because of such report the ARN decided to suspend the application of the requirement (i.e. it is not more mandatory, even for Atucha II). The present work presents the main aspects of that report. In particular, it explains the basis of the design requirement and the most important assumptions that triggered it. The differences between the assumptions made at that time and the reality of nuclear power generation at the beginning of the 21st Century, as well as their implications in relation to the requirement are described, including the Suess effect and its impact in the total dose due to C-14. Finally, after explaining in detail the facts that made no longer reasonable to keep in force the above mentioned requirement, the work presents the conclusions that lead the ARN to the suspension of this requirement. (author) [es

  20. Optimal allocation of leaf epidermal area for gas exchange

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Price, Charles A.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C.; Franks, Peter J.; Veneklaas, Erik J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A long?standing research focus in phytology has been to understand how plants allocate leaf epidermal space to stomata in order to achieve an economic balance between the plant's carbon needs and water use. Here, we present a quantitative theoretical framework to predict allometric relationships between morphological stomatal traits in relation to leaf gas exchange and the required allocation of epidermal area to stomata. Our theoretical framework was derived from first principles of ...

  1. Requirements for class 1C, 2C, and 3C pressure-retaining components and supports in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Standard applies to pressure-retaining components of CANDU nuclear power plants that have a code classification of Class 1C, 2C or 3C. These are pressure-retaining components where, because of the design concept, the rules of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code do not exist, are not applicable, or are not sufficient. The Standard provides rules for the design, fabrication, installation, examination and inspection of these components and supports. It provides rules intended to ensure the pressure-retaining integrity of components, not the operability. It also provides rules for the support of fueling machines. The Standard applies only to new construction prior to the plant being declared in service

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Implementation of Chemical Evaluation Requirements for Transuranic Waste Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Alison [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Barkley, Michelle [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Poppiti, James [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes new controls designed to ensure that transuranic waste disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) does not contain incompatible chemicals. These new controls include a Chemical Compatibility Evaluation, an evaluation of oxidizing chemicals, and a waste container assessment to ensure that waste is safe for disposal. These controls are included in the Chapter 18 of the Documented Safety Analysis for WIPP (1).

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Implementation of Chemical Evaluation Requirements for Transuranic Waste Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Alison; Barkley, Michelle; Poppiti, James

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes new controls designed to ensure that transuranic waste disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) does not contain incompatible chemicals. These new controls include a Chemical Compatibility Evaluation, an evaluation of oxidizing chemicals, and a waste container assessment to ensure that waste is safe for disposal. These controls are included in the Chapter 18 of the Documented Safety Analysis for WIPP (1).

  4. Anatomical indications of fume resistance in certain woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninova, D.

    1970-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe studies on seven species of fruit and forest trees close to or far from a Bulgarian factory emitting fumes containing S. The most resistant species (Quercus borealis, Gleditsia triacanthos, Morus alba) had the smallest stomata and the greatest number of stomata per unit leaf area. Changes observed in leaf anatomy as a result of exposure to the fumes were: decreased leaf aeration, elongated palisade cells, thicker cuticles, and more stomata.

  5. 'Present nuclear emergency responses in India: tracing requirements and guidelines suggested after Fukushima accident in regards to public and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawale, Priyanka M.

    2014-01-01

    In this poster the primary initiative is to educate the public at large and instill confidence about the present Emergency Response Systems of DAE and the imminent agencies in India. Poster attempts to analyse present regulatory and safety systems, mechanisms like plant and site emergency response plans are in place to handle radiation emergencies and how public will not be affected in any manner. In India also we needed some supplementary provisions to cope up with major disasters in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) apart from the existing one. Some of the NPPs are not under the UN safeguards, which can not import Uranium also need extra care and protection. Regulatory and safety functions of Atomic Energy in India are carried out by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (Atomic Energy Regulatory Board), the poster attempts to explain the present regulatory and safety mechanism under Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. We have the plant and site emergency response plans in place. The well planned functioning of these is demonstrated here. India is equipped with detail plans of emergency response system, to handle the radiation emergencies in public domain even at the locations where DAE facility is not available

  6. The photosynthetic response of tobacco plants overexpressing ice plant aquaporin McMIPB to a soil water deficit and high vapor pressure deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Miki; Hanba, Yuko T; Katsuhara, Maki

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the photosynthetic capacity and plant growth of tobacco plants overexpressing ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) aquaporin McMIPB under (1) a well-watered growth condition, (2) a well-watered and temporal higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD) condition, and (3) a soil water deficit growth condition to investigate the effect of McMIPB on photosynthetic responses under moderate soil and atmospheric humidity and water deficit conditions. Transgenic plants showed a significantly higher photosynthesis rate (by 48 %), higher mesophyll conductance (by 52 %), and enhanced growth under the well-watered growth condition than those of control plants. Decreases in the photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance from ambient to higher VPD were slightly higher in transgenic plants than those in control plants. When plants were grown under the soil water deficit condition, decreases in the photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance were less significant in transgenic plants than those in control plants. McMIPB is likely to work as a CO2 transporter, as well as control the regulation of stomata to water deficits.

  7. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants...... to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall...

  8. Requirements to be made on the methodology of staff training on a nuclear power plant simulator of the new Konvoi generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, S.J.; Reinartz, G.

    1984-01-01

    This report is based on a review of the literature published on simulator training and on discussions with representatives from the German nuclear power plant operator training schools. A brief description of the organisation and content of the simulator training of control room operators in a number of countries, together with a catagorisation of the various types of simulators which are used. The concepts of the systems approach to training and simulator fidelity are discussed. Some general training principles which are considered important for simulator training are summarised. From the available descriptions and analyses of control room operator tasks, the skills (in most general terms) which can be trained at simulators have been identified. Methods for training these skills which are used in the simulator training programmes in various industries and which have been developed in research work in the area of training psychology have been summarised. Using these methods as a basis, the necessary instructor facilities which should be included in the design of a full simulator for the Konvoi generation of nuclear power plants have been derived. (orig.) [de

  9. Bug22p, a Conserved Centrosomal/Ciliary Protein Also Present in Higher Plants, Is Required for an Effective Ciliary Stroke in Paramecium ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C.; Klotz, C.; Garreau de Loubresse, N.; Lemullois, M.; Hori, M.; Laurent, F. X.; Papon, J. F.; Louis, B.; Cohen, J.; Koll, F.

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate. PMID:20118210

  10. Bug22p, a conserved centrosomal/ciliary protein also present in higher plants, is required for an effective ciliary stroke in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C; Klotz, C; de Loubresse, N Garreau; Lemullois, M; Hori, M; Laurent, F X; Papon, J F; Louis, B; Cohen, J; Koll, F

    2010-04-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate.

  11. Proposals for a revision and amendment of the 'Guide for the examination of control room personnel of nuclear power plants, technical and expert knowledge required'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Kersting, E.; Meissner, R.; Mester, W.; Richter, H.; Weber, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    a) Proposals are presented for amending the Guide in section 5 and 6 (Table I and II) and in the Annex (Examples of problems and answers), relating to three special subjects, namely: Thermohydraulics; Methods and procedures of analyzing the current operational state of a plant in case of incidents, malfunction failure indication; Plant operational performance and behaviour in cases exceeding design limits (especially analysis and counter-measures in case of reactor core damage, general behaviour in critical situations). b) Revision of all examples of problems to be put in examinations, and of the answers, as given in the Annex. Revision with regard to correctness and balanced distribution of difficulty of problems to be put in the various subject fields, and with regard to correctness of answers. This revision shall include an examination of the problems for their suitability to show the candidate's efficiency in diagnosis, prognosis and appropriate action. c) Proposals for amending and improving the Guide, resulting from an evaluation of the results and the experience gained in previous examinations. (orig.) [de

  12. Uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by plants: removal of volatile indoor air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprapat, Wararat; Suksabye, Parinda; Areephak, Sirintip; Klantup, Polawat; Waraha, Atcharaphan; Sawattan, Anuchit; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2014-04-01

    Air borne uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by twelve plant species was examined. Of the twelve plant species examined, the highest toluene removal was found in Sansevieria trifasciata, while the ethylbenzene removal from air was with Chlorophytum comosum. Toluene and ethylbenzene can penetrate the plant׳s cuticle. However, the removal rates do not appear to be correlated with numbers of stomata per plant. It was found that wax of S. trifasciata and Sansevieria hyacinthoides had greater absorption of toluene and ethylbenzene, and it contained high hexadecanoic acid. Hexadecanoic acid might be involved in toluene and ethylbenzene adsorption by cuticles wax of plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis or the potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in toluene exposed plants showed no significant differences between the control and the treated plants, whereas plants exposed to ethylbenzene showed significant differences or those parameters, specifically in Dracaena deremensis (Lemon lime), Dracaena sanderiana, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Cordyline fruticosa. The Fv/Fm ratio can give insight into the ability of plants to tolerate (indoor) air pollution by volatile organic chemicals (VOC). This index can be used for identification of suitable plants for treating/sequestering VOCs in contaminated air. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Guidelines to implement the license renewal technical requirements of 10CFR54 for integrated plant assessments and time-limited aging analyses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, G.; Philpot, L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the initial results of the Nuclear Energy Institute License Renewal Implementation Guideline Task Force over the period August 1994 to July 1995 to develop guidance for complying with technical requirements of 10CFR54. The report also provided a starting point for the development of NEI 95-10, ''Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10CCR54-The License Renewal Rule''. Information in this document can be used by utilities to prepare the technical material needed in an application for license renewal (LR) of a nuclear power unit. This guideline provides methods for identifying systems, structures, and components (SSCs) and their intended functions within the scope of license renewal. It identifies structures and components (SCs) requiring aging management review and methods for performing the aging management review. The guideline provides a process for identifying and evaluating time-limited aging analyses

  14. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  15. Plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    A simulator of a reactor plant of the present invention comprises a plurality of distributed computers, an indication processing section and an operation section. The simulation calculation functions of various kinds of plant models in the plant are shared by the plurality of computers. The indication processing section controls collection of data of the plant simulated by the computers and instructions of an operator. The operation section is operated by the operator and the results of operation are transmitted to the indication processing section, to conduct operation trainings and display the results of the simulation. Each of the computers and the indication processing portion are connected with each other by a network having a memory for common use. Data such as the results of calculation of plant models and various kinds of parameters of the plant required commonly to the calculators and the indication processing section are stored in the common memory, and adapted to be used by way of the network. (N.H.)

  16. Motor-operated valve test/trending program to satisfy the requirements of I and E bulletin 85-03, motor-operated valve common mode failures during plant transients due to improper switch settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sculthorpe, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the test program undertaken at Florida Power and Light Company's St. Lucie nuclear Units No. 1 and No. 2, to address the concerns raised by I and E Bulletin 85-03. The results required a comprehensive program, involving all aspects of plant operations, maintenance, engineering, procurement, training, planning and scheduling, equipment modification, vendor interface, and data analysis. Many obstacles were encountered and numerous problems solved as this program was taken from the development and planning stage, to the implementation phase

  17. CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement analysis of power plant using modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.J.; Zhao, C.S.; Chen, H.C.; Ren, Q.Q.; Duan, L.B. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2011-03-15

    This paper examines the average carbonation conversion, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture system during the modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle. The limestone modified with acetic acid solution, i.e. calcium acetate is taken as an example of the modified calcium-based sorbents. The modified limestone exhibits much higher average carbonation conversion than the natural sorbent under the same condition. The CO{sub 2} capture efficiency increases with the sorbent flow ratios. Compared with the natural limestone, much less makeup mass flow of the recycled and the fresh sorbent is needed for the system when using the modified limestone at the same CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. Achieving 0.95 of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency without sulfation, 272 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} is required in the calciner for the natural limestone, whereas only 223 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} for the modified sorbent. The modified limestone possesses greater advantages in CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy consumption than the natural sorbent. When the sulfation and carbonation of the sorbents take place simultaneously, more energy is required. It is significantly necessary to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas before it enters the carbonator in order to reduce energy consumption in the calciner.

  18. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  19. Monitoring of organic loads at waste water treatment plant with due consideration of factual necessity, technical feasibility and statutory requirements; Erfassung der organischen Belastung bei Abwasserreinigungsanlagen unter Beachtung der fachlichen Notwendigkeit, der technischen Moeglichkeiten und der gesetzlichen Auflagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    Between the statutory requirement and factual necessity for monitoring organic loads in waste water discharged to municipal and industrial waste water treatment plant and effluents from these there are substantial discrepancies. The paper points out the different approaches and gives recommendations on how to proceed in the future. At plant with stable nitrification, self and external monitoring for BOD{sub 5} can be distinctly reduced without fear of impaired process transparency or water quality. Monitoring organic loads online is little expedient technically, especially where effluent from municipal sewage treatment plants is concerned. But in the industrial sector there exist the most diverse applications with a view to carbon elimination. (orig.) [German] Zwischen den gesetzlichen Anforderungen und der fachlichen Notwendigkeit bei der Erfassung der organischen Belastung im Zu- und Ablauf von kommunalen und industriellen Klaeranlagen bestehen erhebliche Diskrepanzen. In diesem Beitrag werden die unterschiedlichen Ansaetze aufgezeigt und Empfehlungen fuer die zukuenftige Vorgehensweise gegeben. Bei Anlagen mit stabiler Nitrifikation ist die Selbst- wie Fremdueberwachung bezueglich BSB{sub 5} deutlich zu reduzieren, ohne dass Einbussen fuer Prozesstransparenz und Gewaesserqualitaet zu erwarten sind. Die online-Ueberwachung der organischen Belastung ist insbesondere bei Ablaeufen in kommunalen Klaeranlagen fachlich wenig sinnvoll, im Bereich der industriellen Abwasserreinigung ergeben sich dafuer bei dem Reinigungsziel der Kohlenstoffelimination dagegen verschiedenste Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  20. Historical development of the seismic requirements for construction of nuclear power plants in the U.S. and worldwide and their current impact on cost and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The following topics are described and discussed: Historical development of NPP seismic design requirements: Peak ground acceleration; Response spectra and damping; Floor or amplified response spectra; Effective high frequency response spectra; Seismic modeling procedures; Impact on cost (site preparation and foundations; site seismic response and generation of site dependent spectra). Potential use of indirect earthquake experience data in design and construction of NPP. Seismic contribution to safety. The following facts are summarized in two Appendices: Seismic intensity scales, and GRS safety codes and guides. (P.A.)