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Sample records for plant stomata requires

  1. [Coordination effect between vapor water loss through plant stomata and liquid water supply in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC): a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Min; Qi, Hua; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhang, Xuan

    2008-09-01

    Some important phenomena and behaviors concerned with the coordination effect between vapor water loss through plant stomata and liquid water supply in SPAC were discussed in this paper. A large amount of research results showed that plants show isohydric behavior when the plant hydraulic and chemical signals cooperate to promote the stomatal regulation of leaf water potential. The feedback response of stomata to the change of environmental humidity could be used to explain the midday depression of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis under drought condition, and also, to interpret the correlation between stomatal conductance and hydraulic conductance. The feed-forward response of stomata to the change of environmental humidity could be used to explain the hysteresis response of stomatal conductance to leaf-atmosphere vapor pressure deficit. The strategy for getting the most of xylem transport requires the rapid stomatal responses to avoid excess cavitation and the corresponding mechanisms for reversal of cavitation in short time.

  2. Closing plant stomata requires a homolog of an aluminum-activated malate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Mori, Izumi C; Furuichi, Takuya; Munemasa, Shintaro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-03-01

    Plant stomata limit both carbon dioxide uptake and water loss; hence, stomatal aperture is carefully set as the environment fluctuates. Aperture area is known to be regulated in part by ion transport, but few of the transporters have been characterized. Here we report that AtALMT12 (At4g17970), a homolog of the aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) of wheat, is expressed in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss-of-function mutations in AtALMT12 impair stomatal closure induced by ABA, calcium and darkness, but do not abolish either the rapidly activated or the slowly activated anion currents previously identified as being important for stomatal closure. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, AtALMT12 facilitates chloride and nitrate currents, but not those of organic solutes. Therefore, we conclude that AtALMT12 is a novel class of anion transporter involved in stomatal closure.

  3. Stomata of the CAM plant Tillandsia recurvata respond directly to humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, O L; Medina, E

    1979-01-01

    Under controlled conditions, CO 2 exchange of Tillandsia recurvata showed all characteristics of CAM. During the phase of nocturnal CO 2 fixation stomata of the plant responded sensitively to changes in ambient air humidity. Dry air resulted in an increase, moist air in a decrease of diffusion resistance. The evaporative demand of the air affected the level of stomatal resistance during the entire night period. Due to stomatal closure, the total nocturnal water loss of T. recurvata was less at low than at high humidity. It is concluded that stomata respond directly to humidity and not via bulk tissue water conditions of the leaves. Such control of transpiration may optimize water use efficiency for this almost rootless, extreme epiphyte.

  4. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss). Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d) and size (s), and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ⋅d), exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle.

  5. Stomata: key players in the earth system, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Joseph A; Beerling, David J; Franks, Peter J

    2010-06-01

    Stomata have played a key role in the Earth System for at least 400 million years. By enabling plants to control the rate of evaporation from their photosynthetic organs, stomata helped to set in motion non-linear processes that led to an acceleration of the hydrologic cycle over the continents and an expansion of climate zones favorable for plant life. Global scale modeling of land-atmosphere interactions provides a way to explore parallels between the influence of vegetation on climate over time, and the influence of spatial and temporal variation in the activities of vegetation in the current Earth System on climate and weather. We use the logic in models that simulate land-atmosphere interactions to illustrate the central role played by stomatal conductance in the Earth System. In the modeling context, most of the activities of plants and their manifold interactions with their genomes and with the environment are communicated to the atmosphere through a single property: the aperture or conductance of their stomata. We tend to think of the controls on vegetation responses in the real world as being distributed among factors such as seasonal patterns of growth, the changing availability of soil water, or changes in light intensity and leaf water potential over a day. However, the impact of these controls on crucial exchanges of energy and water vapor with the atmosphere are also largely mediated by stomata. The decisions 'made by' stomata emerge as an important and inadequately understood component of these models. At the present time we lack effective ways to link advances in the biology of stomata to this decision making process. While not unusual, this failure to connect between disciplines, introduces uncertainty in modeling studies being used to predict weather and climate change and ultimately to inform policy decisions. This problem is also an opportunity.

  6. How does the nectar of stomata-free nectaries cross the cuticle?

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    Elder Antônio Sousa Paiva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In many glandular structures, departure from the cell is only one step in the process of exudate release to the plant surface. Here the set of events that lead nectar to the external environment is presented and discussed mainly for stomata-free nectaries. After being synthesized, the nectar or some of its component needs to be released to the environment where it performs its functions. Nectar precursors derived from cell metabolism need to cross several barriers, such as the cell membrane and cell wall, in order to become nectar. Then the nectar must cross the cuticle or pass through stomata in order to be offered to plant mutualists. Release through stomata is a simple mechanism, but the ways by which nectar crosses the cuticle is still controversial. Hydrophilic pathways in the cuticle and repetitive cycles of rupture or cuticle detachment are the main routes for nectar release in stomata-free nectaries. In addition to nectar, there are other exogenous secretions that must leave the protoplast and reach the plant surface to perform their function. The ways by which nectar is released discussed herein are likely relevant to understanding the release of other hydrophilic products of the secretory process of plants.

  7. Microscope image based fully automated stomata detection and pore measurement method for grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Jayakody

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomatal behavior in grapevines has been identified as a good indicator of the water stress level and overall health of the plant. Microscope images are often used to analyze stomatal behavior in plants. However, most of the current approaches involve manual measurement of stomatal features. The main aim of this research is to develop a fully automated stomata detection and pore measurement method for grapevines, taking microscope images as the input. The proposed approach, which employs machine learning and image processing techniques, can outperform available manual and semi-automatic methods used to identify and estimate stomatal morphological features. Results First, a cascade object detection learning algorithm is developed to correctly identify multiple stomata in a large microscopic image. Once the regions of interest which contain stomata are identified and extracted, a combination of image processing techniques are applied to estimate the pore dimensions of the stomata. The stomata detection approach was compared with an existing fully automated template matching technique and a semi-automatic maximum stable extremal regions approach, with the proposed method clearly surpassing the performance of the existing techniques with a precision of 91.68% and an F1-score of 0.85. Next, the morphological features of the detected stomata were measured. Contrary to existing approaches, the proposed image segmentation and skeletonization method allows us to estimate the pore dimensions even in cases where the stomatal pore boundary is only partially visible in the microscope image. A test conducted using 1267 images of stomata showed that the segmentation and skeletonization approach was able to correctly identify the stoma opening 86.27% of the time. Further comparisons made with manually traced stoma openings indicated that the proposed method is able to estimate stomata morphological features with accuracies of 89.03% for area

  8. Co-ordination of physiological and morphological responses of stomata to elevated [CO2] in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Matthew; Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    Plant stomata display a wide range of short-term behavioural and long-term morphological responses to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]). The diversity of responses suggests that plants may have different strategies for controlling gas exchange, yet it is not known whether these strategies are co-ordinated in some way. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is co-ordination of physiological (via aperture change) and morphological (via stomatal density change) control of gas exchange by plants. We examined the response of stomatal conductance (G(s)) to instantaneous changes in external [CO(2)] (C(a)) in an evolutionary cross-section of vascular plants grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)] (1,500 ppm) and sub-ambient [O(2)] (13.0 %) compared to control conditions (380 ppm CO(2), 20.9 % O(2)). We found that active control of stomatal aperture to [CO(2)] above current ambient levels was not restricted to angiosperms, occurring in the gymnosperms Lepidozamia peroffskyana and Nageia nagi. The angiosperm species analysed appeared to possess a greater respiratory demand for stomatal movement than gymnosperm species displaying active stomatal control. Those species with little or no control of stomatal aperture (termed passive) to C(a) were more likely to exhibit a reduction in stomatal density than species with active stomatal control when grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)]. The relationship between the degree of stomatal aperture control to C(a) above ambient and the extent of any reduction in stomatal density may suggest the co-ordination of physiological and morphological responses of stomata to [CO(2)] in the optimisation of water use efficiency. This trade-off between stomatal control strategies may have developed due to selective pressures exerted by the costs associated with passive and active stomatal control.

  9. MAPK phosphatase AP2C3 induces ectopic proliferation of epidermal cells leading to stomata development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Umbrasaite

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells.

  10. Density, size and distribution of stomata in 35 rainforest trees species in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo; Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2011-01-01

    Stomata are turgor-operated valves that control water loss and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis, and thereby water relation and plant biomass accumulation is closely related to stomatal functioning. The aims of this work were to document how stomata are distributed on the leaf surface and to determine if there is any significant variation in stomatal characteristics among Amazonian tree species, and finally to study the relationship between stomatal density (S D) and tree height. Thirty five ...

  11. Density, size and distribution of stomata in 35 rainforest tree species in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Miguel Angelo Branco; Marenco, Ricardo Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Stomata are turgor-operated valves that control water loss and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis, and thereby water relation and plant biomass accumulation is closely related to stomatal functioning. The aims of this work were to document how stomata are distributed on the leaf surface and to determine if there is any significant variation in stomatal characteristics among Amazonian tree species, and finally to study the relationship between stomatal density (S D) and tree height. Thirty five ...

  12. AKUMULASI TIMBAL (PB DAN STRUKTUR STOMATA DAUN PURING (CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM LAM. BLUME

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    Susi Sulistiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman mempunyai kemampuan untuk mengatasi atau mengeliminir pencemaran udara yang terjadi di kota, salah satunya adalah tanaman puring. Stomata adalah salah satu organ tumbuhan yang digunakan untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungannya. Fungsi utama stomata adalah sebagai tempat pertukaran gas, seperti CO2 yang diperlukan oleh tumbuhan dalam proses fotosintesis. Namun, stomata juga bertindak sebagai salah satu jalur masuknya polutan khususnya polutan yang berasal dari udara. Untuk mempertegas pengaruh akumulasi timbal terhadap daun tanaman puring secara morfologi yang telah dilakukan oleh Sulistiana dan Setijorini tahun 2014, perlu dilakukan penelitian lanjutan dengan melakukan pengamatan anatomi daun terutama struktur stomata daun tanaman puring. Penelitian bertujuan membandingkan struktur stomata antar kultivar puring dan membuktikan adanya hubungan antara akumulasi timbal (Pb dengan struktur stomata daun dari beberapa kultivar puring. Bahan penelitian yang digunakan adalah daun segar dari 13 kultivar tanaman puring yang ditanam di Perumahan Batan Indah, Kecamatan Kademangan, Tangerang Selatan. Pengamatan struktur stomata daun dilakukan dengan cara pembuatan preparat paradermal Parameter yang diamati dalam penelitian meliputi jumlah stomata, jumlah sel epidermis, panjang stomata, lebar stomata, indeks stomata, dan kerapatan stomata. Hasil yang diperoleh adanya korelasi positif antara kadar Pb dan struktur stomata daun kultivar puring melalui parameter-paramater yang diamati terutama jumlah stomata, lebar stomata, indeks stomata, dan kerapatan stomata.

  13. Size and Density of Artemisia annua Stomata Soaked in Water Extract of Gloriosa superba Seeds

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    Sri Indah Rahmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herbaceous plant that produces artemisinin as a malaria drug, haemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial. Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains high colchicine compounds, especially on the seeds. Gloriosa superba extracts of tubers, stems, seeds, and leaves were used as biomutagen for many plants. Colchicine contains of these plants as antimitotic have been studied and proven by the mitotic index plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds was used as a mutagen for Artemisia annua. The aim of this study was to determine the size and density of Artemisia annua stomata soaked in water extract of Gloriosa superba seeds as a mutagen. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained naturally on Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul by using a maceration method with water solvent (1:1. Artemisia annua sprouts were obtained from B2P2TOOT Tawangmangu. Variables treatment on sprouts using water extract concentration of Gloriosa superba seeds and soaking time of Artemisia annua sprouts. Measurements of stomatal length, width and density were conducted in epidermis of Artemisia annua leaf. Observation and measurements of the stomata were conducted by using a light microscope. The results showed that the length and width of stomata were 0.025 mm and 0.017 mm respectively. The stomatal density of the control leaf (174.69 amount/mm2 was lower than the other treated plants. Stomatal size and density has increased with the increasing concentration extracts on treated plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds proved the effects on stomatal size and density of treated plants.  

  14. Effects of stomata clustering on leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-09-01

    A general theoretical framework for quantifying the stomatal clustering effects on leaf gaseous diffusive conductance was developed and tested. The theory accounts for stomatal spacing and interactions among 'gaseous concentration shells'. The theory was tested using the unique measurements of Dow et al. (2014) that have shown lower leaf diffusive conductance for a genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana with clustered stomata relative to uniformly distributed stomata of similar size and density. The model accounts for gaseous diffusion: through stomatal pores; via concentration shells forming at pore apertures that vary with stomata spacing and are thus altered by clustering; and across the adjacent air boundary layer. Analytical approximations were derived and validated using a numerical model for 3D diffusion equation. Stomata clustering increases the interactions among concentration shells resulting in larger diffusive resistance that may reduce fluxes by 5-15%. A similar reduction in conductance was found for clusters formed by networks of veins. The study resolves ambiguities found in the literature concerning stomata end-corrections and stomatal shape, and provides a new stomata density threshold for diffusive interactions of overlapping vapor shells. The predicted reduction in gaseous exchange due to clustering, suggests that guard cell function is impaired, limiting stomatal aperture opening. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

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    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  16. Cross-scale modelling of transpiration from stomata via the leaf boundary layer

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    Defraeye, Thijs; Derome, Dominique; Verboven, Pieter; Carmeliet, Jan; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf transpiration is a key parameter for understanding land surface–climate interactions, plant stress and plant structure–function relationships. Transpiration takes place at the microscale level, namely via stomata that are distributed discretely over the leaf surface with a very low surface coverage (approx. 0·2–5 %). The present study aims to shed more light on the dependency of the leaf boundary-layer conductance (BLC) on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Methods An innovative three-dimensional cross-scale modelling approach was applied to investigate convective mass transport from leaves, using computational fluid dynamics. The gap between stomatal and leaf scale was bridged by including all these scales in the same computational model (10−5–10−1 m), which implies explicitly modelling individual stomata. Key Results BLC was strongly dependent on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Leaf BLC at low surface coverage ratios (CR), typical for stomata, was still relatively high, compared with BLC of a fully wet leaf (hypothetical CR of 100 %). Nevertheless, these conventional BLCs (CR of 100 %), as obtained from experiments or simulations on leaf models, were found to overpredict the convective exchange. In addition, small variations in stomatal CR were found to result in large variations in BLCs. Furthermore, stomata of a certain size exhibited a higher mass transfer rate at lower CRs. Conclusions The proposed cross-scale modelling approach allows us to increase our understanding of transpiration at the sub-leaf level as well as the boundary-layer microclimate in a way currently not feasible experimentally. The influence of stomatal size, aperture and surface density, and also flow-field parameters can be studied using the model, and prospects for further improvement of the model are presented. An important conclusion of the study is that existing measures of conductances (e.g. from artificial leaves) can be

  17. Smaller stomata require less severe leaf drying to close: A case study in Rosa hydrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Fanourakis, D.

    2013-01-01

    Stomata formed at high relative air humidity (RH) close less as leaf dries; an effect that varies depending on the genotype. We here quantified the contribution of each stomatal response characteristic to the higher water loss of high RH-grown plants, and assessed the relationship between response...... characteristics and intraspecific variation in stomatal size. Stomatal size (length multiplied by width), density and responsiveness to desiccation, as well as pore dimensions were analyzed in ten rose cultivars grown at moderate (60%) or high (85%) RH. Leaf morphological components and transpiration at growth...... conditions were also assessed. High growth RH resulted in thinner (11%) leaves with larger area. A strong positive genetic correlation of daytime and nighttime transpiration at either RH was observed. Stomatal size determined pore area (r = 0.7) and varied by a factor of two, as a result of proportional...

  18. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  19. Development of immature stomata: evidence for epigenetic selection of a spacing pattern.

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    Kagan, M L; Sachs, T

    1991-07-01

    In Sansevieria trifasciata as many as half the potential stomata remain immature. The development of all stomatal structures started at the same time and the early stages of the development of immature stomata had no special characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that the mature stomata were more evenly spaced than all potential stomata, both mature and immature. Furthermore, the distribution of mature stomata per unit area was more predictable or orderly than comparable structures of a random model that developed in the same way. These facts indicate that a nonrandom loss of many stomata by "immaturity" is a major determinant, acting during rather than preceding development, of the distribution of the mature, functional stomata. Thus in Sansevieria there is a selection of an epidermal pattern from an excess of cells that undergo the early stages of stomatal development.

  20. Pengaruh Stomata dan Klorofil pada Ketahanan Beberapa Varietas Jagung terhadap Penyakit Bulai

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    Christine Agustamia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistant varieties are more advisable for controlling maize downy mildew compared with fungicides which is not effective and not environmentally friendly. This study is aimed to determine resistance of some varieties of maize against downy mildew. The maize varieties used were BS 0114, BS 0214, BS 0314, PAC 105, Sweet Corn and BISI 2. The parameters measured were disease incidence and intensity, chlorophyll content of leaves, stomatal density and plants dry weight. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The results indicated that PAC 105, BS 0214 and BS 0314 were resistant varieties, while BS 0114, Sweet Corn and BISI 2 were susceptible. PAC 105 variety has the lowest stomatal density (65.353/mm2, and Sweet Corn variety has the highest stomatal density (110.79/mm2. Stomatal density was positively correlated with the disease intensity. Higher disease intensity has lower chlorophyll content compared with the lower intensity. PAC 105 variety has the highest chlorophyll content and plant dry weight, while Sweet Corn variety has the lowest chlorophyll content and plant dry weight.   INTISARI   Penggunaan varietas tahan bulai lebih dianjurkan digunakan dalam pengendalian penyakit bulai pada jagung dibandingkan dengan penggunaan fungisida karena tidak efektif dan tidak ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ketahanan beberapa varietas jagung terhadap penyakit bulai. Varietas yang digunakan meliputi BS 0114, BS 0214, BS 0314, PAC 105, jagung manis, dan BISI 2. Parameter yang diamati adalah insidensi dan intensitas penyakit, kandungan klorofil setelah inokulasi, kerapatan stomata dan berat kering tanaman. Data yang diperoleh diuji dengan analisis varians (ANOVA dan uji lanjut dengan Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Hasil penelitian rumah kaca menunjukkan bahwa varietas PAC 105, BS 0214 dan BS 0314 merupakan varietas tahan, sedangkan varietas BS 0114, jagung manis dan

  1. Effects of salinity stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata size of grafted and ungrafted galia c8 melon cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarsi, G.; Sivaci, A.; Dasgan, H.Y.; Altuntas, O.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is known as the most important abiotic stress that decreases crop production and plant growth, and changes the anatomy and morphology of plants. In this study, the growth rate of grafted and ungrafted melon plants were studied under salinity stress. Maximus F1, Shintoza F-90 F1 and Nun 9075 F1 (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) were used as a rootstock and Galia C8 melon cultivar was used as a scion. In this study, the stomata size and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were investigated. According to the results, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata length and width of upper and lower surface of leaf were generally reduced under salinity stress. (author)

  2. Compound Synthesis or Growth and Development of Roots/Stomata Regulate Plant Drought Tolerance or Water Use Efficiency/Water Uptake Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lai-Sheng

    2018-04-11

    Water is crucial to plant growth and development because it serves as a medium for all cellular functions. Thus, the improvement of plant drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency is important in modern agriculture. In this review, we mainly focus on new genetic factors for ameliorating drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency of plants and explore the involvement of these genetic factors in the regulation of improving plant drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency, which is a result of altered stomata density and improving root systems (primary root length, hair root growth, and lateral root number) and enhanced production of osmotic protectants, which is caused by transcription factors, proteinases, and phosphatases and protein kinases. These results will help guide the synthesis of a model for predicting how the signals of genetic and environmental stress are integrated at a few genetic determinants to control the establishment of either water use efficiency or water uptake efficiency. Collectively, these insights into the molecular mechanism underpinning the control of plant drought tolerance or water use efficiency/water uptake efficiency may aid future breeding or design strategies to increase crop yield.

  3. [Study of Chinese herbal medicine in treating ascites and their mechanism in regulating lymphatic stomata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Li, J C; Mao, L G

    2001-09-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating ascites to elucidate its mechanism in regulating the lymphatic stomata and promoting the absorption of ascites from the peritoneal cavity. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and computerized image processing and quantitative analysis assays, the CHM extract consisting of Atractylodes macrocephala, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Codonopsis pilosula, Alismatis orientale and Leonurus heterophyllus were studied. Intraperitoneal injection of nitric oxide (NO) supplier or CHM administration could cause the average area of lymphatic stomata obviously enlarged (P inverted obviously, i.e. the average area and the density of lymphatic stomata were markedly reduced (P < 0.01). CHM might treat ascites through increasing the endogenous NO concentration to open the lymphatic stomata and in turn to conduct the peritoneal water through lymphatic path.

  4. leaf epidermal members of the epidermal structures and stomata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    temperate regions of the world. ... Indeed, it can be fair accurately stated that ... Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 10(1): 670 - 675 ... lopment were examined and to estimate stomata frequency, stoma uated. .... examined under microscope.

  5. A study on the stomata mutation of peanut leaves and its relationship with drought resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qingshu; Li Zhengchao; Hu Wenguang; Wu Lanrong

    1999-12-01

    Stomata mutation of leaves and its relationship with drought resistance were studied with four peanut mutants as well as original variety Baisha 1016. Results showed that irradiation was able to cause peanut leaf stoma to mutate. By comparing with original variety Baisha 1016, some of the mutants have more stomas, and some have less ones; some mutants have bigger stomas, some have smaller ones. The stomata numbers of peanut leaf have close relation to the drought resistance, while the stomata size seems to have no relation to it. It's possible that more drought-resistant variety or line could be elected among peanut mutants

  6. Unveiling stomata 24/7: can we use carbonyl sulfide (COS) and oxygen isotopes (18O) to constrain estimates of nocturnal transpiration across different evolutionary plant forms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E.; Ogee, Jerome; Bosc, Alexander; Genty, Bernard; Wohl, Steven; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have reported a continued flux of water through plants at night, suggesting that stomata are not fully closed. Growing evidence indicates that this nocturnal flux of transpiration might constitute an important fraction of total ecosystem water use in certain environments. However, because evaporative demand is usually low at night, nocturnal transpiration fluxes are generally an order of magnitude lower than rates measured during the day and perilously close to the measurement error of traditional gas-exchange porometers. Thus estimating rates of stomatal conductance in the dark (gnight) precisely poses a significant methodological challenge. As a result, we lack accurate field estimates of gnight and how it responds to different atmospheric drivers, indicating the need for a different measurement approach. In this presentation we propose a novel method to obtain detectable and robust estimates of gnight. We will demonstrate using mechanistic theory how independent tracers including the oxygen isotope composition of CO2 (δ18O) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be combined to obtain robust estimates of gnight. This is because COS and CO18O exchange within leaves are controlled by the light insensitive enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Thus, if plant stomata are open in the dark we will continue to observe COS and CO18O exchange. Using our theoretical model we will demonstrate that the exchange of these tracers can now be measured using advances in laser spectrometry techniques at a precision high enough to determine robust estimates of gnight. We will also present our novel experimental approach designed to measure simultaneously the exchange of CO18O and COS alongside the conventional technique that relies on measuring the total water flux from leaves in the dark. Using our theoretical approach we will additionally explore the feasibility of our proposed experimental design to detect variations in gnight during drought stress and across a variety of plant

  7. Evolution of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development: implications for the expansion of developmental complexity of stomata in land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Ran

    Full Text Available Stomata play significant roles in plant evolution. A trio of closely related basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH subgroup Ia genes, SPCH, MUTE and FAMA, mediate sequential steps of stomatal development, and their functions may be conserved in land plants. However, the evolutionary history of the putative SPCH/MUTE/FAMA genes is still greatly controversial, especially the phylogenetic positions of the bHLH Ia members from basal land plants. To better understand the evolutionary pattern and functional diversity of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development, we made a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the homologous genes from 54 species representing the major lineages of green plants. The phylogenetic analysis indicated: (1 All bHLH Ia genes from the two basal land plants Physcomitrella and Selaginella were closely related to the FAMA genes of seed plants; and (2 the gymnosperm 'SPCH' genes were sister to a clade comprising the angiosperm SPCH and MUTE genes, while the FAMA genes of gymnosperms and angiosperms had a sister relationship. The revealed phylogenetic relationships are also supported by the distribution of gene structures and previous functional studies. Therefore, we deduce that the function of FAMA might be ancestral in the bHLH Ia subgroup. In addition, the gymnosperm "SPCH" genes may represent an ancestral state and have a dual function of SPCH and MUTE, two genes that could have originated from a duplication event in the common ancestor of angiosperms. Moreover, in angiosperms, SPCHs have experienced more duplications and harbor more copies than MUTEs and FAMAs, which, together with variation of the stomatal development in the entry division, implies that SPCH might have contributed greatly to the diversity of stomatal development. Based on the above, we proposed a model for the correlation between the evolution of stomatal development and the genes involved in this developmental process in land plants.

  8. Characterization of the photosynthetic induction response in a Populus species with stomata barely responding to light changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Liang, N

    2000-08-01

    The photosynthetic induction response is constrained by stomatal and biochemical limitations. However, leaves in some plants like Populus koreana x trichocarpa cv. Peace (a hybrid clone) may have little stomatal limitation because their stomata barely respond to changes in photon flux density (PFD). We examined the induction responses of leaves of well-watered and dehydrated P. koreana x trichocarpa plants grown in a high-light or a low-light regime. With an increase in PFD from 50 to 500 micromol m(-2) s(-1), steady-state stomatal conductance (g(s)) increased by only 0.25-8.2%, regardless of the initial g(s), but steady-state assimilation rate (A) increased by 550-1810%. Photosynthetic induction times required to reach 50% (IT50) and 90% (IT90) of A at high PFD were 60-90 s and 210-360 s, respectively. Examination of the dynamic relationships between A and g(s), and between A and intercellular CO2 concentration, indicated that the induction limitation was imposed completely by the biochemical components within 30-40 s after the PFD increase. Values of IT50 and IT90 were significantly higher in low-light leaves than in high-light leaves, whereas the induction state at 60 s and the induction efficiency at 60 and 120 s after the increase in PFD were lower in low-light leaves than in high-light leaves. Dehydration reduced leaf water potential (psi) significantly, resulting in a significantly decreased initial g(s). Leaf water potential had no significant effects on induction time in high-light leaves, but a low psi significantly reduced the induction time in low-light leaves. We conclude that the photosynthetic induction response was limited almost completely by biochemical components because the stomata barely responded to light changes. The biochemical limitation appeared to be higher in low-light leaves than in high-light leaves. Mild water stress may have reduced steady-state A and g(s), but it had little effect on the photosynthetic induction response in high

  9. Prechilling of Xanthium strumarium L. Reduces Net Photosynthesis and, Independently, Stomatal Conductance, While Sensitizing the Stomata to CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, B; Raschke, K

    1974-06-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were exposed in a growth cabinet to 10 C during days and 5 C during nights for periods of up to 120 hours. Subsequently, CO(2) exchange, transpiration, and leaf temperature were measured on attached leaves and in leaf sections at 25 or 30 C, 19 C dew point of the air, 61 milliwatts per square centimeter irradiance, and CO(2) concentrations between 0 and 1000 microliters per liter ambient air. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing duration of prechilling. The reduction in net photosynthesis was not a consequence of decreased stomatal conductance because the intercellular CO(2) concentration in prechilled leaves was equal to or greater than that in greenhouse-grown controls. The intercellular CO(2) concentration at which one-half maximum net photosynthesis occurred remained the same in prechilled leaves and controls (175 to 190 microliters per liter). Stomata of the control plants responded to changes in the CO(2) concentration of the air only slightly. Prechilling for 24 hours or more sensitized stomata to CO(2); they responded to changes in CO(2) concentration in the range from 100 to 1000 microliters per liter.

  10. Prechilling of Xanthium strumarium L. Reduces Net Photosynthesis and, Independently, Stomatal Conductance, While Sensitizing the Stomata to CO21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, B.; Raschke, K.

    1974-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were exposed in a growth cabinet to 10 C during days and 5 C during nights for periods of up to 120 hours. Subsequently, CO2 exchange, transpiration, and leaf temperature were measured on attached leaves and in leaf sections at 25 or 30 C, 19 C dew point of the air, 61 milliwatts per square centimeter irradiance, and CO2 concentrations between 0 and 1000 microliters per liter ambient air. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing duration of prechilling. The reduction in net photosynthesis was not a consequence of decreased stomatal conductance because the intercellular CO2 concentration in prechilled leaves was equal to or greater than that in greenhouse-grown controls. The intercellular CO2 concentration at which one-half maximum net photosynthesis occurred remained the same in prechilled leaves and controls (175 to 190 microliters per liter). Stomata of the control plants responded to changes in the CO2 concentration of the air only slightly. Prechilling for 24 hours or more sensitized stomata to CO2; they responded to changes in CO2 concentration in the range from 100 to 1000 microliters per liter. PMID:16658795

  11. Homologue Structure of the SLAC1 Anion Channel for Closing Stomata in Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Chen; L Hu; M Punta; R Bruni; B Hillerich; B Kloss; B Rost; J Love; S Siegelbaum; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 {angstrom} resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration.

  12. Water retention capacity of tissue cultured plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Wijnhoven, F.

    2005-01-01

    Leaves rapidly close their stomata after detachment resulting in a strong reduction of water loss. It has been reported that detached leaves of in vitro produced plants show continuous water loss indicating that they are unable to close the stomata properly and/or that their cuticle is

  13. Stomata character and chlorophyll content of tomato in response to Zn application under drought condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakya, A. T.; Sulistyaningsih, E.; Indradewa, D.; Purwanto, B. H.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment was performed in order to evaluate the effects of Zn application under drought condition on tomato, especially its chlorophyll content and stomata character. This experiment was arranged in factorial using randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatment consisted of the Zn application method, namely: soil and foliar, the Zn dosage, namely: 0, 40 and 60 mg ZnSO4 kg-1 soil and two cultivars of tomato, namely: ‘Tyrana’ F1 and ‘Permata’ F1. The stress condition was induced by watering every 12 days of 3 weeks after transplanting until harvesting. The results showed that the soil with a Zn application under drought conditions increased the aperture stomata, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a/b ratio. The response of stomata character, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in both cultivars was similar.

  14. Stomatal Blue Light Response Is Present in Early Vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Michio; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Light is a major environmental factor required for stomatal opening. Blue light (BL) induces stomatal opening in higher plants as a signal under the photosynthetic active radiation. The stomatal BL response is not present in the fern species of Polypodiopsida. The acquisition of a stomatal BL response might provide competitive advantages in both the uptake of CO2 and prevention of water loss with the ability to rapidly open and close stomata. We surveyed the stomatal opening in response to strong red light (RL) and weak BL under the RL with gas exchange technique in a diverse selection of plant species from euphyllophytes, including spermatophytes and monilophytes, to lycophytes. We showed the presence of RL-induced stomatal opening in most of these species and found that the BL responses operated in all euphyllophytes except Polypodiopsida. We also confirmed that the stomatal opening in lycophytes, the early vascular plants, is driven by plasma membrane proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase and K(+) accumulation in guard cells, which is the same mechanism operating in stomata of angiosperms. These results suggest that the early vascular plants respond to both RL and BL and actively regulate stomatal aperture. We also found three plant species that absolutely require BL for both stomatal opening and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, including a gymnosperm, C. revoluta, and the ferns Equisetum hyemale and Psilotum nudum. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Leaf surface anatomy in some woody plants from northeastern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H.G.; Balboa, P.C.R.; Kumari, A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on leaf surface anatomy of woody plants and its significance are rare. The present study was undertaken in the Forest Science Faculty Experimental Research Station, UANL, Mexico, with objectives to determine the variability in leaf surface anatomy in the woody plants of the Tamaulipan thornscrub and its utility in taxonomy and possible adaptation to the prevailing semiarid conditions. The results show the presence of large variability in several leaf anatomical traits viz., waxy leaf surface, type of stomata, its size, and distribution. The species have been classified on the basis of various traits which can be used in species delimitation and adaptation to the semiarid condition such as waxy leaf surface, absence sparse stomata on the leaf surface, sunken stomata. The species identified as better adapters to semi-arid environments on the basis of the presence and absence of stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surface viz., Eysenhardtia texana, Parkinsonia texana, Gymnosperma glutinosum, Celtis laevigata, Condalia hookeri and Karwinskia humboldtiana. (author)

  16. Gamma-aminobutyric acid depletion affects stomata closure and drought tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Dereje Worku; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Ludewig, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A rapid accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during biotic and abiotic stresses is well documented. However, the specificity of the response and the primary role of GABA under such stress conditions are hardly understood. To address these questions, we investigated the response of the GABA-depleted gad1/2 mutant to drought stress. GABA is primarily synthesized from the decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) which exists in five copies in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, only GAD1 and GAD2 are abundantly expressed, and knockout of these two copies dramatically reduced the GABA content. Phenotypic analysis revealed a reduced shoot growth of the gad1/2 mutant. Furthermore, the gad1/2 mutant was wilted earlier than the wild type following a prolonged drought stress treatment. The early-wilting phenotype was due to an increase in stomata aperture and a defect in stomata closure. The increase in stomata aperture contributed to higher stomatal conductance. The drought oversensitive phenotype of the gad1/2 mutant was reversed by functional complementation that increases GABA level in leaves. The functionally complemented gad1/2 x pop2 triple mutant contained more GABA than the wild type. Our findings suggest that GABA accumulation during drought is a stress-specific response and its accumulation induces the regulation of stomatal opening thereby prevents loss of water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A role for stomata in regulating water use efficiency in Populus x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A role for stomata in regulating water use efficiency in Populus x euramericana and characterization of a related gene, PdERECTA. P Guo, X Xia, WL Yin. Abstract. The physiological mechanism of water use efficiency (WUE) remains elucidated, especially in poplar. We studied WUEi (instantaneous leaf transpiration ...

  18. Impact of solid waste burning air pollution on some physio-anatomical characteristics of some plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, S.K.; Zaidi, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Present study evaluated the effect of solid waste burning pollution on carbohydrate, stomata and chlorophyll contents of seven different plant species. Leaf samples of Artemisia maritima L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Amaranthus viridis L., Cynodon dactylon L., Chenopodium album L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker, growing in the (1m, 500m and 1000m distance) vicinity of burning points at residential colony, University of Baluchistan Quetta were collected. Results revealed that the carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll contents in the leaves of selected plant species were found to be significantly low at 1m distance, but as the distance from the source of pollution increased (500m and 1000m) these contents increased accordingly. Generally the percentage of completely and partially clogged stomata was found higher near the pollution source (1m distance). The percentage of open stomata in all investigated plant species was noticed lower near the pollution source (1m distance), while with the increase of distance (500m-1000m) the percentage of open stomata increased accordingly. As regard to carbohydrate and chlorophyll contents, the Artemisia maritima L., were found most sensitive to air pollution in all four directions at 1m distances as compared to the other species. While plant species, Cynodon dactylon L. showed more resistant to air pollution effect as regard to carbohydrate contents and high percentage of open stomata at 1m distances with respect to other species. (author)

  19. The use of pure carbon stomata (Biocarbon) in urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzmann, R; Bichler, K H; Ideler, V

    1978-12-01

    A new synthetic material, Biocarbon, has the advantages of tissue compatibility and chemical inactivity, so that there is minimal salt sedimentation. Experiments with animals extending over a period of more than 2 years showed good healing after various surgical and urological operations. Biocarbon stomata were then used for vesicostomies in 6 patients. The period of follow-up has been months. We conclude that Biocarbon implants used for ureterocutaneostomies and for various conduit operations can improve tthe care of stomapatients.

  20. Removal of trimethylamine (fishy odor) by C₃ and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2015-08-01

    From screening 23 plant species, it was found that Pterocarpus indicus (C3) and Sansevieria trifasciata (crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)) were the most effective in polar gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) uptake, reaching up to 90% uptake of initial TMA (100 ppm) within 8 h, and could remove TMA at cycles 1-4 without affecting photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry. Up to 55 and 45% of TMA was taken up by S. trifasciata stomata and leaf epicuticular wax, respectively. During cycles 1-4, interestingly, S. trifasciata changed its stomata apertures, which was directly induced by gaseous TMA and light treatments. In contrast, for P. indicus the leaf epicuticular wax and stem were the major pathways of TMA removal, followed by stomata; these pathways accounted for 46, 46, and 8%, respectively, of TMA removal percentages. Fatty acids, particularly tetradecanoic (C14) acid and octadecanoic (C18) acid, were found to be the main cuticular wax components in both plants, and were associated with TMA removal ability. Moreover, the plants could degrade TMA via multiple metabolic pathways associated with carbon/nitrogen interactions. In CAM plants, one of the crucial pathways enabled 78% of TMA to be transformed directly to dimethylamine (DMA) and methylamine (MA), which differed from C3 plant pathways. Various metabolites were also produced for further detoxification and mineralization so that TMA was completely degraded by plants.

  1. Effects of radiation quality on the opening of stomata in intact Phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorska, K.; Kozłowska, B.; Ciereszko, I.; Maleszewski, S.

    1997-01-01

    In intact French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves blue radiation enhanced opening of stomata both when it was used individually and when it was used as preirradiation before ''white light'' irradiation. Effects of red radiation were just the contrary

  2. Carbon dioxide diffusion across stomata and mesophyll and photo-biochemical processes as affected by growth CO2 and phosphorus nutrition in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Badgujar, Girish; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Fleisher, David H; Bunce, James A

    2013-06-15

    Nutrients such as phosphorus may exert a major control over plant response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), which is projected to double by the end of the 21st century. Elevated CO2 may overcome the diffusional limitations to photosynthesis posed by stomata and mesophyll and alter the photo-biochemical limitations resulting from phosphorus deficiency. To evaluate these ideas, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) was grown in controlled environment growth chambers with three levels of phosphate (Pi) supply (0.2, 0.05 and 0.01mM) and two levels of CO2 concentration (ambient 400 and elevated 800μmolmol(-1)) under optimum temperature and irrigation. Phosphate deficiency drastically inhibited photosynthetic characteristics and decreased cotton growth for both CO2 treatments. Under Pi stress, an apparent limitation to the photosynthetic potential was evident by CO2 diffusion through stomata and mesophyll, impairment of photosystem functioning and inhibition of biochemical process including the carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxyganase and the rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration. The diffusional limitation posed by mesophyll was up to 58% greater than the limitation due to stomatal conductance (gs) under Pi stress. As expected, elevated CO2 reduced these diffusional limitations to photosynthesis across Pi levels; however, it failed to reduce the photo-biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in phosphorus deficient plants. Acclimation/down regulation of photosynthetic capacity was evident under elevated CO2 across Pi treatments. Despite a decrease in phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations in leaf tissue and reduced stomatal conductance at elevated CO2, the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf area when measured at the growth CO2 concentration tended to be higher for all except the lowest Pi treatment. Nevertheless, plant biomass increased at elevated CO2 across Pi nutrition with taller plants

  3. Persistent drought monitoring using a microfluidic-printed electro-mechanical sensor of stomata in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koman, Volodymyr B; Lew, Tedrick T S; Wong, Min Hao; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Giraldo, Juan P; Strano, Michael S

    2017-11-21

    Stomatal function can be used effectively to monitor plant hydraulics, photosensitivity, and gas exchange. Current approaches to measure single stomatal aperture, such as mold casting or fluorometric techniques, do not allow real time or persistent monitoring of the stomatal function over timescales relevant for long term plant physiological processes, including vegetative growth and abiotic stress. Herein, we utilize a nanoparticle-based conducting ink that preserves stomatal function to print a highly stable, electrical conductometric sensor actuated by the stomata pore itself, repeatedly and reversibly for over 1 week. This stomatal electro-mechanical pore size sensor (SEMPSS) allows for real-time tracking of the latency of single stomatal opening and closing times in planta, which we show vary from 7.0 ± 0.5 to 25.0 ± 0.5 min for the former and from 53.0 ± 0.5 to 45.0 ± 0.5 min for the latter in Spathiphyllum wallisii. These values are shown to correlate with the soil water potential and the onset of the wilting response, in quantitative agreement with a dynamic mathematical model of stomatal function. A single stoma of Spathiphyllum wallisii is shown to distinguish between incident light intensities (up to 12 mW cm -2 ) with temporal latency slow as 7.0 ± 0.5 min. Over a seven day period, the latency in opening and closing times are stable throughout the plant diurnal cycle and increase gradually with the onset of drought. The monitoring of stomatal function over long term timescales at single stoma level will improve our understanding of plant physiological responses to environmental factors.

  4. A method to identify important dynamical states in Boolean models of regulatory networks: application to regulation of stomata closure by ABA in A. thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugs, Cristhian A; Librelotto, Giovani R; Mombach, José C M

    2011-12-22

    We introduce a method to analyze the states of regulatory Boolean models that identifies important network states and their biological influence on the global network dynamics. It consists in (1) finding the states of the network that are most frequently visited and (2) the identification of variable and frozen nodes of the network. The method, along with a simulation that includes random features, is applied to the study of stomata closure by abscisic acid (ABA) in A. thaliana proposed by Albert and coworkers. We find that for the case of study, that the dynamics of wild and mutant networks have just two states that are highly visited in their space of states and about a third of all nodes of the wild network are variable while the rest remain frozen in True or False states. This high number of frozen elements explains the low cardinality of the space of states of the wild network. Similar results are observed in the mutant networks. The application of the method allowed us to explain how wild and mutants behave dynamically in the SS and determined an essential feature of the activation of the closure node (representing stomata closure), i.e. its synchronization with the AnionEm node (representing anion efflux at the plasma membrane). The dynamics of this synchronization explains the efficiency reached by the wild and each of the mutant networks. For the biological problem analyzed, our method allows determining how wild and mutant networks differ 'phenotypically'. It shows that the different efficiencies of stomata closure reached among the simulated wild and mutant networks follow from a dynamical behavior of two nodes that are always synchronized. Additionally, we predict that the involvement of the anion efflux at the plasma membrane is crucial for the plant response to ABA. The algorithm used in the simulations is available upon request.

  5. Capability of Several Plant Species in Absorbing Gas Pollutant (NO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astra Dwi Patra; Nizar Nasrullah; EIsje L Sisworo

    2004-01-01

    Increasing pollutant from vehicles, especially NO 2 , could cause environmental quality degradation. NO 2 is disastrous for human health due to its capability to trigger long diseases. Due to this, it is important to reduce this pollutant, which could be done among others by plants. The objectives of this experiment was to find plants which have the highest capacity to absorb NO 2 and factors affecting this such as, stomata density, chlorophyll, leave thickness, leave specific density, light and dark condition. The plants exposure to NO 2 used 15 N - labelled NO 2 ( 15 NO 2 ). Twelve plant species were exposed to 15 NO 2 at a rate of 3 ppm in a gas chamber for 60 minutes. The environmental conditions in the chamber were controlled at 30 o C, 1000 lux light intensity, and 60% initial relative humidity. The total nitrogen of each plant part was analysed using the Kjeldahl method, while the 15 N content of these parts was done by emission spectrometer (YASCO - N 151). The results of this experiment showed that all the plants used in this experiment has the capacity in absorbing the pollutant gas at dark as well as light conditions. The evident showed that stomata density, leave thickness, and leave specific density affect the absorbing capacity of the pollutant gas. The higher the stomata density, the thinner the leaves, and the lower the leave specific density, the higher the capacity of plants to absorb NO 2 . It is recommended to use these 12 plants as an element of roadside green belt in towns. (author)

  6. [Carbon polymer stomata in vesicostomy and other urinary diversion procedures (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzmann, R; Bichler, K H

    1979-01-01

    Implants of pure carbon are ideal for prosteses because of their tissue acceptability and lack of incrustation. Animal experiments with biocarbon implants were tested as subfascial implantations, coeco-, ileo-, and vesicostomies, (n = 37). The results showed lack of reaction and good healing of the stomata, lack of incrustation, and water tight urinary diversion. Based on these animal experiments biocarbon vesicostomies were carried out successfully in six patients. The follow up period was 3--16 months.

  7. An ancestral stomatal patterning module revealed in the non-vascular land plant Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Caspar C.; Kamisugi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    The patterning of stomata plays a vital role in plant development and has emerged as a paradigm for the role of peptide signals in the spatial control of cellular differentiation. Research in Arabidopsis has identified a series of epidermal patterning factors (EPFs), which interact with an array of membrane-localised receptors and associated proteins (encoded by ERECTA and TMM genes) to control stomatal density and distribution. However, although it is well-established that stomata arose very early in the evolution of land plants, until now it has been unclear whether the established angiosperm stomatal patterning system represented by the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module reflects a conserved, universal mechanism in the plant kingdom. Here, we use molecular genetics to show that the moss Physcomitrella patens has conserved homologues of angiosperm EPF, TMM and at least one ERECTA gene that function together to permit the correct patterning of stomata and that, moreover, elements of the module retain function when transferred to Arabidopsis. Our data characterise the stomatal patterning system in an evolutionarily distinct branch of plants and support the hypothesis that the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module represents an ancient patterning system. PMID:27407102

  8. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Bačić; Ljiljana Krstin; Jadranka Roša; Željko Popović

    2011-01-01

    Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.), both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fuse...

  9. Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Song, Jae Myung

    2005-01-01

    A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant

  10. Comparative genomics of pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato reveals novel chemotaxis pathways associated with motility and plant pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of bacterial foliar plant pathogens must invade the apoplast of host plants through points of ingress, such as stomata or wounds, replicate to high population density and cause disease. How pathogens navigate plant surfaces to locate invasion sites remains poorly understood. Many bacter...

  11. Open or close the gate – stomata action under the control of phytohormones in drought stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata eDaszkowska-Golec

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two highly specialized cells, the guard cells that surround the stomatal pore, are able to integrate environmental and endogenous signals in order to control the stomatal aperture and thereby the gas exchange. The uptake of CO2 is associated with a loss of water by leaves. Control of the size of the stomatal aperture optimizes the efficiency of water use through dynamic changes in the turgor of the guard cells. The opening and closing of stomata is regulated by the integration of environmental signals and endogenous hormonal stimuli. The various different factors to which the guard cells respond translates into the complexity of the network of signaling pathways that control stomatal movements. The perception of an abiotic stress triggers the activation of signal transduction cascades that interact with or are activated by phytohormones. Among these, abscisic acid (ABA, is the best-known stress hormone that closes the stomata, although other phytohormones, such as jasmonic acid, brassinosteroids, cytokinins or ethylene are also involved in the stomatal response to stresses. As a part of the drought response, ABA may interact with jasmonic acid and nitric oxide in order to stimulate stomatal closure. In addition, the regulation of gene expression in response to ABA involves genes that are related to ethylene, cytokinins and auxin signaling. In this paper, recent findings on phytohormone crosstalk, changes in signaling pathways including the expression of specific genes and their impact on modulating stress response through the closing or opening of stomata, together with the highlights of gaps that need to be elucidated in the signaling network of stomatal regulation, are reviewed.

  12. Foliar spray of sodium antagonistic essential mineral elements- a technique to induce salt tolerance in plants growing under saline environment (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Jabeen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Plants growing at saline substrate practice deficiencies in absorption of some essential mineral elements through roots due to presence of excessive sodium in rhizosphere. Sodium being antagonistic to other cations does not let them enter in roots and hence apart from its own toxicity in metabolism, the plants suffer with deficiencies of some mineral elements, which are necessary for growth. Potassium being essential mineral element is much effected due to this antagonistic behavior of sodium ion. Lagenaria siceraria (var. Loki) being a broad leaf vegetable was selected for these experiments. Plant growing at saline substrate was sprayed with specially prepared spray materials containing different dilutions of potassium nitrate. The anatomy of leaf with special reference to that of stomata was also studied to ensure absorption of required minerals. Growth of plants in terms of leaf area is being monitored at present. Some preliminary experiments show betterment in production of fruits in plants undergoing foliar spray. This hypothesis has opened a new chapter demanding series of experiments dealing with recipe of spray materials, mechanism of minerals uptake through stomata, participation of absorbed minerals in metabolic activities around palisade tissue probably by activating potassium dependent enzyme system which otherwise is blocked by replaced sodium, translocation of these minerals from leaves through petiole in rest of plants and overall effect of such spray on vegetative as well as reproductive growth in plants under saline environment. Some of this work is in progress. (author)

  13. Reevaluation of the plant "gemstones": Calcium oxalate crystals sustain photosynthesis under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-09-01

    Land plants face the perpetual dilemma of using atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and losing water vapors, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis and thus growth. The reason behind this dilemma is that this simultaneous exchange of gases is accomplished through the same minute pores on leaf surfaces, called stomata. In a recent study we provided evidence that pigweed, an aggressive weed, attenuates this problem exploiting large crystals of calcium oxalate as dynamic carbon pools. This plant is able to photosynthesize even under drought conditions, when stomata are closed and water losses are limited, using carbon dioxide from crystal decomposition instead from the atmosphere. Abscisic acid, an alarm signal that causes stomatal closure seems to be implicated in this function and for this reason we named this path "alarm photosynthesis." The so-far "enigmatic," but highly conserved and widespread among plant species calcium oxalate crystals seem to play a crucial role in the survival of plants.

  14. Optimal allocation of leaf epidermal area for gas exchange

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Price, Charles A.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C.; Franks, Peter J.; Veneklaas, Erik J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A long?standing research focus in phytology has been to understand how plants allocate leaf epidermal space to stomata in order to achieve an economic balance between the plant's carbon needs and water use. Here, we present a quantitative theoretical framework to predict allometric relationships between morphological stomatal traits in relation to leaf gas exchange and the required allocation of epidermal area to stomata. Our theoretical framework was derived from first principles of ...

  15. Reevaluation of the plant “gemstones”: Calcium oxalate crystals sustain photosynthesis under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G.; Kontoyannis, Christos G.; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I.; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Land plants face the perpetual dilemma of using atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and losing water vapors, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis and thus growth. The reason behind this dilemma is that this simultaneous exchange of gases is accomplished through the same minute pores on leaf surfaces, called stomata. In a recent study we provided evidence that pigweed, an aggressive weed, attenuates this problem exploiting large crystals of calcium oxalate as dynamic carbon pools. This plant is able to photosynthesize even under drought conditions, when stomata are closed and water losses are limited, using carbon dioxide from crystal decomposition instead from the atmosphere. Abscisic acid, an alarm signal that causes stomatal closure seems to be implicated in this function and for this reason we named this path “alarm photosynthesis.” The so-far “enigmatic,” but highly conserved and widespread among plant species calcium oxalate crystals seem to play a crucial role in the survival of plants. PMID:27471886

  16. Utility requirements for advanced LWR passive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidia, J.M.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    LWR Passive Plants are becoming an increasingly attractive and prominent option for future electric generating capacity for U.S. utilities. Conceptual designs for ALWR Passive Plants are currently being developed by U.S. suppliers. EPRI-sponsored work beginning in 1985 developed preliminary conceptual designs for a passive BWR and PWR. DOE-sponsored work from 1986 to the present in conjunction with further EPRI-sponsored studies has continued this development to the point of mature conceptual designs. The success to date in developing the ALWR Passive Plant concepts has substantially increased utility interest. The EPRI ALWR Program has responded by augmenting its initial scope to develop a Utility Requirements Document for ALWR Passive Plants. These requirements will be largely based on the ALWR Utility Requirements Document for Evolutionary Plants, but with significant changes in areas related to the passive safety functions and system configurations. This work was begun in late 1988, and the thirteen-chapter Passive Plant Utility Requirements Document will be completed in 1990. This paper discusses the progress to date in developing the Passive Plant requirements, reviews the top-level requirements, and discusses key issues related to adaptation of the utility requirements to passive safety functions and system configurations. (orig.)

  17. Abscisic acid (ABA) and key proteins in its perception and signaling pathways are ancient, but their roles have changed through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Atallah, Nadia M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Banks, Jo Ann; McAdam, Scott A M

    2017-09-02

    Homologs of the Arabidopsis core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling component OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) are best known for their role in closing stomata in angiosperm species. We recently characterized a fern OST1 homolog, GAMETOPHYTES ABA INSENSITIVE ON ANTHERDIOGEN 1 (GAIA1), which is not required for stomatal closure in ferns, consistent with physiologic evidence that shows the stomata of these plants respond passively to changes in leaf water status. Instead, gaia1 mutants reveal a critical role in ABA signaling for spore dormancy and sex determination, in a system regulated by antagonism between ABA and the gibberellin (GA)-derived fern hormone antheridiogen (A CE ). ABA and key proteins, including ABA receptors from the PYR/PYL/RCAR family and negative regulators of ABA-signaling from Group A of the type-2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), in addition to OST1 homologs, can be found in all terrestrial land plant lineages, ranging from liverworts that lack stomata, to angiosperms. As land plants have evolved and diversified over the past 450 million years, so too have the roles of this important plant hormone and the genes involved in its signaling and perception.

  18. Assay of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Plant Tissues under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Małgorzata; Wdowikowska, Anna; Kłobus, Grażyna

    2018-01-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase, which generates the proton gradient across the outer membrane of plant cells, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of many physiological processes fundamental for growth and development of plants. It is involved in the uptake of nutrients from external solutions, their loading into phloem and long-distance transport, stomata aperture and gas exchange, pH homeostasis in cytosol, cell wall loosening, and cell expansion. The crucial role of the enzyme in resistance of plants to abiotic and biotic stress factors has also been well documented. Such great diversity of physiological functions linked to the activity of one enzyme requires a suitable and complex regulation of H + -ATPase. This regulation comprises the transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional levels. Herein, we describe the techniques that can be useful for the analysis of the plasma membrane proton pump modifications at genetic and protein levels under environmental factors.

  19. Fern Stomatal Responses to ABA and CO2 Depend on Species and Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrak, Hanna; Kollist, Hannes; Merilo, Ebe

    2017-06-01

    Changing atmospheric CO 2 levels, climate, and air humidity affect plant gas exchange that is controlled by stomata, small pores on plant leaves and stems formed by guard cells. Evolution has shaped the morphology and regulatory mechanisms governing stomatal movements to correspond to the needs of various land plant groups over the past 400 million years. Stomata close in response to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), elevated CO 2 concentration, and reduced air humidity. Whether the active regulatory mechanisms that control stomatal closure in response to these stimuli are present already in mosses, the oldest plant group with stomata, or were acquired more recently in angiosperms remains controversial. It has been suggested that the stomata of the basal vascular plants, such as ferns and lycophytes, close solely hydropassively. On the other hand, active stomatal closure in response to ABA and CO 2 was found in several moss, lycophyte, and fern species. Here, we show that the stomata of two temperate fern species respond to ABA and CO 2 and that an active mechanism of stomatal regulation in response to reduced air humidity is present in some ferns. Importantly, fern stomatal responses depend on growth conditions. The data indicate that the stomatal behavior of ferns is more complex than anticipated before, and active stomatal regulation is present in some ferns and has possibly been lost in others. Further analysis that takes into account fern species, life history, evolutionary age, and growth conditions is required to gain insight into the evolution of land plant stomatal responses. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Balance of Plant Requirements for a Nuclear Hydrogen Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Ward

    2006-04-01

    This document describes the requirements for the components and systems that support the hydrogen production portion of a 600 megawatt thermal (MWt) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). These systems, defined as the "balance-of-plant" (BOP), are essential to operate an effective hydrogen production plant. Examples of BOP items are: heat recovery and heat rejection equipment, process material transport systems (pumps, valves, piping, etc.), control systems, safety systems, waste collection and disposal systems, maintenance and repair equipment, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical supply and distribution, and others. The requirements in this document are applicable to the two hydrogen production processes currently under consideration in the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. These processes are the sulfur iodide (S-I) process and the high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process. At present, the other two hydrogen production process - the hybrid sulfur-iodide electrolytic process (SE) and the calcium-bromide process (Ca-Br) -are under flow sheet development and not included in this report. While some features of the balance-of-plant requirements are common to all hydrogen production processes, some details will apply only to the specific needs of individual processes.

  1. Utility/user requirements for the MHTGR desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Snyder, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) and the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD) in developing Utility/User (U/U) Requirements for the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR) Desalination Plant. This is a cogeneration plant that produces fresh water from seawater, and electricity. The U/U requirements for the reference MHTGR plant are used except for those changes necessary to: provide low-grade heat to a seawater desalination process, enable siting in a Southern California coastal area, take advantage of reduced weather extremes where substantial cost reductions are expected, and use seawater cooling instead of a cooling tower. The resulting requirements and the differences from the reference MHTGR requirements are discussed. The nuclear portion of the design is essentially the same as that for the reference MHTGR design. The major differences occur in the turbine-generator and condenser, and for the most part, the design parameters for the reference plant are found to be conservative for the desalination plant. The most important difference in requirements is in the higher seismic levels required for a Southern California site, which requires reassessment and possible modification of the design of some reference plant equipment for use in the desalination plant. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  2. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.

    2001-01-01

    The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the ‘consumption’ of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material...... requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m2/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m2/MW...... less ‘environment’ for the construction than renewable technologies, especially wind and solar....

  3. Agronomical and Botanical Characteristics of Cuminum setifolium (Boiss. Kos.-Pol. a Plant with Potentially Medicinal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas SAFARNEJAD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine. Cuminum setifolium ( Boiss. Kos.-Pol. with common name of white cumin, a member of the Apiaceae family, growing wild on mountains was investigated as a species having capability for cultivation and crop breeding. Generally, there is not information about Cuminum setifolium species. The aim of this study was to found plant identification and distribution in Iran, phenology, best treatment for seeds germination, farm cultivation and anatomical description. Cuminum setifolium plant is a annual herb which is distributed in Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tien-Shan and central Asia. In our studied region, the plant is generally grown on calcareous marl soils with climatic conditions of desert cold, semi-arid to arid having hot summer and cold winter. The effects of different treatment on seed germination showed significant highest germination percentage (54.4%, germination rate (6.4% were obtained from seeds that had exposed for 3 weeks at 4�C after omit of seeds hairs. The experiment of cultivation showed the best time for sowing in Mashhad was autumn and growing time was from middle of March until end of June and ripening seeds were end of June at 2005. Microscopic observation of the root structure showed lacking secondary structures and having epidermis tissue with only a row of cells along with relatively thick cuticle and for stem and leaf structure with stomata without any hairs. Parenchyma cells contained 2-3 rows of irregular oblong cells. Stomata type of epidermis was diacytic and distance between stomata was measured 5 ?m in average.

  4. Strobilurin fungicides induce changes in photosynthetic gas exchange that do not improve water use efficiency of plants grown under conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Mark A; Farrar, John; Bartlett, David

    2007-12-01

    The effects of five strobilurin (beta-methoxyacrylate) fungicides and one triazole fungicide on the physiological parameters of well-watered or water-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and soya (Glycine max Merr.) plants were compared. Water use efficiency (WUE) (the ratio of rate of transpiration, E, to net rate of photosynthesis, A(n)) of well-watered wheat plants was improved slightly by strobilurin fungicides, but was reduced in water-stressed plants, so there is limited scope for using strobilurins to improve the water status of crops grown under conditions of drought. The different strobilurin fungicides had similar effects on plant physiology but differed in persistence and potency. When applied to whole plants using a spray gun, they reduced the conductance of water through the epidermis (stomatal and cuticular transpiration), g(sw), of leaves. Concomitantly, leaves of treated plants had a lower rate of transpiration, E, a lower intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, c(i), and a lower net rate of photosynthesis, A(n), compared with leaves of control plants or plants treated with the triazole. The mechanism for the photosynthetic effects is not known, but it is hypothesised that they are caused either by strobilurin fungicides acting directly on ATP production in guard cell mitochondria or by stomata responding to strobilurin-induced changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. The latter may be important since, for leaves of soya plants, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F(v)/F(m) (an indication of the potential quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry) was reduced by strobilurin fungicides. It is likely that the response of stomata to strobilurin fungicides is complex, and further research is required to elucidate the different biochemical pathways involved. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  6. Xenon lighting adjusted to plant requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koefferlein, M.; Doehring, T.; Payer, H.D.; Seidlitz, H.K. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The high luminous flux and spectral properties of xenon lamps would provide an ideal luminary for plant lighting if not excess IR radiation poses several problems for an application: the required filter systems reduce the irradiance at spectral regions of particular importance for plant development. Most of the economical drawbacks of xenon lamps are related to the difficult handling of that excess IR energy. Furthermore, the temporal variation of the xenon output depending on the oscillations of the applied AC voltage has to be considered for the plant development. However, xenon lamps outperform other lighting systems with respect to spectral stability, immediate response, and maximum luminance. Therefore, despite considerable competition by other lighting techniques, xenon lamps provide a very useful tool for special purposes. In plant lighting however, they seem to play a less important role as other lamp and lighting developments can meet these particular requirements at lower costs.

  7. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW th , heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS

  8. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (Safety Series No. 50-C-D (Rev. 1), issued in 1988). It takes account of developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for nuclear safety are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear power plants. It is recognized that technology and scientific knowledge advance, and nuclear safety and what is considered adequate protection are not static entities. Safety requirements change with these developments and this publication reflects the present consensus. This Safety Requirements publication takes account of the developments in safety requirements by, for example, including the consideration of severe accidents in the design process. Other topics that have been given more detailed attention include management of safety, design management, plant ageing and wearing out effects, computer based safety systems, external and internal hazards, human factors, feedback of operational experience, and safety assessment and verification. This publication establishes safety requirements that define the elements necessary to ensure nuclear safety. These requirements are applicable to safety functions and the associated structures, systems and components, as well as to procedures important to safety in nuclear power plants. It is expected that this publication will be used primarily for land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors designed for electricity generation or for other heat production applications (such as district heating or desalination). It is recognized that in the case of

  9. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (Safety Series No. 50-C-D (Rev. 1), issued in 1988). It takes account of developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for nuclear safety are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear power plants. It is recognized that technology and scientific knowledge advance, and nuclear safety and what is considered adequate protection are not static entities. Safety requirements change with these developments and this publication reflects the present consensus. This Safety Requirements publication takes account of the developments in safety requirements by, for example, including the consideration of severe accidents in the design process. Other topics that have been given more detailed attention include management of safety, design management, plant ageing and wearing out effects, computer based safety systems, external and internal hazards, human factors, feedback of operational experience, and safety assessment and verification. This publication establishes safety requirements that define the elements necessary to ensure nuclear safety. These requirements are applicable to safety functions and the associated structures, systems and components, as well as to procedures important to safety in nuclear power plants. It is expected that this publication will be used primarily for land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors designed for electricity generation or for other heat production applications (such as district heating or desalination). It is recognized that in the case of

  10. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  11. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  12. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  13. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations; to be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; and to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  14. A molecular basis behind heterophylly in an amphibious plant, Ranunculus trichophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhyun; Joo, Youngsung; Kyung, Jinseul; Jeon, Myeongjune; Park, Jong Yoon; Lee, Ho Gyun; Chung, Doo Soo; Lee, Eunju; Lee, Ilha

    2018-02-01

    Ranunculus trichophyllus is an amphibious plant that produces thin and cylindrical leaves if grown under water but thick and broad leaves if grown on land. We found that such heterophylly is widely controlled by two plant hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene, which control terrestrial and aquatic leaf development respectively. Aquatic leaves produced higher levels of ethylene but lower levels of ABA than terrestrial leaves. In aquatic leaves, their distinct traits with narrow shape, lack of stomata, and reduced vessel development were caused by EIN3-mediated overactivation of abaxial genes, RtKANADIs, and accompanying with reductions of STOMAGEN and VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VDN7). In contrast, in terrestrial leaves, ABI3-mediated activation of the adaxial genes, RtHD-ZIPIIIs, and STOMAGEN and VDN7 established leaf polarity, and stomata and vessel developments. Heterophylly of R.trichophyllus could be also induced by external cues such as cold and hypoxia, which is accompanied with the changes in the expression of leaf polarity genes similar to aquatic response. A closely-related land plant R. sceleratus did not show such heterophyllic responses, suggesting that the changes in the ABA/ethylene signaling and leaf polarity are one of key evolutionary steps for aquatic adaptation.

  15. Responses of seedlings of tropical woody plants to environmental stresses with emphasis on Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena Gomes, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Relative humidity, flooding, temperature, wind, and SO/sub 2/ variously influenced physiological processes and growth of tropical woody plants, with emphasis on three Theobroma cacao varieties and three Hevea brasiliensis families. Stomata were smaller and more numerous in Theobroma than in Hevea. In Theobroma, but not Heavea, stomatal frequency decreased from the leaf base to the apex and from the midrib outward. Stomata of Theobroma cacao var. Catongo opened in high relative humidity (RH) and closed in low RH. The more open stomata in high RH were associated with high rates of photosynthesis, low leaf water potential, high water use efficiency (WUE), and low transpiration rate (TR). Variations in TR and WUE were correlated with changes in vapor pressure deficit. Other responses included stomatal closure, decreased chlorophyll content, leaf epinasty, production of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots, and acceleration of ethylene production. Responses to flooding varied with species, Theobroma varieties and Hevea families. Effects of temperature regimes on growth varied with species, varieties and families, plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Optimal temperatures for dry weight increase of stems or roots of Theobroma cacao var. Comum were 22.2 C; and 33.3 C for dry weight increase or relative growth rates of leaves or seedlings. Optimal temperatures for growth varied for Hevea families. Wind injured leaves of Theobroma cacao, with more injury by wind of 6.0 than 3.0 m s/sup -1/. Stomata were more open on windy than on calm days, but tended to close at high wind speeds. Wind lowered transpiration rate but the reduction was not correlated with leaf dehydration. SO/sub 2/ at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm for 24 h did not injure Theobroma leaves but reduced dry weight increment of leaves of var. Catongo but not Catongo/Sial.

  16. VGB-requirements regarding technical data for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richnow, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Much of the technical plant data resulting from the planning, construction and start-up of power plants is needed for subsequent management and maintenance. Because of this, VGB has taken the initiative and has defined standard minimum requirements from power plant operators for technical plant data. They relate to the details and structure of this data, the definition of material classes and characteristics for the main power plant components and IT implementation for delivery of the technical plant data. (orig.)

  17. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  18. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  19. Stomatal uptake and stomatal deposition of ozone in isoprene and monoterpene emitting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S; Loreto, F; Kleist, E; Wildt, J

    2008-01-01

    Volatile isoprenoids were reported to protect plants against ozone. To understand whether this could be the result of a direct scavenging of ozone by these molecules, the stomatal and non-stomatal uptake of ozone was estimated in plants emitting isoprene or monoterpenes. Ozone uptake by holm oak (Quercus ilex, a monoterpene emitter) and black poplar (Populus nigra, an isoprene emitter) was studied in whole plant enclosures (continuously stirred tank reactors, CSTR). The ozone uptake by plants was estimated measuring ozone concentration at the inlet and outlet of the reactors, after correcting for the uptake of the enclosure materials. Destruction of ozone at the cuticle or at the plant stems was found to be negligible compared to the ozone uptake through the stomata. For both plant species, a relationship between stomatal conductance and ozone uptake was found. For the poplar, the measured ozone losses were explained by the uptake of ozone through the stomata only, and ozone destruction by gas phase reactions with isoprene was negligible. For the oak, gas phase reactions of ozone with the monoterpenes emitted by the plants contributed significantly to ozone destruction. This was confirmed by two different experiments showing a) that in cases of high stomatal conductance but under low CO(2) concentration, a reduction of monoterpene emission was still associated with reduced O(3) uptake; and b) that ozone losses due to the gas phase reactions only can be measured when using the exhaust from a plant chamber to determine the gas phase reactivity in an empty reaction chamber. Monoterpenes can therefore relevantly scavenge ozone at leaf level contributing to protection against ozone.

  20. Natural gas infrastructure requirements for merchant plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukaly, B.

    1998-01-01

    Merchant power plants are complicated with diverse risks. Of course where there are risks there are opportunities for reward. Creating an effective merchant plant requires a strong organization that is committed to marketing, trading and risk management. The organization must have the infrastructure to capitalize on the opportunities a merchant plant provides. The market dynamics are ever changing and move at incredible speeds--what was a moneymaking deal yesterday is no longer valid today. The merchant plant owner is the expert in setting up the actual infrastructure for trading the various commodities, including forward pricing, cash and physical trades, transportation and operation for maximizing the plant's potential. Optionally, the plant's risk profile and a risk management program are the key factors in determining the sucres of the merchant plant project

  1. Future CANDU nuclear power plant design requirements document executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; S. A. Usmani

    1996-03-01

    The future CANDU Requirements Document (FCRED) describes a clear and complete statement of utility requirements for the next generation of CANDU nuclear power plants including those in Korea. The requirements are based on proven technology of PHWR experience and are intended to be consistent with those specified in the current international requirement documents. Furthermore, these integrated set of design requirements, incorporate utility input to the extent currently available and assure a simple, robust and more forgiving design that enhances the performance and safety. The FCRED addresses the entire plant, including the nuclear steam supply system and the balance of the plant, up to the interface with the utility grid at the distribution side of the circuit breakers which connect the switchyard to the transmission lines. Requirements for processing of low level radioactive waste at the plant site and spent fuel storage requirements are included in the FCRED. Off-site waste disposal is beyond the scope of the FCRED. 2 tabs., 1 fig. (Author) .new

  2. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant in...

  3. Stomata open at night in pole-sized and mature ponderosa pine: implications for O{sub 3} exposure metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, N. E.; Alonso, R.; Nguyen, T.; Dobrowolski, W. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station, Riverside, CA (United States); Cascio, C. [University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Nighttime stomatal behaviour in two tree size stands of ponderosa pine are described. Ponderosa pine is one of the most ozone-sensitive conifers in western North America. The study involved measurement of time required to reach equilibrium in response to small increases in low irradiances at sites differing in environmental stressors. The contribution of nighttime ozone uptake to total daily ozone uptake in early and later summer was also investigated. Nighttime stomata conductance ranged between one tenth and one fifth that of maximum day-time values. Pole-size trees (i.e. less than 40 years old) showed greater ozone conductance than mature trees (i.e. over 250 years old). In June, nighttime ozone uptake accounted for 9, 5, and 3 per cent of the total daily ozone uptake of pole-sized trees. In late summer, ozone uptake at night was less than two percent of daily uptake at all sites. It is suspected that nighttime uptake of oxidants may have harmful physiological effects, such as contributing to the declining health of forest trees, owing to the fact that oxidants absorbed at night are not detoxified as well during the day. 67 refs.,1 tab., 8 figs.

  4. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  5. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (French Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  6. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  7. Efeito de sistemas de consórcio e inseticida na formação dos estômatos em plântulas de erva-doce (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Effects of intercropping systems and insecticide in formation of stomata in fennel seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    fennel and has great medicinal and commercial importance, both in Brazil and in several other countries. The objective of this research was to study the development of stomata of F. vulgare seedlings grown from seeds produced in intercropping systems fennel and cotton, with application of insecticide monocrotophos. The fennel was grown in association with colored cotton BRS Safira, with the following treatments: 1A2E, one rows of cotton and two fennel; 2A1E, two rows of cotton and one fennel; ES, fennel single; were distributed with and without application of insecticide, total six treatments. The seeds were sown in sand and kept in a greenhouse for 25 days. Parts of seedlings (transition zone, stem, cotyledons and leaves were cut freehand, stained and mounted on slides with glycerol for observation under microscope. Were evaluated the following characteristics: stomata number, polar and equatorial diameter of the stomata and chloroplasts number in guard cells. The data were analyzed in completely randomized and distributed in factorial 3x2, being conducted Tukey test at 5% probability. The transition zone and stem showed an increase of the stomata number and polar diameter the when consortium systems were used. In cotyledons, fennel single provided the highest stomata number, but with smaller diameter and fewer chloroplasts. In leaf, the consortia have positively influenced the stomata and chloroplasts number. In general, the intercropping systems and insecticide positively influenced the development of stomata in fennel plants.

  8. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  9. Cultivar Differences in Plant Transpiration Rate at High Relative Air Humidity Are Not Related to Genotypic Variation in Stomatal Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH) often show disturbed water relations due to less responsive stomata. The attenuation of stomatal responsiveness as a result of high RH during leaf expansion depends on the cultivar. We hypothesized that tolerant cultivars to high RH experience a low...

  10. Adaptative changes of leaf surface of tropical orchid Cattleya gaskelliana (N.E.Br. B.S. Williams after transferring from in vitro to ex vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila I. Buyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The leaf surface micromorphology of Cattleya gaskellianajuvenile plants, propagated in vitrofrom seeds, as well as of adult plants, cultivated in glasshouse, was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The leaves of both juvenile and adult plants are hypostomatic, their stomata are of tetracytic type. It was found that development of single stomata on the adaxial leaf surface of juvenile plants was induced byin vitro conditions. During the acclimation of in vitro propagated plants to glasshouse conditions the following changes of leaf surface micromorphology have been observed: 1 configuration of epidermal cells changed; 2 dimensions of typical epidermal cells reduced; 3 stomata density and their dimensions increased. The results suggest that structural changes, probably, can be regarded as an adaptation to avoid excessive rate leaf transpiration during a period of C. gaskelliana juvenile plants acclimation to glasshouse conditions. In the case when micromorphological leaf characteristics (stomata density per mm2, stomatal index, epidermal cells number per mm 2 of in vitro propagated plants of C. gaskelliana were comparable to those of adult plants, survival rate was more than 95%.

  11. Neutronics requirements for a DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion Consortium , Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Villari, R. [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Discussion and specification of neutronic requirements for a DEMO power plant. • TBR uncertainties are reviewed/discussed and design margins are elaborated. • Limits are given for radiation loads to super-conducting magnets and steel structural components. • Available DEMO results are compared to recommended limits and TBR design target. - Abstract: This paper addresses the neutronic requirements a DEMO fusion power plant needs to fulfil for a reliable and safe operation. The major requirement is to ensure Tritium self-sufficiency taking into account the various uncertainties and plant-internal losses that occur during DEMO operation. A further major requirement is to ensure sufficient protection of the superconducting magnets against the radiation penetrating in-vessel components and vessel. Reliable criteria for the radiation loads need to be defined and verified to ensure the reliable operation of the magnets over the lifetime of DEMO. Other issues include radiation induced effects on structural materials such as the accumulated displacement damage, the generation of gases such as helium which may deteriorate the material performance. The paper discusses these issues and their impact on design options for DEMO taking into account results obtained in the frame of European Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) 2013 programme activities with DEMO models employing the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB), the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL), and the water-cooled (WCLL) blanket concepts.

  12. Redox and the circadian clock in plant immunity: A balancing act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, Sargis; Dong, Xinnian

    2018-05-01

    Plants' reliance on sunlight for energy makes their light-driven circadian clock a critical regulator in balancing the energy needs for vital activities such as growth and defense. Recent studies show that the circadian clock acts as a strategic planner to prime active defense responses towards the morning or daytime when conditions, such as the opening of stomata required for photosynthesis, are favorable for attackers. Execution of the defense response, on the other hand, is determined according to the cellular redox state and is regulated in part by the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species upon pathogen challenge. The interplay between redox and the circadian clock further gates the onset of defense response to a specific time of the day to avoid conflict with growth-related activities. In this review, we focus on discussing the roles of the circadian clock as a robust overseer and the cellular redox as a dynamic executor of plant defense. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermography to explore plant-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J Miguel; Grant, Olga M; Chaves, M Manuela

    2013-10-01

    Stomatal regulation is a key determinant of plant photosynthesis and water relations, influencing plant survival, adaptation, and growth. Stomata sense the surrounding environment and respond rapidly to abiotic and biotic stresses. Stomatal conductance to water vapour (g s) and/or transpiration (E) are therefore valuable physiological parameters to be monitored in plant and agricultural sciences. However, leaf gas exchange measurements involve contact with leaves and often interfere with leaf functioning. Besides, they are time consuming and are limited by the sampling characteristics (e.g. sample size and/or the high number of samples required). Remote and rapid means to assess g s or E are thus particularly valuable for physiologists, agronomists, and ecologists. Transpiration influences the leaf energy balance and, consequently, leaf temperature (T leaf). As a result, thermal imaging makes it possible to estimate or quantify g s and E. Thermal imaging has been successfully used in a wide range of conditions and with diverse plant species. The technique can be applied at different scales (e.g. from single seedlings/leaves through whole trees or field crops to regions), providing great potential to study plant-environment interactions and specific phenomena such as abnormal stomatal closure, genotypic variation in stress tolerance, and the impact of different management strategies on crop water status. Nevertheless, environmental variability (e.g. in light intensity, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) affects the accuracy of thermal imaging measurements. This review presents and discusses the advantages of thermal imaging applications to plant science, agriculture, and ecology, as well as its limitations and possible approaches to minimize them, by highlighting examples from previous and ongoing research.

  14. Anatomical indications of fume resistance in certain woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninova, D.

    1970-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe studies on seven species of fruit and forest trees close to or far from a Bulgarian factory emitting fumes containing S. The most resistant species (Quercus borealis, Gleditsia triacanthos, Morus alba) had the smallest stomata and the greatest number of stomata per unit leaf area. Changes observed in leaf anatomy as a result of exposure to the fumes were: decreased leaf aeration, elongated palisade cells, thicker cuticles, and more stomata.

  15. Biofertilization with Azospirillum brasilense improves in vitro culture of Handroanthus ochraceus, a forestry, ornamental and medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Berta E; Alasia, María A; Larraburu, Ezequiel E

    2016-01-25

    Biofertilization with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is a potential alternative to plant productivity. Here, in vitro propagation of Handroanthus ochraceus (yellow lapacho), a forest crop with high economic and environmental value, was developed using the Azospirillum brasilense strains Cd and Az39 during rhizogenesis. Epicotiles of in vitro plantlets were multiplied in Woody Plant Medium (WPM). For rooting, elongated shoots were transferred to auxin-free Murashige-Skoog medium with Gamborg's vitamins and WPM, both at half salt concentration (½MSG and ½WPM), and inoculated with Cd or Az39 at the base of each shoot. Anatomical studies were performed using leaves cleared and stained with safranin for optical microscopy and leaves and roots metalized with gold-palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In ½WPM auxin-free medium, A. brasilense Cd inoculation produced 55% of rooting, increased root fresh and dry weight (45% and 77%, respectively), and led to lower stomata size and density with similar proportion of open and closed stomata. Both strains selectively increased the size or density of glandular trichomes in ½MSG. Moreover, bacteria were detected on the root surface by SEM. In conclusion, the difference in H. ochraceus response to A. brasilense inoculation depends on the strain and the plant culture media. Cd strain enhanced rooting in auxin-free ½WPM and produced plantlets with features similar to those expected in ex vitro plants. This work presents an innovative in vitro approach using beneficial plant-microorganism interaction as an ecologically compatible strategy in plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Compiling Utility Requirements For New Nuclear Power Plant Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, Eero

    2002-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted in November 2000 to the Finnish Government an application for a Decision-in-Principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Finland. The actual investment decision can be made first after a positive decision has been made by the Government and the Parliament. Parallel to the licensing process, technical preparedness has been upheld so that the procurement process can be commenced without delay, when needed. This includes the definition of requirements for the plant and preliminary preparation of bid inquiry specifications. The core of the technical requirements corresponds to the specifications presented in the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document, compiled by major European electricity producers. Quite naturally, an amount of modifications to the EUR document are needed that take into account the country- and site-specific conditions as well as the experiences gained in the operation of the existing NPP units. Along with the EUR-related requirements concerning the nuclear island and power generation plant, requirements are specified for scope of supply as well as for a variety of issues related to project implementation. (author)

  17. Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2 - and ABA-induced stomatal closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Palomares, Axxell; Bagheri, Andisheh; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Engineer, Cawas B; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Stephan, Aaron B; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-08-01

    Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2 ]. [CO2 ] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard cell specific enhancer trap line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV '/FM' ) were comparable with wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas-exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and CO2 -assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2 ] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2 ] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2 ] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a 'deflated' thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard cell turgor production. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Recommended general safety requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report presents recommendations for a set of general safety requirements that could form the basis for the licensing of nuclear power plants by the Atomic Energy Control Board. In addition to a number of recommended deterministic requirements the report includes criteria for the acceptability of the design of such plants based upon the calculated probability and consequence (in terms of predicted radiation dose to members of the public) of potential fault sequences. The report also contains a historical review of nuclear safety principles and practices in Canada

  19. The photosynthetic response of tobacco plants overexpressing ice plant aquaporin McMIPB to a soil water deficit and high vapor pressure deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Miki; Hanba, Yuko T; Katsuhara, Maki

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the photosynthetic capacity and plant growth of tobacco plants overexpressing ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) aquaporin McMIPB under (1) a well-watered growth condition, (2) a well-watered and temporal higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD) condition, and (3) a soil water deficit growth condition to investigate the effect of McMIPB on photosynthetic responses under moderate soil and atmospheric humidity and water deficit conditions. Transgenic plants showed a significantly higher photosynthesis rate (by 48 %), higher mesophyll conductance (by 52 %), and enhanced growth under the well-watered growth condition than those of control plants. Decreases in the photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance from ambient to higher VPD were slightly higher in transgenic plants than those in control plants. When plants were grown under the soil water deficit condition, decreases in the photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance were less significant in transgenic plants than those in control plants. McMIPB is likely to work as a CO2 transporter, as well as control the regulation of stomata to water deficits.

  20. Current USAEC seismic requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    The principal seismic and geologic considerations which guide the USAEC in its evaluation of the suitability of proposed sites for nuclear power plants and plant design bases are set forth as design criteria in the AEC regulatory guides. The basic requirements of seismic design and analysis for seismic Category I structures, components, and systems important to public safety have been established in the USAEC regulatory guides and Code of Federal Regulations. It is pointed out that the current state-of-art techniques, best available technology, and additional studies in the field of earthquake engineering can be utilized to resolve seismic concerns. The seismic design requirements for nuclear plants to withstand postulated earthquakes can be standardized and this will be a significant milestone in the continuation of the Nuclear Standardization Program. (author)

  1. Optimal plant water use across temporal scales: bridging eco-hydrological theories and plant eco-physiological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Palmroth, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through stomata, thus creating an inherent hydrologic constrain to carbon (C) gains and productivity. While such a constraint cannot be overcome, evolution has led to a number of adaptations that allow plants to thrive under highly variable and often limiting water availability. It may be hypothesized that these adaptations are optimal and allow maximum C gain for a given water availability. A corollary hypothesis is that these adaptations manifest themselves as coordination between the leaf photosynthetic machinery and the plant hydraulic system. This coordination leads to functional relations between the mean hydrologic state, plant hydraulic traits, and photosynthetic parameters that can be used as bridge across temporal scales. Here, optimality theories describing the behavior of stomata and plant morphological features in a fluctuating soil moisture environment are proposed. The overarching goal is to explain observed global patterns of plant water use and their ecological and biogeochemical consequences. The problem is initially framed as an optimal control problem of stomatal closure during drought of a given duration, where maximizing the total photosynthesis under limited and diminishing water availability is the objective function. Analytical solutions show that commonly used transpiration models (in which stomatal conductance is assumed to depend on soil moisture) are particular solutions emerging from the optimal control problem. Relations between stomatal conductance, vapor pressure deficit, and atmospheric CO2 are also obtained without any a priori assumptions under this framework. Second, the temporal scales of the model are expanded by explicitly considering the stochasticity of rainfall. In this context, the optimal control problem becomes a maximization problem for the mean photosynthetic rate. Results show that to achieve maximum C gains under these

  2. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  3. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  4. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  5. Influence of the 6 Bencilaminopurina on the in vitro behavior of Henequen plants obtained by embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo González

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the acclimatization phase, a group of derived plants from henequen embryos, germinated in a medium with different concentrations of 6 BAP, was evaluated. In these results it is evidenced that the content of 6 BAP in the germination medium determined the behaviour of the vitroplants. The lower concentrations provoked an significative increase in the height and width of the base from plants, superior surviver percentage and minor stomata opening. These results suggest that high concentations of 6 BAP prevents the development of the acclimatization phase in derived plants from henequen embryos. Key words: somatic embryogenesis, 6 BAP, aclimatization. Agave

  6. Modeling the water use efficiency of soybean and maize plants under environmental stresses: application of a synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui-Rui; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Zhuang, Jie

    2004-03-01

    Understanding the variability of plant WUE and its control mechanism can promote the comprehension to the coupling relationship of water and carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem, which is the foundation for developing water-carbon coupling cycle model. In this paper, we made clear the differences of net assimilation rate, transpiration rate, and WUE between the two species by comparing the experiment data of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants under water and soil nutrient stresses. WUE of maize was about two and a half times more than that of soybean in the same weather conditions. Enhancement of water stresses led to the marked decrease of Am and Em of two species, but water stresses of some degree could improve WUE, and this effect was more obvious for soybean. WUE of the two species changed with psiL in a second-order curve relation, and the WUE at high fertilization was higher than that at low fertilization, this effect was especially obvious for maize. Moreover, according to the synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior (SMPTSB) presented by Yu et al. (2001), the WUE model and its applicability were discussed with the data measured in this experiment. The WUE estimated by means of the model accorded well with the measured values. However, this model underestimated the WUE for maize slightly, thus further improvement on the original model was made in this study. Finally, by discussing some physiological factors controlling Am and WUE, we made clear the physiological explanation for differences of the relative contributions of stomata- and mesophyll processes to control of Am and WUE, and the applicability of WUE model between the two species. Because the requirement to stomatal conductance by unit change of net assimilation rate is different, the responses of opening-closing activity of stomata to environmental stresses are different between the two species. To obtain the same level of net assimilation

  7. Current trends in codal requirements for safety in operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivasista, K.; Shah, Y.K.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Code of practice on safety in nuclear power plant operation states the requirements to be met during operation of a nuclear power plant for assuring safety. Among various stages of authorization, regulatory body issues authorization for operation of a nuclear power plant, monitors and enforces regulatory requirements. The responsible organization shall have overall responsibility and the plant management shall have the primary responsibility for ensuring safe and efficient operation of its nuclear power plants. A set of codal requirements covering technical and administrative aspects are mandatory for the plant management to implement to ensure that the nuclear power plant is operated in accordance with the design intent. Requirements on operating procedures and instructions establish operation and maintenance, inspection and testing of the plant in a planned and systematic way. The requirements on emergency preparedness programme establish with a reasonable assurance that, in the event of an emergency situation, appropriate measures can be taken to mitigate the consequences. Commissioning requirements verify performance criteria during commissioning to ensure that the design intent and QA requirements are met. Several modifications in systems important to safety required during operation of a nuclear power plant are regulated. However new operational codal requirements arising out of periodic safety review, operational experience feedback, life management, probabilistic safety assessment, physical security, safety convention and obligations and decommissioning are not covered in the present code of practice for safety in nuclear power plant operation. Codal provisions on 'Review by operating organization on aspects of design having implications on operability' are also required to be addressed. The merits in developing such a methodology include acceptance of the design by operating organization, ensuring maintainability, proper layout etc. in the new designs

  8. Stomatal kinetics and photosynthetic gas exchange along a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric regulation of plant water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Meinzer; Duncan D. Smith; David R. Woodruff; Danielle E. Marias; Katherine A. McCulloh; Ava R. Howard; Alicia L. Magedman

    2017-01-01

    Species’ differences in the stringency of stomatal control of plant water potential represent a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviours. However, little is known about how quasi-steady-state stomatal regulation of water potential may relate to dynamic behaviour of stomata and photosynthetic gas exchange in species operating at different positions along this...

  9. Effect of nitrogen supply on transpiration and stomatal behaviour of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimshi, D

    1970-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen supply on the transpiration rate and stomatal opening of potted bean plants was studied in a series of experiments. The transpiration rates of N-supplied plants were higher than those of N-deficient plants when soil moisture was relatively high; as soil moisture approached the wilting range, the transpiration rates of N-supplied plants dropped to below those of N-deficient plants. In spite of the marked differences in transpiration rates, as influenced by soil moisture and nitrogen supply, the stomata appeared closed. By coating the upper or lower surfaces of the leaves with a vapor-impervious compound it was shown that stomatal apertures below the limit of microscopic resolution control the rate of transpiration. Under conditions that encourage stomatal opening (covering the plants with transparent plastic bags), the stomata of the N-deficient plants opened to a lesser degree than those of N-supplied plants. There was some evidence that when stomata were visibly open, transpiration rates were regulated by the degree of plant hydration rather than by the degree of stomatal opening. It is concluded that N-deficient plants fail to open their stomata as widely and to close them as tightly as N-supplied plants. 8 references, 2 tables.

  10. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It takes into account developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication

  11. Anatomical Basis for Optimal Use of Water for Maintenance of Three Xerophytic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three xerophytic plant species namely Agave americana Linn., Aloe vera Tourn. and Linn. and Euphorbia milii Des Moul. were propagated in a greenhouse each with 5 varying soil moisture contents i.e. 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% and subjected to 4 watering frequencies i.e. daily, weekly, biweekly and monthly. Euphorbia milii was the most xerophytic species having relatively lower rate of transpiration than Aloe vera and Agave americana. It was suggested that the high rate of transpiration in Aloe vera and Agave americana may be due to the large tetracytic stomata as compared to the small paracytic stomata of Euphorbia milii. It was also observed that Aloe vera was least tolerant of high soil moisture in daily watering as well as low soil moisture in monthly regime. Agave americana and Euphorbia milii were species that were more robust with capacity to cope well with low and high watering regimes than Aloe vera.

  12. Diverse roles of ERECTA family genes in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Elena D

    2013-12-01

    Multiple receptor-like kinases (RLKs) enable intercellular communication that coordinates growth and development of plant tissues. ERECTA family receptors (ERfs) are an ancient family of leucine-rich repeat RLKs that in Arabidopsis consists of three genes: ERECTA, ERL1, and ERL2. ERfs sense secreted cysteine-rich peptides from the EPF/EPFL family and transmit the signal through a MAP kinase cascade. This review discusses the functions of ERfs in stomata development, in regulation of longitudinal growth of aboveground organs, during reproductive development, and in the shoot apical meristem. In addition the role of ERECTA in plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors is examined. Elena D. Shpak (Corresponding author). © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. B plant standards/requirements identification document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) set forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ES{ampersand}H) standards/requirements for the B Plant. This S/RID is applicable to the appropriate life cycle phases of design, construction,operation, and preparation for decommissioning. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment.

  14. Construction plant requirements for nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.; Harris, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and developing the temporary construction plant facilities for a nuclear project is equivalent to providing utility services for a small city. Provision of adequate facilities is an important factor in the productivity of both the manual and non-manual work force. This paper summarizes construction facility requirements for a two unit (1300 MWe each) nuclear project. Civil, mechanical and electrical facilities are described, including design, installation and operation. Assignment of responsibility for specific work tasks regarding the construction plant is also discussed. In presenting this data, the authors seek to transfer experience and assist in the provision of adequate facilities on future projects

  15. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  16. International requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernicke, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Lifetime extension or long-term operation of nuclear facilities are topics of great international significance against the backdrop of a fleet of nuclear power plants of which many have reached 2/3 of their planned life. The article deals with the conditions for, and the specific requirements of, seeking long-term operation of nuclear power plants as established internationally and on the basis of IAEA collections. Technically, long-term operation is possible for many of the nuclear power plants in the world because, normally, they were built on the basis of conservative rules and regulations and, as a consequence, incorporate significant additional safety. Application of requirements to specific plants implies assessments of technical safety which show that conservative design philosophies created reserves and, as a consequence, there is an adequate level of safety also in long-term plant operation. For this purpose, the technical specifications must be revised, necessary additions made, and (international) operating experience taken into account and management of aging established. Two examples are presented to show how the approach to long-term plant operation is put into practice on a national level. (orig.)

  17. 7 CFR 330.200 - Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests regulated; permits required... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.200 Movement of...

  18. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Tarafdar, Jagadish C.; Biswas, Pratim

    2013-01-01

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles ( d p watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  19. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have reported that stomata regulate leaf gas-exchange around “set...

  20. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA’s Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.

  1. Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed

  2. QA manpower requirement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.

    1980-01-01

    To ensure the quality of the plant, QA activities are to be performed by the owner, the main contractor, the subcontractors and the Licensing Authority. The responsibilities of the QA-personnel of these organizations comprise as a minimum the control of the quality assurance systems and the proof of the quality requirements. Numbers of the required QA-personnel, designated for different tasks and recommended educational levels and professional qualifications will be given. (orig./RW)

  3. The Applications to Increase Drought Tolerance of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Yavaş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal drought is a major threat that adversely affects crop growth and metabolism, and limits the yield. Water stress causes many morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in plants. Plant height, root length, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass are reduced under drought stress. Besides, water stress causes the reduction of relative water content, the closure of stomata and decrease in photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, ascorbat peroxidase (ASC, glutatiton (GSH, catalase (CAT enzyme activities, the indicator of oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA and proline levels also changes in drought conditions. Nutrient uptake by plants is prevented or restricted before grain development stage during drought conditions. Therefore the application of plant nutrients followed by micronutrient remobilization within plant is great importance. Osmoprotectants (cytokinin, mannitol, abscisic acid, proline, glycine betaine, polyamine etc. detoxify adverse effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS and alleviate drought stress. Exogenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR application encourage plant growth by colonizing the plant root and increase plants’ resistance to water stress. Besides, the farmers can use conservation tillage system in dry periods.

  4. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M; Batke, Sven P; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency.

  5. Implications of fusion power plant studies for materials requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Ian; Ward, David; Dudarev, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the key requirements for fusion materials, as these have emerged from studies of commercial fusion power plants. The objective of the international fusion programme is the creation of power stations that will have very attractive safety and environmental features and viable economics. Fusion power plant studies have shown that these objectives may be achieved without requiring extreme advances in materials. But it is required that existing candidate materials perform at least as well as envisaged in the environment of fusion neutrons, heat fluxes and particle fluxes. The development of advanced materials would bring further benefits. The work required entails the investigation of many intellectually exciting physics issues of great scientific interest, and of wider application than fusion. In addition to giving an overview, selected aspects of the science, of particular physics interest, are illustrated

  6. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Requirements and concepts for a nuclear plant surveillance and diagnostic system (NPSDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Lanning, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced plant surveillance and diagnostic system has been postulated for the purpose of aiding operator response to unanticipated plant upsets. The plant operator is described as an information processor that needs plant status information represented by symbolic outputs. These will be compatible with modern visual processing techniques, such as CRTs. Preferrred methods of estimating the state-of-the-plant and verifying measurements require on-line real-time models which are simple dynamical relationships based on energy and mass conservation laws. Implementation of on-line state estimation techniques using such models probably requires a distributed microcomputer system whose features are described. (auth)

  8. The impact of technical specification surveillance requirements and allowable outage times on plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.A.; Finnicum, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Surveillances required to be conducted by a plant's Technical Specifications have resulted in plant shutdowns and lost availability. This paper looks at shutdowns which have occurred due to required surveillance testing and insufficient repair time allowed by Technical Specifications. A loss of plant availability of almost 3% per plant year was found for U.S. pressurized water reactors during the five year period, 1979 to 1984. This figure excludes major problems which required plant shutdown whether or not mandated by the Technical Specifications. In addition to their affect on availability, such shutdowns can add to the challenges to plant safety systems and can affect plant aging by increasing the thermal cycles on plant components

  9. Forecasting manpower requirements for nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, N.; Schriver, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents both the methodology and results of a segment of a comprehensive construction manpower demand forecasting system aimed at forecasting virtually all construction manpower requirements in the United States of America. The part of the system dealing with the demand for construction workers needed to build nuclear powered electricity generating plants is discussed here. The object of the system is to forecast manpower construction needs for each of 29 construction crafts on a monthly basis in each of 10 geographical regions of the United States. The method used is to establish profiles of the types of workers and time phasing required in the past. Profiling was done for different types of plants, different capacity classes, and different geographical locations. An appropriate worker profile matrix cannot simply be multiplied by the capacity of the proposed plant if the number of man-hours required per kilowatt of generating capacity is not constant. The value of this latter variable has changed considerably recently - presumably because of an increased awareness of environmental and safety considerations. Econometric techniques are used to forecast values for man-hours per kilowatt which are then multiplied by projected new capacity to be put in place. The resulting total man-hour requirement is then allocated over time and by craft through use of a worker profile matrix. The summary results indicate that 20 percent increases in man-hours required per kilowatt of capacity can be expected between 1977 and 1981. Total construction labour demand will rise from 65,700 work-years in 1977 to nearly 96,600 work-years in 1981. Forecasts of the actual number of different types of workers to be demanded in each month and in each region are available from the system. (author)

  10. Novel insights on the structure and composition of pseudostomata of Sphagnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merced, Amelia

    2015-03-01

    The occurrence of stomata on sporophytes of mosses and hornworts is congruent with a single origin in land plants. Although true stomata are absent in early-divergent mosses, Sphagnum has specialized epidermal cells, pseudostomata, that partially separate but do not open to the inside. This research examined two competing hypotheses that explain the origin of pseudostomata: (1) they are modified stomata, or (2) they evolved from epidermal cells independently from stomata.• Capsule anatomy and ultrastructure of pseudostomata were studied using light and electron microscopy, including immunolocalization of pectins.• Cell walls in pseudostomata are thin, two-layered, and rich in pectins, similar to young moss stomata, including the presence of cuticle on exterior walls. Outer and ventral walls have a thick cuticle that suggests that initial separation of ventral walls involves cuticle deposition as in true stomata. Further mechanical separation between ventral walls does not form a pore and occurs as the capsule dries.• As in moss stomata, pseudostomata wall architecture and behavior facilitate capsule dehydration, shape change, and dehiscence, supporting a common function. The divergent structure and fate of pseudostomata may be explained by the retention of Sphagnum sporophytes within protective leaves until nearly mature. Ultrastructural and immunocytological data suggest that pseudostomata are related to stomata but do not conclusively support either hypothesis. Solving the relationship of early land plants is critical to understanding stomatal evolution. Pseudostomata are structurally and anatomically unique, but their relationship to true stomata remains to be determined. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Ecosystem-scale plant hydraulic strategies inferred from remotely-sensed soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouni, M.; Good, S. P.; Higgins, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing plant hydraulic strategies at the ecosystem scale is important to improve estimates of evapotranspiration and to understand ecosystem productivity and resilience. However, quantifying plant hydraulic traits beyond the species level is a challenge. The probability density function of soil moisture observations provides key information about the soil moisture states at which evapotranspiration is reduced by water stress. Here, an inverse Bayesian approach is applied to a standard bucket model of soil column hydrology forced with stochastic precipitation inputs. Through this approach, we are able to determine the soil moisture thresholds at which stomata are open or closed that are most consistent with observed soil moisture probability density functions. This research utilizes remotely-sensed soil moisture data to explore global patterns of ecosystem-scale plant hydraulic strategies. Results are complementary to literature values of measured hydraulic traits of various species in different climates and previous estimates of ecosystem-scale plant isohydricity. The presented approach provides a novel relation between plant physiological behavior and soil-water dynamics.

  12. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation.

  13. Reconstructing Middle Eocene Climate and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration: Application of a mechanistic theoretical approach to fossil plants from the Messel Pit (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, M.; Roth-Nebelsick, A.; Wilde, V.; Konrad, W.; Utescher, T.

    2009-12-01

    It is assumed that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations (from now on expressed as Ca) strongly influenced the development of global temperatures during parts of the Cenozoic. Thus, detailed knowledge of ancient Ca and its variations is of utmost importance for exploring the coupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate change. Numerous techniques (such as carbon and boron isotopes) were applied in order to obtain Ca, with varying and sometimes even conflicting results. Stomatal density (number of stomata per leaf area) represents another promising proxy for the calculation of ancient Ca since many plants reduce the number of stomata (pores on the leaf surface used for gas exchange) under increasing Ca. As a reason it is assumed that plants try to adjust stomatal conductance in order to optimize their gas exchange (which means maximal assimilation at minimal transpiration). The common technique for calculating Ca from fossil stomatal frequency is to create empirical transfer functions of living plants derived from herbar material or greenhouse experiments. In the presented project, Ca of the Middle Eocene is calculated by applying a different approach which utilizes a mechanistic-theoretical calibration. It couples the processes of a) C3-photosynthesis, b) diffusion and c) transpiration with palaeoclimatic and leaf-anatomical data. The model also includes an optimisation principle supported by ecophysiological data. According to this optimisation principle, plants adjust their stomatal conductance in such a way that photosynthesis rates are constrained by optimal water use (transpiration). This model was applied in the present study to fossil plants from the Messel Pit near Darmstadt (Germany). In order to reconstruct Ca by using fossil plant taxa from Messel, numerous parameters which represent model input have to be estimated from measurements of living representatives. Furthermore, since climate parameters are also required by the model, quantitative

  14. Evaluation of the energy required for constructing and operating a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1982-09-01

    The energy required for constructing and operating a tokamak fusion power plant is appraised with respect to the energy output during the lifetime of the plant. A harvesting factor is deduced as a relevant figure of energetic merit and is used for a comparison between fusion, fission, and coal-fired power plants. Because fusion power plants involve considerable uncertainties the comparison is supplemented by a sensitivity analysis. In comparison with Light Water Reactor plants fusion power plants appear to be rather favourable in this respect. The energy required for providing the fuel is relatively low for fusion plants, thus overcompensating the considerable higher amount of energy necessary for constructing the fusion power plant. (orig.)

  15. Stomatal responses to carbon dioxide of isolated epidermis from a C/sub 3/ plant, the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum L. , and a crassulacean-acid-metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewer, P.C.; Neales, T.F.; Incoll, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The response of stomata in isolated epidermis to the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous phase was examined in a C/sub 3/ species, the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum, and a crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) species, Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Epidermis from leaves of both species was incubated on buffer solutions in the presence of air containing various volume fractions of CO/sub 2/ (0 to 10,000 x 10/sup -6/). In both species and in the light and in darkness, the effect of CO/sub 2/ was to inhibit stomatal opening, the maximum inhibition of opening occurring in the range 0 to 360 x 10/sup -6/. The inhibition of opening per unit change in concentration was greatest between volume fractions of 0 and 240 x 10/sup -6/. There was little further closure above the volume fraction of 360 x 10/sup -6/, i.e. approximately ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/. Thus, although leaves of CAM species may experience much higher internal concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the light than those of C/sub 3/ plants, this does not affect the sensitivity of their stomata to CO/sub 2/ concentration or the range over which they respond. Stomatal responses to CO/sub 2/ were similar in both the light and the dark, indicating that effects of CO/sub 2/ on stomata occur via mechanisms which are independent of light. The responses of stomata to CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous phase took place without the treatments changing the pH of the buffered solutions. Thus, it is unlikely that CO/sub 2/ elicited stomatal movement by changing either the pH or the HCO/sub 3//sup -//CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ equilibria. It is suggested that the concentration of dissolved unhydrated CO/sub 2/ may be the effector of stomatal movement and that its activity is related to its reactivity with amines.

  16. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K; Dahms, Tanya E S; Silva, Roberto N; Singh, Harikesh B; Upadhyay, Ram S; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak S, Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant-fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant-fungal interactions. © FEMS 2015.

  17. Shield requirement estimation for pin storage room in fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanthi, M.M.; Keshavamurthy, R.S.; Sivashankaran, G.

    2012-01-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF) is an upcoming project in Kalpakkam. It has the facility to recycle the fuel from PFBR. It is an integrated facility, consists of fuel reprocessing plant, fuel fabrication plant (FFP), core subassembly plant, Reprocessed Uranium plant (RUP) and waste management plant. The spent fuel from PFBR would be reprocessed in fuel reprocessing plant. The reprocessed fuel material would be sent to fuel fabrication plant. The main activity of fuel fabrication plant is the production of MOX fuel pins. The fuel fabrication plant has a fuel pin storage room. The shield requirement for the pin storage room has been estimated by Monte Carlo method. (author)

  18. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It takes into account developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  19. Optimal allocation of leaf epidermal area for gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J; Price, Charles A; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C; Franks, Peter J; Veneklaas, Erik J

    2016-06-01

    A long-standing research focus in phytology has been to understand how plants allocate leaf epidermal space to stomata in order to achieve an economic balance between the plant's carbon needs and water use. Here, we present a quantitative theoretical framework to predict allometric relationships between morphological stomatal traits in relation to leaf gas exchange and the required allocation of epidermal area to stomata. Our theoretical framework was derived from first principles of diffusion and geometry based on the hypothesis that selection for higher anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax ) involves a trade-off to minimize the fraction of the epidermis that is allocated to stomata. Predicted allometric relationships between stomatal traits were tested with a comprehensive compilation of published and unpublished data on 1057 species from all major clades. In support of our theoretical framework, stomatal traits of this phylogenetically diverse sample reflect spatially optimal allometry that minimizes investment in the allocation of epidermal area when plants evolve towards higher gsmax . Our results specifically highlight that the stomatal morphology of angiosperms evolved along spatially optimal allometric relationships. We propose that the resulting wide range of viable stomatal trait combinations equips angiosperms with developmental and evolutionary flexibility in leaf gas exchange unrivalled by gymnosperms and pteridophytes. © 2016 The Authors New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Effects of soil flooding on photosynthesis and growth of Zea mays L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... most important responses of plants to soil flooding which could be caused by ... by monitoring stomata morphometric, intercellular CO2 (Ci) and stomata ..... absorb water and nutrients, then decrease root growth rate and dry ...

  1. Test requirements for the integral effect test to simulate Korean PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J.; Kwon, T. S.; Yun, B. J.; Chung, M. K

    2001-02-01

    In this report, the test requirements are described for the design of the integral effect test facility to simulate Korean PWR plants. Since the integral effect test facility should be designed so as to simulate various thermal hydraulic phenomena, as closely as possible, to be occurred in real plants during operation or anticipated transients, the design and operational characteristics of the reference plants (Korean Standard Nuclear Plant and Korean Next Generation Reactor)were analyzed in order to draw major components, systems, and functions to be satisfied or simulated in the test facility. The test matrix is set up by considering major safety concerns of interest and the test objectives to confirm and enhance the safety of the plants. And the analysis and prioritization of the test matrix leads to the general design requirements of the test facility. Based on the general design requirements, the design criteria is set up for the basic and detailed design of the test facility. And finally it is drawn the design requirements specific to the fluid system and measurement system of the test facility. The test requirements in this report will be used as a guideline to the scaling analysis and basic design of the test facility. The test matrix specified in this report can be modified in the stage of main testing by considering the needs of experiments and circumstances at that time.

  2. Test requirements for the integral effect test to simulate Korean PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J.; Kwon, T. S.; Yun, B. J.; Chung, M. K.

    2001-02-01

    In this report, the test requirements are described for the design of the integral effect test facility to simulate Korean PWR plants. Since the integral effect test facility should be designed so as to simulate various thermal hydraulic phenomena, as closely as possible, to be occurred in real plants during operation or anticipated transients, the design and operational characteristics of the reference plants (Korean Standard Nuclear Plant and Korean Next Generation Reactor)were analyzed in order to draw major components, systems, and functions to be satisfied or simulated in the test facility. The test matrix is set up by considering major safety concerns of interest and the test objectives to confirm and enhance the safety of the plants. And the analysis and prioritization of the test matrix leads to the general design requirements of the test facility. Based on the general design requirements, the design criteria is set up for the basic and detailed design of the test facility. And finally it is drawn the design requirements specific to the fluid system and measurement system of the test facility. The test requirements in this report will be used as a guideline to the scaling analysis and basic design of the test facility. The test matrix specified in this report can be modified in the stage of main testing by considering the needs of experiments and circumstances at that time

  3. Foliar Epidermal Studies of Plants in Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Thakur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes foliar epidermal structure in 17 species belonging to 17 genera of the family Euphoprbiaceae. Anomocytic stomata is predominant, rarely they are anisocytic, paracytic on the same foliar surface with different combinations. Leaves are hypostomatic and rarely amphistomatic. The foliar surface is smooth, rarely striated. The foliar epidermal cell walls are straight or undulate. Distribution of stomata, stomatal index, stomatal frequency, stomatal size and other cell wall contours are described in detail.

  4. Stomatal clustering in Begonia associates with the kinetics of leaf gaseous exchange and influences water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Amtmann, Anna; Blatt, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    Stomata are microscopic pores formed by specialized cells in the leaf epidermis and permit gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal pavement cell and, individually, overlay a single substomatal cavity within the leaf. This spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function. Yet, there are several genera naturally exhibiting stomata in clusters and therefore deviating from the one-cell spacing rule with multiple stomata overlaying a single substomatal cavity. We made use of two Begonia species to investigate whether clustering of stomata alters guard cell dynamics and gas exchange under different light and dark treatments. Begonia plebeja, which forms stomatal clusters, exhibited enhanced kinetics of stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation upon light stimuli that in turn were translated into greater water use efficiency. Our findings emphasize the importance of spacing in stomatal clusters for gaseous exchange and plant performance under environmentally limited conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Tolerance of plants to air pollutants. Shokubutsu no taiki osen taisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, N.; Saji, H. (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-11-10

    Attempts have been made to improve tolerance of plants to air pollutants by changing activities in detoxifying enzymes against toxic substances attributable to air pollutants, through gene manipulation. An air pollutant, absorbed in a plant through its stomata, produces toxic substances in the cells and damages the organism. Detailed discussions were given on the following: Stoma opening action and reaction; injuries attributable to air pollutants and detoxifying metabolism systems; ethylene and toxic enzymes of secondary toxic substances in an organism; different detoxifying mechanisms and active enzymes; and activation of detoxifying enzymes using genes. Pollution tolerance in plants is governed by inherent plant natures and environmental conditions. Plants that have two opposing functions of emerging damages from toxicity and preventing them with detoxifying capability are controlled with a complex and delicate balance. Changing pollution tolerance in plants may be possible by manipulating genes, but the importance is to elucidate what the tolerating enzymes are, and obtain their genes. Genes that could be used are very few in number. Expectations are placed on the future development. 122 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Overall quality assurance program requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This standard contains the requirements for the owner's overall quality assurance program for a nuclear power plant. This program encompasses all phases of a nuclear power plant life cycle, including site evaluation, design, procurement, manufacturing, construction and installation, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning. It covers the activities associated with specifying, directing, and administering the work to be done during these phases, and the evaluation and integrated of the activities and programs of participants

  7. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bačić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill., both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fused and agglomerated rapidly to various extents of morphologically different types of amorphous wax crusts, primarily compact and particulate ones. This process begins very early, especially in polluted Risnjak site, and may be interpreted as a possible result of air pollution. However, the recrystalization, or production of new tubules, also appears relatively quickly in mostly cases. Quantitative estimations indicate a very large total amount of amorphous wax crusts in the current-year needles, and a very high percentage of the same wax in previous-year needles. Amorphous wax crusts cover stomatal pores, as well as the rims, disturbing the normal gas exchange. Statistically there is a signicant tendency of increase in wax degradation in the needles of the polluted site in comparison with those of the unpolluted one, but there is an insignificant wax degradation among the needles of damaged trees within each site. These results confirmed most of the research done in our preliminary report.

  8. ICT Requirements and Challenges for Provision of Grid Services from Renewable Generation Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Petersen, Lennart

    2018-01-01

    The penetration of renewable energy into the electricity supply mix necessitates the traditional power grid to become more resilient, reliable and efficient. One way of ensuring this is to require renewable power plants to have similar regulating properties as conventional power plants...... applications – in terms of data payloads, sampling rates, latency and reliability. Therefore, this paper presents a brief survey on the control and communication architectures for controlling renewable power plants in the future power grid, including the communication network technologies, requirements...... and to coordinate their grid support services (GSS) as well. Among other requirements, the coordination of GSS will highly depend on the communication between renewable plants and system operators’ control rooms, thereby imposing high responsibility on the under lying communication infrastructure. Despite...

  9. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions stated...

  10. Safety requirements to the operation of hydropower plants; Sicherheit beim Betrieb von Wasserkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Reinhard [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse (BG ETEM), Koeln (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Employers have to take into account various safety and health requirements relating to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of hydropower plants. Especially the diversity of the hydropower plant components requires the consideration of different safety and health aspects. In 2011 the ''Fachausschuss Elektrotechnik'' (expert committee electro-technics) of the institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention presented a new ''BG-Information'' dealing with ''Safe methods operating hydropower plants''. The following article gives an introduction into the conception and the essential requirements of this new BG-Information. (orig.)

  11. Safety and regulatory requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.V.; Bhardwaj, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A pre-requisite for a nuclear power program in any country is well established national safety and regulatory requirements. These have evolved for nuclear power plants in India with participation of the regulatory body, utility, research and development (R and D) organizations and educational institutions. Prevailing international practices provided a useful base to develop those applicable to specific system designs for nuclear power plants in India. Their effectiveness has been demonstrated in planned activities of building up the nuclear power program as well as with unplanned activities, like those due to safety related incidents etc. (author)

  12. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Upodika- Basella alba L.: An Important Ayurvedic Antidiabetic Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Shantha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. Results: Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem. Rubiaceous type of stomata on both sides of the leaf. Quantitative microscopy along with physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis were also established. Conclusion: The pharmacognostic standards could serve as the reference for the proper identification of the Basella alba L. which is an important anti-diabetic plant described in Ayurveda.

  13. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA’s Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) sets forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ESH) standards/requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This S/RID is applicable to the appropriate life cycle phases of design, construction, operation, and preparation for decommissioning. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment.

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) sets forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ESH) standards/requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This S/RID is applicable to the appropriate life cycle phases of design, construction, operation, and preparation for decommissioning. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment

  16. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Design Requirements Document (DRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

  17. Deriving human resource requirements for new nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodnight, Ch.T.

    2007-01-01

    For those contemplating the deployment of a new nuclear plant, critical issues include the development of the operational staff and its organization. This paper will discuss the key elements of deriving an appropriate staff plan for steady state operations. There are five areas that must be analyzed, and each area has unique requirements. These key areas are 1) Operations, 2) Engineering, 3) Maintenance, 4) Regulatory/Oversight, and 5) Site Support. After the analysis for each area is complete, and the human resource requirements are identified, an organizational structure must be developed to support the necessary management, potential centralization, and appropriate functional alignments for effective and safe plant operation. Four organizational design principals have been defined. The first design principal relates to the organizational structure: no more than 7 layers of management between an individual contributor and the senior nuclear manager in the NPP. The second design principal relates to the grouping of activities in order to ensure appropriate management of related or supporting activities. The third design principal relates to out-sourcing support activities when these activities comply with particular conditions for instance when they are not mission critical to day-to day plant operations. The fourth design principal relates to the centralization of some activities when there is more than one NPP operated by the same parent company

  18. Development of regulatory requirements/guides for desalination unit coupled with nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik

    2005-10-01

    The basic design of System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), a small-to-medium sized integral type pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capacity of 330MWth, has been developed in Korea. In order to demonstrate the safety and performance of the SMART design, 'Development Project of SMART-P (SMART-Pilot Plant)' has been being performed as one of the 'National Mid and Long-term Atomic Energy R and D Programs', which includes design, construction, and start-up operation of the SMART-P with the capacity of 65MWth, a 1/5 scaled-down design of the SMART. At the same time, a study on the development of regulatory requirements/guides for the desalination unit coupled with nuclear plant has been carried out by KINS in order to prepare for the forthcoming SMART-P licensing. The results of this study performed from August of 2002 to October of 2005 can be summarized as follows: (1) The general status of desalination technologies has been survey. (2) The design of the desalination plant coupled with the SMART-P has been investigated. (3) The regulatory requirements/guides relevant to a desalination unit coupled with a nuclear plant have been surveyed. (4) A direction on the development of domestic regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit has been established. (5) A draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit has been developed. (6) Expert technical reviews have been performed for the draft regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit. The draft regulatory requirements/guides developed in this study will be finalized and can be applied directly to the licensing of the SMART-P and SMART. Furthermore, it will be also applied to the licensing of the desalination unit coupled with the nuclear plant

  19. Effects of oils on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J M

    1970-01-01

    Oils vary in their toxicity according to the content of low-boiling compounds, unsaturated compounds, aromatics, and acids. The higher the concentration of these constituents, the more toxic the oil. After penetrating into a plant, the oil may travel in the intercellular spaces and possibly also in the vascular system. Cell membranes are damaged by penetration of hydrocarbon molecules, leading to leakage of cell contents, and oil may enter the cells. Oils reduce the transpiration rate, probably by blocking the stomata and intercellular spaces. This may also be the reason for the reduction of the photosynthesis which occurs, though there are other possible explanations of this - such as disruption of chloroplast membranes and inhibition caused by accumulation of end-products. The effects of oils on respiration are variable, but an increase of respiration rate often occurs, possibly due to mitochondrial damage resulting in an uncoupling effect. Oils inhibit translocation probably by physical interference. The severity of the above effects depends on the constituents and amount of the oil, on the environmental conditions, and on the species of plant involved. 88 references, 3 tables.

  20. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weining; Tarafdar, Jagadish C.; Biswas, Pratim

    2013-01-01

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles (d p < 100 nm) generated by the aerosol process could enter the leaf following the stomatal pathway, then pass through the stem, and reach the root of the watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  1. Nanoparticle synthesis and delivery by an aerosol route for watermelon plant foliar uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weining [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States); Tarafdar, Jagadish C. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute (India); Biswas, Pratim, E-mail: pbiswas@wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-01-15

    An aerosol process was developed for synthesis and delivery of nanoparticles for living watermelon plant foliar uptake. This is an efficient technique capable of generating nanoparticles with controllable particle sizes and number concentrations. Aerosolized nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and enter the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems, eliminating potential ecological risks. The uptake and transport of nanoparticles inside the watermelon plants were investigated systematically by various techniques, such as elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and plant anatomy by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that certain fractions of nanoparticles (d{sub p} < 100 nm) generated by the aerosol process could enter the leaf following the stomatal pathway, then pass through the stem, and reach the root of the watermelon plants. The particle size and number concentration played an important role in nanoparticle translocation inside the plants. In addition, the nanoparticle application method, working environment, and leaf structure are also important factors to be considered for successful plant foliar uptake.

  2. Parametric requirements for noncircular tokamak commercial fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, R.F.

    1978-05-01

    Systems analyses have been performed in order to determine the parameter ranges for economical operation of equilibrium commercial fusion power plants using noncircular tokamak reactors. The fully-integrated systems code SCOPE was employed in which costs of electricity were used as the critical dependent variable by which the effects of changes in system parameters were observed. The results of these studies show that many of the operating parameters required for economical operation can be considerably relaxed from what has been thought necessary. For example: (1) Neutron wall loadings over about 2 megawatts per square meter are unnecessary for economical tokamak operation; (2) electrical power levels beyond 1000 MW(e) are not required. In fact, power levels as low as 100 MW(e) may be acceptable; (3) total beta values of 10 to 12 percent are adequate for economic operation; (4) duty cycles as low as 50 percent have only a small effect on plant economics; (5) an acceptable first wall lifetime is 15 MW-yr per square meter

  3. Pseudomonas syringae Catalases Are Collectively Required for Plant Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Block, Anna; Bryan, Crystal D.; Becker, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 must detoxify plant-produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in order to survive in its host plant. Candidate enzymes for this detoxification include the monofunctional catalases KatB and KatE and the bifunctional catalase-peroxidase KatG of DC3000. This study shows that KatG is the major housekeeping catalase of DC3000 and provides protection against menadione-generated endogenous H2O2. In contrast, KatB rapidly and substantially accumulates in response to exogenous H2O2. Furthermore, KatB and KatG have nonredundant roles in detoxifying exogenous H2O2 and are required for full virulence of DC3000 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, the nonredundant ability of KatB and KatG to detoxify plant-produced H2O2 is essential for the bacteria to survive in plants. Indeed, a DC3000 catalase triple mutant is severely compromised in its ability to grow in planta, and its growth can be partially rescued by the expression of katB, katE, or katG. Interestingly, our data demonstrate that although KatB and KatG are the major catalases involved in the virulence of DC3000, KatE can also provide some protection in planta. Thus, our results indicate that these catalases are virulence factors for DC3000 and are collectively required for pathogenesis. PMID:22797762

  4. Structural materials requirements for in-vessel components of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der

    2000-01-01

    The economic production of fusion energy is determined by principal choices such as using magnetic plasma confinement or generating inertial fusion energy. The first generation power plants will use deuterium and tritium mixtures as fuel, producing large amounts of highly energetic neutrons resulting in radiation damage in materials. In the far future the advanced fuels, 3 He or 11 B, determine power plant designs with less radiation damage than in the first generation. The first generation power plants design must anticipate radiation damage. Solid sacrificing armour or liquid layers could limit component replacements costs to economic levels. There is more than radiation damage resistance to determine the successful application of structural materials. High endurance against cyclic loading is a prominent requirement, both for magnetic and inertial fusion energy power plants. For high efficiency and compactness of the plant, elevated temperature behaviour should be attractive. Safety and environmental requirements demand that materials have low activation potential and little toxic effects under both normal and accident conditions. The long-term contenders for fusion power plant components near the plasma are materials in the range from innovative steels, such as reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels, to highly advanced ceramic composites based on silicon carbide, and chromium alloys. The steels follow an evolutionary path to basic plant efficiencies. The competition on the energy market in the middle of the next century might necessitate the riskier but more rewarding development of SiCSiC composites or chromium alloys

  5. Hygiene and sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixen, H J

    1997-08-01

    According to Danish regulations, systematic pathogen reducing treatment is required, when industrial by-products and waste products, and urban waste, ie garbage from households and sewage sludge, are processed, before being used - without restrictions - as fertilizers on agricultural land. An adequate pathogen reducing effect (PRE) can be achieved in the digestion tanks and sanitation tanks of the biogas plants, provided they are operated correctly and respect the criteria of the official requirements. The FS-method is a microbiological indicator method based on faecal streptococci (enterococci) (FS). It may be used to check the sanitation effect achieved by the treatment in a tank. The effect is expressed numerically by the log{sub 10}-reduction of the numbers of FS measured in the biomass before and after treatment. The PRE was examined in 10 large-scale biogas plants during a period of 2-3 years. It was demonstrated that properly directed and well-functioning thermophilic digestion tanks ensure the removal of most pathogenic microorganisms from organic waste and slurry. The removal of pathogens by the treatment in mesophilic digestion tanks is incomplete. Systematic studies of the processes of inactivation of bacteria and virus in slurry and in animal tissues gave evidence that the PRE is enhanced in the microbiological environment of thermophilic digestion tanks. The sanitation criteria, ie combinations of temperature/time, for the processing of biomass in digestion tanks and sanitation tanks in biogas plants are specified. (au) 19 refs.

  6. Survival strategies of plants during water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuermann, R.; Stuhlfauth, T.; Sueltemeyer, D.; Fock, H.

    1989-01-01

    Fluorescence and gas exchange of bean, maize, sunflower and wooly foxglove were simultaneously measured at 250 μmol quanta/m 2 /s. Under severe water stresses conditions about 40% of the photochemical energy was converted to heat at PS II. This is interpreted as a protective mechanism against photoinhibitory damage when net CO 2 uptake is reduced by about 70%. After 14 CO 2 gas exchange, only in bean was a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity over the leaf observed. In all other plants we found a patchy distribution of regions with either an intensive or a reduced gas exchange. We conclude that CO 2 -recycling (photorespiration and reassimilation) behind closed stomata also contributed to energy dissipation under severe stress conditions

  7. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure-function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2005-01-01

    Primary production by plants requires the loss of substantial quantities of water when the stomata are open for carbon assimilation. The delivery of that water to the leaves occurs through the xylem. The structure, condition, and quantity of the xylem control not only the transport efficiency but also the release of water from storage. For example, if there is high...

  9. Power requirements of biogas upgrading by water scrubbing and biomethane compression: Comparative analysis of various plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzianowski, Wojciech M.; Wylock, Christophe E.; Marciniak, Przemysław A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Insights into power requirements of biomethane production from biogas are provided. • Process model is constructed, validated and simulated. • High-pressure and low-pressure plant operation in different configurations is compared. - Abstract: Biogas upgrading by water scrubbing followed by biomethane compression is an environmentally benign process. It may be achieved using various plant configurations characterised by various power requirements with associated effects on biomethane sustainability. Therefore, the current study has been undertaken to systematically investigate the power requirements of a range of water scrubbing options. Two groups of water scrubbing are analysed: (1) high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) and (2) near-atmospheric pressure water scrubbing (NAPWS). A water scrubbing plant model is constructed, experimentally validated and simulated for seven upgrading plant configurations. Simulation results show that the power requirement of biogas upgrading in HPWS plants is mainly associated with biogas compression. In contrast, in NAPWS plants the main power is required for water pumping. In both plants the compression of the biomethane from atmosphereic pressure to 20 MPa also contributes remarkably. It is observed that the lowest specific power requirement can be obtained for a NAPWS plant without water regeneration (0.24 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas) but this plant requires cheap water supply, e.g. outlet water from a sewage treatment plant or river. The second is HPWS without flash (0.29 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas). All other HPWS with flash and NAPWS with water regeneration plants have specific power requirements between 0.30 and 0.33 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas. Biogas compression without upgrading requires about 0.29 kW h/Nm"3 raw biogas. The thermodynamic efficiency of biogas upgrading is between 2.2% and 9.8% depending on the plant configuration while biomethane compression efficiency is higher, about 55%. This result implies that the

  10. The effect of tetraploidy induction on morphology and anatomy characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Mansouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of tetraploid plant was studied in Cannabis sativa L. with colchicine at three different concentrations (i.e., 0.0, 0.1 and 0.2% for about 24 and 48 h through dropping method. Flow cytometry analyses were used to confirm the ploidy level. Morphologic and anatomic characteristics between tetraploid and diploid control plants were compared. The results showed that 0.2% colchicine for 24 h had the best effect. The percentage of tetraploid plants and the survival rate were lowered by increasing the treatment time. In addition, the leaf index and height of tetraploid plants exhibited a significant decrease compared to the diploid plants. The size of leaves' epidermis stomata were larger in tetraploid plant compared to the diploid ones, in spite of their less density of stomata. However, the amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoids were almost the same in both of tetraploid and diploid plants. In addition, some differences were also observed in the cross section of stem of these plants from the descriptive structure point of view. On the whole, the results introduced usage of the stomata parameters as an effective and convenient method for detecting the tetraploid plants however, the flow cytometry analysis was more effective in assessing the ploidy percentage.

  11. Uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by plants: removal of volatile indoor air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprapat, Wararat; Suksabye, Parinda; Areephak, Sirintip; Klantup, Polawat; Waraha, Atcharaphan; Sawattan, Anuchit; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2014-04-01

    Air borne uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by twelve plant species was examined. Of the twelve plant species examined, the highest toluene removal was found in Sansevieria trifasciata, while the ethylbenzene removal from air was with Chlorophytum comosum. Toluene and ethylbenzene can penetrate the plant׳s cuticle. However, the removal rates do not appear to be correlated with numbers of stomata per plant. It was found that wax of S. trifasciata and Sansevieria hyacinthoides had greater absorption of toluene and ethylbenzene, and it contained high hexadecanoic acid. Hexadecanoic acid might be involved in toluene and ethylbenzene adsorption by cuticles wax of plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis or the potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in toluene exposed plants showed no significant differences between the control and the treated plants, whereas plants exposed to ethylbenzene showed significant differences or those parameters, specifically in Dracaena deremensis (Lemon lime), Dracaena sanderiana, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Cordyline fruticosa. The Fv/Fm ratio can give insight into the ability of plants to tolerate (indoor) air pollution by volatile organic chemicals (VOC). This index can be used for identification of suitable plants for treating/sequestering VOCs in contaminated air. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. LEAF SURFACE COMPARISON OF THREE GENERA OF ARACEAE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Erlinawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alocasia, Colocasia and Remusatia are the genera of Araceae family which have high economic value, such as for food and ornamental plants. Those three genera, previously treated as Colocasieae tribe. Later, based on Nauheimer, L. et al. study in 2012, using plastid and nuclear DNA, Alocasia is placed in different tribe. Study on leaf anatomy of Araceae is still poor known. Comparison of three genera of Araceae, indicates a difference in the epidermis. Alocasia and Colocasia have stomata on both leaf surfaces (amphistomatic but Remusatia has stomata only limited on the lower surface. The three genera can be distinguished from epidermal cell shape, stomata complex and the presence of stomata.

  13. Design requirements, criteria and methods for seismic qualification of CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Duff, C.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes the requirements and criteria for the seismic design and qualification of systems and equipment in CANDU nuclear power plants. Acceptable methods and techniques for seismic qualification of CANDU nuclear power plants to mitigate the effects or the consequences of earthquakes are also described. (auth)

  14. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Jackson, Robert B; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Water management requirements for animal and plant maintenance on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Rasmussen, D.; Curran, G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-duration Space Station experiments that use animals and plants as test specimens will require increased automation and advanced technologies for water management in order to free scientist-astronauts from routine but time-consuming housekeeping tasks. The three areas that have been identified as requiring water management and that are discusseed are: (1) drinking water and humidity condensate of the animals, (2) nutrient solution and transpired water of the plants, and (3) habitat cleaning methods. Automation potential, technology assessment, crew time savings, and resupply penalties are also discussed.

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant System Requirements Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not Listed

    2008-01-01

    System Requirements Manual for the NGNP Project. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (H.R. 6; EPAct), which was signed into law by President George W. Bush in August 2005, required the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a project to be known as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. According to the EPAct, the NGNP Project shall consist of the research, development, design, construction, and operation of a prototype plant (to be referred to herein as the NGNP) that (1) includes a nuclear reactor based on the research and development (R and D) activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems initiative, and (2) shall be used to generate electricity, to produce hydrogen, or to both generate electricity and produce hydrogen. The NGNP Project supports both the national need to develop safe, clean, economical nuclear energy and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), which has the goal of establishing greenhouse-gas-free technologies for the production of hydrogen. The DOE has selected the helium-cooled High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as the reactor concept to be used for the NGNP because it is the only near-term Generation IV concept that has the capability to provide process heat at high-enough temperatures for highly efficient production of hydrogen. The EPAct also names the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the DOE's lead national laboratory for nuclear energy research, as the site for the prototype NGNP

  17. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempker, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  18. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition); Bezopasnost' atomnykh ehlektrostantsij: proektirovanie. Konkretnye trebovaniya bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1583 - What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1583 Section 63.1583 Protection of... Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1583 What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a...

  20. Stomatal Function Requires Pectin De-methyl-esterification of the Guard Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsbury, Sam; Hunt, Lee; Elhaddad, Nagat; Baillie, Alice; Lundgren, Marjorie; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Scheller, Henrik V; Knox, J Paul; Fleming, Andrew J; Gray, Julie E

    2016-11-07

    Stomatal opening and closure depends on changes in turgor pressure acting within guard cells to alter cell shape [1]. The extent of these shape changes is limited by the mechanical properties of the cells, which will be largely dependent on the structure of the cell walls. Although it has long been observed that guard cells are anisotropic due to differential thickening and the orientation of cellulose microfibrils [2], our understanding of the composition of the cell wall that allows them to undergo repeated swelling and deflation remains surprisingly poor. Here, we show that the walls of guard cells are rich in un-esterified pectins. We identify a pectin methylesterase gene, PME6, which is highly expressed in guard cells and required for stomatal function. pme6-1 mutant guard cells have walls enriched in methyl-esterified pectin and show a decreased dynamic range in response to triggers of stomatal opening/closure, including elevated osmoticum, suggesting that abrogation of stomatal function reflects a mechanical change in the guard cell wall. Altered stomatal function leads to increased conductance and evaporative cooling, as well as decreased plant growth. The growth defect of the pme6-1 mutant is rescued by maintaining the plants in elevated CO 2 , substantiating gas exchange analyses, indicating that the mutant stomata can bestow an improved assimilation rate. Restoration of PME6 rescues guard cell wall pectin methyl-esterification status, stomatal function, and plant growth. Our results establish a link between gene expression in guard cells and their cell wall properties, with a corresponding effect on stomatal function and plant physiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants

  2. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  3. Lateral diffusion of CO2 in leaves of the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Heitor M; Jakovljevic, Ivona; Kaiser, Friedemann; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic patchiness of photosystem II (PSII) activity in leaves of the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier, which was independent of stomatal control and was observed during both the day/night cycle and circadian endogenous oscillations of CAM, was previously explained by lateral CO2 diffusion and CO2 signalling in the leaves [Rascher et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:11801-11805; Rascher and Luttge (2002) Plant Biol 4:671-681]. The aim here was to actually demonstrate the importance of lateral CO2 diffusion and its effects on localized PSII activity. Covering small sections of entire leaves with silicone grease was used for local exclusion of a contribution of atmospheric CO2 to internal CO2 via transport through stomata. A setup for combined measurement of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was used for recording photosynthetic activity with a spatiotemporal resolution. When remobilization of malic acid from vacuolar storage and its decarboxylation in the CAM cycle caused increasing internal CO2 concentrations sustaining high PSII activity behind closed stomata, PSII activity was also increased in adjacent leaf sections where vacuolar malic acid accumulation was minimal as a result of preventing external CO2 supply due to leaf-surface greasing, and where therefore CO2 could only be supplied by diffusion from the neighbouring malic acid-remobilizing leaf tissue. This demonstrates lateral CO2 diffusion and its effect on local photosynthetic activity.

  4. The basic design and requirement for plant tissue culture laboratory in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azraf Azman; Rosli Darmawan; Rusli Ibrahim; Mohd Nazir Basiran; Azhar Mohamad; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin

    2005-01-01

    The production of multiple species plantlets involves a relatively complex process and it is a highly specialized operation. Tissue culture technology is rapidly becoming a commercialized method for propagating new cultivars, rare species and difficult-to-propagate plant. Not only are skills and knowledge essential but the laboratory itself also plays an important role to ensure the successful growth of the plantlets. To produce quality plantlets, plant tissue culture laboratories should fulfill the basic requirements. The laboratory should have proper building and layout which comprise of media preparation and washing room, sterilization or autoclave room, transfer room and culture or growth room. The scope of this paper is to compare these fundamental requirements with the plant tissue culture laboratory in MINT. All the basic needs and differences will be discussed and the proposal for corrective actions will be presented. (Author)

  5. Laser requirements for a laser fusion energy power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; E.Bodner; Andrew; J.Schmitt; John; D.Sethian

    2013-01-01

    We will review some of the requirements for a laser that would be used with a laser fusion energy power plant, including frequency, spatial beam smoothing, bandwidth, temporal pulse shaping, efficiency, repetition rate, and reliability. The lowest risk and optimum approach uses a krypton fluoride gas laser. A diode-pumped solid-state laser is a possible contender.

  6. A framework for regulatory requirements and industry standards for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Felicia A.; Camp, Allen L.; Apostolakis, George E.; Golay, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a framework for risk-based regulation and design for new nuclear power plants. Probabilistic risk assessment methods and a rationalist approach to defense in depth are used to develop a framework that can be applied to identify systematically the regulations and standards required to maintain the desired level of safety and reliability. By implementing such a framework, it is expected that the resulting body of requirements will provide a regulatory environment that will ensure protection of the public, will eliminate the burden of requirements that do not contribute significantly to safety, and thereby will improve the market competitiveness of new plants. (author)

  7. Rumor has it...: relay communication of stress cues in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Quansah, Lydia; Fait, Aaron; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that plants are able not only to perceive and adaptively respond to external information but also to anticipate forthcoming hazards and stresses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that unstressed plants are able to respond to stress cues emitted from their abiotically-stressed neighbors and in turn induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants located further away from the stressed plants. Pisum sativum plants were subjected to drought while neighboring rows of five unstressed plants on both sides, with which they could exchange different cue combinations. On one side, the stressed plant and its unstressed neighbors did not share their rooting volumes (UNSHARED) and thus were limited to shoot communication. On its other side, the stressed plant shared one of its rooting volumes with its nearest unstressed neighbor and all plants shared their rooting volumes with their immediate neighbors (SHARED), allowing both root and shoot communication. Fifteen minutes following drought induction, significant stomatal closure was observed in both the stressed plants and their nearest unstressed SHARED neighbors, and within one hour, all SHARED neighbors closed their stomata. Stomatal closure was not observed in the UNSHARED neighbors. The results demonstrate that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted by the roots of their drought-stressed neighbors and, via 'relay cuing', elicit stress responses in further unstressed plants. Further work is underway to study the underlying mechanisms of this new mode of plant communication and its possible adaptive implications for the anticipation of forthcoming abiotic stresses by plants.

  8. Manpower requirements of quality assurance personnel for the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.E.; El-sayed, A.A.; Shabaan, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    Basic principles for structuring and staffing of the quality assurance (Q.A.)organisation in the nuclear power plant (NPP) are presented. the manpower requirements of the Q.A.organisation in the NPP during both construction and operational stages are determined. the manpower requirements for Q.A./Q.C. functions in a NPP are found to be proportional to the number of craft workers needed to perform the required level of the construction. The Q.A./Q.C. personnel are about 15% of the total number of the craft workers required during construction

  9. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  10. Requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemicalseparation plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiotti, G.; Cahalan, J.; Pfeiffer, P.; Sofu, T.; Taiwo, T.; Wei,T.; Yacout, A.; Yang, W.; Siegel, A.; Insepov, Z.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland,P.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.; Copple, J.; Willamson, M.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants that are of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. Justification for advanced simulation and some examples of grand challenges that will benefit from it are provided. An integrated software tool that has its main components, whenever possible based on first principles, is proposed as possible future approach for dealing with the complex problems linked to the simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants. The main benefits that are associated with a better integrated simulation have been identified as: a reduction of design margins, a decrease of the number of experiments in support of the design process, a shortening of the developmental design cycle, and a better understanding of the physical phenomena and the related underlying fundamental processes. For each component of the proposed integrated software tool, background information, functional requirements, current tools and approach, and proposed future approaches have been provided. Whenever possible, current uncertainties have been quoted and existing limitations have been presented. Desired target accuracies with associated benefits to the different aspects of the nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants were also given. In many cases the possible gains associated with a better simulation have been identified, quantified, and translated into economical benefits.

  11. Simultaneous requirement of carbon dioxide and abscisic acid for stomatal closing in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, K

    1975-01-01

    Open stomata of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. closed only when carbon dioxide and abscisic acid (ABA) were presented simultaneously. Three parameters of stomatal closing were determined after additions of ABA to the irrigation water of detached leaves, while the leaves were exposed to various CO2 concentrations ([CO2]s) in the air; a) the delay between addition of ABA and a reduction of stomatal conductance by 5%, b) the velocity of stomatal closing, and c) the new conductance. Changes in all three parameters showed that stomatal responses to ABA were enhanced by CO2; this effect followed saturation kinetics. Half saturation occurred at an estimated [CO2] in the stomatal pore of 200 μl l(-1). With respect to ABA, stomata responded in normal air with half their maximal amplitude at [ABA]s between 10(-6) and 10(-5) M(+-)-ABA. The amounts of ABA taken up by the leaves during the delay increased with a power strumarium.Based on earlier findings and on the results of this investigation it is suggested that stomata close if the cytoplasm of the guard cells contains much malate and H(+). The acid content in turn is determined by the relative rates of production of malic acid (from endogenous as well as exogenous CO2) and its removal (by transport of the anion into the vacuole and exchange of the H(+) for K(+) with the environment of the guard cells). The simultaneous requirement of CO2 and ABA for stomatal closure leads to the inference that ABA inhibits the expulsion of H(+) from guard cells.

  12. Identification of Radioactive Pilot-Plant test requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Riebling, E.F.

    1995-05-09

    Radioactive Pilot-Plant testing needs and alternatives are evaluated for enhanced Sludge Washing and High and Low-Level Vitrification efforts. Also investigated was instrument and equipment testing needs associated with the vitrification and retrieval process. The scope of this document is to record the existing March 1994 letter report for future use. A structured Kepner-Trego{trademark} decision analysis process was used to assist analysis of the testing needs. This analysis provided various combinations of laboratory and radioactive (hot) and cold pilot testing options associated with the above need areas. Recommendations for testing requirements were made.

  13. Identification of Radioactive Pilot-Plant test requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Riebling, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive Pilot-Plant testing needs and alternatives are evaluated for enhanced Sludge Washing and High and Low-Level Vitrification efforts. Also investigated was instrument and equipment testing needs associated with the vitrification and retrieval process. The scope of this document is to record the existing March 1994 letter report for future use. A structured Kepner-Trego trademark decision analysis process was used to assist analysis of the testing needs. This analysis provided various combinations of laboratory and radioactive (hot) and cold pilot testing options associated with the above need areas. Recommendations for testing requirements were made

  14. Cellular growth in plants requires regulation of cell wall biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2017-02-01

    Cell and organ morphogenesis in plants are regulated by the chemical structure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, the cell wall. The two primary load bearing components in the plant cell wall, the pectin matrix and the cellulose/xyloglucan network, are constantly remodelled to generate the morphological changes required during plant development. This remodelling is regulated by a plethora of loosening and stiffening agents such as pectin methyl-esterases, calcium ions, expansins, and glucanases. The tight spatio-temporal regulation of the activities of these agents is a sine qua non condition for proper morphogenesis at cell and tissue levels. The pectin matrix and the cellulose-xyloglucan network operate in concert and their behaviour is mutually dependent on their chemical, structural and mechanical modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety requirement of the nuclear power plants, after TMI-2 accident and their possible implementation on Bushehr NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirhabibi, N.; Tochai, M.T.M.; Ashrafi, A.; Farnoudi, E.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the lessons learned from the TMI-2 accident and other research and developments, many improvements have been required for the design, manufacturing and operation of nuclear power plants in recent years. These requirements have already been implemented to the plants in operation and considered as new safety requirements for new plants. In the present paper these requirements and their possible implementation on Bushehr NPP are discussed. (Author)

  16. Identification of water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat from shoot phenotyping and physiological measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA NAKHFOROOSH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. 12 durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well watered (75 % plant available water, PAW and drought (25 % PAW conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration and physiological (stomata conductance factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types. All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types. Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments.

  17. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  18. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J D

    1976-04-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria.

  19. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria. (Auth.)

  20. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  1. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  2. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  3. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, E.H.; Young, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the reports required by Federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed were the two Semiannual Effluent Release Reports for 1983 and the annual Kewaunee Environmental Radioactivity Survey. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS and NRC guidance given in NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  4. 40 CFR 63.1586 - What are the emission points and control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1586 Section 63.1586 Protection of... Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works Non-Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Requirements § 63.1586 What are the emission points and control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant? There are...

  5. Requirements for the support power systems of CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    This Standard covers principal criteria and requirements for design, fabrication, installation, qualification, inspection, and documentation for assurance that support power will be available as required. The minimum requirements for support power are determined by the special safety systems and other safety-related systems that must function to ensure that the public health risk is acceptably low. Support power systems of a CANDU nuclear power plant include those parts of the electrical systems and instrument air systems that are necessary for the operation of safety-related systems

  6. Regulatory requirement of the Juragua nuclear Power Plant PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valhuerdi Debesa, C.

    1996-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment has proved to be a powerful tool for improving the knowledge of the safety insides of Nuclear Power Plants and increasing the efficiency of the safety measures adopted by both operators and regulators. In this paper the regulatory approach adopted in Cuba with regard to the PSA , the scope of the requirement and the basis and proposal of this decision are presented

  7. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  8. Responce of leaves of three plant species to aluminium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water culture experiments were undertaken for 14 days to examine the effect of increasing aluminum level (0, 10, 20 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O on growth of sunflower, red pepper and radish leaves. The early stage of Al toxicity was characterized by curling or rolling of young leaves, marginal and veinal chlorosis, dark green leaves as soon as purpling of margins and veins of leaves. Reduction of leaf size and increased stomata density were observed with increasing Al concentration. Additionally, length of stomata cells decreased after Al-treatment.

  9. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Booker, Matthew A.; Brandt, Benjamin; Waadt, Christian; Nusinow, Dmitri A.; Kay, Steve A.; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schumacher, Karin; DeLong, Alison; Yates, John R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. These analyses, which were confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. These analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26175513

  10. Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz, H.M.M.; Hasaneen, M.N.A.; Ome, A.M.

    2016-11-01

    Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing). Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials. (Author)

  11. Analysis of the Possibility of Required Resources Estimation for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Applying BIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Estimation of decommissioning cost, decommissioning strategy, and decommissioning quantity at the time when entering into any decommissioning plans are some elements whose inputs are mandatory for nuclear power plant decommissioning. Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. This study aims at analyzing whether required resources for decommissioning nuclear power plants can be estimated, applying BIM. To achieve this goal, this study analyzed the status quo of BIM such as definition, characteristics, and areas applied, and made use of them when drawing out study results by examining types and features of the tools realizing BIM. In order to review how BIM could be used for decommissioning nuclear power plants, the definition, characteristics and applied areas of BIM were discussed. BIM designs objects of the structures (walls, slabs, pillars, stairs, windows and doors, etc.) by 3D technology and endows attribute (function, structure and usage) information for each object, thereby providing visualized information of structures for participants in construction projects. Major characteristics of BIM attribute information are as follows: - Geometry: The information of objects is represented by measurable geometric information - Extensible object attributes: Objects include pre-defined attributes, and allow extension of other attributes. Any model that includes these attributes forms relationships with other various attributes in order to perform analysis and simulation. - All information including the attributes are integrated to ensure continuity, accuracy and accessibility, and all information used during the life cycle of structures are supported. This means that when information of required resources is added as another attributes other than geometric

  12. Quality assurance requirements for the operation of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    An adaption of NRC's 10 CFR 50, Appendis B (Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power and Fuel Reprocessing Plants) to Swedish conditions is presented. No references are given to regulations standards etc that influence the requirements and their adaption to local conditions. (Aa)

  13. Plant responsiveness to root-root communication of stress cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2012-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3-24 h after the beginning of stress induction. The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios.

  14. A Proposed Additional Requirement for the Publication of New Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Proposed Additional Requirement for the Publication of New Plant Names. LE Newton. Abstract. Journal of East African Natural History Vol. 85 (1&2) 1996: 95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317(1996)85[95:APARFT]2.0.CO;2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for ...

  15. Flood control design requirements and flood evaluation methods of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ailing; Wang Ping; Zhu Jingxing

    2011-01-01

    Effect of flooding is one of the key safety factors and environmental factors in inland nuclear power plant sitting. Up to now, the rule of law and standard systems are established for the selection of nuclear power plant location and flood control requirements in China. In this paper flood control standards of China and other countries are introduced. Several inland nuclear power plants are taken as examples to thoroughly discuss the related flood evaluation methods. The suggestions are also put forward in the paper. (authors)

  16. The european passive plant (EPP) design: compliance with the european utilities requirements (EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, L.; Oyarzabal, M.

    1996-01-01

    Back 1986, most of the European firms have participated to the American program called the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) including the development of the Utilities Requirements as well as four projects as for instance AP600. Later, in the year 1990, seven European firms have begun to develop the European Utilities Requirements. This development is justified by the fact that the lessons learned by the nuclear power plants designs programs of the years 1980 can be incorporated and the European specific conditions can be taken into consideration. Thus, in 1994, eight European firms - Westinghouse and their industrial partners - have decided to launch a multiphase program in order to check the AP600 compliance with the European Utilities Requirements (EUR) and to develop the required alterations. Today, the phase I of the EPP (European Passive Plant) program has been completed. In this phase, the main important objectives have been reached. (O.M.)

  17. Licensing requirements regarding the qualification of operating personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The legal requirements regarding the qualifications of operating personnel in nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are outlined as in article 7 of the Atomic Energy Act. For the responsible operating personnel the requisite competence and reliability are legally required; for subordinate personnel the law requires only the necessary knowledge. The requisite competence and the necessary knowledge have been further specified in a set of guidelines by the authorities; work on specification of reliability requirements is under way. Essential elements of the requisite competence of responsible operating personnel are their professional qualification, their safety-related knowledge, their abilities, their practical experience, and - for the responsible shift personnel - their nuclear, plant-related training as well as a written and oral examination. Requalification is indispensible for keeping the requisite competence on a level in accordance with the current state of science and technology. Facts concerning the personal reliability of the responsible operating personnel are assessed by the competent authorities on the basis of information available at other state institutions. For the responsible shift personnel, physical and psychological fitness are important factors contributing to their reliability. The necessary knowledge subordinate operating personnel must possess with respect to plant safety and safety of the personnel is assured via instruction on safety and via special briefings at the working place. Lack of safety-related knowledge has to be compensated for by assigning an experienced permanent supervisor for each activity in question. Current work on qualification of operating personnel concentrates on training, including simulator training, of responsible shift personnel. (author)

  18. Overexpression of an ABA biosynthesis gene using a stress inducible promoter enhances drought resistance in petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants respond to drought stress by closing their stomata and reducing transpirational water loss. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates growth and stomatal closure particularly when the plant is under environmental stresses. One of the key enzymes in the ABA biosynthesis of higher plants ...

  19. New method for study of injurious effect of dust pollution on leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyomarky, K.M.; Szasz, J.

    1980-01-01

    Polluted leaf samples of Acer negundo and Acer platanoides were collected from plants grown in industrial areas of Budapest. At the same time leaves of the chosen species were collected from plants grown at an experimental station. These were used as controls. The plant species used for sampling were at the same development stage. The leaf samples were subjected to light microscopic and scanning electronmicroscopic observations. An active stomatal index was derived, using the number of stomata and epidermal cells per mm of leaf area, and the number of dust clogged stomata per mm of leaf area. Data are shown illustrating use of the index to assess the effects of dust pollution.

  20. General requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This standard provides the general requirements used in the design, construction, testing, and commissioning of concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants designated as class containment and is directed to the owners, designers, manufacturers, fabricators, and constructors of the concrete components and parts

  1. Study on the doubling effect of colchicine on leaves in vitro of apple seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changquan; Li Yazhi; Cui Decai; Su Huairui

    1997-01-01

    Leaves in vitro of two diploid apple cultivars were treated with different concentrations of colchicine and 2% DMSO solution. Among all treatments, 0.5% of colchicine treating for 4 days showed the best effect with variation frequency of 56.1%. Obvious changes occurred in the morphological and cytological aspects of the induced tetraploidy apple plants. In comparison with normal plants, variant plants showed the following features: the stem became dwarf and thick; node was shorten; the leaves' colour appeared dark green. The stomata cell size was larger than that of diploid plants. The number of the stomata per unit area of the leaves in variant plants distinctly reduced. The chromosome number were determined to be 2n = 2x = 34 for diploid plants and 2n = 4x = 68 for variant plants. The nucleolus number of variant plants increased. By the means of section of paraffin-embedded shoot auspices, 86% of variant plants have been identified as solid tetraploidy

  2. Impact of extreme load requirements and quality assurance on nuclear power plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Definitive costs, applicable to nuclear power plant concrete structures, as a function of National Regulatory Requirements, standardization, the effect of extreme load design associated with both design basis accidents and extreme external events and quality assurance are difficult to develop since such effects are interrelated and not only differ widely from country to country, project to project but also vary in time. Table 1 shows an estimate of the of the overall plant cost effects of external event extreme load design on nuclear power plant design for the U.S -and selected foreign countries for which experience with LWRs exist- Germany is the most expensive primarily due to a military aircraft crash resistance. However, the German requirement for 4 safeguards trains rather than 2 and the containment design requirement to consider one Steam Generator blowdown concurrent with a RCS blowdown. This presentation will concentrate on the direct current impact extreme load design and quality assurance have on concrete structures, systems and components for nuclear plants. This presentation is considered timely due to the increased interest in the c potential backfit of Eastern European nuclear power stations of the WWER 440 and WWER 1000 types which typically did not consider the extreme loads identified in Table 1 and accident loads in Table 3 and quality assurance in Table 5 in their original design. Concrete structures in particular are highlighted because they typically form the last barrier to radioactive release from the containment and other Safety Related Structures

  3. 50 CFR 23.19 - What CITES documents are required to export Appendix-I plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What CITES documents are required to... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.19 What CITES documents are required to export Appendix-I plants? Answer the questions in the following decision...

  4. Ergonomic requirements on computer-based information- and handling engineering in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This project provides regulatory authorities with a set of criteria for evaluating hybrid man-machine interfaces in nuclear power plant control rooms from a human factors point of view. Such standards are necessary for two reasons: (1) More and more computerised information and control systems have been and will be introduced in nuclear power plant control rooms. One possible result of this trend will be the creation of hybrid man machine interfaces which will provide both conventional and computer-based display and control devices. (2) Available rules and regulations do not contain detailed requirements on how to integrate both types of interface in such a way that plant operation by means of hybrid interfaces will be performed at least as reliably and safely as by means of conventional ones. To fill this gap, criteria and methods were developed which support practical checks of requirements to be applied to hybrid control rooms. This approach is based on state of the art methods and criteria in ergonomics. It makes it possible to analyse and to describe personnel's actions in a consistent and structured way in order to provide the information which is necessary for evaluating human reliability of task performance. Reliability can be evaluated with respect to - accuracy of required information on displays, - networking of tasks, - possibilities of interrupting and cancelling measures which have already been initiated, - possibility to carry out required manuel actions, - level of mental work-strain, - workload level, - probability of erroneous actions. This method is part of a catalogue of recommendations for evaluating hybrid nuclear power plant control rooms. The catalogue also contains recommendations for the design of computerised parts of the man-machine-interface. Application of these design recommendations will help create favourable conditions for an acceptable level of work-strain and for reliable task performance. (orig.) [de

  5. A possible CO2 conducting and concentrating mechanism in plant stomata SLAC1 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plant SLAC1 is a slow anion channel in the membrane of stomatal guard cells, which controls the turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought, high levels of carbon dioxide, and bacterial invasion. Recent study demonstrated that bicarbonate is a small-molecule activator of SLAC1. Higher CO(2 and HCO(3(- concentration activates S-type anion channel currents in wild-type Arabidopsis guard cells. Based on the SLAC1 structure a theoretical model is derived to illustrate the activation of bicarbonate to SLAC1 channel. Meanwhile a possible CO(2 conducting and concentrating mechanism of the SLAC1 is proposed. METHODOLOGY: The homology structure of Arabidopsis thaliana SLAC1 (AtSLAC1 provides the structural basis for study of the conducting and concentrating mechanism of carbon dioxide in SLAC1 channels. The pK(a values of ionizable amino acid side chains in AtSLAC1 are calculated using software PROPKA3.0, and the concentration of CO(2 and anion HCO(3(- are computed based on the chemical equilibrium theory. CONCLUSIONS: The AtSLAC1 is modeled as a five-region channel with different pH values. The top and bottom layers of channel are the alkaline residue-dominated regions, and in the middle of channel there is the acidic region surrounding acidic residues His332. The CO(2 concentration is enhanced around 10(4 times by the pH difference between these regions, and CO(2 is stored in the hydrophobic region, which is a CO(2 pool. The pH driven CO(2 conduction from outside to inside balances the back electromotive force and maintain the influx of anions (e.g. Cl(- and NO(3(- from inside to outside. SLAC1 may be a pathway providing CO(2 for photosynthesis in the guard cells.

  6. Lack of mitochondrial thioredoxin o1 is compensated by antioxidant components under salinity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Aingeru; Sánchez-Guerrero, Antonio; Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Camejo, Daymi; Jiménez, Ana; Sevilla, Francisca

    2018-02-15

    In a changing environment, plants are able to acclimate to the new conditions by regulating their metabolism through the antioxidant and redox systems involved in the stress response. Here we studied a mitochondrial thioredoxin in wild type (WT) Arabidopis thaliana and two Attrxo1 mutant lines grown in the absence or presence of 100 mM NaCl. Compared to WT plants, no evident phenotype was observed in the mutant plants in control condition, although they had higher number of stomata, loss of water, nitric oxide and carbonyl protein contents as well as higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes than WT plants. Under salinity, the mutants presented lower water loss and higher stomatal closure, H 2 O 2 and lipid peroxidation levels accompanied by higher enzymatic activity of catalase and the different SOD isoenzymes compared to WT plants. These inductions may collaborate in the maintenance of plant integrity and growth observed under saline conditions, possibly as a way to compensate the lack of TRXo1. We discuss the potential of TRXo1 to influence the development of the whole plant under saline conditions, which have great value for the agronomy of plants growing under unfavourable environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Spanish Edition); Seguridad de las centrales nucleares: Diseno. Requisitos de seguridad especificos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  8. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS

  9. International requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants; Internationale Anforderungen zur Lebensdauerverlaengerung von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Robert [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Abt. Festigkeit und Konstruktion, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Lifetime extension or long-term operation of nuclear facilities are topics of great international significance against the backdrop of a fleet of nuclear power plants of which many have reached 2/3 of their planned life. The article deals with the conditions for, and the specific requirements of, seeking long-term operation of nuclear power plants as established internationally and on the basis of IAEA collections. Technically, long-term operation is possible for many of the nuclear power plants in the world because, normally, they were built on the basis of conservative rules and regulations and, as a consequence, incorporate significant additional safety. Application of requirements to specific plants implies assessments of technical safety which show that conservative design philosophies created reserves and, as a consequence, there is an adequate level of safety also in long-term plant operation. For this purpose, the technical specifications must be revised, necessary additions made, and (international) operating experience taken into account and management of aging established. Two examples are presented to show how the approach to long-term plant operation is put into practice on a national level. (orig.)

  10. New requirements, rules and regulations, and vested rights of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, C.

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with the question whether new requirements can be imposed on existing nuclear power plants. It was promoted by the fact that the German Federal Ministry for the Environment currently is working on a thorough revision of German nuclear regulations. When looking at backfitting requirements, the all-important question is whether new findings show that the provisions taken in the license to guarantee the 'necessary precautions' (as defined in the German Atomic Energy Act) contain errors or omissions; only in this case can the authority demand that remedial measures, including backfitting, be taken. Beyond that, German nuclear law contains no obligation for operators to improve and develop safety still further. This applies regardless of whether new requirements are justified by new technical possibilities or new scientific analyses or whether they are prompted by a mere abstract re-evaluation of the safety level to be achieved. In the former case, if there are good technical or scientific reasons, the operators, as a rule, will perform backfitting voluntarily. Pursuant to these criteria, the article covers three categories of backfitting requirements and illustrates them by examples. These general principles are also valid when a new set of regulations - as planned by the BMU - are put into effect and applied. They may lead to existing plants not having to comply fully with the requirements contained in new regulations. (orig.)

  11. Discussion of important safety requirements for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Jia Xiang; Yan Tianwen; Li Wenhong; Li Chun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of several important safety requirements and improvement direction. Technical view of security goals on site safety evaluation, internal and external events fortification, serious accident prevention and mitigation, as well as the core, containment system and instrument control system design and engineering optimization, and etc are indicated. It will be useful for new plant design, construction and safety improvement. (authors)

  12. Stomatal behavior in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya [Hylocereus megalanthus (K. Schum. ex Vaupel Ralf Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Sánchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants as C3 and CAM react photosynthetically different but both can grow in the same agroecological zone in the tropics. Therefore we studied the behavior of stomatal opening in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya was studied under natural growing conditions in Granada and Fusagasuga, Cundinamarca (Colombia. Imprints were made on the surface of leaves, fruits and cladodes using cosmetic enamel impressions. Three cycles were carried out, each cycle took 72 hours, obtaining three different samples every 3 hours; then the impressions were observed by microscope and the opened and closed stomata were counted in each species. In each sampling, data of solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity (RH were measured. The purple passion fruit had the typical behavior of a C3 plant in the leaves as well as the fruits, and a positive correlation between the stomatal aperture and radiation and temperature was found, along with a negative correlation between stomatal aperture and RH. The pitaya showed the typical behavior of a CAM plant with a negative correlation between the stomatal opening and radiation and temperature, as well as a positive correlation between stomatal opening and RH. Radiation, temperature and RH affected the stomatal opening in the fruits and cladodes. Stomatal densities differed greatly between the species and plant organs. In the purple passion fruit, 106.53 stomata per mm² leaf surface were found, but only 12.64 stomata per mm² fruit surface; whereas in the pitaya, 11.28 and 1.43 stomata per mm² were found on the cladodes and fruits, respectively

  13. Requirements for auditing of quality assurance programs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Requirements and guidance are provided for establishing and implementing a system of internal and external audits of quality assurance programs for nuclear power plants, including the preparation, performance, reporting and follow-up of audits by both the auditing and the audited organizations. This standard is to be used in conjunction with ANSI N45.2

  14. General requirements for pressure-retaining systems and components in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This standard specifies the general requirements for the design, fabrication and installation of pressure-retaining systems, components, and their supports in CANDU nuclear power plants. (16 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.)

  15. Correct safety requirements during the life cycle of heating plants; Korrekta saekerhetskrav under vaermeanlaeggningars livscykel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegehall, Jan; Hedberg, Johan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The safety of old steam boilers or hot water generators is in principle based on electromechanical components which are generally easy to understand. The use of safety-PLC is a new and flexible way to design a safe system. A programmable system offers more degrees of freedom and consequently new problems may arise. As a result, new standards which use the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) concept for the level of safety have been elaborated. The goal is to define a way of working to handle requirements on safety in control systems of heat and power plants. SIL-requirements are relatively new within the domain and there is a need for guidance to be able to follow the requirements. The target of this report is the people who work with safety questions during new construction, reconstruction, or modification of furnace plants. In the work, the Pressure Equipment Directive, 97/23/EC, as well as standards which use the SIL concept have been studied. Additionally, standards for water-tube boilers have been studied. The focus has been on the safety systems (safety functions) which are used in water-tube boilers for heat and power plants; other systems, which are parts of these boilers, have not been considered. Guidance has been given for the aforementioned standards as well as safety requirements specification and risk analysis. An old hot water generator and a relatively new steam boiler have been used as case studies. The design principles and safety functions of the furnaces have been described. During the risk analysis important hazards were identified. A method for performing a risk analysis has been described and the appropriate content of a safety requirements specification has been defined. If a heat or power plant is constructed, modified, or reconstructed, a safety life cycle shall be followed. The purpose of the safety life cycle is to plan, describe, document, perform, check, test, and validate that everything is correctly done. The components of the safety

  16. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources

  17. A chitinase is required for Xylella fastidiosa colonization of its insect and plant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroussaa, Fabien; Ionescu, Michael; Zeilinger, Adam R; Lindow, Steven E; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2017-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa colonizes the xylem network of host plant species as well as the foregut of its required insect vectors to ensure efficient propagation. Disease management strategies remain inefficient due to a limited comprehension of the mechanisms governing both insect and plant colonization. It was previously shown that X. fastidiosa has a functional chitinase (ChiA), and that chitin likely serves as a carbon source for this bacterium. We expand on that research, showing that a chiA mutant strain is unable to grow on chitin as the sole carbon source. Quantitative PCR assays allowed us to detect bacterial cells in the foregut of vectors after pathogen acquisition; populations of the wild-type and complemented mutant strain were both significantly larger than the chiA mutant strain 10 days, but not 3 days, post acquisition. These results indicate that adhesion of the chiA mutant strain to vectors may not be impaired, but that cell multiplication is limited. The mutant was also affected in its transmission by vectors to plants. In addition, the chiA mutant strain was unable to colonize host plants, suggesting that the enzyme has other substrates associated with plant colonization. Lastly, ChiA requires other X. fastidiosa protein(s) for its in vitro chitinolytic activity. The observation that the chiA mutant strain is not able to colonize plants warrants future attention to be paid to the substrates for this enzyme.

  18. Stomatal characterization of five species of the genus Vanilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfino Reyes-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize the stomata of five species of vanilla. Throughout 2012, leaf samples of V. planifolia G. Jackson, V. pompona Schiede, V. indora Schiede, V. insignis Ames and V. odorota Presl were taken from the vanilla germplasm bank at the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. The stomata size was obtained considering their length and width, as well as the index and stomata number of the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces in a randomized complete block design with three replications. V. pompona Schiede and V. inodora Schiede showed the highest stomatal index with 8713 and 8246 stomata per mm2, respectively, followed by V. odorata Presl with 4412 stomata per mm2. V. insignis Ames and V. planifolia G. Jackson showed the lowest stomata index with 2968 and 1378 stomata per mm2, respectively, in the abaxial leaf surface, these differences were statistically significant (P≤0.05. According to the position of the leaf stomata, V. planifolia G. Jackson and V. inodora Schiede can be considered to be hypostomatics since they showed stomata only in the abaxial leaf surface. V. insignis Ames, V. inodora Schiede and V. odorata Presl. can be considered to be anfiestomatic because they showed stomata in both the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. V. inodora Schiede had smaller stomata compared with the other species.That is an important feature to be included in the genetic improvement of the genus Vanilla, because due to climate change, temperature will increase and precipitation will decrease, so Vainilla will require more efficient genotypes for water use.

  19. Stomatal characterization of five species of the genus Vanilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Lopez, Delfino; Quiroz-Valentin, Jonathan; Kelso-Bucio, Henry Arturo; Huerta-Lara, Manuel; Avendano-Arrazate, Carlos Hugo; Lobato-Ortiz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The stomata of five species of vanilla were characterized. Throughout 2012, leaf samples of V. planifolia G. Jackson, V. pompona Schiede, V. inodora Schiede, V. insignis Ames and V. odorota Presl were taken from the vanilla germplasm bank at the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, throughout 2012. The stomata size was obtained considering their length and width, as well as the index and stomata number of the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The highest stomatal index with 8713 and 8246 stomata per mm"2, was showed in V. pompona Schiede an V. inodora Schiede respectively, followed by V. odorata Presl with 4412 stomata per mm"2. The lowest stomata index with 2968 and 1378 stomata per mm"2, was showed by V. insignis Ames and V. planifolia G. Jackson respectively, in the abaxial leaf surface, these differences were statistically significant (p≤0,05). According to the position of the leaf stomata, V. planifolia G. Jackson and V. inodora Schiede can be considered to be hypostomatics since they showed stomata only in the abaxial leaf surface. V. insignis Ames, V. inodora Schiede and V. odorata Presl. can be considered to be anfiestomatic because they showed stomata in both the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. V. inodora Schiede has had smaller stomata compared with the other species. That is an important feature to be included in the genetic improvement of the genus Vanilla, because due to climate change, temperature will increase and precipitation will decrease, so Vainilla will require more efficient genotypes for water use. (author) [es

  20. Plant twitter: ligands under 140 amino acids enforcing stomatal patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychel, Amanda L; Peterson, Kylee M; Torii, Keiko U

    2010-05-01

    Stomata are an essential land plant innovation whose patterning and density are under genetic and environmental control. Recently, several putative ligands have been discovered that influence stomatal density, and they all belong to the epidermal patterning factor-like family of secreted cysteine-rich peptides. Two of these putative ligands, EPF1 and EPF2, are expressed exclusively in the stomatal lineage cells and negatively regulate stomatal density. A third, EPFL6 or CHALLAH, is also a negative regulator of density, but is expressed subepidermally in the hypocotyl. A fourth, EPFL9 or STOMAGEN, is expressed in the mesophyll tissues and is a positive regulator of density. Genetic evidence suggests that these ligands may compete for the same receptor complex. Proper stomatal patterning is likely to be an intricate process involving ligand competition, regional specificity, and communication between tissue layers. EPFL-family genes exist in the moss Physcomitrella patens, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, and rice, Oryza sativa, and their sequence analysis yields several genes some of which are related to EPF1, EPF2, EPFL6, and EPFL9. Presence of these EPFL family members in the basal land plants suggests an exciting hypothesis that the genetic components for stomatal patterning originated early in land plant evolution.

  1. Discussion on several important safety requirements for the new nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Tianwen; Li Jigen; Zhang Lin; Feng Youcai; Jia Xiang; Li Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    Post the Fukushima nuclear accident, the Chinese government raised higher safety goals and safety requirements for the new nuclear power plant to be constructed. The paper expounded the important indicators of safety requirements and the aspects of safety modification that had been developed for the new NPPs. It also discussed and analyzed the main fields required by the new NPPs safety requirements in the safety goals, safety evaluation of sites, defenses of internal and external events, severe accident prevention and mitigation, design of reactor core, containment system and I and C system, and optimization of engineering measure, which gave some references to the design, construction and safety modifications of new NPPs in China. (authors)

  2. Changes in plant water use efficiency over the recent past reconstructed using palaeo plant records from the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagen, M.; Finsinger, W.; McCarroll, D.; Wagner, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Boreal forests contains 33% of the earth's forest cover and are located at the latitude where most of the estimated global warming is predicted to occur. Warming as a consequence of rising carbon dioxide will affect evapotranspiration within the biome, with significant consequences given that water vapour is an important greenhouse gas. However, there is also a physiological forcing associated with the effects of rising carbon dioxide on plants. Higher atmospheric carbon dioxide will reduce evapotraspiration because tree stomata tend to close under elevated carbon dioxide. The warming associated with reduced evapotranspiration is known as carbon dioxide physiological forcing and it is not well constrained. Here we suggest that future predictions of evapotranspiration flux within the Boreal forest zone might be more accurately gauged by taking account of palaeo evidence of changing plant water use efficiency and stomatal density in the two most important Boreal plant species: Pinus sylvestris and Betula nana. Stable carbon isotope ratios in tree ring cellulose and stomatal density measurements, from preserved leaves falling on the forest floor, hold a record of the plant physiological changes associated with adjustment to rising carbon dioxide. We present evidence that, rather than plants simply closing their stomatal apertures under recent elevated carbon dioxide, over the last 150 years reduced evapotranspiration in the northern Boreal forest has been associated with a powerful plastic response including reductions in stomatal conductance via changes in stomatal density and pore length. Furthermore we present evidence that trees may be reaching the limits of their ability to respond plastically to rising carbon dioxide by increasing their water use efficiency.

  3. Regulation of stomatal tropism and infection by light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: evidence for coordinated host/pathogen responses to photoperiod?

    OpenAIRE

    Hun Kim; John B Ridenour; Larry D Dunkle; Burton H Bluhm

    2011-01-01

    Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize, which has become one of the most widespread and destructive diseases of maize in the world. C. zeae-maydis infects leaves through stomata, which is predicated on the ability of the pathogen to perceive stomata and reorient growth accordingly. In this study, the discovery that light was required for C. zeae-maydis to perceive stomata and infect leaves led to the identification of CRP1, a gene encoding a putative blue-light photoreceptor ho...

  4. Guideline on radiation protection requirements for ionizing radiation shielding in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The guideline which entered into force on 1 May 1988 stipulates the radiation protection requirements for shielding against ionizing radiation to be met in the design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants

  5. Technical assessment of compliance with work place air sampling requirements at T Plant. Revision No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE requires its contractors to conduct air sampling to detect and evaluate airborne radioactive material in the workplace. Hanford Reservation T Plant compliance with workplace air sampling requirements has been assessed. Requirements, basis for determining compliance and recommendations are included

  6. A novel-type phosphatidylinositol phosphate-interactive, Ca-binding protein PCaP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana: stable association with plasma membrane and partial involvement in stomata closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisako; Miwa, Chika; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Suito, Momoe; Tsuchihira, Ayako; Sato, Yori; Segami, Shoji; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2016-05-01

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein-1 (PCaP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana is a new type protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and Ca(2+)-calmodulin complex as well as free Ca(2+). Although biochemical properties, such as binding to ligands and N-myristoylation, have been revealed, the intracellular localization, tissue and cell specificity, integrity of membrane association and physiological roles of PCaP1 are unknown. We investigated the tissue and intracellular distribution of PCaP1 by using transgenic lines expressing PCaP1 linked with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) at the carboxyl terminus of PCaP1. GFP fluorescence was obviously detected in most tissues including root, stem, leaf and flower. In these tissues, PCaP1-GFP signal was observed predominantly in the plasma membrane even under physiological stress conditions but not in other organelles. The fluorescence was detected in the cytosol when the 25-residue N-terminal sequence was deleted from PCaP1 indicating essential contribution of N-myristoylation to the plasma membrane anchoring. Fluorescence intensity of PCaP1-GFP in roots was slightly decreased in seedlings grown in medium supplemented with high concentrations of iron for 1 week and increased in those grown with copper. In stomatal guard cells, PCaP1-GFP was strictly, specifically localized to the plasma membrane at the epidermal-cell side but not at the pore side. A T-DNA insertion mutant line of PCaP1 did not show marked phenotype in a life cycle except for well growth under high CO2 conditions. However, stomata of the mutant line did not close entirely even in high osmolarity, which usually induces stomata closure. These results suggest that PCaP1 is involved in the stomatal movement, especially closure process, in leaves and response to excessive copper in root and leaf as a mineral nutrient as a physiological role.

  7. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  8. Safety requirements for a nuclear power plant electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, L F; Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    This work aims at identifying the safety requirements for the electric power system in a typical nuclear power plant, in view of the UNSRC and the IAEA. Description of a typical system is provided, followed by a presentation of the scope of the information required for safety evaluation of the system design and performance. The acceptance and design criteria that must be met as being specified by both regulatory systems, are compared. Means of implementation of such criteria as being described in the USNRC regulatory guides and branch technical positions on one hand and in the IAEA safety guides on the other hand are investigated. It is concluded that the IAEA regulations address the problems that may be faced with in countries having varying grid sizes ranging from large stable to small potentially unstable ones; and that they put emphasis on the onsite standby power supply. Also, in this respect the Americans identify the grid as the preferred power supply to the plant auxiliaries, while the IAEA leaves the possibility that the preferred power supply could be either the grid or the unit main generator depending on the reliability of each. Therefore, it is found that it is particularly necessary in this area of electric power supplies to deal with the IAEA and the American sets of regulations as if each complements and not supplements the other. (author)

  9. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require ''immediate'' shutdown of the plant. In this paper, the authors present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion

  10. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  11. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance...

  12. Immunity at Cauliflower Hydathodes Controls Systemic Infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Aude; Jauneau, Alain; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Martinez, Yves; Chiarenza, Serge; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Berthomé, Richard; Noël, Laurent D

    2017-06-01

    Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea ) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata. Because hydathodes are natural infection routes for several pathogens, we investigated hydathode infection by the adapted vascular phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris ( Xcc ), the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassicaceae. Microscopic observations of hydathodes six days postinoculation indicated a digestion of the epithem cells and a high bacterial multiplication. Postinvasive immunity was shown to limit pathogen growth in the epithem and is actively suppressed by the type III secretion system and its effector proteins. Altogether, these results give a detailed anatomic description of Brassicaceae hydathodes and highlight the efficient use of this tissue as an initial niche for subsequent vascular systemic dissemination of Xcc in distant plant tissues. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Eucalypt plants are physiologically and metabolically affected by infection with Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, André Costa; de Oliveira Silva, Franklin Magnum; Milagre, Jocimar Caiafa; Omena-Garcia, Rebeca Patricia; Abreu, Mário Castro; Mafia, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

    2018-02-01

    Ceratocystis wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is currently one of the most important disease in eucalypt plantations. Plants infected by C. fimbriata have lower volumetric growth, lower pulp yields and reduced timber values. The physiological bases of infection induced by this pathogen in eucalypt plant are not known. Therefore, this study aims to assess the physiological and metabolic changes in eucalypt clones that are resistant and susceptible to C. fimbriata. Once, we evaluated in detail their leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, water potential, metabolite profiling and growth-related parameters. When inoculated, the susceptible clone displayed reduced water potential, CO 2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, photochemical quenching coefficient, electron transport rate, and root biomass. Inoculated resistant and susceptible clones both presented higher respiration rates than healthy plants. Many compounds of primary and secondary metabolism were significantly altered after fungal infection in both clones. These results suggest that, C. fimbriata interferes in the primary and secondary metabolism of plants that may be linked to the induction of defense mechanisms and that, due to water restrictions caused by the fungus in susceptible plants, there is a partial closure of the stomata to prevent water loss and a consequent reduction in photosynthesis and the transpiration rate, which in turn, leads to a decrease in the plant's growth-related. These results combined, allowed for a better understanding of the physiological and metabolic changes following the infectious process of C. fimbriata, which limit eucalypt plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality assurance program preparation - review of requirements and plant systems - selection of program levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmuss, G.

    1980-01-01

    The establishment and implementation for a practicable quality assurance program for a nuclear power plant demands a detailed background in the field of engineering, manufacturing, organization and quality assurance. It will be demonstrated with examples to define and control the achievement of quality related activities during the phases of design, procurement, manufactoring, commissioning and operation. In general the quality assurance program applies to all items, processes and services important to safety of nuclear power plant. The classification for safety related and non-safety related items and services demonstrate the levels of quality assurance requirements. The lecture gives an introduction of QA Program preparation under the following topics: -Basic criteria and international requirements - Interaction of QA activities - Modular and product oriented QA programs - Structuring of organization for the QA program - Identification of the main quality assurance functions and required actions - Quality Assurance Program documentation - Documentation of planning of activities - Control of program documents - Definitions. (orig./RW)

  15. Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on stomatal movements in Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majernik, O; Mansfield, T A

    1971-01-01

    Leaves of broad bean Vicia faba L. exposed to controlled levels of SO/sub 2/ pollution in the range 0.25 to 9.0 ppm had much wider stomatal openings than control plants. The stimulation of opening relative to the controls was proportional to SO/sub 2/ concentration over the range 0.25 to 1.0 ppm. The ability of the stomata to close at night was not appreciably affected. The possible implications of this unnatural reaction of the stomata are discussed. Abnormal opening could lead to the plant's losing its usual control over transpiration, with resulting water stress. The main disadvantage, however, is that SO/sub 2/ will gain easier access to the interior of the leaf.

  16. Ozone exposure and stomatal sluggishness in different plant physiognomic classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.i [IPP-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grulke, Nancy E. [US Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Gas exchange responses to static and variable light were tested in three species: snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, two cultivars), California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), and blue oak (Q. douglasii). The effects of 1-month (snap beans) and 2-month (oaks) O{sub 3} (ozone) exposure (70 ppb over 8 h per day in open-top chambers) were investigated. A delay in stomatal responses (i.e., 'sluggish' responses) to variable light was found to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason for increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in snap bean cultivars, as it implied higher O{sub 3} uptake during times of disequilibrium. Sluggishness increased the time to open (thus limiting CO{sub 2} uptake) and close stomata (thus increasing transpirational water loss) after abrupt changes in light level. Similar responses were shown by snap beans and oaks, suggesting that O{sub 3}-induced stomatal sluggishness is a common trait among different plant physiognomic classes. - Sluggish stomatal responses are suggested to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason of increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in plants.

  17. Utilization of respiratory energy in higher plants : requirements for 'maintenance' and transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of both photosynthesis and respiration is required to understand plant growth and resulting crop yield. However, especially the nature of the energy demanding processes that are dependent on dark respiration in full-grown tissues is largely unknown. The main objective

  18. Design concept and its requirements of the integrated SMART nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chon, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-02-01

    The integrated SMART desalination plant consists of four(4) units of Multi Effect Distillation Process combined with Thermal-Vapor Compressor(MED-TVC) and coupled with the extracted steam from turbine through the steam transformer. Steam transformer produces the main pressure steam and supplies to the MED-TVC unit. Each distillation unit has the production the capacity of 10,000 m3/day of distilled water per day at top brine temperature of 65 deg C using the seawater supplied at temperature of 33 deg C. MED-TVC was selected as a desalination process coupled with SMART, since the thermal vapor compression is very effective where the steam is available at high temperature and pressure conditions than required in the evaporator. The MED-TVC unit is consisted of the steam supply system, vapor and condensate system, seawater supply system, brine system and chemical dosing system. The standard design of the SMART desalination plant is under development as a part of the SMART project. This report describes design concept of these systems and their requirements

  19. Design concept and its requirements of the integrated SMART nuclear desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chon, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-02-01

    The integrated SMART desalination plant consists of four(4) units of Multi Effect Distillation Process combined with Thermal-Vapor Compressor(MED-TVC) and coupled with the extracted steam from turbine through the steam transformer. Steam transformer produces the main pressure steam and supplies to the MED-TVC unit. Each distillation unit has the production the capacity of 10,000 m3/day of distilled water per day at top brine temperature of 65 deg C using the seawater supplied at temperature of 33 deg C. MED-TVC was selected as a desalination process coupled with SMART, since the thermal vapor compression is very effective where the steam is available at high temperature and pressure conditions than required in the evaporator. The MED-TVC unit is consisted of the steam supply system, vapor and condensate system, seawater supply system, brine system and chemical dosing system. The standard design of the SMART desalination plant is under development as a part of the SMART project. This report describes design concept of these systems and their requirements.

  20. Evaluation of the applicability of existing nuclear power plant regulatory requirements in the U.S. to advanced small modular reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Middleton, Bobby D.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Baum, Gregory A.

    2013-05-01

    The current wave of small modular reactor (SMR) designs all have the goal of reducing the cost of management and operations. By optimizing the system, the goal is to make these power plants safer, cheaper to operate and maintain, and more secure. In particular, the reduction in plant staffing can result in significant cost savings. The introduction of advanced reactor designs and increased use of advanced automation technologies in existing nuclear power plants will likely change the roles, responsibilities, composition, and size of the crews required to control plant operations. Similarly, certain security staffing requirements for traditional operational nuclear power plants may not be appropriate or necessary for SMRs due to the simpler, safer and more automated design characteristics of SMRs. As a first step in a process to identify where regulatory requirements may be met with reduced staffing and therefore lower cost, this report identifies the regulatory requirements and associated guidance utilized in the licensing of existing reactors. The potential applicability of these regulations to advanced SMR designs is identified taking into account the unique features of these types of reactors.

  1. Property, Plant and Equipment disclosure requirements and firm characteristics: the Portuguese Accounting Standardization System

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Rafaela; Azevedo, Graça; Costa, Alberto J.; Oliveira, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    In the new Portuguese accounting frame of reference (Portuguese Accounting Standardization System – Sistema de Normalização Contabilística), the issues related to Property, Plant and Equipment assets are dealt with in the Accounting and Financial Reporting Standard (Norma Contabilística de Relato Financeiro – NCRF) 7 (Property, Plant & Equipment). The present study intends to assess the degree of compliance with the disclosure requirements of this accounting standard by Portuguese unlisted co...

  2. 75 Easy Life Science Demonstrations. Teacher Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Thomas

    This book is a collection of life science classroom demonstrations. Explanations that review key concepts are included. Topics are: stimulus and response; gravitropism; phototropism; living organisms; carbon dioxide; gases emitted by plants; greenhouse effect; stomata; transpiration; leaf skeletons; seed growth; water evaporation in plants; carbon…

  3. Climate forcing due to optimization of maximal leaf conductance in subtropical vegetation under rising CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.J. de; Lammertsma, E.I.; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Dilcher, D.L.; Wassen, M.J.; Dekker, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Plant physiological adaptation to the global rise in atmospheric CO 2 concentration (CO2) is identified as a crucial climatic forcing. To optimize functioning under rising CO2, plants reduce the diffusive stomatal conductance of their leaves (gs) dynamically by closing stomata and structurally by

  4. PATH-ANALYSIS ON SEVERAL CHARACTERS IN POTENTIAL OF CORN PRODUCTION AND RESISTANCE TO DOWNY MILDEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hary Pudjiwati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating both direct and indirect impacts, and heritability values of characters regarding the potential of corn production and resistance to downy mildew. The result of this investigation is required to determine some criteria taken into account for selection process of downy mildew-resistant corn breeding with high yield. The field experiment was conducted at Research Centre of Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University from January to April 2012. Five varieties of hybrid crown and five inbreeding lines were employed, and Randomised Block Design was applied with two replications. As observed, the characters held heritability ranging from average to high, except for heritability of length and width of stomata on the lower surface of the leaves which was categorised as low. Moreover, the stomata density found on lower surface of the leaves was directly and positively correlated to the intensity of attack by downy mildew, which, then, was used as criteria selection in downy mildew-resistance. The intensity of disease and the density of the stomata on lower surface of the leaves accounted for direct and negative correlation to corn production, while the length and diameter of corncob was responsible for direct and positive correlation to corn production. The betterment of corn production can be coped by improving the plant resistance to downy mildew and characters of corncob diameter.

  5. Fire protection requirements of the insurance industry and their impact on nuclear power plant design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitchman, J.V.; King, W.T. Jr.; Nashman, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    The insurance industry, with its wealth of knowledge and experience in the fire protection area and with preservation of its funds at stake, has always been heavily involved in the fire protection programs of nuclear power plants. Since it was concerned with property preservation in addition to nuclear safety, the insurance industry placed more detailed emphasis on fire protection requirements than did the nuclear regulatory bodies. Since the Browns Ferry fire, however, the insurance industry, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the utilities themselves have re-examined their approaches to fire protection. A more coordinated approach seems to have emerged, which is based largely upon insurance industry specifications and guidelines. The paper briefly summarizes the fire protection requirements of the insurance industry as they apply to nuclear power plants. Some of the ways these requirements affect project planning, plant design, and construction timing are reviewed, as well as some of the more controversial fire protection areas

  6. Disruption of stomatal lineage signaling or transcriptional regulators has differential effects on mesophyll development, but maintains coordination of gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Graham J; Berry, Joseph A; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2017-10-01

    Stomata are simultaneously tasked with permitting the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis while limiting water loss from the plant. This process is mainly regulated by guard cell control of the stomatal aperture, but recent advancements have highlighted the importance of several genes that control stomatal development. Using targeted genetic manipulations of the stomatal lineage and a combination of gas exchange and microscopy techniques, we show that changes in stomatal development of the epidermal layer lead to coupled changes in the underlying mesophyll tissues. This coordinated response tends to match leaf photosynthetic potential (V cmax ) with gas-exchange capacity (g smax ), and hence the uptake of carbon dioxide for water lost. We found that different genetic regulators systematically altered tissue coordination in separate ways: the transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) primarily affected leaf size and thickness, whereas peptides in the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) family altered cell density in the mesophyll. It was also determined that interlayer coordination required the cell-surface receptor TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). These results demonstrate that stomata-specific regulators can alter mesophyll properties, which provides insight into how molecular pathways can organize leaf tissues to coordinate gas exchange and suggests new strategies for improving plant water-use efficiency. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. 40 CFR 174.510 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.510 Section 174.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...

  8. 40 CFR 174.511 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.511 Section 174.511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...

  9. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  10. Iron Requirement and Iron Uptake from Various Iron Compounds by Different Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Rudolf A.

    1974-01-01

    The Fe requirements of four monocotyledonous plant species (Avena sativa L., Triticum aestivum L., Oryza sativa L., Zea mays L.) and of three dicotyledonous species (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Cucumis sativus L., Glycine maxima (L.) Merr.) in hydroponic cultures were ascertained. Fe was given as NaFe-EDDHA chelate (Fe ethylenediamine di (O-hydroxyphenylacetate). I found that the monocotyledonous species required a substantially higher Fe concentration in the nutrient solution in order to attain optimum growth than did the dicotyledonous species. Analyses showed that the process of iron uptake was less efficient with the monocotyledonous species. When the results obtained by using chelated Fe were compared with those using ionic Fe, it was shown that the inefficient species were equally inefficient in utilizing Fe3+ ions. However, the differences between the efficient and the inefficient species disappeared when Fe2+ was used. This confirms the work of others who postulated that Fe3+ is reduced before uptake of chelated iron by the root. In addition, it was shown that reduction also takes place when Fe is used in ionic form. The efficiency of Fe uptake seems to depend on the efficiency of the root system of the particular plant species in reducing Fe3+. The removal of Fe from the chelate complex after reduction to Fe2+ seems to present no difficulties to the various plant species. PMID:16658933

  11. Overexpression of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells promotes light-induced stomatal opening and enhances plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Noguchi, Ko; Ono, Natsuko; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Terashima, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-01-07

    Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere in response to light, CO2, and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Light-induced stomatal opening is mediated by at least three key components: the blue light receptor phototropin (phot1 and phot2), plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, and plasma membrane inward-rectifying K(+) channels. Very few attempts have been made to enhance stomatal opening with the goal of increasing photosynthesis and plant growth, even though stomatal resistance is thought to be the major limiting factor for CO2 uptake by plants. Here, we show that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing H(+)-ATPase using the strong guard cell promoter GC1 showed enhanced light-induced stomatal opening, photosynthesis, and plant growth. The transgenic plants produced larger and increased numbers of rosette leaves, with ∼42-63% greater fresh and dry weights than the wild type in the first 25 d of growth. The dry weights of total flowering stems of 45-d-old transgenic plants, including seeds, siliques, and flowers, were ∼36-41% greater than those of the wild type. In addition, stomata in the transgenic plants closed normally in response to darkness and abscisic acid. In contrast, the overexpression of phototropin or inward-rectifying K(+) channels in guard cells had no effect on these phenotypes. These results demonstrate that stomatal aperture is a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth, and that manipulation of stomatal opening by overexpressing H(+)-ATPase in guard cells is useful for the promotion of plant growth.

  12. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  13. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  14. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants

  15. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  16. Regulation of stomatal tropism and infection by light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: evidence for coordinated host/pathogen responses to photoperiod?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize, which has become one of the most widespread and destructive diseases of maize in the world. C. zeae-maydis infects leaves through stomata, which is predicated on the ability of the pathogen to perceive stomata and reorient growth accordingly. In this study, the discovery that light was required for C. zeae-maydis to perceive stomata and infect leaves led to the identification of CRP1, a gene encoding a putative blue-light photoreceptor homologous to White Collar-1 (WC-1 of Neurospora crassa. Disrupting CRP1 via homologous recombination revealed roles in multiple aspects of pathogenesis, including tropism of hyphae to stomata, the formation of appressoria, conidiation, and the biosynthesis of cercosporin. CRP1 was also required for photoreactivation after lethal doses of UV exposure. Intriguingly, putative orthologs of CRP1 are central regulators of circadian clocks in other filamentous fungi, raising the possibility that C. zeae-maydis uses light as a key environmental input to coordinate pathogenesis with maize photoperiodic responses. This study identified a novel molecular mechanism underlying stomatal tropism in a foliar fungal pathogen, provides specific insight into how light regulates pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis, and establishes a genetic framework for the molecular dissection of infection via stomata and the integration of host and pathogen responses to photoperiod.

  17. Regulation of stomatal tropism and infection by light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: evidence for coordinated host/pathogen responses to photoperiod?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun; Ridenour, John B; Dunkle, Larry D; Bluhm, Burton H

    2011-07-01

    Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize, which has become one of the most widespread and destructive diseases of maize in the world. C. zeae-maydis infects leaves through stomata, which is predicated on the ability of the pathogen to perceive stomata and reorient growth accordingly. In this study, the discovery that light was required for C. zeae-maydis to perceive stomata and infect leaves led to the identification of CRP1, a gene encoding a putative blue-light photoreceptor homologous to White Collar-1 (WC-1) of Neurospora crassa. Disrupting CRP1 via homologous recombination revealed roles in multiple aspects of pathogenesis, including tropism of hyphae to stomata, the formation of appressoria, conidiation, and the biosynthesis of cercosporin. CRP1 was also required for photoreactivation after lethal doses of UV exposure. Intriguingly, putative orthologs of CRP1 are central regulators of circadian clocks in other filamentous fungi, raising the possibility that C. zeae-maydis uses light as a key environmental input to coordinate pathogenesis with maize photoperiodic responses. This study identified a novel molecular mechanism underlying stomatal tropism in a foliar fungal pathogen, provides specific insight into how light regulates pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis, and establishes a genetic framework for the molecular dissection of infection via stomata and the integration of host and pathogen responses to photoperiod.

  18. Aging plant life management - the requirements defined to date by the KTA nuclear engineering codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, I.

    1996-01-01

    German nuclear engineering codes so far do not enclose a specific aging plant life management programme. However, the existing codes and standards do contain a number of applicable requirements and principles of relevance to objectives and principles of such programmes, as they also cover aging-induced effects on power plants. The major principles relating to preventive safety engineering and quality assurance are laid down in the publications KTA 1401, 1404, 1201, 1202, and KTA 3211. (DG) [de

  19. Comparison of implementation of selected TMI action plan requirements on operating plants designed by Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, J.O.

    1984-05-01

    This report provides the results of a study conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to compare the degree to which eight Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) designed licensed nuclear power plants have complied with the requirements in NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements. The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1). The purpose of this audit was to establish the progress of the TMI-1 licensee, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear Corporation, in completing the long-term requirements in NUREG-0737 relative to the other B and W licensees examined

  20. Mechanistic modelling of Middle Eocene atmospheric carbon dioxide using fossil plant material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Michaela; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Wilde, Volker; Konrad, Wilfried; Utescher, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    Various proxies (such as pedogenic carbonates, boron isotopes or phytoplankton) and geochemical models were applied in order to reconstruct palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, partially providing conflicting results. Another promising proxy is the frequency of stomata (pores on the leaf surface used for gaseous exchange). In this project, fossil plant material from the Messel Pit (Hesse, Germany) is used to reconstruct atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in the Middle Eocene by analyzing stomatal density. We applied the novel mechanistic-theoretical approach of Konrad et al. (2008) which provides a quantitative derivation of the stomatal density response (number of stomata per leaf area) to varying atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The model couples 1) C3-photosynthesis, 2) the process of diffusion and 3) an optimisation principle providing maximum photosynthesis (via carbon dioxide uptake) and minimum water loss (via stomatal transpiration). These three sub-models also include data of the palaeoenvironment (temperature, water availability, wind velocity, atmospheric humidity, precipitation) and anatomy of leaf and stoma (depth, length and width of stomatal porus, thickness of assimilation tissue, leaf length). In order to calculate curves of stomatal density as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, various biochemical parameters have to be borrowed from extant representatives. The necessary palaeoclimate data are reconstructed from the whole Messel flora using Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA) and the Coexistence Approach (CA). In order to obtain a significant result, we selected three species from which a large number of well-preserved leaves is available (at least 20 leaves per species). Palaeoclimate calculations for the Middle Eocene Messel Pit indicate a warm and humid climate with mean annual temperature of approximately 22°C, up to 2540 mm mean annual precipitation and the absence of extended periods of drought. Mean relative air

  1. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3, for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, E.H.; Young, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A review was performed on the reports required by Federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted at Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, during 1983. The three periodic reports reviewed were (1) the Effluent and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, January 1-June 30, 1983, (2) the Effluent and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, July 1-December 31, 1983, and (3) the Annual Environmental Operating Report, Radiological, 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS and NRC guidance given in NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  2. Considerations on the Application of the IAEA Safety Requirements for the Design of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    Revised to take into consideration findings from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-2/1 (Rev. 1), Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, has introduced some new concepts with respect to the earlier safety standard published in the year 2000. The preparation of SSR-2/1 (Rev. 1) was carried out with constant and intense involvement of IAEA Member States, but some new requirements, because of the novelty of the concepts introduced and the complexity of the issues, are not always interpreted in a unique way. The IAEA is confident that a complete clarification and a full understanding of the new requirements will be available when the supporting safety guides for design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants are prepared. The IAEA expects that the effort devoted to the preparation of this publication, which received input and comments from several Member States and experts, will also facilitate and harmonize the preparation or revision of these supporting standards

  3. Observations of leaf stomatal conductance at the canopy scale: an atmospheric modeling perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avissar, R.

    1993-01-01

    parameterization of plant stomata applied on a field (or larger) scale, might not require inclusion of the complex relations found at the leaf scale between stomata and their microenvironment

  4. Observations of leaf stomatal conductance at the canopy scale: an atmospheric modeling perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avissar, R.

    1993-01-01

    parameterization of plant stomata applied on a field (or larger) scale, might not require inclusion of the complex relations found at the leaf scale between stomata and their microenvironment

  5. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.1 Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction...

  6. Requirements and Possibilities for Operational Experience Feedback from the Plant's Manufacturer's Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimann, P.

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of nations has realized that nuclear energy can contribute sustainable to secure their national energy supply. In the last few years, apart from the established nuclear nations, other, often smaller countries have also decided for themselves to apply the nuclear option to secure their energy supply. This partly takes place in multi-national cooperation between neighboring countries on one side, as well as otherwise between different companies on the manufacturers'/utilities' side. The endeavor of building absolutely safe reactors and of operating them safely requires the necessity on different levels of considering existing and up to date experiences gained in all the nuclear projects' phases. The long time period of many years between the decision on building a nuclear power plant, the licensing procedure, the detailed planning, the construction phase and the commissioning of the plants, results in the necessity of having to incorporate the constant experience gain on all technical and administrative levels. This applies to the safety-related boundary conditions in the frame of a new-build project in the same way as for updating measures performed on existing plants. An often neglected fact, this also applies to the right choice of the guidelines to be applied, to an efficient and competent authority and utility body or to the integration of the appropriate technical specialists and experts. Therefore the utilities and their tasks are confronted with different requirements, depending on whether they are located in the country of responsible nuclear power plant utilities' head quarters or whether they are simply co-owners of a foreign plant. AREVA as company covering the complete nuclear cycle including the corresponding plant construction supports its partners in all project phases including the development of national institutions and knowledge transfer. All of AREVA's existing knowledge - even the recently obtained - is integrated directly in the

  7. Immunity at Cauliflower Hydathodes Controls Systemic Infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Aude; Jauneau, Alain; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Martinez, Yves; Chiarenza, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata. Because hydathodes are natural infection routes for several pathogens, we investigated hydathode infection by the adapted vascular phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc), the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassicaceae. Microscopic observations of hydathodes six days postinoculation indicated a digestion of the epithem cells and a high bacterial multiplication. Postinvasive immunity was shown to limit pathogen growth in the epithem and is actively suppressed by the type III secretion system and its effector proteins. Altogether, these results give a detailed anatomic description of Brassicaceae hydathodes and highlight the efficient use of this tissue as an initial niche for subsequent vascular systemic dissemination of Xcc in distant plant tissues. PMID:28184011

  8. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver panel test requirements document solar thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-25

    Testing plans for a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally, the design planned for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. Testing is to include operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the panel's transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. Test hardware are described, including the pilot plant receiver, the test receiver assembly, receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and structural assembly. Requirements for the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. The safety of the system is briefly discussed, and procedures are described for assembly, installation, checkout, normal and abnormal operations, maintenance, removal and disposition. Also briefly discussed are quality assurance, contract responsibilities, and test documentation. (LEW)

  9. Method to control the persons permitted to enter plants with increased security requirements and personnel lock for such plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, E.; Eickhoff, H.; Tretschoks, W.

    1978-01-01

    The personnel lock for a plant with increased security requirements, e.g. a nuclear power plant, has got two lock gates. Only persons whose right to enter has been established by the control equipment will be admitted to the lock chamber. For this purpose an identification recess is built in front of the first access to the lock chamber, where size, weight and the contours of the persons wanting to enter are roughly measured and compared with a code card carried along. The weight is established by a balance forming part of the base of the recess. By means of contact surfaces in the region of knees, upper thigh, chest and shoulder an upright position of the person is guaranteed. Scanning of the physical dimensions is performed with laser, infrared and light barriers. (DG) [de

  10. Projections of cost and on-site manual-labor requirements for constructing electric-generating plants, 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This report represents part of a continuing effort by the Federal Government to forecast the capital and labor required for constructing electric generating capacity additions necessary to accommodate projected economic and population growth in the US and its regions. Information is included on anticipated additions to electric generating capacity, labor requirements for these additions, capital cost requirements, and forecasting models. Coal-fired, nuclear, hydro, and pumped storage power plants are considered in these forecasts

  11. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  12. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  13. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, T.E.; Magleby, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the reports required by federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed for the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant were the Annual Radiological Environmental Operating Report for 1983 and the Semiannual Radioactive Effluent Release Reports for 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS, NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants'', and NRC Guidance on the Review of the Process Control Programs. The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines. 7 refs

  14. Regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection in Malaysia-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, N A; Hashim, S; Ramli, A T; Bradley, D A; Hamzah, K

    2016-12-01

    Malaysia has initiated a range of pre-project activities in preparation for its planned nuclear power programme. Clearly one of the first steps is the selection of sites that are deemed suitable for the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Here we outline the Malaysian regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection, emphasizing details of the selection procedures and site characteristics needed, with a clear focus on radiation safety and radiation protection in respect of the site surroundings. The Malaysia Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) site selection guidelines are in accord with those provided in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and United Stated Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents. To enhance the suitability criteria during selection, as well as to assist in the final decision making process, possible assessments using the site selection characteristics and information are proposed.

  15. Cooling water requirements and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is poised to scuttle the energy crisis of our time by proposing joint ventures for large power plants. Large fossil/nuclear power plants (NPPs) rely upon water for cooling and are therefore located near coastal areas. The amount of water a power station uses and consumes depends on the cooling technology used. Depending on the cooling technology utilized, per megawatt existing NPPs use and consume more water (by a factor of 1.25) than power stations using other fuel sources. In this context the distinction between 'use' and 'consume' of water is important. All power stations do consume some of the water they use; this is generally lost as evaporation. Cooling systems are basically of two types; Closed cycle and Once-through, of the two systems, the closed cycle uses about 2-3% of the water volumes used by the once-through system. Generally, water used for power plant cooling is chemically altered for purposes of extending the useful life of equipment and to ensure efficient operation. The used chemicals effluent will be added to the cooling water discharge. Thus water quality impacts on power plants vary significantly, from one electricity generating technology to another. In light of massive expansion of nuclear power programme there is a need to develop new ecofriendly cooling water technologies. Seawater cooling towers (SCT) could be a viable option for power plants. SCTs can be utilized with the proper selection of materials, coatings and can achieve long service life. Among the concerns raised about the development of a nuclear power industry, the amount of water consumed by nuclear power plants compared with other power stations is of relevance in light of the warming surface seawater temperatures. A 1000 MW power plant uses per day ∼800 ML/MW in once through cooling system; while SCT use 27 ML/MW. With the advent of new marine materials and concrete compositions SCT can be constructed for efficient operation. However, the

  16. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures......Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport...... accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development....

  17. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2016-07-06

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development.

  18. Leaf, stem bark and fruit anatomy of zanthoxylum armatum dc. (rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkatullah, A.; Ibrar, M.; Jelani, G.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Rutaceae) is an important medicinal plant. The present study deals with anatomical exploration of the leaf, stem bark and fruit of this plant. Leaf of Z. armatum is bifacial, compound and punctate with glabrous surfaces having a single layer of epidermis and palisade mesophyll. The leaf has a Palisade ratio ranged from 6.00 to 9.00 (8.2 +- 0.32). Vein islets and vein termination number were 14-21 (16.8 +- 0.64) and 17-21 (19.1 +- 0.43) per mm2 respectively. The vein-islets were quite distinct with squaresh, elongated, polygonal or irregular in shape bounding many forked and unforked vascular branches. Adaxial surface of Z. armatum leaf midrib was planoconvex while the abaxial surface was semicircular in appearance. The diagnostic feature of the leaf was the complete absence of any kind of trichomes or any other appendages. The leaf showed prominent oil cavities. Nine types of stomata with different frequencies and other dimensions were observed. Brachparatetracytic stomata was the most frequent stoma (80%) followed by actinostephanocytic (40%) and then straucytic and brachyparacytic (30%) each. Hemiparacytic and stomatal cluster were the rarely occurring stomata (10% each) present on the lower epidermis of the leaf. Stomatal cluster, which is considered to be a special leaf epidermal feature and reported only in few genera of vascular plants, was also recorded in this plant. Bark and fruit anatomy of Z. armatum showed different tissue arrangement. The seed was non endospermic and contains an elongated embryo. The present study will be helpful in the phylogeny and taxonomic description of this important medicinal plant. (author)

  19. Drought tolerance studies through WSSI and stomata in upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Jatoi, W.A.; Soomro, Z.A.; Khan, N.U.; Hassan, G.; Khakwani, A.A.; Veesar, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    Water stress susceptibility index (WSSI) and stomatal conductance were used to determine the stress tolerance of 10 upland cotton cultivars during 2009 at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in spilt plot design with irrigations as main plots and cultivars as sub-plots. Two irrigation treatments were used i.e. one has two irrigations (water stress) and other has eight irrigations (non-stress). Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences about WSSI for all the traits. Non-significant interaction between irrigations and cultivars for seed cotton yield and boll weight exhibited varietals stability over irrigation regimes, whereas significant interactions between above parameters for plant height and bolls per plant suggested genotypic instability over irrigation treatments for these traits. Overall, cultivars mean performance for all the traits in stress conditions was poor as compared to non-stress conditions, nevertheless some cultivars exhibited nonsignificant mean differences in both irrigation regimes, thus showing higher stress tolerance. The WSSI values of seed cotton yield as displayed in bi plot revealed that cultivars CRIS-477, CRIS-483 and CRIS-486 were found highly susceptible to water stress. Cultivars CRIS-476, CRIS-482, CRIS-487 and NIAB-78 were characterized as highly susceptible with minimum production even under optimum irrigation conditions. Cultivar CRIS-9 was moderately tolerant as produced low production. However, cultivars CRIS-485 and CRIS-484 were found highly stress tolerant because of minimum WSSI value and lower stomatal conductance. Negative correlations between water stress and WSSI for seed cotton yield and plant height revealed that any increase in the degree of stress caused a corresponding decrease in WSSI. (author)

  20. Systems required during and after an earthquake. Summary report. WWER-1000 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, P.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of this document is to list the mechanical, instrumentation and electrical components required during and after earthquake, in order to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions of a WWER-1000 type nuclear power plant. The main objective pursued in establishing the systems and equipment list is to provide guidance for the design and implementation of the backfits which are necessary to increase seismic resistance of the components required after earthquake. The presented list is established on generic basis, i.e. it is applicable to any specific WWER-1000

  1. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  2. The effect of elevated CO2 on the vegetative and generative growth of Phalaenopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromwijk, J.A.M.; Meinen, E.; Dueck, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Phalaenopsis is a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant which absorbs and binds CO2 as malate during the night. During daytime the stomata close and the CO2 stored in the vacuole is released and used for photosynthesis. Because the CO2 taken up by CAM plants was assumed to be unaffected by the

  3. The RxLR effector Avh241 from Phytophthora sojae requires plasma membrane localization to induce plant cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Wang, Qunqing; Ye, Wenwu; Tao, Kai; Duan, Shuyi; Lu, Chenchen; Yang, Xinyu; Dong, Suomeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-10-01

    • The Phytophthora sojae genome encodes hundreds of RxLR effectors predicted to manipulate various plant defense responses, but the molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here we have characterized in detail the P. sojae RxLR effector Avh241. • To determine the function and localization of Avh241, we transiently expressed it on different plants. Silencing of Avh241 in P. sojae, we determined its virulence during infection. Through the assay of promoting infection by Phytophthora capsici to Nicotiana benthamiana, we further confirmed this virulence role. • Avh241 induced cell death in several different plants and localized to the plant plasma membrane. An N-terminal motif within Avh241 was important for membrane localization and cell death-inducing activity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases, NbMEK2 and NbWIPK, were required for the cell death triggered by Avh241 in N. benthamiana. Avh241 was important for the pathogen's full virulence on soybean. Avh241 could also promote infection by P. capsici and the membrane localization motif was not required to promote infection. • This work suggests that Avh241 interacts with the plant immune system via at least two different mechanisms, one recognized by plants dependent on subcellular localization and one promoting infection independent on membrane localization. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Histochemical response of `Grande naine' plants inoculated with M. fijiensis and Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5 cell free filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilyn Mena

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, interest has won biocontrol Mycosphaerella fijiensis with the use of microorganisms or their products. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the biochemical events involved in Musa- M. fijiensis-microorganism interaction, is still limited. The objective was to determine the histochemical response of `Grande naine' (Musa AAA plants inoculated or not with the pathogen in the presence of culture filtrate of Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5. For this, techniques that allow visualization of callose, superoxide anion, lignin and phenolic compounds in the early days post inoculation (dpi were used. As a result, at 6 dpi callose deposition were observed within the stomata in plants where the culture filtrate was applied regardless of the presence or absence of the pathogen. Furthermore, a blue halo was observed around stomas, indicative of the presence of superoxide anion. It was not possible to detect accumulation of lignin or phenolic compounds with the technique used. It was demonstrated the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to defense response of `Grande naine' plants to pathogen infection. Furthermore, it was shown that the plant responds in early infection with the use of bacterial culture filtrates. These results demonstrate the possible mechanism of induction of defense response in plants of Musa sp. in the presence of bacterial culture filtrate. Key words: Black Sigatoka, callose, lignin, phenols, superoxide anion

  5. Lithuanian requirements for ageing management of systems and components important to safety of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanauskiene, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the Lithuanian requirements for ageing management of systems and components important to safety of Ignalina nuclear power plant (two RBMK-1500 water-cooled graphite moderated channel-type power reactors) are presented

  6. ROS signaling and stomatal movement in plant responses to drought stress and pathogen attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junsheng; Song, Chun-Peng; Wang, Baoshan; Zhou, Jianmin; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2018-04-16

    Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO 2 exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors including water status, light, CO 2 levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles. These ROS form a sophisticated cellular signaling network, with the accumulation of apoplastic ROS an early hallmark of stomatal movement. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the ROS signaling network, primarily during drought stress and pathogen attack. We summarize the roles of apoplastic ROS in regulating stomatal movement, ABA and CO 2 signaling, and immunity responses. Finally, we discuss ROS accumulation and communication between organelles and cells. This information provides a conceptual framework for understanding how ROS signaling is integrated with various signaling pathways during plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress stimuli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. How Many Model Evaluations Are Required To Predict The AEP Of A Wind Power Plant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, J P; Réthoré, P E; Natarajan, A; Sørensen, J D

    2015-01-01

    Wind farm flow models have advanced considerably with the use of large eddy simulations (LES) and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations. The main limitation of these techniques is their high computational time requirements; which makes their use for wind farm annual energy production (AEP) predictions expensive. The objective of the present paper is to minimize the number of model evaluations required to capture the wind power plant's AEP using stationary wind farm flow models. Polynomial chaos techniques are proposed based on arbitrary Weibull distributed wind speed and Von Misses distributed wind direction. The correlation between wind direction and wind speed are captured by defining Weibull-parameters as functions of wind direction. In order to evaluate the accuracy of these methods the expectation and variance of the wind farm power distributions are compared against the traditional binning method with trapezoidal and Simpson's integration rules.The wind farm flow model used in this study is the semi-empirical wake model developed by Larsen [1]. Three test cases are studied: a single turbine, a simple and a real offshore wind power plant. A reduced number of model evaluations for a general wind power plant is proposed based on the convergence of the present method for each case. (paper)

  8. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Peter J; Beerling, David J

    2009-06-23

    Stomatal pores are microscopic structures on the epidermis of leaves formed by 2 specialized guard cells that control the exchange of water vapor and CO(2) between plants and the atmosphere. Stomatal size (S) and density (D) determine maximum leaf diffusive (stomatal) conductance of CO(2) (g(c(max))) to sites of assimilation. Although large variations in D observed in the fossil record have been correlated with atmospheric CO(2), the crucial significance of similarly large variations in S has been overlooked. Here, we use physical diffusion theory to explain why large changes in S necessarily accompanied the changes in D and atmospheric CO(2) over the last 400 million years. In particular, we show that high densities of small stomata are the only way to attain the highest g(cmax) values required to counter CO(2)"starvation" at low atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. This explains cycles of increasing D and decreasing S evident in the fossil history of stomata under the CO(2) impoverished atmospheres of the Permo-Carboniferous and Cenozoic glaciations. The pattern was reversed under rising atmospheric CO(2) regimes. Selection for small S was crucial for attaining high g(cmax) under falling atmospheric CO(2) and, therefore, may represent a mechanism linking CO(2) and the increasing gas-exchange capacity of land plants over geologic time.

  9. Direction for the Estimation of Required Resources for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning based on BIM via Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. As demands on efficient management and use of complicated construction information increased these days, demands on the introduction of Building Information Modeling (herein after referred to as BIM) technology has increased. In the area of quotation, considerable effects are expected as to the accuracy and reliability predicting construction costs through the characteristics that can automatically estimate quantities by using attribute information of BIM model. BIM-based estimation and quotation of required resources is more accurate than the existing 2D-based quotations and have many advantages such as reviews over constructability and interference. It can be desirable to estimate decommissioning required resources in nuclear power plants using BIM as well as using tools that are compatible with usual international/industrial standards. As we looked into the cases where required resources were estimated, using BIM in Korea and abroad, they dealt with estimation of required resources, estimation of construction cost and process management at large. In each area, methodologies, classification systems, BIM, and realization tests have been used variably. Nonetheless, several problems have been reported, and among them, it is noticeable that although BIM standard classification system exists, no case was found that has used standard classification system. This means that no interlink among OBS (Object Breakdown Structure), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS (Cost Breakdown Structure) was possible. Thus, for nuclear power plant decommissioning, decommissioning method and process, etc. shall be defined clearly in the stage of decommissioning strategy establishment, so that classification systems must be set up

  10. Direction for the Estimation of Required Resources for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning based on BIM via Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Insu; Kim, Woojung

    2014-01-01

    Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. As demands on efficient management and use of complicated construction information increased these days, demands on the introduction of Building Information Modeling (herein after referred to as BIM) technology has increased. In the area of quotation, considerable effects are expected as to the accuracy and reliability predicting construction costs through the characteristics that can automatically estimate quantities by using attribute information of BIM model. BIM-based estimation and quotation of required resources is more accurate than the existing 2D-based quotations and have many advantages such as reviews over constructability and interference. It can be desirable to estimate decommissioning required resources in nuclear power plants using BIM as well as using tools that are compatible with usual international/industrial standards. As we looked into the cases where required resources were estimated, using BIM in Korea and abroad, they dealt with estimation of required resources, estimation of construction cost and process management at large. In each area, methodologies, classification systems, BIM, and realization tests have been used variably. Nonetheless, several problems have been reported, and among them, it is noticeable that although BIM standard classification system exists, no case was found that has used standard classification system. This means that no interlink among OBS (Object Breakdown Structure), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS (Cost Breakdown Structure) was possible. Thus, for nuclear power plant decommissioning, decommissioning method and process, etc. shall be defined clearly in the stage of decommissioning strategy establishment, so that classification systems must be set up

  11. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 confers tolerance to water deficit and salinity to transgenic Arabidopsis and alfalfa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Gómez, María C; Chan, Raquel L

    2017-09-10

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom; members of subfamily I are known to be involved in abiotic stress responses. HaHB11 belongs to this subfamily and it was previously shown that it is able to confer improved yield and tolerance to flooding via a quiescent strategy. Here we show that HaHB11 expression is induced by ABA, NaCl and water deficit in sunflower seedlings and leaves. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11, controlled either by its own promoter or by the constitutive 35S CaMV, presented rolled leaves and longer roots than WT when grown under standard conditions. In addition, these plants showed wider stems and more vascular bundles. To deal with drought, HaHB11 transgenic plants closed their stomata faster and lost less water than controls, triggering an enhanced tolerance to such stress condition and also to salinity stress. Concomitantly, ABA-synthesis and sensing related genes were differentially regulated in HaHB11 transgenic plants. Either under long-term salinity stress or mild drought stress, HaHB11 transgenic plants did not exhibit yield penalties. Moreover, alfalfa transgenic plants were generated which also showed enhanced drought tolerance. Altogether, the results indicated that HaHB11 was able to confer drought and salinity tolerance via a complex mechanism which involves morphological, physiological and molecular changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reference: 614 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available native promoter were found to produce excessive stomata, consistent with the recently described role of MPK...s determined using a YFP-MPK6 fusion construct, and expression was observed throughout most plant tissues, consistent

  13. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mark Schanfein; Philip Casey Durst

    2012-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to be constructed near Idaho Falls, Idaho The NGNP is intrinsically safer than current reactors and is planned for startup ca. 2021 Safety is more prominent in the minds of the Public and Governing Officials following the nuclear reactor meltdown accidents in Fukushima, Japan The authors propose that the NGNP should be designed with International (IAEA) Safeguards in mind to support export to Non-Nuclear-Weapons States There are two variants of the NGNP design; one using integral Prismatic-shaped fuel assemblies in a fixed core; and one using recirculating fuel balls (or Pebbles) The following presents the infrastructure required to safeguard the NGNP This infrastructure is required to safeguard the Prismatic and Pebble-fueled NGNP (and other HTGR/VHTR) The infrastructure is based on current Safeguards Requirements and Practices implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for similar reactors The authors of this presentation have worked for decades in the area of International Nuclear Safeguards and are recognized experts in this field Presentation for INMM conference in July 2012.

  14. Evaluation of mercury pollution in cultivated and wild plants from two small communities of the Tapajós gold mining reserve, Pará State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egler, Silvia G; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Villas-Bôas, Roberto C; Beinhoff, Christian

    2006-09-01

    This study examines the total Hg contamination in soil and sediments, and the correlation between the total Hg concentration in soil and vegetables in two small scale gold mining areas, São Chico and Creporizinho, in the State of Para, Brazilian Amazon. Total Hg values for soil samples for both study areas are higher than region background values (ca. 0.15 mg/kg). At São Chico, mean values in soils samples are higher than at Creporizinho, but without significant differences at alpha1 in all of São Chico's produce samples, soil-plant parts regression were not significant, and Hg uptake probably occurs through stomata by atmospheric mercury deposition. Wild plants aboveground:root ratios were <1 at both study areas, and soil-plant parts regressions were significant in samples of Creporizinho, suggesting that they function as an excluder. The average total contents of Hg in edible parts of produces were close to FAO/WHO/JECFA PTWI values in São Chico area, and much lower in Creporizinho. However, Hg inorganic small gastrointestinal absorption reduces its adverse health effects.

  15. Rice Stomatal Closure Requires Guard Cell Plasma Membrane ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter RCN1/OsABCG5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shuichi; Takano, Sho; Sato, Moeko; Furukawa, Kaoru; Nagasawa, Hidetaka; Yoshikawa, Shoko; Kasuga, Jun; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Nakazono, Mikio; Takamure, Itsuro; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2016-03-07

    Water stress is one of the major environmental stresses that affect agricultural production worldwide. Water loss from plants occurs primarily through stomatal pores. Here, we report that an Oryza sativa half-size ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G protein, RCN1/OsABCG5, is involved in stomatal closure mediated by phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in guard cells. We found that the GFP-RCN1/OsABCG5-fusion protein was localized at the plasma membrane in guard cells. The percentage of guard cell pairs containing both ABA and GFP-RCN1/OsABCG5 increased after exogenous ABA treatment, whereas they were co-localized in guard cell pairs regardless of whether exogenous ABA was applied. ABA application resulted in a smaller increase in the percentage of guard cell pairs containing ABA in rcn1 mutant (A684P) and RCN1-RNAi than in wild-type plants. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol (drought stress)-inducible ABA accumulation in guard cells did not occur in rcn1 mutants. Stomata closure mediated by exogenous ABA application was strongly reduced in rcn1 mutants. Finally, rcn1 mutant plants had more rapid water loss from detached leaves than the wild-type plants. These results indicate that in response to drought stress, RCN1/OsABCG5 is involved in accumulation of ABA in guard cells, which is indispensable for stomatal closure. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety related requirements on future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power has the potential to significantly contribute to the future energy supply. However, this requires continuous improvements in nuclear safety. Technological advancements and implementation of safety culture will achieve a safety level for future reactors of the present generation of a probability of core-melt of less than 10 -5 per year, and less than 10 -6 per year for large releases of radioactive materials. There are older reactors which do not comply with present safety thinking. The paper reviews findings of a recent design review of WWER 440/230 plants. Advanced evolutionary designs might be capable of reducing the probability of significant off-site releases to less than 10 -7 per year. For such reactors there are inherent limitations to increase safety further due to the human element, complexity of design and capability of the containment function. Therefore, revolutionary designs are being explored with the aim of eliminating the potential for off-site releases. In this context it seems to be advisable to explore concepts where the ultimate safety barrier is the fuel itself. (orig.) [de

  17. Consideration of the legal system required for achievement of current nuclear power plant construction programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellon Fernandez, E.; Forum Atomico Espanol, Madrid)

    1976-01-01

    The extensive nuclear power plant construction programmes currently in progress in western countries require updating of the legislation in force in this field, especially as regards the following: acquisition of the sites necessary by means of a national planning programme of available sites; simplification of formalities concerning issuance of administrative licenses; revision of the principle of absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator which forms the basis of the third party liability system for nuclear damage; radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear plants. Furthermore, this new legislation should be harmonized between the different countries concerned. (N.E.A.) [fr

  18. New requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents new requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards. It is concluded that: - New set of IAEA Safety Standards is close to completion: around 40 standards for NPPs; - Different interpretation of IAEA Safety Standards at present: best world practices instead of previous 'minimum common denominator'; - A number of safety improvements required for NPPs; - Requirements related to BDBAs and severe accidents are the most demanding due to degradation of barriers: hardware modifications and accident management; - Large variety between countries in implementation of accident management programmes: from minimum to major hardware modifications; -Distinction between existing and new NPPs is essential from the point of view of the requirements; WWER 440 reactors have potential to reflect IAEA Safety Standards for existing NPPs; relatively low reactor power offers broader possibilities

  19. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S.; Armstrong, Daniel W.; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113

  20. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface.

  1. Characterization and Molecular Interpretation of the Photosynthetic Traits of Lonicera confusa in Karst Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lu; Fu, Chunhua; Zhang, Libin; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Maoteng

    2014-01-01

    Lonicera confusa was a medical plant which could adapt to the Ca-rich environment in the karst area of China. The photosynthesis, relative chlorophyll content,differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) of L. confusa that cultivated in calcareous and sandstone soils were investigated. The results showed that the relative chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis rate of L. confusa in calcareous soil are much higher than that planted in sandstone soil, the higher content of calcium might play a role in keeping the chloroplast from harm and showed higher photosynthesis rate. The transpiration and stomata conductance were decreased in calcareous soil, which might result from the closure of stomata. The GeneFishing and proteomic results showed that the expression of DEGs and DEPs were critical for photosynthesis and stomata closure, such as RuBisCO, photosynthetic electron transfer c and malate dehydrogenase varied in the leaves of L. confusa that cultivated in different soils. These DEGs or DEPs were further found to be directly or indirectly regulated by calcium sensor proteins. This study enriched our knowledge of the molecular mechanism of high net photosynthesis rate and lower transpiration of L. confusa that cultivated in the calcareous soil in some degree. PMID:24959829

  2. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  3. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  4. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharani Manoharan

    Full Text Available The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant's natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction.

  5. Cost regulation on the inspection of plants requiring supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    According to annexes I to VI of this regulation, TUeVs (technical control authorities) (2nd sentence of para. 1 of sect. 24 c of the trade law) collect fees for inspections ordered by the authorities for the following plants and installations: 1. steam boiler plants, 2. pressure vessels, high-pressure gas vessels, feeders, 3. lifts, 4. acetylene plants, 5. plants for the storage, racking and transport of combustile liquids, 6. electrical installations on hazardous location. (orig.) [de

  6. A study for the establishment of regulatory requirement and evaluation guide for station blackout in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J. H.; Koo, C. S.; Joo, W. P.; Oh, S. H.; Shin, W. K.

    1999-01-01

    The consequence of SBO event could be a severe accident unless AC power was restored within a proper time, because many safety systems depend upon AC power. Based on the severity, the SBO has been extensively studied since it was identified as Unresolved Safety Issue at USNRC. The resolution of those studies is a rule-making such as 10 CFR 50.63 and Regulatory Guide 1.155. But there is no regulatory requirements of SBO for an operating domestic nuclear power plant up to the present time. This tudy has established SBO rule(regulatory requirements and evaluation guides) for an operating PWR type of the operating nuclear power plants in Korea

  7. Plant Physiology: Redefining the Enigma of Metabolism in Stomatal Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Michael R

    2016-02-08

    Stomata open at the leaf epidermis, driven by solute accumulation in the surrounding guard cells. Transmembrane ion transport has long been recognised to contribute to this process. A new study makes it clear that guard cells also metabolise starch to accelerate opening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey on maintenance skills required for nuclear power plant periodic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a trend survey regarding the problem of passing on senior workers' skills and knowledge to young employees in industries in general, and an interview survey of skilled workers engaged in maintenance work during periodic inspections at a nuclear power plant. These surveys aimed to obtain useful information for maintaining and improving the quality of future maintenance work during nuclear power plant periodic inspections. The trend survey of industries found that the 'Year 2007 Problem (difficulties associated with the start of mass retirements of baby-boomers)' was often takenup in various fields and that many companies were concerned about losing their accumulated skills and know-how. To ensure that skills are smoothly passed on to the younger generation, companies have taken various measures, such as development of plans for passing on skills and knowledge, introduction of the Meister system and implementation of workshops by skilled workers. The interview survey of skilled workers engaged in maintenance work of mechanical equipment during periodic inspections at Nuclear Power Plant A found that various skills were required in maintenance work. Regarding perceived differences between skilled and unskilled maintenance workers, many respondents believed that the largest difference was in terms of time taken to carry out specific procedures. Some maintenance companies have increasingly fewer skilled workers than before or face aging of skilled personnel. As future concerns, respondents cited the loss of skills that have been acquired through experience in construction and in handling of troubles and failures. Differences were observed among companies in the degree to which skills have been passed on to the younger generation. As a reason why skills are not successfully passed on, respondents cited communication problems due to age differences between senior and young workers and other problems that were also observed in other industries

  9. Improvement of availability of PWR nuclear plants through the reduction of the time required for refueling/maintenance outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.B.; Soth, L.G.

    1978-04-01

    The objective of the project, conducted by Commonwealth Research Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, is to identify improvements in procedures and equipment which will reduce the time required for refueling/maintenance outages at PWR nuclear power plants. The outage of Commonwealth Edison Zion Station Unit 1 in March through May of 1976 was evaluated to identify those items which caused delays and those work activities that offer the potential for significant improvements that could reduce the overall duration of the outage and achieve an improvement in the plant's availability for power production. Modifications in procedures have been developed and were evaluated during one or more outages in 1977. Conceptual designs have been developed for equipment modifications to the refueling system that could reduce the time required for the refueling portion of the outage. The purpose of the interim report is to describe those conceptual designs and to assess their impact upon future outages. Recommendations are included for the implementation of these equipment improvements in a continuation of this program as a demonstration of plant availability benefits that can be realized in PWR nuclear plants already in operation or under construction

  10. Preliminary Modelling of Mass Flux at the Surface of Plant Leaves within the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Madeleine; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    The ESA project Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ecosystem of micro-organisms and higher plants, constructed with the objective of being operated as a tool to understand artificial ecosystems to be used for a long-term or permanent manned planetary base (e.g. Moon or Mars). The purpose of such a system is to provide for generation of food, water recycling, atmospheric regeneration and waste management within defined standards of quality and reliability. As MELiSSA consists of individual compartments which are connected to each other, the robustness of the system is fully dependent on the control of each compartment, as well as the flow management between them. Quality of consumables and reliability of the ecosystem rely on the knowledge, understanding and control of each of the components. This includes the full understanding of all processes related to the higher plants. To progress in that direction, this paper focuses on the mechanical processes driving the gas and liquid exchanges between the plant leaf and its environment. The process responsible for the mass transfer on the surface of plant leaves is diffusion. The diffusion flux is dependent on the behaviour of the stoma of the leaf and also on the leaf boundary layer (BL). In this paper, the physiology of the leaf is briefly examined in order to relate parameters such as light quality, light quantity, CO2 concentration, temperature, leaf water potential, humidity, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) gradients and pollutants to the opening or closing of stomata. The diffusion process is described theoretically and the description is compared to empirical approaches. The variables of the BL are examined and the effect airflow in the compartment has on the BL is investigated. Also presented is the impact changes in different environmental parameters may have on the fluid exchanges. Finally, some tests, to evaluate the accuracy of the concluded model, are suggested.

  11. Investigating the Role of the Arabidopsis Homologue of the Human G3BP in RNA Metabolism, Cellular Stress Responses and Innate Immunity

    KAUST Repository

    Abulfaraj, Aala A.

    2018-01-01

    immunity and defense immune responses. Atg3bp1 mutant lines show constitutive stomata closure, expression of a number of key defense marker genes, and accumulate salicylic acid but not jasmonic acid. Furthermore, Atg3bp1 plants exhibit enhanced resistance

  12. Licensing evaluation of CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants relative to U.S. regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, J.B. van

    1978-01-01

    Differences between the U.S. and Canadian approach to safety and licensing are discussed. U.S. regulatory requirements are evaluated as regards their applicability to CANDU-PHW reactors; vice-versa the CANDU-PHW reactor is evaluated with respect to current Regulatory Requirements and Guides. A number of design modifications are proposed to be incorporated into the CANDU-PHW reactor in order to facilitate its introduction into the U.S. These modifications are proposed solely for the purpose of maintaining consistency within the current U.S. regulatory system and not out of a need to improve the safety of current-design CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants. A number of issues are identified which still require resolution. Most of these issues are concerned with design areas not (yet) covered by the ASME code. (author)

  13. Fusaric acid is a crucial factor in the disturbance of leaf water imbalance in Fusarium-infected banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xian; Ling, Ning; Wang, Min; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2012-11-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. The initial chlorosis symptoms occur progressively from lower to upper leaves, with wilt symptoms subsequently occurring in the whole plant. To determine the effect of the pathogen infection on the gas exchange characteristics and water content in banana leaves, hydroponic experiments with pathogen inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. Compared with control plants, infected banana seedlings showed a higher leaf temperature as determined by thermal imaging. Reduced stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) in infected plants resulted in lower levels of water loss than in control plants. Water potential in heavily diseased plants (II) was significantly reduced and the E/g(s) ratio was higher than in noninfected plants, indicating the occurrence of uncontrolled water loss not regulated by stomata in diseased plants. As no pathogen colonies were detected from the infected plant leaves, the crude toxin was extracted from the pathogen culture and evaluated about the effect on banana plant to further investigate the probable reason of these physiological changes in Fusarium-infected banana leaf. The phytotoxin fusaric acid (FA) was found in the crude toxin, and both crude toxin and pure FA had similar effects as the pathogen infection on the physiological changes in banana leaf. Additionally, FA was present at all positions in diseased plants and its concentration was positively correlated with the incidence of disease symptoms. Taken together, these observations indicated that FA secreted by the pathogen is an important factor involved in the disturbance of leaf temperature, resulting in uncontrolled leaf water loss and electrolyte leakage due to damaging the cell membrane. In conclusion, FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in banana plants by acting as a phytotoxin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of a requirements system for decommissioning of a nuclear power plant based on systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Seong; Park, Seung Kook; Jin, Hyung Gon; Song, Chan Ho; Choi, Jong won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The nuclear industry has required an advanced system that can manage decommissioning information ever since the Korean government decide to decommission the Gori No.1 nuclear power plant. The D and D division at KAERI has been developing a system that can secure the reliability and sustainability of the decommissioning project based on the engineering system of the KRR-2 (Korean Research Reactor-2). To establish a decommissioning information system, a WBS that needs to be managed for the decommissioning of an NPP has been extracted, and requirements management research composed of system engineering technology has progressed. This paper propose a new type of system based on systems engineering technology. Even though a decommissioning engineering system was developed through the KRR-2, we are now developing an advanced decommissioning information system because it is not easy to apply this system to a commercial nuclear power plant. An NPP decommissioning is a project requiring a high degree of safety and economic feasibility. Therefore, we have to use a systematic project management at the initial phase of the decommissioning. An advanced system can manage the decommissioning information from preparation to remediation by applying a previous system to the systems engineering technology that has been widely used in large-scale government projects. The first phase of the system has progressed the requirements needed for a decommissioning project for a full life cycle. The defined requirements will be used in various types of documents during the decommissioning preparation phase.

  15. The RNA silencing enzyme RNA polymerase v is required for plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana López

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM is an epigenetic control mechanism driven by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs that influence gene function. In plants, little is known of the involvement of the RdDM pathway in regulating traits related to immune responses. In a genetic screen designed to reveal factors regulating immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified NRPD2 as the OVEREXPRESSOR OF CATIONIC PEROXIDASE 1 (OCP1. NRPD2 encodes the second largest subunit of the plant-specific RNA Polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V, which are crucial for the RdDM pathway. The ocp1 and nrpd2 mutants showed increases in disease susceptibility when confronted with the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Studies were extended to other mutants affected in different steps of the RdDM pathway, such as nrpd1, nrpe1, ago4, drd1, rdr2, and drm1drm2 mutants. Our results indicate that all the mutants studied, with the exception of nrpd1, phenocopy the nrpd2 mutants; and they suggest that, while Pol V complex is required for plant immunity, Pol IV appears dispensable. Moreover, Pol V defective mutants, but not Pol IV mutants, show enhanced disease resistance towards the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Interestingly, salicylic acid (SA-mediated defenses effective against PsDC3000 are enhanced in Pol V defective mutants, whereas jasmonic acid (JA-mediated defenses that protect against fungi are reduced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that, through differential histone modifications, SA-related defense genes are poised for enhanced activation in Pol V defective mutants and provide clues for understanding the regulation of gene priming during defense. Our results highlight the importance of epigenetic control as an additional layer of complexity in the regulation of plant immunity and point towards multiple components of the RdDM pathway being involved in plant immunity based on genetic evidence

  16. The RNA silencing enzyme RNA polymerase v is required for plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana; Ramírez, Vicente; García-Andrade, Javier; Flors, Victor; Vera, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an epigenetic control mechanism driven by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that influence gene function. In plants, little is known of the involvement of the RdDM pathway in regulating traits related to immune responses. In a genetic screen designed to reveal factors regulating immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified NRPD2 as the OVEREXPRESSOR OF CATIONIC PEROXIDASE 1 (OCP1). NRPD2 encodes the second largest subunit of the plant-specific RNA Polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V), which are crucial for the RdDM pathway. The ocp1 and nrpd2 mutants showed increases in disease susceptibility when confronted with the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Studies were extended to other mutants affected in different steps of the RdDM pathway, such as nrpd1, nrpe1, ago4, drd1, rdr2, and drm1drm2 mutants. Our results indicate that all the mutants studied, with the exception of nrpd1, phenocopy the nrpd2 mutants; and they suggest that, while Pol V complex is required for plant immunity, Pol IV appears dispensable. Moreover, Pol V defective mutants, but not Pol IV mutants, show enhanced disease resistance towards the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Interestingly, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defenses effective against PsDC3000 are enhanced in Pol V defective mutants, whereas jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defenses that protect against fungi are reduced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that, through differential histone modifications, SA-related defense genes are poised for enhanced activation in Pol V defective mutants and provide clues for understanding the regulation of gene priming during defense. Our results highlight the importance of epigenetic control as an additional layer of complexity in the regulation of plant immunity and point towards multiple components of the RdDM pathway being involved in plant immunity based on genetic evidence, but whether

  17. Toward the ultimate goal of tritium self-sufficiency: Technical issues and requirements imposed on ARIES advanced power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, Laila A.; Malang, Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    Due to the lack of external tritium sources, all fusion power plants must demonstrate a closed tritium fuel cycle. The tritium breeding ratio (TBR) must exceed unity by a certain margin. The key question is: how large is this margin and how high should the calculated TBR be? The TBR requirement is design and breeder-dependent and evolves with time. At present, the ARIES requirement is 1.1 for the calculated overall TBR of LiPb systems. The Net TBR during plant operation could be around 1.01. The difference accounts for deficiencies in the design elements (nuclear data evaluation, neutronics code validation, and 3D modeling tools). Such a low Net TBR of 1.01 is potentially achievable in advanced designs employing advanced physics and technology. A dedicated R and D effort will reduce the difference between the calculated TBR and Net TBR. A generic breeding issue encountered in all fusion designs is whether any fusion design will over-breed or under-breed during plant operation. To achieve the required Net TBR with sufficient precision, an online control of tritium breeding is highly recommended for all fusion designs. This can easily be achieved for liquid breeders through online adjustment of Li enrichment.

  18. Does homeostasis or disturbance of homeostasis in minimum leaf water potential explain the isohydric versus anisohydric behavior of Vitis vinifera L. cultivars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Daniel M. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Due to the diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit (D), one of the key regulatory roles played by stomata is to limit transpiration-induced leaf water deficit. Different types of plants are known to vary in the sensitivity of stomatal conductance (gs) to D with important consequences for their survival and growth. Plants that minimize...

  19. Supplementary quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    This standard sets forth the supplementary quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel for nuclear power plant construction. The requirements may also be extended to other appropriate parts of nuclear power plants when specified in contract documents. This standard is intended to be used in conjunction with ANSI N45.2

  20. Effect of Irradiation of 60CO Gamma Rays on Growth of Garlic (Allium Sativum L) Plants Cv. Lumbu Hijau at Low Land Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismiyati Sutarto; Kumala Dewi; Arwin; Nurrohma

    2004-01-01

    Garlic originally come from the sub tropical area. In Indonesia, garlic is grown generally in high land area with an altitude between 1000 - 1600 m above sea level. Therefore, the area for growing and producing garlic is limited. Besides, genetic variation of garlic is very narrow since garlic belongs to vegetatively propagated crops. An effort for increasing genetic variation of garlic was done by exposing garlic cloves to gamma rays in order to obtain garlic mutant lines adapted to low land area. Garlic cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma rays 0 (untreated) 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy at the Centre for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology. Each dose consisted of 150 garlic cloves. Untreated and irradiated garlic cloves were grown at Bandar Buat Experimental Station (50 m above sea level), Padang, West Sumatera. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replication. The parameter observed were percentage of grown plants and survival harvested plants, plant height, leaf number, chlorophyll content, number of stomata, plant age, number of cloves per bulbs, fresh, dry weight and diameter of bulbs. The result indicated that the dose of gamma rays 6 Gy is an advantage dose for obtaining well adapted garlic mutant lines in the low land area. (author)

  1. A PLC generic requirements and specification for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jea Bok; Lee, C. K.; Lee, D. Y.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents the requirements and specification to be applied to the generic qualification of programmable Logic Controller(PLC), which is being developed as part of the KNICS project, 'Development of the Digital Reactor Safety Systems' of which purpose is the application to safety-related instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. This report defines the essential and critical characteristics that shall be included as part of a PLC design for safety-related application. The characteristics include performance, reliability, accuracy, the overall response time from an input to the PLC exceeding it trip condition to the resulting outputs, and the specification of processors and memories in digital controller. It also specifies the quality assurance process for software development, dealing with executive software, firmware, application software tools for developing the application software, and human machine interface(HMI). In addition, this report reviews the published standards and guidelines that are required for the PLC development and the quality assurance processes such as environment requirements, seismic withstand requirements, EMI/RFI withstand requirements, and isolation test

  2. Plant design and layout of the different buildings with respect to safety, operational and maintenance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebich, H.

    1981-01-01

    The descriptions and pictures in this lecture show that the arrangement of the buildings and the location of components and systems are based on proven ideas with the aim to fulfil safety, operational and maintenance requirements also from the point of view of plant layout. (orig.)

  3. Effects of Foliar Application of Nano Zinc Chelate and Zinc Sulfate on Zinc Content, Pigments and Photosynthetic Indices of Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghimi pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Holy basil is a perennial plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. The plant is a perennial and thrives well in the hot and humid climate. Its aerial parts have been in use for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumery industries. Leaves contain 0.5-1.5% essential oil and main oil components are eugenol, methyl eugenol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol and1,8-cineole. A balanced fertilization program with macro and micronutrients is very important in producing high quality yield. Zinc is involved in IAA production, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon assimilation, saccharids accumulation, reactive oxygen radicals scavenging and finally carbon utilization in volatile oil biosynthesis. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the effect on zinc foliar application on zinc content of leaves, photosynthetic indices and pigments of holy basil, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at a research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5 m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a region characterized by semi-dry climate. The experiment was arranged based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were nano zinc chelate (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g.l-1 and zinc sulfate (1 and 1.5 g.l-1 fertilizers. Land preparation includes disking and the formation of raising beds (15cm high and 45cm wide across the top using a press-pan-type bed shaper. Holy basil seeds were sown on two rows on each bed, with 15 cm in-row and 40 cm between-row spacing. The plants were irrigated weekly as needed. Foliar application of zinc fertilizers was done at six-eight leaf stage and were repeated with interval 15 days until full bloom stage. Zinc content, stomata conductance (gs, CO2 under stomata (Ci, transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (Pn, light use efficiency (LUE, water use efficiency (WUE and also chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid

  4. Implementation of requirements of environmental management (ISO 14000) for the decommissioning of the heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria I.; Otero de Eppenstein, Marta; Tosi, Lidia E.; Sabio, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina has a project of decommissioning in the heavy water plant (Planta Experimental de Agua Pesada - PEAP). The aim of this project is to get some experience for decommissioning of nuclear plants and to achieve knowledge about the application of the requirements in environmental management. The project is being carried out according to ISO 14001 standards 'Environmental Management Systems'. The objectives were taken from the model without any expectation of achieving the complete implementation or certification of the system. This report is a description of the acts that have been done. (author)

  5. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Site infrastructure as required during the construction and erection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.; Wagner, H.

    1978-01-01

    In general, in an exchange of experience on constructing nuclear power plants priority is given to design and lay-out, financing, quality assurance etc., but in this paper an attempt has been made to describe range and type of site infrastructure required during construction and erection. Site infrastructure will make considerable demands on the planning, supply of material and maintenance that may result from the frequently very isolated location of power plant sites. Examples for specific values and experiences are given for a nuclear power plant with two units on the 1300-MW type at present under construction of the Persian Gulf in Iran. Data concerning the site infrastructure, including examples, are given and explained on the basis of graphs. The site is split up into a technical and a social infrastructure. The main concern of the technical site infrastructure is the timely provision and continuous availability of electric energy, water, communication grids, workshops, warehouses, offices, transport and handling facilities, as well as the provision of heavy load roads, harbour facilities, etc. The social site infrastructure in general comprises accommodation, food supplies and the care and welfare of all site personnel, which includes a hospital, school, self-service shop, and sport and recreation facilities. (author)

  7. Twin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sun

    2016-02-01

    with Quercus ilex was investigated over a 14 day measurement period under controlled climate chamber conditions. By using O3 mixing ratios between 32 and 105 ppb and PAN mixing ratios between 100 and 350 ppt, a linear dependency of the O3 flux as well as the PAN flux in relation to its ambient mixing ratio could be observed. At relative humidity (RH of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the deposition of O3 to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by the leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves. Furthermore, the formation of water films on the leaf surface of plants inside the chamber could be continuously tracked with our custom built leaf wetness sensors. Using this modified leaf wetness sensor measuring the electrical surface conductance on the leaves, an exponential relationship between the ambient humidity and the electrical surface conductance could be determined.

  8. Studies on anatomical characters indicating C3 and C4 photosynthetic metabolism in the genus Boerhavia L. (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways in dicotyledons were investigated with the four species of Boerhavia occurring in Nigeria using light microscopy. The study is not yet well reported on dicotyledons as done for monocotyledons. The features cross-examined were stomata index, stomata size, inter-stomatal distance, stomatal density, interveinal distance, intercellular air spaces, leaf thickness, mesophyll thickness, Kranz tissue, one cell distant count criterion, maximum lateral cell count criterion, vein density and vein distance. Based on these features, these species (B. erecta, B. coccinea and B. repens were grouped into C4 while B. diffusa was grouped as a C3 plant. In particular, interveinal distance less than 166µm and maximum lateral count ranging 2 to 6 will help in grouping C4 dicotyledons species while those that were greater than these values are useful in grouping C3 and plants.

  9. Status report - expert knowledge of operators in fuel reprocessing plants, enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.; Kramer, J.; Wildberg, D.

    1987-01-01

    The necessary qualifications of the responsible personnel and the knowledge required by personnel otherwise employed in nuclear plants are among the requirements for licensing laid down in paragraph 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act. The formal regulations for nuclear power plants are not directly applicable to plants in the fuel cycle because of the differences in the technical processes and the plant and work organisation. The aim of the project was therefore to establish a possible need for regulations for the nuclear plants with respect to the qualification of the personnel, and to determine a starting point for the definition of the required qualifications. An extensive investigation was carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany into: the formal requirements for training; the plant and personnel organisation structures; the tasks carried out by the responsible and otherwise employed personnel; and the state of training. For this purpose plant owners and managers were interviewed and the literature and plant specific documentation (e.g. plant rules) were reviewed. On the basis of literature research, foreign practices were determined and used to make comparative evaluations. The status report is divided into three separate parts for the reprocessing, the uranium enrichment, and the manufacture of the fuel elements. On the basis of the situation for reprocessing plants (particularly that of the WAK) and fuel element manufacturing plants, the development of a common (not uniform) regulation for all the examined plants in the fuel cycle was recommended. The report gives concrete suggestions for the content of the regulations. (orig.) [de

  10. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. to Auto Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vijeta; Chandra, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Auto pollution is the by-product of our mechanized mobility, which adversely affects both plant and human life. However, plants growing in the urban locations provide a great respite to us from the brunt of auto pollution by absorbing the pollutants at their foliar surface. Foliar surface configuration and biochemical changes in plant species, namely, Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. grown at roadside (polluted site 1, Talkatora; polluted site 2, Charbagh) in Lucknow city and in the garden of the university campus, which has been taken as reference site, were investigated. It was observed that air pollution caused by auto exhaust showed marked alterations in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phaeophytin), and relative water content was reduced while antioxidative enzymes like catalase and peroxidase were found to be enhanced. The changes in the foliar configuration reveal marked alteration in epidermal traits, with decreased number of stomata, stomatal indices, and epidermal cells per unit area, while length and breadth of stomata and epidermal cells were found to be increased in leaves samples wich can be used as biomarkers of auto pollution.

  11. Upgrade and optimization of control systems help E.ON's Scholven plant to increase plant lifecycle and meet new market requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Frick; Joerg Orth

    2006-07-01

    A large percentage of Germany's installed base of power stations will continue to operate well into the next decade. E.ON therefore continues to focus on optimizing and maintaining its operating plants. A key component is the process control system - the data, information and nerve center of these plants. Parts shortages related to outdated technology and new, added process and operational requirements demand focused capital investment. E.ON has therefore implemented a program to upgrade a large part of the process control infrastructure at the Scholven facility. An important step was the successful replacement of the Unit C process control system during a ten-week maintenance outage in fall 2005. The new power station control system selected was ABB's System 800xA. 7 figs.

  12. The mechanism of improved aeration due to gas films on leaves of submerged rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboven, Pieter; Pedersen, Ole; Ho, Quang Tri; Nicolai, Bart M; Colmer, Timothy D

    2014-10-01

    Some terrestrial wetland plants, such as rice, have super-hydrophobic leaf surfaces which retain a gas film when submerged. O2 movement through the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) of floodwater, gas film and stomata into leaf mesophyll was explored by means of a reaction-diffusion model that was solved in a three-dimensional leaf anatomy model. The anatomy and dark respiration of leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were measured and used to compute O2 fluxes and partial pressure of O2 (pO2 ) in the DBL, gas film and leaf when submerged. The effects of floodwater pO2 , DBL thickness, cuticle permeability, presence of gas film and stomatal opening were explored. Under O2 -limiting conditions of the bulk water (pO2  gas film significantly increases the O2 flux into submerged leaves regardless of whether stomata are fully or partly open. With a gas film, tissue pO2 substantially increases, even for the slightest stomatal opening, but not when stomata are completely closed. The effect of gas films increases with decreasing cuticle permeability. O2 flux and tissue pO2 decrease with increasing DBL thickness. The present modelling analysis provides a mechanistic understanding of how leaf gas films facilitate O2 entry into submerged plants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Acclimation to Chronic O3 in Field-grown Soybean is Characterized by Increased Levels of TCA Cycle Transcripts and ROS Scavenging Compounds in Addition to Decreased Photosynthetic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant that is generated by volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and sunlight. When plants take in O3 through stomata, harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced that induce the production of ROS scavenging antioxidants. Climate change predictions indic...

  14. Water stress detection using radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, T.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation is a crucial part of the water and carbon cycle. Through photosynthesis carbon is assimilated for biomass production, and oxygen is released into the atmosphere. During this process, water is transpired through the stomata, and is redistributed in the plant. Transpired water is refilled

  15. Near-optimal response of instantaneous transpiration efficiency to vapour pressure deficit, temperature and [CO2] in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The instantaneous transpiration efficiency (ITE, the ratio of photosynthesis rate to transpiration) is an important variable for crops, because it ultimately affects dry mass production per unit of plant water lost to the atmosphere. The theory that stomata optimize carbon uptake per unit water used...

  16. Shifts in bryophyte carbon isotope ratio across an elevation × soil age matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii: do bryophytes behave like vascular plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mashuri; Sack, Lawren

    2011-05-01

    The carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of vascular plant leaf tissue is determined by isotope discrimination, primarily mediated by stomatal and mesophyll diffusion resistances and by photosynthetic rate. These effects lead to predictable trends in leaf δ(13)C across natural gradients of elevation, irradiance and nutrient supply. Less is known about shifts in δ(13)C for bryophytes at landscape scale, as bryophytes lack stomata in the dominant gametophyte phase, and thus lack active control over CO(2) diffusion. Twelve bryophyte species were sampled across a matrix of elevation and soil ages on Mauna Loa, Hawaii Island. We tested hypotheses based on previous findings for vascular plants, which tend to have less negative δ(13)C at higher elevations or irradiances, and for leaves with higher leaf mass per area (LMA). Across the matrix, bryophytes spanned the range of δ(13)C values typical of C(3) vascular plants. Bryophytes were remarkably similar to vascular plants in exhibiting less negative δ(13)C with increasing elevation, and with lower overstory cover; additionally δ(13)C was related to bryophyte canopy projected mass per area, a trait analogous to LMA in vascular plants, also correlated negatively with overstory cover. The similarity of responses of δ(13)C in bryophytes and vascular plants to environmental factors, despite differing morphologies and diffusion pathways, points to a strong direct role of photosynthetic rate in determining δ(13)C variation at the landscape scale.

  17. Special safety requirements applied to Brazilian nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepecki, W.P.S.; Hamel, H.J.E.; Koenig, N.; Vieira, P.C.R.; Fritzsche, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Some safety aspects of the Angra 2 and 3 nuclear power plants are presented. An analysis of the civil and mechanical project of these nuclear power plant having in view a safety analysis is done. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Plant natriuretic peptides are apoplastic and paracrine stress response molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuhua

    2011-04-07

    Higher plants contain biologically active proteins that are recognized by antibodies against human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). We identified and isolated two Arabidopsis thaliana immunoreactive plant natriuretic peptide (PNP)-encoding genes, AtPNP-A and AtPNP-B, which are distantly related members of the expansin superfamily and have a role in the regulation of homeostasis in abiotic and biotic stresses, and have shown that AtPNP-A modulates the effects of ABA on stomata. Arabidopsis PNP (PNP-A) is mainly expressed in leaf mesophyll cells, and in protoplast assays we demonstrate that it is secreted using AtPNP-A:green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs and flow cytometry. Transient reporter assays provide evidence that AtPNP-A expression is enhanced by heat, osmotica and salt, and that AtPNP-A itself can enhance its own expression, thereby generating a response signature diagnostic for paracrine action and potentially also autocrine effects. Expression of native AtPNP-A is enhanced by osmotica and transiently by salt. Although AtPNP-A expression is induced by salt and osmotica, ABA does not significantly modulate AtPNP-A levels nor does recombinant AtPNP-A affect reporter expression of the ABA-responsive RD29A gene. Together, these results provide experimental evidence that AtPNP-A is stress responsive, secreted into the apoplastic space and can enhance its own expression. Furthermore, our findings support the idea that AtPNP-A, together with ABA, is an important component in complex plant stress responses and that, much like in animals, peptide signaling molecules can create diverse and modular signals essential for growth, development and defense under rapidly changing environmental conditions. © 2011 The Author.

  19. Material property requirements for application leak-before-break technology on nuclear power plant high-energy piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chengliang; Deng Xiaoyun; Yin Zhiying; Liu Meng

    2012-01-01

    The application of leak-before-break (LBB) technology on nuclear power plant high-energy piping systems can improve their safety and economy, while propose some new requirements on testing material properties. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's LBB related standard review plan and implementation specifications were analyzed, and test items, object, temperature, quantity and thermal aging effect of five general requirements were summarized. In addition, four key testing technical requirements, such as specimen size, side grooves, strain range and the orientation of specimens were also discussed to ensure the test data usefulness, representativeness and integrity. This study can provide some guidance for the aforementioned test program on domestic materials. (authors)

  20. Evidence-based modelling of diverse plant water use strategies on stomatal and non-stomatal components under drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhou, S.; Prentice, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Sabaté, S.

    2013-12-01

    Models disagree on how to represent effects of drought stress on plant gas exchange. Some models assume drought stress affects the marginal water use efficiency of plants (marginal WUE; i.e. the change in photosynthesis per unit of change in transpiration) whereas others assume drought stress acts directly on photosynthetic capacity. It is not clear whether either of these approaches is sufficient to capture the drought response, or whether the effect of drought varies among species and functional types. A collection of Eucalyptus and Quercus species derived from different hydro-climate habitats, in together with two European riparian species, were conducted with drought treatments respectively in Australia and Spain for three months. Measurements included net CO2 assimilation rate versus substomatal CO2 concentration (A-Ci) curves, fluorescence, and predawn leaf water potential at increasing levels of water stress. The correlations with quantitative plant traits of leaf, stomata, vessel, and wood density, leaf nitrogen content and 13C discrimination were also explored. We analysed the effect of drought effect on leaf gas exchange with a recently developed stomatal model that reconciles the empirical and optimal approaches on predicting optimal stomatal conductance. The model's single parameter g1 is a decreasing function of marginal WUE. The two genera showed consistence on the contrasting response patterns between species derived from mesic and arid habitats, which differed greatly in their estimated g1 values under moist conditions, and in the rate at which g1 declined with water stress. They also differed greatly in the predawn water potential at which apparent carboxylation capacity (apparent Vcmax) and mesophyll conductance (gm) declined most steeply, and in the steepness of this decline. Principal components analysis revealed a gradient in water relation strategies from sclerophyll species to malacophyll species. Malacophylls had higher g1, apparent Vcmax

  1. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implicating that the transplantation induced equal increases in the rate of CO2 diffusion via leaf stomata and the rate of CO2 fixation in leaf photosynthetic cells. Analyses of Rubisco activity and contents of a substrate (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for Rubisco and total protein in leaf suggested that an increase in leaf Rubisco activity, which is likely to result from an increase in leaf Rubisco content, could contribute to the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate. Analyses of leaf major photosynthetic carbohydrates and dry weights of source and sink organs revealed that transplantation increased plant sink capacity that uses leaf starch, inducing a decrease in leaf starch content and an increase in whole plant growth, particularly, growth of sink organs. Previously, in the same soybean species, it was demonstrated that negative correlation exists between leaf starch content and photosynthetic rate and that accumulation of starch in leaf decreases the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf. Thus, it was suggested that the transplantation-induced increase in plant sink capacity decreasing leaf starch content could cause the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate by inducing an increase in the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf and thereby substantiating an increase in leaf Rubisco activity in vivo. It was therefore concluded that transplantation of soybean plants into larger pots attempted in this study increased the

  2. TASS/SMR Code Topical Report for SMART Plant, Vol II: User's Guide and Input Requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Rae

    2008-10-01

    The TASS/SMR code has been developed with domestic technologies for the safety analysis of the SMART plant which is an integral type pressurized water reactor. It can be applied to the analysis of design basis accidents including non-LOCA (loss of coolant accident) and LOCA of the SMART plant. The TASS/SMR code can be applied to any plant regardless of the structural characteristics of a reactor since the code solves the same governing equations for both the primary and secondary system. The code has been developed to meet the requirements of the safety analysis code. This report describes the overall structure of the TASS/SMR, input processing, and the processes of a steady state and transient calculations. In addition, basic differential equations, finite difference equations, state relationships, and constitutive models are described in the report. First, the conservation equations, a discretization process for numerical analysis, search method for state relationship are described. Then, a core power model, heat transfer models, physical models for various components, and control and trip models are explained

  3. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of arabidopsis stomatal density mutants indicates variation in water stress responses and potential epistatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka S. Lawson; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2014-01-01

    Recent physiological analysis of Arabidopsis stomatal density (SD) mutants indicated that SD was not the major factor controlling aboveground biomass accumulation. Despite the general theory that plants with fewer stomata have limited biomass acquisition capabilities, epf1 and several other Arabidopsis mutants varied significantly in leaf fresh...

  5. Acclimation of morphology and physiology in turf grass to low light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... ... under low light. As such, changes take place in its internal ... structure changes enhance the cell ability to capture light, which is an ... increased, stomata conductance decreased, intercellular ... Thylakoid of shade plants takes up nearly the whole .... photosynthesis or respiration (Huppe and Turpin, 1994).

  6. Effects of ventilation and sucrose concentrations on the growth and plantlet anatomy of micropropagated persian walnut plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantlets grown in conventional tissue culture systems usually encounter physiological and anatomical abnormalities including inability to photosynthesize, low chlorophyll content, open stomata, lack of a cuticle layer in the leaf, abnormal xylem parenchyma etc. Photoautotrophic and photomixotrophic...

  7. Requirements on future energy supply. Analysis on the demand of future power plant capacity and strategy for a sustainable power utilization in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This strategy paper was drawn up with a view to maximum ecological compatibility of pwer plant modernization and sustainable power generation and use. The first part of the paper analyzes the power plants to be decommissioned on a medium-term basis and - against the background of several different scenarios for future power demand - an estimate of power plant capacities required by 2020. The second part describes the goals and concrete requirements of sustainable energy use. In the final part, the available instruments are presented, and those instruments are recommended that will be best suited for making power demand and supply efficient, sustainable and environment-friend.y [de

  8. Requirements for class 1, 2, and 3 pressure-retaining systems and components in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This third edition of CAN/CSA-N285.1 supersedes the 1981 and 1975 editions. It provides the specific requirements for design, fabrication, and installation of Class 1, 2 and 3 pressure-retaining systems and components in CANDU nuclear power plants, and over pressure protection of the heat transport system. The general requirements for pressure-retaining systems and components are given in CSA Standard CAN/CSA-N285.0, with which Class 1, 2 and 3 systems and components must also comply

  9. Design and simulation of a plant control system for a GCFR demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-02-01

    A plant control system is being designed for a 300 MW(e) Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. Plant models and simulations are being developed to generate information necessary to further define control system requirements for subsequent plant design iterations

  10. Aconitase B is required for optimal growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Kirchberg

    Full Text Available The aerobic plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv colonizes the intercellular spaces of pepper and tomato. One enzyme that might contribute to the successful proliferation of Xcv in the host is the iron-sulfur protein aconitase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and might also sense reactive oxygen species (ROS and changes in cellular iron levels. Xcv contains three putative aconitases, two of which, acnA and acnB, are encoded by a single chromosomal locus. The focus of this study is aconitase B (AcnB. acnB is co-transcribed with two genes, XCV1925 and XCV1926, encoding putative nucleic acid-binding proteins. In vitro growth of acnB mutants was like wild type, whereas in planta growth and symptom formation in pepper plants were impaired. While acnA, XCV1925 or XCV1926 mutants showed a wild-type phenotype with respect to bacterial growth and in planta symptom formation, proliferation of the acnB mutant in susceptible pepper plants was significantly impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of acnB led to reduced HR induction in resistant pepper plants and an increased susceptibility to the superoxide-generating compound menadione. As AcnB complemented the growth deficiency of an Escherichia coli aconitase mutant, it is likely to be an active aconitase. We therefore propose that optimal growth and survival of Xcv in pepper plants depends on AcnB, which might be required for the utilization of citrate as carbon source and could also help protect the bacterium against oxidative stress.

  11. Plant design and layout of the different buildings with respect to safety, operational and maintenance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, C.

    1981-01-01

    Design and layout of the buildings of a nuclear power plant are governed by the safety requirements regarding nearby population as called for by government regulations as well as by operational and maintenance requirements called for by the power utilities in order to assure smooth operation and easy service conditions. The lecture will focus on the different functional circumstances to be considered, their relative importance, criteria to be applied, pertinent regulations etc. and also give examples on the solutions to the above requirements. Main topics to be covered will be those circumstances that impose the highest demands on the civil engineering layout and design: airplane impact, earthquake, loss of coolant accident, pipe whipping, fuel cask transfer, annual overhaul, leak detection etc. (orig./RW)

  12. Underwater photosynthesis and respiration in leaves of submerged wetland plants: gas films improve CO2 and O2 exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy David; Pedersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    (N) was enhanced up to sixfold. Gas films on submerged leaves enable continued gas exchange via stomata and thus bypassing of cuticle resistance, enhancing exchange of O(2) and CO(2) with the surrounding water, and therefore underwater P(N) and respiration.......Many wetland plants have gas films on submerged leaf surfaces. We tested the hypotheses that leaf gas films enhance CO(2) uptake for net photosynthesis (P(N)) during light periods, and enhance O(2) uptake for respiration during dark periods. Leaves of four wetland species that form gas films......, and two species that do not, were used. Gas films were also experimentally removed by brushing with 0.05% (v/v) Triton X. Net O(2) production in light, or O(2) consumption in darkness, was measured at various CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. When gas films were removed, O(2) uptake in darkness was already...

  13. 14CO2 studies in isoproturon treated crop and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.; Balakrishna Reddy, R.

    1986-01-01

    Isoproturon, a selective herbiside inhibited the photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the weeds with the progress of time. In the crop plant, however, there was a gradual recovery in the carbon assimilation due to the progressive reopening of the stomata. The 14 Co 2 fixation of in vivo and in vitro chloroplasts was also drastically inhibited in the susceptible weeds when compared to the resistant crop plants. (author). 5 refs

  14. Committed emissions from existing and planned power plants and asset stranding required to meet the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Alexander; Hepburn, Cameron; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Caldecott, Ben

    2018-05-01

    Over the coming decade, the power sector is expected to invest ~7.2 trillion USD in power plants and grids globally, much of it into CO2-emitting coal and gas plants. These assets typically have long lifetimes and commit large amounts of (future) CO2 emissions. Here, we analyze the historic development of emission commitments from power plants and compare the emissions committed by current and planned plants with remaining carbon budgets. Based on this comparison we derive the likely amount of stranded assets that would be required to meet the 1.5 °C–2 °C global warming goal. We find that even though the growth of emission commitments has slowed down in recent years, currently operating generators still commit us to emissions (~300 GtCO2) above the levels compatible with the average 1.5 °C–2 °C scenario (~240 GtCO2). Furthermore, the current pipeline of power plants would add almost the same amount of additional commitments (~270 GtCO2). Even if the entire pipeline was cancelled, therefore, ~20% of global capacity would need to be stranded to meet the climate goals set out in the Paris Agreement. Our results can help companies and investors re-assess their investments in fossil-fuel power plants, and policymakers strengthen their policies to avoid further carbon lock-in.

  15. Outside-xylem pathways, not xylem embolism, drive leaf hydraulic decline with dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf hydraulic supply is crucial to enable the maintenance of open stomata for CO2 capture and plant growth. During drought-induced leaf dehydration, the capacity for water flow through the leaf (Kleaf) declines, a phenomenon surprisingly attributed for the past fifty years solely to the formation o...

  16. Anatomical and histochemical analysis of vegetative organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of V. ferruginea vegetative organs were collected and submitted to the usual plant anatomy and histochemical techniques. The leaves are anfihipoestomática with anomocytic stomata; have tector and glandular trichomes that store essential oils. The stem has collateral-type vascular bundles arranged in a eustele ...

  17. Air pollution removal by urban forests in Canada and its effect on air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Marlene Doyle; Mark McGovern; Jon Pasher

    2018-01-01

    Urban trees perform a number of ecosystem services including air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, cooling air temperatures and providing aesthetic beauty to the urban landscape. Trees remove air pollution by intercepting particulate matter on plant surfaces and absorbing gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. Computer simulations with local environmental...

  18. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Wennerstaal, L.; Zethraeus, B.; Johansson, Bert-Aake

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  19. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  20. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  1. How Many Model Evaluations Are Required To Predict The AEP Of A Wind Power Plant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murcia Leon, Juan Pablo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Natarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    (AEP) predictions expensive. The objective of the present paper is to minimize the number of model evaluations required to capture the wind power plant's AEP using stationary wind farm flow models. Polynomial chaos techniques are proposed based on arbitrary Weibull distributed wind speed and Von Misses...... distributed wind direction. The correlation between wind direction and wind speed are captured by defining Weibull-parameters as functions of wind direction. In order to evaluate the accuracy of these methods the expectation and variance of the wind farm power distributions are compared against...... the traditional binning method with trapezoidal and Simpson's integration rules. The wind farm flow model used in this study is the semi-empirical wake model developed by Larsen [1]. Three test cases are studied: a single turbine, a simple and a real offshore wind power plant. A reduced number of model...

  2. Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material in evaluation of the safety analysis report of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widia Lastana Istanto

    2011-01-01

    Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material that must be met by applicants for nuclear power plants construction permit has been investigated in this paper. The fracture toughness should be described in the Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) document that will be evaluated by the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Because BAPETEN does not have a regulations or standards/codes regarding the material used for the reactor vessel, especially in the fracture toughness requirements, then the acceptance criteria that applied to evaluate the fracture toughness of reactor vessel material refers to the regulations/provisions from the countries that have been experienced in the operation of nuclear power plants, such as from the United States, Japan and Korea. Regulations and standards used are 10 CFR Part 50, ASME and ASTM. Fracture toughness of reactor vessel materials are evaluated to ensure compliance of the requirements and provisions of the Regulatory Body and the applicable standards, such as ASME or ASTM, in order to assure a reliability and integrity of the reactor vessels as well as providing an adequate safety margin during the operation, testing, maintenance, and postulated accident conditions over the reactor vessel lifetime. (author)

  3. Quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for complying with the Commission's regulations with regard to quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants. This guide applies to all types of nuclear power plants. (U.S.)

  4. Effect of Salinity Stress and Foliar Application of Methyl Jasmonate on Photosynthetic Rate, Stomatal Conductance, Water Use Efficiency and Yield of German Chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Salimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate is new plant growth regulator that plays an essential role at increasing plants resistance to the environmental stresses like salinity stress. Hence, in this research the effect of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on some physiological indices and yield of German chamomile under salinity conditions was studied. A factorial experiment was laid out based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse condition. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate was five levels (MJ1; 0, MJ2; 75, MJ3; 150, MJ4; 225 and MJ5; 300 μM and salinity stress was four levels (S1; 2, S2; 6, S3; 10, S4; 14 dS m-1. The effect of methyl jasmonate, salinity condition treatments and their interaction was significant for traits of photosynthesis rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency, intercellular CO2 concentration and yield of flower. The highest values of photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, transpiration rate, carboxylation efficiency and yield of flower (3.76 g pot-1 and the lowest intercellular CO2 concentration were achieved at MJ×S treatment. Maximum value of photosynthetic water use efficiency was revealed at MJ5×S2 treatment. With decreasing stomata conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency and intercellular CO2 concentration were increased. In general, it seems that application of methyl jasmonate by lower dose (MJ2 under salinity conditions especially mild salinity stress (S2 can improve physiological indices and yield of chamomile.

  5. B plant mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ''System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.'' The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline

  6. Chromosomal and morphological studies of diploid and polyploid cytotypes of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number and some morphological features of strains of Stevia rebaudiana. The chromosomes were analyzed during mitosis and diakinesis, and the tetrad normality and pollen viability were also assessed. In addition, stomata and pollen were measured and some plant features were studied morphometrically. All of the strains had 2n = 22, except for two, which had 2n = 33 and 2n = 44. Pairing at diakinesis was n = 11II for all of the diploid strains, whereas the triploid and tetraploid strains had n = 11III and n = 11IV, respectively. Triploid and tetraploid plants had a lower tetrad normality rate than the diploids. All of the strains had inviable pollen. Thus, the higher the ploidy number, the greater the size of the pollen and the stomata, and the lower their number per unit area. The triploid strain produced the shortest plants and the lowest number of inflorescences, whereas the tetraploid strain had the largest leaves. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the strains, with a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and all of the morphological features examined.

  7. Polyploid response of Artemisia annua L. to colchicine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, A.; Parjanto; Samanhudi; Hikam, M. P.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia (Artemisia annua) is a a medicinal herb originated from Asia, its contains Artemisinin for malaria (caused by Plasmodium falciparum) treatment. Artemisinin content in A. annua are relatively low, ranging from 0.01% -0.5%. In order to increase the Artemisinin content, polyploid induction could be one effort to be done. For that, this experiment aims to examine the effect of colchicine on morphological characteristics and the induction of polyploidization in Artemisia plants. Polyploid induction on Artemisia annua L. seeds was performed by soaking the Artemisia seeds in colchicine (0%, 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,2%; concentration based) for 2 hours. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design, one factor, 4 colchicine treatments and in each treatment 7 replicate. The results showed that polyploid occur in plants treated with 0.05% colchicine concentration and its morphological characteristic are 89.4 cm height, 30 branches, 15.9 CCI chlorophyll content, 0.78 cm stem diameter, and chromosome number 2n = 27. In the stomata density of polyploid plants (treated by 0.05% colchicine) was 130 number/mm2 with stomata diameter of 22.8 μm.

  8. From IPE [individual plant examinations] to IPEEE [individual plant examination of external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, I.M.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to doing individual plant examinations (IPEs) which assess risk to nuclear plants from internal factors, all US plants are now also required to analyse external events and submit an IPEEE (Individual Plant Examination of External Events). Specifically, the IPEEEs require an assessment of plant-specific risks from the following types of initiating events: seismic events; fire; wind; tornadoes; flooding; accidents involving transportation or nearby facilities, such as oil refineries. (author)

  9. ALSTOM supercritical steam plants meet Polish market challenges and power generator's requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twardowski, A.

    2007-07-01

    From the early 1990s the age and technical performance of most of the Polish power plants required urgent investment including rehabilitation and/or replacement. This was necessary as power demand was increasing continuously in parallel with country GDP growth. Poland's joining the EU in May 2005 caused additional obligations related to limitation of emissions by Poland as a country and specifically by the Polish power sector. The first big project focussed on replacement of old equipment, improvement of electricity production efficiency and reduction of environmental impact by rehabilitation of Units 1-6 in Turow power plant. This is briefly described in the presentation. The latest and the biggest project is the construction of a new supercritical, lignite fired 833 MW unit in BOT Belchatow PP awarded to ALSTOM in December 2004 as a full term key contract. In addition to a new power block the project included: a new desulfurisation plant; a complete close circle cooling system; a new electrical system control system, and water treatment system; a coal handling system connecting the new unit with lignite transportation system from the open mine to the existing plant; hydraulic ash and slug systems; and an electrostatic precipitator. The unit has reduced NOx emissions to the level below 200 mg/Nm{sup 3} thanks to low emission burners. Particulate emissions are below 30 mg/Nm{sup 3}, SOx emissions are below 220 mg/Nm{sup 3}; CO{sub 2} emissions are lowered and cooling water consumption reduced. Special noise protection systems and special design of some systems has greatly reduced the noise level. 2 photos.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea acclimation to combined high temperature and humidity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunqiang; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Qi; Ben, Cécile; Todd, Christopher D; Shi, Jisen; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2012-07-06

    Elevated temperature and humidity are major environmental factors limiting crop yield and distribution. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to high temperature and humidity may facilitate the development of cultivars adaptable to warm or humid regions. Under conditions of 90% humidity and 35 °C, the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea exhibits excellent photosynthetic capability and relatively little oxidative damage. To determine the proteomic response that occurs in leaves of P. oleracea following exposure to high temperature and high humidity, a proteomic approach was performed to identify protein changes. A total of 51 differentially expressed proteins were detected and characterized functionally and structurally; these identified proteins were involved in various functional categories, mainly including material and energy metabolism, the antioxidant defense responses, protein destination and storage, and transcriptional regulation. The subset of antioxidant defense-related proteins demonstrated marked increases in activity with exposure to heat and humidity, which led to lower accumulations of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) in P. oleracea compared with the thermosensitive plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The quickly accumulations of proline content and heat-shock proteins, and depleting abscisic acid (ABA) via increasing ABA-8'-hydroxylase were also found in P. oleracea under stress conditions, that resulted into greater stomata conductance and respiration rates. On the basis of these findings, we propose that P. oleracea employs multiple strategies to enhance its adaptation to high-temperature and high-humidity conditions.

  11. Configuration management of plant modifications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritsch, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of nuclear power plant operation, regulatory pressure, and the large numbers of people required to operate and support the stations, the control of plant modifications at these plants needs to be expanded and improved. The aerospace and defense industries, as well as the owners or operators of large energy projects have established configuration management programs (CMPs) to control plant design changes. These programs are composed of well-defined functions for identifying, evaluating, recording, tracking, issuing, and documenting the established baseline conditions, as well as required changes to these baseline conditions. The purpose of this paper is to describe a recommended CMP for plant modifications consisting of a computerized data base installed on the utility's computer to provide a central storage of plant design and operations data necessary to control the following activities as they are affected by plant design changes: training; record management; operations; maintenance; health physics; planning/scheduling; procurement/inventory control; outage management (including modifications); and emergency response

  12. Xeromorphic traits help to maintain photosynthesis in the perhumid climate of a Taiwanese cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyar, Shyam; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Zinsmeister, Daniel; Zhou, Haiyang; Grantz, David A; Hunsche, Mauricio; Burkhardt, Juergen

    2017-07-01

    Previous flux measurements in the perhumid cloud forest of northeastern Taiwan have shown efficient photosynthesis of the endemic tree species Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana even under foggy conditions in which leaf surface moisture would be expected. We hypothesized this to be the result of 'xeromorphic' traits of the Chamaecyparis leaves (hydrophobicity, stomatal crypts, stomatal clustering), which could prevent coverage of stomata by precipitation, fog, and condensation, thereby maintaining CO 2 uptake. Here we studied the amount, distribution, and composition of moisture accumulated on Chamaecyparis leaf surfaces in situ in the cloud forest. We studied the effect of surface tension on gas penetration to stomata using optical O 2 microelectrodes in the laboratory. We captured the dynamics of condensation to the leaf surfaces with an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). In spite of substantial surface hydrophobicity, the mean water film thickness on branchlets under foggy conditions was 80 µm (upper surface) and 40 µm (lower surface). This amount of water could cover stomata and prevent CO 2 uptake. This is avoided by the clustered arrangement of stomata within narrow clefts and the presence of Florin rings. These features keep stomatal pores free from water due to surface tension and provide efficient separation of plant and atmosphere in this perhumid environment. Air pollutants, particularly hygroscopic aerosol, may disturb this functionality by enhancing condensation and reducing the surface tension of leaf surface water.

  13. Morphology, Physiology, and Anatomy of Penny Fern (Drymoglossum phyloselloidesand Its Effect on Cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Yuliasmara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the anatomy, physiology and morphology of penny fern (Drimoglosum phylloseloides and its effect on cocoa. Morphological observation of penny fern used microscope to observe the roots, stems, leaves and spores. Physiology of penny fern was observed based on number of stomata and stomatal conductance using stomata printing method, while the amount of chlorophyll based on spectrophotometric method and rate of transpiration used cobalt chloride paper. Penny fern anatomy on cross-sectional and longitudinal in roots, stems and leaves. Penny fern growth was observed based the length of tendrils once a week during rainy and dry season. While the effect of penny fern invasion was observed based on variable leaf area with gravimetric method, the cross-section of attacked cacao branch using microtom and microscope and chlorophyll content by chlorophyll meter. Results showed that penny fern is a epiphytic weed which was crassulaceae acid metabolism plants that have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide at night and carry out photosynthesis during the day with closed stomata. Penny ferns reproduce using spores. The growth rate of penny fern 2.18 cm/week during the dry season and while in rainy season 3.89 cm/week. Penny fern leaf contains 0.0212 mg/g chlorophyll. Penny fern stomata density was 18.33/mm 2 with a width of opening stomata at night 26.3 µm which caused a veryslow rate of transpiration of 0.69 mm 2 /seconds. The existence penny fern on cocoa decreased leaf area and chlorophyll content decreased crop productivity which was indicated by decreasing in number of flowers, number of small, medium fruit, and large pods. However it had no effect on the number of leaves on one side flush cocoa. Key words: Drimoglosum phylloseloides, weeds, decrease productivity, Theobroma cacao

  14. Changes in Leaf Anatomical Traits Enhanced Photosynthetic Activity of Soybean Grown in Hydroponics with Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Arena, Carmen; De Micco, Veronica; Giordano, Maria; Aronne, Giovanna; De Pascale, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs). However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.], we evaluated the effects of a PGPMs mix, containing bacteria, yeasts, mycorrhiza and trichoderma beneficial species on leaf anatomy, photosynthetic activity and plant growth of soybean cv. 'Pr91m10' in closed nutrient film technique (NFT). Plants were grown in a growth chamber under semi-aseptic conditions and inoculated at seed, seedling and plant stages, and compared to non-inoculated (control) plants. Light and epi-fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that leaves of inoculated plants had higher density of smaller stomata (297 vs. 247 n/mm 2 ), thicker palisade parenchyma (95.0 vs. 85.8 μm), and larger intercellular spaces in the mesophyll (57.5% vs. 52.2%), compared to non-inoculated plants. The modifications in leaf functional anatomical traits affected gas exchanges; in fact starting from the reproductive phase, the rate of leaf net photosynthesis (NP) was higher in inoculated compared to control plants (8.69 vs. 6.13 μmol CO 2 m -2 s -1 at the beginning of flowering). These data are consistent with the better maximal PSII photochemical efficiency observed in inoculated plants (0.807 vs. 0.784 in control); conversely no difference in leaf chlorophyll content was found. The PGPM-induced changes in leaf structure and photosynthesis lead to an improvement of plant growth (+29.9% in plant leaf area) and seed yield (+36.9%) compared to control. Our results confirm that PGPMs may confer benefits in

  15. Changes in Leaf Anatomical Traits Enhanced Photosynthetic Activity of Soybean Grown in Hydroponics with Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paradiso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs. However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.], we evaluated the effects of a PGPMs mix, containing bacteria, yeasts, mycorrhiza and trichoderma beneficial species on leaf anatomy, photosynthetic activity and plant growth of soybean cv. ‘Pr91m10’ in closed nutrient film technique (NFT. Plants were grown in a growth chamber under semi-aseptic conditions and inoculated at seed, seedling and plant stages, and compared to non-inoculated (control plants. Light and epi-fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that leaves of inoculated plants had higher density of smaller stomata (297 vs. 247 n/mm2, thicker palisade parenchyma (95.0 vs. 85.8 μm, and larger intercellular spaces in the mesophyll (57.5% vs. 52.2%, compared to non-inoculated plants. The modifications in leaf functional anatomical traits affected gas exchanges; in fact starting from the reproductive phase, the rate of leaf net photosynthesis (NP was higher in inoculated compared to control plants (8.69 vs. 6.13 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at the beginning of flowering. These data are consistent with the better maximal PSII photochemical efficiency observed in inoculated plants (0.807 vs. 0.784 in control; conversely no difference in leaf chlorophyll content was found. The PGPM-induced changes in leaf structure and photosynthesis lead to an improvement of plant growth (+29.9% in plant leaf area and seed yield (+36.9% compared to control. Our results confirm that PGPMs may confer benefits in

  16. Water requirements of the aluminum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Howard L.

    1956-01-01

    Aluminum is unique among metals in the way it is obtained from its ore. The first step is to produce alumina, a white powder that bears no resemblance to the bauxite from which it is derived or to the metallic aluminum to which it is reduced by electrolytic action in a second step. Each step requires a complete plant facility, and the plants may be adjacent or separated by as much as the width of the North American continent. Field investigations sf every alumina plant and reduction works in the United States were undertaken to determine the industry's water use. Detailed studies were made of process and plant layout so that a water balance could be made for each plant to determine not only the gross water intake but also an approximation of the consumptive use of water. Water requirements of alumina plants range from 0.28 to 1.10 gallons per pound of alumina; the average for the industry is 0.66 gallon. Water requirements of reduction works vary considerably more, ranging from 1.24 to 36.33 gallons per pound of aluminum, and average 14.62 gallons. All alumina plants in the United States derive alumina from bauxite by the Bayer process or by the Combination process, a modification of the Bayer process. Although the chemical process for obtaining alumina from bauxite is essentially the same at all plants, different procedures are employed to cool the sodium aluminate solution before it enters the precipitating tanks and to concentrate it by evaporation of some of the water in the solution. Where this evaporation takes place in a cooling tower, water in the solution is lost to the atmosphere as water vapor and so is used consumptively. In other plants, the quantity of solution in the system is controlled by evaporation in a multiple-effect evaporator where practically all vapor distilled out of the solution is condensed to water that may be reused. The latter method is used in all recently constructed alumina plants, and some older plants are replacing cooling towers

  17. Orientation of Germ Tubes of Puccinia hordei on the Hordeum chilense Leaf Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Niks, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    The directional growth of urediospores germ tubes along the transverse axis of a cereal's leaf is considered to be a response to stimuli from the plant surface. In order to find out if the germ tube growth is directed towards stomata, and if the cuticular wax layer plays a role in this orientated

  18. Requirements for the training simulator of the new nuclear power plants of the convoi/pre-convoi type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon; Buettner; Vallana; Reppmann; Emmerich.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements have been investigated with regard to the training aspect only and therefore no proposals concerning the technical realisation are given. Within these investigations aspects of simulator training, simulator hardware and software, and plant simulation have been considered. The experiences gathered up to now with simulators are included and already existing studies on this area have been evaluated. (orig./HP) [de

  19. H2S AND NO SIGNALING INTERACTIONS IN THALE CRESS (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA L. AND PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Lisjak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research comprehends a set of experiments with several thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana L. and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes in controlled conditions using growth chambers, with the aim of determining the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in plants, as well as its potential effect as a signaling compound, particularly in potential interaction with nitric oxide (NO signaling pathways. Special emphasis was focused on stomatal mechanisms and signaling in their opening and closing. Moreover, the effect of treatment of pepper plants with H2S was investigated in salt stress conditions. It was established that the applied H2S donors, NaHS and GYY4137, inhibit stomata closing in both plant species through the reduction of NO accumulation in stomata, which was proven to occur in SNP or ABA treatment. The effects of NO and H2S were opposite those in pepper plants response to salt stress as well, with increased antioxidative activity in leaf obtained after H2S treatments, and with NaHS in particular. In addition, GYY4137 could be considered as a convenient H2S donor for research into H2S functions in plants. The results point out the interactions of H2S and NO in plant cell signaling in both normal and salt stress conditions. Further research of this type should uncover H2S functions in plant metabolism more precisely, especially considering the potential practical value of this knowledge for plant stress resistance improvement and their productivity enhancement.

  20. On-line acquisition of plant related and environmental parameters (plant monitoring) in gerbera: determining plant responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Slootweg, G.

    2004-01-01

    For on-line plant monitoring equipment to be functional in commercial glasshouse horticulture, relations between sensor readings and plant responses on both the short (days) and long term (weeks) are required. For this reason, systems were installed to monitor rockwool grown gerbera plants on a

  1. Post-translational control of nitrate reductase activity responding to light and photosynthesis evolved already in the early vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemie-Feyissa, Dugassa; Królicka, Adriana; Førland, Nina; Hansen, Margarita; Heidari, Behzad; Lillo, Cathrine

    2013-05-01

    Regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) by reversible phosphorylation at a conserved motif is well established in higher plants, and enables regulation of NR in response to rapid fluctuations in light intensity. This regulation is not conserved in algae NR, and we wished to test the evolutionary origin of the regulatory mechanism by physiological examination of ancient land plants. Especially a member of the lycophytes is of interest since their NR is candidate for regulation by reversible phosphorylation based on sequence analysis. We compared Selaginella kraussiana, a member of the lycophytes and earliest vascular plants, with the angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana, and also tested the moss Physcomitrella patens. Interestingly, optimization of assay conditions revealed that S. kraussiana NR used NADH as an electron donor like A. thaliana, whereas P. patens NR activity depended on NADPH. Examination of light/darkness effects showed that S. kraussiana NR was rapidly regulated similar to A. thaliana NR when a differential (Mg(2+) contra EDTA) assay was used to reveal activity state of NR. This implies that already existing NR enzyme was post-translationally activated by light in both species. Light had a positive effect also on de novo synthesis of NR in S. kraussiana, which could be shown after the plants had been exposed to a prolonged dark period (7 days). Daily variations in NR activity were mainly caused by post-translational modifications. As for angiosperms, the post-translational light activation of NR in S. kraussiana was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1*1-dimethylurea (DCMU), an inhibitor of photosynthesis and stomata opening. Evolutionary, a post-translational control mechanism for NR have occurred before or in parallel with development of vascular tissue in land plants, and appears to be part of a complex mechanisms for coordination of CO2 and nitrogen metabolism in these plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Status for seismic design requirements of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental purpose for the aseismic design of the nuclear power plants is to protect the inhabitants near the plant from radiation accidents during and after earthquake vibrations. In order to achieve the above purpose, the following considerations have been made. All buidlings, structures, system and components are classified into three Classes A, B and C according to their degree of importance for plant safety, and are designed to meet the requirements specified for each class, respectively. Magnitude and epicenter of the design basis earthquake are determined based upon seismological and geological investigations and observation of ground motion in the site, and the maximum ground acceleration which could be expected can be calculated empirically. With respect to time history waves, more than three are selected referring to dynamic characteristic of base rock in the site, observed ground motion records in the site or other strong motion seismographs.The figures of horizontal seismic coefficients to be used in determining design forces on Class A buildings and structures are 3 Co (where Co. is as defined in the Japan Building Standard Law). On the other hand the horizontal design force should not be less than those determined as the results of the dynamic analyses based on DEGM (Design Earthquake Ground Motion). The figures of horizontal seismic coefficient and forces for Class A system and components are usually determined based on the dynamic analyses for DEGM. The buildings and structures treated as an elastic column system with masses, and the bottom mass is supported by elastic springs representing the soil-foundation interaction characteristics. DEGM is used as the input disturbance in the dynamic response analysis, and the model analysis or time history method is worked out. System and components are modeled as elastic bars with lumped masses of 3 dimensional degree of freedom, and the response analysis is carried out using floor respone spectra

  3. The required rate of return for new nuclear investment, and the choice between nuclear and gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimson, E.; Staunton, M.

    1995-01-01

    The British Government is in the process of reviewing its strategy for nuclear power, which is largely in the hands of Nuclear Electric, a candidate for early privatisation. We estimate that the after-tax real return which must be earned on new investment by Nuclear Electric is at least 11 percent. The corresponding pre-tax required rate of return is at least 13 percent in real terms. The fact that some of the investment risks of nuclear power can be shifted onto competitors or consumers should not, in a regulated industry, be allowed to lower the discount rate. Nuclear Electric's current required rate of return of 8 percent before tax is too low, and leads to an overstatement of the value of the Sizewell C and Hinkley Point C proposals. Based on Nuclear Electric's own plant parameter assumptions, going ahead with both stations will be some Pound 4 billion more expensive than the gas alternative. Incorporating best estimates of capital cost and plant performance, we estimate the two proposals would result in a combined loss in value of approximately Pound 6-7 billion. (author)

  4. Natural variation in stomatal response to closing stimuli among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions after exposure to low VPD as a tool to recognize the mechanism of disturbed stomatal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Stomatal responses to closing stimuli are disturbed after long-term exposure of plants to low vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The mechanism behind this disturbance is not fully understood. Genetic variation between naturally occurring ecotypes can be helpful to elucidate the mechanism controlling stomatal movements in different environments. We characterized the stomatal responses of 41 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana to closing stimuli (ABA and desiccation) after they had been exposed for 4 days to moderate VPD (1.17 kPa) or low VPD (0.23 kPa). A fast screening system was used to test stomatal response to ABA using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging under low O2 concentrations of leaf discs floating on ABA solutions. In all accessions stomatal conductance (gs) was increased after prior exposure to low VPD. After exposure to low VPD, stomata of 39 out of 41 of the accessions showed a diminished ABA closing response; only stomata of low VPD-exposed Map-42 and C24 were as responsive to ABA as moderate VPD-exposed plants. In response to desiccation, most of the accessions showed a normal stomata closing response following low VPD exposure. Only low VPD-exposed Cvi-0 and Rrs-7 showed significantly less stomatal closure compared with moderate VPD-exposed plants. Using principle component analysis (PCA), accessions could be categorized to very sensitive, moderately sensitive, and less sensitive to closing stimuli. In conclusion, we present evidence for different stomatal responses to closing stimuli after long-term exposure to low VPD across Arabidopsis accessions. The variation can be a useful tool for finding the mechanism of stomatal malfunctioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Advanced passive technology: A global standard for nuclear plant requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, V.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1984, Westinghouse has been developing AP8OO, a 800 MW, two-loop advanced passive plant, in response to an initiative established by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy' (DOE). The preliminary design was cornpleved in 1989. AP6OO's Standard Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk analysis Reports were submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for design certification in 1992. Design simplification is the key strategy behind the AP6OO. The basic technical concept Of simplification has resulted in a simplified reactor coolant systems, simplified plant systems, a simplified plant arrangement, reduced number of components, simplified operation and maintenance

  6. Advanced passive technology: A global standard for nuclear plant requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V

    1994-12-31

    Since 1984, Westinghouse has been developing AP8OO, a 800 MW, two-loop advanced passive plant, in response to an initiative established by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy` (DOE). The preliminary design was cornpleved in 1989. AP6OO`s Standard Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk analysis Reports were submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for design certification in 1992. Design simplification is the key strategy behind the AP6OO. The basic technical concept Of simplification has resulted in a simplified reactor coolant systems, simplified plant systems, a simplified plant arrangement, reduced number of components, simplified operation and maintenance.

  7. photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dion Daniels

    on the adaptation of papaya plants, strengthening the function of the stomata and with this, allowing .... culture vessels with a total volume of 250 mL with 30 mL of liquid ..... scaling. Physiological parameters: Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids. In terms ..... Soluble sugars mediate .... Yu TA, Yeh SD, Cheng YH, Yang JS (2000).

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Then the sections were placed on clean glass slides with 1-2 drops of sterile distilled water, ... using JEOL (JSM-6390LV) SEM, operated at 10 – 15 kV acceleration voltage. ... in fixing the botanical identity of medicinal plants in traditional systems arises ... The shape, size, distribution and orientation of the stomata and the.

  9. Regulatory requirements on the design and construction of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation systems in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Reactor Safety of the Institute of Radiation Protection, being the nuclear regulatory authority in Finland, has set up regulations which govern the design and construction of NPP systems and components. The regulations are partly compiled from existing codes and standards, published primarily in the United States and Federal Republic of Germany, and partly worked out at the Institute. The regulations are collected to a special set of YVL guides (guides for nuclear power plants), and one of these gives requirements on the design and construction of NPPCI systems and components. The scope of the requirements is based on the safety classification of the CI systems and components. Three safety classes have been singled out: the first for CI systems which take part in reactor protection, the second for other directly safety related, and the third for remaining CI systems important enough to deserve supervision. The safety class for CI components is inherited from the system they belong to. The safety classification of IC systems has direct bearing on the initial assumptions of plant accident analysis. The design principles of IC systems are inspected as part of the preliminary and final safety reports. Focus is directed on the principles of redundancy, separation, diversity, testability, etc. The requirements on IC components are directed to different stages of manufacture, installation and operation. The type tests shall be adequate and acceptably documented. The manufacture of components is followed, the test reports reviewed and the efficiency of manufacturers quality assurance program evaluated. Further requirements concern the installation phase and tests at the end of it, and finally guides include directions for maintenance and testing during the operations phase. (author)

  10. BIOMONITORING OF URBAN AREA BY ANATOMICAL LEAF CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IRIZA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants play a vital role as indicators of pollution. The automobile emissions are high particularly at the traffic intersections. Plants growing under the stress of air pollution show differences in leaf surface characteristics. Light microscopic studies of leaf surface revealed an increase in the number of stomata and trichomes of polluted populations in comparison to control populations of Plantago major and Plantago lanceolata. These changes can be considered as indicators of environmental stress.

  11. Determination of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and institutional requirements documents for contact-handled (CH) critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document lists the critical requirements documents applicable to the receipt of contact-handled waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. It also describes the processes used to determine the applicability of each document. This analysis is based on the applicable documents that were in effect in the February 1988 time frame. 2 refs

  12. Induced polyploidization in Brassica campestris L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Dwivedi, K

    2014-01-01

    Present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. Since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. Thus, herein present research autotetraploids of Brassica campestris L. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. Two methods of treatment were utilized i.e. seed treatment and seedling treatment. No polyploidy could be obtained through seed treatment while seedling treatment responded well towards polyploidy. However, the status of autotetraploidy has been confirmed by cytomorphological investigations of treated plants as against its diploids counterparts. For the purpose, morphological parameters such as increased stomata size, pollen diameter, flower size, reproductive organs whereas reduction in plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, stomata frequency, number of flowers/inflorescence etc. were appraised. Further, cytological observations were made that had clearly revealed the doubling of genome in the autotetraploids as compared to diploids. Meanwhile, pollen fertility and size of pollen grains were evaluated as well.

  13. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  14. TASS/SMR Code Topical Report for SMART Plant, Vol II: User's Guide and Input Requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Rae (and others)

    2008-10-15

    The TASS/SMR code has been developed with domestic technologies for the safety analysis of the SMART plant which is an integral type pressurized water reactor. It can be applied to the analysis of design basis accidents including non-LOCA (loss of coolant accident) and LOCA of the SMART plant. The TASS/SMR code can be applied to any plant regardless of the structural characteristics of a reactor since the code solves the same governing equations for both the primary and secondary system. The code has been developed to meet the requirements of the safety analysis code. This report describes the overall structure of the TASS/SMR, input processing, and the processes of a steady state and transient calculations. In addition, basic differential equations, finite difference equations, state relationships, and constitutive models are described in the report. First, the conservation equations, a discretization process for numerical analysis, search method for state relationship are described. Then, a core power model, heat transfer models, physical models for various components, and control and trip models are explained.

  15. Role of land-based prototype plants in propulsion nuclear power plants engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, V.E.; Prokhorov, Yu.A.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype plants provide a powerful tool for accomplishing tasks of development and construction of newly designed new power plants (NPPs). Leaving aside momentary political or economical considerations, one should admit that the use of prototype plants in testing of new NPPs is quite a necessity. To make the most of prototype plant, its commissioning should precede lead plant construction by 2-3 years. To make good use of prototype plants, a set of basic requirements should be fulfilled: greatest possible identity beteen the facility under test and a new series NPP; provision of high performance data acquisitoin, processing and storage firmware and a modelling system using update computer technique; and developed science infrastructure, engineering support and adequate maintenance. Prototype plants should comply with safety requirements to meet environmental protection standards

  16. Variação do número de estômatos e micropêlos em Paspalum vaginatum Sw: em relação às condições abióticas numa marisma do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos, RS-Brasil Variation in the number of stomata and microhairs of Paspalum vaginatum Sw: en relation to abiotic conditions in a breakwater in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary, RS-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleci de Oliveria Bastos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum vaginatum Sw., gramínea perene, estolonífera, com folhas anfistomáticas e pequenas é característica de pântanos salgados, crescendo em condições estressantes na marisma da lagoa dos Patos, molhe oeste da Barra do Rio Grande, RS. Foram feitas contagens mensais de estômatos e micropêlos nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial das lâminas e relacionadas às características abióticas do ambiente. O número de micropêlos da superfície foliar abaxial variou significativamente e diretamente com a temperatura da água intersticial junto às rizosferas. Estes, porém, não mantiveram correlação com a salinidade intersticial. Os resultados sugerem que a espécie seja uma halófita facultativa. O número de estômatos da superfície abaxial manteve um relacionamento inverso com a pluviosidade. Paspalum vaginatum, apresenta-se como uma espécie com características xeromórficas.Paspalum vaginatum Sw., a perennial, stoloniferous grass with small leaves presenting stomata on both epidermises is characteristic of salt marshes, growing under stressful conditions near the west breakwater of the Rio Grande outlet, Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Monthly counts of stomata and microhairs on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces were related to the abiotic characteristics of the enviroment. The number of microhairs of the abaxial leaf surface varied significantly and directly with interstitial water temperature close to the rhyzosphere. However, these counts did not correlate with the interstitial salinity. The results suggest that the species is a facultative halophyte. Stomata counts of the abaxial surface showed an inverse relation to precipitation. Paspalum vaginatum appears to be a species with xeromorphic characteristics.

  17. Unique responsiveness of angiosperm stomata to elevated CO2 explained by calcium signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Brodribb

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca(2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca(2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2.

  18. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Allison Bodine; Eric. Greenfield

    2014-01-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and...

  19. High atmospheric demand for water can limit forest carbon uptake and transpiration as severely as dry soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin N. Sulman; Daniel Tyler Roman; Koong Yi; Lixin Wang; Richard P. Phillips; Kimberly A. Novick

    2016-01-01

    When stressed by low soil water content (SWC) or high vapor pressure deficit (VPD), plants close stomata, reducing transpiration and photosynthesis. However, it has historically been difficult to disentangle the magnitudes of VPD compared to SWC limitations on ecosystem-scale fluxes. We used a 13 year record of eddy covariance measurements from a forest in south...

  20. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vigor R R R TEP 1, 2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant... CR CR TEP 1, 4, 5, 7 850.4150 Vegetative vigor CR CR CR TEP 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic... methods used to generate data must include the results of a successful confirmatory method trial by an...

  1. Modeling coupled nitrogen and water use strategies of plant productivity through hydraulic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Savoy, P.; Pleban, J. R.; Tai, X.; Ewers, B. E.; Sperry, J.; Weinig, C.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in heat, nutrient, and drought stresses create novel environments that threaten the health of forests and viability of crop production. Here a trait-based conceptual model finds tradeoffs in maximum hydraulic conductance (Kmax), root to leaf area ratio (RLA) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) based on the energy costs of acquiring water and nitrogen (N) to support gross primary production (GPP). The atmosphere supplies carbon to and demands water from plants via their stomata. The demand for water increases at higher temperatures due to increased vapor pressure deficits. The lost water is replenished by a passive wicking process that pulls water and N from the soil into roots and up water-filled xylem tubes. When water is in short supply the cost of getting it is high as measured by a decline in K and stomatal closure. Soil N dynamics also influence plant water use. When N is abundant, plants grow low VC fine roots with lower specific root length (m g-1), low Kmax, and maintain a relatively low RLA. In low N environments, N is costly and fine roots gain efficiency by building less robust (or higher VC) xylem with higher Kmax and higher RLA. What happens when the cost of acquiring water changes from high to low under low and high N costs? We incorporated the conceptual model into TREES, which couples whole plant hydraulics to carbon allocation, root-rhizosphere expansion/contraction and, also new for this study, a rhizosphere-root centric microbe-plant N dynamics. We used two experimental studies (drought, N) and two drought-prone fluxnet sites to test the conceptual model at individual plant and regional scales, respectively, and with frequent short versus infrequent long dry periods. When water was not limiting the hydraulic tradeoffs suppressed differences in GPP between the N use strategies. When water was in short supply, however, low RLA&VC plants dropped GPP early during drought because of low Kmax. Since these plants had low VC roots they also

  2. Pinellas Plant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  3. The relationship between stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of water in astomatal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lee W.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Keeley, Jon E.; Taylor, H. P.; O'Neil, J. R.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    Isotropic fractination of leaf water during transpiration is influenced by both equilibrium and kinetic factors. Previous workers have predicted that the influence of each factor varies depending upon the path of water loss,m whether centralized through stomata, or diffuse through the cuticle. We studied the relationship between the δD and δ18O values of lead and stem waters of laurel sumac, Rhus laurina (Nutt.) T. & G., and its parasite, dodder, Cuscuta subinclusa D. & H., growing in the field. Stomatal transpiration, associated with more stagnant boundary layers, predominates in R. laurina; cuticular transpiration, associated with more turbulent boundary layers, is most important in the largely astomatal C. subinclusa. We also studied the diurnal variation in the δD and δ18O values of lead waters of two astomatal plants, Chiloschista lunifera (Rchb. F.) J.J.S. and Stylites andicola Amstutz, and two stomatal plants, Tillandsia balbisiana Schult. and Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (Schlecht.) C. & R., growing with them under the same conditions in the laboratory. Slopes, m, for the relation δD = mδ18O + b were significantly higher for stem waters in C. subinclusa that for leaf waters in R. laurina (1.77), consistent with the difference in the boundary layers through which water was lost in the two species. The magnitude of diurnal heavy isotope enrichment of tissue water was smaller in C. subinclusa than in R. laurina, which is also consistent with predictions concerning evapotranspiration through difference types of boundary layers. The slopes, m, in plant waters in the laboratory experiments, conducted at high humidity, were not different than those observed during evaporation of water from pans, regardless of plant anatomy. The observation suggests that cuticular transpiration is important in influencing isotopic fractionation of water only at low humidity. Our results indicate that the isotopic composition of water vapor released by plants in arid regions may

  4. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  5. Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic activity of French bean leaves induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saakov, V.; Lang, M.; Schindler, C.; Stober, F.; Lichtenthaler, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    When exposed to gamma-radiation (12, 8 and 3.5 kGy), the growth of bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was stopped and after some hours or days the plants began to wilt in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the leaf rim. The rate of the dark respiration (R) of leaves increased and that of net photosynthesis (P(N)) was strongly reduced. The regulation of stomata opening and closure was lost and the stomatal conductance (g(s)) of the gamma-ray exposed plants was strongly reduced. The reduced P(N) was only partly due to either the partial or almost full stomata closure. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence measurements witha two-wavelength fluorometer and a PAM fluorometer showed an increasingly reduced variable fluorescence F(v), lower values of R(fd), of ground fluorescence F0, and of the fluorescence ratios F(v)/F(m) and F(v)/F(o). This indicated a damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. The increasing loss of photosynthetic pigments in the 350 krad exposed plants was also detected via an increase in the fluorescence ratio F690/F730. The performance of the light driven xanthophyll cycle (violaxanthin/zeaxanthin transformation) proceeded in the gamma-ray treated plants only at reduced rates. The gamma-ray damage of plants can best be detected by measurements of stomatal conductance, P(N) and various Chl fluorescence ratios such as R(fd), F(v)/F(o) and F(v)/F(m)

  6. A rate equation model of stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit and drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanahan ST

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomata respond to vapour pressure deficit (D – when D increases, stomata begin to close. Closure is the result of a decline in guard cell turgor, but the link between D and turgor is poorly understood. We describe a model for stomatal responses to increasing D based upon cellular water relations. The model also incorporates impacts of increasing levels of water stress upon stomatal responses to increasing D. Results The model successfully mimics the three phases of stomatal responses to D and also reproduces the impact of increasing plant water deficit upon stomatal responses to increasing D. As water stress developed, stomata regulated transpiration at ever decreasing values of D. Thus, stomatal sensitivity to D increased with increasing water stress. Predictions from the model concerning the impact of changes in cuticular transpiration upon stomatal responses to increasing D are shown to conform to experimental data. Sensitivity analyses of stomatal responses to various parameters of the model show that leaf thickness, the fraction of leaf volume that is air-space, and the fraction of mesophyll cell wall in contact with air have little impact upon behaviour of the model. In contrast, changes in cuticular conductance and membrane hydraulic conductivity have significant impacts upon model behaviour. Conclusion Cuticular transpiration is an important feature of stomatal responses to D and is the cause of the 3 phase response to D. Feed-forward behaviour of stomata does not explain stomatal responses to D as feedback, involving water loss from guard cells, can explain these responses.

  7. Abscisic Acid Signaling and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: A Review on Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Upadhyay, Neha; Kumar, Nitin; Yadav, Gaurav; Singh, Jaspreet; Mishra, Rohit K.; Kumar, Vivek; Verma, Rishi; Upadhyay, R. G.; Pandey, Mayank; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stress is one of the severe stresses of environment that lowers the growth and yield of any crop even on irrigated land throughout the world. A major phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential part in acting toward varied range of stresses like heavy metal stress, drought, thermal or heat stress, high level of salinity, low temperature, and radiation stress. Its role is also elaborated in various developmental processes including seed germination, seed dormancy, and closure of stomata. ABA acts by modifying the expression level of gene and subsequent analysis of cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements of responsive promoters. It also interacts with the signaling molecules of processes involved in stress response and development of seeds. On the whole, the stress to a plant can be susceptible or tolerant by taking into account the coordinated activities of various stress-responsive genes. Numbers of transcription factor are involved in regulating the expression of ABA responsive genes by acting together with their respective cis-acting elements. Hence, for improvement in stress-tolerance capacity of plants, it is necessary to understand the mechanism behind it. On this ground, this article enlightens the importance and role of ABA signaling with regard to various stresses as well as regulation of ABA biosynthetic pathway along with the transcription factors for stress tolerance. PMID:28265276

  8. Tolerance of some potato mutants induced with gamma irradiation to drought in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Ayyoubi, Z.

    2006-04-01

    An in vitro selection program was conducted in order to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to drought. Potato mutant plants were obtained through a previously conducted mutation breeding program on three potato cultivars (Draga, Spunta, and Diamant) aimed at improving potato tolerance to salinity and resistance to late blight disease. In order to apply selection pressure, growth media (MS based) were prepared with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3% concentrations of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). As a result, three mutants were selected that were tolerant to water stress (i.e. drought tolerant) two of which came from the cultivar Draga and one from Spunta. Physiological growth parameters (plant length, leaf number, branch number, roots number, leaf area, stomata number, and chlorophyll concentration content) were taken on the growing plantlets. The selected mutants were distinguished with some characteristics which can help in their tolerance to drought. Some of these characteristics were an increase in leaf number, root number, and a decrease in stomata number. However a reduction in chlorophyll content was observed as compared with the control. These mutant lines will need further selection in the field for plants with larger tubers before they can be considered as certified lines. (author)

  9. A chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein is required for proper photosynthetic acclimation of plants under fluctuating light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2017-09-19

    Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530 ) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments. Evidence is presented that mph2 mutant light stress susceptibility results from a defect in photosystem II (PSII) repair, and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MPH2 is involved in disassembling monomeric complexes during regeneration of dimeric functional PSII supercomplexes. Moreover, mph2 -and previously characterized PSII repair-defective mutants-exhibited reduced growth under fluctuating light conditions, while PSII photoprotection-impaired mutants did not. These findings suggest that repair is not only required for PSII maintenance under static high-irradiance light conditions but is also a regulatory mechanism facilitating photosynthetic adaptation under fluctuating light environments. This work has implications for improvement of agricultural plant productivity through engineering PSII repair.

  10. SABP2, a methyl salicylate esterase is required for the systemic acquired resistance induced by acibenzolar-S-methyl in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Diwaker; Jiang, Yu-Lin; Kumar, Dhirendra

    2010-08-04

    Tobacco SABP2, a 29kDa protein catalyzes the conversion of methyl salicylic acid (MeSA) into salicylic acid (SA) to induce SAR. Pretreatment of plants with acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), a functional analog of salicylic acid induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Data presented in this paper suggest that SABP2 catalyzes the conversion of ASM into acibenzolar to induce SAR. Transgenic SABP2-silenced tobacco plants when treated with ASM, fail to express PR-1 proteins and do not induce robust SAR expression. When treated with acibenzolar, full SAR is induced in SABP2-silenced plants. These results show that functional SABP2 is required for ASM-mediated induction of resistance. Copyright (c) 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Plant Hydraulic Theory to Predict Ecosystem Fluxes Across Mountainous Gradients in Environmental Controls and Insect Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Reed, D. E.; Barnard, H. R.; Whitehouse, F.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Brooks, P. D.; Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Naithani, K. J.; Mitra, B.; Mackay, D. S.; Norton, U.; Borkhuu, B.

    2011-12-01

    While mountainous areas are critical for providing numerous ecosystem benefits at the regional scale, the strong gradients in environmental controls make predictions difficult. A key part of the problem is quantifying and predicting the feedback between mountain gradients and plant function which then controls ecosystem cycling. The emerging theory of plant hydraulics provides a rigorous yet simple platform from which to generate testable hypotheses and predictions of ecosystem pools and fluxes. Plant hydraulic theory predicts that plant controls over carbon, water, energy and nutrient fluxes can be derived from the limitation of plant water transport from the soil through xylem and out of stomata. In addition, the limit to plant water transport can be predicted by combining plant structure (e.g. xylem diameters or root-to-shoot ratios) and plant function (response of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit or root vulnerability to cavitation). We evaluate the predictions of the plant hydraulic theory by testing it against data from a mountain gradient encompassing sagebrush steppe through subalpine forests (2700 to 3400 m). We further test the theory by predicting the carbon, water and nutrient exchanges from several coniferous trees in the same gradient that are dying from xylem dysfunction caused by blue-stain fungi carried by bark beetles. The common theme of both of these data sets is a change in water limitation caused by either changing precipitation along the mountainous gradient or lack of access to soil water from xylem-occluding fungi. Across all of the data sets which range in scale from individual plants to hillslopes, the data fit the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Namely, there was a proportional tradeoff between the reference canopy stomatal conductance to water vapor and the sensitivity of that conductance to vapor pressure deficit that quantitatively fits the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Incorporating this result into

  12. Impact of New Radiation Safety Standards on Licensing Requirements of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohal, P.; Subasic, D.; Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    As the outcomes of the newly introduced safety philosophies, new and more strict safety design requirements for nuclear installation are expected to be introduced. New in-depth defence measures should be incorporated into the design and operation procedure for a nuclear installation, to compensate for potential failures in protection or safety measures. The new requirements will also apply to licensing of NPP's operation as well as to licensing of nuclear sites, especially for radioactive waste disposal sites. This paper intends to give an overview of possible impacts of new internationally agreed basic safety standards with respect to NPP and related technologies. Recently issued new basic safety standards for radiation protection are introducing some new safety principles which may have essential impact on future licensing requirements regarding nuclear power plants and radioactive waste installations. These new standards recognize exposures under normal conditions ('practices') and intervention conditions. The term interventions describes the human activities that seek to reduce the existing radiation exposure or existing likelihood of incurring exposure which is not part of a controlled practice. The other new development in safety standards is the introduction of so called potential exposure based on the experience gained from a number of radiation accidents. This exposure is not expected to be delivered with certainty but it may result from an accident at a source or owing to an event or sequence of events of a probabilistic nature, including equipment failures and operating errors. (author)

  13. How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2010-05-01

    Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

  14. Overview of plant life management for long term operation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.S.; Vincze, P.; Bychkov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many IAEA member states have given high priority to licensing their nuclear power plants to operate for terms longer than the time frame originally anticipated (generally 40 years). The task of managing plant ageing is assigned in most member states to an engineering specialty called 'plant life management' (PLiM) applying a systematic analysis methodology to System Structure Components (SSCs) ageing. In many countries, the safety performance of nuclear power plants is periodically assessed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) process. Regulatory review and acceptance of PSRs constitutes for these countries the licensing requirement for continued operation of the plant to the following PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and in other countries operating US designed plants, instead of PSR process, a license renewal application (LRA) process is followed, which requires certain prerequisites such as ageing management programs, particularly for passive irreplaceable SSCs. Active components are normally addressed via the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. A third group of member states have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both the PSR process and selected LRA specific requirements, such as time limited ageing analysis. The article ends with some IAEA recommendations for the implementation of national PLiM programs

  15. Overview of Prairie Planting Techniques and Maintenance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    districts have these drills 6 ERDC TN-EMRRP-ER-05 February 2007 available for rent. A three-point broadcast seeder or a fertilizer spreader can...lengthens the growing season for prairie plants but shortens it for many weedy species (Pauly 1997). Fire allows for nutrient recycling in the ecosystem by

  16. Main phases of siting for nuclear power plants with review of required investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbasa, N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the article is a short description of the main phases in the process of siting for nuclear power plants as interpreted and applied by the Institut za elektroprivredu, Zagreb in the screening, comparison and evaluation of the sites for NPPs in the SR of Croatia. The scope and purpose, as well as review of required data and investigations for each particular phase are given. Common used methods for the comparison of sites are described and example of rejection criteria applicable for early phases of the siting is proposed. It is given a list of the most important activities which detailed analysis id indispensable for ending of the evaluation and getting a site permit from the regulatory body. A legal and regulatory basis for carrying out the siting process is also described. (author)

  17. Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

    2015-03-01

    Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants.

  18. Regulatory framework for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Alcaniz, T.; Esteban Barriendos, M.

    1995-01-01

    As the framework of standards and requirements covering each phase of nuclear power plant project and operation developed, plant owners defined their licensing commitments (codes, rules and design requirements) during the project and construction phase before start-up and incorporated regulatory requirements imposed by the regulatory Body during the licensing process prior to operation. This produces a regulatory framework for operating a plant. It includes the Licensing Basis, which is the starting point for analyzing and incorporating new requirements, and for re-evaluation of existing ones. This presentation focuses on the problems of applying this regulatory framework to new operating activities, in particular to new projects, analyzing new requirements, and reconsidering existing ones. Clearly establishing a plant's licensing basis allows all organizations involved in plant operation to apply the requirements in a more rational way. (Author)

  19. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Verónica González

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1, whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1 are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment, while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment. In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy, or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance. None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and

  20. Plant diversity moderates drought stress in grasslands: Implications from a large real-world study on {sup 13}C natural abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, Valentin H., E-mail: v.klaus@uni-muenster.de [Münster University, Institute for Landscape Ecology, Heisenbergstr. 2, 48149 Münster (Germany); Hölzel, Norbert [Münster University, Institute for Landscape Ecology, Heisenbergstr. 2, 48149 Münster (Germany); Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara [University of Bern, Institute of Plant Sciences, Altenbergrain 21, 3013 Bern (Switzerland); Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Solly, Emily F. [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans-Knöll-Str. 10, 07745 Jena (Germany); Hänsel, Falk [University Marburg, Environmental Informatics, Faculty of Geography, Deutschhausstr. 12, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Fischer, Markus [University of Bern, Institute of Plant Sciences, Altenbergrain 21, 3013 Bern (Switzerland); Kleinebecker, Till [Münster University, Institute for Landscape Ecology, Heisenbergstr. 2, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Land-use change and intensification play a key role in the current biodiversity crisis. The resulting species loss can have severe effects on ecosystem functions and services, thereby increasing ecosystem vulnerability to climate change. We explored whether land-use intensification (i.e. fertilization intensity), plant diversity and other potentially confounding environmental factors may be significantly related to water use (i.e. drought stress) of grassland plants. Drought stress was assessed using δ{sup 13}C abundances in aboveground plant biomass of 150 grassland plots across a gradient of land-use intensity. Under water shortage, plants are forced to increasingly take up the heavier {sup 13}C due to closing stomata leading to an enrichment of {sup 13}C in biomass. Plants were sampled at the community level and for single species, which belong to three different functional groups (one grass, one herb, two legumes). Results show that plant diversity was significantly related to the δ{sup 13}C signal in community, grass and legume biomass indicating that drought stress was lower under higher diversity, although this relation was not significant for the herb species under study. Fertilization, in turn, mostly increased drought stress as indicated by more positive δ{sup 13}C values. This effect was mostly indirect by decreasing plant diversity. In line with these results, we found similar patterns in the δ{sup 13}C signal of the organic matter in the topsoil, indicating a long history of these processes. Our study provided strong indication for a positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship with reduced drought stress at higher plant diversity. However, it also underlined a negative reinforcing situation: as land-use intensification decreases plant diversity in grasslands, this might subsequently increases drought sensitivity. Vice-versa, enhancing plant diversity in species-poor agricultural grasslands may moderate negative effects of future

  1. Plant diversity moderates drought stress in grasslands: Implications from a large real-world study on "1"3C natural abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaus, Valentin H.; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Solly, Emily F.; Hänsel, Falk; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change and intensification play a key role in the current biodiversity crisis. The resulting species loss can have severe effects on ecosystem functions and services, thereby increasing ecosystem vulnerability to climate change. We explored whether land-use intensification (i.e. fertilization intensity), plant diversity and other potentially confounding environmental factors may be significantly related to water use (i.e. drought stress) of grassland plants. Drought stress was assessed using δ"1"3C abundances in aboveground plant biomass of 150 grassland plots across a gradient of land-use intensity. Under water shortage, plants are forced to increasingly take up the heavier "1"3C due to closing stomata leading to an enrichment of "1"3C in biomass. Plants were sampled at the community level and for single species, which belong to three different functional groups (one grass, one herb, two legumes). Results show that plant diversity was significantly related to the δ"1"3C signal in community, grass and legume biomass indicating that drought stress was lower under higher diversity, although this relation was not significant for the herb species under study. Fertilization, in turn, mostly increased drought stress as indicated by more positive δ"1"3C values. This effect was mostly indirect by decreasing plant diversity. In line with these results, we found similar patterns in the δ"1"3C signal of the organic matter in the topsoil, indicating a long history of these processes. Our study provided strong indication for a positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship with reduced drought stress at higher plant diversity. However, it also underlined a negative reinforcing situation: as land-use intensification decreases plant diversity in grasslands, this might subsequently increases drought sensitivity. Vice-versa, enhancing plant diversity in species-poor agricultural grasslands may moderate negative effects of future climate change. - Highlights

  2. Hpa1 harpin needs nitroxyl terminus to promote vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojie; Han, Liping; Zhao, Yanying; You, Zhenzhen; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-03-01

    Hpa1 is a harpin protein produced by Xanthomonas oryzae, an important bacterial pathogen of rice, and has the growth-promoting activity in plants. To understand the molecular basis for the function of Hpa1, we generated an inactive variant protein, Hpa1 delta NT, by deleting the nitroxyl-terminal region of the Hpa1 sequence and compared Hpa1 delta NT with the full-length protein in terms of the effects on vegetative growth and related physiological responses in Arabidopsis. When Hpa1 was applied to plants, it acted to enhance the vegetative growth but did not affect the floral development. Enhanced plant growth was accompanied by induced expression of growth-promoting genes in plant leaves. The growth-promoting activity of Hpa1 was further correlated with a physiological consequence shown as promoted leaf photosynthesis as a result of facilitated CO2 conduction through leaf stomata and mesophyll cells. On the contrary, plant growth, growth-promoting gene expression, and the physiological consequence changed little in response to the Hpa1 delta NT treatment. These analyses suggest that Hpa1 requires the nitroxyl-terminus to facilitate CO2 transport inside leaf cells and promote leaf photosynthesis and vegetative growth of the plant.

  3. East-Asia nuclear/fossil power plant competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Ch.

    1996-01-01

    The competitiveness of a new nuclear plant vs. a new oil or gas fired combined cycle plant or a coal fired plant in East-Asia, is reviewed in the paper. Both the nuclear and the fossil fired plants are evaluated as either utility financed or independent power producer (IPP) financed. Two types of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) are considered in this paper, namely evolutionary ALWRs (1200 MWe size) and passive ALWRs (600 MWe class). A range of capital and total generation costs for each plant type is reported here. The comparison centers on three elements of overall competitiveness: generation costs, hard currency requirements, and employment requirements. Each of these aspects is considered perspective. Year-by-Year generation cost history over the plant lifetime is shown in some cases. It is found here that a utility financed evolutionary and passive ALWRs are broadly competitive with an IPP financed gas fired combined cycle plant and are more economic than oil fired combined cycle or a coal fired plant. A single unit evolutionary ALWR may have a 12 - 15 % capital cost advantage over a single passive ALWR then adjusted on a per KWe basis. Front-end hard currency requirements of a passive ALWR are 2.5 times higher than for a combined plant and evolutionary ALWRs requires 3.6 times higher up-front cost. However, on a lifetime basis, passive ALWR net hard currency requirements are two times lower than for a combined cycle plant. Evolutionary ALWR net hard currency requirements are three times over than those of a combined cycle plant. The effects of domestic vs. world price of fossil fuels on relative nuclear competitiveness are reviewed in this nuclear competitiveness paper. Employment requirements in an ALWR during both the construction period and lifetime operation, exceed the requirements for oil or gas fired plants by a factor of five. While contributing to overall plant cost, employment requirements can also be viewed as opportunity to increase national

  4. Catalogue of requirements for a plant-specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events; Anforderungskatalog fuer anlagenbezogene Ueberpruefungen deutscher Kernkraftwerke unter Beruecksichtigung der Ereignisse in Fukushima-I (Japan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-30

    The catalogue of requirements for a plant-specific safety inspection of German nuclear power plants taking into account the Fukushima-I (Japan) events worked out by the German RSK (reactor safety commission) includes the following inspection topics: natural events like earth quakes, floods, weather-based consequences and possible superposition; civilization-based events like airplane crash, gas release, reactor accident consequences for neighboring units, terroristic impacts, external attacks on computer-based control systems. Further event-independent assumptions have to be considered: station blackout, long-term emergency power supply requirement, failure of auxiliary cooling water supply, efficacy of preventive measures, aggravating boundary conditions for the performance of emergency measures.

  5. Comparison of EMI/RFI requirements to qualify the equipment for nuclear power plant. (RG 1.180, EPRI TR 102323, IEC 62003 and GB/T 11684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Tae Heon [Korea Testing Laboratory, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Seog [Research Institute of Korea Electric Power Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jeong Ho; Cho, Kyoung Youn [Korea Electric Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    One issue that has been problematic for new plant equipment and especially for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in recent years is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). In some reports for nuclear power plant (NPP), electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference (RFI), and power surges have been identified as environmental conditions that can affect the performance of safety-related electrical equipment. There are mainly two reference guides for applying to qualify EMI/RFI requirements of the equipment used in a NPP: US NRC RG 1.180 and EPRI TR 102323. Recently, IEC published the standard for the equipment in the NPP, IEC 62003. This paper has compared the requirements of these, including comparing of the requirement of the Chinese national standard, GB/T 11684

  6. Comparison of EMI/RFI requirements to qualify the equipment for nuclear power plant. (RG 1.180, EPRI TR 102323, IEC 62003 and GB/T 11684)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Tae Heon; Kim, Jong Seog; Seo, Jeong Ho; Cho, Kyoung Youn

    2011-01-01

    One issue that has been problematic for new plant equipment and especially for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in recent years is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). In some reports for nuclear power plant (NPP), electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference (RFI), and power surges have been identified as environmental conditions that can affect the performance of safety-related electrical equipment. There are mainly two reference guides for applying to qualify EMI/RFI requirements of the equipment used in a NPP: US NRC RG 1.180 and EPRI TR 102323. Recently, IEC published the standard for the equipment in the NPP, IEC 62003. This paper has compared the requirements of these, including comparing of the requirement of the Chinese national standard, GB/T 11684

  7. 9 CFR 93.106 - Quarantine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 93.106 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... other than ratites and hatching eggs of ratites. Each lot of pet birds, except as provided for in § 93.... (2) Physical plant requirements. The facility shall comply with the following requirements: (i...

  8. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  9. A direct methodology to establish design requirements for human–system interface (HSI) of automatic systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kim, Jonghyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A systematic method to identify the design requirements for human–system interface is proposed. • Eight combinations of control agents in each control stage (levels of automation) are defined. • The use of Itemized Sequence Diagram (ISD) is discussed for task allocation to control agents. • The design requirements of human–system interface are established based on the produced ISD. - Abstract: This paper suggests a systematic approach to establish design requirements for the human–system interface (HSI) between operators and automatic systems. The role of automation in the control of a nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is to support the human operator and act as an efficient team player to help reduce the human operator’s workload. Some of the problems related to the interaction between the human operator and automation are out-of-the-loop performance, mode errors, role change to supervisory role and final authority issues. Therefore, the design of HSI is critical to avoiding breakdowns in communication between the human operator and the system. In this paper, the design requirements for human–system interface of automatic systems are constructed with the help of a tool called Itemized Sequence Diagram (ISD). Eight levels of automation (LOA) are initially defined in the function allocation and an ISD is drawn for each of the LOA for task allocation. The ISD is a modified version of sequence diagram, which is widely used in systems engineering as well as software engineering. The ISD elements of arrows, messages, actors and alternative boxes collectively show the interactions between the control agents, which are decomposed into four different roles: information acquiring, plant diagnosing, response selecting and response implementing. Eleven design requirements to optimize the human–automation interaction are suggested by using this method. The design requirements produced from the identified interaction points in the ISD are

  10. Technical requirements on knowledge base and instrumentation system for decision making in plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    A series of technical surveys and studies are described in this report to examine and identify technical requirements to be posed on knowledge base and instrumentation system as the fundamental in high reliability computational decision making in operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and diagnosis are focused as the important tasks among the operation/maintenance-related tasks. A concrete monitoring and diagnosis system configuration has been proposed consisting of distributed symptom database and of on-demand measurement subsystem. An prototype of the proposed system configuration has been successfully verified. (author)

  11. Mix-and-match: ligand-receptor pairs in stomatal development and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Keiko U

    2012-12-01

    Stomata are small valves on the plant epidermis balancing gas exchange and water loss. Stomata are formed according to positional cues. In Arabidopsis, two EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) peptides, EPF1 and EPF2, are secreted from stomatal precursors enforcing proper stomatal patterning. Here, I review recent studies revealing the ligand-receptor pairs and revising the previously predicted relations between receptors specifying stomatal patterning: ERECTA-family and TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). Furthermore, EPF-LIKE9 (EPFL9/Stomagen) promotes stomatal differentiation from internal tissues. Two EPFL peptides specify inflorescence architecture, a process beyond stomatal development, as ligands for ERECTA. Thus, broadly expressed receptor kinases may regulate multiple developmental processes through perceiving different peptide ligands, each with a specialized expression pattern. TMM in the epidermis may fine-tune multiple EPF/EPFL signals to prevent signal interference. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phytotoxicity Tier I: Seed germination/seedling emergence (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-1 Vegetative vigor (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-1 Aquatic plant growth (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-2 Tier II: Seed germination/seedling... Nonfood Greenhouse Food crop Nonfood Forestry Domestic outdoor Indoor Test substance Data to support MP...

  13. Ethylene limits abscisic acid- or soil drying-induced stomatal closure in aged wheat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Dodd, Ian C; Davies, William J; Wilkinson, Sally

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism of age-induced decreased stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and soil drying has been explored here. Older, fully expanded leaves partly lost their ability to close stomata in response to foliar ABA sprays, and soil drying which stimulated endogenous ABA production, while young fully expanded leaves closed their stomata more fully. However, ABA- or soil drying-induced stomatal closure of older leaves was partly restored by pretreating plants with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which can antagonize ethylene receptors, or by inoculating soil around the roots with the rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2, which contains 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-deaminase. ACC (the immediate biosynthetic precursor of ethylene) sprays revealed higher sensitivity of stomata to ethylene in older leaves than younger leaves, despite no differences in endogenous ACC concentrations or ethylene emission. Taken together, these results indicate that the relative insensitivity of stomatal closure to ABA and soil drying in older leaves is likely due to altered stomatal sensitivity to ethylene, rather than ethylene production. To our knowledge, this is the first study to mechanistically explain diminished stomatal responses to soil moisture deficit in older leaves, and the associated reduction in leaf water-use efficiency. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Plant control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masuo; Ono, Makoto.

    1995-01-01

    A plant control device comprises an intellectual instrumentation group for measuring a predetermined process amount, an intellectual equipment group operating in accordance with a self-countermeasure, a system information space for outputting system information, a system level monitoring and diagnosing information generalization section for outputting system information, a system level maintenance information generalization section for outputting information concerning maintenance, a plant level information space and a plant level information generalization section. Each of them determines a state of the plant autonomously, and when abnormality is detected, each of the intellectual instrumentation, equipments and systems exchange information with each other, to conduct required operations including operations of intellectual robots, as required. Appropriate countermeasures for gauges, equipments and systems can be conducted autonomously at a place where operators can not access to improve reliability of complicate operations in the working site, as well as improve plant safety and reliability. (N.H.)

  15. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk (requirements of safety and reliability)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Starting out from the given safety objectives as they have evolved during the past few years and from the present legal and regulatory provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the hazards involved in regular operation, accidents and emergency situations are discussed. In compliance with the positive safety balance of nuclear power plants in the FRG, special attention is focused on the preventive safety analysis within the frame of the nuclear licensing procedure. Reference is made to the beginnings of a comprehensive hazard concept for an unbiased plant assessment. Emergency situations are discussed from the point of view of general hazard comparisons. (orig.) [de

  16. T Plant Overpack Tiedown Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RILEY, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This tiedown evaluation meets the requirement imposed by HNF-6550, ''Safety Evaluation for Packaging (Onsite) T Plant Canyon Items,'' (O'Brien 2000). O'Brien (2000) requires that any items prepared for shipment from T Plant to the burial grounds

  17. Standards for deuterium analysis requirements of heavy water plants (Preprint No. CA-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, B N; Gopalakrishnan, V T; Alphonse, K P; Pawar, P L; Sadhukhan, H K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Heavy Water Div.

    1989-04-01

    Accurate analysis of deuterium, covering the entire range, is of great importance in production of heavy water. Most of the methods for determination of deuterium in gas or liquid samples require appropriate standards. Since density of pure protium oxide and pure deuterium oxide has been determined very accurately by a large number of workers and density of mixtures of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O follows a linear relation, it is possible to use accurate density determination for measurement of deuterium content. Float method for density measurements was improved further and used for the preparation of primary heavy water standards in high and low deuterium ranges. Heavy water plant laboratories require gas standards (ammonia synthesis gas matrix), in addition to low deuterium water standards, for calibration of mass spectrometers. SLAP (Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation, D/D+H = 89.02+-0.05ppm) and SMOW (Standard Mean Ocean Water, D/D+H =155.76+-0.05ppm) available from IAEA, Vienna, along with water practically free from deuterium, were used as standards to prepare secondary liquid standards. These secondary standards were subsequently reduced and mixed with pure nitrogen to obtain D/D+H standards in syngas matrix. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Nicotiana tabacum as model for ozone - plant surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain; Canaval, Eva; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    difference of ozone measured before and after the plant cuvette was investigated as a function of stomatal opening. Switching from dark to light conditions and thus opening the stomata only a small increase in ozone loss was observed for the Ambalema variety (25%). In the case of the 3H02 variety, a line known to emit almost no diterpenoids, the ozone loss increased by more than 100% when changing from dark to light conditions. It is anticipated that the described effect is of importance also for other plant species emitting low-volatility unsaturated organic compounds (e.g. in form of exudates or resins).

  19. The expert inspecting plants which require supervision - is he invested with special rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.P.; Seitz, F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors investigate as to whether the TUeV (technical control authorities) or individual experts are sub-contractors as defined by Sect. 24 (3) of the Industrial Code as they control plants requiring supervision. If they were, consequences for liability and the right opposing party in court would result from this fact. The question has to be settled as to whether the expert was given competencies under Public Law, be it coercive power, the authority to issue acts of administration or the authority to exercise other competencies under Public Law outside the law of public regulating authority. The authors come to the conclusion that the TUeV experts' activities amount to pure statements of facts, having a supportive effect for the supervisory authorities. The term sub-contracting is out of the question; moreover, there is no legal basis for it. (HSCH) [de

  20. Stomatal responses to CO2 during a diel Crassulacean acid metabolism cycle in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Kalanchoe pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Caemmerer, Susanne; Griffiths, Howard

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of stomatal sensitivity to CO2, stomatal response to a 30 min pulse of low CO2 was measured four times during a 24 h time-course in two Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Kalanchoe pinnata, which vary in the degree of succulence, and hence, expression and commitment to CAM. In both species, stomata opened in response to a reduction in pCO2 in the dark and in the latter half of the light period, and thus in CAM species, chloroplast photosynthesis is not required for the stomatal response to low pCO2. Stomata did not respond to a decreased pCO2 in K. daigremontiana in the light when stomata were closed, even when the supply of internal CO2 was experimentally reduced. We conclude that stomatal closure during phase III is not solely mediated by high internal pCO2, and suggest that in CAM species the diurnal variability in the responsiveness of stomata to pCO2 could be explained by hypothesizing the existence of a single CO2 sensor which interacts with other signalling pathways. When not perturbed by low pCO2, CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were correlated both in the light and in the dark in both species.

  1. Superimposed behaviour of g(m) under ABA-induced stomata closing and low CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tazoe, Y.; Šantrůček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2015), s. 385-387 ISSN 0140-7791 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1261 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mesophyll conductance * Carbon-isotope discrimination * Photosnthesis * Plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.169, year: 2015

  2. The exchange of acetaldehyde between plants and the atmosphere: Stable carbon isotope and flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Kolby Jeremiah

    The exchange of acetaldehyde between plant canopies and the atmosphere may significantly influence regional atmospheric chemistry and plant metabolism. While plants are known to both produce and consume acetaldehyde, the exchange of this compound with forested ecosystems is complicated by physical, biological, and chemical processes that range from being poorly understood to completely unknown. This precludes a quantitative understanding of acetaldehyde exchange rates between the atmosphere and the biosphere. In this study, the processes controlling the exchange of acetaldehyde with plant canopies was investigated using concentration, flux, and natural abundance 13C measurements of gas phase acetaldehyde from individual plants, soils, and entire ecosystems. Although previously only considered important in anoxic tissues, it was discovered that acetaldehyde is produced and consumed in leaves through ethanolic fermentation coupled to the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass system under normal aerobic conditions. These coupled pathways determine the acetaldehyde compensation point, a major factor controlling its exchange with the atmosphere. Carbon isotope analysis suggests a new pathway for acetaldehyde production from plants under stress involving the peroxidation of membrane fatty acids. This pathway may be a major source of acetaldehyde to the atmosphere from plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant stomata were found to be the dominant pathway for the exchange of acetaldehyde with the atmosphere with stomatal conductance influencing both emission and uptake fluxes. In addition, increasing temperature and solar radiation was found to increase the compensation point by increasing the rates of acetaldehyde production relative to consumption. Under ambient conditions, bare soil was neutral to the exchange of acetaldehyde while senescing and decaying leaves were found to be strong source of acetaldehyde to the atmosphere due to increased decomposition processes and

  3. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  4. Requirements and analysis of electromagnetic compatibility of safety-related instrumentation and control system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sujuan

    2002-01-01

    The state-of-the-art instrumentation and control system and the influence of their application to the electromagnetic compatibility is analyzed. Based on the present situation of nuclear safety in China and relevant experiences from other countries, the author tries to probe into the requirements and test methods about how safety-related instrument and control system to accommodate electromagnetic interference, radio-frequency interference and power surges in the environments of nuclear power plant so as to develop Chinese safety standards

  5. Process control analysis requirement in NH3-H2 exchange bi-thermal Heavy Water Plant (Talcher) (Paper No. 6.8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnaik, S.P.; Mishra, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Talcher is based on bithermal NH 3 -H 2 exchange process. Isotopic exchange of deuterium takes place between gaseous hydrogen and liquid ammonia with potassium amide as catalyst. The process control analysis requirement in NH 3 -H 2 exchange dual temperature process is described. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  6. Basic national requirements for safe design, construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have to be save. Vendors and utilities operating such plants, are convinced that their plants meet this requirement. Who, however, is establishing the safety requirements to be met by those manufacturing and operating nuclear power plants. What are the mechanisms to control whether the features provided assure the required safety level. Who controls whether the required and planned safety features are really provided. Who is eventually responsible for assuring safety after commissioning of a nuclear power plant. These fundamental questions being raised in many discussions on safety and environmental protection are dealt with in the following sections: (1) Fundamental safety requirements on nuclear power plants, in which such items as risk, legal bases and licensing procedure are discussed, (2) Surveillance during construction, in which safety analysis report, siting, safety evaluation, document examination, quality assurance, and commissioning testing are dealt with, (3) Operating tests and conditions in which recurrent inspections, environmental protection during operation, investigation of abnormal occurences and backfitting requirements as reviewed, and (4) Safety philosophy and safety policy to conclude this presentation. The German approach to nuclear safety serves as an example for an effective way of assuring safe nuclear power. (orig.)

  7. A methodology to describe process control requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ganni, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to describe process control requirements for helium refrigeration plants. The SSC requires a greater level of automation for its refrigeration plants than is common in the cryogenics industry, and traditional methods (e.g., written descriptions) used to describe process control requirements are not sufficient. The methodology presented in this paper employs tabular and graphic representations in addition to written descriptions. The resulting document constitutes a tool for efficient communication among the different people involved in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of the control system. The methodology is not limited to helium refrigeration plants, and can be applied to any process with similar requirements. The paper includes examples

  8. Fine tuning of trehalose biosynthesis and hydrolysis as novel tools for the generation of abiotic stress tolerant plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eDelorge

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of abiotic stress on plant growth and development has been and still is a major research topic. An important pathway that has been linked to abiotic stress tolerance is the trehalose biosynthetic pathway. Recent findings showed that trehalose metabolism is also important for normal plant growth and development. The intermediate compound – Trehalose-6-Phosphate (T6P – is now confirmed to act as a sensor for available sucrose, hereby directly influencing the type of response to the changing environmental conditions. This is possible because T6P and/or trehalose or their biosynthetic enzymes are part of complex interaction networks with other crucial hormone and sugar-induced signalling pathways, which may function at different developmental stages. Because of its effect on plant growth and development, modification of trehalose biosynthesis, either at the level of T6P synthesis, T6P hydrolysis or trehalose hydrolysis, has been utilized to try to improve crop yield and biomass. It was shown that alteration of the amounts of either T6P and/or trehalose did result in increased stress tolerance, but also resulted in many unexpected phenotypic alterations. A main challenge is to characterize the part of the signalling pathway resulting in improved stress tolerance, without affecting the pathways resulting in the unwanted phenotypes. One such specific pathway where modification of trehalose metabolism improved stress tolerance, without any side effects, was recently obtained by overexpression of trehalase, which results in a more sensitive reaction of the stomatal guard cells and closing of the stomata under drought stress conditions. We have used the data that have been obtained from different studies to generate the optimal plant that can be constructed based on modifications of trehalose metabolism.

  9. Analysis of Stomatal Patterning in Selected Mutants of MAPK Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Abrar

    2016-05-01

    Stomata are cellular valves in plants that play an essential role in the regulation of gas exchange and are distributed in the epidermis of aerial organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, stomatal production and development are coordinated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, which modulates a variety of other processes, including cell proliferation, regulation of cytokinesis, programed cell death, and response to abiotic and biotic stress. The environment also plays a role in stomatal development, by influencing the frequency at which stomata develop in leaves. This thesis presents an analysis of stomatal development in Arabidopsis mutants in two MAPK pathways: MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4, and MAP3K17/18-MKK3. Obtained results demonstrate the effect of stress conditions on stomatal development and specify the involvement of analysed MAPK in stomatal patterning. First, both analysed pathways modulate stomatal patterning in Arabidopsis cotyledons. Second, plant growth-promoting bacteria tested enhance stomatal density and affect guard cell morphology. Third, the sucrose or mannitol treatment increases defects in stomatal patterning. Finally, salt stress or high temperature can suppress stomatal defects in mutants of the MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4 pathway.

  10. Stomatal vs. genome size in angiosperms: the somatic tail wagging the genomic dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, J G; Sharafi, M; Jalili, A; Díaz, S; Montserrat-Martí, G; Palmer, C; Cerabolini, B; Pierce, S; Hamzehee, B; Asri, Y; Jamzad, Z; Wilson, P; Raven, J A; Band, S R; Basconcelo, S; Bogard, A; Carter, G; Charles, M; Castro-Díez, P; Cornelissen, J H C; Funes, G; Jones, G; Khoshnevis, M; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N; Pérez-Rontomé, M C; Shirvany, F A; Vendramini, F; Yazdani, S; Abbas-Azimi, R; Boustani, S; Dehghan, M; Guerrero-Campo, J; Hynd, A; Kowsary, E; Kazemi-Saeed, F; Siavash, B; Villar-Salvador, P; Craigie, R; Naqinezhad, A; Romo-Díez, A; de Torres Espuny, L; Simmons, E

    2010-04-01

    Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of 'this ecological circumstance' is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this 'missing link': the primary determinant of genome size. Stomata are crucial for photosynthesis and their size affects functional efficiency. Stomatal and leaf characteristics were measured for 1442 species from Argentina, Iran, Spain and the UK and, using PCA, some emergent ecological and taxonomic patterns identified. Subsequently, an assessment of the relationship between genome-size values obtained from the Plant DNA C-values database and measurements of stomatal size was carried out. Stomatal size is an ecologically important attribute. It varies with life-history (woody species < herbaceous species < vernal geophytes) and contributes to ecologically and physiologically important axes of leaf specialization. Moreover, it is positively correlated with genome size across a wide range of major taxa. Stomatal size predicts genome size within angiosperms. Correlation is not, however, proof of causality and here our interpretation is hampered by unexpected deficiencies in the scientific literature. Firstly, there are discrepancies between our own observations and established ideas about the ecological significance of stomatal size; very large stomata, theoretically facilitating photosynthesis in deep shade, were, in this study (and in other studies), primarily associated with vernal geophytes of unshaded habitats. Secondly, the lower size limit at which stomata can function efficiently, and the ecological circumstances under which these minute stomata might occur, have not been satisfactorally resolved. Thus, our hypothesis, that the optimization of stomatal size for functional efficiency is a major ecological determinant of genome size, remains unproven.

  11. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ► Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ► Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ► Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ► In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ► Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

  12. Características morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar de plantas variantes e não variantes somaclonais de bananeiras (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivadas in vitro Morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaf epidermis of variant plants and somaclonal non-variants of banana trees (Musa sp. Colla cv. Prata-anã cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Araújo Lacerda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A variação somaclonal corresponde ao aparecimento de plantas anormais durante o processo de multiplicação in vitro, principalmente relacionada à estatura, no caso o gigantismo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi averiguar as diferenças morfoanatômicas da epiderme foliar na tentativa de diferenciar as plantas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais. A análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou uma diferença significativa entre o diâmetro polar dos estômatos da 'Prata-anã' não variante e suas variantes, ambas em condições in vitro, observando-se que o mesmo não ocorre para as plantas in vivo. O número médio de estômatos é menor nas plantas variantes somaclonais, porém sem diferenças significativas a não ser para a planta PIII. A descamação de cera é evidente somente nas plantas variantes de ambos os materiais (in vitro e in vivo. Conclui-se que os caracteres morfoanatômicos da epiderme foliar, como densidade estomática, diâmetro estomático polar e a uniformidade da cera atuam como marcadores morfológicos para caracterizar as plantas micropropagadas de 'Prata-anã' em relação aos seus variantes somaclonais para a característica gigantismo.Somaclonal variation corresponds to the emergence of abnormal plants during the process of multiplication in vitro, mainly related to stature, in the case the gigantism. The aim of this work was to discover morphoanatomical differences of the leaf epidermis in an attempt to differentiate plants of "Prata-anã" from their somaclonal variants. Analysis by scanning electronic microscopy showed significant difference between the polar diameter of the stomata of the "Prata-anã" non-variant and its variants, both in vitro. The same does not happen for plants in vivo. The average number of stomata is lower in the somaclonal variant plants, but without significant differences except for plant PIII. Wax peeling is only evident in the variant plants of both the

  13. Type I J-domain NbMIP1 proteins are required for both Tobacco mosaic virus infection and plant innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Du

    Full Text Available Tm-2² is a coiled coil-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat resistance protein that confers durable extreme resistance against Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV by recognizing the viral movement protein (MP. Here we report that the Nicotiana benthamiana J-domain MIP1 proteins (NbMIP1s associate with tobamovirus MP, Tm-2² and SGT1. Silencing of NbMIP1s reduced TMV movement and compromised Tm-2²-mediated resistance against TMV and ToMV. Furthermore, silencing of NbMIP1s reduced the steady-state protein levels of ToMV MP and Tm-2². Moreover, NbMIP1s are required for plant resistance induced by other R genes and the nonhost pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000. In addition, we found that SGT1 associates with Tm-2² and is required for Tm-2²-mediated resistance against TMV. These results suggest that NbMIP1s function as co-chaperones during virus infection and plant immunity.

  14. Hypothetical requirements on number of personnel in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halik, J.

    1990-01-01

    The structural changes of Czechoslovak power prevent prediction of labor force development by extrapolating the existing development trends. Nuclear power demands a different qualification and occupation structure of the labor force than conventional power generation. The prediction of the number of personnel is based on data on the expected installed capacity and on its commissioning. The following organizational structures are envisaged for a nuclear power plant: the divisions of the Director, of production, maintenance, radiation safety and quality control, technology and investment, economics and personnel. A total of 15,654 personnel are envisaged for nuclear power plants in 2005. A brief comparison is submitted of labor demands in nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia and in the world. (M.D.). 1 fig., 4 tabs., 3 refs

  15. Land Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Jackson, M.; Ong, S.

    2009-08-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with modern, large wind power plants (defined as greater than 20 megawatts (MW) and constructed after 2000). The analysis discusses standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature, and then discusses their applicability to wind power plants. The report identifies two major 'classes' of wind plant land use: 1) direct impact (i.e., disturbed land due to physical infrastructure development), and 2) total area (i.e., land associated with the complete wind plant project). The analysis also provides data for each of these classes, derived from project applications, environmental impact statements, and other sources. It attempts to identify relationships among land use, wind plant configuration, and geography. The analysts evaluated 172 existing or proposed projects, which represents more than 26 GW of capacity. In addition to providing land-use data and summary statistics, they identify several limitations to the existing wind project area data sets, and suggest additional analysis that could aid in evaluating actual land use and impacts associated with deployment of wind energy.

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL SECURITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS FOR DIGITAL I&C SYSTEMS IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAE-GU SONG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants have been digitalized for the purpose of maintenance and precise operation. This digitalization, however, brings out issues related to cyber security. In the most recent past, international standard organizations, regulatory institutes, and research institutes have performed a number of studies addressing these systems cyber security. In order to provide information helpful to the system designers in their application of cyber security for the systems, this paper presents methods and considerations to define attack vectors in a target system, to review and select the requirements in the Regulatory Guide 5.71, and to integrate the results to identify applicable technical security control requirements. In this study, attack vectors are analyzed through the vulnerability analyses and penetration tests with a simplified safety system, and the elements of critical digital assets acting as attack vectors are identified. Among the security control requirements listed in Appendices B and C to Regulatory Guide 5.71, those that should be implemented into the systems are selected and classified in groups of technical security control requirements using the results of the attack vector analysis. For the attack vector elements of critical digital assets, all the technical security control requirements are evaluated to determine whether they are applicable and effective, and considerations in this evaluation are also discussed. The technical security control requirements in three important categories of access control, monitoring and logging, and encryption are derived and grouped according to the elements of attack vectors as results for the sample safety system.

  17. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  18. On-line acquisition of plant related and environmental parameters (plant monitoring) in gerbera: determining plant responses

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, R.; Slootweg, G.

    2004-01-01

    For on-line plant monitoring equipment to be functional in commercial glasshouse horticulture, relations between sensor readings and plant responses on both the short (days) and long term (weeks) are required. For this reason, systems were installed to monitor rockwool grown gerbera plants on a minute-to-minute basis from July 2002 until April 2003. Data collected included, amongst others, crop transpiration from lysimeter data (2 m2), canopy temperature using infrared sensors, rockwool water...

  19. Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila Hernández, Lina M; Sanders, Jon G; Miller, Gabriel A; Ravenscraft, Alison; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-12-01

    Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to defend their host plants against herbivores, or whether plant defense is a by-product benefit of ant foraging for insect prey. Because the food offered by ant-plants is usually nitrogen-poor, arboreal ants may balance their diets by consuming insect prey or associating with microbial symbionts to acquire nitrogen, potentially shifting the costs and benefits of plant defense for the ant partner. To determine the effect of ant diet on an ant-plant mutualism, we compared the behavior, morphology, fitness, stable isotope signatures, and gaster microbiomes of A. octoarticulatus ants nesting in Cordia nodosa trees maintained for nearly a year with or without insect herbivores. At the end of the experiment, ants from herbivore exclosures preferred protein-rich baits more than ants in the control (i.e., herbivores present) treatment. Furthermore, workers in the control treatment were heavier than in the herbivore-exclusion treatment, and worker mass predicted reproductive output, suggesting that foraging for insect prey directly increased ant colony fitness. The gaster microbiome of ants was not significantly affected by the herbivore exclusion treatment. We conclude that the defensive behavior of some phytoecious ants is a by-product of their need for external protein sources; thus, the consumption of insect herbivores by ants benefits both the ant colony and the host plant. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Modification of water treatment plant at Heavy Water Plant (Kota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpati, C.R.; Shrivastava, C.S.; Shrivastava, D.C.; Shrivastava, J.; Vithal, G.K.; Bhowmick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy Water Production by GS process viz. H 2 S - H 2 O bi-thermal exchange process requires a huge quantity of demineralized (DM) water as a source of deuterium. Since the deuterium recovery of GS process is only 18-19%, the water treatment plant (WTP) was designed and commissioned at Heavy Water Plant (Kota) to produce demineralized water at the rate of 680 m 3 /hr. The WTP was commissioned in 1980 and till 2005; the plant was producing DM water of required quality. It was having three streams of strong cation resin, atmospheric degasser and strong anion exchange resin with co-current regeneration. In 2001 a new concept of layered bed resin was developed and engineered for water treatment plant. The concept was attractive in terms of saving of chemicals and thus preservation of environment. Being an ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 plant, the modification of WTP was executed in 2005 during major turn around. After modification, a substantial amount of acid and alkali is saved

  1. Effect of plant characteristics on the number of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Power plant organization and staff categories. Influence of plant size. Influence of plant complexity. Specifics of plant site and infrastructure. Contractual requirements for off-site activities. On-site requirements. Overstaffing, understaffing, promotion and motivation. (orig.)

  2. Method for developing cost estimates for generic regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The NRC has established a practice of performing regulatory analyses, reflecting costs as well as benefits, of proposed new or revised generic requirements. A method had been developed to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required for this purpose and for assigning priorities in the resolution of generic safety issues. The cost of a generic requirement is defined as the net present value of total lifetime cost incurred by the public, industry, and government in implementing the requirement for all affected plants. The method described here is for commercial light-water-reactor power plants. Estimating the cost for a generic requirement involves several steps: (1) identifying the activities that must be carried out to fully implement the requirement, (2) defining the work packages associated with the major activities, (3) identifying the individual elements of cost for each work package, (4) estimating the magnitude of each cost element, (5) aggregating individual plant costs over the plant lifetime, and (6) aggregating all plant costs and generic costs to produce a total, national, present value of lifetime cost for the requirement. The method developed addresses all six steps. In this paper, we discuss on the first three

  3. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by actions spectra for growth and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T. [Kobe Women`s Univ., Higashisuma (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    It is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to an economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.

  4. Effect of Drought Stress on Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes in Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shiva akbari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plants may be exposed to various stresses and water deficit is the most important limiting factor of growth and yield in many parts of the world and Iran. Stress induced growth decrement can be because of cell development decrease due to decrement of turgor pressure and meiosis and photosynthesis decrease due to stomata closure. Determination of desired planting density is one of the success factors of plant growth and production. Garlic (Allium sativum has been an important medicinal plant over centuries in human life. According to the importance of medicinal plants and studying the effects of drought stress on them, the goal of this research is to investigate the effect of drought stress and planting density on growth and morphological characteristics of two ecotypes of garlic and determining the preferable ecotype and density from the perspective of these traits. Materials and methods This experiment was performed in 2012 in a farm in south east of Semnan. It was conducted on a split-plot factorial arrangement based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three levels of drought stress with 60, 80 and 100 percent of crop evapotranspiration (ETc were the main plot factors and factorial combination of three planting density (30, 40 and 50 plants.m-2 and two ecotypes of Tabas and Toroud were the levels of sub plot factors. To estimate water requirement of garlic, daily measured meteorology parameters of Semnan synoptic station were used and water requirement was calculated based on FAO-56 instructions. From mid-January, the sampling of leaf area, bulb and leaf fresh and dry weight was started with destructive method every other week and continued until middle of Jun. three plant were selected randomly from each plot in each turn. From middle of May, height and number of leaves were measured. Leaf area measurement was done by leaf area meter (Delta-T. To estimate growth indices, dry weight of aerial and

  5. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  6. The effect of elevated CO2 on the vegetative and generative growth of Phalaenopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Kromwijk, J.A.M.; Meinen, E.; Dueck, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Phalaenopsis is a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant which absorbs and binds CO2 as malate during the night. During daytime the stomata close and the CO2 stored in the vacuole is released and used for photosynthesis. Because the CO2 taken up by CAM plants was assumed to be unaffected by the CO2 concentration in the air, additional CO2 for increased growth was generally not supplied in Phalaenopsis. However, a literature study indicated that elevated CO2 might have a positive effect in P...

  7. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING and SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  8. Effect of cycocel on photosynthetic activity and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important and most common environmental stresses that limit plant growth. Photosynthesis is the main determinant of plant growth and its retention ability under environmental stress condition is important for preservation of growth stability. To study the effect of spraying CCC on photosynthesis activity and essential oil content on 'Foeniculum vulgare', an experiment was done in split plot design based on complete block with four replications in research field of University of Zanjan in 2011. Levels of drought stress included, control, soft stress (when 30% of available water was out of soil, severe stress (when 90% of available water was out of soil, and three concentration of CCC 0, 1500 and 3000 mg/L. The results showed that between rates foliar application on physiologic characteristics as photosynthesis rate, transpiration severity, RWC and TΔ intercellular (Ci, stomata conductivity, mesophyll conductivity and essential oil content was significant. By spraying 3000 mg/L CCC, balanced the plant position against drought stress and could reduce negative effect. Foliar application of CCC caused significant increase in photosynthesis rate, mesophyll conductivity and significant decrease stomata conductivity, transpiration severity under drought stress and could increase essential oil content under soft stress. In this study, foliar application of CCC to content 3000 mg/L had the highest effect on this characters.

  9. Tolerance of some Potato Mutants Induced with Gamma Irradiation to Drought in Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Al-Ayyoubi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro selection program was conducted in order to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum,L.) tolerance to drought. Potato mutant plants were obtained through a previously conducted mutation breeding program on three potato cultivars (Draga, Spunta, and Diamant) aimed to improve potato tolerance to salinity and resistance to late blight disease. In order to apply selection pressure, growth media (MS based) were prepared with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3% concentrations of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). As a result, three mutants were selected that were tolerant to water stress (i.e. drought tolerant), two of them were derived from the cultivar Draga and one came from Spunta. Physiological growth parameters (plant length, leaf number, branch number, roots number, leaf area, stomata number, and chlorophyll concentration content) were determined on the growing plantlets. The selected mutants were distinguished based on some characteristics which being associated with in their tolerance to drought. Such as an increases in leaf number, root number, and a decrease in stomata number. However a reduction in chlorophyll content was observed as compared with the control. This is considered a negative parameter which may result in a decrease in number and size of tubers. Thus it is important to continue selection for higher chlorophyll content. Also, these mutant lines will need further selection in the field for plants with larger tubers before they can be considered as certified lines.

  10. Enzymes from Fungal and Plant Origin Required for Chemical Diversification of Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in Grass-Epichloë Symbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  11. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B; Schardl, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  12. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pan

    Full Text Available The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline, -NHCH3 (loline, -N(CH32 (N-methylloline, -N(CH3Ac (N-acetylloline, -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline, and -N(CH3CHO (N-formylloline. Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for

  13. Operation and maintenance requirements of system design bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Hanley, N.E.

    1989-01-01

    All system designs make assumptions about system operation testing, inspection, and maintenance. Existing industry codes and standards explicitly address design requirements of new systems, while issues related to system and plant reliability, life, design margins, effects of service conditions, operation, maintenance, etc., usually are implicit. However, system/component design documents of existing power plants often address the code requirements without considering the operation, maintenance, inspection, and testing (OMIT) requirements. The nuclear industry is expending major efforts at most nuclear power plants to reassemble and/or reconstitute system design bases. Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) recently addressed the OMIT requirements of system/component design as an integral part of a utility's preventive maintenance program. For each component, SWEC reviewed vendor recommendations, NPRDS data/industry experience, the existing maintenance program, component service conditions, and actual plant experience. A maintenance program that considers component service conditions and plant experience ensures a connection between maintenance and design basis. Root cause analysis of failure and engineering evaluation of service condition are part of the program. System/component OMIT requirements also are compared against system design, service condition, degradation mechanism, etc., through system/component life-cycle evaluation

  14. Calcium signaling during the plant-plant interaction of parasitic Cuscuta reflexa with its hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, M.; Kaiser, B.; Krol, van der A.R.; Kaldenhoff, R.

    2010-01-01

    The plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces various responses in compatible and incompatible host plants. The visual reactions of both types of host plants including obvious morphological changes require the recognition of Cuscuta ssp. A consequently initiated signaling cascade is triggered which

  15. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants; Fukushima, dos anos despues, requerimientos de modificacion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A., E-mail: jerson.sanchez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  16. ITER plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbasov, B.; Barnes, C.; Blevins, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER plant systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a plant layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Top-tier requirements for KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung-Jae, Ch.; Kwangho, L.; Dong Wook, J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) has launched the next generation reactor project to develop the standard design of an advanced pressurized water reactor by 2000. This advanced reactor aims to have the sufficient capability to be a safe, environmentally sound and economical energy source for 2000's in Korea. In conjunction with the project development, the program phase I is studied and it is in the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) first phase project that the requirements of this specification called ''Top-tier'' have been established. These functional requirements are of the first importance for the design, construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. These requirements are divided into safety requirements, serious accidents control, design base requirements, definition of the system characteristics, performance, construction feasibility, economical objectives, site parameters and design processes. The ''Top-tier'' requirements are concentrated on the improvement of the safety and reliability. Safety is one of the first priorities. In particular, the requirements for the design of the next reactors generation must include the capacity to control serious accidents because when an accident occurs, the protection degree is crucial. The KNGR requirements include the existing nuclear power plants competitiveness as well as those of the coal thermal plants. Moreover, when safety is reinforced, the economic competitiveness can be assured. At the present time, a subsequent specification for the KNGR considering the bases of the domestic technology and experimenting the running. (O.M.)

  18. Tolerancing requirements for remote handling at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Katwijk, C.; Keenan, R.M.; Bullis, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed by Fluor Daniel, Inc. with Waste Chem Corporation as Fluor Daniel, Inc.'s major subcontractor specializing in vitrification and remote system technologies. United Engineers and Constructors (UE ampersand C)/Catalytic (UCAT) will construct the plant. Westinghouse Hanford Company is the Project Integration manager and Business manager, and as the plant operator it provides technical direction to the Architect/ Engineer team (A/E) and constructor on behalf of the US Department of Energy - Richland Field Office. The A/E has developed, in cooperation with UE ampersand C, Westinghouse Hanford Company, and the US Department of Energy, a new and innovative approach to installations of the many remote nozzles and electrical connectors that must be installed to demanding tolerances. This paper summarizes the key elements of the HWVP approach

  19. Formation of virions is strictly required for turnip yellows virus long-distance movement in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipper, Clémence; Monsion, Baptiste; Bortolamiol-Bécet, Diane; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2014-02-01

    Viral genomic RNA of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV; genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) is protected in virions formed by the major capsid protein (CP) and the minor component, the readthrough (RT*) protein. Long-distance transport, used commonly by viruses to systemically infect host plants, occurs in phloem sieve elements and two viral forms of transport have been described: virions and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. With regard to poleroviruses, virions have always been presumed to be the long-distance transport form, but the potential role of RNP complexes has not been investigated. Here, we examined the requirement of virions for polerovirus systemic movement by analysing CP-targeted mutants that were unable to form viral particles. We confirmed that TuYV mutants that cannot encapsidate into virions are not able to reach systemic leaves. To completely discard the possibility that the introduced mutations in CP simply blocked the formation or the movement of RNP complexes, we tested in trans complementation of TuYV CP mutants by providing WT CP expressed in transgenic plants. WT CP was able to facilitate systemic movement of TuYV CP mutants and this observation was always correlated with the formation of virions. This demonstrated clearly that virus particles are essential for polerovirus systemic movement.

  20. Characterization of Foliage Mutants for Plant Variety Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Breeding for new plant varieties requires a substantial investment in terms of skill, labour, material resources and financing. Thus, registration of new plant variety is important to ensure return of revenue and protection of the breeder's right. Before a new variety is registered, it has to comply certain requirements under Plant Variety Protection Act. One of the most important requirements is, the new species/variety must be morphologically distinguishable from existing plant varieties. This paper discusses detailed leaf characteristics of 4 foliage mutants produced by Malaysian Nuclear Agency as part of the requirement for new variety registration. (author)