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Sample records for plant south maracaibo

  1. Puente sobre el Maracaibo

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    Equipo Editorial

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Para salvar el lago de Maracaibo (Venezuela, el conocido ingeniero italiano Riccaido Morandi ha presentado un proyecto de puente para ferrocarril y carretera, de hormigón pretensado, de tramos independientes, constituyendo un sistema Gerber, que tiene una longitud total de 8.720 m y un vano central de 400 m de luz. Este último tramo, en unión de los dos adyacentes al mismo, constituirán, una vez terminada la obra, un conjunto continuo. El tablero del puente se halla a una altura de 45 m sobre el nivel del agua en la zona del canal, con objeto de permitir la navegación. El tablero, de 20,90 m de anchura total, se ha subdividido en tres partes, dos simétricas respecto al eje, laterales, de 7,20 m de anchura, para la circulación en sentidos opuestos por carretera, una plataforma central, de 5 m de ancho, para el ferrocarril y dos andenes para el paso de peatones y servicios.

  2. municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco

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    Rosa E. Ortiz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las Organizaciones No Gubernamentales estuvo dirigido a caracterizar la diversidad de grupos y asociaciones que bajo el termino genérico de ONG’s existen en los municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco, los más poblados y relevantes en la vida política, económica, social y cultural del estado Zulia-Venezuela. Se planteó una investigación exploratoria y descriptiva. El resultado permitió reconocer a Existe un crecimiento sostenido de las ONG en estos municipios: b los sectores con mayor concentración son el de salud; educación; deporte y recreación; arte y cultura. c Las instituciones que promueven más organizaciones son la iglesia y el Estado, lo que supone es este último caso una reducción de las funciones que le corresponden, además de la minimización de costos y conflictos laborales. d Ambivalencia en la orientación de su funcionamiento: Algunas ONG’s implementan prácticas próximas a la mercantilización de los servicios con lo cual legitiman estrategias del modelo económico neoliberal mientras otras contribuyen a fortalecer la democratización de los servicios públicos. Se concluye que el crecimiento y características de las ONGs en estos municipios estuvo vinculado en los noventa y comienzos de la década de 2000 por la aplicación de las políticas públicas neoliberales.

  3. Responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Marilyn Lescher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela. El trabajo se sustenta en los postulados de Rodríguez (2010, De la Cuesta (2011, el Ministerio de Educación de España (2011, entre otros. El estudio fue descriptivo, de campo. La población estuvo conformada por autoridades de cinco (5 universidades, una (1 pública y cuatro (4 privadas ubicadas en Maracaibo, a las cuales se accedió mediante un cuestionario compuesto por treinta y dos (32 ítems cerrados. El instrumento fue validado por expertos en el ámbito de la gerencia universitaria. Para determinar la confiabilidad del cuestionario se aplicó el método test-retest, obteniéndose un coeficiente de 0,94. Para analizar los datos se utilizó el promedio aritmético o media. Los resultados indican que las universidades estudiadas exhiben un modelo de responsabilidad social de tendencia empresarial instrumental, donde el conocimiento se perfila como el principal activo disponible para su uso por la sociedad, pero se requiere una mayor integración de las instituciones de educación superior con sus stakeholders.

  4. Antimalarial properties of South African medicinal plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available of structure-activity derivatives around these simplified structures is currently under way. CONCLUSIONS The study identified a number of promising South African medicinal plants for further investigation as plant-based antimalarial agents. The overall... as potential sources of antimalarial lead compounds. REFERENCES Clarkson, C., Maharaj, V.J., Crouch, N.R., Grace, O.M., Pillay, P., Matsabisa, M.G., Bhagwandin, N., Smith, P.J., Folb, P.I., 2004. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native...

  5. THE INFORMAL HOUSING PRODUCTION: THE MARACAIBO CASE, VENEZUELA)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [EN]In housing production in Venezuela and particularly in Maracaibo, we can recognize two main sectors: the "formal" sector production carried out by prívate and national enterprises, and ttie "informal" sector, which produces tiouses in marginal áreas and uncontrolled suburbs in town. The production in this sector tías become larger ttian ttie formal one. In act, in Maracaibo more than 60% of population is living in these types of suburbs. Ttiese people tiave resolve...

  6. The Cogollo Group and the oceanic anoxic events 1a and 1b, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

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    José Alejandro Méndez Dot

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCarbonates of Cogollo Group (Apón, Lisure and Maraca formations constitute the broader calcareous platform system originated during Aptian and Albian of Cretaceous in north-western South America, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. On the shallow shelf, a variety of calcareous sedimentary facies were deposited during marine transgressive and regressive cycles. Some of them developed porosity and constitute important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Due to some major marine transgressions, from early Aptian, the anoxic environment and characteristic facies of a pelagic environment moved from the outer slope and basin to the shallow shelf, during specific time intervals, favouring the sedimentation of organic matter-rich facies, which correspond to the oceanic anoxic events (OAEs 1a and 1b. The source rock of Machiques Member (Apón Formation was deposited during early Aptian OAE 1a (~ 120 Ma. The source rock of Piché Member, located at the top of the Apón Formation, was deposited during late Aptian OAE 1b (~ 113 Ma. Finally, La Luna Formation, from Cenomanian, that covers the OAE 2 (~ 93 Ma, represents the most important source rock in the Maracaibo Basin. In this way and based on sedimentological and organic geochemistry results from the determinations performed on 247 samples belonging to six cores in the Maracaibo Basin, we propose these two organic-rich levels, deposited on the shallow shelf of the Cogollo Group, as "effective source rocks", additional to La Luna Formation, with oil migration in relatively small distances to the porosity facies.

  7. Perfil de empresas comunicacionales con soporte digital en Maracaibo

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Páez; Carla Rincón

    2005-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo es presentar las características fundamentales de las empresas comunicaciones con soporte digital en Maracaibo (ECSD). Las ECSD surgen en el contexto de la revolución mediática en las empresas y se caracterizan por presentar una actividad productiva que se sustenta exclusivamente sobre las tecnologías de información y comunicación. La investigación es de tipo descriptivo. Se estudiaron las ECSD en Maracaibo a través de un censo de las empresas que clasifican dent...

  8. Bio-evaluation of South African plants for insecticidal properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a serious health problem in South Africa affecting the lives of approximately 4 million people. Resistance to the principal vector, Anopheles arabiensis, has initiated a search for new plant-derived insecticides. Plants were selected...

  9. Maracaibo: De pueblo de Agua a Ciudad, Puerto siglos XVIXVII

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    Ileana Parra Grazzina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El pueblo de Maracaibo aborigen y sus términos antecedió a lo que fue la ciudad-puerto de Maracaibo en los siglos XVI y XVII inserta en la expansión capitalista europea. La ventajosa situación de Maracaibo en el intermedio del agua lacustre y marítimas, propició la alternativa de comunicación entre los centros productores andinos-lacustres con el Caribe y el Atlántico. Factor aprovechado por las poblaciones del norte del Lago de Maracaibo para el dominio de la navegación lacustre que derivó en rivalidades económicas y políticas, tanto en los tiempos aborígenes como en los tiempos de sometimiento hispánico. Se trata de interpretar el crecimiento del puerto y su competitividad con los otros puertos lacustres como Moporo, Tomoporo, Gibraltar y Zulia por el control comercial, de los cuales dependió paradójicamente para su abastecimiento en razón de la esterilidad de las tierras maracaiberas. Tal proceso se estudió en el marco de la política mercantilista de los Austrias, a través del análisis histórico de las fuentes documentales del Archivo General de Indias.

  10. Commercially Important Medicinal Plants of South Africa: A Review

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    R. A. Street

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in natural plant-based remedies as a source for commercial products. Around 80% of the South African population use traditional medicines to meet their primary health care needs; however, only a few South African medicinal plants have been exploited to their full potential in terms of commercialization. The opportunity for bioprospecting of plant compounds for novel pharmaceuticals remains largely untapped. Certain renowned medicinal plants of international acclaim including buchu and rooibos are currently contributing to local enterprise; however, other exciting opportunities exist for commonly used plants which have not yet reached the international arena. This paper focuses on the key research and development contributions of 10 commercially important medicinal plants of South Africa. Traditional uses, scientific validation, commercialisation developments, as well as both potential opportunities and setbacks are discussed.

  11. Investigation of South African plants for anti cancer properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khorombi, TE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A collaborative research programme between the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the USA aimed at the screening of plant extracts and identification of potentially new...

  12. South African Red Data Book: Plants - fynbos and Karoo biomes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report a list is given of 1 808 rare, threatened and recently extinct plants in the fynbos and karoo biomes in the Cape Province of South Africa. The area covers the south-western and southern Cape, Namaqualand and the Karoo. Following...

  13. Calidad del servicio de internet en el municipio Maracaibo

    OpenAIRE

    María Cristina Useche

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo central del trabajo es determinar la calidad de servicio que ofrecen las operadoras habilitadas en el sector de telecomunicaciones en Venezuela para prestar el servicio de Internet en el municipio Maracaibo. El mismo se basó en un tipo de investigación descriptivo- transaccional, abordando el objeto de estudio desde las perspectivas de Zeithaml y Bitner (2002), Pride y Ferrel (1997), Lovelock (1997), Cobra (2000) y Parasuraman, Zeithaml y Berry (2002). Se aplicó el muestreo aleato...

  14. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

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    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  15. Estrategias de negocios de las farmacias del municipio Maracaibo

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El propósito fundamental de este estudio fue analizar las estrategias de negocios aplicadas por las farmacias ubicadas en el municipio Maracaibo, bajo los preceptos teóricos de Thompson y Strickland (2003) y Villalba (2000). La investigación se tipificó como descriptiva. La población estuvo conformada por los encargados de las 219 farmacias, a quienes se les aplicó una encuesta mediante un cuestionario contentivo de 16 preguntas, escala tipo Likert y selección múltiple. El instrumento fue val...

  16. Calidad del servicio de taxis del municipio Maracaibo

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    Joheni A. Urdaneta G.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir la calidad del servicio de los taxis en el municipio Maracaibo, ya que los mismos forman parte del sistema de transporte urbano de la ciudad, y es un servicio público fundamental para la convivencia de la sociedad; para lograr este objetivo se realizó una adaptación del modelo SERVPERF, diseñando un instrumento tipo cuestionario, con 32 ítems en 6 dimensiones, adecuado a las características propias del servicio de taxi, con la finalidad de confirmar que los ítems de los instrumentos se correspondían con las dimensiones adaptadas se aplicó la técnica de análisis factorial resultando un nuevo instrumento con 24 ítems en 3 dimensiones. Se utilizó la escala de Likert con tres (3 alternativas de respuesta. La investigación es de tipo descriptiva y aplicada, bajo diseño no experimental de tipo transeccional descriptiva y de campo. La población quedó conformada por los usuarios de las líneas de taxis del municipio Maracaibo. Se aplicó muestreo aleatorio por conglomerado. La confiabilidad del instrumento se midió a través del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach resultando de 0,82 lo cual se considera aceptable. Los resultados revelan que la calidad del servicio de taxis del municipio Maracaibo es mediana por lo tanto este servicio es susceptible a mejoras, las cuales son necesarias para elevar la calidad de vida de los marabinos. Este resultado se obtuvo con el instrumento originalmente adaptado de 32 ítems y con el cuestionario resultante del análisis factorial, de 24 ítems; esto confirma lo apropiado de esta técnica, ya que se redujo el número de ítems y de las dimensiones originalmente adaptadas y no se encontraron diferencias significativas en los resultados con ambos instrumentos; de esta manera se puede medir la calidad del servicio de taxis en el municipio Maracaibo a través de las dimensiones: confiabilidad del servicio, socialización y responsabilidad.

  17. Las haciendas cañeras en el sur del lago de Maracaibo-Venezuela (siglos XVI-XVII

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    Ramírez Méndez, Luis Alberto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This analysis studies sugar cane plantations located south of Lake Maracaibo, in the jurisdiction of Merida (Venezuela, where sugar cane was cultivated and processed from the sixteenth century. It is a quantitative and qualitative study of the origin, evolution, production, infrastructure, and profitability of the plantations. The research is based on unpublished documentary sources in national and foreign archives.En el presente análisis se estudian las haciendas cañameleras ubicadas al sur del lago de Maracaibo, área jurisdiccional de Mérida (Venezuela, donde se desarrolló el cultivo y procesamiento de la caña de azúcar a partir del siglo XVI. Es un estudio cuantitativo y cualitativo sobre el origen de las haciendas de caña, su evolución y producción, su infraestructura y rentabilidad. La investigación se asienta en las fuentes documentales inéditas existentes en los archivos nacionales y extranjeros.

  18. El impuesto sobre inmuebles urbanos en el municipio Maracaibo

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    Genoveva Ángela Molero González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es analizar el Impuesto sobre Inmuebles Urbanos del municipio Maracaibo del Estado Zulia, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo-documental. Esta investigación se apoya en documentos y se complementa con entrevistas abiertas realizadas a funcionarios de las unidades administrativas de la Alcaldía de Maracaibo como son la Dirección de Catastro y el Servicio Autónomo Municipal de Administración Tributaria. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron: identificar los elementos del impuesto, analizar los procedimientos de recaudación, donde se observa la desactualización de la ordenanza en el sentido de tener más de treinta años y por otro lado la creación de decretos con la finalidad de incrementar el impuesto, analizar la insuficiencia que presenta el catastro municipal; examinar el comportamiento de recaudación durante el año 2003.

  19. Maracaibo y su circuito agroexportador en el siglo XIX

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    Germán Cardozo Galué

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción y comercialización del café andino venezolano y del norte de Santander, entre otros frutos, hacia el Caribe y el Atlántico hizo del puerto de Maracaibo, a finales del siglo XIX, la primera aduana de Venezuela en cuanto a la importación y exportación de capitales. Esta consolidación del circuito agroexportador marabino fue impulsada y concretada, fundamentalmente, por el establecimiento de varias firmas alemanas desde mediados de siglo. Dada la trascendencia que tuvo este proceso para la vida económica y relaciones socioculturales de la región histórica de la extensa cuenca del Lago de Maracaibo con el nororiente colombiano y el Caribe, en este artículo se reconstruyen las características de la actividad productiva, redes comerciales, desarrollo de la vialidad, medios de transporte y establecimiento de capitales y firmas comerciales regionales, nacionales, caribeñas y europeas en el circuito agroexportador marabino

  20. Calidad del servicio de internet en el municipio Maracaibo

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    María Cristina Useche

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo central del trabajo es determinar la calidad de servicio que ofrecen las operadoras habilitadas en el sector de telecomunicaciones en Venezuela para prestar el servicio de Internet en el municipio Maracaibo. El mismo se basó en un tipo de investigación descriptivo- transaccional, abordando el objeto de estudio desde las perspectivas de Zeithaml y Bitner (2002, Pride y Ferrel (1997, Lovelock (1997, Cobra (2000 y Parasuraman, Zeithaml y Berry (2002. Se aplicó el muestreo aleatorio estratificado proporcional conformado por 400 clientes en ese municipio, a la cual se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado para recopilar información necesaria para abordar el objeto de estudio. Los resultados indicaron tendencias favorables a nivel de las percepciones sobre la tangibilidad, confiabilidad, responsabilidad, seguridad y empatía; pero las expectativas encontradas fueron más altas que las percepciones, sin embargo, los rangos no fueron de mayor incidencia, lo cual indica que la calidad del servicio al cliente en las empresas evaluadas se ubica en niveles favorables. A pesar de ello, al no haber cobertura total de las expectativas de los usuarios, la calidad del servicio debe mejorar a fin de garantizar excelencia a los requerimientos, logrando la satisfacción plena de los clientes sobre la prestación del servicio de Internet en Maracaibo.

  1. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

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    Fernando Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993, Coleman (1988, Bourdieu (2001 y Lin (2001. La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue el muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional aplicado a 85 empresas. Se recolectaron los datos mediante un cuestionario estructurado a cada agente informante de las empresas, el cual fue validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach arrojó un 0.96, por lo que el instrumento demuestra alta confiabilidad. Las respuestas del cuestionario tuvieron un tratamiento estadístico descriptivo mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies (SPSS. Se concluye que hay una debil interconectividad de los elementos del capital social, incidiendo en el bajo nivel de innovación y emprendimiento, precarizando las fuerzas sustentadoras del desarrollo territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela.

  2. South Ukraine NPP: Safety improvements through Plant Computer upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenman, O. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 4350 Northern Pike, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States); Chernyshov, M. A. [Westron, LLC, 1 Acad. Proskura St., Kharkiv 61070 (Ukraine); Denning, R. S. [Battelle, 505 King Ave, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Kolesov, S. A. [NAEK Energoatom, 3 Vetrov Str., Kiev, 01032 (Ukraine); Balakan, H. H.; Bilyk, B. I.; Kuznetsov, V. I. [PO South Ukraine NPP, NAEK Energoatom, Mylolayv Region, 55000 (Ukraine); Trosman, G. [US Dept. of Energy, International Nuclear Safety Program, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes some results of the Plant Computer upgrade at the Units 2 and 3 of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). A Plant Computer, which is also called the Computer Information System (CIS), is one of the key safety-related systems at VVER-1000 nuclear plants. The main function of the CIS is information support for the plant operators during normal and emergency operational modes. Before this upgrade, South Ukraine NPP operated out-of-date and obsolete systems. This upgrade project wax founded by the U.S. DOE in the framework of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP). The most efficient way to improve the quality and reliability of information provided to the plant operator is to upgrade the Human-System Interface (HSI), which is the Upper Level (UL) CIS. The upgrade of the CIS data-acquisition system (DAS), which is the Lower Level (LL) CIS, would have less effect on the unit safety. Generally speaking, the lifetime of the LL CIS is much higher than one of the UL CIS. Unlike Plant Computers at the Western-designed plants, the functionality of the WER-1000 CISs includes a control function (Centralized Protection Testing) and a number of the plant equipment monitoring functions, for example, Protection and Interlock Monitoring and Turbo-Generator Temperature Monitoring. The new system is consistent with a historical migration of the format by which information is presented to the operator away from the traditional graphic displays, for example, Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P and ID's), toward Integral Data displays. The cognitive approach to information presentation is currently limited by some licensing issues, but is adapted to a greater degree with each new system. The paper provides some lessons learned on the management of the international team. (authors)

  3. La producción informal de viviendas: caso Maracaibo, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    In housing production in Venezuela and particularly in Maracaibo, we can recognize two main sectors: the "formal" sector production carried out by private and national enterprises, and the "informal" sector, which produces houses in marginal areas and uncontrolled suburbs in town. The production in this sector has become larger than the formal one. In act, in Maracaibo more than 60% of population is living in these types of suburbs. These people have resolved their housing need accordingly to...

  4. Estrategias de negocios de las farmacias del municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Salazar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fundamental de este estudio fue analizar las estrategias de negocios aplicadas por las farmacias ubicadas en el municipio Maracaibo, bajo los preceptos teóricos de Thompson y Strickland (2003 y Villalba (2000. La investigación se tipificó como descriptiva. La población estuvo conformada por los encargados de las 219 farmacias, a quienes se les aplicó una encuesta mediante un cuestionario contentivo de 16 preguntas, escala tipo Likert y selección múltiple. El instrumento fue validado y la confiabilidad del mismo fue de 0.96. Se concluyó que las farmacias sí aplican el monitoreo de la competencia, además establecen ventajas competitivas y acciones estratégicas específicas; pero necesitan seguir mejorando su posición competitiva y diversificando sus estrategias para poder sobrevivir ante los cambios del mercado.

  5. Factores para la sostenibilidad del desarrollo local de Maracaibo

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    Fernando Torres Granadillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo central del trabajo es describir los factores para la sostenibilidad del desarrollo local de Maracaibo. El tipo de investigación fue descriptiva, bajo un diseño transeccional y de campo. La población estuvo conformada por 475 empresas, bajo un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intensional se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado, validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach a 85 empresas, en 7 sectores economicos prepondantes en la econonía local, a saber: actividades financieras y de seguro, comercio, construcción, industrias manufactureras (elaboración de alimentos, servicios sociales y salud, servicios tecnológicos y transporte, almacenamiento y comunicaciones. Los resultados indicaron que la detección de debilidades en las interconectividades de los factores capital social, innovación y empredimiento genera una endeble sostenibilidad del desarrollo local Marabino.

  6. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  7. Presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South Florida native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jack B; Jayachandran, K

    2005-11-01

    The roots of 27 species of South Florida plants in 15 families (including one cycad, six palms, one Smilax, and 19 dicotyledons) native to pine rockland and tropical hardwood hammock communities were examined for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These plants grow in the biologically diverse but endangered Greater Everglades habitat. Roots from field-grown and potted plants were cleared and stained. All 27 species had AMF and include 14 species having an endangered or threatened status. The Paris-type colonization occurred in two species in the families Annonaceae and Smilacaceae. The Arum-type occurred in 22 species in the families Anacardiaceae, Arecaceae (Palmae), Boraginaceae, Cactaceae (questionable), Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Melastomataceae, Polygalaceae, Rubiaceae, Simaroubaceae, Ulmaceae, and Zamiaceae. Three species in the families Fabaceae, Lauraceae, and Simaroubaceae had a mix of Paris- and Arum-types. The results have implications for the restoration of these endangered plant communities in the Everglades.

  8. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H; Muasya, Abraham Muthama

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth rate of human population, along with the public health crisis encountered in many regions, particularly in developing world, creates an urgent need for the discovery of alternative drugs. Because medicinal plants are not distributed randomly across lineages, it has been suggested that phylogeny along with traditional knowledge of plant uses can guide the identification of new medicinally useful plants. In this study, we combined different statistical approaches to test for phylogenetic signal in 33 categories of plant uses in South Africa. Depending on the null models considered, we found evidence for signal in up to 45% of plant use categories, indicating the need for multiple tests combination to maximize the chance of discovering new medicinal plants when applying a phylogenetic comparative approach. Furthermore, although there was no signal in the diversity of medicinal uses-that is, total number of medicinal uses recorded for each plant-our results indicate that taxa that are evolutionarily closely related have significantly more uses than those that are evolutionarily isolated. Our study therefore provides additional support to the body of the literature that advocates for the inclusion of phylogeny in bioscreening medicinal flora for the discovery of alternative medicines.

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP), located at Aiken, South Carolina. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The following topics are discussed: general site information; air, soil, surface water and ground water; hydrogeology; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; release of tritium oxides; radioactivity in milk; contamination of ground water and wildlife; pesticide use; and release of radionuclides into seepage basins. 149 refs., 44 figs., 53 tabs.

  10. New plant records for Tankwa Karoo National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffel P. Bester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tankwa Karoo National Park has been enlarged from 27 064 ha to 143 600 ha. This whole area is severely under-collected for plants in general and therefore it was an obvious target for the South African National Parks (SANParks Programme, a component of the Pretoria National Herbarium (PRE Plant Collecting Programme. This programme not only aims to survey national parks that have been poorly surveyed, but also inadequately known taxa, unique habitats, remote and inaccessible areas and plant species flowering at irregular times, especially after events such as fire or unusual timing of, or high, rainfall. General collecting in the Tankwa Karoo National Park has already led to the description of two new taxa, from two families. It furthermore resulted in new distribution records for the park and for the Northern Cape Province. These are reported on here.Conservation implications: Although the Tankwa Karoo National Park falls within the Succulent Karoo Biome (a biodiversity hotspot of international importance, information on its plant diversity is insufficient because it is an under-collected area. Results of this study will guide conservation and supply occurrence and distribution data required to compile management plans for the park.

  11. Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gorgens, AHM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Predictions that invasive alien Plants would use significant amounts of water were a major factor in the establishment of South Africa's Working for Water programme, which aims to protect water resources by clearing these plants. The predictions...

  12. The history of a unique South Wales coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.

    2006-07-01

    During 1914 the Coppee Company was contracted to build two batteries of 30 coke ovens, a washery and by-product plant at Coed Ely in the Ely Valley, South Wales, near to a productive colliery. The coal was formed into a cake by stamping it into a mould slightly smaller than the oven. Straw was used as a binder. The coke produced was ideal for iron making. The article describes the stamp charging process, the cooling process, and the by-product plant producing a 'tar oil winter wash' (ammonium sulphateude benzol and coal gas). It describes the construction and later extensions of the batteries. It recounts the history of the rail system linking the coking plant and the mine and has illustrated descriptions of Locomotive Coedely, Locomotive Ferndale, Locomotive Tynycoed and Locomotive Austerity 0-6-OST. The coking works was finally closed in October 1983, following the 1979 change of government which shut the industry from all sides. Today the hillside is landscaped and grass is beginning to grow where the works once was. This article was fist published in the Archive Magazine, No. 41, of March 2004, pp 3-26. 25 figs.

  13. al ciudadano: Caso Alcaldía de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norcka Fernández-Colina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue explorar la administración de la política de información al ciudadano en la Alcaldía de Maracaibo durante el período 1990-2000, como antecedente a la promulgación de postulados que valorizan la información y sus políticas en la Constitución de 1999. La metodología consistió en la revisión de referentes teóricos, aplicación de un cuestionario semiestructurado a los concejales y personal directivo de la Alcaldía y revisión de documentos de gestión local. Los resultados evidencian que las políticas de información al ciudadano se agrupan en: capacitación, recursos para la gestión de la información, medios de comunicación y mecanismos de participación; el modelo de gestión aplicado fue básicamente burocrático con ciertos visos participativos; en la formulación de las mismas prevaleció la pasividad del ciudadano y en la implementación no se reportaron indicios de seguimiento y control, solo cifras de actividades ejecutadas en las memorias anuales. Se concluye que la administración de políticas de información al ciudadano en el periodo estudiado, no representó una tarea prioritaria sino un complemento del resto de las políticas existentes en otros sectores.

  14. 75 FR 52967 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Palm Beach, Florida. A Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for South... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic... environmental impact statement for the South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant Management Plan....

  15. An Ethnopharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants in New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Randall

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Aboriginal people have used plants as medicine and food for thousands of years, however, this traditional knowledge is documented only to a limited extent, and is in danger of being lost. The Indigenous Bioresources Research Group (IBRG aims to help Australian Aboriginal communities to preserve their customary medicinal knowledge, and to provide information that can be used for their cultural or educational purposes, as well as for scientific advancement. This work is undertaken in close collaboration with Australian Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. The project is multidisciplinary, combining an ethnobotanical and an ethnopharmacological approach, which includes biological and chemical investigations, as well as developing best practices for protecting traditional knowledge. This paper describes the general strategy of the project as well as methods used in the ethnopharmacological study. Ethnobotanical databases are set up for each participating community. Plant material is collected, extracted, and active compounds are isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. All extracts and compounds are tested for biological activity in antimicrobial assays (disc diffusion, resazurin, fluorescein diacetate, neurological assays or anti-inflammatory assays, depending on their traditional use.

  16. La producción informal de viviendas: caso Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteiza San José, Ignacio

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available In housing production in Venezuela and particularly in Maracaibo, we can recognize two main sectors: the "formal" sector production carried out by private and national enterprises, and the "informal" sector, which produces houses in marginal areas and uncontrolled suburbs in town. The production in this sector has become larger than the formal one. In act, in Maracaibo more than 60% of population is living in these types of suburbs. These people have resolved their housing need accordingly to their low income and outside of offer sector of formal production. This paper analyses the house from a physical point of view by studying the constructives components in relation to the socioeconomical aspects of the families and their direct participation in building and financing their house. Four stages of the physical consolidation of housing in suburbs were distinguish. This contribution as an analytic description of the physical situation of housing in studied areas, concluded giving some recommendations for the improvement of the informal process of housing production in Maracaibo.

    En la producción de viviendas en Maracaibo (Venezuela existen dos sectores: el SECTOR FORMAL se refiere a la producción de la empresa privada más la producción estatal y el SECTOR INFORMAL que es la producción de viviendas en las áreas de barrios; la producción de este sector es mayor que la formal, llegando a ser el 60% de la población de Maracaibo. En Latinoamérica este fenómeno se presenta en la mayoría de las grandes ciudades. Este trabajo analiza la vivienda desde el punto de vista físico, relacionando los aspectos constructivos con los socioeconómicos, de participación en la construcción y del financiamiento. Se establecieron 4 etapas de consolidación de la vivienda de producción informal, caracterizando cada una de las etapas de acuerdo a los promedios y porcentajes obtenidos. Es un trabajo analítico-descriptivo cuya finalidad es

  17. The utilization of LANDSAT imagery in nuclear power plant siting. [in Pakistan, South Carolina, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, A. J.; Rowlands, D.; Rizzo, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used primarily to map geologic features such as lineaments, linears, faults, and other major geologic structures which affect site selection for a nuclear power plant. Areas studied include Pakistan, the South Carolina Piedmont, and Huelva, Spain.

  18. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties....

  19. 77 FR 59166 - South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliffe, Kemper County Integrated Gasification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliffe, Kemper County... Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Facility located in Kemper County, Mississippi (the Project)....

  20. Proposed prioritization system for the management of invasive alien plants in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, MP

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available system described in this article was designed to assess objectively research and control priorities of invasive alien plants at a national scale in South Africa. The evaluation consists of seventeen criteria, grouped into five modules that assess...

  1. Alien invasive vascular plants in South African natural and semi-natural environments : bibliography from 1830

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moran, VC

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Alien invasive vascular plants in South African natural and semi-natural environments.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 47 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Alien invasive vascular plants... in South African natural and semi-natural environments.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Juicios de residencia en el gobierno provincial de Maracaibo, 1765-1810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbesí de Salazar, Ligia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el juicio de residencia en la dinámica social y política de Maracaibo como capital provincial en el contexto de las relaciones de obediencia, dependencia y subordinación a la imagen sacralizada del rey y a los cuerpos sociales, comunidades y grupos a los cuales pertenece el residenciado. Se consideran la autoridad y el poder en el marco de normas, códigos y valores propios de la sociabilidad tradicional del Antiguo Régimen, así como la diversidad de vínculos que relacionaban e integraban jerárquicamente al colectivo, para explicar la complejidad del funcionamiento y socialización del poder local en el ejercicio del gobierno provincial de Maracaibo durante los años 1765 a 1810.

  3. Endophyte bioprospecting in South Asian medicinal plants: an attractive resource for biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Javeed, Aqeel; Bajwa, Aamir Ghafoor

    2017-03-01

    From the last several years, there has been an increasing interest in plant-associated bacteria commonly referred to as endophytes that reside asymptomatically in the internal plant tissues. This interest peaked since the last two decades due to the recognition that endophytes within medicinal plants have the capability to mimic and produce the bioactive metabolites of the host plant. A number of medicinal plants have been used for centuries by the people of South Asia to cure various diseases and this has led to abundant usage experience. Relating to prior ethanopharmacological experiences, scientists have searched for medicinal plants that could be valued sources for endophytes yielding novel metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. This review is therefore an effort to encompass the most recent efforts in the exploration of medicinal plants of South Asia and their endophytes.

  4. Screening for adulticidal bioactivity of South African plants against Anopheles arabiensis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate whether a selection of South African ethnomedicinal plants included in this study displayed insecticidal properties when screened against adult stages of the mosquito. 381 crude extracts of 80 plant taxa in 42...

  5. High throughput screening of South African plants for anti-cancer properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fouché, Gerda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants have a long history of use in the treatment of cancer and over 60% of currently used anti-cancer agents are derived in one way or another from natural sources. South Africa has a rich plant biodiversity with only a limited number reported...

  6. Effects of fluoride on animals and plants in the south Safi zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessabi, M.; Assimi, B.; Braun, J.P.

    1984-09-01

    Fluoride pollution caused by the factories processing natural phosphates 10 km south of Safi affects animals and plants. Fluoride concentrations are 4-10 times higher in contaminated plants than in plants from the non-polluted areas. Fluoride levels of 700 ppm, 280 ppm, 75 ppm, 25 ppm, and 1.6 ppm were found in grass, forage, straw, barley caryopses and drinking water, respectively. The ingestion of polluted plants and the inhalation of fluoride (as gases and dusts) induce a high daily intake in animals which show important signs and lesions of dental fluorosis. Serious toxicity signs were also observed in plants.

  7. Effects of Caribbean oceanic plateau shallow subduction on topographic uplift and exhumation of the northwestern Maracaibo block, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J.; Mann, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Maracaibo block in the northwestern South America is a triangular lithotectonic terrane bounded on its western edge by the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga left-lateral strike-slip fault and the Oca-Ancon right-lateral strike-slip fault on its northern edge. These faults bound two isolated Andean ranges within the Maracaibo block: the Sierra de Santa Marta massif (SSM) in the east whose highest point is 5700 m ASL, and the Serrania del Perija (SP) to the west, whose highest point is 3600 m ASL. The two ranges are separated by an elongate, NNE-trending sedimentary basin, the Cesar-Rancheria basin (CRB). Previous thermochronological studies in the region have shown three discrete exhumation pulses from Paleocene to Miocene that are attributed to various collisional and strike events along the Caribbean margin. However the tectonic origin of the late Neogene deformation that produced the isolated, high topography of the SSM and SP has remained unclear. To establish patterns of recent uplift and associate them with a specific tectonic mechanism affecting the area, we integrated the following results: 1) analysis of stream profiles using channel normalized steepness indices and identification of slope-break knickpoints as indicators of rock uplift; 2) integration of observations from geological maps; 3) interpretation of 2D onland seismic profiles; 4) analysis of published thermochronological data; and 5) analysis of 1D/2D basin model based on well subsidence analysis from the CRB. Our results from the extraction of 550 long stream profiles from different watersheds for the SSM and SP reveal: 1) undisturbed profiles at western flank of the northern SP characterized by a few vertical-step knickpoints associated with lithology changes; in contrast the eastern flank of the northern SP shows slope-break knickpoints and changes in steepness indices increasing by a factor of ~2, all indicative of active fault control affecting this area; 2) disturbed profiles in the elevated

  8. Las ciudades disidentes durante la independencia de Venezuela: el caso de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulimar Maldonado Viloria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio de caso se analizan las particularidades del proceso histórico que vivió Maracaibo durante los primeros años de la Independencia Venezolana. Es de interés para la historiografía venezolana y latinoamericana profundizar en el análisis de la realidad que explica la reacción de una “ciudad disidente” como Maracaibo, cuya elite prefirió seguir los lineamientos de la Regencia, elegir su diputado para las Cortes de Cádiz y defender su autonomía, antes que aceptar la propuesta de emancipación caraqueña. Bajo esta perspectiva se pretende esclarecer si la elite maracaibera fue realmente “disidente” del movimiento caraqueño por inercia histórica, larga herencia hispánica, o su actuación estuvo apegada a la legitimidad del momento como una opción política para lograr reafirmar y acrecentar su autonomía dentro del régimen monárquico. La investigación se ubica en la actual corriente historiográfica europea e hispanoamericana que sale al paso a los tradicionales análisis sustentados en una visión fáctica y localista, ignorando la amplitud temporal y espacial del proceso; se centra en el conocimiento que aporta el estudio comparado de la actitud de Maracaibo ante la Independencia con su desarrollo en el resto del país y acontecimientos en el mundo hispánico.

  9. Comportamiento de las firmas de contadores públicos en el municipio Maracaibo

    OpenAIRE

    Oda H. Gómez-de Angulo; Alira Chirinos-González; Diego Herrera

    2005-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el comportamiento de las firmas de contadores públicos del municipio Maracaibo, estado Zulia-Venezuela, con el propósito de dar aportes para mejorar la formación académica del contador público. El estudio es de tipo descriptivo, de campo, no experimental, se aplicó una encuesta a veinticuatro (24) firmas que visan sus estados financieros en el Colegio de Contadores Públicos del Estado Zulia, seleccionadas aleatoriamente. Los result...

  10. Cultos de oración y "don de lenguas" en grupos pentecostales en Maracaibo

    OpenAIRE

    Julio García Delgado; María Eugenia Ángel; Adeyro Colina

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza el ritual de culto de oración y don de lenguas como movimiento de revitalización y búsqueda de lo sagrado dentro de los grupos pentecostales en Maracaibo, asumiéndose como ritual social y el grupo en un estado de liminaridad colectiva conformando una communitas. Se realizó una entrevista abierta a quien afirma que ha recibido el don de lengua. Los resultados revelan que los cultos de oración son un ritual fundamental en la construcción y consolidación de la communi...

  11. La administración de compras en las empresas distribuidoras de combustible de Maracaibo

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Borjas

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo estudia la administración de compras en las empresas distribuidoras de combustible de Maracaibo a través de una metodología descriptiva, siendo los resultados producto del análisis de la información recabada por medio de la aplicación de un cuestionario a los responsables de compras de las diez empresas que constituyen la población, junto con la observación directa, entrevistas al personal y el análisis documental. La investigación evidenció una desorganización general en el proc...

  12. Assessment of Water and Sediment Physical-Chemical Composition in the West Coast of Maracaibo Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moronta-Riera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the physical and chemical composition of the water streams and sediments of the Maracaibo Lake in three sampling areas located in Tía Juana, Lagunillas and Ceuta in order to know the level of contamination and assess water quality based on permissible values established by the 883 Decree. The results indicate that the overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the water and sediments are above permissible levels. It is concluded that petroleum prospection is the root cause of the lake contamination.

  13. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  14. In vitro anticancer screening of South African plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fouché, Gerda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available . After washing, e plates were air-dried. 10�M Trizma base was used to solubi- ed the stains and the intensity of the absorbed radiation was ead on an automated plate reader at a wavelength of 540nm. The rowth percentage was evaluated...- , representing three plant specimens and a hit rate of 0.4%. e plant genera, Acokanthera and Gomphocarpus are sources of oxic cardiac glycosides and are well-known throughout Africa as traditional source of extremely toxic arrow poisons (Van Wyk d Gericke...

  15. Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, M Jaya Prakash; Komraiah, A; Rao, K Narasimha; Ragan, A; Raju, V S; Charya, M A Singara

    2008-06-18

    Antibacterial activity and phytochemical tests of eight whole plant methanol extracts belonging to family Euphorbiaceae were evaluated. In agar well diffusion assay the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 3-13 mm. Phyllanthus emblica showed maximum activity of 13 mm. The MIC and MBC observed were 30-140 mcg/ml and 40-160 mcg/ml, respectively. P. piscatorum and P. emblica showed the lowest MIC (30 mcg/ml), P. emblica the lowest MBC (40 mcg/ml) and thus an effective inhibitor of the tested bacteria. Alkaloids, saponins and tannins were detected in 7 out of 8 tested plants.

  16. The evolving landscape of plant breeders rights regarding wheat varieties in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charity R. Nhemachena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the multiple challenges facing global agriculture requires integrated innovation in areas such as seeds, biotechnology, crop protection, grain storage and transport. Innovations related to plant improvement and the development of new or improved plant varieties will only happen at an optimal level if plant breeders rights (PBR are properly protected. The objective was to analyse the evolving landscape of wheat plant breeders rights to address the dearth of empirical evidence of the patterns and trends of wheat varietal improvements in South Africa. We compiled a detailed and novel count and attribute database of wheat varietal innovations in South Africa from 1979 to 2013 using various sources. This data set was then analysed to ascertain the main trends in, and ownership of PBRs for wheat varietal improvements in South Africa over this period. A total of 134 PBR wheat varietal innovations were lodged from 1979 to 2013, an average of 6 applications per year. The administrative delays in granting PBR applications were substantially reduced by 77 days during the post-deregulation period (after 1996, indicating increased efficiency. The main PBR applicants were Sensako (39%, the Agricultural Research Council Small Grains Institute (ARC-SGI (25% and Pannar (15%. The ARC-SGI contributed to some of the PBRs owned by private companies through shared genetic resources before Plant Variety Protection (PVP was implemented. Future innovations and dissemination of wheat innovations can be stimulated by plant variety protection, together with broader variety sector legislation that encourages both public and private sector investment.

  17. Arthropods associated with medicinal plants in coastal South Carolina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROLANDO LOPEZ; B. MERLE SHEPARD

    2007-01-01

    Arthropods were sampled from feverfew [Tanacetum parthenium (L.) SchultzBip], Echinaceapurpurea (L.) Moench, Echinaceapallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Valeriana officinalis L., and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) during 1998-2001. In addition,arthropods were sampled on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from 2001-2004. In general,50-60 arthropod species where collected and identified among all of the medicinal plant species. Among the predators, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Geocoris punctipes (Say) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and spiders were most abundant from 1998-2004.The three-cornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say), was the most abundant herbivore found from 1998 to 2001. Orius insidiosus and G. punctipes were 3-4 times more abundant on T. parthenium than on any other medicinal plant species. Based on the numbers of predatory arthropods found on T. parthenium, this crop could be suitable as a companion or "banker" plant to attract and maintain populations of predators, especially O. insidiosus and G. punctipes. Whitefly nymphs attacked by predators with piercing/sucking mouthparts are easily identified using a microscope because of the general appearance of the carcass left by the predators. Thus, populations of predators on T. parthenium suppressed Bemisia tabaci populations on E. purpurea when these crops were planted as companion crops.

  18. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  19. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the South Texas Project nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. South Texas Project was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the South Texas Project plant.

  20. South African plants as a source of drugs to treat infectious diseases - TB, malaria and HIV.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available and the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) established a database of 566 plant taxa that are reportedly used for the treatment of TB and 623 taxa associated with malaria and/or fever. A process of prioritization using selection criteria led...

  1. Competitividad de la industria de la confección del Municipio Maracaibo – Estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariher Morales

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza el nivel de competitividad de la industria de la confección del municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia, utilizando como base el instrumental teórico desarrollado por Michael Porter. La investigación es de carácter descriptivo, teniendo como principal fuente de información un estudio de campo. Entre los resultados de la investigación resaltan que la industria de la confección del municipio Maracaibo presenta un bajo nivel competitivo, evidenciando una capacidad ociosa del 50%, un alto grado de atomización e informalidad en su estructura, un bajo nivel tecnológico e insuficiencia de mano de obra especializada, así como una orientación al mercado interno. A esto se agregan dificultades asociadas con el contrabando, problemas con el financiamiento y las materias primas, entre otras. Se sugiere a los empresarios para lograr un posicionamiento en el mercado a largo plazo, desarrollar la estrategia genérica de enfoque de diferenciación con minimización de los costos, esto para aprovechar las características del consumidor maracaibero basadas en el apego a la moda y exigencias de calidad a precios justos.

  2. Responsabilidad social en las universidades del municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Urdaneta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La responsabilidad social es una temática que en los últimos años ha alcanzado notoriedad en las Instituciones de Educación Superior. El propósito de esta investigación es analizar la responsabilidad social en las universidades del municipio Maracaibo, estado Zulia (Venezuela. Se trató de una investigación analítica, con diseño no experimental de fuente mixta. La población estuvo conformada por siete (7 universidades públicas y privadas ubicadas en el municipio Maracaibo. Se diseñaron cinco instrumentos para medir responsabilidad social, considerando el enfoque teórico propuesto por Vallaeys (2007, 2008 y 2011, que incluye las políticas de responsabilidad social, docencia, gestión interna, investigación y extensión. Los resultados arrojaron que las universidades tienen diseñadas políticas de responsabilidad social, las cuales deben ser reforzadas y difundidas entre la comunidad universitaria. Mantienen un enfoque parcial de aplicación de esas políticas, al realizar su acción social a través de la extensión. La responsabilidad social en las Instituciones de Educación Superior debe ser implementada en sus cuatro procesos medulares: docencia, investigación, extensión y gestión interna.

  3. [Distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in the Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Mario; Severeyn, Héctor; Machado, Nakary

    2011-09-01

    The presence of a microgastropod identified as Potamopyrgus sp. was detected previously in the Maracaibo System; nevertheless, a detailed morphological analysis identified this snail in other genera. The objective of this work is to update the distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis in the Maracaibo System, Venezuela in samples obtained between 2001 and 2009. The presence of hundreds of individuals of P. platyrachis were observed in the estuary, indeed in the localities of the Gran Eneal lagoon (4 111 snails), Peonías lagoon (229 snails), Punta Capitán Chico (758 snails), San Francisco (2 517 snails), Curarire (240 snails), Apon River mouth (173 snails), Ojeda City (240 snails), Bachaquero (128 snails) and Tomoporo de Agua (385 snails). We performed a taxonomical analysis, and emphasized in ecological aspects, such as the distribution of the species and habitat features, as near vegetation and type of associated sediment. We found three morphotypes of the species, one smooth, another with spiral striations and the other with spines. Smooth morphotype was exclusive of the Gran Eneal lagoon, Peonías lagoon, Punta Capitan Chico and Apon River mouth localities, whereas the other two morphotypes were found together in the remaining localities. According to our detailed anatomical and taxonomical analysis we propose a synonymy between P. platyrachis and the other species described like Pyrgophorus parvulus and Pyrgophorus spinosus.

  4. Calidad del servicio público de aseo urbano. Caso: Municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina Sáez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela el aseo urbano es considerado un servicio básico, cuya responsabilidad recae sobre los gobiernos locales. En tal sentido por ser catalogado básico, las fallas en la prestación del servicio genera manifestaciones de malestar de la población, como es el caso de la ciudad de Maracaibo, comportamiento que ha experimentado un auge, tanto por las graves consecuencias en la salubridad, como la incomodidad estética y el impacto ambiental ocasionados. Esto ha hecho pertinente, determinar la calidad del servicio público de aseo urbano domiciliario en el municipio Maracaibo, parroquias Francisco Eugenio Bustamante y Antonio Borjas Romero, constituyendo el objetivo principal del presente artículo. El diseño de investigación fue no experimental de campo, con un tipo de estudio descriptivo, para lo cual se elaboró y aplicó un instrumento de medición de la calidad con base en la percepción del usuario, siguiendo un muestreo por etapas. Finalmente, se obtuvo una medición de la calidad de servicio valorada en 2.228, en una escala de 1.0 a 5.0, siendo 5.0 la máxima puntuación. En consecuencia se concluye que el nivel de calidad de servicio en las parroquias estudiadas es bajo.

  5. Segregación socioeconómica de colombianos en el municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Áñez G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es determinar el grado de segregación de los colombianos residenciados en las dieciocho parroquias del municipio Maracaibo. Dicho estudio está basado en las referencias estadísticas disponibles para el 2001 elaboradas por el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (INE del estado Zulia. Mediante la propuesta metodológica de segregación residencial, se establecen las condiciones socioeconómicas de estos inmigrantes dentro de la estructura urbana en la cual se insertan, a partir de sus niveles de segregación, aislamiento, interacción y concentración. El análisis relaciona comparativamente el grado de segregación de los colombianos con respecto al contexto de pobreza dentro del municipio, medido según el número de pobres estimados por el INE-Zulia. Se concluye sobre la situación de los ciudadanos colombianos y de los pobres en Maracaibo, en el sentido de especificar su nivel de integración social.

  6. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Maracaibo Basin Province of Venezuela and Colombia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 656 million barrels of oil and 5.7 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Maracaibo Basin Province, Venezuela and Colombia.

  7. Atmospheric emissions control at ENELVEN`s Ramon Laguna thermal power plant; Control de emisiones a la atmosfera en la central termoelectrica Ramon Laguna de ENELVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Rincon, Edis Rafael [Empresa de Servicio Electrico (ENELVEN), (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    ENELVEN is an electric utility that covers the areas of generation, transmission and distribution of the Western an South coast of the Maracaibo Lake of the Zulia State, Venezuela. General aspects of the Ramon Laguna of ENELVEN fossil power plant are presented, as well as the environmental measures implanted in this power station to avoid detrimental effects on the environment that could be caused by the emission of combustion products without the appropriate control, such as particulate matter, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and carbon oxides [Espanol] ENELVEN es una empresa de servicio electrico que cubre las areas de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la Costa Occidental y Sur del Lago de Maracaibo, del Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se presentan aspectos generales de la planta termoelectrica Ramon Laguna de la empresa ENELVEN, asi como las medidas ambientales implantadas en esta central para evitar efectos adversos sobre el ambiente que pudieran producirse por la emision de productos de la combustion si no existiera el debido control, tales como: particulas, oxidos de azufre, oxidos de nitrogeno y oxidos de carbono

  8. The study of distribution characteristics of vascular and naturalized plants in Dokdo, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Young Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the distribution of vascular plants and the characteristics of naturalized plants in Dokdo Island, South Korea. The survey was conducted a total of 5 times from June 2012 to September 2013. The number of plants confirmed in this study was 60 taxa in total: 29 families, 49 genera, 55 species, 2 subspecies and 3 varieties. To classify them by regional groups, 53 taxa were confirmed in the Dongdo and 38 taxa were confirmed in the Seodo. Among them, the distribution of Stellaria neglecta Weihe and Puccinellia nipponica Ohwi was first discovered in this study. The naturalized plants distributed in Dokdo was 7 taxa: Chenopodium album L., Sonchus asper (L. Hill, Sonchus oleraceus L., Ipomoea purpurea Roth, Brassica juncea (L. Czern., etc. Overall, concerns over the naturalized plants in Dokdo are high regardless of the scale of their distribution and the appearance frequency.

  9. A model for continuous improvement at a South African minerals benefication plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ras, Eugene Ras

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a variety of mineral resources, and several minerals beneficiation plants are currently in operation. These plants must be operated effectively to ensure that the end-users of its products remain internationally competitive. To achieve this objective, plants need a sustainable continuous improvement programme. Several frameworks for continuous improvement are used, with variable success rates, in beneficiation plants around the world. However, none of these models specifically addresses continuous improvement from a minerals-processing point of view. The objective of this research study was to determine which factors are important for a continuous improvement model at a minerals beneficiation plant, and to propose a new model using lean manufacturing, six sigma, and the theory of constraints. A survey indicated that managers in the industry prefer a model that combines various continuous improvement models.

  10. Endophytic bacteria in toxic South African plants: identification, phylogeny and possible involvement in gousiekte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Brecht; Van Elst, Daan; Steyn, Hester; Van Wyk, Braam; Lemaire, Benny; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2011-04-26

    South African plant species of the genera Fadogia, Pavetta and Vangueria (all belonging to Rubiaceae) are known to cause gousiekte (literally 'quick disease'), a fatal cardiotoxicosis of ruminants characterised by acute heart failure four to eight weeks after ingestion. Noteworthy is that all these plants harbour endophytes in their leaves: nodulating bacteria in specialized nodules in Pavetta and non-nodulating bacteria in the intercellular spaces between mesophyll cells in Fadogia and Vangueria. Isolation and analyses of these endophytes reveal the presence of Burkholderia bacteria in all the plant species implicated in gousiekte. Although the nodulating and non-nodulating bacteria belong to the same genus, they are phylogenetically not closely related and even fall in different bacterial clades. Pavetta harborii and Pavetta schumanniana have their own specific endophyte--Candidatus Burkholderia harborii and Candidatus Burkholderia schumanniana--while the non-nodulating bacteria found in the other gousiekte-inducing plants show high similarity to Burkholderia caledonica. In this group, the bacteria are host specific at population level. Investigation of gousiekte-inducing plants from other African countries resulted in the discovery of the same endophytes. Several other plants of the genera Afrocanthium, Canthium, Keetia, Psydrax, Pygmaeothamnus and Pyrostria were tested and were found to lack bacterial endophytes. The discovery and identification of Burkholderia bacteria in gousiekte-inducing plants open new perspectives and opportunities for research not only into the cause of this economically important disease, but also into the evolution and functional significance of bacterial endosymbiosis in Rubiaceae. Other South African Rubiaceae that grow in the same area as the gousiekte-inducing plants were found to lack bacterial endophytes which suggests a link between bacteria and gousiekte. The same bacteria are consistently found in gousiekte-inducing plants

  11. Melanogenesis and antityrosinase activity of selected South african plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunya, Manyatja Brenda; Nikolova, Roumiana Vassileva; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the colour of eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Overactivity of this enzyme leads to dermatological disorders such as age spots, melanoma and sites of actinic damage. Ten plants belonging to four families (Asphodelaceae, Anacardiaceae, Oleaceae, and Rutaceae) were investigated for their effect on tyrosinase using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. Ethanol leaf extracts (500 μg/mL) of Aloe ferox, Aloe aculeata, Aloe pretoriensis, and Aloe sessiliflora showed 60%, 31%, 17%, and 13% inhibition of tyrosinase activity respectively, when L-tyrosine was used as a substrate. Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL had an inhibitory effect of 70% on tyrosinase when L-DOPA was used as a substrate. The IC(50) of Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves and bark) were found to be 51 ± 0.002 and 40 ± 0.035 μg/mL, respectively. Following the results obtained from the tyrosinase assay, extracts from Harpephyllum caffrum were selected for further testing on their effect on melanin production and their cytotoxicity on melanocytes in vitro. The IC(50) of both extracts was found to be 6.25 μg/mL for melanocyte cells. Bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum showed 26% reduction in melanin content of melanocyte cells at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL. The leaf extract of this plant showed some toxicity on melanocyte cells. Therefore, the bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum could be considered as an antityrosinase agent for dermatological disorders such as age spots and melasoma.

  12. Melanogenesis and Antityrosinase Activity of Selected South African Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyatja Brenda Mapunya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the colour of eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Overactivity of this enzyme leads to dermatological disorders such as age spots, melanoma and sites of actinic damage. Ten plants belonging to four families (Asphodelaceae, Anacardiaceae, Oleaceae, and Rutaceae were investigated for their effect on tyrosinase using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. Ethanol leaf extracts (500 μg/mL of Aloe ferox, Aloe aculeata, Aloe pretoriensis, and Aloe sessiliflora showed 60%, 31%, 17%, and 13% inhibition of tyrosinase activity respectively, when L-tyrosine was used as a substrate. Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves at a concentration of 500 μg/mL had an inhibitory effect of 70% on tyrosinase when L-DOPA was used as a substrate. The IC50 of Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves and bark were found to be 51±0.002 and 40±0.035 μg/mL, respectively. Following the results obtained from the tyrosinase assay, extracts from Harpephyllum caffrum were selected for further testing on their effect on melanin production and their cytotoxicity on melanocytes in vitro. The IC50 of both extracts was found to be 6.25 μg/mL for melanocyte cells. Bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum showed 26% reduction in melanin content of melanocyte cells at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL. The leaf extract of this plant showed some toxicity on melanocyte cells. Therefore, the bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum could be considered as an antityrosinase agent for dermatological disorders such as age spots and melasoma.

  13. A review of Andasol 3 and perspective for parabolic trough CSP plants in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinter, Frank; Möller, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    Andasol 3 is a 50 MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant with thermal energy storage in Andalusia, southern Spain. Having started operating in 2011 as one of the first plants of its kind in Spain it has been followed by more than 50 in the country since. For the reason that CSP plants with storage have the potential to compete against fossil fuel fired plants much better than any other renewable energy source a long-term review of such a plant operating on a commercial scale is needed. With data at hand documenting Andasol 3's operation over the course of one year between July 2013 and June 2014 we intend to provide such a review. We calculated the plants overall efficiency, its capacity factor, the gross energy generation as well as auxiliary powers on a monthly basis to reflect upon its overall performance. It was also looked at the benefits caused by the thermal energy storage and especially how steadily and reliably the plant was able to operate. With basic background information about physical, geographical and meteorological aspects influencing the solar resource, its variation and a CSP plant's performance a qualitative estimation for a parabolic trough plant located in South Africa was made.

  14. The evolution of Paleozoic vascular land plant diversity of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Data of Paleozoic and some Early Triassic vascular land plant fossils from South China are synthetically analyzed,revealing evolutionary characteristics of Paleozoic vascular land plant diversity.Vascular land plant diversity keeps increasing in the Paleozoic as a whole.The Silurian witnessed the earliest evolution and initial diversification of land plants.From the Early Devonian to the Early Carboniferous(Mississippian),the great development,diversification,and differentiation really occurred in vascular land plants,with fluctuations of diversity,rapid replacement of the plant types,and an all-out takeover of terrestrial ecological niches.From the Early Permian,land plant diversity dramatically increased,and reached a climax in the Middle-Late Permian.Comparisons between late Paleozoic marine and terrestrial biodiversity reveal co-evolution of the late Paleozoic animals and plants as well as the individual evolutionary patterns of sea/land ecosystems.Vascular land plant diversity dramatically declined in the Frasnian as a result of the F/F event,and the end-Permian mass extinctions completely turned over the phytogroups.

  15. Pensamiento moderno y opinión pública en Maracaibo (siglos XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cabrera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La provincia de Maracaibo se insertó tardíamente al proceso independentista liderado por los mantuanos caraqueños. En enero de 1821, tras años de iniciada la guerra de independencia, el cabildo maracaibero en representación de sus vecinos, reconociendo sus atribuciones soberanas declara su adhesión al proyecto republicano, y se incorpora a la Gran Colombia, proclamada oficialmente por la Constitución de Cúcuta. Esta nueva forma de organización política forma parte de un proceso de transformación que se devela en la palabra pública y privada a través de pasquines, periódicos, folletos, proclamas, representaciones, tertulias, clubes entre otros. Esta proliferación de escritos y asociaciones generan cambios que definen el tránsito hacia la modernidad y a la conformación de una opinión pública. Desde estas consideraciones la opinión pública en Maracaibo respondió a un trabajo de pedagogía política por parte de quienes se consideraban republicanos, y difundieron progresivamente los ideales de la ilustración. Esta opinión pública fue encaminada primero hacia los ideales de la soberanía y la autonomía política durante la guerra de independencia, y más tarde hacia la conformación de un ideal nacional, tras consolidarse la República de Venezuela en 1830. En la conformación de esta opinión pública en Maracaibo desempeñaron un papel decisivo los nuevos espacios públicos como las diferentes sociedades económicas y de arte, que permitieron la difusión de las nuevas ideas y coadyuvaron a sentar las bases del nuevo ideal nacional

  16. APTI of Some Selected Plants in Shivamogga City, South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Adamsab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organism or damage the environment. The study examined air pollution indices (APTI of fourteen plant species around Shivamogga city of Karnataka State India . Four physiological and biochemical parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC , ascorbic acid (AA, total leaf chlorophyll (TCH, and leaf extract PH were used to compute the APTI values. The result showed that combining variety of these parameters gave more reliable result than those of individual parameter. The order of tolerance is as follows: Azadirachta indica, (37.74, Mangifera indica (28.4, Eucalyptus mysoresins (27.93, Carica papaya (24.62, Ricinus communis (22.46, Polvalthia longifolia (20.76, Calotropis gigantean (19.84, Nerium indicum (18.49, Psidium guajava (17.51, Parthenium hysterophorus (14.91, Bougainvillea glabra (13.35, Muntingia calabura (11.68, Terminalia cattapa (10.71 and Tamarindus indica (9.12.

  17. Sediment characteristic on hydropower plant Bakaru, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Yunus, A. M. Shiddiq; Yunus, M. Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This research is aimed to determine the distributed sediment composition and its size particle impact on flow profile in the pipe. The sediment sample is collected from Hydropower Plant's dam located at Bakaru Sulawesi Selatan. The sample is dried in the oven then steered up using a screen with 0.25; 0.5; and 0.75 mm. Sediment identification is measured using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometer (XRF). The assessment of flow type in the pipe with five flow rate variation for every single sediment diameter is assessed in Fluid Measurement Laboratory under Mechanical Engineering Department, State Polytechnic of Ujung Pandang. As a result of steered up processed, it is obtained that the sediment distribution with diameter of ø = 0.25 mm is 55.80%; for ø = 0.5 mm is 7.91%; and ø = 0.75 mm is 36.29%. From FTIR test, it is obtained the spectra with wave number of 466.77; 536.14; 644.22; 694.37; 788.89; 912.33; 1006.77; 1031.92; and 105.21 cm-1. From XRF assessment, it can be obtained that composition of SiO2 is 53.64%, Al2O3 is 22.93%, Fe2O3 is 9.24%, MgO is 4.0%, K2O is 3.84%, Na2O is 2.4%, CaO is 1.71%, and TiO2 is 1.06%. From the flow profile assessment, it obtains Reynolds number is lesser than 500 for these three particle diameters variation. It can be concluded that sediment characteristic consists of fine sand about 55.80% and coarse sand about 44.20%, where SiO2 dominates it by about 53.64% where flow in the pipe shown the laminar type.

  18. [Reproduction of the bird Mimus gilvus (Passeriformes: Mimidae) in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, M; Weir, E; Gil, K

    2001-01-01

    Four pairs of the poorly understood tropical mockingbird Mimus gilvus were captured and color banded at a grassland in Maracaibo, Venezuela in June 1997. Throughout the following 8 months, individuals were observed two days per week for 4 hours each. We recorded courtship behaviour, nest construction, incubation, parental care, territory defense and timing of reproductive cycle. Pairs lived in defined territories defended primarily by the male. Both sexes participated in nest building which began at the start of two rainy seasons: April and October. Between April and June, 80% of nests were parasited by the shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis). No parasitism was recorded in the later nesting season. Consequently, breeding success for the April and October seasons was 20% and 83% respectively. Only the female incubated and the mean clutch size was 2.2 eggs.

  19. La administración de compras en las empresas distribuidoras de combustible de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Borjas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia la administración de compras en las empresas distribuidoras de combustible de Maracaibo a través de una metodología descriptiva, siendo los resultados producto del análisis de la información recabada por medio de la aplicación de un cuestionario a los responsables de compras de las diez empresas que constituyen la población, junto con la observación directa, entrevistas al personal y el análisis documental. La investigación evidenció una desorganización general en el proceso de administración de compras, con predominio del ensayo y error como método de trabajo; todo esto enmarcado dentro de patrones de comunicación informal que distan de contribuir con la búsqueda de la eficiencia organizacional.

  20. Training Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy System to Infer Permeability in Wells on Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Hurtado, Nuri; Torres, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The high accuracy on inferrring of rocks properties, such as permeability ($k$), is a very useful study in the analysis of wells. This has led to development and use of empirical equations like Tixier, Timur, among others. In order to improve the inference of permeability we used a hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy System (NFS). The NFS allowed us to infer permeability of well, from data of porosity ($\\phi$) and water saturation ($Sw$). The work was performed with data from wells VCL-1021 (P21) and VCL-950 (P50), Block III, Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela. We evaluated the NFS equations ($k_{P50,i}(\\phi_i,Sw_i)$) with neighboring well data ($P21$), in order to verify the validity of the equations in the area. We have used ANFIS in MatLab.

  1. [Prevalence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in HIV positive patients to Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Rodríguez, Zulbey; Hernández Sierra, Amparo; Arráiz, Nailet; Bracho Mora, Angela; Villalobos Perozo, Rafael

    2013-03-01

    Microsporidioses are considered emerging and opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of intestinal microsporidia in patients with HIV-AIDS from the Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, Venezuela (SAHUM). Fecal samples were collected from 50 patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV, during the years 2007 and 2008; the CD4 values were obtained from 42 patients. The samples were analyzed by separate PCRs to identify Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Microsporidia species showed a 36% prevalence: ten patients had Encephalitozoon intestinalis, four Enterocytozoon bieneusi and four both species. An inverse and statistically significant relationship between the CD4 count and the presence of microsporidia in the fecal sample was also found. It is remarkable the high prevalence of microsporidia species observed in the HIV patients studied, with a predominance of E. intestinalis.

  2. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharaj Rajendra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic, that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1, methanol and purified water of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo, an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide. Results Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae. Conclusion The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool.

  3. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available , including Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae), Eichhornia crassipes (C.Mart.) Solms (Pontederiaceae) and Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitch. (Salviniaceae), invade dams, reservoirs and freshwater ecosystems, where they impact nega- tively on water quality...- cessful biological control of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa. Biological Control 28: 25?32. MGOBOZI, M.P., SOMERS, M.J. & DIPPENAAR- SCHOEMAN, A.S. 2008. Spider responses to alien plant invasion: the effect of short- and long-term Chromolaena...

  4. Relative yield-per-recruit and management strategies for Cynoscion acoupa (Perciformes: Sciaenidae in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando José Ferrer Montaño

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoupa weakfish, Cynoscion acoupa, in Lake Maracaibo is subject to intense commercial fishing by an artisanal fleet, and a recent decrease in fish size observed from landings is of concern. This fishery has not yet been modeled, and its assessment and the establishment of management practices to overcome the current overfished condition are urgently needed. To address this, we used recent and past empirical growth estimates to model relative yield-per-recruit under different lengths at first capture. Our results from relative yield-perrecruit analysis showed evidence that growth and recruitment overfishing occur under current fishing practices in Lake Maracaibo. Particular attention was given to fishing practices in El Tablazo Bay where young, small fish predominate in the commercial catches (mean total length=33.7cm, well below the length at first sexual maturity (~40cm TL for both sexes. As management strategies, we propose to set a mesh size limit at or above 8.89cm (3.5in, which will reduce fishing mortality of immature fish, increase yield-per-recruit, and will result in an increase of Acoupa weakfish recruitment for the long term in Lake Maracaibo.La curvina, Cynoscion acoupa, en el Lago de Maracaibo se encuentra sometida a una intensa actividad pesquera comercial. No obstante, antes de este estudio no se había examinado el potencial efecto de la sobrepesca a través del modelado. Utilizamos estimados empíricos de crecimiento actuales y pasados para modelar el rendimiento-por-recluta relativo bajo diferentes longitudes de primera captura. Presentamos evidencia a partir de resultados de rendimiento-por-recluta relativo que indica que existe sobrepesca por crecimiento y reclutamiento bajo las prácticas pesqueras actuales en el Lago de Maracaibo. Se puso particular atención a las pesquerías en la Bahía El Tablazo donde predominan peces jóvenes pequeños en las capturas (longitud total promedio=33.7cm, muy por debajo de la longitud de

  5. Mecanismos Flexibilizadores de la Relación Laboral en Hospitales de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Vargas González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo describir mecanismos flexibilizadores de la relación laboral, utilizados en hospitales de Maracaibo. En los hospitales objeto de estudio, se han insertado una serie de dispositivos que apuntan una estrategia para modificar las relaciones laborales hacia una gestión flexible de recursos humanos. La implementación de estos mecanismos incide en los costos laborales y en la productividad hospitalaria. La investigación se realizó en cuatro hospitales de la ciudad de Maracaibo-Venezuela, correspondientes a los niveles III y IV, representativos de diferentes modelos administrativos. Se efectúa análisis de información documental obtenida en dichos hospitales, y revisión teórica de las reflexiones sobre flexibilización y precariedad de las relaciones laborales planteadas por varios autores, entre ellos: Sotelo (2003, 1999, Castells (1999, Antunes (1997, Coller (1997. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el incremento de la productividad y la disminución de costos, requirió esfuerzos por adecuar el modelo de gestión laboral en la búsqueda de esos escenarios. Con base en el estudio realizado, se concluye que en los hospitales existe búsqueda de eficiencia en la producción del servicio hospitalario y se recurre a varios tipos de flexiblización: numérica, financiera o salarial, de tiempo y externa. Se han dispuesto una serie de mecanismos flexibilizadores de la relación laboral, que afectan los intereses de los trabajadores de la salud

  6. Epidemiologic behavior of obesity in the Maracaibo City metabolic syndrome prevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Since the epidemiological behaviour of this disease is not well established in our country, the purpose of this study was to determinate its prevalence in the Maracaibo City, Zulia State- Venezuela. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using the data set from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study. The sample consists of 2108 individuals from both genders and randomly selected: 1119 (53.09% women and 989 (46.91% men. The participants were interrogated for a complete clinical history and anthropometric measurements. To classify obesity, the WHO criteria for Body Mass Index (BMI, and Waist Circumference (WC from the IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO-2009 (IDF-2009 and ATPIII statements were applied. RESULTS: For BMI, obesity had an overall prevalence of 33.3% (n = 701, and according to gender women had 32.4% (n = 363 and men had 34.2% (n = 338. Overweight had a prevalence of 34.8% (n = 733, Normal weight had 29.8% (n = 629, and Underweight had 2.1% (n = 45. Adding Obesity and Overweight results, the prevalence of elevated BMI (>25 Kg/m(2 was 68.1%. Using the IDF-2009 WC's cut-off, Obesity had 74.2% prevalence, compared to 51.7% using the ATPIII parameters. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a high prevalence of abdominal obesity in our locality defined by the WHO, IDF-2009 and ATPIII criteria, which were not designed for Latin-American populations. We suggest further investigation to estimate the proper values according to ethnicity, genetic background and sociocultural aspects.

  7. Innovación tecnológica en las universidades privadas del municipio Maracaibo

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    Robles, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene por finalidad analizar la variable Innovación Tecnológica en las Universidades Privadas del Municipio Maracaibo. Sustentada en las bases teóricas de Rodríguez (2006, Cabrero (2002, Pavón e Hidalgo (2001, Stanton (2005, Sancho et al. (2003, Martínez (2000, entre otros. Caracterizada por estar dentro del paradigma positivista, del tipo descriptivo, bajo un diseño de campo, no experimental y transaccional. Su población objeto estuvo conformada por cincuenta y ocho mil novecientos veintidós (58.922 sujetos entre autoridades, profesores y estudiantes pertenecientes a las cuatro (4 universidades privadas del municipio Maracaibo, representadas por una muestra de setecientos cuarenta y tres (743 sujetos. La técnica para recabar los datos fue la encuesta y el instrumento un cuestionario tipo escala dicotómico de cincuenta y un (51 reactivos para medir la variable mencionada extrayendo para el caso de este artículo nueve (09 de ellos relacionados con el tipo de innovación tecnológica, validado por diez (10 expertos y confiabilizado por el método de Kuder-Richardson con 0,9312; lo cual indicó que el mismo es altamente confiable. Determinándose cuales de ellas guardan una diferencia significativa con las otras poblaciones de estudio para finalmente generar los lineamientos teóricos en función de la Innovación Tecnológica.

  8. Balanced scorecard en las empresas mixtas petroleras del municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia

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    Alvaro Finali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, tuvo como objetivo identificar las perspectivas basadas en el enfoque del Balanced Scorecard en las empresas mixtas petroleras del municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. El sustento teórico utilizado para el estudio, se enmarcó en los aportes realizados por Caycho (2010, Kaplan y Norton, (2004, López (2001, Muñiz y Monfort (2005, Niven (2003, Pérez (2003, Rampersad (2005, Solano et al (2002, entre otros. El presente estudio es de tipo descriptivo, de campo, no experimental, transaccional. La población estuvo conformada en total por cuarenta (40 sujetos entre gerentes y supervisores. Se utilizó como técnica la encuesta, la cual sirvió como mecanismo para evaluar la opinión de la población, a través de un cuestionario estructurado elaborado especialmente para la variable Balanced Scorecard, constituido por cincuenta items, bajo la escala de respuestas tipo Likert, validado por cinco expertos, con un coeficiente Alpha Cronbach que arrojó una confiabilidad de (0,99. Se evidencia cómo en las empresas mixtas petroleras del municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia, se miden a través de las perspectivas del Balanced Scorecard (BSC algunas veces con el indicador financiera y casi siempre evalúan las del cliente, proceso interno, aprendizaje y crecimiento en la organización, mostrando una tendencia positiva en busca de mejorar su sistema de gestión, para lo cual se recomendó cuidar que todas las perspectivas (financiera, clientes, procesos internos y aprendizaje organizacional, con el fin de que el Sistema Balanceado de Indicadores (SBI produzca la serie de resultados favorables en la administración de la empresas objetos de estudio, ya que para lograrlo es necesario implementar la metodología, monitoreo y análisis constante de los indicadores obtenidos.

  9. [Hemostatic coronary risk factors in a healthy population of Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Ewald, María; Campos, Gilberto; Rivero, Francisco; Alvarez, Luis; Torres, Enrique; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Ryder, Elena; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Fernández, Nelson

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) as well as platelet aggregation, in an apparently healthy population of 306 men and 41 women, 33 to 65 years of age, workers of the national oil industry (PDVSA, Maracaibo), as a base investigation in a 5-year prospective national collaborative study. The participants were previously subjected to a thorough clinical examination with cardiovascular evaluation and laboratory tests. Clottable fibrinogen and VWF concentrations were determined in platelet poor plasma, the last one by immunoclectrophoresis, and a multimeric analysis of VWF was performed on those plasmas with concentrations higher than 150 U/dL by SDS agarose electrophoresis, followed by cellulose membrane transference. Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet rich plasma with no addition of stimulants and after collagen and ristocetin were added. Forty per cent of men and 65.8% of women, showed fibrinogen concentrations above 300 mg/dL (p < 0.01) and 12.2% of men and 15.4% of women had VWF values higher than 150 U/dL, with normal multimeric distribution. Fourteen individuals presented spontancous platelet aggregation and increased aggregation in 12 and 13 of them, after induction with collagen and ristocetin respectively. Comparing these findings with those of previous collaborative studies from other countries, the present results could mean that an important proportion of the population here studied, could be at risk for a future coronary event; however, as these are the base findings in Maracaibo, the significance of our results will be better evaluated at the end of the five year study.

  10. Traditional food uses of wild plants among the Gorani of South Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet

    2017-01-01

    A food ethnobotanical field study was conducted among the Gorani of South Kosovo, a small ethnic minority group that speaks a South-Slavic language and lives in the south of the country. We conducted forty-one semi-structured interviews in ten villages of the Kosovar Gora mountainous area and found that seventy-nine wild botanical and mycological taxa represent the complex mosaic of the food cultural heritage in this population. A large portion of the wild food plant reports refer to fermented wild fruit-based beverages and herbal teas, while the role of wild vegetables is restricted. A comparison of these data with those previously collected among the Gorani living in nearby villages within the territory of Albania, who were separated in 1925 from their relatives living in present-day Kosovo, shows that approximately one third of the wild food plant reports are the same. This finding demonstrates the complex nature of Kosovar Gorani ethnobotany, which could indicate the permanence of possible "original" Gorani wild plant uses (mainly including wild fruits-based beverages), as well as elements of cultural adaptation to Serbian and Bosniak ethnobotanies (mainly including a few herbal teas and mushrooms). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling Integrated Wastewater Treatment Plant for Agro Industry Zone in Banyuasin, South Sumatera, Indonesia

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    Hasmawaty Hasmawaty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze integrated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP design for Tanjung Api-Api (TAA agro-industrial area, South Sumatra, Indonesia, using Environmentally Sensitive Investment System (ESIS. This article is based on empirical research that conducted in Banyuasin District, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. Our result show that wastewater discharge (Q release into river at E5 has reachton/day and contain 87.16 mg/l TSS. This number does not exceed200 mg/l, TSS threshold for industry area, which regulated by South Sumatra Province through Regulation of the Governor of South Sumatera 18/2005 on Liquid Waste Quality Standard (LWQS. It also produced BOD (100 mg/l lower than LQWS standard (200 mg/l. Sludge dewatering generate 724,48mg/l/day TSS which can be converted into value-added product. Our WWTP design for TAA area can protect wetland ecosystems in South Sumatra Province. We also give recommendation for TAA multi-stakeholder and propose several topics for further research.

  12. Application of medicinal plants in maternal healthcare and infertility: a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillahi, Halima S; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Plants have played significant roles as medicine during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum care in many rural areas of the world. In addition to this, plants have been used for centuries to treat infertility and related reproduction problems. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of plant species used in maternal healthcare, including infertility, in South Africa, in terms of scientific evaluation for efficacy and safety. In addition to this, the role of medicinal plants as a tool in achieving the MDG5 of reducing maternal mortality by 2015 was evaluated. A search was done with the aid of Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, peer-reviewed papers, and books, using keywords such as child birth, labour pain, maternal health, maternal mortality, menstrual pains, and postpartum. The plants listed in the different research articles were classified according to their use and the target effect of a plant extract or compound on reproductive function. Eighty-four plant species were found to be used to treat infertility and related problems. Twenty plant species are used during pregnancy, while 26 plant species are used to ease childbirth. For postpartum healing and any problems after childbirth, nine plant species were recorded. Unhealthy pregnancy and birth complications are among the factors that contribute to the loss of cognitive potential in the developing world's children, condemning them to impoverished lives. The best way to keep a country poor is to rob its children of their full developmental potential. In this respect, medicinal plants play a significant role in reducing maternal mortality and ensuring the birth of healthy children. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. An assessment of the effectiveness of a large, national-scale invasive alien plant control strategy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available classification of invasive alien plant species in South Africa: towards prioritizing 629 species and areas for management action. South African Journal of Science 100, 630 53?64. 631 Olckers, T., 2011. Biological control of Solanum mauritianum Scop...

  14. Relative attractiveness of seeds of myrmecochorous Australian and South African plants to ants, and the chemical basis of this attraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The responses of an indigenous acid an exotic (South American) ant was compared to seeds from exotic (Australian) and indigenous Caps myrmecochorous plants. Non-South African ants were more attracted to seeds of myrmecochorous species, than to non...

  15. Plant communities along the Eerste River, Western Cape, South Africa: Community descriptions and implications for restoration

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    Clifton S. Meek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Riparian plant communities fulfil many functions, including the provision of corridors linking protected areas and other zones of high conservation value. These habitats across much of South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region, especially in the lowlands, have been heavily impacted and degraded by human activities. There is increasing interest in the restoration of degraded riparian zones and the ecosystem services they provide to enhance the conservation value of landscapes. Previous studies of riparian vegetation in the Cape Floristic Region focused on pristine headwater systems, and little is known about human-impacted communities that make up most of the riparian vegetation in downstream areas. More information is needed on the composition of these plant communities to establish a baseline for management intervention. The riparian zone of the Eerste River in South Africa’s Western Cape province provides a good opportunity to study the features of riparian vegetation along the entire gradient, from pristine vegetation in a protected area through different levels of human-mediated degradation. Riparian vegetation was surveyed in 150 plots along the entire length of the Eerste River (ca. 40 km. Data were analysed using the vegetation classification and analysis software package JUICE. Final groupings were plotted onto a two-dimensional detrended correspondence analysis plane to check the position of the communities in the reduced multidimensional space. Ten distinct plant communities were identified, including several novel communities dominated by alien plant species. Descriptions of each plant community are presented. Diagnostic, constant and dominant species are listed and the major structural and ecological characteristics of each community are described. Conservation implications: Major changes to hydrological and soil properties, nutrient dynamics and disturbance regimes and plant species composition along sections of the riparian zone

  16. Generic and functional diversity in endophytic actinomycetes from wild Compositae plant species at South Sinai - Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shatoury, Sahar A; El-Kraly, Omnia A; Trujillo, Martha E; El-Kazzaz, Waleed M; El-Din, El-Sayeda Gamal; Dewedar, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    The diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with wild Compositae plants is scantily explored. In this study, one hundred and thirty one endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from ten Compositae plant species collected from South Sinai in Egypt. Microscopic and chemotaxonomic investigation of the isolates indicated fourteen genera. Rare genera, such as Microtetraspora, and Intrasporangium, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were identified. Each plant species accommodated between three to eight genera of actinobacteria and unidentified strains were recovered from seven plant species. The generic diversity analysis of endophytic assemblages grouped the plant species into three main clusters, representing high, moderate and low endophytic diversity. The endophytes showed high functional diversity, based on forty four catabolic and plant growth promotion traits; providing some evidence that such traits could represent key criteria for successful residence of endophytes in the endosphere. Stress-tolerance traits were more predictive measure of functional diversity differences between the endophyte assemblages (Shannon's index, p = 0.01). The results indicate a potential prominent role of endophytes for their hosts and emphasize the potency of plant endosphere as a habitat for actinobacteria with promising future applications.

  17. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 11. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal

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    Mariette Marais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are some of the most abundant soil organisms and are an essential part of soil ecology. These organisms are used as indicator organisms and can be linked to soil health. Biological collections contain vast amounts of data, with the National Collection of Nematodes housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council being no different. During the digitising of the collection a number of unpublished records of plant nematodes reported from protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal were found in the South African Plant-Parasitic Nematode Survey database. A total of 222 plant nematode species belonging to 39 genera were reported from the province, with only 94 of these species reported from the protected areas and 172 and 159 species reported from uncultivated (outside the protected areas and cultivated areas, respectively. Only nine species, Criconema silvum, Criconema talanum, Helicotylenchus marethae, Ogma dracomontanum, Ogma louisi, Ogma ueckermanni, Paralongidorus deborae, Trichodorus rinae and Xiphinemella marindae were described from protected areas, whilst O. dracomontanum, P. deborae and T. rinae were subsequently also reported from other provinces.Conservation implications: A higher degree of diversity of nematodes was observed in the unprotected areas of the province. The observation suggests that nematode fauna, and by implication also other invertebrates, are not adequately protected.

  18. Using Patents to Protect Traditional Knowledge on the Medicinal Uses of Plants in South Africa

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    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The movement towards the protection of traditional knowledge particularly on the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP in South Africa reflects a global albeit belated interest in the protection of traditional knowledge associated with biological resources. Hence, it was not surprising South Africa like most developing nation, sought in response to instances of the misappropriation of its TKMUP and other TK associated with its biological resources, to provide a measure of protection for such knowledge using the intellectual property (IP system. This is evident in the adoption of the Policy Framework for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge through the Intellectual Property System in 2008 which identified patent as one of the major IP tools in the protection of the TK. The Policy Framework represents a paradigmatic shift from South Africa’s earlier sceptical and dialectical approach to, and experience with the IP system in context of TK. This paper therefore examines the benefits and challenges involved in using the patent system in the protection of TK particularly those relating to the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP. Such examination became necessary as South Africa’s natural capital of biological diversity, together with its wealth of indigenous TK, has been recognised as an important resource base for promoting economic growth through biological innovations under the recently adopted Bio-economy Strategy. It finds that patents offer a great potential in not only protecting TKMUP from misappropriation, but also in promoting the commercialisation of innovative TKMUP or inventions based on or derived from TKMUP in South Africa. However, this can only be possible if the challenges identified in this paper can be successfully navigated.

  19. Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa

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    Christo Botha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as “krimpsiekte”, cotyledonosis or “nenta”. “Krimpsiekte” is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans.

  20. Can anthropogenic variables be used as threat proxies for South African plant richness?

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    M. Keith

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human demographic and socio-economic measures (anthropogenic variables reflect the detrimental impact of humans on plant diversity globally. The Pretoria (PRE Computerised Information System (PRECIS of the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI, provided three sets of South Afncan plant richness data, overall (OPR, endemic (EPR, and threatened (TPR, to investigate the relationships between richness and six anthropogenic variables. Spearman’s Rank order correlations, Kruskal Wallis Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Generalized Linear Models (GLZ were used. Although all three plant richness measures were correlated with anthropogenic variables, individual anthropogenic variables contributed a small fraction to the explained variation in richness. Differences in spatial and temporal scaling of the datasets, or the response to another causal mechanism, may have contributed to this low explained variation. Because more variation was accounted for in OPR than EPR or TPR, OPR is a more suitable surrogate measure of plant biodiversity when investigating the anthropogenic variables used here. Average human density (HD, infrastructure (degree of urbanization and road cover (LRU and percentage land area transformed and degraded (LTD were identified as useful surrogates of human impacts on OPR. LTD may be a more inclusive human impact measure when conducting analyses of human impacts using OPR. LTD includes the effects of urban expansion, road networks and other land transformation impacts, such as agriculture.

  1. Visión actual del desarrollo turístico urbano de Maracaibo. Método Delphi

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    Leriz Camacaro Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es caracterizar la situación actual del desarrollo turístico de la ciudad de Maracaibo. La metodología es de tipo cuantitativa-descriptiva, utilizando el método Delphi con la participación de 16 expertos en dos rondas sucesivas. Como conclusiones destacan: reconocimiento del turismo como actividad económica complementaria y no principal. El Lago de Maracaibo como principal recurso natural y distintos recursos culturales que requieren su puesta en valor, diversas facilidades turísticas, la necesidad de una planificación-gestión mancomunada urbano-ambiental-cultural-turística, entre otras.

  2. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  3. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

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    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Gochnatia polymorpha, Illicium verum, Mentha piperita, Mikania sp., Ocimum selloi, Origanum majorana and Verbena sp. Results show popular knowledge meeting scientific evidence for most indications, seen that 84,6% of cited plants are in agreement with the literature. Thus, we emphasize the richness of popular knowledge, the need of its appreciation and constant approximation of health professionals to this knowledge, integrated with science.

  4. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-West Algeria: An ethnobotanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. Methods: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6, and 4 species, respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%), followed by seeds (18%), aerial parts (17%) and roots (12%). Furthermore, a decoction was the major mode of preparation (49%), and oral administration was the most preferred (80%). Thymus vulgaris L. (UV = 1.045), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (UV = 0.863), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV = 0.545), and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV = 0.5) were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727), cancer (0.687), digestive (0.603), and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high UV, FL, and FIC could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. PMID:27757260

  5. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  6. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

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    Junichi Akiyama

    Full Text Available Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body, although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body. Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3% had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body, and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35 showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack

  7. 26+ Year Old Photovoltaic Power Plant: Degradation and Reliability Evaluation of Crystalline Silicon Modules -- South Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakonu, Kolapo

    As the use of photovoltaic (PV) modules in large power plants continues to increase globally, more studies on degradation, reliability, failure modes, and mechanisms of field aged modules are needed to predict module life expectancy based on accelerated lifetime testing of PV modules. In this work, a 26+ year old PV power plant in Phoenix, Arizona has been evaluated for performance, reliability, and durability. The PV power plant, called Solar One, is owned and operated by John F. Long's homeowners association. It is a 200 kW dc, standard test conditions (STC) rated power plant comprised of 4000 PV modules or frameless laminates, in 100 panel groups (rated at 175 kW ac). The power plant is made of two center-tapped bipolar arrays, the north array and the south array. Due to a limited time frame to execute this large project, this work was performed by two masters students (Jonathan Belmont and Kolapo Olakonu) and the test results are presented in two masters theses. This thesis presents the results obtained on the south array and the other thesis presents the results obtained on the north array. Each of these two arrays is made of four sub arrays, the east sub arrays (positive and negative polarities) and the west sub arrays (positive and negative polarities), making up eight sub arrays. The evaluation and analyses of the power plant included in this thesis consists of: visual inspection, electrical performance measurements, and infrared thermography. A possible presence of potential induced degradation (PID) due to potential difference between ground and strings was also investigated. Some installation practices were also studied and found to contribute to the power loss observed in this investigation. The power output measured in 2011 for all eight sub arrays at STC is approximately 76 kWdc and represents a power loss of 62% (from 200 kW to 76 kW) over 26+ years. The 2011 measured power output for the four south sub arrays at STC is 39 kWdc and represents a power

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of Microelement Removal in the South Tertiary Wastewater Plant, Riyadh KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda G. Bousiakou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the monitoring of trace element removal from the Riyadh South Tertiary Wastewater Treatment plant using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Considering that the final effluent originating from the plant is directed for irrigation purposes towards the farms of Al- Dirayia, Dirab and Wadi Hanifa it is important to consider the possible presence of elevated microelement concentrations that could pose potential threats to the human health. All samples were collected from the initial entrance to the plant representing the raw influent as well as the final exit after chlorination, i.e. the final effluent used for irrigation purposes. Results showed that the concentration of aluminium (Al, phosphorus (P, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn and lead (Pb were initially elevated at their entrance to the plant compared to the recommended values by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and the World Health Organisation (WHO, while zinc (Zn, chromium (Cr, molybdenum (Mo, selenium (Se, cobalt (Co, uranium ( U, mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, and cadmium (Cd were within permissible levels. All microelements showed significant reduction of concentration with values well below the maximum recommendations. The observed results are important for assessing the functions and effectiveness of the treatment methods of the plant as well as ensuring that the final effluent is appropriate for agricultural use.

  9. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  10. Reproducción del ave Mimus gilvus (Passeriformes: Mimidae en Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Mariadela Paredes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron aspectos básicos de la reproducción de la paraulata llanera Mimus gilvus en el campus de la Universidad del Zulia, en Maracaibo, Venezuela. Se capturaron y marcaron cuatro paraulatas con anillos de colores (junio 1997. Estas aves fueron observadas dos veces por semana en dos períodos de observación de dos horas cada uno. Se registró el comportamiento de cortejo, construcción de nidos, incubación y cuidado parental, frecuencia de la defensa territorial y la duración del ciclo reproductivo. Se buscaron nidos semanalmente de los cuales se registró la altura (del nido y árbol, la especie de árbol y tamaño de la nidada. Se determinó el tamaño medio y el éxito de la nidada. Las paraulatas iniciaron la construcción de nidos en concordancia con los períodos de lluvia (abril y octubre. El 80 % de los nidos fueron parasitados por el tordo mirlo Molothrus bonariensis en el período reproductivo de abril-junio, mas no en octubre-noviembre. Las paraulatas fueron observadas en parejas en territorios definidos. Ambos sexos construían el nido, pero solo la hembra incubaba y era principalmente el macho el que defendía el territorio. El tamaño medio de la nidada fue de 2.2 huevos. El éxito reproductivo en los periodos de abril y octubre fue de 20 % y 83 % respectivamenteFour pairs of the poorly understood tropical mockingbird Mimus gilvus were captured and color banded at a grassland in Maracaibo, Venezuela in June 1997. Throughout the following 8 months, individuals were observed two days per week for 4 hours each. We recorded courtship behaviour, nest construction, incubation, parental care, territory defense and timing of reproductive cycle. Pairs lived in defined territories defended primarily by the male. Both sexes participated in nest building which began at the start of two rainy seasons: April and October. Between April and June, 80 % of nests were parasited by the shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis. No parasitism was

  11. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions. [south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Emissive and reflective data for 10 days, and IR data for 6 nights in south Texas scenes were analyzed after procedures were developed for removing cloud-affected data. HCMM radiometric temperatures were: within 2 C of dewpoint temperatures on nights when air temperature approached dewpoint temperatures; significantly correlated with variables important in evapotranspiration; and, related to freeze severity and planting depth soil temperatures. Vegetation greenness indexes calculated from visible and reflective IR bands of NOAA-6 to -9 meteorological satellites will be useful in the AgRISTARS program for seasonal crop development, crop condition, and drought applications.

  12. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clarkson, C

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info clarkson_2004.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 46084 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name clarkson_2004.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Journal...-based antimalarial agents. ? 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Malaria; Antiplasmodial; Plasmodium falciparum; Ethnomedicinal plants; South Africa 1. Introduction Despite intensive efforts to control malaria, the disease continues to be one...

  13. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse.

  14. Invasive vascular plant species of oxbow lakes in south-western Poland

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    Spałek Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in south-western Poland. Among them, the most important for the preservation of biodiversity of flora are oxbow lakes. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbances of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of the last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearances of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to the appearance of numerous invasive plant species. They are: Azolla filiculoides, Echinocystis lobata, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Field works were conducted in years 2005-2012.

  15. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model.

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    Hyeyeong Choe

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS multi-response species distribution model to overcome species' data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species' ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species' presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the

  16. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H; Seo, Changwan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) multi-response species distribution model to overcome species' data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species' ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species' presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD) calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the threshold and scale

  17. Comportamiento de las firmas de contadores públicos en el municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda H. Gómez-de Angulo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el comportamiento de las firmas de contadores públicos del municipio Maracaibo, estado Zulia-Venezuela, con el propósito de dar aportes para mejorar la formación académica del contador público. El estudio es de tipo descriptivo, de campo, no experimental, se aplicó una encuesta a veinticuatro (24 firmas que visan sus estados financieros en el Colegio de Contadores Públicos del Estado Zulia, seleccionadas aleatoriamente. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un estancamiento en el crecimiento de las firmas de contadores públicos de la región y diversificación de los servicios ofrecidos como respuesta a las actuales exigencias del mercado. Se concluye que la contaduría se encuentra en un proceso de transformación, donde se exige mayor responsabilidad en la ejecución del trabajo, siendo necesario adaptar los programas académicos a las nuevas necesidades del ámbito laboral.

  18. [Prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Rodríguez, Zulbey; Hernández, Amparo; Bracho, Ángela; Salazar, Solneumar; Villalobos, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    To detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with HIVAIDS of the Autonomous Services University Hospital of Maracaibo (SAHUM), where there are no previous studies in this field. Fecal samples were analyzed by means of direct exam, concetration method with formal-ether, Kinyoun coloration and fast Gram-Chromotrope coloration. Separate PCR were perfomed to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar , when the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was observed in the microscope. Information on the patient was obtained trough clinical history. Of 56 individuals that participated, 38 (67.86%) presented some commensal parasite and/ or pathogenic species in their fecal sample. Carriers of pathogenic species were predominat (26/38). Protozoa such as Isospora belli protozoa (17.65%), Blastocystis spp. (17.65%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.84%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.88%), Entamoeba coli (3.92%), Giardia lamblia (3.92%), Endolimax nana (3.92%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (3.92%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (1.96%) were diagnosed. Among the helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis , had a percentage of 27.27% each, and Hymenolepis nana , 18.18%. Entamoeba histolytica was only detected in one of three cases presenting complex microscopic examination. By Gram-chromotrope, 17 samples showed spores of the Microsporidia phylum, equivalent to 33.33% prevalence. Microsporidia may be first prevalente in HIV positive patients when specific diagnostic techniques are used.

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Valmore; Salazar, Juan; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María José; Palmar, Jim; Bautista, Jordan; Ramos, Eduardo; Cabrera, Mayela; Pachano, Freddy; Rojas, Joselyn

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR) is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n = 943), with 46.7% (n = 450) in the general population, 46.4% (n = 493) in females, and 47.90% (n = 970) in males (p = 0.895). IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ (2) = 16.726; p = 2.33 × 10(-4)). Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake.

  20. Satisfacción de clientes externos de las empresas aseguradoras en el municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo E. Romero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta en el artículo tuvo como propósito determinar el nivel de satisfacción de los clientes externos respecto al servicio brindado por las empresas aseguradoras en el Municipio Maracaibo. Los objetivos específicos buscaban identificar los componentes de calidad que determinan la satisfacción de los clientes externos de las empresas aseguradoras e identificar los factores que influyen en su comportamiento de compra; por último, se determinaron los rasgos básicos de los elementos que dan como resultado la satisfacción del cliente. Los resultados arrojaron que los niveles de satisfacción de los clientes externos de las empresas aseguradoras pueden considerarse moderado, al presentar rangos bajos en algunos aspectos de la calidad de los servicios específicamente, lo concerniente a la confiabilidad, respuesta y tangibilidad y dentro de sus mejores fortalezas, estuvieron los aspectos de la seguridad y la empatía

  1. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermudez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n=943, with 46.7% (n=450 in the general population, 46.4% (n=493 in females, and 47.90% (n=970 in males (p=0.895. IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ2=16.726; p=2.33×10-4. Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake.

  2. Misión Sucre: Perfil estudiantil y opiniones de sus actores directos en Maracaibo

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    Rosa Mercedes Peña Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2003 el Estado venezolano viene trazando diferentes estrategias en la búsqueda de potenciar la sinergia institucional y la participación comunitaria para garantizar el acceso a la educación universitaria a todos los bachilleres sin cupo y superar su condición de excluidos de ese subsistema de educación. En ese marco se definió la Misión Sucre. El presente artículo examina dos aspectos de la misma: a el perfil de la población estudiantil incorporada y b la opinión que sobre la ejecución de la Misión Sucre en el municipio Maracaibo tienen sus actores más inmediatos (estudiantes, profesores y coordinadores de aldeas universitarias. Para ello se revisaron documentos oficiales y se aplicaron cuestionarios auto-administrados y entrevistas semi-estructuradas a una muestra probabilística de los actores. Se concluye que la Misión Sucre, en gran parte, ha cumplido el objetivo de incorporar a los bachilleres que anteriormente no habían sido admitidos en la educación universitaria, y que los actores involucrados opinan que se han logrado implementar nuevos modelos educativos.

  3. Rito y Símbolo: Antropo-Semiótica del velorio en Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Finol

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se hace un inventario y una interpretación de los principales símbolos utilizados en el rito de velorio en la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Para colectar la información se utilizó el método etnográfico de observación-participación, durante la cual se aplicaron también técnicas como entrevistas, grabaciones y fotografías. Para el análisis interpretativo se utilizó la Semiótica, tal como la proponen Lotman y Greimas. El análisis permite confirmar el papel de los símbolos en la constitución y funcionamiento de la cultura funeraria, en particular su capacidad de condensación, su rol en la memoria colectiva y su singular estabilidad y resistencia al cambio a través del tiempo.

  4. Kinetic modeling of petroleum formation in the Maracaibo Basin: Final report, Annex 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.; Sweeney, J.J.; Reynolds, J.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vallejos, C.; Talukdar, S. [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and test improved kinetic models of petroleum generation and cracking, pore pressure buildup, and fluid expulsion. The work was performed jointly between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Research Organization of the Venezuelan National Petroleum Company under Annex 12 of an agreement between DOE and the Venezuelan Ministry of Energy and Mines. Laboratory experiments were conducted at both LLNL and INTEVEP to obtain the reaction rate and product composition information needed to develop chemical kinetic models. Experiments at INTEVEP included hydrous pyrolysis and characterization of oils by gas and liquid chromatography. Experiments at LLNL included programmed pyrolysis in open and self-purging reactors, sometimes including on-line gas analysis by tandem mass spectrometry, and characterization of oils by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The PMOD code was used to develop a detailed pyrolysis mechanism from the extensive laboratory data. This mechanism is able to predict yield of bitumen, oil, and gas as a function of time and temperature for such diverse laboratory conditions as hydrous pyrolysis and rapid, programmed, open pyrolysis. PMOD calculations were compared to geologic observations for 22 wells in the Maracaibo basin. When permeability parameters are chosen to match calculated pore pressures with measured present day values, the PMOD calculations indicate that organic maturation reactions contribute a significant fraction of the overpressure during oil generation and early oil cracking. Calculations agreed with observed geochemical maturity parameters of the source rock. 37 refs., 64 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Calidad del agua y sedimento en el lago de Maracaibo, estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovany José-Bracho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el agua y el sedimento del lago de Maracaibo en seis estaciones de muestreo distribuidas de norte a sur del lago. Los parámetros físicoquímicos y ambientales fueron determinados y establecidas las relaciones entre estos y las áreas afectadas por descargas de aguas residuales, depósitos de basura, residuos industriales líquidos y sólidos, actividad petrolera y agrícola y materiales orgánicos acarreados por ríos y drenajes pluviales. Se evidenció la contaminación por incremento de utrientes(nitrógeno y fósforo en las zonas influenciadas por los ríos y vertederos de agua residual y se validó la presencia de una cuña salina por la penetración al lago de las aguas del golfo de Venezuela. Las concentraciones de metalespesados están por debajo de los límites permisibles para el agua; en los sedimentos es muy heterogénea.

  6. Patrones de vientos troposféricos en la cuenca del Lago de Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el patrón de vientos en la baja tropósfera, en los sectores meridional y oriental de la cuenca del Lago de Maracaibo utilizando globospilotos, durante el período abril-mayo de 2004. Los lanzamientos se hicieron desde las localidades de El Chivo (08º 56¿ 22" N., 71º 37' 47" O., 23 msnm, Mene Grande (09º 49' 00" N., 70º 56' 00" O., 27 msnm y La Cañada (10º 34' 00" N., 71º 44' 00" O., 66 msnm. Los períodos de lanzamiento se dividieron en matutinos y vespertinos con el fin de precisar las diferencias en los flujos meridionales y zonales en diferentes períodos del día. Estos flujos fueron obtenidos para diferentes alturas en cada lanzamiento, mediante el software Corrige de la Administración Nacional de Atmósfera y Océanos de Estados Unidos (NOAA y fueron promediados para los tres días de lanzamientos. El ciclo diurno y el efecto de brisa lago-tierra se pudieron observar en la localidad de Mene Grande y, parcialmente, en la localidad de El Chivo. En la localidad de la Cañada, ubicada en el extremo norte de la cuenca, el aumento de la velocidad del viento con la altura fue el aspecto más resaltante.

  7. Energy saving on wastewater treatment plants through improved online control: case study wastewater treatment plant Antwerp-South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gussem, Kris; Fenu, Alessio; Wambecq, Tom; Weemaes, Marjoleine

    2014-01-01

    This work provides a case study on how activated sludge modelling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can help to optimize the energy consumption of a treatment plant that is already equipped with an advanced control based on online nutrient measurements. Currently, aeration basins on wastewater treatment plant Antwerp-South are operated sequentially while flow direction and point of inflow and outflow vary as a function of time. Activated sludge modelling shows that switching from the existing alternating flow based control to a simultaneous parallel feeding of all aeration tanks saves 1.3% energy. CFD calculations also illustrate that the water velocity is still sufficient if some impellers in the aeration basins are shutdown. The simulations of the Activated Sludge Model No. 2d indicate that the coupling of the aeration control with the impeller control, and automatically switching off some impellers when the aeration is inactive, can save 2.2 to 3.3% of energy without affecting the nutrient removal efficiency. On the other hand, all impellers are needed when the aeration is active to distribute the oxygen.

  8. Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R. U.

    2008-01-01

    The most widespread invasive alien plant species in South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP) were either introduced unintentionally along rivers and roads, or intentionally for use as ornamentals. We examine the spatial distribution of ornamental alien plants in KNP, look at the link between human population size, history, and species richness, and show how the distribution of particular species reflects the likely history of ornamental plantings. Results are used to assess whether past management actions have been appropriately directed. Two hundred and fifty-eight alien species have been recorded in the 36 tourist camps and staff villages. The number of staff housed in villages explains much of the diversity of cultivated alien plant species. Older camps also tend to have more ornamental alien plant species. However, the lack of a strong link between camp age and number of cultivated species suggests that ornamental plants have been widely spread around the KNP by humans. We also show that increased camp activity (either size or age) has led to more ornamental species, while, with the notable exception of Skukuza, camp activity has had a much smaller effect on the number of noncultivated species. Noncultivated species tend to be naturally dispersed, as opposed to directly spread by humans between camps. Past management prioritized certain species on the basis of their potential to invade KNP and on the prevailing national legislation. These species were removed manually and follow-up control was carried out. Once the priority species were deemed to be under control, less invasive species were targeted. All alien species were removed from vacated houses, regardless of the potential invasiveness of the species.

  9. A three step approach for removing organic matter from South African water sources and treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambule, T. I.; Krause, R. W. M.; Haarhoff, J.; Mamba, B. B.

    The high variability in the levels and composition of natural organic matter (NOM) in South-African water sources in different regions means that no single treatment process can be prescribed for each water treatment plant operating in the country. In order to remove NOM from water in a water treatment train, the composition of the NOM in the source water must be taken into account, especially as it may not necessarily be uniform since the composition is dependent on local environmental situation. The primary objective of this study was to characterise the NOM present in South African source waters through an extensive sampling of representative water types across the country and then develop a rapid NOM characterisation protocol. Water samples were thus collected from eight different water treatment plants located throughout the country at different sites of their water treatment trains. Raw water samples, the intermediate samples before filtration and water samples before disinfection were collected at these drinking water treatment plants. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), ultraviolet (UV) characterisation (200-900 nm) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis were used to characterise the NOM in the water samples. The FEEM and UV results revealed that the samples were composed mainly of humic substances with a high UV-254 absorbance, while some samples had marine humic substances and non-humic substances. The sample’s DOC results were within the range of 3.25-21.44 mg C/L, which was indicative of the varying nature of the NOM composition in the regions where samples were obtained. The BDOC fraction of the NOM, on the other hand, ranged from 20% to 65%, depending on the geographical location of the sampling site. It is evident from the results obtained that the NOM composition varied per sampling site which would eventually have a bearing on its treatability. The various water treatment

  10. Ethnopharmacological review of plants traditionally used in Darab (south of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Moein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical information have been known as effective tools for drug discovery. Iran is a location with long medical history. Darab is one of the cities in Iran which can be important in regard of ethnopharmacological aspects. Current paper documented the folk medical information by Darab inhabitants. Therefore, field studies on this area were conducted from March to July 2012 and May to July 2013 under supervision of one local person. A questionnaire was utilized in this study and was filled by local inhabitants. In total, 58 species belonging to 27 plant families were documented in management of 53 ailments. The most cited plant family was Asteraceae which was followed by Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Papilionaceae. Herbs were applied for gynecologic and genitourinary, respiratory, central nervous system, infectious and cardiovascular ailments as well as musculoskeletal and skin disorders, respectively. This study can indicate the folk knowledge of a region in south of Iran. Moreover, the effectiveness of unexamined plants can be evaluated according to informants’ claims. Therefore, such investigations may be indeed, a useful way to search for drug discovery as well as keeping ethnopharmacological information alive.

  11. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Fouche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA. The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3% at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%. The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide cellular assay.

  12. On the Seismic Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Sites in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; Park, S.; Yang, J.; Shim, T.; Im, C. B.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula is located at the far eastern part of Eurasian Plate, and within the intra-plate region several hundred km away from the nearest plate boundary. The earthquakes around the Korean Peninsula show the typical characteristics of intra-plate earthquakes. So to speak, those are low seismicity, relatively smaller magnitude than that of inter-plate earthquakes, and spatially irregular epicenters. There are 24 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, 4 NPPs in completion of construction, and 4 NPPs in preparation of construction in South Korea. Even though the seismicity of the Korean Peninsula is known as relatively low, but because there are more than 30 NPPs within not so large territory, thorough the preparedness of NPPs' safety against earthquakes is required. The earthquake preparedness of NPPs in South Korea is composed of 4 stages: site election, design, construction and operation. Since regulatory codes and standards are strictly applied in each stage, the NPPs in South Korea are believed to be safe enough against the maximum potential earthquake ground motion. Through data analysis on geological and seismological characteristics of the region within a radius of 320 km from the site and the detailed geological survey of the area within a radius of 8 km from the site, the design earthquake ground motion of NPPs in South Korea is determined to be 0.2g (in case of newly constructed NPPs is 0.3g) considering the maximum potential earthquake ground motion and some safety margin. The ground motions and surface deformation caused by capable faults are also considered in the seismic design of NPPs. In addition, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety as a regulatory technical expert organization, has been operating independent real time earthquake monitoring network as a part of securing the seismic safety of NPP sites in South Korea since late 1990's. If earthquakes with more than magnitude 3.0 are occurred in the Korean Peninsula or the peak ground

  13. Financiamiento a la oferta en hospitales de Maracaibo: Implicaciones en la demanda de servicios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Vargas González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone analizar el origen y volumen del financiamiento hospitalario durante el período 1998-2002, así como evidenciar los cambios en el comportamiento de la demanda de servicios con relación a la oferta y cobertura poblacional, y sus implicaciones en los costos de funcionamiento en dos hospitales públicos de la ciudad de Maracaibo (estado Zulia, Venezuela correspondientes a los niveles III y IV, representativos de diferentes modelos administrativos. Se efectúa el análisis de información documental obtenida mediante la realización de pasantías profesionales en los hospitales estudiados, por cuanto estas instituciones no procesan información administrativa de forma sistemática. Con base en el estudio realizado se establece que los servicios hospitalarios son financiados fundamentalmente con asignaciones presupuestarias para garantizar una determinada oferta, aun cuando ésta no responda a las necesidades. El gobierno regional impulsa una tendencia privatista orientada a incrementar la proporción de ingresos por venta de servicios, lo cual pone de relieve la búsqueda de eficiencia formal, sin enfatizar la reducción de costos. Por el contrario, el gobierno nacional se esfuerza en garantizar el financiamiento para la gratuidad constitucional de los servicios de salud. Se concluye que el financiamiento a la oferta, sin considerar el comportamiento de la demanda, se traduce en costos fijos de funcionamiento de los hospitales, que lesionan la eficiencia y la optimización de la cobertura.

  14. Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose Prediction Using Anthropometric Indices in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Salazar, Juan; Rojas, Joselyn; Calvo, María; Rojas, Milagros; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Añez, Roberto; Cabrera, Mayela

    2016-12-01

    To determine the predictive power of various anthropometric indices for the identification of dysglycemic states in Maracaibo, Venezuela. A cross-sectional study with randomized, multi-staged sampling was realized in 2230 adult subjects of both genders who had their body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-height ratio (WHR) determined. Diagnoses of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were made following ADA 2015 criteria. ROC curves were used to evaluate the predictive power of each anthropometric parameter. Area under the curve (AUC) values were compared through Delong's test. Of the total 2230 individuals (52.6 % females), 8.4 % were found to have DM2, and 19.5 % had IFG. Anthropometric parameters displayed greater predictive power regarding newly diagnosed diabetics, where WHR was the most important predictor in both females (AUC = 0.808; CI 95 % 0.715-0.900. Sensitivity: 82.8 %; specificity: 76.2 %) and males (AUC = 0.809; CI 95 % 0.736-0.882. Sensitivity: 78.6 %; specificity: 68.1 %), although all three parameters appeared to have comparable predictive power in this subset. In previously diagnosed diabetic subjects, WHR was superior to both WC and BMI in females, and WHR and WC were both superior to BMI in males. Lower predictive values were found for IFG in both genders. Accumulation of various altered anthropometric measurements was associated with increased odds ratios for both newly and previously diagnosed DM2. The predictive power of anthropometric measurements was greater for DM2 than IFG. We suggest assessment of as many available parameters as possible in the clinical setting.

  15. Geochemical and geological control on filling history of Eocene reservoirs, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M.; Maguregui, J.; Toro, C.; Marquina, M. [Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01

    Crude oils of Eocene fluvio-deltaic reservoirs in {open_quotes}Bloque V{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Centro Lago{close_quotes} fields in the center of the Maracaibo Lake show many differences in composition, which are due to stratigraphically and structurally controlled reservoir geometry and a low rate of in-reservoir mixing of at least two successive petroleum charges. Oils produced from the top of structural highs contain 18(H) oleanane, higher Pr/Ph and C{sub 23-3}/C{sub 24-4} ratios, a lower proportion of DBT/P compounds, and clearly different fingerprint patterns in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 15} range, than those observed in oils produced from the lower parts of the structures. These compositional differences suggest that two source rocks, or two distinctive organic facies within the same Cretaceous La Luna Formation, generated and filled vertically poorly connected Eocene reservoirs. On the other hand, saturate-biomarkers ratios, triaromatics (C{sub 21}/C{sub 21}+C{sub 28}), n-paraffins (n-C{sub 20}/n-C{sub 29}) and n-heptane index suggest that oils in upper reservoirs are slightly less mature than oils in lower reservoirs and, consequently filled the structure first. Additional evidence from formation water analysis and tectonic basin evolution allow us to interpret at least two petroleum pulses from Cretaceous source rocks during Upper Miocene to present day kitchens located in the Andes foredeep at the southeast of the study area.

  16. Talento humano y trabajo en equipo del personal directivo de las universidades del municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Medina Fuenmayor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar la relación entre talento humano y trabajo en equipo del personal directivo de las universidades del Municipio Maracaibo, sobre la base de los enfoques teóricos de Alles (2005, Dolan et al. (2003, Gubman (2000, Hayes (2002, Jericó (2001, entre otros. La investigación se tipificó como correlacional, no experimental y transversal, utilizando una población de 31 sujetos pertenecientes a la planta directiva de administración de las referidas universidades públicas y privadas. La técnica de recolección de datos fue la observación mediante encuesta, para lo cual se diseñaron dos (2 instrumentos de recolección de datos, estructurados con cinco alternativas de respuestas bajo una escala de actitud tipo Likert, utilizando una validez de contenido por el criterio de 10 expertos, utilizando además el análisis discriminante de ítems, lo cual permitió mayor certeza en sus diseños. La confiabilidad fue calculada por el coeficiente Alfa de Cronbach, el cual arrojó un valor de 0.99 para talento humano y 0.91 para trabajo en equipo, siendo altamente consistentes. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva con frecuencias absolutas y porcentuales, soportadas con medidas de tendencia central, haciendo uso además de la estadística inferencial con pruebas no paramétricas. Como conclusión, se observó una correlación con dirección positiva y magnitud fuerte entre las variables con un índice rho de Spearman de 0.88, lo que sugiere que bajo las actuales condiciones de este estudio existe una fuerte concomitancia entre las variables.

  17. Screening for adulticidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis in ten plants used as mosquito repellent in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mavundza, Edison J; Maharaj, Rajendra; Chukwujekwu, Jude C; Finnie, Jeffrey F.; Staden, Johannes Van

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the development of resistance to synthetic insecticides, adverse effects to human health, non-target organisms and the environment, there is an urgent need to develop new insecticides, which are effective, safe, biodegrable and target-specific. This study was undertaken to evaluate the adulticidal activity of 10 plants used traditionally as mosquito repellents in South Africa. Methods The dried plant materials were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and ethanol (EtOH). The...

  18. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, Kaisarun; Emma C. Barnes; Brophy, Joseph J.; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F.

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an ...

  19. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  20. Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônia Maria Batista

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. However, if the factor that triggers the inflammation persists, the inflammation can become relentless, leading to an intensification of the lesion. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the South American continent that have been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity. This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity.

  1. Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2015-09-01

    Grindstones from Eva 2 and St. John, two of the earliest sites in northeastern South America and the southern Caribbean respectively, were subjected to starch grain analysis. Results of this study revealed that these stone artifacts were utilized to process a variety of cultivars such as maize (Zea mays), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), achira (Canna spp.), legumes (Fabaceae), and yams (Dioscoreaceae), coupled with wild resources, most notably marunguey (Zamia spp.). Radiocarbon dates indicate that the use of plants identified at these two sites were much older than previously considered, going back to at least 7790 cal. BP at St. John and 5990 cal. BP at Eva 2. This new evidence showcases the importance of the Caribbean basin as an arena for early phytocultural dispersals. It also focuses attention on the role of navigation as a mechanism for crop diffusion in the Neotropics.

  2. Challenges and opportunities in South Africa’s indigenous plants industry: De Fynne Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Mabaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available De Fynne Nursery, a black-owned agribusiness, has cemented a unique position in South Africa’s indigenous plants industry against all odds. With an undying passion for the horticulture industry, Jacky Goliath and Elton Jefthas, De Fynne’s cofounders, continue to live the dream that began in their backyard. Today, they sit in their new 22-hectare farm and muse over strategic decisions as they navigate the challenges of doing business in an emerging economy. This case study focuses on opportunities and challenges for De Fynne as it pushes into its next growth phase by looking at the changing competitive landscape, the balance between marketing existing products and innovating new products, and ways to become operationally efficient and profitable in both its nursery and the farm.

  3. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebebew Fassil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edibles, 83.3% have more than one use categories. Food, medicine, construction/technology, and fuel wood had contributed 79% of the total uses. Of the recorded wild edible plant species, 78.8% were reported to be edible both in normal and food shortage times. Procurement and use of most edibles were found to be age and gender specific. However, species use under various use categories does not vary among the communities (X2 = 3.89, df = 6, α = 0.05 and 1-α = 12.6. The study showed that the majority (62.1% of the species were collected from wooded grassland/or bush land vegetation type. Pair wise ranking results indicated that agricultural expansion, over stocking/overgrazing, fuel wood collection, and uncontrolled fire setting as principal threats to wild edible plants in the study areas. The findings suggest that (i Public awareness and community based management need to be encouraged at all levels in order to overcome the threats; (ii further investigation into nutritional properties of all the species reported; and (iii Since the species are also nutraceutical, study on the pharmacological attributes would help to understand their medicinal applications. Furthermore, urgent collection of germplasm from areas under human pressure is recommended.

  4. Impacts of invasive plants on animal diversity in South Africa: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Clusella-Trullas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing numbers of invasive alien plant (IAP species are establishing around the globe and can have negative effects on resident animal species function and diversity. These impacts depend on a variety of factors, including the extent of invasion, the region and the taxonomic group affected. These context dependencies make extrapolations of IAP impacts on resident biota from region to region a substantial challenge. Objectives: Here, we synthesised data from studies that have examined the effects of IAPs on animal diversity in South Africa. Our focus is on ectothermic organisms (reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. Method: We sourced relevant articles using keywords relating to (1 the effects of IAPs on species diversity (abundance, richness and composition, (2 the IAP and (3 the native ectotherm. We extracted the taxonomic and spatial coverage of IAPs and affected native species and assessed the extent of information given on potential mechanisms driving IAP impacts. Results: Across the 42 studies, IAPs had a decreasing or neutral effect on native animal abundance and richness and significantly changed species composition. This review highlighted the paucity of studies and the research deficits in taxonomic and geographic coverage and in the mechanisms underlying IAP impacts on ectotherms. Conclusion: By assessing the status of knowledge regarding the impacts of IAPs on resident animal species in South Africa, this study identifies information gaps and research priorities at the country level with a view to informing monitoring and conservation efforts, such as alien plant removal and control programmes, and ensuring that endemic terrestrial animal diversity is maintained.

  5. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ethnobotanical relevance Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. Methods A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant’s categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The

  6. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-12-24

    Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant's categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The three categories were divided in 27

  7. Proposed classification of invasive alien plant species in South Africa: towards prioritizing species and areas for management action

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many invasive alien plant species in South Africa are already well-established and cause substantial damage, while scores of others are at the early stages of invasion (only recently introduced and/or entering a phase of rapid population growth...

  8. South African plants used in traditional medicine to treat epilepsy have an antagonistic effect on NMDA receptor currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Carla; Gavazzo, Paola; Stafford, Gary Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Several Searsia species (Anacardiaceae), including Searsia dentata and Searsia pyroides, are used in South Africa traditional medicine to treat epilepsy. Ethanol leaf extracts of these plants have been shown to act as possible antagonists of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors....

  9. Evidence of novel plant-species specific ammonia oxidizing bacterial clades in acidic South African fynbos soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramond, JB

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Basic Microbiology Evidence of novel plant-species specific ammonia oxidizing bacterial clades in acidic South African fynbos soils Jean-Baptiste Ramond1, Joseph D. W. Lako2, William H. L. Stafford3, Marla I. Tuffin4 and Don A. Cowan1...

  10. Ozone depletion and UVB radiation: impact on plant DNA damage in southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, M C; Ballaré, C L; Giordano, C V; Scopel, A L; Zima, A M; Szwarcberg-Bracchitta, M; Searles, P S; Caldwell, M M; Díaz, S B

    1999-12-21

    The primary motivation behind the considerable effort in studying stratospheric ozone depletion is the potential for biological consequences of increased solar UVB (280-315 nm) radiation. Yet, direct links between ozone depletion and biological impacts have been established only for organisms of Antarctic waters under the influence of the ozone "hole;" no direct evidence exists that ozone-related variations in UVB affect ecosystems of temperate latitudes. Indeed, calculations based on laboratory studies with plants suggest that the biological impact of ozone depletion (measured by the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA) is likely to be less marked than previously thought, because UVA quanta (315-400 nm) may also cause significant damage, and UVA is unaffected by ozone depletion. Herein, we show that the temperate ecosystems of southern South America have been subjected to increasingly high levels of ozone depletion during the last decade. We found that in the spring of 1997, despite frequent cloud cover, the passages of the ozone hole over Tierra del Fuego (55 degrees S) caused concomitant increases in solar UV and that the enhanced ground-level UV led to significant increases in DNA damage in the native plant Gunnera magellanica. The fluctuations in solar UV explained a large proportion of the variation in DNA damage (up to 68%), particularly when the solar UV was weighted for biological effectiveness according to action spectra that assume a sharp decline in quantum efficiency with increasing wavelength from the UVB into the UVA regions of the spectrum.

  11. Montane flora of the southern Langeberg, South Africa: a checklist of the flowering plants and ferns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Mcdonald

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the southern Langeberg is rich, w ith 1 228 species and intraspecific taxa (referred to collectively as species recorded in 361 genera and 105 families. An analysis of the montane flora of the southern Langeberg. Western Cape, South Africa based on an annotated checklist shows that the Asteraceae has the highest number of species per familv (167 and the genus  Erica has the most infrageneric taxa per genus (130 as well as the most endemic species (51. One endemic monotypic family, the Geissolomataceae, two endemic genera Geissoloma and Langebergia (Asteraceae and a total of 167 endemic species are found on the southern Langeberg The plant families of the southern Langeberg flora are ranked according to species-richness of the families and compared with floras of other areas (mainly montane in the Fynbos Biome and marginally to the east of this biome (the Amatole Mountains. The greatest similarity of ranking is evident betw een the plant families of the southern Langeberg and those of the Cape Hangklip Area.

  12. Remineralization of permeate water by calcite bed in the Daoura's plant (south of Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyoune, M. G.; Atbir, A.; Bari, H.; Hassnaoui, L.; Mongach, E.; Khadir, A.; Boukbir, L.; Bellajrou, R.; Elhadek, M.

    2017-04-01

    To face water shortage and to fight drought, the National office of Water and Electricity (ONEE) carried out a program aiming at constructing several desalination stations of seawater in the South of Morocco. However, the final product water after desalination (osmosis water) has turned out to be unbalanced and has an aggressive character. Therefore, a post-treatment of remineralization is necessary to recover the calco-carbonic equilibrium of water and to protect the distribution network from corrosion degradation. Thereby, our work aims to examine the performance of the remineralization used in Daoura plant by the calcite bed in the absence of carbon dioxide CO2 (without acidification), we have followed many parameters indicating the performance of this technique adopted such as pH, TAC (hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate content), Ca content, Langelier saturation index (LSI), Larson index (LR). The results obtained show that this technique adopted in Daoura plant brings to water back its entire calco-carbonic balance to measure up to the Moroccan standards of drinking water. Generally, the exploitation of the calcite bed technique for remineralization is simple, easy and it does not require any major efforts or precautions.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of four Myrtaceae plants of the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Marcos José; de Lourenço, Caroline C; Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves

    2011-07-01

    Antioxidant compounds can be useful to prevent several degenerative diseases or as preservative in food and toiletries. Species of the Myrtaceae family are able to accumulate phenolic substances and those are closely related to the antioxidant activity due to their capacity to scavenge free radicals, protect against lipid peroxidation and quench reactive oxygen species. These facts prompted us to investigate the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves of four Myrtaceae plants collected of the south of Brazil: Eugenia chlorophylla O. Berg., Eugenia pyriformis Cambess, Myrcia laruotteana Cambess and Myrcia obtecta (Berg) Kiacrsk. The antioxidant potential was performed using the DPPH (a single electron transfer reaction based assay) and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, a hydrogen atom transfer reaction based assay) assays. Moreover, the total soluble phenolic content was also measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. A preliminary evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of these Myrtaceae plants revealed high levels of phenolic compounds (343.7-429.3 mg GAE) as well as high antioxidant activity according to both methods (1338 a 3785 micromol of TE/g of extract in ORAC and SC50 in the range of 1.70 and 33.7 microg/mL in the DPPH). The highest antioxidant activity obtained by DPPH assay was exhibited by ethanol extract of the leaves of E. pyriformis (1.70 microg/mL), followed by extracts of M. laruotteana (3.38 microg/mL) and M. obtecta (6.66 microg/mL). In comparison with controls, in the DPPH assay, the extract of E. pyriformis was more active than trolox (SC50 = 2.55 microg/mL), while the extracts of M. laruotteana and M. obtecta were more actives than quercetin (SC50 = 7.80 microg/mL). In the ORAC assay, all species also show good antioxidant capacity (>1000 micromol of TE/g). Initial HPLC-UV/DAD and ESI-MS confirmed the presence of phenolic acids constituents in the ethanol extracts. The results indicate the presence of compounds

  14. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to dietary fiber from taro (Colocasia esculenta), an important food plant of the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, L R; Roberton, A M; McKenzie, R J; Watson, M E; Harris, P J

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer is lower in Polynesian populations of the South Pacific than in European populations. This difference in incidence of the disease may be, at least partly, related to diet. Dietary fiber is believed to protect against colorectal cancer, and one of the ways it may act is by adsorbing mutagens that are carcinogenic. Very little is known about the chemical composition or the ability to adsorb mutagens of these dietary fibers from South Pacific food plants. In contrast to European food plants, which are mostly dicotyledons, South Pacific food plants are mainly monocotyledons. We isolated cell walls (dietary fiber) from the three edible parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta), which is a monocotyledon and a major South Pacific food plant. The ability of these three unlignified cell-wall preparations to adsorb the hydrophobic environmental mutagen 1,8-dinitropyrene was studied. The greatest adsorption occurred with walls from leaf blade, followed by petiole and corm walls, although the differences were not major. The amount of adsorption was intermediate between the low adsorption previously found with unlignified dicotyledon walls (from the flesh of potato tubers and immature cabbage leaves) and the much higher adsorption found with unlignified walls from monocotyledons of the grass and cereal family (Poaceae) (from leaves of seedling Italian ryegrass). These data are consistent with the monosaccharide compositions of the taro wall preparations, which were more similar to those of unlignified walls of dicotyledons than to unlignified walls of the Poaceae. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the composition of the dietary fiber determines its adsorptive properties and that there may be important differences between the major dietary fibers of South Pacific and European food plants.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE BIOSOLIDS COMPOST MATURITY IN SOUTH ISFAHAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alidadi, A. R. Parvaresh, M. R. Shahmansouri, H. Pourmoghadas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The composting process is a useful method of producing a stabilized material that can be used as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner. Maturity of compost is essential for its optimal use as a soil amendment and a source of plant nutrients as well. Immature composts pose problems of malodors and flies and phytotoxicity and pollution during use. Stability and maturity both are required for compost quality control. Compost maturity tests can be classified into physical, chemical, plant, and microbial activity assays. In this study, several methods of evaluating the stability and maturity of composted biosolids were compared based on chemical and biological properties. The sludge used of windrow composting was obtained from the drying beds of South Isfahan wastewater treatment plant. The results showed that, C/N ratio after 100 days of composting reached to 15/1; NH4/NO3 ratio decreased with increase of the time dewatered sludge compost, which this loss is 57.3%. The content of volatile solids, 28.8% decreased with composting time. The number of fecal coliforms in the initial sewage sludge compost was 17.9´106 and at the end of composting was 898MPN/g of total solids and the compost process provided class A pathogen criteria. Use of chemical and biological parameters exhibited three phases: rapid decomposition (day 40, stabilization (day 80 and maturation (day 100 in biosolids compost. Thus, the biosolid compost was mature and ready for use as an agricultural substrate after about 100 days of composting.

  16. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  17. Evaluation of the antibacterial and anticancer activities of some South African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Johnson, Mary A; Obi, Chikwelu L; Hattori, Toshio; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Li, Shenwei; Kambizi, Learnmore; Eloff, Jacobus N; Vasaikar, Sandeep D

    2011-02-17

    Several herbs are traditionally used in the treatment of a variety of ailments particularly in the rural areas of South Africa where herbal medicine is mainly the source of health care system. Many of these herbs have not been assessed for safety or toxicity to tissue or organs of the mammalian recipients. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of some medicinal plants used, inter alia, in the treatment of diarrhoea, and stomach disorders. Six selected medicinal plants were assessed for their antibacterial activities against ampicillin-resistant and kanamycin-resistant strains of Escherichia coli by the broth micro-dilution methods. The cytotoxicities of methanol extracts and fractions of the six selected plants were determined using a modified tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay). The average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the plants extracts ranged from 0.027 mg/mℓ to 2.5 mg/mℓ after 24 h of incubation. Eucomis autumnalis and Cyathula uncinulata had the most significant biological activity with the least MIC values. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay on human hepatocarcinoma cell line (Huh-7) revealed that the methanol extract of E. autumnalis had the strongest cytotoxicity with IC(50) of 7.8 μg/mℓ. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of C. uncinulata, Hypoxis latifolia, E. autumnalis and Lantana camara had lower cytotoxic effects on the cancer cell lines tested with IC(50) values ranging from 24.8 to 44.1 μg/mℓ; while all the fractions of Aloe arborescens and A. striatula had insignificant or no cytotoxic effects after 72 h of treatment. Our results indicate that the methanol fraction of E. autumnalis had a profound cytotoxic effect even though it possessed very significant antibacterial activity. This puts a query on its safety and hence a call for caution in its usage, thus a product being natural is not tantamount to being entirely safe. However, the antibacterial

  18. Air quality effects of South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed Cope power plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of preliminary determination prepared by the South Carolina bureau of air quality control for the South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed cope...

  19. Micropropagation of Cyclopia genistoides, an endemic South African plant of economic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Hering, Anna; Ochocka, Renata; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Bucinski, Adam; Sowinski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol of Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent., an indigenous South African shrub of economic importance, was established. In vitro shoot cultures were obtained from shoot tip fragments of sterile seedlings cultured on solid Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with 9.84 microM 6-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP) and 1.0 microM thidiazuron (TDZ). Maximum shoot multiplication rate [(8.2 +/- 1.3) microshoots/explant)] was observed on this medium composition. Prior to rooting, the multiplied shoots were elongated for 60 days (two 30-days passages) on SH medium with one-half sucrose concentration, supplemented with 4.92 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The rooting of explants was only possible in the case of the elongated shoots. The highest root induction rate (54.8%) was achieved on solid SH medium with one-half sucrose and one-half potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate concentration, respectively, supplemented with 28.54 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 260.25 microM citric acid. The plantlets were acclimatized for 30 days in the glasshouse, with the use of peat/gravel/perlite substrate (1:1:1). The highest acclimatization rate (80%) was obtained for explants rooted with the use of IAA-supplemented medium. The phytochemical profile of the regenerated plants was similar to that of the reference intact plant material. HPLC analyses showed that C. genistoides plantlets obtained by the micropropagation procedure kept the ability to produce xanthones (mangiferin and isomangiferin) and the flavanone hesperidin, characteristic of wild-growing shrubs.

  20. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  1. Design and Performance of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant Mixed Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Baydulin, V.; Zhukov, A. I.; Latorre, Richard

    2011-09-24

    In 2010, 42 Westinghouse fuel assemblies (WFAs) were loaded into the core of South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP) Unit 3 after four successful cycles with 6 Westinghouse Lead Test Assemblies. The scope of safety substantiating documents required for the regulatory approval of this mixed core was extended considerably, particularly with development and implementation of new methodologies and 3-D kinetic codes. Additional verification for all employed codes was also performed. Despite the inherent hydraulic non-uniformity of a mixed core, it was possible to demonstrate that all design and operating restrictions for three different types of fuel (TVS-M, TVSA and WFA) loaded in the core were conservatively met. This paper provides the main results from the first year of operation of the core loaded with 42 WFAs, the predicted parameters for the transition and equilibrium cycles with WFAs, comparisons of predicted versus measured core parameters, as well as the acceptable margin evaluation results for reactivity accidents using the 3-D kinetic codes. To date WFA design parameters have been confirmed by operation experience.

  2. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis.

  3. Updated national emission of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Yu-Mi; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide emission estimate of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is required to understand the source-receptor relationship of PFASs and to manage major types of WWTPs. In this study, the concentrations of 13 PFASs (8 perfluorocarboxylic acids, 3 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, and 2 intermediates) in wastewater and sludge from 81 WWTPs in South Korea were collected. The emission pathways of PFASs were redefined, and then the national emission of PFASs from WWTPs was rigorously updated. In addition to the direct calculations, Monte Carlo simulations were also used to calculate the likely range of PFAS emissions. The total (Σ13PFAS) emission (wastewater + sludge) calculated from the direct calculation with mean concentrations was 4.03 ton/y. The emissions of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.19 ton/y) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 1.01 ton/y) were dominant. The Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the realistic national emission of Σ13PFASs is between 2 ton/y and 20 ton/y. Combined WWTPs treating municipal wastewater from residential and commercial areas were identified as a major emission source, contributing 65% to the total PFAS emissions. The Han and Nakdong Rivers were the primary contaminated rivers, receiving 89% of the total PFAS discharge from WWTPs. The results and methodologies in this study can be useful to establish a management policy for PFASs.

  4. Ionic composition and levels of acidity in rainfall in Maracaibo, Venezuela, between 1989 and 2001; Composicion ionica y niveles de acidez de las lluvias en Maracaibo, Venezuela, entre 1989 y 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Ligbel; Morales, Jose; Velasquez, Harvi; Portillo, Dennis; Cano, Yulixis; Montilla, Brinolfo; Iriarte, Nelkis, Mesa, Johan [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ligbels@hotmail.com

    2009-08-15

    The atmospheric gases and aerosols coming from various natural and anthropogenic emissions are incorporated into raindrops through various physicochemical processes during rain events. Knowledge of the chemical composition of precipitation is critical to understand regional and local air pollution and its effects on the ecosystems. Sulfur, nitrogen and chlorine compounds are mainly involved in rain acidity production as acidic or potentially acidic species. An important factor in the acid-base characteristics of rain is the emission of alkaline materials such as calcium-magnesium carbonates and ammonia, generally found as a vapour responsible to sulfuric and nitric acids neutralizing. Rain chemistry reported in this work originates from several sites of the city of Maracaibo and the rainwater samples were gathered in three periods between 1989 and 2001, using manual and automatic samplers. The different analyses were made using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin-Elmer 3110 and an ion chromatography equipment with a conductivity detector, Dionex 2000i/SP. The pH-PPV in Maracaibo rainwater was 4.8, indicating an atmosphere lightly acid and influenced by SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} in 86 %. NH{sub 3} is the most important neutralizing species, though the concentrations of Ca{sup +2} and Mg{sup +2} are additional contributions to atmospheric neutralizing process. The major flow of wet deposition was exhibited by NH{sub 4}{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} with 67.5 %. Statistically, a high correlation was found between SO{sub 4}{sup *}, Cl{sup *} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions with the H{sup +} ion (p<0.05), ratifying its influence in the acidity of Maracaibo's rain. It is concluded that a small fraction of the acid potentially ions contributes to free acidity of the rains, due to the neutralizing capacity of NH{sub 3}, Ca{sup *} and Mg{sup *}. [Spanish] Los gases y aerosoles atmosfericos, desde varias fuentes

  5. [Two hundred and sixty eigth medicinal plants used to fertility control in some countries of South America (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorero, R M; Schvartzman, B

    1975-01-01

    A review is made of the various anthropological, botanical and empirical medical papers from a number of the countries of the South-American continent, whose populations use medical plants for fertility control. Also included is a field research conducted among indigenous and rural populations of Paraguay. The scientific name, family and common name 268 plants are described. With each plant, the country and type of population (indigenous or rural) using same is stated, as well as their empiric properties attributed to same and the name of the author. Comments are made upon the background related to the use of said plants at the level of the American indigenous, world folkloric and Paraguayan indigenous & folkloric medicine. Emphasis is given to the significance of these data on contraceptives, abortives, sterilization and fertilization agents of vegetal origin, due to their value for future research in the physiology and clinic of reproduction.

  6. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna

    2011-01-01

    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  7. Site Plan Safety Submission for Sampling, Monitoring, and Decontamination of Mustard Agent - South Plant, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    South Plant - Mustard 3-1 U.S. Army O.t t, G B 1 NORTH PLANT tpit ,1~~ TRASH I I . REA~TR $ESDI *O~t’.ST RATA ’.ION o~cp’.Rim "I . V RU MRO AR SlISS...cause anemia and hemopoetic system disturbances, kidney damage, central nervous system damage, and reproductive problems (decreased sperm production...Constipation. (7) Abdominal pains. (8) Decreased appetite. (9) Irritability. (d) Symptoms: Long Term Effects: (1) Anemia . (2) Pallor. (3) Lead line on gums

  8. Organic geochemistry of heavy/extra heavy oils from sidewall cores, Lower Lagunillas Member, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venenzuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocco, R.; Alberdi, M. [PDVSA-Inteveo S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2002-10-01

    The study of 22 oils from sidewall cores taken at different depths in the Lower Lagunillas Member, well LSJ-AB, Tia Juana Field, Maracaibo Lake is presented, with the purpose of predicting the intervals that present the best crude oil quality. Differences were detected in the biodegradation levels of the studied samples, which are correlated with the depth at which the sidewall core was taken. The API gravity was considered for the oils from each sidewall core and it was found that toward the top of the sequence, the oils have an API gravity of 10.6-11.2{sup o}C, while toward the base part of the sequence, the well produces extra heavy oils with an API gravity that varies between 8.2 and 8.7{sup o}. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Estrategias de marketing para el gobierno electrónico de la Alcaldía de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derlisiret Rincón M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como propósito elaborar estrategias de marketing digital en el sector educación para el Gobierno Electrónico de la Alcaldía del Municipio Maracaibo, para ello se empleó una investigación descriptiva, de campo, transversal y no experimental. La información primaria se recabó mediante la aplicación de dos entrevistas una abierta y otra semiestructurada realizadas a un informante clave dentro de la Alcaldía de Maracaibo, y a los directores de los tres grandes sectores de la educación: públicos, subvencionados y privados, respectivamente. El estudio arrojó que el77%de la muestra desconoce el llamado Gobierno Electrónico, pues la Alcaldía carece de las herramientas y esfuerzos promocionales para comunicar las bondades de este nuevo servicio. Por ello, se ha recomendado implementar una la plataforma tecnológica en los colegios para fortalecer y dar a conocer el gobierno en línea de la alcaldía del municipio, mediante la promoción y la publicidad digital, así como la publicidad y promoción convencional para relacionar a los jóvenes con los beneficios de un servicio característico de las sociedades del siglo XXI. Finalmente, se plantean varias estrategias a fin de darle respuesta al objetivo general de esta investigación.

  10. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Asnake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0% used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4% was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80. The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values.

  11. Topo-edaphic controls over woody plant biomass in South African savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Colgan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of woody biomass in savannas reflects spatial patterns fundamental to ecosystem processes, such as water flow, competition, and herbivory, and is a key contributor to savanna ecosystem services, such as fuelwood supply. While total precipitation sets an upper bound on savanna woody biomass, the extent to which substrate and terrain constrain trees and shrubs below this maximum remains poorly understood, often occluded by local-scale disturbances such as fire and trampling. Here we investigate the role of hillslope topography and soil properties in controlling woody plant aboveground biomass (AGB in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Large-area sampling with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provided a means to average across local-scale disturbances, revealing an unexpectedly linear relationship between AGB and hillslope-position on basalts, where biomass levels were lowest on crests, and linearly increased toward streams (R2 = 0.91. The observed pattern was different on granite substrates, where AGB exhibited a strongly non-linear relationship with hillslope position: AGB was high on crests, decreased midslope, and then increased near stream channels (R2 = 0.87. Overall, we observed 5-to-8-fold lower AGB on clayey, basalt-derived soil than on granites, and we suggest this is due to herbivore-fire interactions rather than lower hydraulic conductivity or clay shrinkage/swelling, as previously hypothesized. By mapping AGB within and outside fire and herbivore exclosures, we found that basalt-derived soils support tenfold higher AGB in the absence of fire and herbivory, suggesting high clay content alone is not a proximal limitation on AGB. Understanding how fire and herbivory contribute to AGB heterogeneity is critical to predicting future savanna carbon storage under a changing climate.

  12. Topo-edaphic controls over woody plant biomass in South African savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Colgan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of woody biomass in savannas reflects spatial patterns fundamental to ecosystem processes, such as water flow, competition, and herbivory, and is a key contributor to savanna ecosystem services, such as fuelwood supply. While total precipitation sets an upper bound on savanna woody biomass, the extent to which substrate and terrain constrain trees and shrubs below this maximum remains poorly understood, often occluded by local-scale disturbances such as fire and trampling. Here we investigate the role of hillslope topography and soil properties in controlling woody plant aboveground biomass (AGB in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Large-area sampling with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provided a means to average across local-scale disturbances, revealing an unexpectedly linear relationship between AGB and hillslope-position on basalts, where biomass levels were lowest on crests, and linearly increased toward streams (R2 = 0.91. The observed pattern was different on granite substrates, where AGB exhibited a strongly non-linear relationship with hillslope position: AGB was high on crests, decreased midslope, and then increased near stream channels (R2 = 0.87. Overall, we observed 5-to-8-fold lower AGB on clayey, basalt-derived soil than on granites, and we suggest this is due to herbivore-fire interactions rather than lower hydraulic conductivity or clay shrinkage/swelling, as previously hypothesized. By mapping AGB within and outside fire and herbivore exclosures, we found that basalt-derived soils support tenfold higher AGB in the absence of fire and herbivory, suggesting high clay content alone is not a~proximal limitation on AGB. Understanding how fire and herbivory contribute to AGB heterogeneity is critical to predicting future savanna carbon storage under a changing climate.

  13. Urinary levels of bisphenol analogues in residents living near a manufacturing plant in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjia; Guan, Jian; Yin, Jie; Shao, Bing; Li, Hong

    2014-10-01

    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) has been restricted in many countries because of its potential health effects. As a result of these restrictions, a group of bisphenol analogues that are structurally similar to BPA have been developed as the alternatives for industrial applications. However, latest researches indicated that these chemicals have similar endocrine-disrupting effects as BPA in humans. Moreover, only a limited number of studies have attempted to monitor the exposure level in humans of other bisphenol analogues. In the present study, the concentrations of seven bisphenols, including bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF), tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), in human urine samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronidase/arylsulfatase and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Under the optimised conditions, high recoveries (81.6-116.8%) were obtained for all the analytes, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, %) were less than 16.4% (n=6). The isotopic internal standard calibration curves for each of the target compounds exhibited excellent linearity (r(2)>0.99) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the analytes in urine ranged from 0.024 to 0.310 ng mL(-1). The method was applied to investigate the urinary levels of these seven bisphenols in a cohort of residents living near a BPAF manufacturing plant in south China. BPS, BPF, BPA and BPAF were detected in urine samples at concentrations ranging from

  14. Pharmacological, genotoxic and phytochemical properties of selected South African medicinal plants used in treating stomach-related ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okem, A; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2012-02-15

    The evaluated medicinal plants are used in South African traditional medicine in treating stomach-related ailments. The study aimed at evaluating the pharmacological, genotoxic and phytochemical properties of the seven selected medicinal plants used for treating stomach-related ailments. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc), ethanol (EtOH) 70% and water extracts of the selected plant parts were evaluated for their antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities using microdilution assays. Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and Candida albicans were used for antimicrobial assays. Caenorhabditis elegans was used for the anthelmintic assay. Plant extracts were also assayed for their cyclooxygenase-inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 enzymes. The Ames test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of the plant extracts. A spectrophotometric method was used to determine the total phenolics, gallotannins, flavonoids and saponins. Twelve extracts exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strains, and five extracts exhibited MIC plant extracts were non-mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100 and TA1537 without metabolic activation. Phytochemical analysis revealed relatively high amounts of total phenolics, gallotannins and flavonoids in the evaluated plant extracts. The general pharmacological activities exhibited by some of the plant extracts in this study support the traditional uses of the selected plants in treating stomach-related ailments. The Ames test showed that all the plant extracts were non-mutagenic but cytotoxicity tests are needed to ascertain the safety for long-term consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Responses of plant functional traits and soil factors to slope aspect in alpine meadow of South Gansu, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-Xi, Liu; Jian-Zu, Ma

    2012-12-01

    This paper studied the plant functional traits, soil factors, and their relationships at different slope aspects in the alpine meadow of South Gansu. On the sunny slope, grasses were the dominant functional groups; while on the shady slope, forbs and shrubs dominated. The plant community biomass was significantly higher on shady slope than on sunny slope, while the leaf N/P ratio was in adverse. The leaf phosphorus content, specific leaf area, and plant average height at different slope aspects were in the order of shady slope > partial shady slope > sunny slope, whereas the leaf nitrogen content on different slopes had less difference. The survival strategies of the vegetations on sunny and shady slopes had great changes, reflecting in the differences in the plant leaf traits and dominant functional groups. Soil temperature was in the order of sunny slope > partial shady slope > shady slope, while soil water content was in the order of shady slope > partial shady slope > sunny slope. Soil total phosphorus content increased from the sunny slope to the shady slope, while the other soil nutrients contents showed the sequence of shady slope > sunny slope > partial shady slope. The specific leaf area and plant average height were significantly positively correlated to the soil organic carbon, total phosphorous, and water contents, and significantly negatively correlated to soil pH. Soil water content and soil pH co-affected the distribution patterns of plant functional traits and soil nutrients at different slope aspects of alpine meadow.

  16. [Transmission of tomato Venezuela virus by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romay, Gustavo; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Chirinos, Dorys T; Morales, Francisco; Herrera, Emilio; Fernández, Carlos; Martínez, Ana K

    2010-01-01

    The biological transmission of Tomato Venezuela virus (ToVEV) by biotype B of the whitefly species Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) increased (21.7-95.0%), and the time for symptom expression decreased (16-12.6 days) as the number of viruliferous whiteflies allowed access for inoculation to susceptible tomato plants increased from 1 to 20 adults/plant. When acquired only as a nymph, adults of this biotype transmitted the virus to 88.3% of susceptible tomato plants, using 15 viruliferous individuals per test plant, corroborating the circulative nature of the transmission. Disease incidence further increased (up to 100%) when the individuals were allowed to feed again on a virus-infected plant as adults. Leaf area, plant height and dry matter were significantly affected in ToVEV infected tomato plants.

  17. Effects of litter removal on plant species diversity: a case study in tropical Eucalyptus forest ecosystems in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The removal of litterfall in the Eucalyptus plantations in south China affected the plant biodiversity in these ecosystems was found based on the field observation and lab analysis. The protection times of species diversity of three Eucalyptus communities were different (Community I with no protection, Community II with 7-year-protection, Community III with 35-year-protection). The total numbers of species in these communities (from Community I to II to III) are 1, 6, and 17, respectively. The results showed that the protection of litterfall from being taken out of the ecosystem is important and can increase plant species diversity. This study combined biomass data, the chemical and physical properties of the soil, and the diversity of microbes in the communities. It is concluded that the mechanism of the effects of litter removal on biodiversity includes three factors: removing the suitable habitat of microbe and animal, decreasing the soil nutrient, and changing the special habitat for the germination and growth of invading plants. These results should have important implications for managing these Eucalyptus forest ecosystems in South China.

  18. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kaisarun; Barnes, Emma C; Brophy, Joseph J; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia.

  19. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisarun Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia.

  20. National-scale strategic approaches for managing introduced plants: insights from Australian acacias in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Wilgen, BW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia species in South Africa (c. 70 species introduced, mostly > 150 years ago; some have commercial and other values; 14 species are invasive, causing substantial ecological and economic damage). The authors consider options for combining available...

  1. Grey Relational Analysis on the Effects of Rainfall Factors on Runoff and Sediment in the Sloping Farmland with Different Plants in the Central South of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the main rainfall factors influencing runoff and sediment in the sloping farmland with different plants in the central south of Shandong Province.[Method] Through grey relational analysis,the effects of different rainfall factors on runoff and sediment with different plants in the central south of Shandong were studied.[Result] In the sloping farmland with different plants,the effects of rainfall factors on runoff and sediment weren't consistent.Rainfall was the dominant inf...

  2. Anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activities of some traditional Chinese medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo, S.S.M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for relief and treatment of ailments dating back thousands of years and continues to the present day, with rapidly increasing interest in evidence-based evaluation of its efficacy. Studies of TCM plants have demonstrated that several have antimicrobial properties but few have explored their anti-quorum sensing potential. Quorum sensing (QS, also known as bacterial cell-to-cell communication, is used by a number of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the regulation of virulence expression. Compounds that interfere with QS signals and attenuate bacterial virulence without killing them may offer an alternative therapeutic solution with less pressure of antibiotic resistance developing. This study screened TCM plants for anti-quorum sensing properties and antimicrobial activities.Methodology and Results: Twenty TCM plants commonly used in South-East Asia were screened for QS inhibitors using two biomonitor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Ten of these selected TCM plant (50% were found to have QS inhibitory properties: Angelica sinensis (Umbelliferae, Cnidium monnieri (Umbelliferae, Astragalus membranaceus (Leguminosae, Crataegus cuneata (Rosaceae, Dioscorea nipponica (Dioscoreaceae, Lilium brownii (Liliaceae, Aloe barbadensis (Liliaceae, Magnolia officinalis (Magnoliaceae, Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae and Panax pseudoginseng (Araliaceae. Of these, six (30% also showed varying antimicrobial activity against C. violaceum and P. aeruginosa.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results suggest that traditional Chinese medicinal plants could be a prospective source to explore for useful compounds in the fight against bacterial infections.

  3. Invasive alien plants in Croatia as a threat to biodiversity of South-Eastern Europe: distributional patterns and range size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Toni; Mitić, Božena; Milašinović, Boris; Jelaska, Sven D

    2013-02-01

    During the analysis of alien and invasive flora of Europe, as a threat to biodiversity, data for Croatia were missing. The aim of our research was to analyse distributional patterns and range size of all invasive alien plants (64) for the state area (57,000 km(2)). They were detected on 49% of the state territory, averaging five taxa per 35 km(2). The greatest number of invasive plants (>30 per grid cell) was recorded in the major urban centres, increasing in the south-east direction and reflecting positive correlation with temperature and negative with altitude. The most endangered areas are in the Mediterranean region, especially on islands. The number of invasive plants increased with habitat diversity and almost 75% of all sites with invasive plants are located within a few habitats with direct anthropogenic influence. The results should provide a reliable regional and global basis for strategic planning regarding invasive alien plants management. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montesano Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’, one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy. Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L. as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge.

  5. An inventory of medicinal plants traded on the western boundary of the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Botha

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation estimates that traditional medicine still plays a vital role in the lives of 70-80 of the populations of developing countries. Approximately 20 000 tons of medicinal plants are estimated to be traded in South Africa annually, resulting in considerable pressure on the wild populations from which these plants are harvested. In 1997, a study was initiated to assess the extent of trade in medicinal plants on the western boundary of the Kruger National Park, and to determine local perceptions of the availability and values of these plants. This paper presents an inventory of the species traded, including vendors' and traders' perceptions of current availability of species and consumer demand, as well as price/kg. In Mpumalanga, 176 species were identified (71 of the vernacular names encountered in the market place, representing 69 families. In Northern Province, 70 different species were identified (84 of the ver-nacular names recorded in the markets, representing 40 families. Perceptions of availability of a species varied considerably, often within the same markets. Perceptions of demand tended to be more consistent, although these also sometimes varied. Although monitoring markets is an efficient means of assessing the conservation status of medicinal plants, it is important to select appropriate parameters. Markets often differ from one another, and an understanding of local conditions is crucial. For example, in the medicinal markets on the western boundary of the Kruger National Park, price/kg and market perceptions of availability of species were highly variable and would thus not provide a consistent monitoring parameter. Perceptions of demand provide an indication of current and potential pressure on a species, particularly when combined with the monitoring of species traded, and the introduction of substitutes in the market place. The size of plant parts traded could also provide useful monitoring data. It is

  6. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 12. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-inhabiting nematodes, including plant-parasitic nematodes, are considered to be the most abundant multicellular organisms in the soil, and of particular interest since they are an integral part of the interlocking chain of nutrient conversions. Because of their abundance and relative susceptibility to both physical and chemical changes, these organisms are used as indicator organisms. The National Collection of Nematodes (NCN consists of a core collection, the Meloidogyne Collection and the Juan Heyns Collection, which are housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council in Pretoria. Vast amounts of biodiversity data are contained in NCN, and the digitising of the collection from 2007 to 2014 yielded unpublished locality information, especially datasets of plant nematodes reported from protected areas of the Eastern Cape. Two hundred and thirty plant nematode species belonging to 36 genera were reported from the Eastern Cape. Of these, only 80 were from protected areas, whilst 163 were from uncultivated areas (outside protected areas and 148 from cultivated areas. Ten species were described from protected areas, namely Criconemoides silvicola, Meloinema silvicola, Ogma tuberculatum, Paralongidorus cebensis, Paralongidorus hanliae, Scutellonema tsitsikamense, Trichodorus vandenbergae, Xiphinema erriae, Xiphinema ornatizulu and Xiphinema simplex. Only M. silvicola, O. tuberculatum, P. cebensis and S. tsitsikamense were not reported from other provinces, suggesting endemism.Conservation implications: The diversity of nematode fauna is not adequately protected as most nematode biodiversity in the Eastern Cape lies outside protected areas, with only 80 of the 230 plant-feeding nematode species in the province being reported from protected areas.

  7. Plants diversity and its potential in Buton Utara Game Reserve, South-East Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAN UJI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Study on richness diversity and potential species of plant in two locations in the Buton Utara Game Reserve had been conducted. One hundred and seventy nine species of plant are collected from this area, and 137 species of them are reported as the potential of species. The largest group is timber (76 species and the other is medicinal plants (41 species. Other data can be gathered as follows 23 species of fruits, 22 species of ornamental plants, 12 species of vegetable, 7 species of fibre plants and 5 species of poisonous plants. The results of study indicated that biti/owala (Vitex coffasus, upi (Intsia palembanica, gufi (Intsia bijuga, nato (Palaquium bataanense, kuru (Elmerillia ovalis, keu uti (Drypetes sibuyanensis, rumbai (Pterospermum celebicum, kondongia (Cinnamomum parthenoxylon, and dongi (Dillenia serrata were very important as commercial timbers.

  8. 77 FR 36996 - South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliff, Kemper County Integrated Gasification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Cooperative: Plant Ratcliff, Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) Project AGENCY: Rural... Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) Project currently under construction in Kemper County,...

  9. Plant species first recognised as naturalised or naturalising for New South Wales in 2004 and 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, John R.; Conn, Barry J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.; Barker, Clive H.

    2013-01-01

    Information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of 62 taxa of naturalised or naturalising plantsm newly recorded for the state of New South Wales during the period 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2005 and 1 species treated in the 2002 revised Flora of New South Wales Volume 2 but overlooked in an earlier paper of this series. Of these taxa, 17 are new records for Australia (prefaced with a †). The 62 taxa are: Acer palmatum, †Acer saccharinum, Achillea filipendulina, Acokanthera oblon...

  10. Investigating South African plants as a source of new antimalarial drugs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ; Izbosarov et al., 2000) but this (Pillay et al., 2007b) was the first report of any of them having antiplasmodial properties. Salvia species (sage) is well known as a folk-medicine and is used to treat fevers and digestive disorders in South Africa... antimalarial (Lopes et al., 1999) and cytotoxic properties (van Zyl and Viljoen, 2003). In a recent follow-up study (Kamatou et al., 2008) solvent extracts of seventeen Salvia species (Lamiaceae) used in traditional medicine in South Africa were...

  11. Loss of a large grazer impacts savanna grassland plant communities similarly in North America and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Stephanie; Burkepile, Deron E; Fynn, Richard W S; Burns, Catherine E; Govender, Navashni; Hagenah, Nicole; Koerner, Sally E; Matchett, Katherine J; Thompson, Dave I; Wilcox, Kevin R; Collins, Scott L; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knapp, Alan K; Smith, Melinda D

    2014-05-01

    Large herbivore grazing is a widespread disturbance in mesic savanna grasslands which increases herbaceous plant community richness and diversity. However, humans are modifying the impacts of grazing on these ecosystems by removing grazers. A more general understanding of how grazer loss will impact these ecosystems is hampered by differences in the diversity of large herbivore assemblages among savanna grasslands, which can affect the way that grazing influences plant communities. To avoid this we used two unique enclosures each containing a single, functionally similar large herbivore species. Specifically, we studied a bison (Bos bison) enclosure at Konza Prairie Biological Station, USA and an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) enclosure in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Within these enclosures we erected exclosures in annually burned and unburned sites to determine how grazer loss would impact herbaceous plant communities, while controlling for potential fire-grazing interactions. At both sites, removal of the only grazer decreased grass and forb richness, evenness and diversity, over time. However, in Kruger these changes only occurred with burning. At both sites, changes in plant communities were driven by increased dominance with herbivore exclusion. At Konza, this was caused by increased abundance of one grass species, Andropogon gerardii, while at Kruger, three grasses, Themeda triandra, Panicum coloratum, and Digitaria eriantha increased in abundance.

  12. Uptake of radionuclide thorium by twelve native plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils from south part of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xun, E-mail: m13836295186@163.com

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Screen dominant plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils. • Quantify the content of {sup 232}Th of soil samples from uranium mill tailings. • Quantify the transfer factor, bioconcentration factor and phytoremediation factor. • Screen out the plant species capable of remediating radionuclide contaminated soils. • Guide the reuse of study area in future. - Abstract: The concentrations of thorium ({sup 232}Th) in soil from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. The results showed that all the soil samples were acidic and the concentrations of {sup 232}Th in all the soil samples were more than the natural radionuclide content in soil of China. Through the field investigation, twelve kinds of dominant plants were discovered. The total quantity of {sup 232}Th in the whole plant is highest in rice flat sedge. We also found that Miscanthus floridulus has the greatest transfer factor (TF) for {sup 232}Th, rice flat sedge has the greatest bioconcentration factor (BF) for {sup 232}Th. At the mean time, M. floridulus has the greatest phytoremediation factor (PF) for {sup 232}Th. On the basis of the above conclusions and the definition for hyperaccumulator, rice flat sedge and M. floridulus could be the candidates of phytoremediation for radionuclide {sup 232}Th in the soil.

  13. Genotypic detection and evaluation of the removal efficiency of Giardia duodenalis at municipal wastewater treatment plants in Northern South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, A; Ntekele, P

    2014-03-01

    Over the past decade, Giardia duodenalis has increasingly been implicated in diarrheal outbreaks and water and wastewater have been recognized as important vehicles for diseases. Although studies have reported the occurrence of these parasites in developed countries, their occurrence in water and wastewater bodies in these countries including South Africa has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, wastewater samples from 6 different sewage treatment plants in the Vhembe District were collected for a period of 12 months. The samples were concentrated and tested for the presence of G. duodenalis using both microscopy and polymerase chain reaction methods targeting the tpi gene. Of the 79 wastewater samples tested, 25 (31.65%) were positive. Of these, 15 (60%) were assemblage A, while 8 (32%) were assemblage B and 2 samples (8%) were positive for both genogroups. Assemblage A was more common in February 2010 while assemblage B showed two peaks in December-January and March-April and was not detected in May 2010. The general removal rate was 40% for plants using biological filters and 20% for plants using activated sludge. The present study has shown that Giardia assemblage A is more common in sewage treatment plants in the Vhembe District, but the removal efficiency was low. This represents a public health hazard since these organisms might contaminate drinking water sources. Therefore action needs to be taken for the design of more effective procedures or methods for the removal of these parasites from the environment in order to avoid potential outbreaks.

  14. INTEGRACION SIMBOLICA. EL IMPACTO DE LA COMUNICACIÓN EN LA CREACION DEL TEJIDO SOCIAL DE MARACAIBO, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Romero Salazar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo revisa las ideas formuladas acerca de la integración social. Se plantea desde la perspectiva de la comunicación, buscando establecer cómo ésta interviene en el proceso de formación de la cohesión social, en el ámbito específico de la sociedad marabina. Se trabaja con un enfoque teórico plural y se construye un modelo de análisis a partir de la comparación entre las realidades materiales y simbólicas, en Maracaibo. Dos conclusiones relevantes son: primero, que la potencialidad tecnológica de los medios y su capacidad para generar una amplia gratificación sobre la audiencia contribuye a matizar las carencias materiales y las contradicciones sociales. Segundo, en la actualidad la exigencia de construir ciudadanía supone un ejercicio que se sustente en condiciones de mayor igualdad en el intercambio comunicativo.

  15. Variations of Lipoprotein(a Levels in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Report from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet its influence on metabolic syndrome (MS is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact generated by this diagnosis in serum Lp(a concentrations. Materials and Methods. A total of 1807 subjects of both genders (55.3% women and 44.7% men belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study were evaluated. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD, determining differences through Student’s t-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized for analyzing factors associated with elevated serum Lp(a levels and MS. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were corrected according to Lp(a-Cholesterol when necessary. Results. No differences were found in Lp(a values between genders; P=0,292. The association between MS and the classification of Lp(a was statistically significant (χ2=28.33; P<0,0001, with greater levels in subjects with this diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, subjects with each of the separate diagnostic criteria showed higher serum Lp(a concentrations, except for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Lp(a values exhibit important variations regarding MS and each of its components. Impaired fasting glucose appeared as a protecting factor against elevated Lp(a concentrations, whereas its association with LDL-C and hs-CRP suggests a potential pro-inflammatory role.

  16. Magnitude of fluid movement and rates of cementation associated with reverse faults Examples from the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R. J.; Boles, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    Magnitude of vertical fluid movement and rates of quartz cementation were studied in three cored intervals where reverse faults cut the Eocene Misoa Fm in the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. The faults are flower type structures, with slips up to 500 meters, generated by an Eocene inversion of Cretaceous-Paleocene normal displacements. The fault zones extend 2.5 meters away from the slip surface and are characterized by extensive quartz and chert precipitation associated with microfractures and cataclasis. Kinetic modeling of quartz precipitation suggests that the rates of microfracture annealing may have been initially up to 0.25 moles/C, lasting approximately 1 my after faulting started (37.5 mya) and subsequently decreasing during uplifting to less than 0.05 moles/C. Kinetic modeling suggests that quartz cementation along these reverse faults may have occurred in short periods of time and at approximately the same or lower rates than intervals away from faults. Minimum vertical distance of fluid flow along one fault zone was calculated with two different approaches. The first method divides the thermal gradient present during faulting (obtained through a thermal reconstruction of the area) by a difference between the host rock maximum burial temperature and fault cements temperatures (obtained from fluid inclusions). The second method integrates an average-weight function of the thermal gradient along the unknown depth. Both methods suggest that hot fluids, present during cementation, ascended a minimum of 450 to 800 meter along the fault zone.

  17. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  18. Etnografía del Rito: sintaxis e isotopía funeraria del velorio en Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Montilla

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza la información etnográfica recogida en sirte velorios observados durante el período 1999-2003. Por sus especiales características se hará particular énfasis en un velorio realizado en Maracaibo en 1999, el cual combina el rito católico tradicional con el de un grupo de vasallos de San Benito, un culto religioso muy extendido en Venezuela. Gracias a la asistencia y participación en el rito fue posible entrevistar también a varios informantes sobre los componentes de este ritual mixto. El rito fue dividido en secuencias con un doble propósito: establecer sus componentes fundamentales y, luego, hacer un inventario de los principales valores semánticos investidos en el rito, a fin de elaborar un modelo de sus isotopías fundamentales. También se analizan brevemente algunos de los valores sociales que el rito actualiza. La investigación utiliza como fundamento teórico el modelo semiótico de A.J. Greimas, la teoría del símbolo de Turner y la Antropología de la muerte de Thomas.

  19. Synthane Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Pennsylvania. Run report No. 2-DB: operating period September 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the operation of the Synthane Coal Gasification Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania from September 1977 through September 1978. The facility is owned by the United States Government and operated by C-E Lummus. Test Directive No. 2-DB directed the plant be operated with Illinois No. 6 coal from the River King Mine of the Peabody Coal Company at a pressure of 600 psig. Concurrent pretreater/gasifier operation was to take place at coal feed rates from 1.5 to 2.5 tons/hour. Gas was produced for 182 hours and 1,100 tons of coal were fed to the pretreater and gasifier. Continuous operation of up to 56 hours and carbon conversions based on char of up to 72% were achieved. This successful operation demonstrates that coal gasification via the Synthane Process is viable. Additional data are required for the design of a commercial facility; however, the data obtained to date are adequate to recommend improvements and modifications to the Synthane Process Pilot Plant to increase on stream time efficiency. The successful operation of the pilot plant with Illinois No. 6 coal demonstrates the feasibility of the Synthane Pilot Plant to process a caking type of coal. The ability to successfully pretreat a caking coal at high pressure in a plant of this size is a first and a direct result of the successful operation of the Synthane Process. Other similar type processes operated to date require pretreatment of a caking coal at atmospheric pressure with little or no recovery of the gases or heat produced during pretreatment.

  20. The South African and Namibian populations of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolius are genetically distinct and display variation in their galloylquinic acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John P; Farrant, Jill M; Lindsey, George G; Brandt, Wolf F

    2005-12-01

    The polyphenol contents and compositions in desiccated leaves of Myrothamnus flabellifolius plants collected in various locations in Namibia and South Africa were analyzed using UV spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A study of the genetic relatedness of these populations was also performed by determination of the DNA sequence of the intergenic spacer region between the psbA and the trnH genes in the chloroplast genome. Namibian M. flabellifolius plants contained significantly more polyphenols than South African plants. Namibian plants essentially contained a single polyphenol, 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylquinic acid, whereas South African plants contained a variety of galloylquinic acids including 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylquinic acid together with higher molecular weight galloylquinic acids. Sequence analysis revealed a 1.4% divergence between Namibian and South African plants corresponding to the separation of these populations of approximately 4 x 10(6) years. The significance of the poly-phenol content and composition to the desiccation tolerance of the two populations is discussed.

  1. A lexicon of plants traded in the Witwatersrand umuthi shops, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Williams

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available At least 511 medicinal plant species are traded commercially in 50 Witwatersrand  umuthi shops. The plants are listedalphabetically by genus and common (vernacular name. The orthographic vernacular names, as well as the orthographicvariations in these names, are incorporated into the list. Annotations include the plant family, the number of umuthi shopsstocking the species, the language of the common name, and the plant part traded. The plant family in the region which hasthe highest number of species and infraspecific taxa in trade is Liliaceae  sensu lato., followed in descending order by  Fabaceae, Asteraceae. Euphorbiaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Approximately 88.6% of the vernacular names are in Zulu. Themean number of umuthi shops per species is 12.3. ranging from 1 to 41. Three hundred and fifty three species (69.2% occurin the four northern provinces, and 23 species are listed as threatened on the Red Data List.

  2. A lexicon of plants traded in the Witwatersrand umuthi shops, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Williams

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available At least 511 medicinal plant species are traded commercially in 50 Witwatersrand  umuthi shops. The plants are listedalphabetically by genus and common (vernacular name. The orthographic vernacular names, as well as the orthographicvariations in these names, are incorporated into the list. Annotations include the plant family, the number of umuthi shopsstocking the species, the language of the common name, and the plant part traded. The plant family in the region which hasthe highest number of species and infraspecific taxa in trade is Liliaceae  sensu lato., followed in descending order by  Fabaceae, Asteraceae. Euphorbiaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Approximately 88.6% of the vernacular names are in Zulu. Themean number of umuthi shops per species is 12.3. ranging from 1 to 41. Three hundred and fifty three species (69.2% occurin the four northern provinces, and 23 species are listed as threatened on the Red Data List.

  3. Parasitosis intestinal, su relación con factores ambientales en niños del sector "Altos de Milagro", Maracaibo Intestinal parasitosis, its relation to environmental factors in children from the "Altos de Milagro", Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Espinosa Morales

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El parasitismo intestinal de conjunto con otras enfermedades infecciosas trasmisibles, constituye el motivo por el cual un gran número de pacientes acude a los consultorios populares en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela; dentro de ellos predominan los niños y adolescentes, debido a la pobre condición higiénico- sanitaria de las barriadas. OBJETIVO: Determinar la presencia de algunos factores ambientales condicionantes en niños parasitados, del sector "Altos de Milagro"Norte, Maracaibo estado Zulia, entre diciembre de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo para determinar el comportamiento de la parasitosis intestinal en los niños del sector y su relación con algunos factores ambientales, para lo cual se utilizó una encuesta realizada por la autora, con la finalidad de obtener la información relacionada con las diferentes variables a estudiar. RESULTADOS: Fueron atendidos 56 pacientes, 51,7 % representó al sexo masculino, este último fue el más parasitado con un 42,7 %, predominaron las edades comprendidas entre 1-4 años con 39,2 %, la disposición inadecuada de excretas estuvo presente en un 86,6 %, así como la presencia de vectores en un 94,6 %, y 26 pacientes consumían agua no tratada (57,8 %. CONCLUSIONES: Existió una elevada presencia de la enfermedad, el sexo masculino fue el más afectado; sin embargo no mostró diferencias significativas con el otro sexo. Predominó el grupo etario de 1-4 años. El alto porcentaje obtenido en los factores ambientales estudiados, mostró que fueron importantes en el comienzo, transmisión y propagación de la parasitosis. Se recomendó efectuar programas de intervención comunitaria que impidan o limiten la aparición de estas enfermedades.INTRODUCTION: The intestinal parasitism together with other transmissible and infectious disease is the reason by which many patients come to popular consulting rooms in the Bolivarian

  4. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  5. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root inhabitants of non-Ericaceae plants in a south-eastern Australian sclerophyll forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Susan M; Curlevski, Nathalie J A; Cairney, John W G

    2008-08-01

    Fungi were isolated from the roots of 17 plant species from the families Apiaceae, Cunoniaceae, Cyperaceae, Droseraceae, Fabaceae-Mimosoideae, Lomandraceae, Myrtaceae, Pittosporaceae, Proteaceae and Stylidiaceae at a sclerophyll forest site in New South Wales, Australia. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence comparisons indicated that the isolated fungi had affinities to a range of ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and zygomycetes. Four RFLP types had closest affinities to previously identified Helotiales ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) or Oidiodendron spp. Isolates representing six RFLP types, which were variously isolated from all 17 plant species, formed ERM coils in hair root epidermal cells of Woollsia pungens (Ericaceae) under gnotobiotic conditions. Three of these isolates formed intercellular hyphae, intracellular hyphae and/or microsclerotia, which are typical of dark septate endophyte infection, in roots of Stylidium productum (Stylidiaceae), indicating an ability to form different types of association with roots of different hosts. Overall the data indicate that a broad range of plant taxa may act as repositories for ERM fungi in sclerophyll forest soil.

  6. Plant phenological data and tree-rings as palaeoclimate indicators in south-west Finland since AD 1750.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Timonen, Mauri

    2006-09-01

    Plant phenological data and tree-rings were tested for their palaeoclimatic value in south-west Finland since AD 1750. The information from fragmentary, partly overlapping, partly non-systematically biased plant phenological records of 14 different phenomena (a total of 3,144 observations) was combined into one continuous time series of phenological indices. All site- and phenomenon-specific series were standardized to present an average of zero and standard deviation of one. The mean phenomenon-specific series were then averaged as arithmetic means for annually resolved time series representing the variability in the particular plant phenomenon. Consequently, each phenomenon-specific mean series was based on spatially normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other, living-tree and subfossil tree-rings, and to early and modern meteorological time series. Phenological indices showed strong positive correlation with February to June temperatures. On the other hand, the correlations between phenological indices and precipitation data were around zero. Analysis using time-dependent running correlations showed non-stationary relationship between the tree-rings and phenological indices and observed spring temperatures. The skill of phenological data for reconstructing the spring temperatures was statistically proved.

  7. Validation of Antimycobacterial Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Three Districts of the Limpopo Province (South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Masoko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to scientifically evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of selected indigenous medicinal plants from the Limpopo Province used for the treatment of humans with symptoms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The leaves of five plant species (Apodytes dimidiata, Artemisia, Combretum hereroense, Lippia javanica, and Zanthoxylum capense were collected from the Lowveld National Botanical Garden in Nelspruit, South Africa. The dried leaves were powdered and extracted using hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol. Antimycobacterial activity was evaluated using microdilution assay and bioautography and ρ-iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT as indicator. Antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Phytochemical content of extracts was further evaluated. The acetone extracts of L. javanica displayed antioxidant activity on BEA chromatogram. T Acetone extracts of A. afra had MIC value of 0.39 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 1441. Acetone extracts of C. hereroense and L. javanica had MIC value of 0.47 mg/mL. Four bands that inhibited the growth of M. smegmatis were observed at Rf values of 0.12, 0.63, and 0.87 on BEA and 0.73 on EMW. The plant species A. dimidiata, A. afra, C. hereroense, and L. javanica in this study demonstrated their potential as sources of anti-TB drug leads.

  8. La Campaña electoral local en Venezuela : (análisis comparativo de los comicios municipales de 2013 en la ciudad de Maracaibo)

    OpenAIRE

    Gámez Pérez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Este Trabajo Final de Máster se centra en el análisis comparativo de las campañas locales en Maracaibo, Venezuela, durante las elecciones municipales de 2013, intentando interpretar y comprender los elementos estratégicos de comunicación política y electoral que fueron aplicados por cada candidato y comandos de campaña, además de los resultados de estos comicios electorales. El TFM realiza un análisis documental cualitativo con perspectiva histórica, cuyo objetivo es comparar los mensajes y d...

  9. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Three Medicinal Plants of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamuna, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of Memecylon malabaricum Clarke. (leaves, Cochlospermum religiosum Linn. (leaves and flowers and Andrographis serpyllifolia Vahl. (leaves using the standard disc diffusion assay against eight strains of bacterial species, viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus sp. The extracts of the plants at a concentration of 1.25 mg/disc showed minimum to moderate activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria indicating a broad spectrum activity. A preliminary phytochemical screening was conducted on the selected plant extracts using standard qualitative procedures that revealed the presence of several secondary metabolites. The extracts failed to show antioxidant activity by reducing power assay. The result indicates the potential usefulness of these plants especially Memecylon malabaricum and Cochlospermum religiosum, in treating microbial infections in humans and plants and justifies the need for further investigations and characterization of the bioactive compounds present in the methanolic extracts of the plants.

  10. Cosmosperma polyloba gen. et sp. nov., a seed plant from the Upper Devonian of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Meng, Meicen; Xue, Jinzhuang; Liu, Tuo; Guo, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Seed plants with ovules were abundant in the Late Devonian of Euramerica and they contribute significantly to our understanding of their early history. However, coeval ovules have been scarce in other regions of the world. Specimens of the seed plant Cosmosperma polyloba gen. et sp. nov. Wang et al. were recently obtained from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Wutong Formation, at Fanwan Village, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China. This new seed plant has cupulate ovules, the uniovulate cupules with up to 16 distal segments and with minute spines on the outer surface, synangiate pollen organs bearing six to eight microsporangia fused only at the base, and planate and highly dissected pinnules in alternate arrangement. It differs from other Devonian seed plants mainly in the organization and position of the uniovulate and ornamented cupule, and in the highly dissected pinnules. Cosmosperma Wang et al. represents the first Devonian ovules recovered from China or eastern Asia and further illustrates the diversity of early spermatophytes. As for the Late Devonian seed plants, it is suggested that the pollen organs are synangiate and simple in organization, and the branches and leaves are generally planate.

  11. Food Safety by Using Machine Learning for Automatic Classification of Seeds of the South-American Incanut Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanzyk, Thomas; Anding, Katharina; Linss, Gerhard; Rodriguez Hernández, Jorge; Theska, René

    2015-02-01

    The following paper deals with the classification of seeds and seed components of the South-American Incanut plant and the modification of a machine to handle this task. Initially the state of the art is being illustrated. The research was executed in Germany and with a relevant part in Peru and Ecuador. Theoretical considerations for the solution of an automatically analysis of the Incanut seeds were specified. The optimization of the analyzing software and the separation unit of the mechanical hardware are carried out with recognition results. In a final step the practical application of the analysis of the Incanut seeds is held on a trial basis and rated on the bases of statistic values.

  12. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Dolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s versatile plant use traditions are still not sufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to record local traditions of wild food plant use on the Dubrovnik coast. We interviewed 40 inhabitants of 23 villages, mainly knowledgeable informants. On average 19 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 95 food plant species (including species whose leaves or inflorescences are used as recreational teas. The most commonly collected are: Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper, Asparagus acutifolius, Dioscorea communis, Cichorium intybus, Crepis zacintha, Allium ampeloprasum, Picris echioides and Foeniculum vulgare (all of them used as vegetables, the fruits of Rubus ulmifolius (mainly eaten raw, the fruits of roses (Rosa sempervirens and R. canina and the leaves of Salvia officinalis (both roses and salvia are used for making recreational teas. A particular feature of the local gastronomy is the collection of young Ruscus aculeatus shoots.

  13. By analogy with late paleozoic orogeny in the Venezuelan Andes, Maracaibo Basin is en route to a granitic event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.; Giegengack, R.F.; Lutz, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Postulated stages of orogeny in a continental crustal setting are:- 1. Stresses of plate convergence lead to block uplift and complementary basin subsidence. The basin fills with 12-14 km of illite-rich flysch (1km/3Ma). This about doubles the thickness of K-rich sial. 2. In situ heating of the flysch by radioactive decay provides a thermal gradient of c.35/sup 0/C/km and it is metamorphosed (pre-deformation) to greenschists facies. 3. After maximum crustal subsidence continued compression results in updoming of crust and overlying flysch. Cannibalism of flysch, cooling and mild subsidence follow; autometamorphism declines. 4. Thin deltaic-marine deposits complete basin fill over the meta-flysch. The unconformity (a span of only 5-10 Ma) is of minor import. 5. Resetting of the thermal profile of the depressed crust lags far behind that in the flysch. Parallels to the above in the Maracalbo basin fill are: -thickness (approx.11km), nature (flysch abounds), rate of deposition (c.1km/3-4Ma), thermal gradient (c.33/sup 0/C/km) and overall tesselar shape. Presence of impermeable strata in the Maracaibo Basin suggests that large-scale fluid convection is inhibited; conductive models of heat transfer can be used. Computer modeling suggests that radiogenic heat, augmented by exothermic oxidation of organic matter, and with a normal mantle heat flow will explain the autometamorphism of the flysch. Alternative orogenic models invoking pull-apart basins do not explain the great thickness of sediments and absence of volcanic activity.

  14. Gestión de proyectos en consejos comunales del municipio Maracaibo: ¿eficiente o ineficiente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Urdaneta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar si se han logrado niveles de eficiencia en la gestión de proyectos realizada en consejos comunales del Municipio Maracaibo en el marco de la normativa vigente en el periodo 2006- 2009, específicamente en las Parroquias Cristo de Aranza, Cecilio Acosta y Juana de Ávi- la. Se basó en autores como Dávila (2008, García Guadilla (2008, Briones (2006, Domingo Ajenjo (2000, Urdaneta (2002, 2009, 2010, Cartay (2010 y Palacios (1998, entre otros. Se utilizó la investigación cualitativa, específicamente el estudio de casos como estrategia de organización de datos, utilizando como herramientas metodológicas la observación, la entrevista semiestructurada mixta y la revisión bibliográfica; aunque con rasgos de la investigación cuantitativa,puesto que fue posible medir indicadores de la gestión de proyectos realizada, para responder a las interrogantes planteadas. Se califica la gestión, en la mayoría de los casos, como efectiva debido al logro del objetivo planteado en los proyectos ejecutados, pero debido a que dichos objetivos fueron logrados con mayores recursos y tiempo de ejecución, la gestión ha sido ineficiente,principalmente por: a retrasos en la asignación de los recursos,lo que ocasiona mayores costos, por el efecto inflacionario, y b errores en las estimaciones, por el desconocimiento de los voceros de las herramientas de planificación y control.

  15. La eficiencia en un Hospital de Maracaibo: Su relación con la oferta y la demanda de servicios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Vargas González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo discute las concepciones de eficiencia y el énfasis puesto en la misma en las políticas de reforma al sistema de salud en Venezuela durante 1996-1998 y sus contradicciones con las políticas de salud a partir de la Constitución de 1999. Se analiza la búsqueda de eficiencia durante el periodo 1996-2002, en el Hospital General del Sur, ubicado en Maracaibo, cuya capacidad presupuestada es de 432 camas. El análisis parte de dos consideraciones: a planteamientos teóricos y jurídicos sobre la eficiencia como criterio de gestión; y b el comportamiento de la demanda de servicios con relación a la oferta y sus implicaciones en los costos de funcionamiento. Con base en el estudio realizado se concluye que los servicios del Hospital General del Sur son financiados con: a asignaciones presupuestarias de acuerdo a la oferta, aun cuando ésta no responda a las necesidades, lo cual genera un comportamiento ineficiente, por la falta de control; y b una tendencia incrementar la proporción de los ingresos por recuperación de costos, respecto a la asignación presupuestaria, que se invierte durante los dos últimos años, lo cual pone de relieve la búsqueda de eficiencia mediante el incremento de ingresos por cobro de los servicios de salud, sin enfatizar la reducción de costos.

  16. Emergencia y desarrollo inicial de cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ramírez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos, así como las características morfológicas de las plántulas emergidas en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas: lara ruidosa (Albizia lebbeck, cují (Prosopis juliflora, samán (Samanea saman y carocaro (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron: escarificación con lija (EL, remojo en agua (RA e inmersión en agua caliente (IAC, en semillas con distintos tiempos de almacenamiento (TA. Se evaluó el porcentaje de emergencia (PE, la tasa de emergencia (TE, la altura de la plántula (AP, el largo de la raíz (LR, el número de hojas (NH, el número de nudos (NN y el grosor del tallo (GT. En lara ruidosa el tiempo del RA y la interacción entre la EL y la IAC presentaron diferencias significativas en el PE. En las semillas de cují, los efectos individuales del TA, el RA y la IAC mostraron diferencias en el PE. La EL influyó en el PE de las semillas de cují sin artejo, y en las de carocaro y samán. Se concluye que la EL en las semillas de lara ruidosa, cují sin artejo, carocaro y samán; así como la utilización de semillas de cují con artejo frescas o almacenadas durante tres meses y tratadas con agua caliente por cinco minutos permitieron incrementar la emergencia. Las plántulas mostraron un desarrollo normal y homogéneo.

  17. Indicadores de rentabilidad: herramientas para la toma decisiones financieras en hoteles de categoría media ubicados en Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty De La Hoz Suárez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca establecer la importancia de la información para tomar decisiones financieras dentro de las empresas; describiendo como herramienta importante para el flujo de información, el sistema de control de gestión basado en indicadores. Es una investigación de tipo descriptiva, orientada hacia un diseño documental, de campo, no experimental. Inicialmente se abordó la teoría documentada de distintos autores, lo que permitió la preparación de un cuestionario de recolección de datos, aplicado a cinco hoteles de categoría media ubicados en Maracaibo. Se concluye que, en las empresas es importante contar con indicadores financieros como herramienta para la toma de decisiones empresariales. La información empírica demostró que las empresas objeto de estudio fueron incrementando moderadamente su rentabilidad durante tres períodos económicos (2001-2003. Por ejemplo, con respecto a la rentabilidad económica, la mayoría de los hoteles pasaron de una rentabilidad que oscila entre el 1%y 10% en el año 2001, a una rentabilidad económica de entre el 11% y el 20% en el año 2002 y 2003; producto de las buenas decisiones tomadas en cuanto a la formulación e implementación de estrategias financieras, y a su vez, gracias al control de gestión basado en indicadores.

  18. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  19. Invasive alien plants and South African rivers: a proposed approach to the prioritisation of control operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available . (1991) Rapid invasion of Fraxinus ornus L. along the Herault River system in southern France: the importance of seed dispersal by water. Journal of Biogeography, 18, 7–12. Tinley K.L. (1991) Towards harmony with the land: the drainage basin... riparian zones to be more invaded by alien species than other plant communities, and rivers may function as dispersal corridors for the rapid spread of invasive alien plants across landscapes (The´baud & Debussche, 1991; Pyseˇk & Prach, 1994; Planty...

  20. A biome-scale assessment of the impact of invasive alien plants on ecosystem services in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, B W; Reyers, B; Le Maitre, D C; Richardson, D M; Schonegevel, L

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports an assessment of the current and potential impacts of invasive alien plants on selected ecosystem services in South Africa. We used data on the current and potential future distribution of 56 invasive alien plant species to estimate their impact on four services (surface water runoff, groundwater recharge, livestock production and biodiversity) in five terrestrial biomes. The estimated reductions in surface water runoff as a result of current invasions were >3000 million m(3) (about 7% of the national total), most of which is from the fynbos (shrubland) and grassland biomes; the potential reductions would be more than eight times greater if invasive alien plants were to occupy the full extent of their potential range. Impacts on groundwater recharge would be less severe, potentially amounting to approximately 1.5% of the estimated maximum reductions in surface water runoff. Reductions in grazing capacity as a result of current levels of invasion amounted to just over 1% of the potential number of livestock that could be supported. However, future impacts could increase to 71%. A 'biodiversity intactness index' (the remaining proportion of pre-modern populations) ranged from 89% to 71% for the five biomes. With the exception of the fynbos biome, current invasions have almost no impact on biodiversity intactness. Under future levels of invasion, however, these intactness values decrease to around 30% for the savanna, fynbos and grassland biomes, but to even lower values (13% and 4%) for the two karoo biomes. Thus, while the current impacts of invasive alien plants are relatively low (with the exception of those on surface water runoff), the future impacts could be very high. While the errors in these estimates are likely to be substantial, the predicted impacts are sufficiently large to suggest that there is serious cause for concern.

  1. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledile Mankga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species, either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health.

  2. Understory flora and community physiognomy of planted forests in the degraded purple soil ecosystem, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUZhan-yuan; YUEYong-jie; GUOJian-fen; CHENGuang-shui; XIEJin-sheng; HEZong-ming; YANGYu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The flora and community physiognomy of degraded plantation ecosystems on purple soil were investigated in Ninghua County of Fujian Province, China to understand the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem processes.. Four different restoration communities (labeled as ecological restoration treatment I, II, Ill and IV) were selected by space-time replacement method according to the erosion intensity in degraded purple soil ecosystem. The results showed that there were totally 86 plant species belonging to 78 genera and 43 families in the degraded purple soil ecosystem. Of the 15 types of distribution area in spermatophyte genus, 12 types were found in the purple soil ecosystem. Along restoration gradient from low to high, plant growth type and life form spectra became abundant more and more, and the spermatophyte genera for each distribution area type and genera numbers for different foliage characters increased as well. It is concluded that the plant flora and physiognomy in ecological restoration process become more complex and diverse, indicating that the forest ecosystem on purple soil tends to be more stable.

  3. Clearing of invasive alien plants in South Africa: a preliminary assessment of costs and progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides estimates of the costs of clearing important species of invasive alien plants, as well as of progress made with clearing, based on data from a recently developed GIS-based project information system. Before the deployment...

  4. Comparison of plant diversity in protected and communal lands in the Bushbuckridge lowveld savanna, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shackleton, CM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of higher plant species richness and beta diversity were assessed using standard Modified-Whittaker plots in relation to land use, slope position and mean annual rainfall across a rainfall gradient in the savanna areas of the Bushbuckridge...

  5. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sakong, BM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available in sheep and goats from semi-arid area in Brazil’, Revista Medicina Veterinária 150, 873–876. Ayo, R.G., Audu, O.T., Amupitan, J.O. & Uwaiya, E., 2013, ‘Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of three plants used in traditional medicine...

  6. Invasive alien plants in the terrestrial ecosystems of Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Macdonald, IAW

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This report consists of two types of chapters. Most of the chapters are short syntheses of particular aspects of the alien plant problem in Natal, written by groups of participants during the workshop meeting. They are brief accounts of the state...

  7. Scale- and taxon-dependent patterns of plant diversity in steppes of Khakassia, South Siberia (Russia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyakova, M.A.; Dembicz, I; Becker, T;

    2016-01-01

    species richness was controlled predominantly by heat load index, mean annual precipitation, humus content and soil skeleton content. The positive role of soil pH was evident only for vascular plant species richness. Similar to other studies, we found that the importance of environmental factors strongly...

  8. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants: case studies from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available . In many cases, plants are brought under complete control. In this paper, we describe an attempt to estimate the costs and benefits of the biological control of 6 weed species (Opuntia, aurantiaca, Sesbania punicea, Lantana camara, Acacia longifolia, A...

  9. Freshwater bivalve mollusca (unionidae, sphaeriidae, corbiculidae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, J.C.; Fuller, S.L.H.

    1980-11-01

    A guide to freshwater bivalve molluscs found at the Savannah River Plant is presented. A dichotomous taxonomic key is provided to common forms and to unreported species whose geographic distributions include nearby localities. Discussions of ecology, life history, larval hosts, and other pertinent information is provided. (ACR)

  10. The coal-forming plants of the upper part of the Lower Cretaceous Starosuchan Formation (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdaeva, E. V.; Markevich, V. S.; Volynets, E. B.

    2014-05-01

    The plant remains and palynological assemblages are studied in detail in the section of the coal-bearing upper part of the Aptian Starosuchan Formation near the village of Molchanovka (Partizansk Basin, South Primorye region). On the basis of the light and electron microscopic study of the disperse cuticles, it was established that the coals are mostly composed of remains of taxodialean Elatides asiatica (Yok.) Krassil., subordinate Miroviaceae, rare ginkgoalean Pseudotorellia sp., and bennettite Nilssoniopteris rithidorachis (Krysht.) Krassil. The spores Gleicheniidites and pollen Taxodiaceaepollenites are dominant in the palynospectrum of the coal interlayer. It was found that dominant taxodialeans and gleicheniaceous ferns with less abundant Miroviaceae, ginkgoaleans, and rare bennettites occurred in the Aptian swamp communities of the Partizansk basin. Shoots and leaves of Elatides asiatica, fronds of Birisia onychioides (Vassil. et K.-M.) Samyl., are dominant in the burials of plants from the clastic rocks. The fragments of leaves of Nilssoniopteris, scale-leaved conifers, and Ginkgo ex gr. adiantoides are rare. The disperse cuticle of these layers mostly includes Pseudotorellia sp.; however, its remains in burials were not found. The spores Laevigatosporites are dominant in the palynospectra from the clastic interlayers. Ginkgocycadophytus and taxa close to Pinaceae are plentiful among the pollen of gymnosperms.

  11. Population status of the American alligator on the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.M.

    1981-04-01

    Estimates are presented of alligator numbers, size distribution, sex ratios, reproductive effort, and population trends for all major components of the entire Savannah River Plant (SRP) alligator population. Savannah River Plant operations have impacted the alligator population in many different ways. The formation of man-made reservoirs has dramatically increased the amount of aquatic habitat available to alligators and has therefore increased the carrying capacity of the SRP site for this species. The thermal alteration of aquatic habitats on the SRP has also impacted the resident alligator population. Temperature elevations of aquatic habitat to greater than 38/sup 0/C result in the loss of this habitat to alligators. Moderate thermal increases on the other hand are responded to by alligator movement. The current information available on the alligators of the SRP suggests the following future trends: low density populations distant from thermally altered areas will continue at a low density with the exception of localized increases.

  12. Larvicidal and adulticidal potential of medicinal plant extracts from south India against vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal and adulticidal activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Momordica charantia (M.charantia), Moringa oleifera(M. oleifera), Ocimumgratissimum (O. gratissimum), Ocimum tenuiflorum (O. tenuiflorum), Punica granatum(P. granatum) and Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) against Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of larvicidal and adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal and adulticidal activities, however the effective larval mortality was found in the leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of O. gratissimum and bark methanol extract of M. oleifera against Cx.gelidus with LC50 values of 39.31, 66.28, and 21.83 μg/mL respectively, and methanol extract of O. gratissimum, O. tenuiflorum and P. granatum againstCx. quinquefasciatus exposed for 1 h and mortality was recorded at 24 h recovery period. Above 90% mortality was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of all experimental plants at the concentrations of 500 μg/mL. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the medicinal plant extracts provided an excellent potential for controlling Cx. gelidus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. with LC50 values of 38.47, 24.90 and 67.20 μg/mL, respectively. The adult feoxupnods eidn tfhore 1e thhy al nadc emtaotert aalnidty m weatsh arneoclo redxetrda catt o2f4 a lhl erxepcoevriemrye nptearl ipodla.n Atsb aotv teh e9 0c%on mceonrttraaltiitoyn ws aosf 500 μg/mL. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the medicinal plant extracts provided an excellent potential for controlling Cx. gelidus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  13. Remote sensing of aquatic plants. [New York, Florida, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. S.; Link, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Various sensors were tested in terms of their ability to detect and discriminate among noxious aquatic macrophytes. A survey of researchers currently studying the problem and a brief summary of their work is included. Results indicated that the sensor types best suited to assessment of the aquatic environment are color, color infrared, and black-and-white infrared film, which furnish consistently high contrasts between aquatic plants and their surroundings.

  14. Alien plant invasions in South Africa: driving forces and the human dimension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available secondary driving forces ? Human population growth and migration Population increases lead to greater demands for food and materials. These demands are met by increasing productivity throughfertilization,adoptionofnewspecies,andbyincreasing the area under... production.1,35,37,48 Where demands cannot be met, people tend to migrate, taking propagules of their custom- ary food and medicinal plant species with them31,49 and inadver- tently carrying invasive species. ? Expanding network of international trade...

  15. La Provincia de Maracaibo a fines del siglo XVIII: la visión de Francisco de Saavedra y José Domingo Rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulimar Maldonado Vitoria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es reconstruir los rasgos geográficos y socioeconómicos que caracterizaron a la Provincia de Maracaibo a fines del siglo XVIII y principios del XIX. Se sustenta en el análisis comparativo de los datos y descripciones aportados por los informes de Francisco de Saavedra, Intendente de Caracas (1783- 1787 y José Domingo Rus, diputado del Real Consulado de Caracas (1796-1798 y de las Cortes de Cádiz (1812-1814. Se infiere que ambos personajes, debido a los cargos desempeñados en la administración monárquica, lograron hacerse de amplios conocimientos sobre la Provincia de Maracaibo y ofrecer una visión de unidad sociopolítica y económica de ese vasto espacio a fin de procurar para el mismo su fomento económico y progreso moral como pregonaban los principios ilustrados de la época.

  16. Elementos de la identidad social urbana del casco histórico de Maracaibo, desde la perspectiva de las entidades de gestión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Alberto Portillo Ríos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La identidad social urbana hace alusión a aquellos elementos culturales, geográficos y sociales que posibilitan que una región se diferencie de otra, es memoria colectiva, labor compartida por toda la sociedad. El presente estudio busca distinguir los elementos que conforman la identidad social urbana del casco histórico de Maracaibo, desde la perspectiva de las entidades de gestión; la importancia de esta investigación descriptiva y aplicada, radica en los aportes que hace el estudio de la identidad al desarrollo de la colectividad, ya que reconociéndola, las ciudades potencian sus rasgos más característicos. Por los resultados obtenidos la identidad social urbana del casco histórico de Maracaibo, se distingue por el elemento religioso, histórico y patrimonial; ya que estos aspectos refuerzan la vivencia y la experiencia de la memoria urbana, compartida y transmitida de generación en generación.

  17. Distribution and potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around coal-fired power plants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okedeyi, Olumuyiwa O; Nindi, Mathew M; Dube, Simiso; Awofolu, O R

    2013-03-01

    The distribution and potential sources of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils in the vicinity of three South African coal-fired power plants were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAH compound ratios such as phenanthrene/phenanthrene + anthracene (Phen/Phen + Anth) were used to provide reliable estimation of emission sources. The total PAH concentration in the soils around three power plants ranged from 9.73 to 61.24 μg g(-1), a range above the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry levels of 1.0 μg g(-1) for significantly contaminated site. Calculated values of Phen/Phen + Anth ratio were 0.48 ± 0.08, 0.44 ± 0.05, and 0.38 + 0.04 for Matla, Lethabo, and Rooiwal, respectively. Flouranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene (Flan/Flan + Pyr) were found to be 0.49 ± 0.03 for Matla, 0.44 ± 0.05 for Lethabo, and 0.53 ± 0.08 for Rooiwal. Such values indicate a pyrolytic source of PAHs. Higher molecular weight PAHs (five to six rings) were predominant, suggesting coal combustion sources. A good correlation existed between most of the PAHs implying that these compounds were emitted from similar sources. The carcinogenic potency B[a]P equivalent concentration (B[a] Peq) at the three power plants ranged from 3.61 to 25.25 indicating a high carcinogenic burden. The highest (B[a] Peq) was found in samples collected around Matla power station. It can therefore be concluded that the soils were contaminated with PAHs originating from coal-fired power stations.

  18. Pollination and breeding system of the enigmatic South African parasitic plant Mystropetalon thomii (Mystropetalaceae): rodents welcome, but not needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbhahn, N; Steenhuisen, S-L; Olsen, T; Midgley, J J; Johnson, S D

    2017-09-01

    Unrelated plants adapted to particular pollinator types tend to exhibit convergent evolution in floral traits. However, inferences about likely pollinators from 'pollination syndromes' can be problematic due to trait overlap among some syndromes and unusual floral architecture in some lineages. An example is the rare South African parasitic plant Mystropetalon thomii (Mystropetalaceae), which has highly unusual brush-like inflorescences that exhibit features of both bird and rodent pollination syndromes. We used camera traps to record flower visitors, quantified floral spectral reflectance and nectar and scent production, experimentally determined self-compatibility and breeding system, and studied pollen dispersal using fluorescent dyes. The dark-red inflorescences are usually monoecious, with female flowers maturing before male flowers, but some inflorescences are purely female (gynoecious). Inflorescences were visited intensively by several rodent species that carried large pollen loads, while visits by birds were extremely rare. Rodents prefer male- over female-phase inflorescences, likely because of the male flowers' higher nectar and scent production. The floral scent contains several compounds known to attract rodents. Despite the obvious pollen transfer by rodents, we found that flowers on both monoecious and gynoecious inflorescences readily set seed in the absence of rodents and even when all flower visitors are excluded. Our findings suggest that seed production occurs at least partially through apomixis and that M. thomii is not ecologically dependent on its rodent pollinators. Our study adds another species and family to the growing list of rodent-pollinated plants, thus contributing to our understanding of the floral traits associated with pollination by non-flying mammals. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Interactive effects of grazing, drought, and fire on grassland plant communities in North America and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Sally E; Collins, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Grazing, fire, and climate shape mesic grassland communities. With global change altering all three factors, understanding how grasslands respond to changes in these combined drivers may aid in projecting future changes in grassland ecosystems. We manipulated rainfall and simulated grazing (clipping) in two long-term fire experiments in mesic grasslands in North America (NA) and South Africa (SA). Despite their common drivers, grasslands in NA and SA differ in evolutionary history. Therefore, we expected community structure and production in NA and SA to respond differently to fire, grazing, and drought. Specifically, we hypothesized that NA plant community composition and production would be more responsive than the SA plant communities to changes in the drivers and their interactions, and that despite this expected stability of SA grasslands, drought would be the dominant factor controlling production, but grazing would play the primary role in determining community composition at both sites. Contrary to our hypothesis, NA and SA grasslands generally responded similarly to grazing, drought, and fire. Grazing increased diversity, decreased grass cover and production, and decreased belowground biomass at both sites. Drought alone minimally impacted plant community structure, and we saw similar treatment interactions at the two sites. Drought was not the primary driver of grassland productivity, but instead drought effects were similar to or less than grazing and fire. Even though these grasslands differed in evolutionary history, they responded similarly to our fire, grazing, and climate manipulations. Overall, we found community and ecosystem convergence in NA and SA grasslands. Grazing and fire are as important as climate in controlling mesic grassland ecosystems on both continents.

  20. Invasive alien woody plants of the southern and southwestern Cape region, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 82.9% (145/175 of the quarter degree squares in the study area (3I-35°S, 17-25°E and covering ± 90 000 km:. The sur­vey yielded 102 species of which the most prominent (in order of prominence in roadside and veld (natural and modified habitats were: Acacia cyclops, A. saligna and A. mearnsii The most prominent species (in order of prominence in stream- bank habitats were: A. mearnsii, A. saligna and Populus x canescens.

  1. Assessing dust exposure in an integrated iron and steel manufacturing plant in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, B; Krishnamurthy, V; Ravibabu, K; Raghavan, S; Rajan, B K; Rajmohan, H R

    2008-01-01

    A study to monitor and estimate respirable particulate matter (RPM), toxic trace metal concentrations in the work environment was carried out in different sections of an integrated steel manufacturing industry. The average RPM concentration observed varied according to the section blast furnace was 2.41 mg/m;{3}; energy optimization furnace, 1.87 mg/m;{3}; sintering plant, 0.98 mg/m;{3}; continuous casting machine, 1.93 mg/m;{3}. The average trace metal concentration estimated from the RPM samples like iron, manganese, lead and chromium did not exceed ACGIH prescribed levels.

  2. Recovery of South African fynbos vegetation following alien woody plant clearing and fire: implications for restoration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holmes, PM

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available , because recovery mostly results from surviving plants in the area, soil-stored seed banks and medium-distance wind dispersal (Holmes & Richardson 1999). However, the ‘fell and burn’ clear- ing treatment carries the risk of unplanned fires, which may... to their growth form, leaf size, dispersal mode, seed storage and regeneration mode, and nutrient acquisition mode (Table 2). The categorization of species was based on data in Bond and Slingsby (1983), Bond and Goldblatt (1984), Van Wilgen and Forsyth (1992...

  3. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Faral-Tello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1.

  4. Growth of longleaf and loblolly pine planted on South Carolina Sandhill sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, Michelle, M.; Outcalt, Kenneth, W.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2010-07-01

    Performance of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) were compared 15–19 years after outplanting on 10 different sites in the sandhillsof South Carolina. The study was established from 1988 to 1992 with bareroot seedlings artificially inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally inoculated with mycorrhizae in the nursery. A containerized longleaf pine treatment with and without Pt inoculation was added to two sites in 1992. Effects of the Pt nursery treatment were mixed, with a decrease in survival of bareroot longleaf pine on two sites and an increase in survival on another site. The containerized longleaf pine treatment substantially increased survival, which led to greater volume compared with bareroot longleaf pine. Loblolly pine yielded more volume than longleaf pine on all sites but one, where survival was negatively affected by fire. Depth of sandy surface horizon affected mean annual height growth of both loblolly and longleaf pine. Height growth per year decreased with an increase in sand depth for both species. Multiple regression analysis of volume growth(ft3/ac per year) for both species indicated a strong relationship to depth of sandy soil and survival. After 15–19 years, loblolly pine has been more productive than longleaf pine, although longleaf pine productivity may be equal to or greater than that of loblolly pine on the soils with the deepest sandy surface layers over longer rotations.

  5. Antifungal potencies of ethanol leaf extracts of four plants found around traditional Yan Barns in south eastern Nigeria on five Yam pathogens implicated in postharvest Yam rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ngumah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibilities of five fungi implicated in postharvest rot of yam, namely, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium oxalicum, Mucor circinelloides, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizopus nigricans were evaluated using ethanol leaf extracts of four plants commonly found around traditional yam barns in south eastern. The plants screened were Fagara rubescens, Neubouldia laevis, Pterocarpus soyauxii, and Vernonia amygdalina. Antimicrobial susceptibility was measured as an index of turbidity of broth cultures after incubation 72 hours at ambient temperature (29 – 310C. The optical densities (OD650 were measured by spectrophotometry. None of the test isolates showed susceptibility to any of the plant extracts screened irrespective of the concentration employed. This study also revealed that though all the plants contained bioactive secondary metabolites, no antifungal potency was detected for any of the plant extracts on the test organisms.

  6. Prevalencia de microsporidios intestinales y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH positivo de Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulbey Rivero-Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Desde 1985, los microsporidios se consideran parásitos causantes de infecciones emergentes y oportunistas en individuos inmunocomprometidos en todo el mundo. Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de microsporidios y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH/sida del Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM, donde no existían estudios previos en este campo. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras fecales se analizaron mediante examen directo, método de concentración con formol-éter, coloración de Kinyoun y coloración Gram-cromotropo rápida. Se realizaron PCR separadas para diferenciar Entamoeba histolytica o Entamoeba dispar, cuando se observó el complejo E. histolytica/dispar al microscopio. Mediante historia clínica se obtuvo información del paciente. Resultados. De los 56 individuos participantes, 38 (67,86 % presentaron alguna especie parasitaria comensal o patógena en su muestra fecal. Predominaron los individuos portadores de especies parásitas patógenas (26/38. Fueron diagnosticados protozoos como Isospora belli (17,65 %, Blastocystis spp. (17,65 %, Cryptosporidium spp. (7,84 %, complejo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5,88 %, Entamoeba coli (3,92 %, Giardia lamblia (3,92 %, Endolimax nana (3,92 %, Cyclospora cayetanensis (3,92 % y Chilomastix mesnili (1,96 %. Entre los helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura y Strongyloides stercoralis, presentaron un porcentaje de 27,27 % cada uno, e Hymenolepis nana, de 18,18 %. Solo se detectó E. histolytica en uno de los tres casos que presentaron el complejo al examen microscópico. Mediante Gram-cromotropo, 17 muestras evidenciaron esporas del filo Microsporidia, lo que equivale a un 33,33 % de prevalencia. Conclusión. Los microsporidios pueden ocupar el primer lugar de prevalencia en pacientes con VIH positivo, cuando se utilizan técnicas diagnósticas específicas.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i4.1468

  7. Impact on Water Quality of Nandoni Water Reservoir Downstream of Municipal Sewage Plants in Vhembe District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Ray Gumbo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of water quality in our freshwater sources is on the increase worldwide and, in South Africa, mostly due to the discharge of municipal sewage effluent. Here we report on the use of principal component analysis, coupled with factor and cluster analysis, to study the similarities and differences between upstream and downstream sampling sites that are downstream of municipal sewage plants. The contribution of climatic variables, air temperature, humidity, and rainfall were also evaluated with respect to variations in water quality at the sampling sites. The physicochemical and microbial values were higher than the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. The cluster analysis showed the presence of two clusters for each of the Mvudi, Dzindi, and Luvuvhu Rivers and Nandoni reservoir sampling sites. The principal component analysis (PCA accounted for 40% of the water quality variation and was associated strongly with pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bromide, nitrate, and total coliform, and negatively with rainfall, which represented Mvudi downstream and was attributed to the Thohoyandou sewage plant. The PCA accounted for 54% of the variation and was associated strongly with electrical conductivity, sulfate; total dissolved solids, fluoride, turbidity, nitrate, manganese, alkalinity, magnesium, and total coliform represented Dzindi downstream, with inflows from the Vuwani sewage plant and agriculture. The PCA accounted for 30% of the variation and was associated strongly with total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, magnesium, fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, total coliform average air temperature, and total rainfall, and negatively associated with manganese and bromide represented Luvuvhu upstream and was associated with commercial agriculture. The PCA accounted for 21% of the variation and was associated strongly with turbidity, alkalinity, magnesium

  8. A cross-cultural comparison of folk plant uses among Albanians, Bosniaks, Gorani and Turks living in south Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Behxhet; Hajdari, Avni; Pieroni, Andrea; Pulaj, Bledar; Koro, Xhemajli; Quave, Cassandra L

    2015-05-12

    Kosovo represents a unique hotspot of biological and cultural diversity in Europe, which allows for interesting cross-cultural ethnobotanical studies. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to document the state of traditional knowledge related to local (esp. wild) plant uses for food, medicine, and handicrafts in south Kosovo; and 2) to examine how communities of different ethnic groups in the region (Albanians, Bosniaks/Gorani, and Turks) relate to and value wild botanical taxa in their ecosystem. Field research was conducted in 10 villages belonging to the Prizren municipality and 4 villages belonging to the Dragash municipality, located in the Sharr Mountains in the southern part of Kosovo. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 139 elderly informants (61 Albanians, 32 Bosniaks/Gorani and 46 Turks), for participation in semi-structured interviews regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal, food, and handicraft purposes. Overall, we recorded the local uses of 114 species were used for medicinal purposes, 29 for food (wild food plants), and 20 in handicraft activities. The most important species used for medicinal purposes were Achillea millefolium L., Sambucus nigra L., Urtica dioica L., Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Hypericum perforatum L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Thymus serpyllum L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. Chamomilla recutita was the most highly valued of these species across the populations surveyed. Out of 114 taxa used for medicinal purposes, only 44 species are also included in the European Pharmacopoeia. The predominantly quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Comparison of the data recorded among the Albanian, Bosniak/Gorani, and Turkish communities indicated a less herbophilic attitude of the Albanian populations, while most quoted taxa were quoted by all three communities, thus suggesting a hybrid character of the Kosovar plant knowledge. Cross-cultural ethnobiological studies are crucial in

  9. Investigation of the antimutagenic effects of selected South African medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaeve, L; Kestens, V; Taylor, J L S; Elgorashi, E E; Maes, A; Van Puyvelde, L; De Kimpe, N; Van Staden, J

    2004-02-01

    Dichloromethane extracts from different parts of Rhamnus prinoides, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Gardenia volkensii, Spirostachys africana, Diospyros whyteana, Syzigium cordatum and Prunus africana were investigated for mutagenic and antimutagenic effects in Salmonella/microsome and micronucleus tests. None of the extracts tested in the Ames test were found to induce mutations or to modify the effect of the mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-oxide (4NQO). In the micronucleus test, extracts from twigs/bark of R. prinoides, twigs of D. whyteana, P. africana and S. cordatum significantly lowered the effect of the mutagen mitomycin C (MMC). Extracts from twigs/bark of G. volkensii and S. africana were genotoxic in the micronucleus test, while extracts of O. longibracteatum leaves potentiated the genotoxicity of MMC. This preliminary investigation shows that plant extracts used in traditional medicine may have particular effects with regard to mutagenicity and antimutagenicity indicating careful use in some instances and the need to isolate their active principles for further research.

  10. Foliar micromorphology of Felicia muricata Thunb., A South African medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashafa, A O T; Grierson, D S; Afolayan, A J

    2008-07-01

    The foliar micromorphology of Felicia muricata (Thunb.) Nees (Asteraceae) was observed with the JEOL (JSM-6390LV) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces were characterized by anisocytic stomata which were more prevalent on the abaxial surface than the adaxial surface. The leaves have only one type of multicellular non-glandular trichomes that are long and cylindrical, tapering to a sharp point and running parallel to the leaf surface in the direction of the apices. Crystal deposits were also observed on the surfaces of the leaves near the stomata. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-SEM shows that Na, Al, Si, and K were the major constituents of the crystal analyzed. Since no glandular trichomes were present on the leaves of this herb, the bioactive components present in this plant may be produced in some other tissues in the leaf other than the trichomes.

  11. Vegetable Seedling Breeding with Biochar Produced from Invasive Plant Biomass in South West of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guitong; Tian, Yanfang; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Jianhua; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) is an invasive plant widely colonized in the southwest part of China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan. It is estimated that the total biomass of this small shrub in China can be as much as 30 million tones. Many methods have been developed to control its malignant expansion, mostly by using its leaves as feed for livestock. Its stem is difficult to use, although it accounts for more than 90% of its total biomass. A biochar production system, using the stems of Crofton Weed as feedstock, was established at Xi-Yu Biological Science and Technology Company, Pan-Zhi-hua, Sichuan Province, China. The system is composed of feeder, hot-air dryer, pyrolyser, activator, steam producer, and biochar-based fertilizer producer. The energy for producing hot-air to pre-dry the feedstock and steam to activate the carbonized material comes from the re-use of the heat yielded from the pyrolysis process. The whole system is in a high level of automation and energy efficiency. With this system, local farmers can improve their income by collecting stems of Crofton Weed and selling them to the producer. It is a practical way to control this kind of invasive plant by offering economic value for the local people. The biochar can be used to produce new seedling substrate by replacing peat to protect wetland resource. The biochar seedling media was produced in a simple way and the effects on growth of vegetable seedlings was evaluated. Results showed that the response of vegetable seeds to the biochar seedling media was different, meaning more detailed studies need to done to find the reasons for some kinds of seeds failed to germinate in the tested biochar seedling media. This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the Public Industry Science and Technology Project (201103027).

  12. Host plant selection of Chrysolina clathrata(Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae)from Mpumalanga,South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert S.Boyd; Micheal A.Davis; Michael A.Wall; Kevin Balkwill

    2009-01-01

    Hyperaccumulated elements such as Ni may defend plants against some natural enemies whereas other enemies may circumvent this delense.The Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddif Roessler(Asteraceae)is a host plant species for Chrysolina clathrata (Clark),which Suffers no apparent harm by consuming its leaf tissue.Beetle specimens collected from B.coddii had a whole body Ni concentration of 260 μg/g dry weight.despite consuming leaf material containing 15 100μg Ni/g.Two experiments were conducted with adults of this beetle species:a no-choice experiment and a choice experiment.In the no-choice experiment we offered beetles foliage of one of four species of Berkheya:B.coddii.B.rehmannii Thell.Var.rogersiana Thell.,B.echinacea(Harv.)O.Hoffm.ex Burtt Davey,and B.insignis(Harv.)Thell.The two former species are Ni hyperaccumulators(defined as having leaf Ni concentration>1 000Pμ/g)whereas the latter have low Ni levels(<200μg/g)in their leaves.Masses of beetles were monitored for 6 days.Choice experiments used growing stem tips from the same Berkheya species.placed into Petri dishes with five Chrysolina beetles in each.and the amount of feeding damage caused on each of the four species was recorded.Beetles in the no-choice experiment gained mass when offered B.coddii,maintained mass on lcaves of the other Ni hyperaccumulator (B.rehmannif vaF.rogersiana),and lost mass when offered non-hyperaccumulator leaves.In the choice test.beetles strongly preferred B.coddii to other Berkheya species.We conclude that C clathrata may be host-specific on B.coddii.

  13. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis by Bapedi traditional healers in three districts of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenya, Sebua Silas; Maroyi, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) by the Bapedi traditional healers in three districts of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Fifty two traditional healers from 17 municipalities covering Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts were interviewed between January and July 2011. Twenty one medicinal plant species belonging to 20 genera and 18 families were documented. The majority (61.9%) are indigenous and the rest are exotics, found near homes as weeds or cultivated in home gardens as ornamentals or food plants. Hyacinthaceae, Moraceae and Rutaceae families were the most represented families in terms of species numbers (9.5% each). Herbs and trees (38% each) constituted the largest proportion of the growth forms of the medicinal plants used. Tuberculosis remedies were mostly prepared from leaves (34%) followed by roots (21%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants used to treat TB by the Bapedi traditional healers are well supported by literature, with 71.4% of the species having antimicrobial properties or have similar ethno medicinal uses in other countries. This study therefore, illustrates the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment and management of TB in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

  14. Plant Phosphorus Uptake in a Soybean-Citrus Intercropping System in the Red Soil Hilly Region of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei-Jun; ZHANG Yang-Zhu; WANG Kai-Rong; LI He-Song; HAO Yin-Ju; LIU Xin

    2009-01-01

    A field microplot experiment was conducted in the red soil hilly region of South China to evaluate plant phosphorus (P) uptake under soybean and citrus monoculture and the soybean-citrus intercropping system using the 32p tracer technique.P fertilizer was applied at three depths (15,35,and 55 cm).The experimental results showed that the planting pattern and 32p application depth significantly affected the characteristics of P uptake by soybean and citrus.Under the soybean-citrus intercropping system,considerable competition was observed when the 32p fertilizer was applied to the topsoil (15 cm);therefore,the 32p recovery rate declined by 41.5% and 14.7% for soybean and citrus,and 32p supplying amount of topsoil to soybean and citrus decreaeed by 346.8 and 148.1 mg plot-1,respectively,compared to those under the monoculture.However,32 p recovery of soybean was promoted when 32p fertilizer was applied to the deeper soil layers (35 and 55 cm) under soybean-citrus intercropping.Under the soybean monoculture,32p fertilizer could hardly be used by soybean when 32p fertilizer was applied at the 55 cm depth or below,with the recovery rate being less than 0.1%;it was up to 0.253% by soybean under intercropping.The higher P recovery of soybean under soybean-citrus intercropping when P was applied in the deeper soil layers was because part of the P nutrient that the citrus absorbed from the deeper soil layers could be released into the topsoil and then it could be used by the soybean.

  15. The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Rubin

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The major plant communities of the Karoo National Park are described using the methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology, to assist with the formulation of a management strategy for the park. The vegetation physiognomy consists of Montane Karoo grassy shrublands. Karoo grassy dwarf shrublands. Karoo succulent dwarf shrublands and riparian thicket. Steep elevation and precipitation gradients within the study area have a direct impact on gradients in the vegetation. High elevation (1 800 m, and relatively high rainfall (406 mm montane grasslands occupy communities dominated by grasses (Merxmuellera disticha, Themeda triandra and woody species (Diospyros austro-africana, Elytropappus rhinocerotis, Euryops annae, Passerina montana. The increasing aridity away from the escarpment edge in a northerly direction is steep, and Montane Karoo dwarf shrublands replace these mesic communities. Species such as Eriocephalus ericoides, Rosenia oppositifolia and Pteronia tricephala dominate. At lower elevation (800 m the precipitation is very low (175 mm and uncertain (coefficient of variation of 78 . The substrata influence the vegetation, with the sandy substrata of the drainage lines supporting more woody taxa (Acacia karroo, Lycium cinereum and grasses (Hyparrhenia hirta, Stipagrostis namaquensis, Cenchrus ciliaris. Moving away from the mesic environment of the riparian zone, rapid desiccation occurs and the most xeric communities are encountered, dominated by Stipagrostis obtusa, S. ciliata and Pent-da incana. This document provides descriptions of the general communities and their associated landscape, lithology and soils.

  16. Distribution, fate and risk assessment of antibiotics in sewage treatment plants in Hong Kong, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H W; Minh, T B; Murphy, M B; Lam, James C W; So, M K; Martin, Michael; Lam, Paul K S; Richardson, B J

    2012-07-01

    Occurrence, removal, consumption and environmental risks of sixteen antibiotics were investigated in several sewage treatment plants (STPs) featuring different treatment levels in Hong Kong, China. Cefalexin, ofloxacin and erythromycin-H(2)O were predominant with concentrations of 1020-5640, 142-7900 and 243-4740 ng/L in influent, respectively; their mass loads were comparable to levels reported in urban regions in China and were at the high end of the range reported for western countries. The target antibiotics behaved differently depending on the treatment level employed at the STPs and relatively higher removal efficiencies (>70%) were observed for cefalexin, cefotaxime, amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol during secondary treatment. ß-lactams were especially susceptible to removal via the activated sludge process while macrolides were recalcitrant (norfloxacin (52%), differed greatly in their removal efficiencies, probably because of disparities in their pK(a) values which resulted in different sorption behaviour in sludge. Overall antibiotic consumption in Hong Kong was back-calculated based on influent mass flows and compared with available prescription and usage data. This model was verified by a good approximation of 82% and 141% to the predicted consumption of total ofloxacin, but a less accurate estimate was obtained for erythromycin usage. Risk assessment indicated that algae are susceptible to the environmental concentrations of amoxicillin as well as the mixture of the nine detected antibiotics in receiving surface waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimutagenic evaluation of traditional medicinal plants from South America Peumus boldus and Cryptocarya alba using Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Erico R; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Parodi, Jorge; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo") and Cryptocarya alba Mol. Looser ("Peumo") are medicinal shrubs with wide geographical distribution in South America. Their leaves and fruits are commonly used in traditional medicine because they exhibit natural medicinal properties for treatment of liver disorders and rheumatism. However, there are no apparent data regarding potential protective effects on cellular genetic components. In order to examine potential mutagenic and/or antimutagenic effects of these medicinal plants, the Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) wing-spot test was employed. This assay detects a wide range of mutational events, including point mutations, deletions, certain types of chromosomal aberrations (nondisjunction), and mitotic recombination. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic and anthocyanin compounds were carried out using biochemical and high-performance liquid chromatography methodologies. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of P. boldus and C. alba leaf extracts was also analyzed. P. boldus and C. alba extracts did not induce significant mutagenic effects in the D. melanogaster model. However, simultaneous treatment of extracts concurrently with the mutagen ethyl methane sulphonate showed a decrease of mutant spots in somatic cells of D. melanogaster, indicating desmutagenic effects in this in vivo model. Flavonoids and anthocyanins were detected predominantly in the extracts, and these compounds exerted significant antioxidant capacity. The observed antimutagenic effects may be related to the presence of phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacity, such as flavonoids and antohocyanins, in the extracts.

  18. Estimation of effective plant area index for South Korean forests using LiDAR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KWAK; Doo-Ahn; LEE; Woo-Kyun; KAFATOS; Menas; SON; Yowhan; CHO; Hyun-Kook; LEE; Seung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging(LiDAR) systems can be used to estimate both vertical and horizontal forest structure.Woody components,the leaves of trees and the understory can be described with high precision,using geo-registered 3D-points.Based on this concept,the Effective Plant Area Indices(PAIe) for areas of Korean Pine(Pinus koraiensis),Japanese Larch(Larix leptolepis) and Oak(Quercus spp.) were estimated by calculating the ratio of intercepted and incident LIDAR laser rays for the canopies of the three forest types.Initially,the canopy gap fraction(GLiDAR) was generated by extracting the LiDAR data reflected from the canopy surface,or inner canopy area,using k-means statistics.The LiDAR-derived PAIe was then estimated by using GLIDAR with the Beer-Lambert law.A comparison of the LiDAR-derived and field-derived PAIe revealed the coefficients of determination for Korean Pine,Japanese Larch and Oak to be 0.82,0.64 and 0.59,respectively.These differences between field-based and LIDAR-based PAIe for the different forest types were attributed to the amount of leaves and branches in the forest stands.The absence of leaves,in the case of both Larch and Oak,meant that the LiDAR pulses were only reflected from branches.The probability that the LiDAR pulses are reflected from bare branches is low as compared to the reflection from branches with a high leaf density.This is because the size of the branch is smaller than the resolution across and along the 1 meter LIDAR laser track.Therefore,a better predictive accuracy would be expected for the model if the study would be repeated in late spring when the shoots and leaves of the deciduous trees begin to appear.

  19. Estimation of effective plant area index for South Korean forests using LiDAR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kafatos, Menas; Son, Yowhan; Cho, Hyun-Kook; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2010-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems can be used to estimate both vertical and horizontal forest structure. Woody components, the leaves of trees and the understory can be described with high precision, using geo-registered 3D-points. Based on this concept, the Effective Plant Area Indices (PAI(e)) for areas of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis), Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis) and Oak (Quercus spp.) were estimated by calculating the ratio of intercepted and incident LIDAR laser rays for the canopies of the three forest types. Initially, the canopy gap fraction (G ( LiDAR )) was generated by extracting the LiDAR data reflected from the canopy surface, or inner canopy area, using k-means statistics. The LiDAR-derived PAI(e) was then estimated by using G ( LIDAR ) with the Beer-Lambert law. A comparison of the LiDAR-derived and field-derived PAI(e) revealed the coefficients of determination for Korean Pine, Japanese Larch and Oak to be 0.82, 0.64 and 0.59, respectively. These differences between field-based and LIDAR-based PAI(e) for the different forest types were attributed to the amount of leaves and branches in the forest stands. The absence of leaves, in the case of both Larch and Oak, meant that the LiDAR pulses were only reflected from branches. The probability that the LiDAR pulses are reflected from bare branches is low as compared to the reflection from branches with a high leaf density. This is because the size of the branch is smaller than the resolution across and along the 1 meter LIDAR laser track. Therefore, a better predictive accuracy would be expected for the model if the study would be repeated in late spring when the shoots and leaves of the deciduous trees begin to appear.

  20. Industry Application ECCS / LOCA Integrated Cladding/Emergency Core Cooling System Performance: Demonstration of LOTUS-Baseline Coupled Analysis of the South Texas Plant Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vaghetto, Rodolfo [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vanni, Alessandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Neptune, Kaleb [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Under the auspices of the DOE LWRS Program RISMC Industry Application ECCS/LOCA, INL has engaged staff from both South Texas Project (STP) and the Texas A&M University (TAMU) to produce a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) model including reactor core, clad/fuel design and systems thermal hydraulics based on the South Texas Project (STP) nuclear power plant, a 4-Loop Westinghouse PWR. A RISMC toolkit, named LOCA Toolkit for the U.S. (LOTUS), has been developed for use in this generic PWR plant model to assess safety margins for the proposed NRC 10 CFR 50.46c rule, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance during LOCA. This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermalhydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results. Within this context, a multi-physics best estimate plus uncertainty (MPBEPU) methodology framework is proposed.

  1. Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Momtaz

    2010-01-01

    concentrations that were used. F.E showed significant anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity effects, therefore it can be considered as an effective inhibitor alone or in combination with other plant extracts.

  2. Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    concentrations that were used. F.E showed significant anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity effects, therefore it can be considered as an effective inhibitor alone or in combination with other plant extracts. PMID:20548934

  3. Visión prospectiva del desarrollo turístico urbano de Maracaibo según el Método Delphi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leriz Camacaro Sierra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar la visión prospectiva (año 2020 del turismo en la ciudad de Maracaibo-Venezuela, como parte de los resultados de la investigación intitulada “Percepción de los expertos acerca del desarrollo turístico urbano sostenible en el municipio Maracaibo” (Camacaro et al., 2010. Se utilizó el método Delphi de consulta a 16 expertos en dos oportunidades sucesivas. La investigación es aplicada y de tipo cuantitativa-descriptiva. Entre las conclusiones resaltan la determinación del sector centro y faja este costera con la mayor potencialidad turística a futuro y la efectividad del método utilizado para el logro del consenso de opiniones entre los diversos actores públicos y privados involucrados en la actividad

  4. Transitando hacia el desarrollo local por el camino de las políticas de información: caso municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionnys Peña Ocando

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los planteamientos expresados en las políticas públicas resultan fundamentales para impulsar u obstaculizar el desarrollo de una localidad determinada, por tal razón nuestro propósito es analizar los rasgos de desarrollo local en políticas de información (PI formuladas por la Alcaldía de Maracaibo y sus entes paramunicipales entre 1999-2003. Para el logro del referido objetivo se desarrolló una investigación documental que permitió la extracción de indicadores o rasgos teóricos del desarrollo local y se comprobó la presencia de tales rasgos en realidad municipal estudiada, mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario semi-estructurado a los directivos responsables de la gestión de políticas en el municipio y el análisis de documentos de gestión. Los resultados muestran la identificación de informalidad y poca sistematización en las PI, autonomía en su generación, intencionalidad hacia la modernización de la gestión pública, prioridad hacia las áreas de organización, promoción y automatización de información, al igual que un rol tradicional de atención a necesidades intrainstitucionales con poca presencia de rasgos como la consideración de intereses de la comunidad, incremento de la capacidad innovadora, generación de servicios para las comunidades, entre otros. Se concluye que el Municipio Maracaibo transita un camino con obstáculos hacia su desarrollo integral, en virtud de la ausencia de rasgos de desarrollo significativos en las PI formuladas y ejecutadas por los entes municipales competentes.

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The oldest flora of the South China Block, and the stratigraphic bearings of the plant remains from the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonez, Paul; Nguyên Huu, Hung; Ta Hoa, Phuong; Clément, Gaël; Janvier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Several outcrops of the Late Silurian and Devonian of the Ngoc Vung Series, northern Vietnam, yielded plant remains. The Late Silurian localities delivered the earliest known flora of the South China block. Although the fossils are fragmentary, they complement our knowledge about the global composition of the flora. The major components of the flora are plants with dichotomous habit and terminal bivalvate sporangia, which are close relatives to zosterophylls, and zosterophylls. Plants with possible euphyllophyte affinities and bryophytes are occasionally present. This floral composition is similar to that of the rich, younger South China block assemblages from the Posongchong and Xujiachong Formations of China, considered Pragian in age. The South China block flora is therefore likely to have been dominated by zosterophylls and pre-zosterophylls at least from the Late Silurian to the Pragian (i.e. a 20 million years long period). It also strengthens the hypothesis that more derived plants were present on eastern Gondwana earlier that elsewhere, in the first steps of tracheophyte evolution. The Devonian localities of the Ngoc Vung Series delivered a thick fibrous stem fragment and a basal euphyllophyte. These latter plant remains provide some stratigraphic data. The large stem fragment is consistent with an Eifelian age for the Duong Dong Formation (part of the Ngoc Vung Series), as suggested by the brachiopod fauna. The accompanying basal euphyllophyte displays a combination of characters (axes 3-4 mm wide and lateral branchings) that is also consistent with an Eifelian age, but possibly more characteristic of the Emsian flora. It is therefore suggested that the stratigraphic range of the Duong Dong Formation might be extended down to the Emsian.

  7. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  8. Assessment of chlorine tolerance profile of Citrobacter species recovered from wastewater treatment plants in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoseni, Mojisola; Okoh, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    This present study assessed the chlorine tolerance of some Citrobacter species recovered from secondary effluents from the clarifiers of two wastewater treatment plants in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The bacterial survival, chlorine lethal dose and inactivation kinetics at lethal doses were examined. Inactivation of the test bacteria (n = 20) at the recommended dose of 0.5 mg/l for 30 min exposure showed a progressive reduction in bacterial population from 4 to 5 log reduction and residuals ranged between 0.12 and 0.46 mg/l. The bactericidal activity of chlorine increased at higher dosages with a substantial reduction in viability of the bacteria and complete inactivation of the bacterial population at a lethal dose of 0.75 and 1.0 mg/l in 30 min. For the inactivation kinetics, bactericidal activity of chlorine increased with time showing a 3.67-5.4 log reduction in 10 min, 4.0-5.6 log reduction in 20 min and above 6.3 log reductions to complete sterilization of bacterial population over 30 min for all the entire test Citrobacter isolates used in this study. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation (R (2) > 0.84) between bacteria inactivation and increase in contact time. This study appears to have provided support for laboratory evidence of bacterial tolerance to chlorine disinfection at current recommended dose (0.5 mg/l for 30 min), and chlorine concentration between 0.75 and 1.0 mg/l was found to have a better disinfecting capacity to check tolerance of Citrobacter species.

  9. Determination of micropollutants in combined sewer overflows and their removal in a wastewater treatment plant (Seoul, South Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaena; Oh, Jeill; Snyder, Shane A; Yoon, Yeomin

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of 29 selected micropollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface waters and wastewaters in Seoul (South Korea) during both dry and wet weather conditions. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding the suspected contamination of rivers/creeks by EDCs and PPCPs in the Seoul region and the presence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which serves approximately 4.1 million inhabitants and has a design capacity of 1,297 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Many target compounds (83 %) were detected in samples collected from wastewater treatment influent/effluent, creek water, and combined sewer overflow (CSO). The total EDC/PPCP concentrations were as follows: WWTP influent (69,903 ng/L) > WWTP effluent (50,175 ng/L) >3 creek samples (16,035-44,446 ng/L) during dry weather, and WWTP influent (53,795 ng/L) > WWTP bypass (38,653 ng/L) >5 creek samples (15,260-29,113 ng/L) >2 CSO samples (11,109-11,498 ng/L) during wet weather. EDCs and PPCPs were found to be present at high daily loads (65.1 and 69.8 kg/day during dry and wet weather, respectively) in the WWTP effluent. Compound removal by the WWTP varied significantly by compound: caffeine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and propylparaben (>90 %), and acesulfame, DEET, iohexol, iopromide, and iopamidol (<5 %). These findings and literature information support the hypothesis that the efficiency of removal of EDCs and PPCPs is strongly dependent on both removal mechanism (e.g., biodegradation, adsorption to sludge, and oxidation by chlorine) and compound physicochemical properties (e.g., pK a and hydrophobicity).

  10. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  11. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  12. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Tizio Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian, a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions. Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7 were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of

  13. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree

  14. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Tizio, Alessandro; Łuczaj, Łukasz Jacub; Quave, Cassandra L; Redžić, Sulejman; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-06-06

    In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic "isles" in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree ( Sambucus nigra) for treating

  15. The economics of landscape restoration: Benefits of controlling bush encroachment and invasive plant species in South Africa and Namibia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, William

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available number of ecosystem services from landscape restoration in South Africa and Namibia. In Namibia, the estimated value of ecosystem services from the restoration of bush encroachment was US$5.8 billion. In South Africa, the estimated value of ecosystem...

  16. El Capital Social de las organizaciones del Tercer Sector. Caso de estudio: Organizaciones proveedoras de servicios de capacitación laboral en los Municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco del Estado Zulia

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth Scarbay; Judith Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Este articulo muestra resultados parciales de una investigación cuyo objetivo fue analizar rasgos de capital social en organizaciones del tercer sector proveedoras de capacitacion laboral en los Municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco del Estado Zulia. El capital social en las organizaciones estudiadas se cracteriza por ser consistente, positivo y muestra fortalezas como un nivel satisfactorio de confianza socia fundamentada en la existencia de confiabilidad mutua; sus normas de reciprocidad pre...

  17. El Capital Social de las organizaciones del Tercer Sector. Caso de estudio: Organizaciones proveedoras de servicios de capacitación laboral en los Municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco del Estado Zulia

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth Scarbay; Judith Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Este articulo muestra resultados parciales de una investigación cuyo objetivo fue analizar rasgos de capital social en organizaciones del tercer sector proveedoras de capacitacion laboral en los Municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco del Estado Zulia. El capital social en las organizaciones estudiadas se cracteriza por ser consistente, positivo y muestra fortalezas como un nivel satisfactorio de confianza socia fundamentada en la existencia de confiabilidad mutua; sus normas de reciprocidad pre...

  18. Formulación de la política de transporte público en la Alcaldía de Maracaibo en los noventa. El papel del Banco Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estílita Ynés Molero González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el proceso de formulación de la política de transporte público urbano en la Alcaldía de Maracaibo a partir de la década de los noventa. La metodología utilizada consistió en la contrastación de las hipótesis sustentadas teóricamente con la realidad, apoyándose en información documental. Los resultados muestran que: 1 La política de transporte público de los noventa se caracterizó por la evidente relación entre las reformas del Estado y el modelo económico basado en el mercado. 2 El principal sujeto de decisión fue, el Banco Mundial, en el caso del Municipio Maracaibo, en correspondencia con el Ministerio de Transporte y Comunicaciones, el Consejo Venezolano de Transporte y FONTUR. 3 Los actores a nivel municipal: Comisión Presidencial del Transporte para la ciudad de Maracaibo, Instituto Municipal de Transporte Colectivo Urbano de Maracaibo, Instituto de Investigaciones de Sistemas Ambientales de LUZ y la empresa SYSTRA fueron básicamente ejecutores de la política. 4 El proceso formal de formulación de la política de transporte público en Venezuela, se desarrolló a partir de un modelo preestablecido del Banco Mundial para la aprobación de proyectos de inversión en todo el mundo. Se concluye que, a través de la asistencia técnica internacional, se impusieron los criterios del Banco Mundial en el proceso de formulación de la política de transporte en Venezuela, mientras que, los municipios fueron ejecutores de la política en cuya formulación no participaron.

  19. Plant Species Richness After Revegetation on The Reclaimed Coal Mine Land of PT Adaro Indonesia, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Soendjoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of monitoring was the plant purposely cultivated because after re-vegetation, there were a very few of other plants growing naturally on reclimed coal mining area which were recorded, whereas these plants had important values. The research aimed to record all plants and to identify predominant plants over the reclaimed land of PT Adaro Indonesia. There were four sampling locations with 13 squares of 50 × 20 m2 on each location established and on each square there were 5 plots of 2 × 2 m2 plotse made. Both plant species and its individual number of woodyplantsaplings were recorded on each square, so in each plot, there were small species and its individual number of either woody-plant seedlings or non-woody plants (herbs/shrubs, grasses, ferns. The relative density and the relative frequency of woody or non-woody plants were summed to obtain the important value index (IVI of each successional stage. There were 107 plant species consisting of 32, 43, 27, and 5 species of saplings,seedlings/herbs/shrubs, grasses, and ferns respectively. From those species, 16 species of woody plants and 2 species of herbs were planted purposely,other species grew naturally and even some of them were dominants. Either the number of plants or the dominating plant is varied according to the sampling location and the growing stage.Keywords: plant, revegetation, richness, sapling, seedling

  20. In-vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities, against clinical isolates of Campylobacter species and Entamoeba histolytica, of local medicinal plants from the Venda region, in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, A; Obi, C L; Lall, N; Meyer, J J M

    2009-03-01

    In the quest for alternative treatments against Campylobacter jejuni and Entamoeba histolytica, which are both aetiological agents of diarrhoea world-wide, the in-vitro activities against the two pathogens of extracts of 18 South African medicinal plants have recently been assessed. Forty extracts from the 18 plant species were prepared and tested against 110 clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. In addition, extracts from eight of the plant species were tested against a standard strain (HM-1:IMSS) of E. histolytica, and the cytotoxicity of each of 19 extracts from 15 of the plant species was explored using Vero cell cultures and microdilution assays. At least one extract of each plant species investigated was found to be active against some of the Campylobacter isolates. Extracts of Lippia javanica and Pterocarpus angolensis had the highest antibacterial activity, each giving a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 90 microg/ml. Of the extracts tested against E. histolytica, however, only those of P. angolensis and Syzigium cordatum were found to have anti-amoebic activity, with MIC of 1.2 and 7.5 mg/ml, respectively. Although most of the extracts showed little toxicity against Vero cells, with most of the median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) recorded exceeding 400 microg/ml, an extract of Bauhinia galpini was quite toxic, with an IC(50) of just 2.7 microg/ml. Acetone and methanol extracts of several of the plants show promise as templates for the design of new anti-diarrhoeal therapies.

  1. Are we filling the data void? An assessment of the amount and extent of plant collection records and census data available for tropical South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Feeley

    Full Text Available Large-scale studies are needed to increase our understanding of how large-scale conservation threats, such as climate change and deforestation, are impacting diverse tropical ecosystems. These types of studies rely fundamentally on access to extensive and representative datasets (i.e., "big data". In this study, I asses the availability of plant species occurrence records through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and the distribution of networked vegetation census plots in tropical South America. I analyze how the amount of available data has changed through time and the consequent changes in taxonomic, spatial, habitat, and climatic representativeness. I show that there are large and growing amounts of data available for tropical South America. Specifically, there are almost 2,000,000 unique geo-referenced collection records representing more than 50,000 species of plants in tropical South America and over 1,500 census plots. However, there is still a gaping "data void" such that many species and many habitats remain so poorly represented in either of the databases as to be functionally invisible for most studies. It is important that we support efforts to increase the availability of data, and the representativeness of these data, so that we can better predict and mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances.

  2. Starch Product of Wild Plants Species Jalawure (Tacca leontopetaloides L.) Kuntze as The Source of Food Security in The South Coastal West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardah; Sambas, E. N.; Ridwan; Ariani, D.

    2017-04-01

    Majority of people of South coast of West Java, from Sukabumi, Cianjur, Garut are fishermen. Natural conditions are very dry and the area of land for agriculture, particularly rice cultivation is minimal. So that the condition of the society is more directed to high enough levels of food insecurity. Because coastal areas tend to have a longer dry season from rainfall. Results of research conducted in the years 2013 - 2016 in the area of Pelabuhan Ratu, Cidaun (Cianjur), Coastal area of Jayanti, Ranca Buaya, Mekar Mukti, and along the coast until Pameungpeuk, Leuweung Sancang, is known that jalawure plant which grows wild at South-coast region of West Java is precisely the alternative solution to address food insecurity. The results of the starch flour is a source of carbohydrate that is high enough to be used as a substitute for rice and wheat. Another potential source of jalawure nutrition is also recommended for diabetics consumption.

  3. In the right place at the right time: habitat representation in protected areas of South American Nothofagus-dominated plants after a dispersal constrained climate change scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alarcón

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions.

  4. Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human and livestock ailments by traditional healers in South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolossa, Ketema; Debela, Etana; Athanasiadou, Spiridoula; Tolera, Adugna; Ganga, Gebeyehu; Houdijk, Jos G M

    2013-05-16

    Plants have traditionally been used for treatment of human and livestock ailments in Ethiopia by different ethnic and social groups. However, this valuable source of knowledge is not adequately documented, which impedes their widespread use, evaluation and validation. Here, we recorded indigenous knowledge and standard practices for human and livestock disease control, of three ethnic groups (Aari, Maale and Bena-Tsemay) in South Omo Zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to document knowledge of 50 traditional healers (40 male and 10 female) in medicinal plant use for treatment of human and livestock ailments. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize the ethno-botanical data. Ninety-one plants, with claimed medicinal properties against a total of 34 human and livestock ailments, were reported and botanically identified as belonging to 57 genera and 33 plant families. Most of the plant species reported belonged to one of seven major families: Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, Menispermiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Plumbaginaceae and Geraniaceae. Woody plants (shrubs 21% and trees 29%) were the major growth form used, whilst roots (40%) and leaves (35%) were the major plant parts used in the study areas. Healers mostly practice oral administration of plant preparations (65%). Multiple medicinal plants were cited against particular ailments, and mixing of two or more different medicinal plants (14.3%) against a single ailment was also commonly reported. This study showed that traditional medicine, mainly involving the use of medicinal plants, is playing a significant role in meeting the primary healthcare needs of the three ethnic groups. Acceptance of traditional medicine and limited access to modern healthcare facilities could be considered as the main factors for the continuation of the practice. Documented knowledge of the traditional healers

  5. Factores críticos para la medición de la calidad de servicio del aseo urbano en el municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina Sáez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación consiste en determinar los factores críticos para medir la calidad percibida por los usuarios del servicio de aseo urbano domiciliario en el Municipio Maracaibo. Previa revisión documental sobre calidad de servicio y aseo urbano, se diseñó una escala estructurada tomando como base el modelo SERVPEF y adicionando una dimensión para medir la incidencia de la participación ciudadana en la calidad del servicio. Para obtener la data de la prueba piloto y la muestra definitiva, se definió un proceso de muestreo estratifi- cado en una primera etapa y muestreo por conglomerados en la segunda. La prueba piloto arrojó una confiabilidad de 0.873, mientras que a la data recabada en la muestra se le aplicó Análisis Factorial, técnica que generó un total de ocho factores subyacentes para medir la calidad del servicio estudiado. El factor conformado por aspectos relacionados con la disponibilidad, disposición y capacidad de comprensión de los empleados para atender oportunamente los problemas que presentan los usuarios, y el cual fue denominado capacidad de respuesta, resultó ser el más relevante, explicando un porcentaje de la varianza total del 13,24%. Este artículo forma parte del proyecto de investigación titulado “Calidad de servicio en el aseo urbano de la ciudad de Maracaibo”, financiado por el Consejo de Desarrollo Científico, Humanístico y Tecnológico (CONDES de la Universidad del Zulia (LUZ – Venezuela Magíster en Gerencia Mención Mercadeo (LUZ, Venezuela; Ingeniera industrial (LUZ, Venezuela; profesora titular e investigadora a tiempo completo del Departamento de Producción, Escuela de Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad del Zulia. Maracaibo, Venezuela. Correo electrónico: asaez@fing.luz.edu.ve Otros factores claves para medir la calidad del servicio resultaron ser: confiabilidad, profesionalismo del personal recolector, credibilidad, comunicaci

  6. Population Growth and Its Impact on the Design Capacity and Performance of the Wastewater Treatment Plants in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Giorgis Z.; Kamika, I.; Coetzee, M. A. A.; Momba, M. N. B.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of population growth on the performance of the targeted wastewater treatment plants in Sedibeng District and Soshanguve peri-urban area, South Africa. The impact of population growth was assessed in terms of plant design, operational capacity (flow rate) and other treatment process constraints. Between 2001 and 2007, the number of households connected to the public sewerage service increased by 15.5, 17.2 and 37.8 % in Emfuleni, Lesedi and Midvaal Local Municipalities, respectively. Soshanguve revealed a 50 % increment in the number of households connected to the sewerage system between 1996 and 2001. Except for Sandspruit (-393.8 %), the rate of influent flows received by Meyerton increased by 6.8 ML/day (67.8 %) and 4.7 ML/day (46.8 %) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The flow rate appeared to increase during the wet season by 6.8 ML/day (19.1 %) in Leeuwkuil and during the dry season by 0.8 ML/day (3.9 %) in Rietgat. Underperformance of the existing wastewater treatment plants suggests that the rapid population growth in urban and peri-urban areas (hydraulic overloading of the wastewater treatment plants) and operational constraints (overflow rate, retention time, oxygen supply capacity of the plants and chlorine contact time) resulted in the production of poor quality effluents in both selected areas. This investigation showed that the inefficiency of Meyerton Wastewater Treatment Plant was attributed to the population growth (higher volumes of wastewater generated) and operational constraints, while the cause of underperformance in the other three treatment plants was clearly technical (operational).

  7. Translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the tomato and topinambur plants in a contaminated area of South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Stefania; Bartoli, Giovanni; Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Zornoza, Raúl; Carillo, Petronia; Fioretto, Antonietta

    2017-04-01

    According to a survey of the Italian Environmental Monitoring Agency (ARPA), there are different critical sites in Campania region (South Italy) (e.i. legal or illegal landfills, countryside lands, abandoned farms, parking lots and regular streets). Literature data show that about half of the lead, cadmium and mercury contents, ingested through food, is due to the plant products (fruit, vegetables and grains) (Kachenko and Singh 2006; Liu et al 2012; Chang et al 2014; Wong et al 2002). In the health protection programs, the knowledge of heavy metals translocation from soils to plants used as food are very important with research on metal uptake by plants of food interest cultivated in contaminated soils. The goal of this work was to evaluate the translocation and accumulation of trace metals from the rhizosphere to the different parts of the plant (roots, stems, leaves, fruit) of Topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) sampled in the coast area of Castel Volturno (Campania region, South Italy). This area is one of the critical sites according to a survey of the Environmental Monitoring Agency ARPA. In addition to these measures, malondialdehyde (MDA) activity was assayed to evaluate the stress state of the plant. The results showed that the trace metals concentration determinated in different organs of each species studied were more present in the roots than the other plant's parts, suggesting a probable block at root level. The only exception were Cu and Hg in tomato and topinambur plants respectively, that were mainly present in the leaves. The metals block at the root induced no alteration of MDA. However, the correlation between this activity and Cd, Pb, V and Hg seemed to attest to a possible synergy. Keywords: "Helianthus tuberosus", "Solanum lycopersicum", trace metal, traslocation Reference -Kachenko AG, Singh B, 2006 Heavy Metals Contamination in Vegetables Grown in Urban and Metal Smelter Contaminated Sites in Australia. Water

  8. Phytochemical studies and antioxidant activity of two South African medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of opportunistic fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otang Wilfred

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been observed that perturbations in the antioxidant defense systems, and consequently redox imbalance, are present in many tissues of HIV-infected patients. Hence, the exogenous supply of antioxidants, as natural compounds that scavenge free radicals, might represent an important additional strategy for the treatment of HIV infection. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant potential of Gasteria bicolor Haw and Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims., two South African plants traditionally used for the management of opportunistic fungal infections (OFIs in AIDS patients. Methods The in vitro antioxidant properties of the two plants were screened through DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, NO (nitric oxide, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging effects and reducing power assays. Phytochemical studies were done by spectrophotometric techniques. Results There were no significant differences in the flavonoid and proanthocyanidins contents between the leaves and bark extracts of Gasteria bicolor and Pittosporum viridiflorum respectively, while the total phenolic content of the bark extract of P. viridiflorum was significantly higher than that of G. bicolor leaf. The acetone extracts of both plants indicated strong antioxidant activities. Conclusion The results from this study indicate that the leaves and stem extracts of Gasteria bicolor and Pittosporum viridiflorum respectively possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. Since reactive oxygen species are thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of AIDS, and HIV-infected individuals often have impaired antioxidant defenses, the inhibitory effect of the extracts on free radicals may partially justify the traditional use of these plants in the management of OFIs in HIV patients in South Africa.

  9. Punto de corte de homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR para determinar insulinorresistencia en individuos adultos del municipio Maracaibo-Estado Zulia, Venezuela (Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR cut-off point for insulin resistance in adults from Maracaibo municipality-Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Añez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insulin Resistance (IR is an important finding in several diseases including diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and its diagnosis seems pertinent during the evaluation of insulin sensitivity, though mathematical models like HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment. The purpose of the present study was to determine an appropriate cutpoint for HOMA-IR in adult individuals from the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state, Venezuela. Two-thousand and twenty-six individuals from both sexes and beyond 18 years of age were selected from the Maracaibo city Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study, a descriptive cross-sectional study with multietapic sampling. HOMA-IR was calculated using the formula [Fasting Insulin (µU/L x Fasting Glycemia (mmol/L/22,5]. To estimate the cutpoint, 602 healthy individuals were selected and a percentile distribution was calculates, alongside ROC Curve in order to identify the best cutoff point according to sensitivity and specificity. Overall, the average HOMA-IR was 3,71±3,01, with 3,65±2,96 for women and 3,76±3,06 for men (p=0,397. Using the reference population, the resulting arithmetic value was 2,64±1,67. When distributing per percentile, p75 was 3,02. When selecting a cutpoint using ROC Curve, the chosen cutoff point was 3.03 with an Area Under the Curve of 0.814 (75,2% sensitivity and 75,6% specificity. The obtained results are good enough to propose a cutpoint of 3,00 for HOMA-IR, which can be use in the clinical evaluation of IR in adults from our population

  10. Leveraging Traditional Knowledge on the Medicinal Uses of Plants within the Patent System: The Digitisation and Disclosure of Knowledge in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge (TK plays an important role in the global economy and is valuable not only to those who traditionally depend on it in their daily lives, but also to modern industry, especially the global biotechnology, pharmaceutical and agribusiness corporations. Yet the exploitation of TK by these industries does not usually lead to corresponding benefits to indigenous communities either in the form of attribution or compensation. Such misappropriations of TK are aided by the fact that the global intellectual property (IP regime as presently structured is based entirely on the traditionally western or conventional description of knowledge, as are its conceptions of individual intellectual property ownership. In response to the fact that their calls for the reform of the global patent system have not be heeded, most developing countries, including South Africa, have resorted to the adoption of a radically different strategy in their approach to intellectual property, particularly as it concerns the protection of their TK from misappropriation. This is evident in the adoption of strategic measures in South Africa for the protection of various aspects of its TK forms from misappropriation, such as the National Recordal System (NRS and Disclosure of Origins (DRs. This paper seeks to explore the implications of these measures in leveraging TK within the structure, content and conceptual framework of the patent system in South Africa. The focus is on TK associated with the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP.

  11. Changes of Soil-Water-Plants relationships at abandoned field hillslopes along a pluviometric gradient in the South of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    The trend towards a more arid climate conditions in some areas of the Mediterranean environments will positively feedback the desertification enhancing the soil degradation processes. Several researchers have established that some soil properties can be used as indicators of desertification and of soil degradation. One of those properties is the soil water content, highly dependent of the rainfall in the Mediterranean. Soil water content is one of the main indicators to asses the recharge of water supply for the vegetation survival, and therefore affect to the organic matter and organic carbon cycle in the short time. This study presents the results of the monitoring of soil water content, some physico-quemical soil properties and the vegetal cover from three hillslopes of abandoned fields, affected by sporadic grazing, during four years (2002-06) under different climatic conditions, in order to evaluate the survival possibilities of the vegetation, which re-colonized those abandoned fields, faced to a decrease in water supplies a cause of the Climate Change in Mediterranean. The research was carried out in the South of Spain, where there is a climatic gradient from the Strait of Gibraltar (1,500 mm year-1) to Cape of Gata (150 mm year-1), and which is one of the most affected areas by the soil degradational processes in the Western Mediterranean. Three hillslopes were selected along the study area, under three different climatic conditions (sub-humid, dry-Mediterranean and semi-arid), with similar topography, geology and original landuse. The differences between them were originated by the climate, which implied changes in vegetal cover and geomorphological processes. Soil water content was measured with a TDR-Tektronix at two depths (5 and 15 cm) since Nov-2002 to Sep-2006, from bottom to top every 10 m along the hillslopes. Vegetal cover was measured by means of a detailed photo-interpretation. Rainfalls were collected in rain gauges located in each field site

  12. Phytolacca americana from contaminated and noncontaminated soils of South Korea: Effects of elevated temperature, CO2 and simulated acid rain on plant growth response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.-O.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Lee, E.J.; Redman, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical analyses performed on the invasive weed Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) growing in industrially contaminated (Ulsan) and noncontaminated (Suwon) sites in South Korea indicated that the levels of phenolic compounds and various elements that include some heavy metals (Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were statistically higher in Ulsan soils compared to Suwon soils with Al being the highest (>1,116 mg/l compared to 432 mg/l). Analysis of metals and nutrients (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, NH4, N, P, S) in plant tissues indicated that accumulation occurred dominantly in plant leaves with Al levels being 33.8 times higher in Ulsan plants (PaU) compared to Suwon plants (PaS). The ability of PaU and PaS to tolerate stress was evaluated under controlled conditions by varying atmospheric CO2 and temperature and soil pH. When grown in pH 6.4 soils, the highest growth rate of PaU and PaS plants occurred at elevated (30??C) and non-elevated (25??C) temperatures, respectively. Both PaU and PaS plants showed the highest and lowest growth rates when exposed to atmospheric CO2 levels of 360 and 650 ppm, respectively. The impact of soil pH (2-6.4) on seed germination rates, plant growth, chlorophyll content, and the accumulation of phenolics were measured to assess the effects of industrial pollution and global-warming-related stresses on plants. The highest seed germination rate and chlorophyll content occurred at pH 2.0 for both PaU and PaS plants. Increased pH from 2-5 correlated to increased phenolic compounds and decreased chlorophyll content. However, at pH 6.4, a marked decrease in phenolic compounds, was observed and chlorophyll content increased. These results suggest that although plants from Ulsan and Suwon sites are the same species, they differ in the ability to deal with various stresses. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Radioactivity evaluation of Ebro river water and sludge treated in a potable water treatment plant located in the South of Catalonia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra. Nacional 340 Km. 1094, Ap. correus n.7, 43895 L' Ampolla Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra. Nacional 340 Km. 1094, Ap. correus n.7, 43895 L' Ampolla Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat

    2010-03-15

    A potable water treatment plant with an average production rate of 4.3 m{sup 3}/s, providing several cities in the south of Catalonia (Spain) with drinking water, has been studied for a period of six years (2002-2007) regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. First, gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities were determined in ingoing and outgoing water samples. The values for all these parameters were below the Spanish normative limits established for waters for human consumption. For the sludge samples generated in the plant, we quantified some gamma emitting radioisotopes: natural ({sup 40}K, {sup 214}Pb, etc.) and artificial ({sup 60}Co, {sup 110m}Ag, etc.) which may be related to the geological or/and industrial activities (such as a nuclear power plant) located upstream of the PWTP on the Ebro River. Finally, when the sludge samples were compared with those from other water treatment plants, the influence of the industrial activities on the radioisotopes found in the analysed samples was confirmed since the activity levels for some of the isotopes quantified were 10 times higher.

  14. Water Treatment Plants, Water Treatment Plants in 9 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1999. It is described...

  15. [Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by PCR in children, less than five years of age with diarrhea, in Maracaibo, Venezuela. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho Mora, Angela; Rivero de Rodríguez, Zulbey; Arraiz, Nailet; Villalobos, Rafael; Urdaneta, Haydee

    2013-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica as a producer of diarrhea, a study was conducted in children, less than five years of age, with diarrhea who attended several out patient clinics of the Servicio Aut6nomo Hospital Universitario, Maracaibo, Venezuela. A macroscopic and microscopic examination with physiological saline, lugol and Kinyoun staining were performed to the stool samples obtained. The remainder of the sample was frozen until DNA extraction, and PCR amplification was performed separately for E. histolytica and E. dispar. Microscopic examination showed no trophozoites and/or cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, or intestinal coccidians in any of the 50 samples analyzed. Parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (6%), Blastocystis sp. (4%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). By PCR, six samples (12%) had DNA of E. dispar and two (4%) had DNA from E. histolytica; no child showed association of both amoebae. The two children who had E. histolytica were one-year-old. E. dispar was detected in younger children. We suggest that the prevalence of E. histolytica in children under five years is really low.

  16. Condiciones de higiene y seguridad presentes en el personal de empresas contratistas que prestan servicio al sector petrolero en el municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennia Barrera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo permite profundizar sobre la higiene y seguridad presentes en el personal de empresas contratistas que prestan servicio al sector petrolero en el municipio Maracaibo. Las teorías se sustentaron en los autores: Carneiro (2004, Chiavenato (2007, Fernández (2005, Comisión de las Comunidades Europeas (2001, entre otros. El tipo de investigación fue descriptiva, con diseño no experimental-transeccional. La población estuvo constituida por el personal de perforación de esas organizaciones: ingenieros y supervisores de taladro, un total de 34 unidades informantes. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó la técnica de la encuesta y como instrumento el cuestionario con dieciséis (16 ítems, de (5 alternativas de frecuencia. El cuestionario fue validado por cinco (5 expertos. Para la confiabilidad se aplicó una prueba piloto a diez (10 sujetos con similares características a la población, calculándose el coeficiente Alpha Cronbachs en 0,91, lo cual indica un alto grado de confiabilidad en el instrumento. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron concluir que, las condiciones de higiene y seguridad, de estas empresas muestran estar equipadas con los elementos necesarios para asegurar la integridad física de sus trabajadores.

  17. Results of thermal horizontal completions with sand control in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela : case histories of horizontal gravel packs in Bachaquero-01 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potma, J.J. [Schlumberger, IPM Prisa (Venezuela); Pizzarelli, S.G.; Gonzalez, O.E. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas, (Venezuela); Justiniano, P.; Olivares, S.A. [Schlumberger, WCP (Venezuela)

    2002-07-01

    The experience gained through decades of applying vertical steam injection well technology in the heavy oil producing region of Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela was discussed. The oil from the Bachaquero-01 heavy oil reservoir has an API gravity of 12. Petroleum producers made an attempt to optimize production in 1996 by drilling wells with 1000 ft of horizontal section and then injecting steam. However, the initial production of 1000 BOPD dropped by 50 per cent within 4 months. A NODAL production system analysis calculation suggested that the best remedy would be to apply horizontal gravel packs to allow for more permeability compared to natural sand packs. Gravel packing of the horizontal thermal wells began in October 2000 during a drilling and completion campaign in which 18 wells were successfully gravel packed. The average production for 6 of the wells increased by 135 BOPD after 8 months compared to 9 nearby nongravel-packed horizontal wells, representing an 18 per cent higher production rate than the declining rate of the nongravel-packed wells. After one year, productivity increased by an average of 15 per cent with no sand production. Gravelpack operations were conducted at a pump rate of 2 to 3 bbl/min with a sand concentration of 0.5 to 0.7 pounds of proppant per gallon added. This maintained continuous fluid returns of 50 to 80 per cent. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Estrategias funcionales emergentes de promoción por parte de los ejecutivos del negocio bancario: Estudio preliminar a la Banca en Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Borgucci

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación de carácter preliminar, se trata de demostrar la existencia de estrategias funcionales emergentes por parte de los ejecutivos de negocios bancarios. Se diseñó una investigación de tipo descriptivo y se aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado y validado con el procedimiento del pretest-test a 16 ejecutivos del área petrolera pertenecientes a 10 bancos ubicados en Maracaibo (Venezuela. Se concluye que sobre la base de una serie de habilidades personales y operativas, el ejecutivo de negocios no solamente tiene la habilidad para comunicarse, cruzar ventas o servir de asesor, sino que es una especie de departamento informal de gestión de recursos internos para alcanzar metas de captación y colocación e recursos del banco aunque en determinados momentos, como lo expresaron algunos ejecutivos de negocios, la institución se oponga consciente o inconscientemente.

  19. La evolución de la propiedad privada del suelo en el sur del Lago de Maracaibo-Venezuela. (Siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Ramírez Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia el proceso asignación de la propiedad privada del suelo y su distribución espacial al igual que su posterior movilización, evaluando su concentración y fraccionamiento, a través de los indicadores del número de predios, ubicación y extensión. El análisis es cuantitativo y cualitativo específicamente referido a las extensiones asignadas y compuestas en el sur del Lago de Maracaibo durante los siglos XVI-XVII. La investigación se asienta en las fuentes documentales inéditas específicamente sobre las mercedes de tierras, las composiciones, las cartas de compra-ventas, dotes, testamentos y los inventarios y particiones de bienes. El estudio demuestra que la asignación de las posesiones y su legalización se desarrolló en el marco de la política española especialmente en aquellos espacios óptimos para los cultivos de cacao e inmediatos al puerto de Gibraltar, en cuyas superficies se apreció con mayor incidencia la segmentación de los predios a través de las diversas y sucesivas trasferencias realizadas durante el periodo estudiado.

  20. Delincuencia y organización comunitaria en el discurso de tres líderes del barrio Villa Venecia, Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raima Rujano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis de la construcción de los conceptos organización comunitaria y delincuencia de tres líderes comunitarios que participaron en el desarrollo de una forma de prevención del delito llamada "PatrullaVecinal", en el barrioVillaVenecia de Maracaibo. Se utilizó el enfoque semántico-pragmático del análisis del discurso. Se obtuvo como resultados que: A el propósito central del discurso es contar cómo la comunidad se organizó para enfrentar los actos delictivos de su barriada, legitimando la forma de tomar justicia con sus propias manos para el resguardo de sus bienes y de la vida de sus familiares. B En el discurso destaca el uso de las estrategias discursivas de victimización, solidaridad y acercamiento, reserva y encubrimiento. C La finalidad del discurso es hacer saber y hacer pensar al receptor. Se concluyó que en las estrategias y los recursos lingüísticos utilizados por los entrevistados destacan las funciones y mecanismos de legitimación del "yo-nosotros" (Patrulla Vecinal y de deslegitimación del "otro" (rol de los cuerpos policiales como vía para justificar las acciones realizadas contra la delincuencia durante las rondas nocturnas.

  1. [Occupational accidents in Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, 1979-1990. Determination of the frequency and risk factors which play a role in their production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Montero-Proaño, G

    1993-01-01

    During the period of 1979-1990 job-related injuries were studied in Maracaibo, Zulia state, in order to analyze frequencies and causes. This information was obtained from annual reports on job-related injuries Form Number 15-411 of the Venezuelan Institute of Social Security (IVSS) which has been implemented nationally since 1982. Accidents that caused loss of man-hours were considered; variables considered were: age, risk category, day of the week, work shift, month, type of accident, agent, type of lesion, mechanical cause, body part affected and type of the activity in which the company is involved. The results were expressed as absolute values (mean +/- SE) and relative values. The mean accidents/year was 1651 +/- 177.97, most of them occurring in the age groups of 20-29 years (368.8) and 30-39 years (359.8). The triannual mean rate was higher for the group of the non-serious accidents (50%). Tuesday was the day of higher accidental incidence (22%) in addition to the morning shift between 9 and 11 hours (55%). Manufacturing was the economic activity most affected (43%). The most common causative agents were materials, substances and radiations (35%). The use of defective tools were the most frequent causes of mechanical accidents (31%). Upper limbs (46%) and between the type of lesion contusions or/and bruises (53%). It was concluded that, although the number of workers and accidents slowly diminished, the accidents rate slightly increased.

  2. Vegetation composition and ²²⁶Ra uptake by native plant species at a uranium mill tailings impoundment in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Ding, Dexin; Li, Guangyue; Zheng, Jifang; Li, Le; Zhao, Weichao; Wang, Yongdong

    2014-03-01

    A field investigation was conducted for the vegetation composition and (226)Ra uptake by native plant species at a uranium mill tailings impoundment in South China. 80 species belonging to 67 genera in 32 families were recorded in the sampling sites. The Poaceae and Asteraceae were the dominant families colonizing the impoundment. The number of the plant species and vegetation community composition in the sampling sites seemed most closely related to the activities of (226)Ra and the pH value of the uranium tailings. The plant species in the sampling sites with relatively low activities of (226)Ra and relatively high pH value formed a relatively stable vegetation community. The plant species in the sampling sites with medium activities of (226)Ra and medium pH value formed the transitional vegetation community. The plant species in the sampling sites with relatively high activities of (226)Ra and relatively low pH value formed a simple unstable vegetation community that was similar to that on the unused grassland. The activities of (226)Ra and transfer factors (TFs) varied greatly with the plant species. The high activities of (226)Ra and TFs were found in the leaves of Pteris multifida (150.6 Bq/g of AW; 9.131), Pteridium aquilinum (122.2 Bq/g of AW; 7.409), and Dryopteris scottii (105.7 Bq/g of AW; 6.408). They satisfied the criteria for a hyperaccumulator for (226)Ra. They may be the candidates for phytoremediation of (226)Ra in the uranium mill tailings impoundment areas and the contaminated soils around.

  3. Me'en ritual, medicinal and other plants : a contribution to South-West Ethiopian ethno-botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present article offers a descriptive survey of the most important plants used by the Southeast Surmic-speaking Me'en in southwestern Käfa, Ethiopia, based on information gathered over a period of 14-months field research (1989-1991). Data covering the Me'en name of each plant, the scientific nam

  4. Patterns of self-medication with medicinal plants and related adverse events--a South American survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Alicia E; Ragone, Maria I

    2010-10-01

    Medicinal plants are useful as a natural therapy to treat minor illnesses, as gastrointestinal disorders or as topic antiinflammatories. Also, they have been increasingly used as a coadjuvant in cronic diseases as hypertension, diabetes or hyperlipidemias. Nevertheless, many of the plants have active principles which are contraindicated or need precaution in certain illnesses as coagulation disorders or in certain states as pregnancy or breastfeeding. In this review we had compiled the side-effects, precautions and interactions with other medicines of many plants which are used in self-medication in our region. A previous population study gave us information on the consumption of medicinal plants in 73 pharmacies of the Buenos Aires province, in Argentina. During a period of one year, there were 37102 self-medicated plants, while only 1532 were prescribed by the physician. Among the most frequently self-medicated plants are Malva sylvestris L., Matricaria chamomile L, and Quassia amara. Among the most frequently prescribed are also "malva" and "chamomile", Tilia cordata Mill. and Valeriana officinalis. Based in the most consumed medicinal plants in our region, we reviewed the risks of such plants and the precautions that should be taken for a rational use. Also, we detected 15 adverse-reactions reported by the pharmacists through a pharmaceutical vigilance program, which are described and analyzed here. The results of the study and other reports suggest that adverse reactions of herbal medicines could be avoided if preventing self-medication, and taking into consideration possible contraindications and interactions.

  5. Me'en ritual, medicinal and other plants : a contribution to South-West Ethiopian ethno-botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present article offers a descriptive survey of the most important plants used by the Southeast Surmic-speaking Me'en in southwestern Käfa, Ethiopia, based on information gathered over a period of 14-months field research (1989-1991). Data covering the Me'en name of each plant, the scientific

  6. Anti-staphylococcal, anti-HIV and cytotoxicity studies of four South African medicinal plants and isolation of bioactive compounds from Cassine transvaalensis (Burtt. Davy) codd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa, Ningy S; Oyedeji, Bola A O; Obi, Larry C; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A

    2014-12-18

    Medicinal plants represent an important opportunity to rural communities in Africa, as a source of affordable medicine and as a source of income. Increased patient awareness about safe usage is important as well as more training with regards to traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ethnomedicinal prowess of some indigenous South African plants commonly used in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for the treatment of skin and respiratory tract infections, HIV and their toxicity potential. Cassine transvaalensis, Vangueria infausta, Croton gratissimus and Vitex ferruginea were tested for antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC). Cytotoxic and anti-HIV-1 activities of plants were tested using MTT Assay (3- (Dimethylthiozole-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)) and anti- HIV-1iib assay. In search of bioactive lead compounds, Cassine transvaalensis which was found to be the most active plant extract against the two Staphylocoous bacteria was subjected to various chromatographic. Thin layer chromatography, Column chromatography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), (1H-1H, 13C-13C, in DMSO_d6, Bruker 600 MHz) were used to isolate and characterize 3-Oxo-28-hydroxylbetuli-20(29)-ene and 3,28-dihydroxylbetuli-20(29)-ene bioactive compounds from C. transvaalensis. The four plants studied exhibited bioactive properties against the test isolates. The zones of inhibition ranged between 16 mm to 31 mm for multi-drug resistant staphylococci species. MIC values varied between 0.6 and 0.02 μg/ml. C. gratissimus and C. transvaalensis exhibited the abilities to inhibit HIV-1iib. Two bioactive compounds were isolated from C. transvaalensis. Data from this study reveals the use of these plant by traditional healers in the Eastern Cape. Furthermore, C. transvaalensis and C. gratissimus were found to be more active as against HIV-1iib

  7. Contrasting taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity responses to forest modifications: comparisons of taxa and successive plant life stages in South African scarp forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Ingo; Brandl, Roland; Botzat, Alexandra; Neuschulz, Eike Lena; Farwig, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of natural forests to modified forests threatens subtropical and tropical biodiversity worldwide. Yet, species responses to forest modification vary considerably. Furthermore, effects of forest modification can differ, whether with respect to diversity components (taxonomic or phylogenetic) or to local (α-diversity) and regional (β-diversity) spatial scales. This real-world complexity has so far hampered our understanding of subtropical and tropical biodiversity patterns in human-modified forest landscapes. In a subtropical South African forest landscape, we studied the responses of three successive plant life stages (adult trees, saplings, seedlings) and of birds to five different types of forest modification distinguished by the degree of within-forest disturbance and forest loss. Responses of the two taxa differed markedly. Thus, the taxonomic α-diversity of birds was negatively correlated with the diversity of all plant life stages and, contrary to plant diversity, increased with forest disturbance. Conversely, forest disturbance reduced the phylogenetic α-diversity of all plant life stages but not that of birds. Forest loss neither affected taxonomic nor phylogenetic diversity of any taxon. On the regional scale, taxonomic but not phylogenetic β-diversity of both taxa was well predicted by variation in forest disturbance and forest loss. In contrast to adult trees, the phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings showed signs of contemporary environmental filtering. In conclusion, forest modification in this subtropical landscape strongly shaped both local and regional biodiversity but with contrasting outcomes. Phylogenetic diversity of plants may be more threatened than that of mobile species such as birds. The reduced phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings suggests losses in biodiversity that are not visible in adult trees, potentially indicating time-lags and contemporary shifts in forest regeneration. The different

  8. Contrasting taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity responses to forest modifications: comparisons of taxa and successive plant life stages in South African scarp forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Grass

    Full Text Available The degradation of natural forests to modified forests threatens subtropical and tropical biodiversity worldwide. Yet, species responses to forest modification vary considerably. Furthermore, effects of forest modification can differ, whether with respect to diversity components (taxonomic or phylogenetic or to local (α-diversity and regional (β-diversity spatial scales. This real-world complexity has so far hampered our understanding of subtropical and tropical biodiversity patterns in human-modified forest landscapes. In a subtropical South African forest landscape, we studied the responses of three successive plant life stages (adult trees, saplings, seedlings and of birds to five different types of forest modification distinguished by the degree of within-forest disturbance and forest loss. Responses of the two taxa differed markedly. Thus, the taxonomic α-diversity of birds was negatively correlated with the diversity of all plant life stages and, contrary to plant diversity, increased with forest disturbance. Conversely, forest disturbance reduced the phylogenetic α-diversity of all plant life stages but not that of birds. Forest loss neither affected taxonomic nor phylogenetic diversity of any taxon. On the regional scale, taxonomic but not phylogenetic β-diversity of both taxa was well predicted by variation in forest disturbance and forest loss. In contrast to adult trees, the phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings showed signs of contemporary environmental filtering. In conclusion, forest modification in this subtropical landscape strongly shaped both local and regional biodiversity but with contrasting outcomes. Phylogenetic diversity of plants may be more threatened than that of mobile species such as birds. The reduced phylogenetic diversity of saplings and seedlings suggests losses in biodiversity that are not visible in adult trees, potentially indicating time-lags and contemporary shifts in forest regeneration. The

  9. Screening of plant species for phytoremediation of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead contaminated soils from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-yue; Hu, Nan; Ding, De-xin; Zheng, Ji-fang; Liu, Yu-long; Wang, Yong-dong; Nie, Xiao-qin

    2011-06-01

    The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. Then, the removal capability of a plant for a target element was assessed. It was found that Phragmites australis had the greatest removal capabilities for uranium (820 μg), thorium (103 μg) and lead (1,870 μg). Miscanthus floridulus had the greatest removal capabilities for barium (3,730 μg) and nickel (667 μg), and Parthenocissus quinquefolia had the greatest removal capability for strontium (3,920 μg). In this study, a novel coefficient, termed as phytoremediation factor (PF), was proposed, for the first time, to assess the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation of a target element contaminated soil. Phragmites australis has the highest PFs for uranium (16.6), thorium (8.68), barium (10.0) and lead (10.5). Miscanthus floridulus has the highest PF for Ni (25.0). Broussonetia papyrifera and Parthenocissus quinquefolia have the relatively high PFs for strontium (28.1 and 25.4, respectively). On the basis of the definition for a hyperaccumulator, only Cyperus iria and Parthenocissus quinquefolia satisfied the criteria for hyperaccumulator of uranium (36.4 μg/g) and strontium (190 μg/g), and could be the candidates for phytoremediation of uranium and strontium contaminated soils. The results show that the PF has advantage over the hyperaccumulator in reflecting the removal capabilities of a plant for a target element, and is more adequate for assessing the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation than conventional method.

  10. Sewerage Treatment Plants, Published in 2006, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, City of South Bend.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. Data by this...

  11. Proposal - At-Risk Plant Occurrences on National Wildlife Refuges within the South Carolina Lowcountry and Savannah Complexes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal involves the population detection and estimation of 11 at-risk plant species on 7 national wildlife refuges at the Lowcountry and Savannah National Wildlife...

  12. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  13. Planting Flags on the Tide: Sovereignty, Containment, and Conflict Resolution in the East and South China Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James DeShaw Rae

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of China’s economic and military power is transforming global politics while U.S. strategic interests are re-balancing toward Asia. Meanwhile, tensions over maritime boundaries and island claims within the region are punctuated by police and military stand-offs in the East and South China Seas. This paper considers the discourse surrounding the dispute over sovereignty in the South China Sea. It also examines the roles international law, multilateralism, and traditional diplomacy play in the conflict, and how it serves as a test case for China’s future diplomacy and traditional norms of non-interference and a peaceful rise. Finally, the paper suggests pathways toward conflict resolution of the immediate disputes, including de-territorialized and de-nationalized ideas of possession when it applies to contested yet uninhabited maritime frontiers.

  14. A survey of plants responsible for causing irritant contact dermatitis in the Amathole district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otang, Wilfred M; Grierson, Donald S; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2014-11-18

    Potentially harmful plants grow almost everywhere, hence, it is not practical to eradicate them all. However, a basic understanding of adverse cutaneous reactions and the common plants that cause each type can enable vulnerable individuals to discover the source of their dermatitis and thus prevent re-exposure. The aim of this study therefore, was to document the plants responsible for irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in the Eastern Cape, along with their respective irritants and clinical presentations. Study participants (161) in 12 locations were selected by convenient sampling with particular focus on local people who regularly interact with plants or plant products. Interview questions were focused on the local names of plants that contain irritating chemicals and physical characteristics that cause ICD. Forty four plant species distributed in 24 families and 34 genera were reported as causative agents of irritant contact dermatitis. Herbs constituted 67.35%, trees 24.49% and shrubs 8.16%. Mechanical ICD was reported to be caused by 23 species, closely followed by chemical ICD (20 species) and mechanico-chemical ICD (6 species). Species with the highest frequency of citations were Allium cepa, Acacia karroo, Capsicum annuum, Citrus limon and Zea mays. The most representative families were Euphorbiaceae (for chemical ICD), Urticaceae (for mechanico-chemical ICD), Fabaceae and Rutaceae for mechanical ICD. Most of the classes of chemical compounds identified as being responsible for chemical ICD were restricted to plants of specific genera such as the diterpenes in Euphorbia spp., disulphides in Allium spp., terpenes in Citrus spp. and isothiocyanates in Brassica spp. Thorns and hairs were reported for causing Mechanical ICD in 6 plant species each, including widely cultivated plants such as Acacia karoo and Citrus reticulata. Irritant contact dermatitis is a common cutaneous disorder in individuals exposed to plants in the Eastern Cape, especially among workers

  15. Plants grown on sewage sludge in South China and its relevance to sludge stabilization and metal removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAMAKE Moussa; WU Qi-Tang; MO Ce-hui; MOREL Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    The production of sewage sludge in China has been increasing sharply in order to treat 40% of the municipal sewage in 2005 as planned by central government. The main sludge disposal method is landfill owing to heavy metal contamination, but it presents an attractive potential for agricultural land application. Experiments were carried out to study the simultaneous metal removal and sludge stabilization by plants. The sludge samples were collected from Datansha Wastewater Treatment Plant of Guangzhou, it contained excessive Cu and Zn compared with the Chinese National Standard for Agricultural Use of Sewage Sludge. Plants growing on sludge beds were investigated to follow their growth and metal uptake. 30 sludge plants were identified during 1 year's observation. A Zn high-accumulating and high growth rate plant(Alocasia macrorrhiza) was selected and grown on sludge beds in plots. The water, organic matter, heavy metals and nutrients contents, the E. coli number and the cress seed germination index were monitored for the sludge samples collected monthly. The plant growth parameters and its heavy metals contents were also determined. The sewage sludge treated by plants could be stabilized at about 5 months, the E. coli number was significantly decreased and the cress seed germination index attained 100%. Crop on sludge could ameliorate the sludge drying. The experiments are continuing to find out the appropriate plant combination for simultaneous sludge stabilization and metal removal for an acceptable period. Comparisons between the proposed processes and other methods for treating produced sludge such as composting, chemical and bacterial leaching were discussed.

  16. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejovwokoghene C. Odjadjare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents.

  17. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-18

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents.

  18. 华南地区姜科植物主要害虫及其防治%Pests on Zingiberaceous Plants and Tneir Conffol in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍有声; 董祖林; 高泽正; 刘东明

    2001-01-01

    The pests on the zingiberaceous plants and their occurrence anddamage as well as control have been invertigated in the ginger plantation of South China Botanical Garden recently. 12 insect pests and 1 mite pest are common. To control them effectively, such as selecting loose, fertile soil as planting field with proper shade, applying healthy and vigorous seeds, seedlings and rhizomes for propagation, regulating plant density, sanitizing the field in time are mostly recommended. The application of chemical and biological pesticides and the protection on the beneficial organisms are also stressed.%笔者近年以华南植物园"襄荷园"为重点,对姜科植物害虫的种类、发生、为害及防治方法的系统调查和试验结果表明:常见的害虫有12种,害螨1种;防治应做好种植地选择,适度荫蔽,选留健壮不带害虫的种子、种苗、种姜,适当控制植株密度,及时清洁田园,适时使用化学和生物农药,并保护有益生物等综合防治措施。

  19. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sunshine, air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axi-omatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory, scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent, such as deserts,islands, water surfaces, South and North poles and space, as well as in human habi-tats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  20. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China starts to produce vegetables and fruits in a factory sunshine,air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axiomatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory,scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent,such as deserts, islands,water surfaces,South and North poles and space,as well as in human habitats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  1. [Diversity and tissue distribution of fungal endophytes in Alpinia officinarum: an important south-China medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ren-Chao; Huang, Juan; Li, Ze-En; Li, Shu-Bin

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique was applied to assess the diversity and tissue distribution of the fungal endophyte communities of Alpinia officinarum collected from Longtang town in Xuwen county, Guangdong province, China, at which the pharmacological effect of the medicine plant is traditional considered to be the significantly higher than that in any other growth areas in China. A total of 28 distinct Terminal-Restriction Fragment (T-RFs) were detected with HhaI Mono-digestion targeted amplified fungal nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region sequences (rDNA ITS) from the root, rhizome, stem, and leaf internal tissues of A. officinarum plant, indicating that at least 28 distinct fungal species were able to colonize the internal tissue of the host plant. The rDNA ITS-T-RFLP profiles obtained from different tissues of the host plant were obvious distinct. And the numbers of total T-RFs, and the dominant T-RFs detected from various tissues were significantly different. Based on the obtained T-RFLP profiles, Shannon's diversity index and the Shannon's evenness index were calculated, which were significantly different among tissues (P endophyte communities of the host plant (P = 0, Pearson correlation coefficient ≤ -0.962), and significant positive correlations between both of the tested active components contents and 325 bp dominant T-RF linkage to Pestalotiopsis (P = 0, Pearson correlation coefficient ≥ 0.975). In conclusion, A. officinarum is colonized by diverse fungal endophytes communities. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was found in the A. officinarum varied with differences of the tissue types of the host plants and was closely correlated with the accumulation of main active components, total volatile oils and galangin contents in the host plant tissue.

  2. An inventory of plants commonly used in the treatment of some disease conditions in Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunnisola, O S; Adetutu, A; Afolayan, A J

    2015-02-23

    This study was designed to take an inventory of medicinal plants, recipes and methods commonly used traditionally to treat some cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in five local government areas in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. First-hand field survey through semi-structured questionnaire was employed in the 5 months study. A total of 101 plant species (medicinal plants (80.90%), spices (17.5%) and vegetables (1.53%)) belonging to 51 different families were mentioned for the treatment of various types of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The survey revealed that 51.5% of the plants mentioned are used for the management of inflammatory diseases, 34.7% for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and 11.9% of the plants are used for the treatment of both diseases. Euphorbiaceae (7.9%) are the most frequently used families of plants for the treatment of the various types of diseases mentioned, followed by Caesalpiaceae, (4.9%), Apocynoceae (4.9%) and Poaceae (4.9%). Fifty-nine recipes are usually prepared for the treatment of the six types of inflammatory diseases while twenty-three recipes are reportedly used for the treatment of the four types of cardiovascular diseases mentioned in this study. The recipes covered in the survey were mostly prepared from leaves (37.6%) and roots (23.8%) decoction or infusions. Medications are mostly administered orally with few numbers of the recipes showing side effect. The study has documented indigenous plants in Ogbomoso as a potential source for the development of new drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. El Capital Social de las organizaciones del Tercer Sector. Caso de estudio: Organizaciones proveedoras de servicios de capacitación laboral en los Municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco del Estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Scarbay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo muestra resultados parciales de una investigación cuyo objetivo fue analizar rasgos de capital social en organizaciones del tercer sector proveedoras de capacitacion laboral en los Municipios Maracaibo y San Francisco del Estado Zulia. El capital social en las organizaciones estudiadas se cracteriza por ser consistente, positivo y muestra fortalezas como un nivel satisfactorio de confianza socia fundamentada en la existencia de confiabilidad mutua; sus normas de reciprocidad presentan un funcionamiento regular, que pudiera ser mejor, pero muestra gran cantidad y diversidad de vinculos que sutentan fuertes redes de compromiso civico.

  4. Heavy metal concentrations in soils and plant accumulation in a restored manganese mineland in Guangxi, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.S. [School of Environment and Resources, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004 (China)]. E-mail: msli@mailbox.gxnu.edu.cn; Luo, Y.P. [Department of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Su, Z.Y. [College of Forestry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Heavy metal contamination of metal-mined soils is a widespread problem in China. In the restored (over 20 years) Lipu manganese mineland, 36 plant species from 22 families were found colonizing, some of which were planted agronomic ones. Heavy metal concentrations in tailings were very high. Minesoils were basically unpolluted, but soils in the remaining mining area and in the vicinity of tailings dumps were polluted by Cd and Mn. Measurements of metal contents in dominant plants showed they were close to those of other mineland plants. Plants tended to have a higher Cd accumulation (as reflected by Biological Accumulation Coefficient) from soil, but have a higher Mn translocation (as indicated by Biological Transfer Coefficient) to aboveground parts. The Chinese chestnut and sugarcane cultivated on the reclaimed mineland were not safe for human consumption, and this agricultural restoration pattern should be carefully reconsidered. - Soils of a restored manganese mineland are basically unpolluted, but direct cultivation of edible agronomic crops may be a health risk for humans.

  5. Bioaccumulation of zinc, lead, copper, and cadmium from contaminated sediments by native plant species and Acrida cinerea in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang; Song, Na; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jia-Chao; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Chen, An-Wei; Zhen, Jia-Mei

    2014-03-01

    This research was conducted to search and identify spontaneously growing heavy metal-tolerant plant species that are potentially useful for phytoremediation in contaminated sediment. Five sites were selected for collection of plants growing on polluted shore (river bank) sediment of the Xiang River, China. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in plants, sediments, and grasshoppers were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS700, Perkin-Elmer, USA). Considering translocation factor and bioaccumulation factor, Rumex crispus (Polygonaceae), Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae), and Lagopsis supina (Labiatae) could be potentially useful for phytostabilization of metals. R. crispus can be considered potentially useful for phytoextraction of Cd. In light of the biomagnification factors, grasshoppers are deconcentrators for Pb and Cd, microconcentrators for Zn and macroconcentrators for Cu to the plants, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd accumulation in R. crispus and L. supina, providing a pioneer contribution to the very small volume of data available on the potential use of native plant species from contaminated sediments in phytostabilization and phytoremediation technologies.

  6. Prevalence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella at Different Processing Steps in Broiler Slaughter Plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Chon, Jung-Whan; Lim, Jong-Soo; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Young-Jo; Heo, Eun-Jeong; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Sung, Kidon; Moon, Jin-San

    2015-12-01

    In this study, changes in the prevalence of Salmonella during the processing of broiler chicken carcasses were investigated. A total of 1040 fecal swabs and chicken carcasses samples were collected from 2 processing plants at the 4 stages of broiler processing, which included live birds in slaughter line, postevisceration/prewashing, postwashing/prechilling, and postchilling, respectively. The intraspecific biodiversity of the Salmonella isolates was determined using a DiversiLab automated repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) system. In both plants, the prevalence of Salmonella increased considerably after evisceration (from 4.6% to 30.8%, P Salmonella prevalence (from 25.4% to 22.7%, P > 0.05). The most frequent Salmonella serovar in plant A was Infantis (35.8%), followed by Enteritidis (26.2%) and Montevideo (15.0%), while Montevideo (43.6%) and Enteritidis (35.9%) were most prevalent in plant B. A difference in the rep-PCR banding pattern was found to be related to the processing plant origin and serovar rather than sampling point or sampling day, although there were some exceptional strains.

  7. Distribution of radionuclides in a marine sediment core off the waterspout of the nuclear power plants in Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dongmei; Li, Haitao; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Zhang, Yusheng; Zhang, Hongbiao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Junjie; Wang, Hua; Yang, Jie

    2015-07-01

    A sediment core was collected and dated using (210)Pbex dating method off the waterspout of nuclear power base of Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea. The γ-emitting radionuclides were analyzed using HPGe γ spectrometry, gross alpha and beta radioactivity as well as other geochemical indicators were deliberated to assess the impact of nuclear power plants (NPP) operation and to study the past environment changes. It suggested that NPP provided no new radioactivity source to sediment based on the low specific activity of (137)Cs. Two broad peaks of TOC, TC and LOI accorded well with the commercial operations of Daya Bay NPP (1994.2 and 1994.5) and LNPP Phase I (2002.5 and 2003.3), implying that the mass input of cooling water from NPP may result into a substantial change in the ecological environment and Daya Bay has been severely impacted by human activities.

  8. The opportunity cost of not utilising the woody invasive alien plant species in the Kouga, Krom and Baviaans catchments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulile Vundla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the opportunity costs of using woody invasive alien plants (IAPs for value-added products by estimating the net economic return from the value-added industries in South Africa. By 2008, IAPs were estimated at the national level to cover an area of 1 813 million condensed hectares in South Africa. A market has formed around their use for value-added products (VAP like charcoal, firewood and timber in the Kouga, Kromme and Baviaans River catchments in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The net economic return from these value-added industries was estimated for the purpose of several management scenarios, and was then used to estimate the opportunity costs if they were not used. A system dynamics model was used to value and analyse the Net Present Value of clearing in the study area and to estimate the opportunity cost of the non-use of VAP. The study showed that the inclusion of VAPs in the project would yield higher net present values for clearing. The findings from this study suggest that a cofinance option of the total economic returns from VAP for clearing costs is the best management scenario for reducing the costs of clearing and maximising the net economic returns from clearing. The net economic returns of VAPs by 2030 are estimated at R23 million without the co-finance option and R26 million with the option. The cumulative net income from VAPs with co-financing over the period of valuation is estimated to be R609 million.

  9. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

  10. Plants used to treat skin diseases in northern Maputaland, South Africa: antimicrobial activity and in vitro permeability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciki, Sibongile; Vuuren, Sandy; van Eyk, Armorel; de Wet, Helene

    2016-11-01

    Ethnobotanical claims of medicinal plants used in northern Maputaland are limited. Objectives To establish scientific validity for a selection of the plants used in Maputaland to treat skin diseases. Aqueous and dichloromethane-methanol extracts were prepared from 37 plant species which were collected from four rural communities in Maputaland. Antimicrobial screening was performed on extracts against 12 dermatological relevant pathogens using the micro-titre plate dilution assay. Their combined effect was evaluated by determining the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentrations (ΣFICs). Chemical analysis was undertaken using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and investigated in vitro across excised intact porcine skin using the ILC07 automated system. The organic extract of Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson (Clusiaceae) was found to be the most antimicrobially active displaying an average broad-spectrum MIC value of 270 μg/mL. The combination of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hotsch. (Anacardaceae) with Syzygium cordatum Hochst. ex C. Krauss (Myrtaceae) displayed synergistic effects. The four antimicrobially active organic extracts were found to possess mainly anthraquinones, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The organic extracts of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Bignoniaceae) and S. cordatum were found to have more compounds capable of permeating intact skin after 10 min of exposure. More than 80% of the organic extracts tested displayed a correlation between the antimicrobial efficacy and the reported traditional uses of the plants. Furthermore, the traditional use of topically applied plant preparations is validated as some compounds from the active plants are capable of permeating the skin in vitro.

  11. Evidence, Perceptions, and Trade-offs Associated with Invasive Alien Plant Control in the Table Mountain National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. van Wilgen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Table Mountain National Park is a 265 km2 protected area embedded within a city of 3.5 million people. The park contains an extremely diverse flora with many endemic species, and has been granted World Heritage Site status in recognition of this unique biodiversity. Invasive alien plants are arguably the most significant threat to the conservation of this biodiversity, and the past decade has seen the implementation of aggressive programs aimed at the removal of invasions by these plants. These invasive alien plants include several species of trees, notably pines (Pinus species and eucalypts (Eucalyptus species, which historically have been grown in plantations, and which are utilized for recreation by the city's residents. In addition, many citizens regard the trees as attractive and ecologically beneficial, and for these reasons the alien plant control programs have been controversial. I briefly outline the legal obligations to deal with invasive alien plants, the history of control operations and the scientific rationale for their implementation, and the concerns that have been raised about the operations. Evidence in support of control includes the aggressive invasive nature of many species, and the fact that they displace native biodiversity (often irreversibly and have negative impacts on hydrology, fire intensity, and soil stability. Those against control cite aesthetic concerns, the value of pine plantations for recreation, the (perceived unattractive nature of the treeless natural vegetation, and the (incorrect belief that trees bring additional rainfall. The debate has been conducted through the press, and examples of perceptions and official responses are given. Despite opposition, the policy promoting alien plant removal has remained in place, and considerable progress has been made towards clearing pine plantations and invasive populations. This conservation success story owes much to political support, arising largely from job

  12. Do forest soil microbes have the potential to resist plant invasion? A case study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve (South China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Ming; Li, Song; Liao, Hui-Xuan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Successful invaders must overcome biotic resistance, which is defined as the reduction in invasion success caused by the resident community. Soil microbes are an important source of community resistance to plant invasions, and understanding their role in this process requires urgent investigation. Therefore, three forest communities along successional stages and four exotic invasive plant species were selected to test the role of soil microbes of three forest communities in resisting the exotic invasive plant. Our results showed that soil microbes from a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF) (late-successional stage) had the greatest resistance to the invasive plants. Only the invasive species Ipomoea triloba was not sensitive to the three successional forest soils. Mycorrhizal fungi in early successional forest Pinus massonina forest (PMF) or mid-successional forest pine-broadleaf mixed forest (PBMF) soil promoted the growth of Mikania micrantha and Eupatorium catarium, but mycorrhizal fungi in MEBF soil had no significant effects on their growth. Pathogens plus other non-mycorrhizal microbes in MEBF soil inhibited the growth of M. micrantha and E. catarium significantly, and only inhibited root growth of E. catarium when compared with those with mycorrhizal fungi addition. The study suggest that soil mycorrhizal fungi of early-mid-successional forests benefit invasive species M. micrantha and E. catarium, while soil pathogens of late-successional forest may play an important role in resisting M. micrantha and E. catarium. The benefit and resistance of the soil microbes are dependent on invasive species and related to forest succession. The study gives a possible clue to control invasive plants by regulating soil microbes of forest community to resist plant invasion.

  13. Deformation of Northwestern South America from GPS Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Paez, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Mothes, P. A.; Ruiz, A. G.; Fernandes, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The North Andes block (NAB) is a hypothesized tectonic block that migrates (escapes) north-northeast relative to a stable South American reference frame. The motion of this block is thought-to-be derived by the collision of the Carnegie Ridge in southern Ecuador and/or by oblique convergence and high degrees of interplate coupling north of the ridge (i.e., strain partitioning). At the latitude of Ecuador, the NAB is defined by transpressional deformation accommodating east-northeastward motion along its boundary with South America. In southern to central Colombia, the NAB is dissected by several mapped and prominent regional shear zones. At these latitudes the NAB may be bound to the west by the Choco block and the transpressional Atrato-Uraba fault system and to the east by the Guayaquil-Algeciras fault system. And in northern Colombia the Caribbean - South America plate boundary is defined by the NAB and proposed Maracaibo and Guajira blocks. We investigate the deformation of northwestern South America, including the kinematics of NAB utilizing a new velocity field based on continuous GPS and existing episodic GPS data in Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. We reference these new velocities to a newly estimated Euler vector for the South America plate based on inversion of cGPS data from stations east of the Andes. The new velocity field and published earthquake slip vectors are inverted to solve for the Euler vectors of the NAB, Choco, Panama, Maracaibo and Guajira blocks and interseismic elastic strain accumulation (interseismic coupling) on block-bounding faults using a block modeling approach. We test a suite of block models to investigate the tectonic nature of the NAB along strike and the style of faulting in the upper plate accommodating block motion. Through the estimation of elastic strain accumulation on all block-bounding faults, we improve the understanding of interseismic coupling along a convergent margin capable of producing M>8 earthquakes

  14. Biogeochemical investigation in south eastern Andhra Pradesh: the distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in plants and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, K.K.; Raju, A.N. [Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India). Dept. of Geology

    2000-09-01

    The concentration of rare earth elements (REE), thorium and uranium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the plant species, Pterocarpus santalinus, P. marsupium and P. dalbergioides, and the soils on which they were growing. Higher concentrations of lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) were observed in both plants and soils. Large amounts of thorium and uranium were found in the soil. In all tree species, the concentration of REEs were higher in the heartwood than the leaves. The heartwood of P. santalinus accumulated larger quantities of uranium (average concentration of 1.22 ppm) and thorium (mean value of 2.57 ppm) than the other two species. (orig.)

  15. Oferta de valor como estrategia de diferenciación en los establecimientos franquiciados de comida rápida en el municipio Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Andrade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A medida que crece el número de empresas que ofrecen servicios, los inversionistas se esfuerzan por presentar características distintivas, para ello desarrollan estrategias globales en diferentes ramas de este sector. En este contexto, el objetivo del artículo es "analizar la oferta de valor como estrategia de diferenciación en los establecimientos franquiciados de comida rápida en el municipio Maracaibo", resaltando los aportes teóricos de Zeithaml y Bitner (2002 y Lovelock (1997. La investigación es descriptiva, con un diseño no experimental de campo, cuya fuente principal de información fueron las entrevistas realizadas a 23 gerentes de los establecimientos registrados en Profranquicias y ubicados en los malls del municipio. Entre los resultados destacan que el producto tangible más ofrecido son las hamburguesas (26,1%. El servicio que agrega valor es el menú variado con atención al cliente (91,3%, mientras los que complementan la venta son la diversidad de formas de pagos (47,8%. Los principales elementos de la oferta de valor son la rapidez y la calidad de los productos (82,6% respectivamente, mientras, la calidad del servicio (52,2%, es la estrategia que permite lograr una ventaja competitiva y la diferenciación en el sistema de franquicias. Concluyendo que la oferta de valor que estos establecimientos presentan es un atractivo, ya que la misma funciona como estrategia para diferenciarse de la competencia y posicionarse en el mercado, satisfaciendo al mayor número de consumidores posibles y manteniendo el negocio exitoso.

  16. Honor femenino y economía de bienes simbólicos en Maracaibo, Venezuela, a finales del siglo XIX (1880 – 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rincón Rubio

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en este trabajo una aproximación antropológica a las representaciones culturales del honor femenino circulantes en la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela, a finales del siglo XIX. La investigación realizada adopta un enfoque teórico-metodológico de corte estructuralista-constructivista, abordando el orden social como un sistema simbólico organizado según una lógica de la diferencia y partiendo de la premisa de que prácticas y representaciones están orientadas externamente por las estructuras objetivas de la sociedad, e internamente por esquemas de percepción, pensamiento y acción de origen social. Al tratarse de un trabajo de antropología histórica, los informantes fueron sustituidos por fuentes documentales ubicadas en diferentes archivos venezolanos. Se encuentra que las representaciones culturales del honor femenino en la sociedad en cuestión asociaban este concepto con la castidad sexual, reproduciendo esquemas culturales vigentes en la órbita del mundo occidental y proporcionando una lógica para el mantenimiento de relaciones desiguales de género y poder en la vida pública y privada de los marabinos. El capital social y el capital simbólico habrían sido componentes fundamentales del capital total de que se disponía entonces en la lucha cotidiana por la obtención de recursos y por el reconocimiento social, en una economía de bienes simbólicos que atribuía al parecer preferentemente a los hombres el trabajo oficial de conservación o incremento de dichas formas de capital.

  17. Mapping the potential ranges of major plant invaders in South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland using climatic suitability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouget, M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available programmes for managing plant invasions in the world. There is, however, no protocol for assessing the likely future spread patterns needed to inform medium- to long-term planning. This paper presents an assessment of the climatic correlates of distribution...

  18. The role of flowering plant species in the survival of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae along the lower Orange River, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Myburgh

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an investigation of the role that plants play in the survival of adult blackflies by providing shelter and carbohydrate food. A detailed phenological study of the 29 most abundant plant species in the Augrabies Falls National Park showed that throughout the year the percentage of plant species flowering was remarkably constant. It is therefore unlikely that the availability of carbohydrates would limit adult Simulium survival at any time of the year. Blackflies were recorded feeding on the flowers of Pappea capensis. Acacia karroo, A. mellifera, Tamarix usneoides, Ziziphus mucronata, Scholia afra and Sisyndite spartea. An additional survey showed that another 64 plant species flowered throughout the year, and these can be regarded as potential carbohydrate sources. Blackflies were observed sheltering in dense shrubs and trees that provide protection against predation and harsh environmental conditions. This study suggests that vegetated drainage lines are the means by which adult blackflies survive dispersal away from the river. It is concluded that carbohydrate scarcity cannot be considered a limiting factor to adult blackfly survival along the lower Orange River.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of customary medicinal plants of the Yaegl Aboriginal community of northern New South Wales, Australia: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, Joanne; Naz, Tarannum; ,; Harrington, David; Jamie, Joanne F.; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is a collaboration between Macquarie University researchers and the Yaegl Aboriginal Community of northern NSW, Australia to investigate the antimicrobial potential of plants used in the topical treatment of wounds, sores and skin infections. Based on previously documented medicinal applications, aqueous and aqueous ethanolic extracts of Alocasia brisbanensis, Canavalia rosea, Corymbia intermedia, Hibbertia scandens, Ipomoea brasiliensis, Lophostemon suaveolens and Synca...

  20. Autopsia bucal post-exhumación en víctimas de un desastre masivo: Masacre de la Cárcel de Sabaneta, Maracaibo, Venezuela Post-exhumation buccal autopsy in victims of a massive disaster: the Sabaneta Jail Massacre, Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Fereira Paz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Ante la solicitud presentada por los parientes de víctimas no identificadas de la Masacre de la Cárcel de Sabaneta, Maracaibo, Venezuela, un tribunal ordenó la exhumación de cuatro cadáveres, quince días después de haber sido sepultados. Se observó una buena conservación de los restos con apreciable mantenimiento de las estructuras y contornos faciales. Se evidenció que el método de acceso a la cavidad oral empleado en la autopsia bucal pre-inhumación facilitó el abordaje para la autopsia post-exhumación, sin provocar mayor destrucción de los tejidos blandos y permitiendo la correcta manipulación tanto de las estructuras orales como de los dispositivos protésicos aportados como evidencias. En todos los casos se verificó la coincidencia de los datos obtenidos durante la autopsia pre-sepultura. Se concluye que cuando el proceso de inhumación se lleva a cabo siguiendo una adecuada planificación, se facilita una futura recuperación del cadáver cuando esta es requerida para completar el procedimiento de identificación.In view of the petition presented by the relatives of the unidentified victims of the Sabaneta Jail Massacre, Maracaibo, Venezuela, a court ordered the exhumation of four corpses, fifteen days after they were buried. The remains were well preserved, the structure and facial outline were well conserved. It was evidenced that the method of access to the oral cavity employed in the pre-inhumation buccal autopsy facilitated the approach to the post-inhumation autopsy, without causing major destruction of the soft tissues and allowing for the correct manipulation of the oral structures as well as of the prosthetic appliances presented as evidence. In all cases, the coincidence of the data obtained during the pre-burial autopsy was verified. It was concluded that adequate planning of the inhumation process facilitates future recuperation of the bodies when this is required to complete the identification procedure.

  1. Occurrence and fate of eleven classes of antibiotics in two typical wastewater treatment plants in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Yang, Bin; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2013-05-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as one of the most important sources of antibiotics in the environment. Two sampling campaigns over a period of one year in two wastewater treatment plants (plant A: activated sludge with chlorination, and plant B: oxidation ditch with UV) of Guangdong Province, China were carried out to assess the occurrence and fate of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics. The wastewater samples were extracted by Oasis HLB cartridges (6mL, 500 mg), while the solid samples (sludge and suspended solid matter) were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with solvents (acetonitrile and citric acid buffer), followed by an enrichment and clean-up step with solid-phase extraction using SAX-HLB cartridges in tandem. The results showed the presence of 20 and 17 target compounds in the influents and effluents, respectively, at the concentrations ranging from low ng/L to a few μg/L. Sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, anhydro erythromycin and trimethoprim were most frequently detected in the WWTPs wastewaters. Twenty-one antibiotics were found in the sewage sludge from the two WWTPs at the concentrations up to 5800ng/g, with tetracycline, oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and ofloxacin being the predominant antibiotics. The total mass loads of antibiotics per capita in the two plants ranged from 494 to 901 μg/d/inhabitant (672±182 μg/d/inhabitant) in the influents, from 130 to 238 μg/d/inhabitant (175±45 μg/d/inhabitant) in the effluents and from 107 to 307 μg/d/inhabitant (191±87.9 μg/d/inhabitant) in the dewatered sludge, respectively. The aqueous removals for sulfonamides, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and chloramphenicol in the WWTPs were mainly attributed to the degradation processes, while those for tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones were mainly due to the adsorption onto sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on the Invasive Alien Plants in South China%华南地区外来人侵植物调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建勇; 梁瑞龙; 李娟; 黄应钦

    2012-01-01

    根据野外调查和相关资料整理,探讨华南地区入侵植物的种类组成、来源、生长型,比较不同地区间种类组成的相似性,预测部分危险性较大的入侵种的扩散趋势。研究表明:华南三省共有外来入侵植物148种,属于41科105属,其中广东、广西、海南分别为132、129、100种,以菊科(Asteraceae)、禾本科(Gramineae)和苋科(Amaranthaceae)的种类最多。美洲起源的入侵种最多,共有108种,占总种数73.0%。草本型入侵植物种类最多,共有114种,占总物种数77.0%。广东和广西两省入侵植物组成的相似性最大,广西和海南的相似性最低。%According to field investigation and relative data, the species composition, origin and life form were studied, the similarity of different species in different areas was compared, and the spread- ing tendency on part of high dangerous invasive alien plants was predicted. The study showed that 148 species of invasive alien plants belonging to 105 genera of 41 families were identified in three provinces of South China. There were 132 species of invasive alien plants in Guangdong, 129 species in Guangxi and 100 species in Hainan, in which the most were Asteraceae, Gramineae and Amaranthaceae. The most of the invasive alien plants were from America with 108 species, taking up 73.0% of the total species. The species of herbaceous invasive alien plants were the most with 114 species, taking up 77.0 %. The similarity of species composition of invasive alien plants between Guangdong and Guangxi was the highest, the lowest between Guangxi and Hainan.

  3. Thallium contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a steel plant-A newly-found significant source of Tl pollution in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Xuwen; Wang, Jin; Xiao, Tangfu; Chen, Diyun; Sheng, Guodong; Yin, Meiling; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng

    2017-05-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1.34 mg/kg. The Tl levels in most vegetables (such as leaf lettuce, chard and pak choy) surpassed the maximum permissible level (0.5 mg/kg) according to the environmental quality standards for food in Germany. Vegetables like leaf lettuce, chard, pak choy, romaine lettuce and Indian beans all exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) for Tl higher than 1, indicating a hyperaccumulation of Tl in these plants. Although the elevated Tl levels in the vegetables at present will not immediately pose significant non-carcinogenic health risks to residents, it highlights the necessity of a permanent monitoring of Tl contamination in the steel-making areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of wastewater from different sources on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in sewage treatment plants in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Masato; Senba, Hironobu; Otagiri, Haruna; Prabhasankar, Valipparambil P; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Ian Joshua, Derrick; Balakrishna, Keshava; Bairy, Indira; Iwata, Taketoshi; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Guruge, Keerthi S

    2015-05-01

    The sewage treatment plant (STP) is one of the most important interfaces between the human population and the aquatic environment, leading to contamination of the latter by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To identify factors affecting the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, water samples were collected from three different STPs in South India. STP1 exclusively treats sewage generated by a domestic population. STP2 predominantly treats sewage generated by a domestic population with a mix of hospital effluent. STP3 treats effluents generated exclusively by a hospital. The water samples were collected between three intermediate treatment steps including equalization, aeration, and clarification, in addition to the outlet to assess the removal rates of bacteria as the effluent passed through the treatment plant. The samples were collected in three different seasons to study the effect of seasonal variation. Escherichia coli isolated from the water samples were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials. The results of logistic regression analysis suggest that the hospital wastewater inflow significantly increased the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli, whereas the treatment processes and sampling seasons did not affect the prevalence of these isolates. A bias in the genotype distribution of E. coli was observed among the isolates obtained from STP3. In conclusion, hospital wastewaters should be carefully treated to prevent the contamination of Indian environment with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

  5. Whole genome sequence and genome annotation of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of anthracnose in pepper plants in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum acutatum is a destructive fungal pathogen which causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops. Here we report the whole genome sequence and annotation of C. acutatum strain KC05, isolated from an infected pepper in Kangwon, South Korea. Genomic DNA from the KC05 strain was used for the whole genome sequencing using a PacBio sequencer and the MiSeq system. The KC05 genome was determined to be 52,190,760 bp in size with a G + C content of 51.73% in 27 scaffolds and to contain 13,559 genes with an average length of 1516 bp. Gene prediction and annotation were performed by incorporating RNA-Seq data. The genome sequence of the KC05 was deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number LUXP00000000.

  6. Whole genome sequence and genome annotation of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of anthracnose in pepper plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Hee; Chon, Jae-Kyung; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Ik-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2016-06-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is a destructive fungal pathogen which causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops. Here we report the whole genome sequence and annotation of C. acutatum strain KC05, isolated from an infected pepper in Kangwon, South Korea. Genomic DNA from the KC05 strain was used for the whole genome sequencing using a PacBio sequencer and the MiSeq system. The KC05 genome was determined to be 52,190,760 bp in size with a G + C content of 51.73% in 27 scaffolds and to contain 13,559 genes with an average length of 1516 bp. Gene prediction and annotation were performed by incorporating RNA-Seq data. The genome sequence of the KC05 was deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number LUXP00000000.

  7. Health seeking behavior and use of medicinal plants among the Hamer ethnic group, South Omo zone, southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Biniam; Fenta, Teferi Gedif; Bisrat, Daniel; Asres, Kaleab

    2016-10-06

    Health seeking behavior of people around the globe is affected by different socio-cultural and economic factors. In Ethiopia, people living in rural areas in particular, are noted for their use of medicinal plants as a major component of their health care option. This study was conducted to document ethnopharmacological information of the Hamer semi-pastoralists ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out whereby information on demographic characteristics, prevalence of perceived illnesses, factors associated with preference of health care seeking options, medicinal plants used and hoarded as well as some healers' socio-economic characteristics were collected using two sets of semi-structured questionnaires - one for household (HH) heads and the other for traditional healers supplemented by focus group discussions (FGDs). Households were selected using a cluster sampling followed by systematic sampling techniques; whereas healers and FGD participants were purposively selected with the assistance of local leaders and elders from the community. The study revealed that the use of traditional medicine among the Hamer ethnic group is very high. Females preferred traditional medicine more than males. The main reasons for this preference include effectiveness, low cost and ease of availability. Malaria (gebeze) was the most frequently occurring illness in the area identified by all FGD participants. A total of 60 different medicinal plants were reported [34 by HH respondents, 14 by traditional healers and 12 by both]. Fifty-one medicinal plants were fully identified, 3 at generic level and 6 have not yet been identified. It can be concluded that traditional medical practices, particularly herbal aspect, is widely used by the Hamer ethnic group, although health seeking behavior of the community is affected by different socio-economic and cultural factors.

  8. Phytomass of plant communities at the dumps of opencast coal mines in the south of Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Trefilova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the evaluation of the stock and structure of plant communities formed in the dumps of the Borodino brown coal pit (the eastern part of the Kansk-Achinskcoal basin. A comparison of different age dumps reclaimed with top soil (TS, planned dumps and slopes. The observations cover the period from 2007 to 2009 and 2013. Almost immediately after its creation, on the surface dumps with TS a solid grassy vegetation formed, which was characterized by high productivity. Over the next two decades, a biomass reserve decreased more than 2 times. The major portion of the biomass of 7 and 31–year–old community is concentrated in the 0–10 cm layer. The plant communities amount to the original level of stocks and the structure of the biomass of both aboveground and underground are as no earlier than in 25–30 years. Forest plantations making to force the accumulation of biomass of young biogeocenosis formed on poor substrate (litostratah. The stock biomass of pine man–made stands on 30 % less than in the grass lands to growing on the dumps with TS. Slopes of reclaimed dumps were slowly overgrown and emerging communities were characterized by a low cover and productivity. The major portion of biomass was located above ground. Significant seasonal variations in quantities of above–ground phytomass of plant communities of old dumps, indicating their«immaturity»in spite of thethirty years of the formation of vegetation.

  9. Distribution, fraction, and ecological risk assesment of heavy metals in sediment-plant system in mangrove forest, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, R.; Shen, X.; Li, Y. H.; Chai, M. W.; Qiu, G. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. The RAC values of heavy metals indicated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk to the biota, especially for Cd. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

  10. Determination of Total Chromium and Chromium Species in Kombolcha Tannery Wastewater, Surrounding Soil, and Lettuce Plant Samples, South Wollo, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Belayneh Asfaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the determination of total chromium (total Cr, Cr(III, and Cr(VI in Kombolcha leather industrial wastewater and the surrounding (soil and lettuce plant samples where the wastewater flows. The levels of total Cr, Cr(VI, and Cr(III in wastewater, soil, and lettuce plant samples were determined by FAAS, UV/Vis spectrophotometer, and difference (Cr(VI from total Cr, respectively. Among all samples taken, the maximum amounts of total Cr, Cr(III, and Cr(VI were obtained at the discharging point and the minimum amounts of total Cr and Cr(III were found downstream (400 m from the junction of Kombolcha leather industrial wastewater. On the other hand, the minimum concentration of Cr(VI was obtained in lettuce plant sample. The amounts of total Cr in all samples except soil sample were above the permissible limit as set by WHO/FAO. The concentrations of Cr(III in all wastewater samples were above the permissible level, whereas the concentration of Cr(VI in wastewater was above the permissible level except 400 m from the junction. The result showed that a remarkable elimination of total Cr and Cr species has not been achieved by this leather industry as its level was not much decreased when entered into the water systems. Therefore, effective treatment methods should be applied to the wastewater for the wellbeing of the surroundings.

  11. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 7. A check list of plant nematodes from the Fynbos Biome, with a description of Helicotylenchus curatus sp. n.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant nematodes recorded during surveys in the Fynbos Biome are listed and a new Helicotylenchus species is described. Helicotylenchus curatus sp. n. is characterised bystylet length (42-46 μm in females, 37-40 μm in males, presence of two rudimentary subdorsal and two rudimentary subventral lobes on the labial disc, first lip annulus divided into six sectors, presence of fasciculi and presence of males. Nine families represented by 32 genera and 152 species were identified from the Fynbos Biome. The generaCriconema, Helicotylenchus, Hemicycliophora, Rotylenchus, Scutellonema and Xiphinema were found in more than 30 % of the localities, whereas Caloosia, Criconemoides, Ditylenchus, Geocenamus, Hemicriconemoides, Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Longidorus, Meloidogyne, Mesocriconema, Ogma, Paralongidorus, Paratrichodorus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchoides, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Trichodorusand Tylenchorhynchus were found at fewer localities. The genera Anguina, Hirschmaniella, Histotylenchus and Zygotylenchus were each identified from a single locality.

  12. La representación americana en las Cortes de Cádiz y la lucha por la autonomía provincial: casos de Maracaibo y Tabasco, 1810-1814

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    Zulimar Maldonado Viloria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La convocatoria, expedida por la Junta Central en 1.809, para elegir y enviar diputados a las Cortes Generales y Extraordinarias de la monarquía española representó una oportunidad única para las elites americanas de expresar y reivindicar sus aspiraciones políticas y socioeconómicas ante el poder metropolitano. Provincias de diferentes espacios de la América Española, como Maracaibo (Venezuela y Tabasco (México, encausaron su actuación hacia la solicitud y defensa de sus aspiraciones históricas, consistentes en reivindicaciones políticas, económicas, militares, sociales y, sobre todo, en el logro de autonomía y status político El análisis de las actuaciones de los diputados americanos permite deducir la existencia temprana de proyectos ilustrados y autonomistas. En particular, se considera la actuación del parlamentario José Domingo Rus, de la Provincia de Maracaibo y los fundamentos ideológicos, políticos, económicos y sociales que sustentaron el proyecto de la elite que lo designó su representante.

  13. Predicting incursion of plant invaders into Kruger National Park, South Africa: the interplay of general drivers and species-specific factors.

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    Vojtěch Jarošík

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overcoming boundaries is crucial for incursion of alien plant species and their successful naturalization and invasion within protected areas. Previous work showed that in Kruger National Park, South Africa, this process can be quantified and that factors determining the incursion of invasive species can be identified and predicted confidently. Here we explore the similarity between determinants of incursions identified by the general model based on a multispecies assemblage, and those identified by species-specific models. We analyzed the presence and absence of six invasive plant species in 1.0×1.5 km segments along the border of the park as a function of environmental characteristics from outside and inside the KNP boundary, using two data-mining techniques: classification trees and random forests. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The occurrence of Ageratum houstonianum, Chromolaena odorata, Xanthium strumarium, Argemone ochroleuca, Opuntia stricta and Lantana camara can be reliably predicted based on landscape characteristics identified by the general multispecies model, namely water runoff from surrounding watersheds and road density in a 10 km radius. The presence of main rivers and species-specific combinations of vegetation types are reliable predictors from inside the park. CONCLUSIONS: The predictors from the outside and inside of the park are complementary, and are approximately equally reliable for explaining the presence/absence of current invaders; those from the inside are, however, more reliable for predicting future invasions. Landscape characteristics determined as crucial predictors from outside the KNP serve as guidelines for management to enact proactive interventions to manipulate landscape features near the KNP to prevent further incursions. Predictors from the inside the KNP can be used reliably to identify high-risk areas to improve the cost-effectiveness of management, to locate invasive plants and target them for

  14. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Dynamics of Species Richness and Abundance of Woody Plant Functional Groups in a Tropical Forest Landscape of Hainan Island,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Dong Zhang; Run-Guo Zang; Yao-Dong Qi

    2008-01-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-diverse ecosystems on Earth. Their structures and ecological functions are complex to understand. Functional group is defined as a group of species that play similar roles in an ecosystem. The functional group approach has been regarded as an effective way of linking the compositions of complex ecosystems with their ecological functions. To understand the variation of functional groups in species-rich ecosystems after disturbance, the present study investigated the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of woody plants in a typically fragmented natural forest landscape of Hainan Island in South China. The study area was classified into eight landscape types based on vegetation type, disturbance manner and the time of recovery. The woody plant species were aggregated into seven functional groups based on the growth form, successional status and plant size. The results gained from the present study showed that all functional groups, except for the emergent and canopy tree species, were present in all eight landscape types. Each landscape type had different numbers of dominant functional groups. There are similar species richness and stem abundance structure among functional groups between mid-successional clear cut lowland rainforest and old growth tropical coniferous forest. This similarity exists in selective logged lowland rainforest and old-growth lowland rainforest, as well as among landscape types of montane rainforest. The functional groups with the same successional status had similar patterns of species richness and stem abundance ratios among different landscape types. The variation patterns of functional groups along the successional stages in terms of species richness and stem abundance among the tropical lowland rainforest landscape types were more similar to each other than those in the tropical montane reinforest landscape types. This study provides further support for the competition-colonization tradeoff and

  15. The determination of maturity levels in source rocks of the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela, based on convention geochemical parameters and asphaltenes; Determinacao do grau de maturacao em rochas geradoras de petroleo, formacao La Luna, Bacia de Maracaibo, Venezuela: parametros geoquimicos convencionais e asfaltenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, L.P. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Pesquisas sobre o Armazenamento de Carbono; Franco, N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Lopez, L.; Lo Monaco, S.; Escobar, G. [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela); Kalkreuth, W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Analises de Carvao e Rochas Geradoras de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    The La Luna Formation, main source rock of the Maracaibo Basin was studied by conventional geochemical parameters, used to determine the maturity, and they were compared with the physic-chemical and molecular properties of the asphaltenes present in the bitumen of the rocks. Three wells were studied (A, B and C) with a total of 13 samples. Based on Rock-Eval results the organic matter in well A (455 deg C Tmax) shows a relatively high level of maturation (top of the oil window), whereas the organic matter in well B (435 - 436 deg C Tmax) is in the beginning of the oil window. Tmax values in well C (438 - 446 deg C) and well C suggest an intermediate maturity level. The biomarkers identified in well B and C show ratios indicating an equilibrium state in the maturity level. A good correlation was found comparing the conventional analytical data with the determination of maturity level obtained from the asphaltenes precipitated from the bitumen of the samples. With increased maturity levels the H1 NMR analysis showed enrichment in aromatic molecules in relation to aliphatic, due to the bitumen aromatization process. Similarly, the asphaltenes molecular weight has higher values in samples characterized by elevated maturity levels. This confirms earlier studies that showed that asphaltenes may be utilized as maturity parameter of organic matter. (author)

  16. Detection of Free-Living Amoebae Using Amoebal Enrichment in a Wastewater Treatment Plant of Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muchesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae pose a potential health risk in water systems as they may be pathogenic and harbor potential pathogenic bacteria known as amoebae resistant bacteria. Free-living amoebae were observed in 150 (87.2% of the environmental water samples. In particular, Acanthamoeba sp. was identified in 22 (12.8% using amoebal enrichment and confirmed by molecular analysis. FLA were isolated in all 8 stages of the wastewater treatment plant using the amoebal enrichment technique. A total of 16 (9.3% samples were positive for FLA from influent, 20 (11.6% from bioreactor feed, 16 (9.3% from anaerobic zone, 16 (9.3% from anoxic zone, 32 (18.6% from aerators, 16 (9.3% from bioreactor effluent, 11 (6.4% from bioreactor final effluent, and 45 (26.2% from maturation pond. This study provides baseline information on the occurrence of amoebae in wastewater treatment plant. This has health implications on receiving water bodies as some FLA are pathogenic and are also involved in the transmission and dissemination of pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Detection of free-living amoebae using amoebal enrichment in a wastewater treatment plant of Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchesa, P; Mwamba, O; Barnard, T G; Bartie, C

    2014-01-01

    Free-living amoebae pose a potential health risk in water systems as they may be pathogenic and harbor potential pathogenic bacteria known as amoebae resistant bacteria. Free-living amoebae were observed in 150 (87.2%) of the environmental water samples. In particular, Acanthamoeba sp. was identified in 22 (12.8%) using amoebal enrichment and confirmed by molecular analysis. FLA were isolated in all 8 stages of the wastewater treatment plant using the amoebal enrichment technique. A total of 16 (9.3%) samples were positive for FLA from influent, 20 (11.6%) from bioreactor feed, 16 (9.3%) from anaerobic zone, 16 (9.3%) from anoxic zone, 32 (18.6%) from aerators, 16 (9.3%) from bioreactor effluent, 11 (6.4%) from bioreactor final effluent, and 45 (26.2%) from maturation pond. This study provides baseline information on the occurrence of amoebae in wastewater treatment plant. This has health implications on receiving water bodies as some FLA are pathogenic and are also involved in the transmission and dissemination of pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Study on carbon-fixing,oxygen-releasing,temperature-reducing and humidity-increasing effects of evergreen plants in south highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Minmin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system,was used to test the diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of evergreen plants in Southern Highway,and to calculate their ability of absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen and to calculate the transpiring water volume and absorbing heat quantity of plants.Results showed that Euonymus fortunei Hand-Mazz,Hedera helix.Aucuba eriobotryaefolia had better carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei,Radix Ophiopogonis had worse carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects.Radix Ophiopogonis,Photinia glabra,Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz had higher cooling and humidification ability,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei did not act as well as them.Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz and Hedera helix had higher leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,values are 12.91、10.34、9.93 mg·g-1.Radix Ophiopogonis、Cinnamomum camphora(Linn. Presl and Trachycarpus fortunei had lower leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,value is 3.55、2.67、2.06 mg·g-1.Releasing oxygen,fixing carbon,net assimilation and chlorophyll content has good correlation(P<0.05.

  19. Ecosystem-based assessment indices of restoration for Daya Bay near a nuclear power plant in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Fang, Hongda; Chen, Zhenhua; Xu, Zhanzhou

    2010-10-01

    China has adopted nuclear power generation as one of the strategic energy sources to resolve the dilemma between its ever-growing energy demand and the associated environmental issues. To achieve the latter, a systematic assessment of the state of the ecosystem near nuclear power plants and its restoration via ongoing recovery actions would be highly desirable and much needed. Current assessment methods are mostly based on the individual components of the ecosystem and the methods are therefore not integrated. In this paper, we report a set of system-based assessment indices to study the restoration of Daya Bay in Guangdong, China where a nuclear power plant has been in operation for 15 years. The results show that decades of intensive exploitation by the various coastal activities have pushed Daya Bay's ecosystem away from its baseline and its structure and functions are impaired; ecosystem restoration does not make up for the weakening of the ecological carrying capacity due to anthropogenic sea-use, nonetheless, the potential for recovery still exists. The case study suggests that the system-based indices can provide integrated information for ecosystem restoration assessment and management.

  20. The morphological structure of leaves and the dust-retaining capability of afforested plants in urban Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R

    2012-09-01

    Air pollution is a serious health problem throughout the world, exacerbating a wide range of respiratory and vascular illnesses in urban areas. The mass artificial plantation is very helpful to absorb dust and reduce pollution for conservation of the urban environment. The foliar surface of plants is an important receptor of atmospheric pollutants. Therefore, selection of suitable plant species for urban environment is very important. The dust-retaining capability of urban trees in Guangzhou was determined at four different types of urban area, and the morphological traits of their leaves such as wax, cuticle, stomata, and trichomes were observed under a scanning electron microscope. It was determined that the dust-retaining capability of any given tree species is significantly different in the same place. Of the four studied tree species in the industrial area (IA) and commercial/traffic areas (CTA) type urban areas, the highest amounts of dust removed by Mangifera indica Linn was 12.723 and 1.482 g/m(2), respectively. However, in contrast, the equivalent maxima for Bauhinia blakeana is only 2.682 g/m(2) and 0.720 g/m(2), respectively. Different plant species have different leaf morphology. The leaf of M. indica has deep grooves and high stomata density which are in favor of dust-retained, and thus, their dust-retained capability is stronger, while B. blakeana has the cells and epicuticular wax with its stomata arranging regularly, resulting in poor dust catching capability. Leaf size was also shown to be related to dust capture for the four studied tree species. The dust removal capacity of individual tree species should be taken into account in the management of greening plantation in and around an urban area. It was also shown that temporal variation in dust accumulation occurred over the 28-day observation period and this was discussed. Furthermore, spatial contrasts in dust accumulation were evidenced by the data. This reflected the differing pollution

  1. Sistemas de producción caprina y ovina en la subregión Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Timaure-Jiménez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar los sistemas de producción caprina y ovina de la Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo, se aplicó una metodología de investigación de acción participativa en las comunidades agrícolas del Municipio Simón Bolívar. Se consultaron líderes de la zona, al Equipo Zuliano de Criadores de Cabras y Ovejas, se aplicó un instrumento a 60 productores. La subregión COLM es zona petrolera, sin embargo, persiste la actividad agropecuaria arraigada en forma tradicional. En el Municipio Miranda existe una población de 16.137 caprinos y 7.526 ovejas, en Quisiro se analizaron 30 productores con 2.250 hectáreas, además de 1.300 caprinos y 675 ovinos. En Los Cilantrillos y La Esperanza se estudiaron 30 productores con 320 hectáreas, 375 caprinos y 430 ovejas, ocupando el 1 % del total regional, lo cual es importante por la persistencia e interés de los productores a pesar de las dificultades derivadas de la explotación petrolera. El grupo familiar se muestra participativo en el manejo de rebaños, el 88,3 % de los productores utiliza el pastoreo extensivo, hay tradición familiar, conocimiento de manejo de rebaños que pasa por cada generación, el 56,7 % están inscritos en la Misión Agro-Venezuela, las razas de cabra son principalmente nubian, alpina, criolla, en cuanto a ovejas, persa, mestiza o criolla, los productores trabajan más de 10 horas diarias los 7 días de la semana, el 56,7 % producen queso de cabra a puerta de finca para los mercados locales. Se recomienda continuar con los estudios y análisis participativos para el mejoramiento integral de este sistema productivo.

  2. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer (km) south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2014. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974, and serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. 

  3. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2011-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected for the period January 2010 to December 2010 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record that dates back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program initiated in 1994.

  4. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeffrey; Parchaso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Turner, Matthew A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2016-07-22

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, California. This report includes data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period from January 2015 to December 2015. These data are appended to long-term datasets extending back to 1974, and serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994.

  5. Evaluation of Emerging Contaminants of Concern at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant Based on Seasonal Events, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Arthur C.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan has identified highly treated wastewater as a possible water source for the restoration of natural water flows and hydroperiods in selected coastal areas, including the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands. One potential source of reclaimed wastewater for the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands is the effluent from the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southern Miami-Dade County. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Wastewater Reuse Technology Pilot Project Delivery Team, initiated a study to assess the presence of emerging contaminants of concern in the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant influent and effluent using current wastewater-treatment methods. As part of the study, 24-hour composite and discrete samples were collected at six locations (influent at plants 1 and 2, effluent pump, reuse train, chlorine dioxide unit, and ultraviolet pilot unit) at the plant during: (1) a dry-season, low-flow event on March 2-3, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 83.7 million gallons per day; (2) a wet-season, average-flow event on July 20-21, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 89.7 million gallons per day; and (3) high-rate disinfection tests on October 5 and 20, 2004, with average flow rates of 84.1 and 119.6 million gallons per day, respectively. During these four sampling events, 26, 27, 29, and 35 constituents were detected, respectively. The following transformations in concentration were determined in the waste stream: -100 to 180 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 85 percent at the reuse train on March 2-3, 2004, and -100 to 1,609 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 832 percent at the reuse train on July 20-21, 2004; -100 to -37 percent at the effluent pump, -100 to -62 percent at the reuse train, -100 to -56 percent at the chlorine dioxide unit, and -100 to -40 percent at the ultraviolet pilot unit on October 5, 2004; and -100 to -4 percent at the

  6. Soil Conservation Measures in Rainfed Olive Orchards in South-Eastern Spain:Impacts of Plant Strips on Soil Water Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.H.DURAN ZUAZO; C.R.RODRIGUEZ PLEGUEZUELO,L; ARROYO PANADERO,A; MARTINEZ RAYA, J; R.FRANCIA MARTINEZ; B.CARCELES RODRIGUEZ

    2009-01-01

    Sloping and mountainous olive production systems are widespread,occupying large parts of the Mediterranean landscape prone to water erosion.Soil erosion,runoff,and soil water content patterns over a three-year period were monitored in erosion plots on a mountainside with rainfed olive (Olea europaea cv.Picual) trees under:1) non-tillage with barley strips of 4 m width (BS);2) non-tillage with native vegetation strips of 4 m width (NVS);and 3) non-tillage without plant strips (NT).The erosion plots,located in Lanjaron (Granada,south-eastern Spain),on a 30% slope,were 192 m2 in area.For assessing soil water dynamics in real-time and near-continuons soil water content measurements,multiseusor capacitance probes were installed in the middle of plant strips and beneath the olive tree at five soil depths (10,20,30,50,and 100 cm).The highest erosion and runoff rates were measured under NT,with a mean of 17.3 Mg ha-1 year-1 and 140.0 mm year-1,respectively,over the entire study period.The BS and NVS with respect to the NT reduced erosion by 71% and 59% and runoff by 95% and 94%,respectively.In general,greater available soil water content was found under BS than NVS and NT,especially beneath the olive tree canopies.These results supported the recommendation of non-tillage with barley strips in order to reduce erosion and to preserve soil water for trees in traditional mountainous olive-producing areas,where orchards cover vast tracts of land.

  7. Are there consistent grazing indicators in Drylands? Testing plant functional types of various complexity in South Africa's Grassland and Savanna Biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Linstädter

    Full Text Available Despite our growing knowledge on plants' functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa's grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs. Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may

  8. Are there consistent grazing indicators in Drylands? Testing plant functional types of various complexity in South Africa's Grassland and Savanna Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linstädter, Anja; Schellberg, Jürgen; Brüser, Katharina; Moreno García, Cristian A; Oomen, Roelof J; du Preez, Chris C; Ruppert, Jan C; Ewert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Despite our growing knowledge on plants' functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs) with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa's grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs). Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses) and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses) performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold) had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may also be useful

  9. Effect of phytoremediation on concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 1998–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Effinger, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site near Charleston, South Carolina, USA, have been monitored since the installation of a phytoremediation system of hybrid poplar trees in 1998. Between 2000 and 2014, the concentrations of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene (BT&N) in groundwater in the planted area have decreased. For example, in the monitoring well containing the highest concentrations of BT&N, benzene concentrations decreased from 10,200 µg/L to less than 4000 µg/L, toluene concentrations decreased from 2420 µg/L to less than 20 µg/L, and naphthalene concentrations decreased from 6840 µg/L to less than 3000 µg/L. Concentrations of BT&N in groundwater in all wells were observed to be lower during the summer months relative to the winter months of a particular year during the first few years after installing the phytoremediation system, most likely due to increased transpiration and contaminant uptake by the hybrid poplar trees during the warm summer months; this pathway of uptake by trees was confirmed by the detection of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene in trees during sampling events in 2002, and later in the study in 2012. These data suggest that the phytoremediation system affects the groundwater contaminants on a seasonal basis and, over multiple years, has resulted in a cumulative decrease in dissolved-phase contaminant concentrations in groundwater. The removal of dissolved organic contaminants from the aquifer has resulted in a lower demand on dissolved oxygen supplied by recharge and, as a result, the redox status of the groundwater has changed from anoxic to oxic conditions. This study provides much needed information for water managers and other scientists on the viability of the long-term effectiveness of phytoremediation in decreasing groundwater contaminants and increasing dissolved oxygen at sites contaminated by benzene, toluene, and naphthalene.

  10. Larvicidal and repellent activity of medicinal plant extracts from Eastern Ghats of South India against malaria and filariasis vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Gandhi Elango; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal and repellent activities of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts ofAcacia concinna (A. concinna),Cassia siamea(C. siamea),Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum),Cuminum cyminum(C. cyminum),Lantana camara (L. camara),Nelumbo nucifera (N. nucifera)Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus),Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) andTrachyspermum ammi(T. ammi) againstAnopheles stephensi(An. stephensi) andCulex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus).Methods:The larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts were tested against early fourth-instar larvae of malaria and filariasis vectors. The mortality was observed 24 h and48 h after treatment, data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 andLC90) to kill50 and 90per cent of the treated larvae of the tested species. The repellent efficacy was determined against two mosquito species at five concentrations (31.25, 62.50, 125.00, 250.00, and 500.00 ppm) under the laboratory conditions.Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after24h and 48h of exposure; however, the highest activity was observed after24h in the leaf methanol extract ofN. nucifera, seed ethyl acetate and methanol extract ofP. nigrumagainst the larvae of An. stephensi(LC50 =34.76, 24.54 and30.20 ppm) and againstCx. quinquefasciatus (LC50= 37.49, 43.94 and57.39ppm), respectively. The toxic effect of leaf methanol extract ofC. siamea, seed methanol extract ofC. cyminum, leaf ethyl acetate extract ofN. nucifera, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract ofP. amarusand seed methanol extract ofT. ammiwere showed100% mortality againstAn. stephensi andCx. quinquefasciatus after48 h exposer. The maximum repellent activity was observed at500 ppm in methanol extracts ofN. nucifera, ethyl acetate and methanol extract ofP. nigrum and methanol extract ofT. ammi and the mean complete protection time ranged from30 to150 min with the different extracts tested. Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf and seed

  11. Positive gadolinium anomalies in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment in the Hérault watershed (South France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiet, M; Brissaud, F; Seidel, J L; Pistre, S; Elbaz-Poulichet, F

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd), used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, may enter rivers and groundwaters with the effluents of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Such contaminations, which are mainly found in densely populated areas with highly developed medical systems, induce positive gadolinium anomalies in waters. This study reports on the occurrence of positive Gd anomaly in wastewaters, surface and groundwaters in a slightly populated Mediterranean watershed. Water samples have been collected along the Hérault River, in its tributaries, in wells and springs supplying drinking water and in WWTP effluents during two sampling campaigns in February and July 2003. Systematically pronounced positive gadolinium anomalies (Gd/Gd( *)) were observed in WWTP effluents with values reaching 306. These observations have shown that Gd/Gd( *) can also be found in wastewater drained from rural communities, not equipped with MRI facilities. Positive gadolinium anomalies were detected in two tributaries of the Hérault River and in some wells supplying drinking water, corresponding to an excess of anthropogenic Gd in water up to 15.4pM. A monthly monitoring on one well has confirmed the persistence of gadolinium anomalies all along the year, suggesting a continual wastewater contamination on this site. A spatial monitoring on one tributary showed that wastewater contribution modifies completely the normalized REE pattern of river water, resulting in a decrease of REE amount correlated to the Gd anomaly appearance.

  12. Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Uchihori, Yukio; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-15

    Soil samples at different depths (0-2, 5-7 and 10-12cm) were collected from J Village, about 20km south of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) to determine their radionuclide specific activities and activity ratios. The concentrations and activity ratios of (131)I, (134, 136, 137)Cs and (129m)Te were obtained, but only trace amounts of (95)Nb, (110m)Ag and (140)La were detected which were too low to provide accurate concentrations. Radionuclides such as (95)Zr, (103, 106)Ru and (140)Ba that were found in Chernobyl fallout, were not found in these soil samples. This suggests that noble gasses and volatile radionuclides predominated in the releases from FNPP to the terrestrial environment. The average activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (134)Cs/(137)Cs, (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(137)Cs were 55, 0.90, 0.22 and 4.0 (corrected to March 11, 2011) in the 0-2cm soil samples of April 20 and 28, 2011.

  13. Transfer of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po from soil to plant in various locations in south of Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)], E-mail: scientific1@aec.org.sy; Al-Akel, B.; Nashawani, A.; Amin, Y.; Khalifa, K.H.; Al-Ain, F. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2008-02-15

    Transfer factors of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po from soil to some agriculture crops in various locations in south of Syria (Dara'a and Assuwaydaa districts) have been determined. Soil and vegetable crops (green pepper, cucumber, tomato, and eggplant), legumes crops (lentil, chickpea, and broad bean), fruit trees (apple, grape, and olives) and cereals (barley and wheat) were collected and analyzed for {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po. The results have shown that higher transfer factors (calculated as Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt. plant material per Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt. soil) for {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 238}U were observed in vegetable leaves than fruits and cereals leaves; the highest values of transfer factor (TF) for {sup 238}U were found to be 0.1 for straw of chickpea. Transfer factors for {sup 210}Po varied between 2.8 x 10{sup -2} and 2 in fruits of eggplant and grain of barley, respectively. In addition, several parameters affecting transfer factors of the radionuclides were evaluated. The results can be considered as base values for TF of natural radionuclides in the region.

  14. Occurrence of Vibrio Pathotypes in the Final Effluents of Five Wastewater Treatment Plants in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi Nongogo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the occurrence of Vibrio pathogens in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs located in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa over a 12 months period between September 2012 and August 2013 using standard membrane filtration technique followed by cultivation on thiosulphate citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS agar. The identities of the presumptive Vibrio isolates were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR including delineation into V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. fluvialis pathotypes. The counts of Vibrio spp. varied with months in all the study sites and ranged in the order of 101 and 104 CFU/100mL. Vibrio distribution also showed seasonality with high counts being obtained in autumn and spring (p < 0.05. Prevalence of Vibrio spp. among the five WWTPs also differed significantly (p < 0.05. Of the 300 isolates that were confirmed as belonging to the Vibrio genus, 29% (86 were V. fluvialis, 28% (84 were V. vulnificus and 12% (35 were V. parahaemolyticus. The isolation of Vibrio pathogens from the final effluent suggests that this pathogen is in circulation in some pockets of the population and that the WWTPs under study do not efficiently remove bacterial pathogens from the wastewater and consequently are threats to public health.

  15. Effects of Alien Plants on Ecosystem Structure and Functioning and Implications for Restoration: Insights from Three Degraded Sites in South African Fynbos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Mirijam; Richardson, David M.; Privett, Sean D. J.

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the type and extent of degradation at three sites on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: an old field dominated by the alien grass Pennisetum clandestinum Pers . (kikuyu), an abandoned Eucalyptus plantation, and a natural fynbos community invaded by nitrogen fixing—Australian Acacia species. These forms of degradation are representative of many areas in the region. By identifying the nature and degree of ecosystem degradation we aimed to determine appropriate strategies for restoration in this biodiversity hotspot. Vegetation surveys were conducted at degraded sites and carefully selected reference sites. Soil-stored propagule seed banks and macro- and micro-soil nutrients were determined. Species richness, diversity and native cover under Eucalyptus were extremely low compared to the reference site and alterations of the soil nutrients were the most severe. The cover of indigenous species under Acacia did not differ significantly from that in reference sites, but species richness was lower under Acacia and soils were considerably enriched. Native species richness was much lower in the kikuyu site, but soil nutrient status was similar to the reference site. Removal of the alien species alone may be sufficient to re-initiate ecosystem recovery at the kikuyu site, whereas active restoration is required to restore functioning ecosystems dominated by native species in the Acacia thicket and the Eucalyptus plantation. To restore native plant communities we suggest burning, mulching with sawdust and sowing of native species.

  16. Site Preparation Drives Long-Term Plant Community Dynamics in Restored Tallgrass Prairie: A Case Study in Southeastern South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikin, Alice R.; Jarchow, Meghann E.; Olmstead, Karen L.; Krentz, Rustan E.; Dixon, Mark D.

    2016-10-01

    Most tallgrass prairies have been destroyed or altered, making restoration an important component to their conservation. Our goal was to evaluate progress 12-years post-restoration at Spirit Mound Historic Prairie and determine whether the outcomes varied based on different land use and restoration histories across the site. We examined changes in plant diversity, richness, evenness, non-native species relative abundance, and community composition from 2004 to 2013. Areas with different restoration treatments and land-use histories showed divergent results. Seventy percent of the site, previously annual row crop, was reconstructed using herbicide application followed by native seeding (hereafter reconstruction). Areas that were previously grazed, 15 % of the site, were restored with only partial seeding and no herbicide treatment (hereafter rehabilitation). Species richness and diversity increased over 40 % in the reconstruction since 2004 and remained over 1.9 times higher in the reconstructed areas than rehabilitated areas. Diversity did not change in the rehabilitation, but richness increased 47 % since 2004. Evenness decreased 11-26 % over time in both areas. Non-native species relative abundance did not change from 2004 to 2013, and remained five times higher in the rehabilitation than the reconstruction. Native C4 grass and forb abundance increased over time in the reconstruction, whereas non-native C3 grasses remained dominant in the rehabilitation. These results showed that restoration outcomes were radically different 12-years post-restoration among areas with different prior land uses that were subjected to different restoration practices. Long-term assessments are important to accurately determine restoration progress and inform management decisions.

  17. Variations in Vegetation Structure, Species Dominance and Plant Communities in South of the Eastern Desert-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy SALAMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For two successive years, the floristic diversity and vegetation composition in the southern part of the Eastern Desert ofEgypt were investigated through four transects (3 crossing the Eastern Desert and one along the Red Sea. The data collected from 142 stands covering the study area included the species composition, functional groups, chorology and occurrences (Qvalues. A total of 94 plant species belonging to 33 different families were recorded, with Asteracea, Zygophyllaceae, Fabaceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae as the largest families. Shrubs represented the largest functional group (39.4%, while perennial herbs represented the smallest ones (12.8%. Species occurrence (Q-value revealed that Zilla spinosa, Acacia tortilis subsp raddiana, Morettia philaeana, Caroxylon imbricatum, Zygophyllum coccineum and Citrullus colocynthis had wide ecological range of distribution (dominant species, Q-values 0.2. Saharo-Arabian chorotype was highly represented (72.6 % in the flora of this area, eventually as mono, bi or pluriregional. Classification of the data set yielded 7 vegetation groups included: (A Zilla spinosa-Morettia philaeana, (B1 Zilla spinosa-Citrullus colocynthis-Morettia philaeana, (B2 Zilla spinosa, (C1Zygophyllum album-Tamarix nilotica, (C2 Zygophyllum coccineum-Tamarix nilotica, (D1 Zilla spinosa-Zygophyllum coccineum and (D2 Zilla spinosa-Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana-Tamarix aphylla-Balanites aegyptiaca. Certain vegetation groups were assigned to one or more transects. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA revealed that electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, moisture content, sulphates, pH, organic matter and gravel were the soil variables that affect the species distribution in this study.

  18. Altitudinal patterns of the flora of seed plants of Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province,south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; MA Qinyan; DU Fan; YANG Yuming

    2007-01-01

    Altitudinal gradient incorporates multiple resource gradients,which vary continuously in different fashions.It is important to study the mountain floristic patterns along altitudinal gradients which reveal the regular pattern of the flora along the environmental gradients,the changing trend of biodiversity patterns along the altitudinal gradient,and relevance of biological fitness.To explore the compositional characteristics and ecological significance of floristic patterns along altitudinal gradient in China National Nature Reserve of Dawei Mountain in the southeast of Yunnan Province,field investigations have been made to the flora along the two routes of the southwest slope and the northeast slope of the said reserve,including a vertical vegetation transect.Meanwhile,further investigations have also been made to the flora of Dawei Mountain,which has been accounted for in the literature,as Flora Yunnan,The Seed Plant in Yunnan,and so on.The structural characteristics of the flora and the altitudinal distribution pattern of its floristic components were analyzed.By applying systematic cluster analysis,the altitudinal position of the dividing line of floristic changes along altitudinal gradient was detected,and the effects of the montane climate on the vertical variation of floristic composition were studied.Conclusions were put forward.This paper can be summarized as follows:(1) The obvious boundary that differentiates tropical floristic elements is located at the altitude of approximately 1,500 m;it is reasonable to stipulate the boundary line between tropical rain forests and the evergreen broad-leaved forests.(2) The vertical vegetation spectrum made by cluster analysis shows that humid rain forests are below 700 m a.s.1,montane rain forests are between 700 and 1,500 m,monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests are between 1,300 and 1,800 m,and montane mossy evergreen broad-leaved forests are above 1,800 m a.s.1.Nonrepresentative montane mossy dwarf forests (above

  19. Exchange of diesel generator's retrofitting by PV-diesel hybrid plants in the south of Morocco; Sustitucion de grupos electrogenos por pequenas centrales hibridas FV-diesel en el sur de Marruecos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cano, J.; Narvarte Fernandez, L.; Lorenzo Pigueiras, E.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a pilot experience of diesel generator's retrofitting by PV-diesel hybrid plants in two rural villages in the south of Morocco. After two operating years, we are ready to present the obtained results, especially, those that can be useful for future electrification projects based on this technology, such as the introduction of the energy service, the energy consumption of users and the managerial aspects that contribute to the long-term sustainability of these systems. (Author)

  20. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARC-Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 'Bathurst ... forecast a possibility of major shortage in basic energy foods in South ..... adaptation to cooler weather, and would enable.

  1. Los Carritos Por Puesto de Maracaibo: incongruencias entre objetivos políticos y objetivos técnicos en políticas públicas en transporte urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joheni Urdaneta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El servicio de transporte público urbano del Municipio Maracaibo presenta gran variedad en sus modos de transporte: autobuses, microbuses, y carritos por puesto: carros de cinco puestos cuya vida promedio es de 30 años. El objetivo de este trabajo es explicar porqué el carrito por puesto continúa siendo uno de los principales modos de transporte. La metodología consiste en la revisión documental y entrevistas semi-estructuradas a funcionarios, transportistas y ciudadanos. Los resultados revelan que hay un componente complejo que involucra lo socio-cultural, político y económico que no ha sido tomando en cuenta para la formación e implantación de una política de transporte urbano.

  2. Feature Variations of Plant Functional Traits and Environmental Factor in South-and North-Facing Slope%阴阳坡植物功能性状与环境因子的变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旻霞; 马建祖

    2013-01-01

    Plant traits link environmental factors, individuals and ecosystem structure and functions as plants respond and adapt to the environment. The characteristics of plant functional traits and variation law by environmental changes are important to understand plant community composition and adaptation mechanism in different environmental gradients. Plant functional traits and soil element contents were studied along north-facing slope to south-facing slope in the alpine meadow. The results showed that the variation of the soil water content, the total phosphorus and soil organic carbon in different habitats from south-facing slope to north-facing slope were in the sequence of south-facing slopenorth-facing slope. The plant functional traits of leaf phosphorus content (LPC) and specific leaf area (SLA) of the habitat from south-facing slope to north-facing slope were in the order of north-facing slope>south-facing slope, except that leaf nitrogen content, but leaf N : P ratio of north-facing slope were significantly less than the south-facing slope. Plant functional traits with the aspect of regular changes reflected the environmental filtering effects in the process of vegetation community forming in an alpine meadow. Correlation analysis showed that soil water content and soil nutrients were the important factors affecting plant functional traits in south-facing slope to north-facing slope, and soil water content was the dominant factor.%植物性状反映了植物对生长环境的响应和适应,将环境、植物个体和生态系统结构、过程与功能联系起来,研究植物功能性状特征及其随坡向梯度的变化规律,对认识不同环境梯度下植物群落的形成及其对环境的适应机制具有重要意义.以高寒草甸植被为研究对象,测定了阴阳坡植物功能性状和土壤元素含量.结果表明:阳坡阴坡不同生境的土壤含水量、土壤全磷含量和有机质含量的变化均为阳坡<阴坡;土壤全氮

  3. Ethnobotanical survey and cytotoxicity testing of plants of South-western Nigeria used to treat cancer, with isolation of cytotoxic constituents from Cajanus cajan Millsp. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashidi, J S; Houghton, P J; Hylands, P J; Efferth, T

    2010-03-24

    There is only scant literature on the anticancer components of medicinal plants from Nigeria, yet traditional healers in the area under study claim to have been managing the disease in their patients with some success using the species studied. To document plants commonly used to treat cancer in South-western Nigeria and to test the scientific basis of the claims using in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Structured questionnaires were used to explore the ethnobotanical practices amongst the traditional healers. Methanol extracts of the most common species cited were screened for cytotoxicity using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay in both exposure and recovery experiments. Three cancer cell lines (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, human large cell lung carcinoma cell line COR-L23 and human amelanotic melanoma C32) and one normal cell line (normal human keratinocytes SVK-14) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The extract of Cajanus cajan showed considerable activity and was further partitioned and the dichloromethane fraction was subjected to preparative chomatography to yield six compounds: hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, pinostrobin, longistylin A and longistylin C. Pinostrobin and longistylins A and C were tested for cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines. In addition, an adriamycin-sensitive acute T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cell line (CCRF-CEM) and its multidrug-resistant sub-line (CEM/ADR5000) were used in an XTT assay to evaluate the activity of the pure compounds obtained. A total of 30 healers from S W Nigeria were involved in the study. 45 species were recorded with their local names with parts used in the traditional therapeutic preparations. Cytotoxicity (IC(50) values less than 50 microg/mL) was observed in 5 species (Acanthospermum hispidum, Cajanus cajan, Morinda lucida, Nymphaea lotus and Pycnanthus angolensis). Acanthospermum hispidum and Cajanus cajan were the most active. The

  4. Altitudinal occurrence of non-native plant species (neophytes and their habitat affinity to anthropogenic biotopes in conditions of South-Western Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniak Michal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many ecological studies showed that species density (the number of species per unit area in nonnative organism groups of the mountain areas decreases with increasing altitude. The aim of the paper is to determine the variability in the incidence of non-native plant species (neophytes associated with the change in altitude and links of the invading taxons to reference habitat types, as well as their links to three ecologically very similar, however in natural conditions, different areas. In general, the most invaded habitats are those which are highly influenced by human activities. Firstly, data collection was conducted through field mapping of build-up areas in South-western Slovakia. Subsequently, with the assistance of ordination methods, we evaluated the level of association of invasive neophytes according to the set objectives. We found that altitude was an important factor determining variability of invasive neophytes’ occurrence. Total amount of habitats with invasive neophytes’ occurrence showed a linear increase along the altitudinal gradient. Many invasive neophytes adapted to abandoned habitats of upland territory were also able to grow along roads, and vice versa, abandoned and unused habitats of lowland areas created conditions for many typical invasive neophytes occurring along roads and habitats of gardens and yards. Railways of lowland areas provided habitats and means of spread of invasive woody neophytes. Gardens and yards were important sources of alien neophytes in all observed territories. Invasive neophyte Aster novi-belgii can be described as a very variable species tolerant to a wide range of factors limiting the spread of species along the elevation gradient.

  5. A deglacial and Holocene record of climate variability in south-central Alaska from stable oxygen isotopes and plant macrofossils in peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miriam C.; Wooller, Matthew J.; Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2014-01-01

    We used stable oxygen isotopes derived from bulk peat (δ18OTOM), in conjunction with plant macrofossils and previously published carbon accumulation records, in a ∼14,500 cal yr BP peat core (HT Fen) from the Kenai lowlands in south-central Alaska to reconstruct the climate history of the area. We find that patterns are broadly consistent with those from lacustrine records across the region, and agree with the interpretation that major shifts in δ18OTOM values indicate changes in strength and position of the Aleutian Low (AL), a semi-permanent low-pressure cell that delivers winter moisture to the region. We find decreased strength or a more westerly position of the AL (relatively higher δ18OTOM values) during the Bølling-Allerød, Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), and late Holocene, which also correspond to warmer climate regimes. These intervals coincide with greater peat preservation and enhanced carbon (C) accumulation rates at the HT Fen and with peatland expansion across Alaska. The HTM in particular may have experienced greater summer precipitation as a result of an enhanced Pacific subtropical high, a pattern consistent with modern δ18O values for summer precipitation. The combined warm summer temperatures and greater summer precipitation helped promote the observed rapid peat accumulation. A strengthened AL (relatively lower δ18OTOM values) is most evident during the Younger Dryas, Neoglaciation, and the Little Ice Age, consistent with lower peat preservation and C accumulation at the HT Fen, suggesting less precipitation reaches the leeward side of the Kenai Mountains during periods of enhanced AL strength. The peatlands on the Kenai Peninsula thrive when the AL is weak and the contribution of summer precipitation is higher, highlighting the importance of precipitation seasonality in promoting peat accumulation. This study demonstrates that δ18OTOM values in peat can be applied toward understand large-scale shifts in atmospheric circulation

  6. Linking nursery nutritional status and water availability post-planting under intense summer drought: the case of a South American Mediterranean tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovalle JF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought-avoidance traits of South American Mediterranean tree species are crucial attributes to be considered in nursery practices aimed at improving the performance of seedlings exposed to intense summer drought in dryland reforestation projects. In this study, we determined the relation between nursery fertilization doses and the development of drought-avoidance traits of the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria (Mol. under contrasting watering regimes following post-planting. Seedlings were grown for 6 months using four increasing doses of controlled-release fertilizer (0, 3, 6, and 12 g L-1 of Basacote® Plus 15:8:12. After outplanting, half of the seedlings were watered weekly and the other half were left unwatered for one growing season from September 2011 to May 2012. Seedlings were periodically measured for morphological and ecophysiological parameters, and carefully harvested for root measurements at the end of the study. Our results showed that high fertilization doses produced significantly larger seedlings in the nursery with high nitrogen and phosphorous foliar concentrations, which resulted in a significantly higher shoot dry mass after outplanting. Unfertilized seedlings grown with water application had a significantly higher stem diameter, root dry mass and lower shoot/root compared with seedlings with high fertilizer dose. These results highlight the ability of this species to maintain drought-avoidance traits, such as high xylem water potential and chlorophyll fluorescence, during the first 3 months of the 7-month drought period. High nutrient loading, although resulting in improved shoot productivity after outplanting, did not make a significant contribution to the early development of drought-avoidance traits in Q. saponaria.

  7. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpayi, Joshua N; Odiyo, John O; Msagati, Titus A M; Popoola, Elizabeth O

    2015-06-29

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26-0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-) N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499-2.31 mg/L and 7.545-19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3- N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552-42.646 mg/L and 1.572-32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32-74%), Fe (7-32%) and Zn (24-94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge.

  8. Are There Consistent Grazing Indicators in Drylands? Testing Plant Functional Types of Various Complexity in South Africa’s Grassland and Savanna Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linstädter, Anja; Schellberg, Jürgen; Brüser, Katharina; Moreno García, Cristian A.; Oomen, Roelof J.; du Preez, Chris C.; Ruppert, Jan C.; Ewert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Despite our growing knowledge on plants’ functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs) with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa’s grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs). Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses) and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses) performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold) had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may also be

  9. Crustal density structure in northwestern South America derived from analysis and 3-D modeling of gravity and seismicity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Rojas, J.; Palma, M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation of new gravity and seismicity datasets for northern South America. A 3-D forward density model was constructed on the basis of deep wide-angle seismic refraction sections, Moho depth from receiver functions, and surface geology. Density values were estimated from published borehole data for sediments by using empirical velocity-density functions and considering mineralogical-chemical composition variations under typical pressure-temperature conditions for upper and lower crustal rocks. The modeled 3-D density structure was kept as simple as possible. The continental and oceanic plates were formed by two sedimentary bodies, one crustal body, and one mantle lithosphere body overlying a sub-lithospheric mantle. The Caribbean plate was modeled with an atypical crustal thickness of ~ 18 km (including sediments). The geometry of the Caribbean plate was modeled using a combination of gravity modeling and analyses of the seismicity and focal-mechanism solutions. Intermediate seismicity and the orientation of the T-axes appeared aligned along the predicted position of the slab. As a result, the estimated slab dip angle under Maracaibo and the Mérida Andes was ~ 15° and increases up to ~ 20° after 100 km depth. The model shows two orientations in the slab strike: ~ N150°E ± 5 in western Colombia and southward underneath the Maracaibo block. The modeling results suggest that the northern South American upper and lower crusts are relatively light and the density of the Caribbean crust is typical for an oceanic crust.

  10. Calidad de servicio como estrategia en la administración pública de los servicios de salud en Maracaibo (Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Maritza Pérez Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    ódicamente el servicio que reciben.Palabras Clave: Calidad; Servicio; Calidad de Servicio; Estrategias; Salud; Pacientes; Administración Pública. Quality of service as a strategy in the public administration of the health services in Maracaibo (VenezuelaAbstractThe purpose of this research is to determine the quality of service as a strategy in the public administration of the Public Health Services, in order to establish the mutual relationship between Type 4 Hospitals and Type 3 Ambulatory clinics, with their different clients. The research shows an emerging paradigm with an interpretative, quantitative and qualitative focus, which lead to the use of methodological triangulation. This is an exploratory research on its first phase, and a descriptive one on its second phase, the field work. A non-experimental, transversal design was structured. The population was composed by seven (7 Directors: four (4 of hospitals, three (3 of the national health clinics, as well as four hundred (400 patients. The collection of data was carried out through the technique of interviews, with open questions for the first population, so as to measure the quality of service offered by the health centers. The technique used for the second population was a survey and the questionnaire was the instrument. This instrument was structured by means of a scale combination, which allowed first to measure the perception the patients have for the service they receive, and second to determine the factors that impact the quality of this service. The test of dependability was applied by means of the coefficient of the two halves throwing 0.90% for the second. As a conclusion, it was determined that the administrators don’t perceive service as a main variable or strategy, but rather as an obligation, so it is necessary to make changes both at the level of moral values, and at the perceptive process. Therefore, it is recommended that hospitals and national health clinics respond with actions on aspects where

  11. Gestión del conocimiento y competitividad en el área de investigación y producción de los colegios e institutos universitarios privados de Maracaibo – Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación estuvo orientada a determinar la relación entre la gestión del conocimiento y la competitividad en el área de investigación y producción de los colegios e institutos universitarios privados, sustentada en los postulados de Halal (2006, Toffler (1998, Álvarez (2000, Carrión (2006, Espinoza (1998, Quintas (1997, entre otros. Metodológicamente, la investigación quedó enmarcada como una investigación de naturaleza descriptiva, de campo, correlacional bajo un diseño no experimental, descriptiva y transeccional. Para efecto de esta investigación la población estuvo constituida por cuatro coordinadores de las unidades de investigación y producción de los colegios universitarios del municipio Maracaibo, tales como: Colegio Universitario Dr. Rafael Belloso Chacìn (CUNIBE, Instituto Universitario de Tecnología Readic (READIC, Instituto Universitario Jesús Enrique Lozada (IUJEL, y el Colegio Universitario Monseñor de Talavera (CUMT. Como técnica de recolección de datos se utilizó la encuesta mediante la observación directa bajo la modalidad cuestionario. Se diseñaron dos cuestionarios, los cuales están conformados por ítems cuyas respuestas están dadas por cuatro alternativas de respuestas: totalmente de acuerdo (TA, parcialmente de acuerdo (PA, ni de acuerdo ni en desacuerdo (NAND, parcialmente en desacuerdo (PD y totalmente en desacuerdo (TD. La validez de los instrumentos se obtuvo mediante el juicio de diez 10 expertos, teniendo una confiabilidad de 0,72. Los resultados obtenidos fueron que la gestión de conocimiento es muy eficiente y la competitividad en el área de investigación y producción de los colegios e institutos universitarios privados se evidenció con muy alto nivel.Palabras Clave: Gestión, conocimiento, competitividad, investigación, producción. Knowledge management and competitiveness in the area of research and production of the university private colleges and institutes of

  12. Economic assessment of the contribution of biological control to the management of invasive alien plants and to the protection of ecosystem services in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available and Environmental Affairs. References Annecke DP, Moran VC (1978) Critical reviews of biological pest control in South Africa. 2. The prickly pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. Journal of the Entomological Society of southern Africa 41: 161-188 Baars...: managing risks or strangling progress? In: Sindel BM and Johnson SB (eds) Proceedings of the 14th Australian Weeds Conference of the Weed Society of New South Wales, Sydney, pp 78 - 81 McNeeley JA, Mooney HA, Neville LE, Schei P and Waage JK (2001) A...

  13. Participación ciudadana a través del uso social de las TIC en Escuelas de Familia en los Colegios católicos de Maracaibo, estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenys Salcedo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El pensamiento social y el paradigma humanístico en tiempos de la Sociedad de los Saberes han generado transformaciones en las instituciones públicas y privadas, provocando la difusión de conocimiento dentro de sus estructuras con el propósito de alcanzar la meta del buen vivir. La investigación plantea como objetivo analizar la participación ciudadana a través de las TIC en las Escuelas de Familia en los colegios católicos de Maracaibo, estado Zulia. Se utilizó una metodología exploratorio-descriptiva, de campo, no experimental transeccional. La población estuvo constituida por 2088 padres y representantes de los colegios católicos: Instituto Niños Cantores del Zulia, U.E. Colegio La Merced, Unidad Educativa Hermana Elda Estrada Foster y Unidad Educativa Colegio Gonzaga, generando una muestra de 466. Los resultados revelaron que la mayor participación de los padres y representantes se manifestó en el nivel informativo, aun cuando se involucran en actividades no pertinentes a la organización que les agrupa. Se observó presencia poco significativa en el ejercicio de toma de decisiones, control y ejecución de actividades, alejándose de la posibilidad de promover un cambio social para construir una mejor sociedad.

  14. Caracterización socio-económica de los leprosos atendidos en la unidad de dermatología sanitaria de Maracaibo, Venezuela: un estudio de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Maria C.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es presentar las características socio-económicas de los leprosos que reciben tratamiento en la Unidad de Dermatología Sanitaria de Maracaibo (UDS, obtenidas a partir de un cuestionario de preguntas cerradas administrado a una muestra de 40 pacientes (aproximadamente 5% de la población. Los resultados indican que se trata de una población mayoritariamente masculina, de edad madura, con relativo grado de instrucción, ocupada y perteneciente a grupos familiares aparentemente constituidos y estables; su ingreso familiar corresponde al de clase baja o clase media baja; además estos pacientes son en su mayoría no incapacitados y la forma clínica de su enfermedad está concentrada en los casos Lepromatosa y Borderline Lepromatosa. Los programas educativos que se planifiquen deben partir de esta caracterización socio-económica que aclara quiénes son los enfermos atendidos en la UDS.

  15. Inventory of plant communities recorded in the western, southern and eastern Cape Province, South African up to the end of 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boucher, C

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive list of plant communities described by various authors within the Fynbos Biome geographic area is given. The list is divided into two sections. Section I consists of plant communities described over a wide geographical area. Section...

  16. South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovutor Owhoeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 213 faecal samples were collected from four abattoirs and households to determine the prevalence of helminthes infections in exotic and indigenous goats in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. The study revealed that out of 153 exotic goats (Red Sokoto Capra hircus, 112 were infected with various species of gastrointestinal helminths; out of 60 indigenous goats (West African dwarf Capra hircus, 49 were also infected with various types of gastrointestinal helminths. The formol-ether concentration method was used to analyse the specimens. The study revealed that an overall prevalence of (75.5% was recorded, out of which 57 (76.0%, 55 (70.5%, and 49 (81.6% were recorded for exotic goat in the months of May–September, 2010, exotic goat in the months October 2010–February, 2011 and for indigenous goats, respectively. The overall prevalence amongst the infected animals was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Species of helminthes revealed from the study were, Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Chabertia, Trichuris, Ostertagia, Bunostomum, Trichostrongyloida, Ascaris, Tenia, Avitelina, Fasciola, Eurytrema, Gastrothylax, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium.

  17. Nonintrusive field experiments show different plant responses to warming and drought among sites, seasons, and species in a north-south European gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penuelas, J.; Gordon, C.; Llorens, L.;

    2004-01-01

    of experimentation reported here, we measured plant cover and biomass by the pinpoint method, plant (14)C uptake, stem and shoot growth, flowering, leaf chemical concentration, litterfall, and herbivory damage in the dominant plant species of each site. The two years of approximately PC experimental warming induced......-limited. In the water-stressed southern site, there was no increase in total aboveground plant biomass growth as expected since warming increases water loss, and temperatures in those ecosystems are already close to the optimum for photosynthesis. The southern site presented instead the most negative response......We used a novel, nonintrusive experimental system to examine plant responses to warming and drought across a climatic and geographical latitudinal gradient of shrubland ecosystems in four sites from northern to southern Europe (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). In the first two years...

  18. Antimicrobial Activity, Phenolic Content, and Cytotoxicity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Used for Treating Dermatological Diseases and Wound Healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghuman, Shanaz; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Finnie, Jeffrey F; McGaw, Lyndy J; Coopoosamy, Roger M; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    ... management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content and cytotoxicity effects of eleven medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound...

  19. Developing a sector by creating community-owned enterprises based on the cultivation and processing of essential oils and medicinal plants in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of essential oils and medicinal plant products by communities with access to arable land represents a promising new sector in the agroprocessing industry. The Enterprise Creation for Development (ECD) unit of the CSIR transfers...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity, Phenolic Content, and Cytotoxicity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Used for Treating Dermatological Diseases and Wound Healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Shanaz; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Finnie, Jeffrey F.; McGaw, Lyndy J.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents. The extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and four fungi commonly associated with skin conditions using disc diffusion and microdilution techniques. The aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for phenolic content while cytotoxicity tests were performed on all extracts using the brine shrimp lethality and tetrazolium–based colorimetric (MTT) assays. Extracts from Aloe ferox, A. arborescens, and Hypericum aethiopicum were the most active against almost all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All plant species exhibited some degree of antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic levels, flavonoids and tannins were also higher for A. ferox, followed by A. arborescens and H. aethiopicum, respectively. The cytotoxicity results of all plant extracts were in the range of 90–100% survival after 24 h in the brine shrimp assay. Extracts considered lethal would demonstrate >50% shrimp death. The MTT cytotoxicity test yielded LC50 values of >1 mg/mL on all extracts indicating that they are not cytotoxic. The observed antimicrobial efficacy demonstrated by some plant species and the general lack of cytotoxic effects on all the tested extracts presents some promising and beneficial aspects of these medicinal plant extracts in the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. The two Aloe species and H

  1. Antimicrobial Activity, Phenolic Content, and Cytotoxicity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Used for Treating Dermatological Diseases and Wound Healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Shanaz; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Finnie, Jeffrey F; McGaw, Lyndy J; Coopoosamy, Roger M; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content, and cytotoxicity effects of 11 medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves) and extracted with different solvents. The extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and four fungi commonly associated with skin conditions using disc diffusion and microdilution techniques. The aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for phenolic content while cytotoxicity tests were performed on all extracts using the brine shrimp lethality and tetrazolium-based colorimetric (MTT) assays. Extracts from Aloe ferox, A. arborescens, and Hypericum aethiopicum were the most active against almost all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All plant species exhibited some degree of antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic levels, flavonoids and tannins were also higher for A. ferox, followed by A. arborescens and H. aethiopicum, respectively. The cytotoxicity results of all plant extracts were in the range of 90-100% survival after 24 h in the brine shrimp assay. Extracts considered lethal would demonstrate >50% shrimp death. The MTT cytotoxicity test yielded LC50 values of >1 mg/mL on all extracts indicating that they are not cytotoxic. The observed antimicrobial efficacy demonstrated by some plant species and the general lack of cytotoxic effects on all the tested extracts presents some promising and beneficial aspects of these medicinal plant extracts in the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. The two Aloe species and H

  2. Antimicrobial activity, phenolic content and cytotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts used for treating dermatological diseases and wound healing in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanaz Ghuman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants used for wound healing and skin diseases are the key to unlocking the doors to combating problematic skin diseases as resistance of pathogens to pharmaceuticals and allopathic management continues to increase. The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial efficacies, phenolic content and cytotoxicity effects of eleven medicinal plant extracts commonly used for treating skin conditions and wound healing in traditional medicine within KwaZulu-Natal. Eleven plant species were separated into different plant parts (bulbs, roots, leaves and extracted with different solvents. The extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacterial strains and four fungi commonly associated with skin conditions using disc diffusion and microdilution techniques. The aqueous methanolic extracts were screened for phenolic content while cytotoxicity tests were performed on all extracts using the brine shrimp lethality and tetrazolium–based colorimetric (MTT assays. Extracts from Aloe ferox, A. arborescens and Hypericum aethiopicum were the most active against almost all of the tested bacterial and fungal strains. All plant species exhibited some degree of antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic levels, flavonoids and tannins were also higher for A. ferox, followed by A. arborescens and H. aethiopicum respectively. The cytotoxicity results of all plant extracts were in the range of 90-100% survival after 24 h in the Brine shrimp assay. Extracts considered lethal would demonstrate > 50% shrimp death. The MTT cytotoxicity test yielded LC50 values of > 1 mg/mL on all extracts indicating that they are not cytotoxic. The observed antimicrobial efficacy demonstrated by some plant species and the general lack of cytotoxic effects on all the tested extracts presents some promising and beneficial aspects of these medicinal plant extracts in the treatment of skin diseases and wound healing. The two Aloe

  3. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  4. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  5. Plants traditionally used individually and in combination to treat sexually transmitted infections in northern Maputaland, South Africa: antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, D; van Vuuren, S F; van Zyl, R L; de Wet, H

    2013-10-07

    Although medicinal plants are used extensively to treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in rural northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, the efficacy and safety of these plants have not previously been evaluated. A study was designed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity profiles of a selection (individual plants and selected combinations) of traditionally used plants in this study area. Aqueous and organic (dichloromethane: methanol, 1:1) extracts were prepared. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against the STI associated pathogens; Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Ureaplasma urealyticum clinical strain, Oligella ureolytica ATCC 43534, Trichomonas vaginalis clinical strain, Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 14018 and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 19424. For the combination study, interactions were assessed using the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC). The plant species were assessed for safety using the 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cellular viability assay on the human embryonic kidney epithelial (Graham, HEK-293) cell line. For the antimicrobial studies, U. urealyticum was the most sensitive of the six test organisms, with the aqueous extract of Ranunculus multifidus (0.02mg/ml) and the organic extract of Peltophorum africanum (0.04mg/ml) being the most antimicrobially active plant species studied. Sclerocarya birrea was found to have the broadest spectrum of activity (mean MIC of 0.89mg/ml). The only plant species to exhibit some degree of cytotoxicity against the kidney epithelial cell line was Kigelia africana (100µg/ml), with 22% and 16% cell death for the aqueous and organic extracts, respectively. Of the 13 combinations studied, several synergistic combinations were evident, the most prominent being the combination of Albizia adianthifolia and Trichilia dregeana (aqueous extract) with an ΣFIC value of 0.15 against O. ureolytica

  6. Development of a rapid and sensitive battery of bioassays for risk assessment of cyanobacterial microcystin-LR in drinking water of rural water treatment plants, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available : Cylindrospermopsins and Microcystins. CRC Press, Florida, USA, pp. 1-279. Gorczyca W, Tuziak T, Kram A, Melamed MR, Darzynkiewicz Z (1994). Detection of apoptosis-associated DNA strand breaks in fine-needle aspiration biopsies by in situ end labeling of fragmented... to monitor long-term coal tar contaminated sediment in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Water Res. 39: 4913-4924. Oberholster PJ, Botha AM (2007). Use of PCR based technologies for risk assessment of a winter cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Midmar, South...

  7. Redes personales y capital social en una parroquia rural de la Provincia de Maracaibo (Venezuela a fines del siglo XVIII: La Inmaculada Concepción de La Cañada (1784-1804

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rincón Rubio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En los estudios históricos, la expresión "red social" es utilizada principalmente como un concepto metafórico que implica la interconexión de diferentes individuos. Si bien este enfoque permite abordar aspectos funcionales de las redes sociales, no permite analizarlas sistemáticamente desde un punto de vista estructural. Superando el uso metafórico del concepto de red social, se adopta en esta investigación la metodología del Análisis de Redes Sociales (ARS para estudiar las redes personales tejidas durante las dos últimas décadas del siglo XVIII por los agentes sociales detentores de mayor capital social en la parroquia eclesiástica Inmaculada Concepción de La Cañada, provincia de Maracaibo de la antigua Capitanía General de Venezuela, mediante vínculos de parentesco consanguíneo y vínculos derivados de las instituciones eclesiásticas del matrimonio y el bautismo. La utilización de la metodología del ARS permitió ilustrar un enfoque todavía muy poco utilizado en la investigación histórica, y profundizar en aspectos de interés relativos a la creación de vínculos personales, la distribución del capital social y las estrategias de reproducción social puestas en práctica por los habitantes de una comunidad rural de la América Hispana.

  8. Redes personales y capital social en una parroquia rural de la Provincia de Maracaibo (Venezuela a fines del siglo XVIII: La Inmaculada Concepción de La Cañada (1784-1804

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rincón Rubio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En los estudios históricos, la expresión “red social” es utilizada principalmente como un concepto metafórico que implica la interconexión de diferentes individuos. Si bien este enfoque permite abordar aspectos funcionales de las redes sociales, no per-mite analizarlas sistemáticamente desde un punto de vista estructural. Superando el uso metafórico del concepto de red social, se adopta en esta investigación la metodología del Análisis de Redes Sociales (ARS para estudiar las redes personales tejidas durante las dos últimas décadas del siglo XVIII por los agentes sociales detentores de mayor capital social en la parroquia eclesiástica Inmaculada Concepción de La Cañada, provincia de Maracaibo de la antigua Capitanía General de Venezuela, me-diante vínculos de parentesco consanguíneo y vínculos derivados de las instituciones eclesiásticas del matrimonio y el bautismo. La utilización de la metodología del ARS permitió ilustrar un enfoque todavía muy poco utilizado en la investigación histórica, y profundizar en aspectos de interés relativos a la creación de vínculos personales, la distribución del capital social y las estrategias de reproducción social puestas en práctica por los habitantes de una comunidad rural de la América Hispana.

  9. Estudio del comportamiento de la temperatura del aire (1996-1998, en lote productor de musáceas, estación local Chama, sur del lago de Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Sáez Sáez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han demostrado la complejidad de las relaciones que existen entre el clima, los cultivos, las plagas y las enfermedades. La caracterización de éstos vínculos exigen de procedimientos acordes para identificar la diversidad de situaciones que se pueden presentar dentro de ésta realidad, y una de las debilidades que puede surgir es el empleo de registros de estaciones meteorológicas convencionales, aquellas que se encuentran por lo general fuera de los cultivos y se encuentran al aire libre. Esta investigación trata de demostrar las diferencias que se presentan en los registros de la temperatura del aire y su relación con la presencia de un hongo en un lote de producción de plátanos, en la estación Local Chama, Sur del Lago de Maracaibo, Estado Zulia en Venezuela. Con registros de la temperatura del aire de dos estaciones, una dentro del cultivo (1235 y otra fuera (1234, se estimaron las diferencias entre los dos puntos. Se correlacionaron los registros de ambas estaciones con los valores observados de severidad de ataque del hongo sigatoka negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet. Se encontró que las correlaciones estadísticamente significativas corresponden a la estación dentro del cultivo, en el lapso de la TARDE (r2 =0,408; r tab = 0,269; 58 g.l.; a = 5% en el intervalo de 15 días de promedio de la temperatura del aire. Se concluye que los resultados orientan sobre la diferencia evidente que se encuentran entre el uso de registros de las estaciones dentro del cultivo con respecto a las observadas fuera de ella al describir la severidad de ataque del hongo en las plantaciones.

  10. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  11. Nonintrusive Field Experiments Show Different Plant Responses to Warming and Drought Among Sites, Seasons, and Species in a North-South European Gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuelas, J.; Gordon, C.; Llorens, L.; Nielsen, T.; Tietema, A.; Beier, J.C.; Bruna, P.; Emmett, B.; Estiarte, M.; Gorissen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We used a novel, nonintrusive experimental system to examine plant responses to warming and drought across a climatic and geographical latitudinal gradient of shrubland ecosystems in four sites from northern to southern Europe (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). In the first two years of expe

  12. Bioaccumulation and translocation of polyhalogenated compounds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted in paddy soil collected from an electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian; Peng, Yong-Hong

    2015-10-01

    The bioaccumulation and translocation of polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs) in rice planted in the paddy soils of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site were investigated, along with the effect of contaminated soils on rice growth. The PHCs included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and dechlorane plus (DPs). The morphological development and all measured physiological parameters of rice plants except for peroxidase were significantly inhibited by e-waste contaminated soils. Specifically, soil-root bioaccumulation factors (RCFs) increased with increasing logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient (logKow) for PCBs, but decreased for PBDEs. During translocation from root to stem, translocation factors (TFs) and logKow were positively correlated. However, the accumulation mechanism in the leaf was concentration-dependent. In the high concentration exposure group, translocation play more important role in determination PHCs burden in leaf than atmospheric uptake, with logTF (from stem to leaf) being positively correlated with logKow. In contrast, in the low exposure and control groups, logTF (from stem to leaf) was negatively correlated with logKow. In addition, Syn-DP was selectively accumulated in plant tissues. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that e-waste contaminated soils affect rice growth, revealed the rule of the bioaccumulation and translocation of PHCs in rice plants.

  13. Nonintrusive Field Experiments Show Different Plant Responses to Warming and Drought Among Sites, Seasons, and Species in a North-South European Gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuelas, J.; Gordon, C.; Llorens, L.; Nielsen, T.; Tietema, A.; Beier, J.C.; Bruna, P.; Emmett, B.; Estiarte, M.; Gorissen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We used a novel, nonintrusive experimental system to examine plant responses to warming and drought across a climatic and geographical latitudinal gradient of shrubland ecosystems in four sites from northern to southern Europe (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). In the first two years of

  14. Altitudinal occurrence of non-native plant species (neophytes) and their habitat affinity to anthropogenic biotopes in conditions of South-Western Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Beniak Michal; Pauková Žaneta; Fehér Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological studies showed that species density (the number of species per unit area) in nonnative organism groups of the mountain areas decreases with increasing altitude. The aim of the paper is to determine the variability in the incidence of non-native plant species (neophytes) associated with the change in altitude and links of the invading taxons to reference habitat types, as well as their links to three ecologically very similar, however in natural conditions, different areas. In ...

  15. Composition, Repellent, and Insecticidal Activities of Two South American Plants against the Stored Grain Pests Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Benzi, Verónica; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Murray, Ana Paula; Werdin González, Jorge O.; Ferrero, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    As part of a screening program to evaluate the biological activity of indigenous plants, we report the composition and the bioactivity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Té de Burro Aloysia polystachya [(Griseb.) Moldenke] and Lemon Verbena Aloysia citriodora [Palau] against two of the most widespread secondary pests of stored products, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum [Herbst] and the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum [Jacqueline du Val]. Analysis by gas chromatography-mas...

  16. Evaluating the effects of pollinator-mediated interactions using pollen transfer networks: evidence of widespread facilitation in south Andean plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, C; Sáez, A; Traveset, A; Aizen, M A

    2016-05-01

    Information about the relative importance of competitive or facilitative pollinator-mediated interactions in a multi-species context is limited. We studied interspecific pollen transfer (IPT) networks to evaluate quantity and quality effects of pollinator sharing among plant species on three high-Andean communities at 1600, 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l. To estimate the sign of the effects (positive, neutral or negative), the relation between conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposited on stigmas was analysed with GLMMs. Network analyses showed that communities were characterised by the presence of pollen hub-donors and receptors. We inferred that facilitative and neutral pollinator-mediated interactions among plants prevailed over competition. Thus, the benefits from pollinator sharing seem to outweigh the costs (i.e. heterospecific deposition and conspecific pollen loss). The largest proportion of facilitated species was found at the highest elevation community, suggesting that under unfavourable conditions for the pollination service and at lower plant densities facilitation can be more common.

  17. South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiy Chelkeba

    South Sudan; State Succession; 1929 and 1959 Nile Water Agreements; ..... bilateral nature.47 The 1959 Agreement represents the backbone of the hydro ...... minimize any negative trade-offs while maximizing the positive benefits.154.

  18. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the collecte

  19. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the

  20. An estimate of the recreational value of the Agulhas Plain, South Africa, with special reference to the value of plant biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Conradie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Agulhas Plain is a remarkable recreational site which combines the attraction of a pristine marine environment with exceptional plant biodiversity, rural tranquillity and the novelty of being at the southernmost tip of Africa. The resource is a public good to which the market cannot assign a full value. This paper presents an estimated recreational value based on individual travel cost models and a sample of 370 visitors surveyed in 2010. Trip demands were estimated with zero truncated negative binomial models to account for over-dispersion. The study established a recreational value of R2.167 billion in 2010 prices for the site as a whole. By partitioning the sample into visitors who indicated having been attracted or not to the area by its nature and biodiversity, a net biodiversity value of R2 866 per trip was calculated. Allocated between marine and terrestrial resources based on the proportion of activities related to each type of resource, the value of plant biodiversity was estimated to be R2 268 per hectare in 2010to 2010 prices.

  1. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  2. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 μl). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 μg/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology.

  3. Factors influencing the local scale colonisation and change in density of a widespread invasive plant species, Lantana camara, in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Sundaram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that underlie invasive species colonisation and change in density could provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of biological invasions and for invasive species management. We examined a suite of factors potentially influencing the landscape-level invasion of Lantana camara L., one of the most ubiquitous invasive species in South Asia. These factors included disturbance factors like forest fires, historical habitat modification, and edge effects, in addition to factors like propagule pressure and habitat suitability. We examined the relative importance of these factors on the colonisation and change in density of L. camara in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India. We used extensive (1997–2008 datasets tracking the presence and abundance of L. camara and combined these with corresponding data on disturbances, propagule pressure, and habitat suitability. We used an information-theoretic model selection approach to determine the relative importance of each factor on the colonisation and change in density of L. camara. Colonisation was mainly a function of proximity to already established populations (i.e. propagule pressure, whereas increase in L. camara density appeared to be constrained by high fire frequency. Research and management efforts need to recognize the multi-dimensional nature of mechanisms underlying L. camara’s success during different invasion phases when strategizing interventions to mitigate its effects.

  4. South Texas Maquiladora Suppliers Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, J. Michael

    This project was undertaken to assist South Texas industries in improving export to nearby Mexican maquiladoras (factories). The maquiladora program is based on co-production by two plants under a single management, one on each side of the border. Activities addressed four objectives: (1) to determine the dollar value, quantity, and source of the…

  5. Prevalence, Pathogenesis, Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles, and In-vitro Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants Against Aeromonas Isolates from Stool Samples of Patients in the Venda Region of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, C.L.; Ramalivhana, J.; Samie, A.; Igumbor, E.O.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence, pathogenic indices, such as haemolytic and haemagglutinating activities, antibiograms, and in-vitro activities of local medicinal plants against Aeromonas isolates in Vhembe district of Limpopo province, South Africa, were studied using standard microbiological methods. In total, 309 diarrhoeic stool samples were collected from patients attending five health centres in the region during December 2004–May 2005. Aeromonas species were identified using the API 20E system. The haemagglutinating and haemolytic activities of isolates on human, sheep, pig and chicken red blood cells were investigated. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates to several antibiotics and in-vitro activity of local medicinal plants were also ascertained using previously-reported schemes. Results showed that 104 (33.6%) of the 309 samples were positive for Aeromonas species, of which 89 (85.6%) were Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 (11.5%) A. sobria, and three (2.9%) A. caviae. All strains of A. hydrophila and A. caviae produced haemolysis on sheep blood, while eight of the 12 A. sobria strains were haemolytic on sheep blood. The haemolytic activities of the isolates were variable on other red blood cells tested. High level of resistance was observed to amoxicillin and ampicillin, followed by cefuroxime (79%), chloramphenicol (74%), and erythromycin (65%). The carbapenems were the most active drugs with only 7% resistance to meropenem and 11% to imipenem. About 12% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The extracts of three of seven medicinal plants tested showed inhibitory activity against all Aeromonas isolates; these included acetone and hexane extracts of Pterocarpus angolensis, Syzygium cordatum, and Zornia milneana. The results suggest a high prevalence of Aeromonas species in the region. The isolates demonstrated multiple resistant profiles to different antibiotics tested. Some local medicinal plants were inhibitory to Aeromonas isolates, indicating a

  6. Study on Agricultural Weather Forecast for Tobacco Planting in South Anhui Province%皖南烟叶生产农用天气预报服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 凤宝文; 张民蓓; 孙秀邦

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the agricultural weather forecast for tobacco planting in South Anhui Province. [Method] According to the regulations of farming activities in tobacco field and the relationships between tobacco production and climatic conditions, Xuancheng agrome-teorological experiment station analyzed the actual needs and contents of agricultural weather forecast in lobarco planting. [Result] Seven main forecast objects were given, including severe snow forecast, suitable transplanting period forecast, the weather forecast for pests and diseases controlling, chilling and drainage forecast, irrigation forecast, and the forecast for water logging controlling and harvesting. An agricultural weather forecast model was constructed based on the tobacco growth-weather relationships, and a meteorological services program was formulated to explore the tobacco production layout, track its growth dynamics, bring forward meteorological services timely and propose practical measures to guarantee excellent tobacco quality. [Conclusion] The study provides meteorological service and technology support for producing high-quality tobacco in South Anhui Province.%[目的]研究皖南烟叶生产农用天气预报服务.[方法]宣城市农业气象试验站根据皖南烟叶田间管理规程确定的农事活动,通过皖南烟叶生产与天气关系研究,分析农用天气预报的内容及实际需求.[结果]总结归纳出7种主要预报对象,分别是大棚防雪灾预报、适宜移栽期预报、病虫害防治预报、清沟排渍预报、灌溉预报、排涝及适宜收获期预报;提出用皖南烟叶生长天气关系模型制作农用天气预报预报,并编制了皖南烟叶田间生产周年气象服务方案,通过掌握烟叶生产布局和追踪烟叶生长动态,及时开展服务,提出保障烟叶优质生产可行的农事措施.[结论]该研究为皖南烟叶优质适产提供了农业气象科技支撑.

  7. Measurement of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables to improve human exposure assessments: field study of soil-plant-atmosphere transfers in urban areas, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, TianTian; Dumat, Camille; Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Kang, Yuan; Li, Ning; Bertoni, Georges; Laplanche, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    The quality of cultivated consumed vegetables in relation to environmental pollution is a crucial issue for urban and peri-urban areas, which host the majority of people at the global scale. In order to evaluate the fate of metals in urban soil-plant-atmosphere systems and their consequences on human exposure, a field study was conducted at two different sites near a waste incinerator (site A) and a highway (site B). Metal concentrations were measured in the soil, settled atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and vegetables. A risk assessment was performed using both total and bioaccessible metal concentrations in vegetables. Total metal concentrations in PM were (mg kg(-1)): (site A) 417 Cr, 354 Cu, 931 Zn, 6.3 Cd and 168 Pb; (site B) 145 Cr, 444 Cu, 3289 Zn, 2.9 Cd and 396 Pb. Several total soil Cd and Pb concentrations exceeded China's Environmental Quality Standards. At both sites, there was significant metal enrichment from the atmosphere to the leafy vegetables (correlation between Pb concentrations in PM and leaves: r = 0.52, p plant species. Total Cr, Cd and Pb concentrations in vegetables were therefore above or just under the maximum limit levels for foodstuffs according to Chinese and European Commission regulations. High metal bioaccessibility in the vegetables (60-79 %, with maximum value for Cd) was also observed. The bioaccessible hazard index was only above 1 for site B, due to moderate Pb and Cd pollution from the highway. In contrast, site A was considered as relatively safe for urban agriculture.

  8. Relationships between plant functional traits at the community level and environmental factors during succession in a tropical lowland rainforest on Hainan Island, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Bu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We explored how plant functional traits respond to environmental factors and examined the underlying mechanism driving the ecological strategies of plant species in a community. Experiments were conducted at four randomly selected tropical lowland rainforests at different successional stages:15-, 30- and 60-year-old secondary forests and one old-growth forest, each in the Bawangling Nature Reserve of Hainan Island. A total of 200 plots (20 m×20 m were sampled. Individuals of tree and shrub species with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥1 cm were identified and both their functional traits and the environmental factors in each plot were measured. ANOVA showed that canopy openness, level of soil nutrients, specific leaf area, and content of total organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus within the leaf decreased at the community level during the successional process. Meanwhile, leaf dry matter content, wood density and potential maximum height increased. However, soil water content and leaf potassium content, changed non-significantly. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that environmental factors driving functional traits at the communitylevel varied during the successional process. The key environmental factors were soil organic matter and pH value in the 15-year-old secondary forest; canopy openness and soil total phosphorus content in the 30-year-old secondary forest; available phosphorus and total potassium content of the soil in the 60-year-old secondary forest; and soil phosphorus content and organic matter content in the old-growth forest. Our results indicate that at different successional stages, the same functional traits respond to different environmental factors, enabling adaptation to specific environmental conditions.

  9. Assessment of physicochemical parameters and prevalence of virulent and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in treated effluent of two wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic milieu in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Leanne; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-05-01

    The poor operational status of some wastewater treatment plants often result in the discharge of inadequately treated effluent into receiving surface waters. This is of significant public health concern as there are many informal settlement dwellers (ISDs) that rely on these surface waters for their domestic use. This study investigated the treatment efficiency of two independent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Durban, South Africa and determined the impact of treated effluent discharge on the physicochemical and microbial quality of the receiving water bodies over a 6-month period. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were identified using biochemical tests and detection of the mdh gene via PCR. Six major virulence genes namely eae, hly, fliC, stx1, stx2, and rfbE were also detected via PCR while antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. The physicochemical parameters of the wastewater samples ranged variously between 9 and 313.33 mg/L, 1.52 and 76.43 NTUs, and 6.30 and 7.87 for COD, turbidity, and pH respectively, while the E. coli counts ranged between 0 and 31.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Of the 200 selected E. coli isolates, the hly gene was found in 28 %, fliC in 20 %, stx2 in 17 %, eae in 14 %, with stx1 and rfbE in only 4 % of the isolates. Notable resistance was observed toward trimethoprim (97 %), tetracycline (56 %), and ampicillin (52.5 %). These results further highlight the poor operational status of these WWTPs and outline the need for improved water quality monitoring and enforcement of stringent guidelines.

  10. Ozone exposure, defoliation of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and visible foliar symptoms on native plants in selected plots of South-Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: m.ferretti@linnaea.it; Calderisi, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: calderisi@chemiometria.it; Bussotti, Filippo [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: filippo.bussotti@unifi.it

    2007-02-15

    The relationships between crown defoliation of beech, visible foliar symptoms on native vegetation and ozone exposure were investigated on permanent monitoring sites in South-Western Europe in the years 2000-2002. Relationships between defoliation of beech and O{sub 3} (seasonal mean, 2-week maximum, AOT40) were investigated by means of multiple regression models (11 plots, 1-3 years of data each) and a model based on temporal autocorrelation of defoliation data (14 plots, 1-3 years of data each). Different multiple regression techniques were used. The four models generated (R {sup 2} = 0.71-0.85, explained variance in cross-validation 61-78%) identified several significant predictors of defoliation, with AOT40 (p = 0.008) and foliar content of phosphorous (p = 0.0002-0.0004) being common to all models. The autocorrelation model (R {sup 2} = 0.55; p < 0.0001) was used to calculate expected defoliation on the basis of the previous year's defoliation, and model predictions were used as an estimate of expected defoliation under constant site and environmental condition. Residuals (predicted-measured) plotted against current AOT40 shows that a possible effect of ozone occurs only at very high AOT40 (>35,000 ppbh). O{sub 3}-like visible foliar symptoms were recorded on 65 species at 47% of the common monitoring sites in 2001 and 38% in 2002. No relationship was found between O{sub 3} exposure, frequency of symptomatic sites and frequency of species with symptoms (R {sup 2} = 0.11; p > 0.05). A number of questions related to the ecological and methodological basis of the survey were identified. Inherent sampling and non-sampling errors and multicollinearity of the data suggest great caution when examining results obtained from mensurational, correlative studies. - Ozone AOT40 was identified as a significant predictor of defoliation of beech, but a limited relationship was found between ozone exposure and visible symptoms on native vegetation.

  11. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  12. Distribution of metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in sediments, soils and plants from an informal e-waste dismantling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Liu, Lili; Wang, Jinfu; Pan, Bishu; Fu, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Long; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)) and metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg and As) in sediments, soils and herb plants from unregulated e-waste disposal sites were examined. The metal concentrations, ∑PBDE and TBBPA concentrations in all samples from the examined e-waste dismantling sites were relatively high in comparison with those of rural and urban areas around the world. The PBDE and TBBPA levels in soils significantly decreased with increasing distance from the e-waste dismantling sites, indicating that PBDEs and TBBPA had similar transport potential from the e-waste dismantling process as a point source to the surrounding region. BDE-209 and TBBPA predominated in all samples, which is consistent with the evidence that the deca-BDE and TBBPA commercial mixtures were extensively used in electronic products. Metals, PBDEs and TBBPA displayed significant positive correlations with TOC, whereas the correlations with pH were insignificant, indicating that TOC was a major factor governing the spatial distribution, transportation and fate in sediments and soils. A significant relationship between log-transformed metals and BFR concentrations indicated common pollution sources. Moreover, cluster analysis and principal component analysis further confirmed that the metals and BFRs had a common source, and penta- and deca-BDE commercial products may be two sources of PBDEs in this region.

  13. South Wales revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, M.

    2009-04-15

    The paper deals with the regeneration work in the Aberpergwm coal mine in South Wales and finds out more about the strategy for expansion. The mine is in the Nearth Valley, near to the retrofitted coal-powered plant at Aberthaw. It was shut down in September 1985 under British Coal's national closure programme and the underground workings were allowed to flood. It was reopened in 1996. Reserves are mainly located to the west of the Pentreclwydau fault. Beginning in 2003, Energybuild re-established the infrastructure at the mine including dewatering, ventilation and roadway recovery and repairs. The workforce increased from 45 in 2007 to 200 by Oct 2008. The plant is to increase production to 265,000 t of clean coal this year to June. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  14. Saturated South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Heavy rain produced the worst floods in a century in some areas of China causing deaths and forcing whole communities to evacuate Millions have been forced to flee their homes in south China amid floods caused by heavy rainfall since the end of May.

  15. [South] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  16. 廊坊市南水北调配套水厂以上输水管道工程土工试验指标分析%Analysis of Test Index of above Water Pipeline Engineering of South to North Water Transfer Project Water Plant in Langfang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗杰

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly describes the test index of above water pipeline engineering of south to north water transfer pro-ject water plant in Langfang city, and has carried on detailed analysis.%本文主要阐述了廊坊市南水北调配套水厂以上输水管道工程土工试验指标,并对其进行了详细地分析。

  17. South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Background notes and statistics on South Korea are provided in the document. 98,500 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1988 population of 43 million growing at the annual rate of 1%. The work force totals 17 million. South Korea claims a population comprised of Koreans with a small Chinese minority, 4 religious beliefs, and native Korean-speakers. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 98% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 6/1,000, while life expectancy is 67-73 years. 1990 estimated GNP was $224 billion, and was growing at the estimated rate of 9%. Per capita GNP was $5,500, while a 9% increase was reported in the consumer price index for 1990. Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP, mining and manufacturing for 35%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $5 billion. Additional data are provided on South Korea's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. South Korea has enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 25 years, and has grown to become a middle-ranking industrial power. Korea's bilateral trade surpluses with the United States of nearly $10 billion in 1987 and 1988 declined decisively in 1989 due to a variety of factors. Surplus remained, however, approximately $4 billion in 1990. Whether or not these declines are indicative of structural, lasting trends is not yet discernible. Long-term growth prospects remain good, Korea's ability to adapt to a more open democratic system playing an important role.

  18. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  19. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  20. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Parchaso, Janet K.; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2010-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2009 to December 2009 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2009, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, the winter months (January-March) generally exhibit maximum concentrations, with a decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments and M. petalum were comparable to concentrations observed in 2008 and were generally consistent with data from previous years. Selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment varied among years and showed no sustained temporal trend. In 2009, sedimentary Se concentrations declined from the record high concentrations observed in 2008 to concentrations that were among the lowest on record. Selenium in M. petalum was unchanged from 2008

  1. Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil

  2. Study on Water Adaptability of Seven Common Species of Ground Cover Plants in South China%华南地区7种常见园林地被植物水分适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱瑭璜; 雷江丽; 庄雪影

    2012-01-01

    Water adaptability of seven common ground cover plants in South China were studied by pot experiment. The effect of biomass increment, root-crown ratio, florescence, diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate and diurnal variations of net transpiration rate were determined in different soil water content. The experimental results showed that 7 ground cover plants could grow strongly in the soil w ith the water holding rate above 70% to 75%. Schefflera arboricola, Rhoeo discolor (L'He'rit.) Hance and Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'White Butterfly' could grow well and possess good ornamental value in the soil with minimum water holding rates of 30% to 35%; lxora coccinea L., Excoecaria cochinchinensis, Hymenocallis littoralis and Nephrolepis auriculata could grow well in the soil with minimum water holding rates of 50% to 55%.%以华南地区7种常见园林地被植物为研究对象,通过盆栽控水试验研究,综合比较了不同水分条件下植株的生长量、根冠比、花期、花量、净光合速率日变化、净蒸腾速率日变化等生长及光合指标的变化趋势.结果表明:1)在水分条件下限为土壤持水率的70%~75%时,7种参试植物均有较旺盛的生长势;2)在满足各参试植物园林观赏性的前提下,鹅掌藤(Schefflera arboricola)、蚌花[Rhoeo discolor (L’Hérit.)Hance]和[白蝶合果芋(Syngonium podophyllum Schott ‘White Butterfly’)在水分条件下限为土壤持水率的30%~35%时可以正常生长;而红花龙船化(Ixora coceinea L.)、红背桂(Excoecaria cochinchinensis)、水鬼蕉(Hymenocallis littoralis)和肾蕨(Nephrolepis auriculata)在水分条件下限为土壤持水率的50%~55%时可以正常生长.

  3. Historia natural y conservación de los mutualismos planta-animal del bosque templado de Sudamérica austral Natural history and conservation of plant-animal mutualisms in the temperate forest of southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO A. AIZEN

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available El bosque templado de Sudamérica austral (BTSA se caracteriza por poseer un biota altamente endémica y una flora que exhibe una de las más altas incidencias de polinización biótica (particularmente ornitofilia y dispersión animal (particularmente endozoocoria registradas para cualquier bioma templado. A la luz de importantes avances realizados en los últimos años en el conocimiento de estas interacciones, en este trabajo realizamos una revisión sobre (1 los grupos animales que intervienen en estos mutualismos y su importancia relativa, (2 la estructura comunitaria de estas interacciones, y (3 la existencia de variación geográfica en estas relaciones en base a estudios similares realizados en dos o más localidades a ambos lados de los Andes. También comparamos los mutualismos entre plantas y animales del BTSA con los presentes en otros biomas. Por último, reseñamos la evidencia existente sobre los efectos que la deforestación, la fragmentación, y otras formas de perturbación antrópica están teniendo sobre estos mutualismos. Este trabajo avala la hipótesis de que la alta riqueza de plantas que son polinizadas o dispersadas por vertebrados depende de un ensamble extremadamente pobre de animales mutualistas. Por el contrario, en el caso de la polinización por invertebrados este trabajo revela que las flores entomófilas del BTSA interactúan con un ensamble insospechadamente diverso de insectos, rico en grupos taxonómicos exclusivos de este bioma. Aunque muchos de estos mutualismos parecen ser resilientes, otros aparentan tener un alto grado de sensibilidad a distintas formas de perturbación antrópicaThe temperate forest of southern South America (TFSSA has a highly endemic biota with a flora that exhibits one of the highest incidences of biotic pollination (particularly ornithophily and animal dispersal (particularly endozoochory found in any temperate biome worldwide. Much knowledge has been gained in the last few years on

  4. South-South Trade: A Quantitative Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2014-01-01

    The share of North-North trade in global trade declined from 55.5 percent in 1990 to around 32 percent in 2010. Such fall in North-North trade had been accompanied by rising trade involving the South countries. The South-North trade share increased from 13.9 percent to 16.5 percent during the same time. However, the most spectacular phenomenon was the rise in South-South trade, which increased from only 6.4 percent to 19.4 percent during this period. Such rise in South-South trade has no...

  5. 中国南方现代块根块茎类植物淀粉粒形态分析%MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STARCH GRAINS OF ROOT AND TUBER PLANTS IN SOUTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万智巍; 杨晓燕; 葛全胜; 蒋梅鑫

    2011-01-01

    为了研究块根块茎类植物的利用历史,对中国南方常见块根块茎植物天南星科(Araceae)、薯蓣科(Dioscoreaceae)、百合科(Liliaceae)、睡莲科(Nymphaeaceae)、莎草科(Cyperaceae)、菱科(Trapaceae)、姜科(Zingiberaceae)和豆科(Leguminosae)中13个种的14个样品进行了现代淀粉粒形态分析.研究结果表明,根茎类植物的淀粉粒与禾本科、壳斗科等其他被人类利用的植物的淀粉粒具有明显的不同.综合运用粒径、二维形状、表面特征、脐点位置、单复粒、消光臂形态、长短轴比值以及针状草酸钙晶体等一系列指标,可以对这14个样品进行一定程度上的区分.块根块茎植物淀粉粒的长短轴比值与其粒径具有较好的正相关关系;植物淀粉粒组合中的某些特征性淀粉粒,可以作为该种植物淀粉的鉴定依据.此项研究结果充实了中国现代淀粉粒数据库,也为将来进行古代块根块茎类淀粉粒的鉴定提供了研究基础.%The understanding of root and tuber plant is a key issue in the origin of tropical agriculture and environmental archaeology. In order to identify starch grain of root and tuber plant collected from archaeological sites and establish the starch grains database of modern root and tuber plants of South China, 14 samples from 13 species within Families Araceae, Dioscoreaceae, Liliaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Cyperaceae, Trapaceae, Zingiberaceae and Leguminosae are analyzed. Unlike the starch grain from the tribe Trticeae, which is always lenticular with a diameter of about 20μm, the starch grain from Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum is always polygonal with a mean of 7μm. The starch grain from Castanea and Quercus is always ovoid or spindly with an average size of about 10 μm. The morphological characteristics of starch grains from roots and tubers are complicated. Except the very tiny starch grain,most of root and tuber starch grains have eccentric hilaand are more than 15

  6. Increment of the operational stability of the NGL I plant located in the Tablazo Petrochemical Complex, working with a low feed gas flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Alejandro

    2004-07-01

    The function of the plant NGL I is to extract the ethane and the liquids of the current of natural gas coming from Maracaibo Lake, emphatically in the ethane and propane for being a raw material for the olefins synthesis. The needed temperature for the condensation takes place cooling the dehydrated feed gas, by means of the heat exchange with two currents, cooling propane and the other cold methane gas. In 1998 some improvements to the plant were made, which are known as (MERE) (Ethane Recovery Improvements Project), these modifications were made in order to enhance the ethane recovery during the process, however, when it started to work under this modifications high instability in the performance of the compressor located in the refrigeration system was observed, which produced the shutdown of the ethane recovery process when working with feed gas stream flow rates (under 130 MMSCFD). Moreover, during the last years a decrease in the feed gas flow has been observed, in a mean of 120 MMSCFD, which has had a negative effect on the plant, because it has worked in a non-continuous state. Thanks to several improvements implemented in the actuality, we have achieved to diminish the minimal flow of operation of the plant to 95 MMPCSD, allowing the ethane production at this flow of feeding and increased the operational stability of the plant of LNG I. (author)

  7. Analysis of Test Index of the Third Design Unit of above Water Pipeline Engineering of South to North Water Transfer Project Water Plant in Hengshui City%衡水市南水北调配套工程水厂以上输水管道第3设计单元工程土工试验指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾静

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly describes the test index of the third design unit of above water pipeline engineering of south to north water transfer project water plant in Langfang city, and put forward my own opinion.%本文主要深入探讨了衡水市南水北调配套工程水厂以上输水管道第3设计单元工程土工试验指标,并提出了自己的观点。

  8. and vegetable intake in South Africa in 2000

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fruit and vegetable intake by sex and age group in South Africa for the year 2000. Design. ... T~ccll~mcdiated response to infection.8 Plants also produce ...... Iritcrnatiorzal Classification of Diseases and Related Health Conditions. 10th ed.

  9. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. TYPHONIUM FLAGELLIFORME: A MULTIPURPOSE PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mankaran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Typhonium flagelliforme is a prominent plant candidate from aroid family, endowing various curative properties against a variety of illness and infections. This tropical plant found in damp, shady habitats and population of south east asian countries used it as alternative curative health supplement. Traditionally, this plant is used as a alternative remedy for cancer. Also, antibacterial and antioxidant activities are well established. This plant has shown promising results as a cough suppressant, which can be helpful in various respiratory tract problems. This review focuses on various biological activities of Typhonium flagelliforme.

  11. Current Development Situations of Ziziphus Jujuba Industry in South Xinjiang and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwen; JIN; Xuedong; YAO; Chengjiang; LIU; Hai; LIN; Zheng; LOU; Zhenjiang; GAO

    2015-01-01

    Through surveying current development situations and existing problems of planting and processing of Ziziphus jujuba in south Xinjiang,this paper discussed planting,processing mode of Ziziphus Jujuba in south Xinjiang and development direction of enterprises in Ziziphus Jujuba production. It is expected to ensure and increase quality and sales volume of Ziziphus Jujuba and promote sound and sustainable development of Ziziphus Jujuba industrial chain in south Xinjiang.

  12. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  13. South African School Geography:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lorraine Innes

    The Geo-information industry in South Africa has grown rapidly, as it has in other countries. We are in the early phase of Geographic Information System (GIS) development in South Africa, ... programmes offering geospatial technologies.

  14. Unemployment in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chris

    The spatial understanding of unemployment in South Africa is often limited to ... decade in order to generate sustainable growth and maintain social cohesion. ... from Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) was released electronically and can be ...

  15. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  16. Nuclear South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will keep China out of the South Asian nuclear picture. As Pakistan...remain unipolar for quite some time with the United States as the global superpower. There is predominance of geoeconomics as against geopolitical...to drag China into the nuclear equation in South Asia, the geopolitical and geoeconomic realities will likely keep China out of the South Asian

  17. New South, Old Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The South's recent rapid growth has not erased its widespread poverty and low levels of human capital. The rural South remains the nation's low-income and high-poverty region, and low education levels may limit the rural South's prospects for development. Underlying social and economic conditions that depend on and reinforce a low-skill population…

  18. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  19. Threatened plants of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Lists are provided of 1 915 vascular plant taxa regarded to be either extinct or variously threatened in southern Africa, the region south of (but excluding) Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. These include 39 recently extinct taxa} 105 endangered...

  20. Fungi and invasions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Wood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fungi are a major component of the functioning of all terrestrial ecosystems. Objectives: To increase awareness of fungi as drivers of ecosystem processes, including invasion biology. Method: Here, I reviewed the information available regarding fungal invasions of native ecosystems in South Africa in the context of the National Status Report on Biological Invasions. Results: Only seven fungal species are regulated as invaders (all category 1b under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA A&IS regulations. Four of these species are not yet known to occur in South Africa. Similarly, under the NEM:BA A&IS regulations, two of the four species listed as prohibited (i.e. not present in the country but which would pose a threat if introduced are already present in the country. The actual number of alien fungi in South Africa is much greater. A preliminary listing of alien fungal species is made, with a total of 9 pathogenic species known to attack indigenous plants, 11 saprotrophic species, 1 fish pathogen, 23 host-specific pathogens of listed alien terrestrial plants, 61 ectomycorrhizal species and 7 host-specific pathogens deliberately introduced as biological control agents. The majority of fungal species were introduced to South Africa most likely via the introduction of crop plants as passengers, although there are as yet very little details available on pathways of introduction into South Africa. Conclusion: For almost all aspects considered, it is concluded that there is simply not sufficient data to begin to understand the role and impact of fungal invasions in South Africa.

  1. 新建茶园不同间作模式及覆盖遮阴效应比较研究——种植模式Ⅱ:茶行南北走向%Comparative Study of Intercropping Different Crops and Shading Effects in Young Tea Garden under Planting Pattern Ⅱ :North - South Direction of Tea Rows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小营; 欧阳石光; 张丽霞; 向勤锃; 黄晓琴

    2012-01-01

    The effects of intercropping with maize, soybean and maize plus soybean and respectively and shading on the ecological environment, germination of tea seeds, growth and photosynthesis of tea plants were studied in young tea plantation with north - South direction of tea rows. The results were as follows, (1) When the tea plants were cultivated in north - south direction, the effect of intercropping maize was the best. In the tea garden intercropping with maize, the air temperature could reduce 1.71] compared with the CK; the daily mean light intensity reduced by 47.6% ; the daily mean air humidity increased by 15. 8% , and the soil moisture increased by 27.1% ; the germination time and growing season of tea seedlings were 8 and 11 days earlier respectively; the survival rate of tea seedlings increased by 22.4%. The growth indexes such as plant height, stem diameter, inter - node length and leaf area were all the best during the period of experiment. (2) Compared to each other, intercropping could substantially increase the air humidity more, but shading effectively decreased the light intensity and air temperature more when cultivated in north - south direction.%研究了在南北走向的茶行中间作玉米、大豆、玉米+大豆以及遮阴对山东新建茶园生态环境、茶籽萌发、茶苗生长以及光合作用的影响.结果表明:(1)在南北走向的茶行中以间作玉米的效果最好.与对照相比,间作玉米的茶园空气温度可降低1.7℃,日均光照强度降低47.6%,日均相对湿度增加15.8%,土壤含水量增加27.1%,茶苗的发芽期及全盛期分别提早8d和11d,茶苗成活率增加22.4%,株高、茎粗、节间长、叶面积各时期测定均表现最好;(2)与覆盖遮阴相比,间作更能提高茶园的空气湿度,但在南北走向下覆盖遮阴则更能有效降低茶园的光照和温度.

  2. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  3. ORNAMENTAL SPECIES USED IN WATER GARDENS FROM SOUTH KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARK SANG KUN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic plants (hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes are plants that have adapted to live in or on aquatic environments. Because they are living under the water require numerous special adaptations, aquatic plants can only grow in water or permanently saturated soil. Aquatic vascular plants can be ferns or angiosperms (from a variety of families, including monocots and dicots. As opposed to plants types such as mesophytes and xerophytes, hydrophytes do not have a problem in retaining water due to the abundance of water in its environment. This means the plant has less need to regulate transpiration (indeed, the regulation of transpiration would require more energy than the possible benefits incurred.The Korean vascular flora contains 217 families, 1.045 genera, 3.034 species, and 406 infraspecific taxa [CHONG-WOOK PARK, 2007].In Mokp’o region (South Korea, in 1995, was identified hydrophytes species composed by 11 orders, 22 families, 23 genera, 38 species, 9 varieties, total 48 taxa. These were composed by 22 taxa emerged plants, 15 taxa floating-leaves plants, 8 taxa submerged plants and 3 taxa free-floating plants [JEONG WOO-GYU & al., 1995].The same research collective, in 1996, in Paksil, Yundang (South Korea swamp region was identified hydrophytes species composed by 11 orders, 22 families, 31 genera, 41 species, 10 varieties; it represents 12.1% of total plants. These is composed of 25 taxa emerged plants, 15 taxa floating-leaves plants, 9 taxa submerged plants and 3 taxa free-floating plants [JEONG WOO-GYU & al., 1996].This paper contains the classification of water plants and a brief description of some aquatic species used in Korean ancient and modern gardens in order to introduce in our country.

  4. Response of plant species richness and primary productivity in shrublands along a north-south gradient in Europe to seven years of experimental warming and drought: reductions in primary productivity in the heat and drought year of 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penuelas, J.; Prieto, P.; Beier, C.; Cesaraccio, C.; Angelis, de P.; Dato, de G.; Emmett, B.A.; Estiarte, M.; Garadnai, J.; Gorissen, A.; Lang, E.K.; Kroel-Dulay, G.; Llorens, L.; Pellizzaro, G.; Riis-Nielsen, T.; Schmidt, I.K.; Sirca, C.; Sowerby, A.; Spano, D.; Tietema, A.

    2007-01-01

    We used a nonintrusive field experiment carried out at six sites - Wales (UK), Denmark (DK), the Netherlands (NL), Hungary (HU), Sardinia (Italy - IT), and Catalonia (Spain - SP) - along a climatic and latitudinal gradient to examine the response of plant species richness and primary productivity to

  5. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  6. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  7. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  8. Hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease inhibitory activity of plants used in traditional treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis in Mali, DR Congo and South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marianne Molander; Nielsen, Line Hagner; Søgaard, Søren Vinter

    2014-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Snakebite envenomation, every year, causes estimated 5-10,000 mortalities and results in more than 5-15,000 amputations in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Antiserum is not easily accessible in these regions or doctors are simply not available, thus more than 80% of all p...... patients seek traditional practitioners as first-choice. Therefore it is important to investigate whether the plants used in traditional medicine systems contain compounds against the necrosis-inducing enzymes of snake venom....

  9. APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motivation for this article is partly traceable to the Pretoria High Court decision in Chinese Association of South Africa v Minister of Labour,3 in which the ... The notion of equality and non-discrimination is thought to strengthen the bonds .... show us that the original inhabitants of South Africa are the Khoi and San people,.

  10. South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Medical Journal is published by the South African Medical Association, ... Guest Editorial: Growing wilderness and expedition medicine education in ... Does access to private healthcare influence potential lung cancer cure rates? ... Cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in children with chronic kidney ...

  11. Índice de cobertura vegetal pela cultura do milho no período de chuvas intensas no sul de Minas Gerais Plant cover index in the period of intensive rainfall for corn crop at south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Silva de Souza

    2010-04-01

    hybrids. This study was conducted in the corn hybrids demonstrative field at the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In order to evaluate the plant cover a display was used that included a horizontal structure, containing holes for viewing the points with and without plant cover, the being readings performed at random and transversally to the crop lines. The phytotechnical attributes evaluated were plant height, stand, dry matter and grain production. It can be concluded that the higher plant cover index was observed for corn hybrids P 30F33, P 30F90, P 3021, STRIKE, FORT, VALENT, UFLA 2001, UFLA 2004, CO 32, D 8480, D 8420 DKB 333B, and DKB 440, proving good quality as a protective soil plant. In the period of larger occurrence of rainfall in the south of Minas Gerais state, the corn crop can minimize the effect of the erosive process. The production of dry matter was well correlated with the plant cover index, and can be used as evidence of soil protection.

  12. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  13. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  14. Monofluoroacetate-containing plants that are potentially toxic to livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Allen, Jeremy G; Colegate, Steven M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Taylor, Charlotte M

    2014-07-30

    Many plants worldwide contain monofluoroacetate and cause sudden death in livestock. These plants are primarily found in the southern continents of Africa, Australia, and South America, where they negatively affect livestock production. This review highlights past and current research investigating (1) the plants reported to contain monofluoroacetate and cause sudden death; (2) the mode of action, clinical signs, and pathology associated with poisoning by monofluoroacetate-containing plants; (3) chemical methods for the analysis of monofluoroacetate in plants; (4) the coevolution of native flora and fauna in Western Australia with respect to monofluoroacetate-containing plants; and (5) methods to mitigate livestock losses caused by monofluoroacetate-containing plants.

  15. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  16. The South African nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, John

    1997-07-01

    The history of the South African nuclear industry is outlined and its present status described. Eskom, the state electric utility, generates 5% of its output from two 921MWe PWRs sited at Koeberg near Capetown. A pebble bed variant of the HTGR is being considered as an option for future nuclear power generation. The Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) in the past developed a complete front-end fuel cycle capability, conversion of the mining output of ammonium diuranate to UF{sub 6}, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities, post-irradiation facilities for Koeberg fuel and one of the best low level waste repositories in the world. It also designed a nuclear weapon, six of which were built and later dismantled. Recently, government policy has dictated drastic staff reductions at AEC. The enrichment plant has been dismantled and the PWR fuel fabrication is under threat of closure. Considerable effort is being put into Molecular Laser Isotope Separation, in cooperation with the French organisation COGEMA, as a project with good commercial prospects in the medium term. The Council for Nuclear Safety is the licensing authority for Koeberg, AEC activities and mining and minerals processing. Uranium production in the mines has dropped dramatically with South Africa now being eighth in the world ranking whereas at its peak in 1980 it ranked third. (UK).

  17. 紫色土人工林林下植物区系与群落外貌的恢复过程%Understory flora and community physiognomy of planted forests in the degraded purple soil ecosystem, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于占源; 岳永杰; 郭剑芬; 陈光水; 谢锦升; 何宗明; 杨玉盛

    2005-01-01

    采用时空代换法,以福建省宁化县严重退化紫色土人工林生态系统为对象,按侵蚀强度由强到弱选取4种生态恢复措施Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ,研究了植物多样性与生态系统过程的关系.结果表明,该紫色土退化生态系统的植物出现43科78属86种,种子植物属15个分布类型中出现12个.沿恢复梯度,植物的生活型谱逐渐丰富,种子植物属各分布区类型出现的属数趋于增加,各种叶特征所对应的植物属数依次增多.可见,生态恢复过程中的植物区系与群落外貌越来越复杂和多样化,该紫色土生态系统渐趋稳定.%The flora and community physiognomy of degraded plantation ecosystems on purple soil were investigated in Ninghua County of Fujian Province, China to understand the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem processes.. Four different restoration communities (labeled as ecological restoration treatment I, II, III and IV) were selected by space-time replacement method according to the erosion intensity in degraded purple soil ecosystem. The results showed that there were totally 86 plant species belonging to 78 genera and 43 families in the degraded purple soil ecosystem. Of the 15 types of distribution area in spermatophyte genus, 12 types were found in the purple soil ecosystem. Along restoration gradient from low to high, plant growth type and life form spectra became abundant more and more, and the spermatophyte genera for each distribution area type and genera numbers for different foliage characters increased as well. It is concluded that the plant flora and physiognomy in ecological restoration process become more complex and diverse, indicating that the forest ecosystem on purple soil tends to be more stable.

  18. Bioassay of plant extracts against Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Md Abdul Alim; Janghoon Song; Un Taek Lim; Jang Jeon Choi; Md Alamgir Hossain

    2017-01-01

    .... Topical spray and dry film contact assays were conducted to measure the toxicity of 8 plant extracts and their mixtures traditionally used as insecticides in South Asian countries such as Bangladesh, India, and Nepal...

  19. Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant. ... oil processing company, located in Anambra State – South east Nigeria, was evaluated ... total hydrocarbon content (THC), oil and grease, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ...

  20. Autoluminescent plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krichevsky

    Full Text Available Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  1. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  2. Plant Protection Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Allsopp

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the mycorrhizal status of plants growing in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa was undertaken to assess the range of mycorrhizal types and their dominance in species characteristic of this region. Records were obtained by ex­amining the root systems of plants growing in three Cape lowland vegetation types, viz. West Coast Strandveld, West Coast Renosterveld and Sand Plain Lowland Fynbos for mycorrhizas, as well as by collating literature records of mycorrhizas on plants growing in the region. The mycorrhizal status of 332 species is listed, of which 251 species are new records. Members of all the important families in this region have been examined. Mycorrhizal status appears to be associated mainly with taxonomic position of the species. Extrapolating from these results, we conclude that 62% of the flora of the Cape Floristic Region form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas, 23% have no mycorrhizas, 8% are ericoid mycorrhizal, 2% form orchid mycorrhizas, whereas the mycorrhizal status of 4% of the flora is unknown. There were no indigenous ectomycor- rhizal species. The proportion of non-mycorrhizal species is high compared to other ecosystems. In particular, the lack of mycorrhizas in several important perennial families in the Cape Floristic Region is unusual. The diversity of nutrient acquir­ing adaptations, including the range of mycorrhizas and cluster roots in some non-mycorrhizal families, may promote co­existence of plants in this species-rich region.

  3. 我国南方双季稻区冬闲田种草模式探讨%Investigate on Forage Grass Planting Models in Double Cropping Winter Fallow Land in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 杨知建; 李果

    2014-01-01

    Planting forage grass can not only increase soil fertility,but also produce more high-quality feed.The paper in-troduces the current situation and problems,and analyzes the development prospect. In the last part of the paper,four kinds of development models of grassland agriculture were put forward,including Planting leguminous forage (Astragalus si-nicus L.),Gramineae (triticale,rye grass)pasture,Cruciferae (Brassica napus L. )pasture,Legumes and Gramineae Mixture.%利用冬闲田土秋冬种草能产生较高的经济效益和生态效益。介绍了我国南方双季稻区冬闲田的种草概况、存在的问题,提出了种植豆科(紫云英)牧草、禾本科(小黑麦、黑麦草)牧草、十字花科(油菜)牧草、豆科牧草和禾本科牧草混播4种模式。

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endangered/rare terrestrial plants and communities in [for] South Florida. The terrestrial...

  5. Natural Products Research in South Africa: End of an Era on Land or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    in South Africa and the pivotal role which studies of indigenous plant natural products .... urated ketone moiety in directing further oxygenation at C-6 in. 15 and 16. ..... Issues in Environmental Science and Technology 13: Chemistry in the Ma-.

  6. Ecosystem services, efficiency, sustainability and equity: South Africa's Working for Water Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, South Africa’s working for water programme is described. The programme maximizes an ecosystem services (the delivery of water), enhances sustainability by eliminating invading alien plants, and promotes social equity through jobs...

  7. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  8. South Africa PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  9. South African Airborne Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa carried out numerous airborne operations during the latter part ofthe last century. .... Watch, an engineer unit under command of Commandant Louw, which had been ..... locals, to transport weapons, food and other supplies.

  10. The South Asian genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John C; Abbott, James; Zhang, Weihua; Turro, Ernest; Scott, William R; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Afzal, Uzma; Afaq, Saima; Loh, Marie; Lehne, Benjamin; O'Reilly, Paul; Gaulton, Kyle J; Pearson, Richard D; Li, Xinzhong; Lavery, Anita; Vandrovcova, Jana; Wass, Mark N; Miller, Kathryn; Sehmi, Joban; Oozageer, Laticia; Kooner, Ishminder K; Al-Hussaini, Abtehale; Mills, Rebecca; Grewal, Jagvir; Panoulas, Vasileios; Lewin, Alexandra M; Northwood, Korrinne; Wander, Gurpreet S; Geoghegan, Frank; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Aitman, Timothy J; McCarthy, Mark I; Scott, James; Butcher, Sarah; Elliott, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2014-01-01

    The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  11. South and Southwest HSRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest is a competitively awarded, peer-reviewed research consortium led by Louisiana State University with the...

  12. Ladybugs of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Images of the 79 species of Coccinellidae occurring in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-familial classification, and lengths and widths....

  13. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  14. Biowatch South Africa and the Challenges in Enforcing its Constitutional Right to Access to Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peekhaus, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the difficulties encountered by Biowatch, a South African civil society environmental organization, in its attempts to obtain access to government information in respect of genetically engineered plants. After establishing the context of South Africa's access to information regime, including a brief discussion of several of its…

  15. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  16. Mapping Banana Plants from High Spatial Resolution Orthophotos to Facilitate Plant Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Johansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Banana Bunchy Top Virus (Genus: Babuvirus reduces plant growth and prevents banana production. Because of the very large number of properties with banana plants in South East Queensland, Australia, a mapping approach was developed to delineate individual and clusters of banana plants to help plant identification and enable prioritization of plant inspections for Banana Bunchy Top Virus. Due to current outbreaks in South East Queensland, there are concerns that the virus may spread to the major banana growing districts further north. The mapping approach developed was based on very high spatial resolution airborne orthophotos. Object-based image analysis was used to: (1 detect banana plants using edge and line detection approaches; (2 produce accurate and realistic outlines around classified banana plants; and (3 evaluate the mapping results. The mapping approach was developed based on 10 image tiles of 1 km × 1 km and was applied to orthophotos (3600 image tiles from September 2011 covering the entire Sunshine Coast Region in South East Queensland. Based on field inspections of the classified maps, a user’s mapping accuracy of 88% (n = 146 was achieved. The results will facilitate the detection of banana plants and increase the inspection rate of Banana Bunchy Top Virus in the future.

  17. Risk evaluation indicator system for exotic plant invasion in Hainan Island, South China%海南岛外来植物入侵风险评价指标体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宗波; 蒋英; 蒋菊生

    2013-01-01

    基于海南岛生物入侵防控及外来物种管理的需求,对海南外来入侵植物的种类、分布情况和危害现状进行了调查.调查发现,目前海南受外来植物入侵影响较重,外来入侵植物共约160种,隶属于38个科.构建了适应于海南当地生态环境特点与经济社会发展的外来植物风险评估指标体系,该指标体系共分3级,包括5个一级指标,和相应的12个二级指标,42个三级指标,采用层次分析法确定了体系各级指标的权重.对海南50种常见的主要外来入侵植物进行了风险评估,并按照评估结果将外来入侵植物划分为不同风险等级,提出相应的管理策略.外来入侵生物风险评估体系可被作为管理部门制定早期预警和决策措施的重要工具,通过风险评估与风险管理,建立一套应对海南外来生物入侵的快速反应体系,为外来生物入侵的防范和生态安全提供保障.%Based on the demands of prevention,control,and management of biological invasion of exotic species in Hainan Island,an investigation was made on the species,distribution,and harm of invasive plants in the Island.According to our investigation,the invasion of exotic species in the Island was very serious.A total of about 160 exotic plants belonging to 38 families were found.A risk evaluation indicator system was established,which could be adapted to the local characteristics of ecological,economic,and social development.The indicator system comprised 5 first-class indices,12 second-class indices,and 42 third-class indices,and the weight of each index was determined by applying analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method.The risk of 50 exotic invasive plants was evaluated by using this indicator system,the levels of the invasion risks were determined,and the corresponding risk management strategies were put forward.The risk evaluation indicator system could be used as an important tool in early warning and decision management of

  18. Responses of plant functional traits and soil factors to slope aspect in alpine meadow of South Gansu, Northwest China%甘南高寒草甸植物功能性状和土壤因子对坡向的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旻霞; 马建祖

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the plant functional traits, soil factors, and their relationships at different slope aspects in the alpine meadow of South Gansu. On the sunny slope, grasses were the dominant functional groups; while on the shady slope, forbs and shrubs dominated. The plant community biomass was significantly higher on shady slope than on sunny slope, while the leaf N/P ratio was in adverse. The leaf phosphorus content, specific leaf area, and plant average height at different slope aspects were in the order of shady slope > partial shady slope > sunny slope, whereas the leaf nitrogen content on different slopes had less difference. The survival strategies of the vegetations on sunny and shady slopes had great changes, reflecting in the differences in the plant leaf traits and dominant functional groups. Soil temperature was in the order of sunny slope > partial shady slope > shady slope, while soil water content was in the order of shady slope> partial shady slope > sunny slope. Soil total phosphorus content increased from the sunny slope to the shady slope, while the other soil nutrients contents showed the sequence of shady slope > sunny slope > partial shady slope. The specific leaf area and plant average height were significantly positively correlated to the soil organic carbon, total phosphorous, and water contents, and significantly negatively correlated to soil pH. Soil water content and soil pH co-affected the distribution patterns of plant functional traits and soil nutrients at different slope aspects of alpine meadow.%研究甘南高寒草甸不同坡向植物功能性状和土壤因子及二者的关系.结果表明:禾草是阳坡的优势功能群,杂草和灌木是阴坡的优势功能群.阴坡植物群落生物量显著大于阳坡,但叶片氮磷比显著小于阳坡.不同坡向上,除叶片氮含量变化不显著外,叶片磷含量、比叶面积和物种平均高度大小均为阴坡>偏阴坡>阳坡.植被的生存策略在阴阳坡

  19. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  20. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…