WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant site evaluation

  1. Evaluation of vibratory ground motion at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.; Greeves, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The evaluation of vibratory ground motion at nuclear power plant sites requires the cooperative effort of scientists and engineers in several disciplines. These include seismology, geology, geotechnical engineering and structural engineering. The Geosciences Branch of the NRC Division of Site Safety and Environmental Analysis includes two sections, the Geology/Seismology Section and the Geotechnical Engineering Section

  2. The evaluation of site characteristics for Guangdong nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruming; Wu Dizhong; Yan Zhongmin

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the features of the site of Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant (GNPP) in general and in particular evaluates the outstanding site characteristics related to nuclear safety and public health. It is composed of two parts: the first part describes the seismo-geologic conditions of the site and the other treats the atmospheric dispersion conditions. It also contains the discussion why the possibility of inhabitancy within 5 km from the exclusion ares boundary would not be affected. (author)

  3. Nuclear power plant site evaluation using site population-meterology factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, B.H.; Kang, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, as a site evaluation technique, SPNF(Site Population Neteorology Factor) which is modified from SPF(Site Population Factor) of the USNRC model, is defined from site population and meteorology data in order to consider the radiological impacts to the population at large from the atmospheric dispersion of the radioactive effluents released during routine plant operation as well as accidental conditions. The SPMF model proved its propriety from the comparison of SPMF and SPF for Kori site. The relative suitability of Korean sites to the U.S. sites have been also examined using SPF. (Author)

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demick, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  6. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites. Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.; Ferrante, J.G.; Policastro, A.J.; Daniels, E.W.

    1976-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data for the years 1973, 1974 and 1975 pertaining to the Kewaunee Plant, which began operation in mid-1974, were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. The results showed no significant immediate deleterious effects, thus confirming preoperational predictions. Although the plant has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, the present indications do not lead to a prediction that any are developing. The data acquired, method of analysis, and results obtained are presented in detail along with recommendations for improving monitoring techniques

  7. Site evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary site selection activities for the WIPP are complete now; these consisted primarily of national and regional studies over the past fifteen years, and resulted in selection of the WIPP study area for geological characterization. The work of geological characterization should be considered to have begun with the drilling of ERDA 9 at the center of the WIPP study area and the initiation of seismic reflection work on the site. That geological characterization, which is primarily oriented to provide specific data concerning the present geology of the site, was virtually complete in December, 1978, when the Geological Characterization Report was submitted to the Department of Energy; much basic information has been gathered indicating no major technical problems with the site as it is now understood. Studies of long-term processes which might affect a repository or have an effect on safety analyses will now be the major geotechnical activity for the WIPP site evaluation team, some of these activities are already underway. These studies will deal with the age of significant features and the rates and processes which produce those features. The information so gained will be useful in increasing the confidence in evaluation of the safety of a repository

  8. Risk-benefit evaluation of nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.; Savolainen, I.; Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment scheme is described for the risk-benefit analyses of nuclear power versus conventional alternatives. Given the siting parameters for the proposed nuclear plant an economic comparison is made with the most advantageous competitive conventional production scenario. The economic benefit is determined from the differential discounted annual energy procurement cost as a function of the real interest rate and amortization time. The risk analysis encompasses the following factors: radiation risks in normal operation, reactor accident hazards and economic risks, atmospheric pollutants from the conventional power plants, and fuel transportation. The hazards are first considered in terms of probabilistic dose distributions. In the second stage risk components are converted to a compatible form where excess mortality is used as the risk indicator. Practical calculations are performed for the power production alternatives of Helsinki where district heat would be extracted from the nuclear power plant. At the real interest rate of 10% and amortization time of 20 yr the 1000 MW(e) nuclear option is found to be Pound9.1 m per yr more economic than the optimal conventional scenario. Simultaneously the nuclear alternative is estimated to reduce excess mortality by 2 to 5 fatal injuries annually. (author)

  9. Evaluation of regulatory processes affecting nuclear power plant early site approval and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey and evaluation of existing federal, state and local regulatory considerations affecting siting approval of power plants in the United States. Those factors that may impede early site approval of nuclear power plants are identified, and findings related to the removal of these impediments and the general improvement of the approval process are presented. A brief evaluation of standardization of nuclear plant design is also presented

  10. Manual on quality assurance for the survey, evaluation and confirmation of nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The present Manual on Quality Assurance for the Survey, Evaluation and Confirmation of Nuclear Power Plant Sites contains supporting material and illustrates examples for implementing the requirements contained in the Code of Practice on Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants to the activities of survey, evaluation and confirmation of nuclear power plant sites. At the same time the Code of Practice for Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting, and Safety Guides in the siting series contain requirements and recommendations to implement a quality assurance programme in selected activities of the siting process. This manual is intended to provide guidance and illustrate examples on this implementation. During preparation and reviews of this Manual it was found out that the methodology of implementation of the quality assurance programme in siting activities is still under development. For these reasons it was considered appropriate to publish this Manual as a temporary publication for trial use

  11. Power plant site evaluation - Douglas Point site. Volume 1, part 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    This is part of a series of reports containing an evaluation of the proposed Douglas Point nuclear generating station site located on the Potomac River in Maryland 30 miles south of Washington, DC. This report contains sections on cooling tower air emissions, noise impacts, transmission line effects, radiation from normal releases, site features affecting radiological accidents, and meteorology

  12. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  13. A plan for safety evaluation of tsunamis at the Uljin nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. K.; Lee, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The sites of many nuclear and thermal power plants are located along the coast line to obtain necessary cooling water. Therefore, they are vulnerable to coastal disasters like tsunamis. The safety evaluation on tsunamis of the site of Uljin nuclear power plants was performed with the maximum potential earthquake magnitude and related fault parameters in 1986. But according to the results of recent research, the possibility was suggested that the earthquake which has bigger magnitude than was expected is likely to happen in the seismic gaps near Akita, Japan. Therefore, a plan for safety evaluation of tsunamis at the Uljin nuclear power plants was laid out

  14. Tsunami hazard assessment on nuclear power plant site evaluation accordance on DS 417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad Khusyairi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant site evaluation should conduct the hazard evaluation on tsunami. Global climate changes and particularly extreme meteorology and hydrology phenomena have an impact on the structure, systems and important components related to safety. Therefore, IAEA makes efforts to revise the IAEA Safety Standard Series NS-G 3.4, Meteorological Events in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plants and IAEA safety standard series NS-G 3.5 Flood Hazard For Nuclear Power Plants On Coastal And River Sites, in order to provide protection against the public and the environment safety due to operation of nuclear power plants. There are two methods used in assessing tsunami hazard, probabilistic and deterministic methods. In the tsunami hazard assessment, some necessary information and data should be obtained to determine the basic design of tsunami hazard during designing nuclear power plants, especially the cooling system design. Flooding caused tsunami must be evaluated to determine the site protection system. Furthermore, There must be an evaluation on either coincident event or meteorological simultaneously tsunami event that caused the worst effect on the site. Therefore, the protection of the site from extreme tsunami can be planned. (author)

  15. Site selection and evaluation for nuclear power plants with respect to population distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This safety guide, relating population distribution to site selection and evaluation, for nuclear power plants, forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme (Nuclear Safety Standards). The guide presents population distribution data, requirements, examples of site screening methods, and an overview of radiological impact assessment with respect to population distribution

  16. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Coal Plant Sites for Repowering with Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Copinger, Donald A [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of small coal stations for possible repowering with SMRs; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for these sample plants. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is to demonstrate the capability to characterize specific sample coal plant sites to identify any particular issues associated with repowering existing coal stations with SMRs using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  17. Power plant site evaluation, electric energy demand forecasts - Douglas Point Site. Volume 3. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.

    1975-07-01

    This is part of a series of reports containing an evaluation of the proposed Douglas Point nuclear generating station site located on the Potomac River in Maryland 30 miles south of Washington, D.C. This report contains chapters on the Potomac Electric Power Company's market, forecasting future demand, modelling, a residential demand model, a nonresidential demand model, the Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative Model, short term predictive accuracy, and total system requirements

  18. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  19. Evaluation of hyperaccumulator plant species grown in metalliferous sites in Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babani, F.; Civici, N.; Mullaj, A.; Kongjika, E.; Ylli, A.

    2007-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils causes serious problems to our society. A small number of interesting plant species have been identified that can grow in soils containing high levels of heavy metals, and can also accumulate these metals to high concentrations in the shoot. The heavy metal contents in root, shoot, leaves and flowers of spontaneous plants grown in metalliferous sites in Albania together with the elemental composition of the native soils were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus of analyzed ecotypes was evaluated via chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during induction kinetics. Response of plant root system to the presence of metals, the available pools of metals to plants, effect of plant biomass to phytoextraction, photosynthetic pigment metabolism and chlorophyll fluorescence signature of leaves allowed to characterize hyperaccumulator properties and to detect the variation between selected ecotypes to heavy metal accumulation.

  20. External human induced events in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance for the examination of the region considered for site evaluation for a plant in order to identity hazardous phenomena associated with human induced events initiated by sources external to the plant. In some cases it also presents preliminary guidance for deriving values of relevant parameters for the design basis. This Safety Guide is also applicable for periodic site evaluation and site evaluation following a major human induced event, and for the design and operation of the site's environmental monitoring system. Site evaluation includes site characterization. Consideration of external events that could lead to a degradation of the safety features of the plant and cause a release of radioactive material from the plant and/or affect the dispersion of such material in the environment. And consideration of population issues and access issues significant to safety (such as the feasibility of evacuation, the population distribution and the location of resources). The process of site evaluation continues throughout the lifetime of the facility, from siting to design, construction, operation and decommissioning. The external human induced events considered in this Safety Guide are all of accidental origin. Considerations relating to the physical protection of the plant against wilful actions by third parties are outside its scope. However, the methods described herein may also have some application for the purposes of such physical protection. The present Safety Guide may also be used for events that may originate within the boundaries of the site, but from sources which are not directly involved in the operational states of the nuclear power plant units, such as fuel depots or areas for the storage of hazardous materials for the construction of other facilities at the same site. Special consideration should be given to the hazardous material handled during the construction, operation and

  1. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites. Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.

    1976-11-01

    Environmental monitoring data for 1973 through 1975 pertaining to the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station (which began commercial operation in December 1973) were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Evaluations of aquatic and terrestrial biotic data are presented in this report. The data indicate no significant immediate deleterious effects on the biota from plant operation, thus confirming preoperational predictions. Although the station has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. Recommendations are suggested for improving monitoring techniques

  2. Meteorological events in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on conducting hazard assessments of extreme and rare meteorological phenomena. It is of interest to safety assessors and regulators involved in the licensing process as well as to designers of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements the IAEA Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Facilities which is to supersede the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, Safety Series No. 50-C-S (Rev. 1), IAEA, Vienna (1988). The present Safety Guide supersedes two earlier Safety Guides: Safety Series No. 50-SG-S11A (1981) on Extreme Meteorological Events in Nuclear Power Plant Siting, Excluding Tropical Cyclones and Safety Series No. 50-SG-S11B (1984) on Design Basis Tropical Cyclone for Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance on conducting hazard assessments of extreme and rare meteorological phenomena. This Safety Guide provides interpretation of the Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Facilities and guidance on how to fulfil these requirements. It is aimed at safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as designers of nuclear power plants, and provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses that support the assessment of the hazards associated with extreme and rare meteorological events. This Safety Guide discusses the extreme values of meteorological variables and rare meteorological phenomena, as well as their rates of occurrence, according to the following definitions: (a) Extreme values of meteorological variables such as air temperature and wind speed characterize the meteorological or climatological environment. And (b) Rare meteorological phenomena

  3. Siting nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, J.; Joskow, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The first edition of this journal is devoted to the policies and problems of siting nuclear power plants and the question of how far commercial reactors should be placed from urban areas. The article is divided into four major siting issues: policies, risk evaluation, accident consequences, and economic and physical constraints. One concern is how to treat currently operating reactors and those under construction that were established under less-stringent criteria if siting is to be used as a way to limit the consequences of accidents. Mehanical cost-benefit analyses are not as appropriate as the systematic use of empirical observations in assessing the values involved. Stricter siting rules are justified because (1) opposition because of safety is growing: (2) remote siting will make the industry more stable; (3) the conflict is eliminated between regulatory policies and the probability basis for nuclear insurance; and (4) joint ownership of utilities and power-pooling are increasing. 227 references, 7 tables

  4. Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined

  5. Extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, M.R.; Gordon, L.I.; Chen, A.C.T.

    1979-02-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of U.S. coastal waters as a uranium resource and with the selection of a suitable site for construction of a large-scale plant for uranium extraction. Evaluation of the resource revealed that although the concentration of uranium is quite low, about 3.3 ppB in seawater of average oceanic salinity, the amount present in the total volume of the oceans is very great, some 4.5 billion metric tons. Of this, perhaps only that uranium contained in the upper 100 meters or so of the surface well-mixed layer should be considered accessible for recovery, some 160 million tonnes. The study indicated that open ocean seawater acquired for the purpose of uranium extraction would be a more favorable resource than rivers entering the sea, cooling water of power plants, or the feed or effluent streams of existing plants producing other products such as magnesium, bromine, or potable and/or agricultural water from seawater. Various considerations led to the selection of a site for a pumped seawater coastal plant at a coastal location. Puerto Yabucoa, Puerto Rico was selected. Recommendations are given for further studies. 21 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodman, M.R.; Gordon, L.I.; Chen, A.C.T.

    1979-02-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of U.S. coastal waters as a uranium resource and with the selection of a suitable site for construction of a large-scale plant for uranium extraction. Evaluation of the resource revealed that although the concentration of uranium is quite low, about 3.3 ppB in seawater of average oceanic salinity, the amount present in the total volume of the oceans is very great, some 4.5 billion metric tons. Of this, perhaps only that uranium contained in the upper 100 meters or so of the surface well-mixed layer should be considered accessible for recovery, some 160 million tonnes. The study indicated that open ocean seawater acquired for the purpose of uranium extraction would be a more favorable resource than rivers entering the sea, cooling water of power plants, or the feed or effluent streams of existing plants producing other products such as magnesium, bromine, or potable and/or agricultural water from seawater. Various considerations led to the selection of a site for a pumped seawater coastal plant at a coastal location. Puerto Yabucoa, Puerto Rico was selected. Recommendations are given for further studies. 21 figures, 8 tables

  7. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.; Rodman, M.R.; Binney, S.E.

    1979-02-06

    This bibliography contains 471 references pertaining to the evaluation of U.S. territorial ocean waters as a potential uranium resource and to the selection of a site for a plant designed for the large scale extraction of uranium from seawater. This bibliography was prepared using machine literature retrieval, bibliographic, and work processing systems at Oregon State University. The literature cited is listed by author with indices to the author's countries, geographic areas of study, and to a set of keywords to the subject matter.

  8. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.; Rodman, M.R.; Binney, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography contains 471 references pertaining to the evaluation of U.S. territorial ocean waters as a potential uranium resource and to the selection of a site for a plant designed for the large scale extraction of uranium from seawater. This bibliography was prepared using machine literature retrieval, bibliographic, and work processing systems at Oregon State University. The literature cited is listed by author with indices to the author's countries, geographic areas of study, and to a set of keywords to the subject matter

  9. Evaluation of utility monitoring and preoperational hydrothermal modeling at three nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Policastro, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper evaluates the preoperational hydrothermal modeling and operational monitoring carried out by utilities as three nuclear-power-plant sites using once-through cooling. Our work was part of a larger study to assess the environmental impact of operating plants for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the suitability of the NRC Environmental Technical Specifications (Tech Specs) as set up for these plants. The study revealed that the plume mappings at the Kewaunee, Zion, and Quad Cities sites were generally satisfactory in terms of delineating plume size and other characteristics. Unfortunately, monitoring was not carried out during the most critical periods when largest plume size would be expected. At Kewaunee and Zion, preoperational predictions using analytical models were found to be rather poor. At Kewaunee (surface discharge), the Pritchard Model underestimated plume size in the near field, but grossly overestimated the plume's far-field extent. Moreover, lake-level variations affected plume dispersion, yet were not considered in preoperational predictions. At Zion (submerged discharge) the Pritchard Model was successful only in special, simple cases (single-unit operation, no stratification, no reversing currents, no recirculation). Due to neglect of the above-mentioned phenomena, the model underpredicted plume size. At Quad Cities (submerged discharge), the undistorted laboratory model predicted plume dispersion for low river flows. These low flow predictions appear to be reasonable extrapolations of the field data acquired at higher flows

  10. Evaluation of water quality parameters and associated environmental impact at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plants use a large quantity of water for the purpose of cooling the turbine condenser. The heated effluents are discharged to aquatic environment by means of once through cooling wherever large water bodies like seacoast or fresh water reservoir are available. The quality of water bodies are important for the growth and biodiversity of aquatic organisms. Several environmental factors like Temperature pH, Dissolved Oxygen have a bearing on the life cycle of aquatic organisms. The paper describes the evaluation of water quality parameters at the two typical sites one on the sea coast (Tarapur) and other at inland site Kaiga and discusses the environmental impact due to discharge to aquatic environment. It is found that the environmental impacts due to both heated effluents and radioactivity are insignificant. The water quality parameters are found to be well within the prescribed standards. (author)

  11. Geotechnical aspects of site evaluation and foundations for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication is a revision of the former safety standards of IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S8. The scope has been extended to cover not only foundations but also design questions related to geotechnical science and engineering, such as the bearing capacity of foundations, design of earth structures and design of buried structures. Seismic aspects also play an important role in this field, and consequently the Safety Guide on Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3, which discusses the determination of seismic input motion, is referenced on several occasions. The present Safety Guide provides an interpretation of the Safety Requirements on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations and guidance on how to implement them. It is intended for the use of safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as the designers of nuclear power plants, and it provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses to support the assessment of the geotechnical aspects of the safety of nuclear power plants

  12. Geotechnical aspects of site evaluation and foundations for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication is a revision of the former safety standards of IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S8. The scope has been extended to cover not only foundations but also design questions related to geotechnical science and engineering, such as the bearing capacity of foundations, design of earth structures and design of buried structures Seismic aspects also play an important role in this field, and consequently the Safety Guide on Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3, which discusses the determination of seismic input motion, is referenced on several occasions. The present Safety Guide provides an interpretation of the Safety Requirements on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations and guidance on how to implement them. It is intended for the use of safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as the designers of nuclear power plants, and it provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses to support the assessment of the geotechnical aspects of the safety of nuclear power plants

  13. Evaluation of population density and distribution criteria in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.

    1994-06-01

    The NRC has proposed revisions to 10 CFR 100 which include the codification of nuclear reactor site population density limits to 500 people per square mile, at the siting stage, averaged over any radial distance out to 30 miles, and 1,000 people per square mile within the 40-year lifetime of a nuclear plant. This study examined whether there are less restrictive alternative population density and/or distribution criteria which would provide equivalent or better protection to human health in the unlikely event of a nuclear accident. This study did not attempt to directly address the issue of actual population density limits because there are no US risk standards established for the evaluation of population density limits. Calculations were performed using source terms for both a current generation light water reactor (LWR) and an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design. The results of this study suggest that measures which address the distribution of the population density, including emergency response conditions, could result in lower average individual risks to the public than the proposed guidelines that require controlling average population density. Studies also indicate that an exclusion zone size, determined by emergency response conditions and reactor design (power level and safety features), would better serve to protect public health than a rigid standard applied to all sites

  14. Design of quality assurance surveillance of geotechnical investigation in evaluation of nuclear power plants siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Made Pramayuni; Haendra Subekti

    2011-01-01

    System of building Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is built above ground surface and rocks. Therefore, the geotechnical aspects evaluation of NPP siting in particular must be implemented properly and accurately. The successful of the design and construction of the building system is influenced by geotechnical conditions in the vicinity of NPP will be built. To be able to perform geotechnical analysis is good and true; it's required data of surface/underground completely. These data can be obtained directly not only from the geotechnical field investigations, but also can be obtained from the laboratory tests results. To ensure that geotechnical investigations are conducted effectively and efficiently, produce accurate data, as well as meeting the requirements of safety, health, safety, environmental, quality and economic, then the Quality Assurance Program (QAP) should be established and implemented. Supervision of the QAP implementation is required to ensure the work is done according to QAP that have been established and applicable requirement. (author)

  15. Assessment of drinking water quality around Kudankulam nuclear power plant site using fuzzy synthetic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, S.; Pratheeba, V.; Murugesan, A.G.; Dahiya, S.

    2007-01-01

    A method based on concept of fuzzy set theory is used for decision-making in the assessment of physicochemical quality of drinking water. Conventional method for water quality assessment does not consider the uncertainties involved either in measurement of water quality parameters or in the limits provided by the regulatory bodies. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation model gives the certainty levels for the quality class of the water based on the prescribed limit of various regulatory bodies and opinion of the experts from the field of drinking water quality. In this paper application of fuzzy rule based method is illustrated with twelve drinking water samples from the residential locality in the vicinity of Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant site. These samples were analysed for fifteen different physico-chemical parameters, out of them eleven important parameters were used for the quality assessment using fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach. From this study. it has been concluded that out of 12 samples seven are in desirable category with certainty level of 53-100 percent and rest of the samples belongs to acceptable category whose certainty level ranges from 67 to 96 percent. Water from these sources can be used for the drinking purpose if alternate water source is not available without any health concern on the basis of physicochemical characteristics. (author)

  16. Evaluation of nuclear power plant siting by probabilistic assessment of environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.

    1978-01-01

    The work consists of the description of a probabilistic consequence assessment model ARANO, and the individual calculation schemes therein included. This assessment model has been applied to the risk/benefit and cost/benefit analyses of the siting of nuclear power plants. In addition, there have been made some comparisons with the alternative fossil fuelled energy production scenarios. (author)

  17. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  18. Technology overview: assessment of social values in thermal power plant siting, social impact methodology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology was developed to facilitate the selection of favorable thermal power plant site and design alternatives from the community perspective. A two-stage, multicriteria decision technique was employed to combine technical assessments of effects of the proposed site/design alternatives with corresponding community values. In the first stage, submodels are used to develop indices of plant impact on each of ten decision criteria. These criteria include effects on aesthetics, water quality, cost of power, air quality, ecology, social quality, local economy, recreational opportunities, cultural resources, and human health and safety. In the second stage, each of the impact indices is weighted by corresponding community values and then summed to provide an overall index of plant acceptability

  19. Evaluation of sites for the location of WEEE recycling plants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiruga, Dolores; Walther, Grit; González-Benito, Javier; Spengler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of new European legal regulations for treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), recycling plants have to be installed in Spain. In this context, this contribution describes a method for ranking of Spanish municipalities according to their appropriateness for the installation of these plants. In order to rank the alternatives, the discrete multi-criteria decision method PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organisation METHod for Enrichment Evaluations), combined with a surveys of experts, is applied. As existing plants are located in North and East Spain, a significant concentration of top ranking municipalities can be observed in South and Central Spain. The method does not present an optimal structure of the future recycling system, but provides a selection of good alternatives for potential locations of recycling plants.

  20. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites. The Zion Nuclear Power Station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.; Policastro, A.; Daniels, E.; Ferrante, J.; Vaslow, F.

    1976-11-01

    Environmental monitoring data for the years 1972 through 1975 pertaining to the Zion Station, which began commercial operation in 1974, were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Thermal plume, water chemistry and aquatic biota data were evaluated and the results are presented. The results showed no significant immediate deleterious effects, thus confirming preoperational predictions. Although the plant has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, the present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. The data utilized, the methods of analysis, and the results obtained are presented in detail, along with recommendations for improving monitoring techniques

  1. Recommended criteria for the evaluation of on-site nuclear power plant emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafortune, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    A review of existing Canadian and International emergency exercise evaluation criteria and approaches has been conducted. Based on the results of the review, criteria are proposed for the evaluation of on-site emergency exercises for Canadian nuclear power stations. The proposed criteria are performance-based. They are comprehensive, yet remain adaptable to all stations and accident scenarios. They are primarily aimed at radiological emergency exercises, but are entirely applicable to fire or other conventional exercises. This report also addresses evaluation preparation and methodology. (author). 21 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Preliminary evaluation of licensing issues associated with U. S. -sited CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Erp, J B

    1977-12-01

    The principal safety-related characteristics of current CANDU-PHW power plants are described, and a distinction between those characteristics which are intrinsic to the CANDU-PHW system and those that are not is presented. An outline is given of the main features of the Canadian safety and licensing approach. Differences between the U.S. and Canadian approach to safety and licensing are discussed. Some of the main results of the safety analyses, routinely performed for CANDU-PHW reactors, are presented. U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria are evaluated as regards their applicability to CANDU-PHW reactors; vice-versa the CANDU-PHW reactor is evaluated with respect to its conformance to the U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria. A number of design modifications are proposed to be incorporated into the CANDU-PHW reactor in order to facilitate its introduction into the U.S.

  3. Seismic stability evaluation using 2-D FEM analysis for modeling nuclear power plants sited on gravel soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iba, T.; Konno, T.; Irino, K.; Hama, I.; Oguro, E.; Iizuka, S.; Enami, A.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout Europe and the United States, many nuclear power plants have been built on Quaternary deposit sites. While in Japan, all nuclear power plants have been built at rock sites primarily to maintain a high seismic resistivity. However, as more nuclear power plants are planned for the future, it has become necessary to develop new siting technology from the stand point of expanding the available range of site selection and effective utilization of land. A draft on guidelines of the seismic design for siting on Quaternary deposits is being carried out with a purpose to ensure proper design and construction for such sites. (author). 10 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites: the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.

    1976-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data for the years 1973 and 1974 pertaining to the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 1, which began operation in early 1974, were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Terrestrial biotic resources were considered for this plant. The effects of the operation of Unit 1 on the local terrestrial organisms were found to be undetectable. Although the plant has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, the present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. The data acquired, method of analysis, and results obtained are presented in detail along with recommendations for improving monitoring techniques

  5. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites. The Duane Arnold Energy Center site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaslow, F.; Murarka, I.P.

    1976-08-01

    Analyses were made on 1974-1975 data pertaining to water quality and the use of biocides at the Duane Arnold Energy Center, which began operating in February 1975. The analyses showed no immediate deleterious effects due to plant operations. Although the plant has not been in operation long enough to reveal any long-term deleterious effects, present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. The data utilized, the methods of analysis, and the results obtained are presented in detail along with recommendations for improving the current monitoring techniques

  6. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  7. Site selection and evaluation studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Los Medanos, Eddy County, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.

    1977-12-01

    Bedded-salt deposits of the Salado Formation have been selected for evaluation for a proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be located in Eddy County, NM, approximately 26 mi east of Carlsbad. Site selection and evaluation studies that included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, drilling, and resource appraisal were conducted over and under the prospective location. The lower portion of the Salado meets essential criteria for waste isolation. Beds chosen for waste storage lie 2074 to 2730 ft below the surface. High-purity salt exists at these depths, and the geologic structure revealed by geophysical surveys indicates that these beds are essentially flat. Additional geophysical surveys are now under way. The initial interpretation of the new data indicates that more structure may exist in the salt beds in the northern portion of the site area. Full evaluation of potentially commercial deposits of potash and natural gas within the WIPP site will be reported by separate studies, as will be the hydrologic details of the region

  8. Recommended criteria for the evaluation of on-site nuclear power plant emergency plans, volume II: criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A critical review of existing Canadian and international nuclear power plant (NPP) emergency plans, evaluation criteria, and approaches has been conducted to provide AECB staff with information which can be used to assess the adequacy of NPP on-site emergency response plans. The results of this work are published in two volumes. Volume I, Basis Document, provides the reasons why certain requirements are in place. It also gives comprehensive references to various standards.Volume II, Criteria, contains the criteria which relate to on-site actions and their integration with control room activities and the roles of off-site responsible organizations. The recommended criteria provide information on what is required, and not on how to accomplish the requirements. The licensees are given the latitude to decide on the methods and processes needed to meet the requirements. The documents do not address NPP off-site plans and response capability, or the control room emergency operating procedures and response capability. This report contains only Volume II: Criteria. 55 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Role of satellite and geophysical data for evaluation of site for nuclear power plants - a case study from Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, A.K.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Srivastava, P.K.; Sunil, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing imageries and seismotectonic maps were studied in the light of recently published regional gravity data jointly by NGRI, OIL, GSI and SOl (2006) for accessing the structural fabric of the area to locate suitable site for nuclear power plant. Entire analysis of the data sets has been carried out in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environment. The study area, Rawatbhata falls well within the Vindhyan Basin bounded by the towns Bundi in the North, Chittaurgarh in the West, Jhalwar in the Southeast and Kota in the Northeast. Interpretation of the arcuate shaped gravity low in the southeast reveals the probable extension of Hindoli Group of Rocks below the Vidhyans and Traps. The selected location is sitting on the gravity high. A gravity gradient of 5 mGal is observed within the 10km buffer zone which is marked in yellow on all the maps. Earlier workers interpreted the thickness of the Vindhyan sediments as 6-7km, based on the deep seismic and gravity surveys, conducted along the Kunjer-Nagaur transect. Study of the seismotectonic maps published by GSI doesn't indicate any seismic activity over the decades. NE-SW trending neotectonic faults and few thermal springs are noticed far away from the study area around 100 km NW of Great Boundary Fault (GBF). Numbers of NE-SW, NW-SE trending major and minor lineaments/faults are present in the region. However, analysis of the geophysical data sets doesn't reflect any such lineaments/faults within 25 km radius. Integrated study of the area helped in evaluating the existing nuclear power plant site. (author)

  10. Evaluation of a biodegradation screening protocol for contaminated soil from manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.J.; Battaglia, A.; Smith, J.R.; Middleton, A.C.; Nakles, D.V.; Linz, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative for treating soils contaminated with PAHs. however, given the variability encountered in soils characteristics and contamination level, their susceptibility to biological treatment must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. This paper discusses a new treatability protocol, the GRI Accelerated Treatability Protocol. The mainstay of the protocol, which is designed to quickly provide treatability data for a given contaminated soil is a bioslurry experiment, in which the contaminated soil is continuously stirred and provided with abundant oxygen, nutrients and water, to maximize biological activity and thus contaminant removal. The results of using such protocol on four soils, widely differing in physical characteristics and contamination levels, are compared to the results of traditional pan studies, and an empirical equation, describing the observed soil concentrations as a function of time in both slurry and pans, is presented. Similarities and differences between achievable endpoints and biodegradation rates are discussed, and the applicability of the GRI Accelerated Treatability Protocol to full-scale engineered systems is addressed. Results to date indicate that, for soils with less than 10% fines slurry and pan experiments yield approximately the same endpoint, so that for those soils the GRI Accelerated Treatability Protocol can be used to assess the viability of an unsaturated bioremediation system. For soils with more than 10% fines, the slurry treatment endpoints are better than the pans. For those soils a traditional pan study experiment should be performed to evaluate the potential capabilities of unsaturated bioremediation

  11. Collection and evaluation of complete and partial losses of off-site power at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    Events involving loss of off-site power that have occurred at nuclear power plants through 1983 are described and categorized as complete or partial losses. The events were identified as plant-centered or grid-related failures. In addition, the causes of the failures were classified as weather, human error, design error, or hardware failure. The plant-centered failures were usually of shorter duration than the weather-related grid failures. For this reason, the weather-related events were reviewed in detail. Design features that may be important factors affecting off-site power system reliability were tabulated for most of the operating nuclear power plants. The tabulated information was provided to NRC for a statistical analysis to determine the importance of these design features for losses of off-site power. The frequency of losses of off-site power versus duration was estimated for three time periods. The frequency of loss of off-site power was estimated to be 0.09/reactor-year based on industry-wide data for the years 1959 through 1983

  12. Hypothesis of a nuclear accident to the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with important radioactive release out of the site: risks prevention, intervention strategies. Evaluation of the sensitization to the nuclear risk of the physician practicing near the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraovic, Th.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis has for hypothesis a nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with radioactive release out of the site: the risks prevention and the strategies of intervention are studied. An evaluation of the sensitization to a nuclear risk is made for the general practitioner that practices near the site. (N.C.)

  13. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites. A synthesis and summary with recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.; Policastro, A.J.; Ferrante, J.G.; Daniels, E.W.; Marmer, G.J.

    1976-11-01

    An analysis of the fuel data gathered during the monitoring programs at seven nuclear power plant sites show no significant ecological impacts. This conclusion is within the constraints of the quality of available data from these sites. Current monitoring programs are, however, not designed to meet the needs for statistical analysis and, consequently, the monitoring data are often ill-suited for modern statistical procedures. Recommendations are proposed for revising monitoring schemes so that more precise conclusions can be made from fewer field measurements

  14. Dispersion of radioactive material in air and water and consideration of population distribution in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA issues Safety Requirements and Safety Guides pertaining to nuclear power plants and activities in the field of nuclear energy, on the basis of its Safety Fundamentals publication on The Safety of Nuclear Installations. The present Safety Guide, which supplements the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, concerns the effects of a nuclear power plant on the surrounding region and the consideration of population distribution in the siting of a plant. This Safety Guide makes recommendations on how to meet the requirements of the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, on the basis of knowledge of the mechanisms for the dispersion of effluents discharged into the atmosphere and into surface water and groundwater. Relevant site characteristics and safety considerations are discussed. Population distribution, the projected population growth rate, particular geographical features, the capabilities of local transport networks and communications networks, industry and agriculture in the region, and recreational and institutional activities in the region should be considered in assessing the feasibility of developing an emergency response plan. In the selection of a site for a facility using radioactive material, such as a nuclear power plant, account should be taken of any local features that might be affected by the facility and of the feasibility of off-site intervention, including emergency response and protective actions. This is in addition to the evaluation of any features of the site itself that might affect the safety of the facility. This Safety Guide recommends methods for the assessment of regional and local characteristics. This Safety Guide supersedes four earlier IAEA Safety Guides, namely: Atmospheric Dispersion in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (Safety Series No. 50-SG-S3 (1980)); Site Selection and Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plants with Respect to Population Distribution (Safety Series No. 50-SG-S4 (1980)); Hydrological

  15. Dispersion of radioactive material in air and water and consideration of population distribution in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA issues Safety Requirements and Safety Guides pertaining to nuclear power plants and activities in the field of nuclear energy, on the basis of its Safety Fundamentals publication on The Safety of Nuclear Installations. The present Safety Guide, which supplements the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, concerns the effects of a nuclear power plant on the surrounding region and the consideration of population distribution in the siting of a plant. This Safety Guide makes recommendations on how to meet the requirements of the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, on the basis of knowledge of the mechanisms for the dispersion of effluents discharged into the atmosphere and into surface water and groundwater. Relevant site characteristics and safety considerations are discussed. Population distribution, the projected population growth rate, particular geographical features, the capabilities of local transport networks and communications networks, industry and agriculture in the region, and recreational and institutional activities in the region should be considered in assessing the feasibility of developing an emergency response plan. In the selection of a site for a facility using radioactive material, such as a nuclear power plant, account should be taken of any local features that might be affected by the facility and of the feasibility of off-site intervention, including emergency response and protective actions. This is in addition to the evaluation of any features of the site itself that might affect the safety of the facility. This Safety Guide recommends methods for the assessment of regional and local characteristics. This Safety Guide supersedes four earlier IAEA Safety Guides, namely: Atmospheric Dispersion in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (Safety Series No. 50-SG-S3 (1980)). Site Selection and Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plants with Respect to Population Distribution (Safety Series No. 50-SG-S4 (1980)). Hydrological

  16. Evaluation of the impact of 1983 east sea tsunami at the site of Ulchin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. K.; Lee, D. S.; Choi, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    In the past, we carried out the safety assessment study at the site of Ulchin NPP against tsunamis on the basis of maximum earthquake magnitude 7 3/4 and available tsunamigenic earthquake fault parameters. But, recently, based on the seismic gap theory some geologists and seismologists warned that the earthquakes with larger magnitude than was expected might occur in the East Sea region. And, the need of re-evaluation of safety is suggested. In this study, to investigate the applicability of a finite difference model, we simulated the 1983 East Sea Tsunami at the Imwon Harbor where the maximum run-up height of tsunami was observed. The general agreement was obtained in the viewpoint of maxium wave run-up height. Finally, we evaluated the rise and drop of sea water level at the site of Ulchin NPP and concluded that the site of Ulchin NPP is safe against tsunami of the same magnitude of 1983 East Sea Tsunami

  17. Remote sensing for nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, B.S.; Welby, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that satellite remote sensing provides timely and cost-effective information for siting and site evaluation of nuclear power plants. Side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery is especially valuable in regions of prolonged cloud cover and haze, and provides additional assurance in siting and licensing. In addition, a wide range of enhancement techniques should be employed and different types of image should be color-combined to provide structural and lithologic information. Coastal water circulation can also be studied through repetitive coverage and the inherently synoptic nature of imaging satellites. Among the issues discussed are snow cover, sun angle, and cloud cover, and actual site evaluation studies in the Bataan peninsula of the Philippines and Laguna Verde, California

  18. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, identified as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant on the Weldon Spring site. These buildings have been nonoperational for more than 20 years, and the deterioration that has occurred during this time has resulted in a potential threat to site workers, the general public, and the environment. The EE/CA documentation of this proposed action is consistent with guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses removal actions at sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Actions at the Weldon Spring site are subject to CERCLA requirements because the site is on the EPA's National Priorities List. The objectives of this report are to (1) identify alternatives for management of the nonprocess buildings; (2) document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential threat to workers, the public, and the environment associated with these buildings; and (3) address environmental impact associated with the proposed action

  19. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report

  20. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  1. Preliminary evaluation of licensing issues associated with U.S.-sited CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Erp, J.B.

    1977-12-01

    The principal safety-related characteristics of current CANDU-PHW power plants are described, and a distinction between those characteristics which are intrinsic to the CANDU-PHW system and those that are not is presented. An outline is given of the main features of the Canadian safety and licensing approach. Differences between the U.S. and Canadian approach to safety and licensing are discussed. Some of the main results of the safety analyses, routinely performed for CANDU-PHW reactors, are presented. U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria are evaluated as regards their applicability to CANDU-PHW reactors; vice-versa the CANDU-PHW reactor is evaluated with respect to its conformance to the U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria. A number of design modifications are proposed to be incorporated into the CANDU-PHW reactor in order to facilitate its introduction into the U.S

  2. Preliminary Site Suitability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. L. King

    2001-01-01

    Commercial electric power generation, nuclear weapons production, the operation of naval reactors, and research and development activities produce spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste have been accumulating at commercial reactor sites and storage facilities across the country since 1957. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste have been accumulating at sites now managed by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) since the mid-1940s. The DOE has the statutory obligation to dispose of these wastes. The U.S. has studied methods for the safe storage and disposal of radioactive waste for more than 40 years. Many organizations and government agencies have participated in these studies. In the 1950s, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission requested the National Academy of Sciences to evaluate options for land disposal of radioactive waste. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the DOE, continued to analyze radioactive waste management options throughout the 1960s and 1970s. In 1979, an Interagency Review Group that included representatives of 14 federal government entities provided findings and recommendations to the President. After analyzing a range of options, disposal in a geologic repository emerged as the preferred long-term environmental solution. This consensus is reflected in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The NWPA and related statutes established the framework for addressing the issues of radioactive waste disposal and designated the roles and responsibilities of the federal government and the owners and generators of the waste

  3. Evaluation of Radiological Impacts on the Operating Kartini Reactor and Natural Radioactivity of the Site Plan of Nuclear Power Plant Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M; Sutresna, G; Sulistyono, A; Ngasifudin

    1996-01-01

    This radiological impacts evaluation covered of radioactivity in water, soil, grass, air samples and ambient gamma radiation that have been carried out in the Kartini reactor area and in the site plan of nuclear power plan are at Ujung Lemah Abang, Jepara, Central Java. The aim of this research was to determine that radiological impacts in the environment around the Kartini reactor compared to natural radioactivity for site plan of nuclear power plan area. The radioactivity in the water, soil and grass samples ware measured by low background beta counting system and were identified by low background gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity in the air samples was measured by beta portable counting system and the ambient gamma radiation was measured by portable high pressurized ionization chamber model RSS-112 Reuther-Stokes. The reactor data measurement was compared to the site plan of nuclear power plant area data for evaluation of radiological impacts on the operating reactor. From the evaluation and comparison can be concluded there are no indication of the radionuclide release from the reactor operation. The average radiactivity in the water, soil grass and air sample from the reactor area were between 0.17 - 0.61 Bq/1; 0,47 - 0,74 Bq/g; 4.43 - 4.60 Bq/g.ash and 49.53 - 70.90 x 10 Bq/cc. The average radioactivity of those sample from the nuclear power plant area were between 0.06-0.90 Bq/I; 0.02-0.86 Bq/g; 1.68-8.07 Bq/g.ash and 65.0-152.3 x 10 Bq/cc. The ambient gamma radiation were between 6.9-36.7 urad/h for the reactor area and 6.8-19.2 urad/h for the nuclear power plant area

  4. Site and plant species are important determinants of the Methylobacterium community composition in the plant phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Claudia; Ramette, Alban; Frances, Lisa; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Vorholt, Julia A

    2010-06-01

    The plant phyllosphere constitutes a habitat for numerous microorganisms; among them are members of the genus Methylobacterium. Owing to the ubiquitous occurrence of methylobacteria on plant leaves, they represent a suitable target for studying plant colonization patterns. The influence of the factor site, host plant species, time and the presence of other phyllosphere bacteria on Methylobacterium community composition and population size were evaluated in this study. Leaf samples were collected from Arabidopsis thaliana or Medicago truncatula plants and from the surrounding plant species at several sites. The abundance of cultivable Methylobacterium clearly correlated with the abundance of other phyllosphere bacteria, suggesting that methylobacteria constitute a considerable and rather stable fraction of the phyllosphere microbiota under varying environmental conditions. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) was applied to characterize the Methylobacterium community composition and showed the presence of similar communities on A. thaliana plants at most sites in 2 consecutive years of sampling. A substantial part of the observed variation in the community composition was explained by site and plant species, especially in the case of the plants collected at the Arabidopsis sites (50%). The dominating ARISA peaks that were detected on A. thaliana plants were found on other plant species grown at the same site, whereas some different peaks were detected on A. thaliana plants from other sites. This indicates that site-specific factors had a stronger impact on the Methylobacterium community composition than did plant-specific factors and that the Methylobacterium-plant association is not highly host plant species specific.

  5. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.; Telleschi, P.

    1978-10-01

    Two of the main underground siting alternatives, the rock cavity plant and the pit siting, have been investigated in detail and two layouts, developed for specific sites, have been proposed. The influence of this type of siting on normal operating conditions and during abnormal occurences have been investigated. (Auth.)

  6. Remote sensing for nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, B.S.; Welby, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enhance the selection and evaluation process for nuclear power plant siting. The principal advantage is the synoptic view which improves recognition of linear features, possibly indicative of faults. The interpretation of such images, in conjunction with seismological studies, also permits delineation of seismo-tectonic provinces. In volcanic terrains, geomorphic-age boundaries can be delineated and volcanic centers identified, providing necessary guidance for field sampling and regional model derivation. The use of such techniques is considered for studies in the Philippines, Mexico, and Greece. 5 refs

  7. How do young people evaluate nuclear energy at nuclear power plant sites? An empirical study; Wie bewerten junge Menschen an Standorten von Kernkraftwerken die Kernenergie? Eine empirische Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretz, Simon [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Geographie und Geooekologie; Kramer, Caroline [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Professur fuer Humangeographie

    2014-12-15

    How does the younger generation evaluate nuclear power at sites with nuclear power plants? This has been examined at four sites with different decommissioning stages, as the presence of a nuclear power plant in young people's daily life represents a potential employer as well as a potential risk factor. The attitude of this generation will expectedly and sustainably influence the development of communities. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant is currently, optimistically estimated by different energy supplying companies with a time period of 15 to 20 year. Thus the resident population will deal with this topic until the year 2040. Furthermore the decision on a repository exploration has been sighted for the year 2013. As a final repository will not be ready for operation at that time, communities will have to deal with the storage of radioactive waste in local interim-storage facilities. The next generation has the opportunity to shape their future as well as the future of their community. Nevertheless the preconditions are to stay at the side as well as the political and social engagement of these young people. n order to study this aspect and the opportunities of action of young people, data was gathered by carrying out a standardised survey, interviewing 762 pupils in February 2014.

  8. Site survey for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide describes the first stage of the siting process for nuclear power plants - the site survey to select one or more preferred candidate sites. Its purpose is to recommend procedures and provide information for use in implementing a part of the Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-S). The organization, procedures, methodologies, guidance for documenting the site survey process and examples of detailed procedures on some safety-related site characteristics are given in the Guide

  9. An integrated approach to site selection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, E.M.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of analysing and evaluating the large number of factors influencing site selection is proposed, which can interrelate these factors and associated problems in an integrated way and at the same time establish a technique for site evaluation. The objective is to develop an integrated programme that illustrates the complexity and dynamic interrelationships of the various factors to develop an improved understanding of the functions and objectives of siting nuclear power plants and would aim finally at the development of an effective procedure and technique for site evaluation and/or comparative evaluation for making rational site-selection decisions. (author)

  10. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  11. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur; Miano, Sandra C.

    2015-01-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  12. Addendum to engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 Series) at the Weldon Spring site chemical plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.

    1990-08-01

    An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report was prepared in May 1989 to analyze alternatives for a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, designated as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site. The alternative selected as a result of the analyses was to dismantle the buildings and to salvage or transport off-site for treatment or disposal all nonradioactively contaminated materials and to store on-site in a material staging area (MSA) all radioactively contaminated materials, pending a decision for disposal of all wastes resulting from remediation of the Weldon Spring site. Region VII of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the state of Missouri concurred with the selection of this alternative and provided comments on the EE/CA report. The proposed removal action was not initiated at that time due to funding constraints. This addendum has been prepared to update information provided in the EE/CA report, provide additional information on the MSA, and respond to EPA Region VII and state of Missouri comments on the EE/CA. 5 refs., 1 tab

  13. G. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The selection of a site for a nuclear power site is a complex process involving considerations of public health and safety, engineering design, economics, and environmental impact. Although policies adopted in various countries differ in some details, a common philosophy usually underlies the criteria employed. The author discusses the basic requirements, as they relate to New Zealand, under the headings: engineering and economics; health and safety; environmental factors

  14. Siting studies for new nuclear power plants in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaran, Gustavo A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the thesis prepared by the Group of Prospective and Energy Planning of the National Atomic Energy Commission for the 'Specialization on Applications of Nuclear Technology Course' of the Instituto Balseiro in 2007. It describes the evolution of siting studies through time and the main focus worldwide in this type of studies. Then, it makes a brief review of previous siting studies of nuclear power plants conducted in Argentina. It carries out a description of the methodology to conduct a site evaluation for nuclear power plants according to actual international criteria. Finally, it describes the licensing process that follows every site study. (author) [es

  15. Vascular Plants of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an updated listing of the vascular plants present on and near the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. This document is an update of a listing of plants prepared by Sackschewdky et al. in 1992. Since that time there has been a significant increase in the botanical knowledge of the Hanford Site. The present listing is based on an examination of herbarium collections held at PNNL, at WSU-Tri Cities, WSU-Pullman, Brigham Young University, and The University of Washington, and on examination of ecological literature derived from the Hanford and Benton county areas over the last 100 years. Based on the most recent analysis, there are approximately 725 different plant species that have been documented on or around the Hanford Site. This represents an approximate 20% increase in the number of species reported within Sackschewsky et al. (1992). This listing directly supports DOE and contractor efforts to assess the potential impacts of Hanford Site operations

  16. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D ampersand D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D ampersand D tasks at RFP and at other sites

  17. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  18. Site evaluation for nuclear installations. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-S (Rev. 1). It takes account of developments relating to site evaluations for nuclear installations since the Code on Siting was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication on The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for site evaluation are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear installations. It is recognized that there are steady advances in technology and scientific knowledge, in nuclear safety and in what is considered adequate protection. Safety requirements change with these advances and this publication reflects the present consensus among States. This Safety Requirements publication was prepared under the IAEA programme on safety standards for nuclear installations. It establishes requirements and provides criteria for ensuring safety in site evaluation for nuclear installations. The Safety Guides on site evaluation listed in the references provide recommendations on how to meet the requirements established in this Safety Requirements publication. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements for the elements of a site evaluation for a nuclear installation so as to characterize fully the site specific conditions pertinent to the safety of a nuclear installation. The purpose is to establish requirements for criteria, to be applied as appropriate to site and site-installation interaction in operational states and accident conditions, including those that could lead to emergency measures for: (a) Defining the extent of information on a proposed site to be presented by the applicant; (b) Evaluating a proposed site to ensure that the site

  19. Nuclear power plant site selection: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugasi, Y.; Mehrez, A.; Sinuany-Stern, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Selecting the site for a nuclear power plant involves the evaluation of numerous criteria and the professional judgment of various experts. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission has been concerned with the problem of selecting a site for a nuclear power station. Previous studies have been performed by the commission to identify potential sites. There were initial screenings where potential sites were chosen according to various minimal criteria and international standards. Only sites that met all the criteria were chosen. A study was made to find the most preferred site among the potential sites that met all the criteria. Two mathematical approaches were used: Keeney's multiattribute utility function and Saaty's eigenvalue prioritization technique. Both models ranked the same site as the most desirable; however, the models differed in their ranking of the other sites

  20. Safety in nuclear power plant siting. A code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is brought out within the framework of establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides for nuclear power plants: NUSS programme. The scope of the document encompasses site and site-plant interaction factors related to operational states and accident conditions. The purpose of the Code is to give criteria and procedures to be applied as appropriate to operational states and accident conditions, including those which could lead to emergency situations. This Code is mainly concerned with severe events of low probability which relate to the siting of nuclear power plants and have to be considered in designing a particular nuclear power plant. Annex: Examples of natural and man-made events relevant for design basis evaluation

  1. ITER plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    The ITER site has not yet been determined. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electrical power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, demineralized water, steam and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radiation exposure of workers and the public. To prevent interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographical centre of the site. The locations of the buildings on the generic site were selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach was used to determine the locations of services above, at and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography, resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  2. Vascular Plants of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2001-09-28

    This report provides an updated listing of the vascular plants present on and near the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. This document is an update of a listing of plants prepared by Sackschewdky et al. in 1992. Since that time there has been a significant increase in the botanical knowledge of the Hanford Site. The present listing is based on an examination of herbarium collections held at PNNL, at WSU-Tri Cities, WSU-Pullman, Bringham Young University, and The University of Washington, and on examination of ecological literature derived from the Hanford and Benton county areas over the last 100 years. Based on the most recent analysis, there are approximately 725 different plant species that have been documented on or around the Hanford Site. This represents an approximate 20% increase in the number of species reported within Sackschewsky et al. (1992). This listing directly supports DOE and contractor efforts to assess the potential impacts of Hanford Site operations on the biological environment, including impacts to rare habitats and to species listed as endangered or\\ threatened. This document includes a listing of plants currently listed as endangered, threatened, or otherwise of concern to the Washington Natural Heritage Program or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as well as those that are currently listed as noxious weeds by the State of Washington. Also provided is an overview of how plants on the Hanford Site can be used by people. This information may be useful in developing risk assessment models, and as supporting information for clean-up level and remediation decisions.

  3. Managing Siting Activities for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to ''seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world''. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The introduction of nuclear power brings new challenges to States - one of them being the selection of appropriates sites. It is a project that needs to begin early, be well managed, and deploy good communications with all stakeholders; including regulators. This is important, not just for those States introducing nuclear power for the first time, but for any State looking to build a new nuclear power plant. The purpose of the siting activities goes beyond choosing a suitable site and acquiring a licence. A large part of the project is about producing and maintaining a validated

  4. Managing Siting Activities for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to ''seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world''. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The introduction of nuclear power brings new challenges to States - one of them being the selection of appropriates sites. It is a project that needs to begin early, be well managed, and deploy good communications with all stakeholders; including regulators. This is important, not just for those States introducing nuclear power for the first time, but for any State looking to build a new nuclear power plant. The purpose of the siting activities goes beyond choosing a suitable site and acquiring a licence. A large part of the project is about producing and maintaining a validated

  5. Nuclear power plant siting: Hydrogeologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide gives guidelines and methods for determining the ground water concentration of radionuclides that could result from postulated releases from nuclear power plants. The Guide gives recommendations on the data to be collected and the investigations to be performed at various stages of nuclear power plant siting in relation to the various aspects of the movement of accidentally released radioactive material through the ground water, the selection of an appropriate mathematical or physical model for the hydrodynamic dispersion even two-phase distribution of the radioactive material and an appropriate monitoring programme

  6. Global positioning site environment evaluator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffler, S.; Reeser, H.G.; Zaker, E.; Hansen, W.; Sikorski, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Development of an innovative, integrated, automated system (Global Positioning Site Environment Evaluator - GPSEETM) for surveying contaminated waste sites is described. This system makes novel use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation for establishing specific locations and current times for surveying radioactive, hazardous, or mixed-waste sites. GPSEE may also be used for waste site contamination surveys after remediation activities to ensure environmental remediation is complete. A base station is established for collecting and recording data and directing field operations for field stations which may be located many miles from the base station. The field operators collect site surveying and contamination data utilizing a variety of chemical and radiological sensors. A major goal for the data collection process is to collect all data utilizing in situ sensors, thereby minimizing the need for collecting soil and water samples. Site contamination data is transmitted electronically to the base station for recording and processing. The GPSEE system is being developed for use at DOE/DOD and a variety of industrial facilities. 3 figs

  7. A Critical Evaluation of Waste Incineration Plants in Wuhan (China) Based on Site Selection, Environmental Influence, Public Health and Public Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Li, Xiang; Nguyen, Anh Dung; Kavan, Philip

    2015-07-08

    With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national key city in central China, in terms of environmental impact, site selection, public health and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration of the local residents' health and environment. A location analysis is also applied and some influences of waste incineration plants are illustrated. This study further introduces a signaling game model to prove that public participation is a necessary condition for improving the environmental impact assessment and increasing total welfare of different interest groups in China. This study finally offers some corresponding recommendations for improving the environmental impact assessments of waste incineration projects.

  8. A Critical Evaluation of Waste Incineration Plants in Wuhan (China Based on Site Selection, Environmental Influence, Public Health and Public Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national key city in central China, in terms of environmental impact, site selection, public health and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration of the local residents’ health and environment. A location analysis is also applied and some influences of waste incineration plants are illustrated. This study further introduces a signaling game model to prove that public participation is a necessary condition for improving the environmental impact assessment and increasing total welfare of different interest groups in China. This study finally offers some corresponding recommendations for improving the environmental impact assessments of waste incineration projects.

  9. Optimal Procedure for siting of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziuddin, Khairiah Binti; Park, Seo Yeon; Roh, Myung Sub

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses on a simulation approach for sensitivity analysis of the weights of multi-criteria decision models. The simulation procedures can also be used to aid the actual decision process, particularly when the task is to select a subset of superior alternatives. This study is to identify the criteria or parameters which are sensitive to the weighting factor that can affect the results in the decision making process to determine the optimal site for nuclear power plant (NPP) site. To perform this study, we adhere to IAEA NS-R-3 and DS 433. The siting process for nuclear installation consists of site survey and site selection stages. The siting process generally consists of an investigation of a large region to select one or more candidate sites by surveying the sites. After comparing the ROI, two candidate sites are compared for final determination, which are Wolsong and Kori site. Some assumptions are taken into consideration due to limitations and constraints throughout performing this study. Sensitivity analysis of multi criteria decision models is performed in this study to determine the optimal site in the site selection stage. Logical Decisions software will be employed as a tool to perform this analysis. Logical Decisions software helps to formulate the preferences and then rank the alternatives. It provides clarification of the rankings and hence aids the decision makers on evaluating the alternatives, and finally draw a conclusion on the selection of the optimal site

  10. Optimal Procedure for siting of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziuddin, Khairiah Binti; Park, Seo Yeon; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This study discusses on a simulation approach for sensitivity analysis of the weights of multi-criteria decision models. The simulation procedures can also be used to aid the actual decision process, particularly when the task is to select a subset of superior alternatives. This study is to identify the criteria or parameters which are sensitive to the weighting factor that can affect the results in the decision making process to determine the optimal site for nuclear power plant (NPP) site. To perform this study, we adhere to IAEA NS-R-3 and DS 433. The siting process for nuclear installation consists of site survey and site selection stages. The siting process generally consists of an investigation of a large region to select one or more candidate sites by surveying the sites. After comparing the ROI, two candidate sites are compared for final determination, which are Wolsong and Kori site. Some assumptions are taken into consideration due to limitations and constraints throughout performing this study. Sensitivity analysis of multi criteria decision models is performed in this study to determine the optimal site in the site selection stage. Logical Decisions software will be employed as a tool to perform this analysis. Logical Decisions software helps to formulate the preferences and then rank the alternatives. It provides clarification of the rankings and hence aids the decision makers on evaluating the alternatives, and finally draw a conclusion on the selection of the optimal site.

  11. Review of underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A review of the potential for the underground siting of nuclear power generating plants has been undertaken. The review comprised a survey and assessment of relevant published documents currently available, together with discussions with Government sponsored agencies and other bodies, to evaluate the current status of technology related to the design and construction of underground nuclear power plants. It includes a review of previous work related to the underground siting of power plants and other facilities; a preliminary evaluation of the relative merits of the various concepts of undergrounding which have been proposed or constructed; a review of current technology as it relates to the requirements for the design, construction and operation of underground nuclear power plants; an examination of the safety and environmental aspects; and the identification of areas of further study which will be required if the underground is to be established as a fully viable alternative to surface siting. No attempt has been made to draw final conclusions at this stage. Nothing has been found to suggest that the underground siting concept could not provide a viable alternative to the surface concept. It is also apparent that no major technological developments are required. It is not clear, however, whether the improvements in safety and containment postulated for the underground can be realized at an economic cost; or even whether any additional cost is in fact involved. The problem is essentially site dependent and requires further study for which recommendations are made. (auth)

  12. Climatology of the Savannah River Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    This document is intended as a reference for those involved in environmental research, and preparing environmental and safety analysis reports about aspects of operations of production and support facilities at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The information in this document is drawn from appropriate references and from the extensive meteorological data base collected on SRP. This document contains information on the climatological characteristics of the SRP site, as well as information on relative concentrations and deposition for specific radionuclides

  13. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Issues at manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzie, C.A.; Unites, D.F.; Nakles, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas, manufactured from coal or oil was used to light and heat homes, industries, and streets of this country from the mid-1800s to the late 1940s or early 1950s. The era, with its associated gas lights, faded with the development of natural gas supplies and direct use of other fossil fuels. Today, Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites are part of our history. Most of the MGPs were operated at a time when the state of the environmental sciences was much less sophisticated and the environmental regulations were much less stringent or nonexistent. While there was an awareness of potential environmental problems then the concerns were more qualitative (e.g., odor, color) and resulted in minimal treatment of process residuals. Inasmuch as there may be over a thousand MGP sites in the United States, it also became clear that utility research institutes such as the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) should address key research and management issues related to site investigation, risk assessment, and site remediation. Information gained from these research initiatives would serve the industry as a whole, as well as other groups involved in the assessment of MGP sites. This paper provides and overview of these programs and identifies how additional information can be obtained

  15. Dose assessments in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This document is mainly intended to provide information on dose estimations and assessments for the purpose of nuclear power plant (NPP) siting. It is not aimed at giving radiation protection guidance, criteria or procedures to be applied during the process of NPP siting nor even to provide recommendations on this subject matter. The document may however be of help for implementing some of the Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) documents on siting. The document was prepared before April 26, 1986, when a severe accident at the Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP in the USSR had occurred. It should be emphasized that this document does not bridge the gap which exists in the NUSS programme as far as radiation protection guidance for the specific case of siting of NPP is concerned. The Agency will continue to work on this subject with the aim to prepare a safety series document on radiation protection requirements for NPP siting. This document could serve as a working document for this purpose. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. ESPSD, Nuclear Power Plant Siting Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slezak, S.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: This database is a repository of comprehensive licensing and technical reviews of siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) nuclear power plants. The program is designed to be used by applicants for an early site permit or combined construction permit/operating license (10CFRR522), Sub-parts A and C) as input for the development of the application. The database is a complete, menu-driven, self-contained package that can search and sort the supplied data by topic, keyword, or other input. The software is designed for operation on IBM compatible computers with DOS. 2 - Method of solution: The database is an R:BASE Runtime program with all the necessary database files included

  17. American National Standard: guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters at nuclear power sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This standard presents guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters for nuclear power sites. Aspects considered include geology, ground water, foundation engineering, and earthwork engineering. These guidelines identify the basic geotechnical parameters to be considered in site evaluation, and in the design, construction, and performance of foundations and earthwork aspects for nuclear power plants. Also included are tabulations of typical field and laboratory investigative methods useful in identifying geotechnical parameters. Those areas where interrelationships with other standards may exist are indicated

  18. In situ determination of the dynamic properties of thinly-layered rock to evaluate rock-structure interaction at a nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, William J.; Rizzo, Paul C.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of layers of weak sedimentary rock in a column of otherwise competent rock can significantly affect the seismic response of nuclear power plant structures due to rock-structure interaction effects. The determination of the dynamic properties of thinly-layered rock is, however, difficult. When borings are placed close enough to allow for a characterization of refracted waves, other potential problems such as the identification of clear P- and S-wave arrivals, extremely short duration of records, near-field waves, instrumental stability, and overall record resolution become magnified. Other problems such as cultural noise and signal amplitude can become critical when high resolution is required. Conventional storage oscilloscopes and seismographs are inadequate under these conditions, but modern digital recording systems with the application of stringent calibration and recording procedures can yield successful results. A case history of a high-precision cross-hole survey to a depth of 150 meters in thinly-bedded sedimentary rock at a nuclear power plant site is presented in order to illustrate the systems and procedures necessary to obtain successful results under adverse conditions. (author)

  19. Study on Quaternary ground siting of nuclear power plant, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokusho, Takaji; Nishi, Koichi; Honsho, Shizumitsu

    1991-01-01

    A seismic stability evaluation method for a nuclear power plant to be located on a Quaternary sandy/gravelly ground is discussed herein in terms of the geological and geotechnical survey, design earthquake motion evaluation and geotechnical seismic stability analyses. The geological and geotechnical exploration tunnel in the rock-foundation siting will be difficult in the Quaternary ground siting. Boring, geophysical surveys and soil samplings will play a major role in this case. The design earthquake input spectrum for this siting is proposed so as to take account the significant effect of longer period motion on the ground stability. Equivalent and non-linear analyses demonstrate the seismic stability of the foundation ground so long as the soil density is high. (author)

  20. Quaternary ground siting technology of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, K.; Kokusho, T.; Iwatate, Y.; Ishida, K.; Honsho, S.; Okamoto, T.; Tohma, J.; Tanaka, Y.; Kanatani, M.

    1992-01-01

    A seismic stability evaluation method for a nuclear power plant to be located on Quaternary sandy/gravelly ground is discussed herein in terms of a geological and geotechnical survey, a design earthquake motion evaluation and geotechnical seismic stability analyses. The geological and geotechnical exploration tunnel in the rock foundation siting will be difficult in the Quaternary ground siting. Boring, geophysical surveys and soil sampling will play a major role in this case. A design earthquake input spectrum for this siting is proposed to take in account the significant effect of longer period motion on ground stability. Equivalent and non-linear analyses demonstrate the seismic stability of the foundation ground so long as the soil density is high. (author)

  1. Hydrosphere monitoring at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousova, A.P.; Zakharova, T.V.; Shvets, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with problems related to protection of the environment in areas occupied by nuclear power plants (NPP). NPP construction and operation result in destruction of ecological, geochemical and geological equilibria in and around NPP sites. This process requires monitoring. Recommendations of the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAAE) suggest monitoring to commence 2-3 years prior to the start of NPP construction. The paper describes the extent of hydrosphere monitoring and guidelines along which monitoring is to be organized. The authors recommend a certain approach toward the planning observation networks and provide description of forecasting subsystem that consist of a data bank, a continuously operating model (COM) and a forecast unit

  2. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  3. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  4. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs

  5. Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Site confirmation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    With few reservations, the Baskett, Kentucky site exhibits the necessary characteristics to suggest compatibility with the proposed Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant Project. An evaluation of a broad range of technical disciplinary criteria in consideration of presently available information indicated generally favorable conditions or, at least, conditions which could be feasibly accommodated in project design. The proximity of the Baskett site to market areas and sources of raw materials as well as a variety of transportation facilities suggests an overall favorable impact on Project economic feasibility. Two aspects of environmental engineering, however, have been identified as areas where the completion or continuation of current studies are required before removing all conditions on site suitability. The first aspect involves the current contradictory status of existing land use and planning ordinances in the site area. Additional investigation of the legality of, and local attitudes toward, these present plans is warranted. Secondly, terrestrial and aquatic surveys of plant and animal life species in the site area must be completed on a seasonal basis to confirm the preliminary conclusion that no exclusionary conditions exist.

  6. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil

  7. Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, W.S.; Carmichael, J.K.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

  8. Code on the safety of nuclear power plants: Siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Code provides criteria and procedures that are recommended for safety in nuclear power plant siting. It forms part of the Agency's programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to land based stationary thermal neutron power plants

  9. Site selection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehjchkholz, D.

    1980-01-01

    Problem of NPP site selection in the USA including engineering factors, radiation and environmental protection factors is stated in detail. Floating and underground sites are considered especially. The attention in paid to waste storage and risk criterium in siting [ru

  10. Site evaluation using measured meteorology data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. E.; Rusche, B. C. [Savannah River Lab., E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, South Carolina (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A key factor in reactor site evaluation is the frequency of occurrence of various dispersion conditions and this relationship to potential off-site doses following a reactor accident. Detailed measurements of the wind speed, wind direction, and temperature at heights up to 1200 ft at the Savannah River Plant form the basis for a comprehensive analysis of the frequency of occurrence of potential off-site doses. A complete set of data was taken about every five minutes, and 107,000 sets (about one year of data) were analyzed. The meteorology data were converted to ordinary dispersion parameters through correlating equations developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results were expressed on curves in dose per unit release of activity vs distance from the reactor with probability of occurrence as a parameter. Separate sets of curves were calculated for releases of noble gas and of halogens and at release heights of 200 ft (a nominal stack height) and of 850 ft (about the height of the tallest power plant stacks). Additional curves were developed to show dose as a function of direction and probability of occurrence. In addition to the dose frequency distribution analyses performed as a function of height of release, direction, and distance; more conventional frequency distributions of wind speed, wind direction, and thermal stability were developed as a function of height. All the analyses were carried out on the IBM 360/65. These results represent the first known analysis utilizing data up to 1200 ft and taken often enough to develop reliable frequency distributions for a short term release. (author)

  11. Borehole geophysics in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, J.W.; Scott, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Miniaturized borehole geophysical equipment designed for use in ground-water investigations can be adapted to investigations of nuclear power plant sites. This equipment has proved to be of value in preliminary and comprehensive studies of interior basins where thick sequences of Quaternary clastic sediment, occasionally with associated volcanic rocks, pose problems of stratigraphic correlation. The unconsolidated nature of the deposits generally requires that exploratory holes be cased, which ordinarily restricts the borehole geophysical studies to the radiation functions--natural gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron-gamma, and neutron-epithermal neutron logs. Although a single log response may be dominant in a given area, correlations derive from consideration of all log responses as a composite group. Because major correlations usually are based upon subtle differences in the physical properties of the penetrated sediment, high-resolution logging procedures are employed with some sacrifice of the quantitative perameters important to petroleum technology. All geophysical field data are recorded as hard copy and as digital information on punched paper tape

  12. Borehole geophysics in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, J.W.; Scott, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Miniaturized borehole geophysical equipment designed for use in ground-water investigations can be adapted to investigations of nuclear power plant sites. This equipment has proved to be of value in preliminary and comprehensive studies of interior basins where thick sequences of Quaternary clastic sediment, occasionally with associated volcanic rocks, pose problems of stratigraphic correlation. The unconsolidated nature of the deposits generally requires that exploratory holes be cased, which ordinarily restricts the borehole geophysical studies to the radiation functions--natural gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron-gamma, and neutron-epithermal neutron logs. Although a single log response may be dominant in a given area, correlations derive from consideration of all log responses as a composite group. Because major correlations usually are based upon subtle differences in the physical properties of the penetrated sediment, high-resolution logging procedures are employed with some sacrifice of the quantitative parameters important to petroleum technology. All geophysical field data are recorded as hard copy and as digital information on punched paper tape. Digital data are subsequently computer processed and plotted to scales that enhance the stratigraphic data being correlated. Retention of the data in analog format permits rapid review, whereas computer plotting allows playback and detailed examination of log sections and sequences that may be attenuated on hard copy because of the logarithmic nature of the response to the physical property being examined

  13. Plant Monroe Sulfurmeter evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, J.D.; Wood, T.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of an apparatus for measuring continuously the sulfur content of coal entering a 3000-MW electric generating power station is described. The apparatus, known as a Sulfurmeter, interrogates a sidestream of coal in a nondestructive fashion using prompt neutron activation analysis (PNAA). Preceding the Sulfurmeter is a coal-handling facility that blends a 1% S coal with a 3% S coal. The Sulfurmeter is used to evaluate the blend, which must meet an emission standard of 3.68 lb of SO 2 /10 6 Btu when fired. Sulfur measurements by the PNAA apparatus were compared with those from traditional ASTM chemistry - satisfactory agreement was obtained

  14. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  15. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date

  16. Environmental assessment, Pinellas Plant site, Petersburg, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment is to describe the operations at the Pinellas Plant, discuss the locale in which the plant is situated and assess the actual and possible impacts of plant operation on the surrounding environment. The facility and the local environment are described; impacts on the economy, local community and the environment discussed, and alternatives presented. A comparison of the environmental impact of operating the Pinellas Plant versus the benefits gained by its operation suggests that the plant should continue its function of supplying nuclear weapons components for the US Department of Energy

  17. Siting and early-stage project management of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Li Guojin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, difficulties and challenges facing in siting of nuclear power plant after Fukushima nuclear accident is introduced. The key points for siting are analyzed. The site characteristics related to nuclear safety and the evaluated methods are discussed. From project management perspective, main procedures and key points for the early-stage of a nuclear power project are described. (authors)

  18. Plant operator performance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Mitsuko; Kubota, Ryuji.

    1989-01-01

    A plant operator performance evaluation system to analyze plant operation records during accident training and to identify and classify operator errors has been developed for the purpose of supporting realization of a training and education system for plant operators. A knowledge engineering technique was applied to evaluation of operator behavior by both even-based and symptom-based procedures, in various situations including event transition due to multiple failures or operational errors. The system classifies the identified errors as to their single and double types based on Swain's error classification and the error levels reflecting Rasmussen's cognitive level, and it also evaluates the effect of errors on plant state and then classifies error influence, using 'knowledge for phenomena and operations', as represented by frames. It has additional functions for analysis of error statistics and knowledge acquisition support of 'knowledge for operations'. The system was applied to a training analysis for a scram event in a BWR plant, and its error analysis function was confirmed to be effective by operational experts. (author)

  19. Part 2: Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual presents specific ways to enable developers, engineers or landscape architects to incorporate more trees into a development site. The proposed approach focuses on protecting existing trees, planting trees in storm water treatment practices, and planting trees in other open spaces at the development site. This manual introduces conceptual designs for storm...

  20. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    With this report, the SSC Site Task Force forwards to the Director, Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE), its evaluation of the technical criteria and life-cycle costs for the proposed SSC sites judged to be the best qualified. The criteria against which each site was evaluated are those set forth in the Invitation for Site Proposals for the Superconducting Super Collider (DOE/ER-0315) (Invitation) which was prepared by the Task Force and issued in April 1987. The methodology followed by the Task Force in this report and in all other phases of the proposal evaluation has been consistent with the SSC site selection process approved by DOE's Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB). The goal of the site selection process is to identify a site that will permit the highest level of research productivity and overall effectiveness of the SSC at a reasonable cost of construction and operation and with minimial impact on the environment. The Task Force acknowledges that all seven sites are, indeed, highly qualified locations for the construction and operation of the SSC on the basis of technical and cost considerations. In performing its evaluation, which is presented in this paper, the Task Force took an in-depth look at each site on the basis of site visits and extensive technical analyses. A consensus rating for each technical evaluation criterion and subcriterion was developed for each site

  1. Sites and social assessment of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1977-09-01

    The sites of nuclear power plants in Japan have two features, first the extreme expectation for regional development because of the selection of depopulated districts for most locations, and the second, apprehensions of local people for two reasons of nuclear power generating techniques which do not plant the roots in society and handling of radioactive materials. In order to cope with these problems, it is necessary to consider that the development plan of the regions around reactor sites must be compiled systematically. Its premise is the ''social assessment'' which estimates the economical and social influences and evaluates the merit and demerit of nuclear power plants prior to the construction. This is of course inevitable. The objects of the assessment may be divided as follows: the human effect to individuals, the institutional effect to local community, the economical effect to region, and the national influence to the whole country. While the developmental action of locations includes the stages of examination, planning, construction and operation, and three location patterns are recognized according to the emphasized function, the improvement of national economy, upgrading of environmental quality, and the most priority in local welfare. In the process of the assessment, the following items may be taken notice that each item requires sometimes the weighting; the pattern to abandon location may exist; positive and negative effects are required to be distributed evenly in a triangle having the apexes each representing one of the above three patterns.

  2. Procedure for cogeneration plant evaluation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollettini, U.; Savelli, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a step-by-step approach to the evaluation of cogeneration plants for on-site power generation. The aim is to allow prospective cogeneration plant owners to build energy/cost efficient plants and to be able to make a proper assessment of eligible financial assistance which may be obtained through the provisions of energy conservation normatives and laws set up by the Italian National Energy Plan. The approach has three principal phases - the verification of the availability of the required human resources able to perform the plant evaluation (engineering, legal and business consultants), an energy/viability audit of any existing energy plant considered for retrofitting and, finally, the identification of the best technical/economic cogeneration alternative. The programmed set of evaluation tasks includes the determination of optimal contracts with ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board), especially for the case of excess power to be ceded to the national grid, and the making of comparisons with reference cogeneration systems whose relative design/cost data are stored in existing computerized data bases

  3. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The Rocky Rats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1992. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population.

  4. The problem of nuclear power plants site survey and selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, T.H.; Hung, H.V.; Bui Quoc Thang

    1986-01-01

    The article presents the main steps of nuclear power plants siting, including the requirements from a nuclear power station onto the site, and the analysis of potential effects of a nuclear power station to the environment. Attentions are called upon the analysis of important factors such as electric transmission losses, cooling water supply, site accessibility, local infrastructure, risks due to man made and natural sources of aggression to the nuclear power plants, population, distribution, hydrological and atmospheric dispersion conditions

  5. Site response calculations for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, L.H.

    1975-01-01

    Six typical sites consisting of three soil profiles with average shear wave velocities of 800, 1800, and 5000 ft/sec as well as two soil depths of 200 and 400 ft were considered. Seismic input to these sites was a synthetic accelerogram applied at the surface and corresponding to a statistically representative response spectrum. The response of each of these six sites to this input was calculated with the SHAKE program. The results of these calculations are presented

  6. Design basis flood for nuclear power plants on river sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Guide presents techniques for determining the design basis flood (DBF) to be used for siting nuclear power plants at or near non-tidal reaches of rivers and for protecting nuclear power plants against floods. Since flooding of a nuclear power plant can have repercussions on safety, the DBF is always chosen to have a very low probability of exceedance per annum. The DBF may result from one or more of the following causes: (1) Precipitation, snowmelt; (2) Failure of water control structures, either from seismic or hydrological causes or from faulty operation of these structures; (3) Channel obstruction such as landslide, ice effects, log or debris jams, and effects of vulcanism. Normally the DBF is not less than any recorded or historical flood occurrence. For flood evaluation two types of methods are discussed in this Guide: probabilistic and deterministic. Simple probabilistic methods to determine floods of such low exceedance probability have a great degree of uncertainty and are presented for use only during the site survey. However, the more sophisticated probabilistic methods, the so-called stochastic methods, may give an acceptable result, as outlined in this Guide. The preferred method of evaluating the component of the DBF due to precipitation, as described in this Guide, is the deterministic one, based on the concept of a limit to the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and on the unit hydrograph technique. Dam failures may generate a flood substantially more severe than that due to precipitation. The methodology for evaluating these types of floods is therefore presented in this Guide. Making allowance for the possible simultaneous occurrence of two or more important flood-producing events is also discussed here. The Guide does not deal with floods caused by sabotage

  7. Site and feasibility studies of a first nuclear power plant in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, M.

    1988-11-01

    Basing on the estimated studies related to the evaluation of future needs of electrical energy, the launching of a nuclear power program in Morocco is confirmed necessary. A complete study of sites and feasibility has been carried out. Taking into account the site selection factors two sites: BIR ELHAR and SIDI BOULBRA have been kept as candidate sites. The evaluation of seismic and geotechnical risks of the power plant impact on the environment and risks related to human activities has led to privilege the SIDI BOULBRA site. The studies for confirming this site are summarized. 4 figs. (F.M.)

  8. Secondary plant succession on disturbed sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented

  9. Secondary plant succession on disturbed sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented.

  10. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry's initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants

  11. Solvent extraction for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthy, R.G.; Dzombak, D.A.; Peters, C.; Ali, M.A.; Roy, S.B.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents the results of an initial assessment of the feasibility of solvent extraction for removing coal tar from the subsurface or for treating contaminated soil excavated at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. In situ solvent extraction would involve injection, recovery, and reclamation for reinjection of an environmentally-benign, water-miscible solvent. Accelerated dissolution and removal of coaltar from the subsurface might be desirable as a remedial approach if excavation is not practical (e.g., the site underlies facilities in current use), direct pumping of coal tar is ineffective, and bioremediation is not feasible because of the presence of high concentrations of coal tar. Both laboratory experiments and engineering evaluations were performed to provide a basis for the initial feasibility assessment. Laboratory work included identification and evaluation of promising solvents, measurement of fundamental properties of coal tar-solvent-water systems, and measurement of rates of dissolution of coal tar in porous media into flowing solvent-water solutions. Engineering evaluations involved identification of common hydrogeologic features and contaminant distributions at MGP sites, and identification and evaluation of possible injection-recovery well deployment schemes. A coupled flow-chemistry model was developed for simulation of the in situ process and evaluation of the well deployment schemes. Results indicate that in situsolvent extraction may be able to recover a significant amount of coal tar from the subsurface within a reasonable time frame (on the order of one year or so) provided that subsurface conditions are conducive to process implementation. Some important implementation issues remain to be addressed

  12. Climatology of the Savannah River Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.D.

    1984-06-01

    This document contains information on the climatological characteristics of the SRP site, as well as information on relative concentrations and deposition for specific radionuclides. 42 references, 42 figures, 45 tables

  13. Summary of wind data from nuclear power plant sites. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verholek, M. G.

    1977-03-01

    A summary of wind data from nuclear power plant sites is presented. National Weather Service archives are an immediately obvious source of wind data, but additional data sources are also available. Utility companies proposing to build nuclear power plants are required to establish on-site meteorological monitoring programs that include towers for collecting wind and temperature data for use in environmental impact assessments. These data are available for more than one hundred planned or operating nuclear power plant sites. A list of the sites, by state, is provided in Appendix A, while Appendix B contains an alphabetical list of the sites. This site wind data provides a valuable addition to the existing NWS data sets, and significantly enlarges the multilevel data presently available. The wind data published through the NRC is assembled and assessed here in order to provide a supplement to existing data sets.

  14. Construction plant requirements for nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.; Harris, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and developing the temporary construction plant facilities for a nuclear project is equivalent to providing utility services for a small city. Provision of adequate facilities is an important factor in the productivity of both the manual and non-manual work force. This paper summarizes construction facility requirements for a two unit (1300 MWe each) nuclear project. Civil, mechanical and electrical facilities are described, including design, installation and operation. Assignment of responsibility for specific work tasks regarding the construction plant is also discussed. In presenting this data, the authors seek to transfer experience and assist in the provision of adequate facilities on future projects

  15. Nuclear Power Plant project site selection geotechnical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, V.J.; Banerjee, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    During the selection of a site for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and Radioactive Waste Plant (RWP), geotechnical investigations play a significant role in deciding merits and demerits of the sites. Any accidents in these units can play havoc on mankind and may leave bitter imprints on generations to come. Hence proper care has to be taken at the early stage for selecting the sites. Site selection procedure is a complicated one, because it involves experts from various disciplines like geology, geophysics, civil, mechanical electrical engineering, health-physics and other fields

  16. In-situ solidification cleans up old gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, A.D.; Dennis, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    A manufactured gas plant site in Columbus, Georgia, was the location of an environmental cleanup in 1992. Manufactured gas was produced at this site from 1854 to 1931 with the availability of natural gas from a transmission pipeline causing its demise. However, waste products, primarily coal tar from the earlier years of plant operation, remained with the site. In-situ solidification was chosen as the cleanup method. Post monitoring activities show that the project was successful and the site is now a park and a leading part of river front development

  17. A survey of the underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.

    1979-12-01

    The idea of locating nuclear power plants underground is not new, since in the period of time between the late fifties and the early sixties, four small nuclear plants have been built in Europe in rock cavities. Safety has been, in general, the main motivation for such a siting solution. In the last years several factors such as increasing power transmission costs, decreasing number of suitable sites above ground, increased difficulties in obtaining site approval by the licensing authorities, increasing opposition to nuclear power, increasing concern for extreme - but highly improbable - accidents, together with the possibility of utilizing the waste heat and the urban siting concept have renewed the interest for the underground siting as an alternative to surface siting. The author presents a survey of the main studies carried out on the subject of underground siting. (Auth.)

  18. Regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNunno, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    The selection and evaluation of sites for power plants in the United States of America have become increasingly difficult in recent years as pressures from various societal segments have resulted in governmental restraints on selection and burning of fossil fuels, methods of heat dissipation, acquisition of transmission rights of way, and on environmental impact of industrialization in general. New legislation at both Federal and state levels has been enacted that influences power plant siting. In addition to environmental requirements that must be satisfied, implementing procedures require documented justification for sites chosen and public disclosure of the basis for selection. Some states have consolidated their regulatory activities in the power plant siting area to provide for a more unified approach to these problems. Although nuclear plants have by far the most rigorous requirements for documentation of site selection and plant design, the application of the same general philosophies to fossil plants has been made in several states and can be anticipated elsewhere. Individual site-related investigations have not so much changed in basics as they have been enlarged in scope. Whereas in the past the search for siting alternatives was frequently confined to a utility's service area, the additional siting constraints represented in environmental laws, the economies of size of nuclear power plants, and the sharing of plant capacities among utilities have contributed to a widening of the search area. Several states have assumed the responsibility for site search and investigation and their efforts extend state-wide. This paper discusses applications of regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America using case studies made by NUS Corporation, an engineering/environmental consulting firm. The universality of these approaches is indicated, leaving to national policies and goals the importance of values assigned to the basic siting factors

  19. Assessment parameters for coal-fired generation plant site selection

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Ahmad Rosly; Low, K. S.; Ahmad, Ir. Mohd Noh; Chan, J. H.; Sasekumar, A.; Abdul Ghaffar, Fauza; Osman Salleh, Khairulmaini; Raj, John K.; Abdul Yamin, Saad; Wan Aida, Wan Zahari; Phua, Y. T.; Phua, Y. N.; Wong, Y. Y.; Jamaludin, Ir. Mashitah; Jaafar, Shaari

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet future demand for electricity, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is committedto the long-term strategic planning in locating suitable sites for future development of power stations.Site selection is an important process in the early planning stage of any power plant development asit will have significant implications on the capital investment, operational as well as the environmentand socio-economic costs of the power plant.The aim of this presentation is to briefly describe the t...

  20. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear safety standards publications address the site evaluation and the design of new nuclear power plants (NPPs), including seismic hazard assessment and safe seismic design, at the level of the Safety Requirements as well as at the level of dedicated Safety Guides. It rapidly became apparent that the existing nuclear safety standards documents were not adequate for handling specific issues in the seismic evaluation of existing NPPs, and that a dedicated document was necessary. This is the purpose of this Safety Report, which is written in the spirit of the nuclear safety standards and can be regarded as guidance for the interpretation of their intent. Worldwide experience shows that an assessment of the seismic capacity of an existing operating facility can be prompted for the following: (a) Evidence of a greater seismic hazard at the site than expected before, owing to new or additional data and/or to new methods; (b) Regulatory requirements, such as periodic safety reviews, to ensure that the plant has adequate margins for seismic loads; (c) Lack of anti-seismic design or poor anti-seismic design; (d) New technical finding such as vulnerability of some structures (masonry walls) or equipment (relays), other feedback and new experience from real earthquakes. Post-construction evaluation programmes evaluate the current capability of the plant to withstand the seismic concern and identify any necessary upgrades or changes in operating procedures. Seismic qualification is distinguished from seismic evaluation primarily in that seismic qualification is intended to be performed at the design stage of a plant, whereas seismic evaluation is intended to be applied after a plant has been constructed. Although some guidelines do exist for the evaluation of existing NPPs, these are not established at the level of a regulatory guide or its equivalent. Nevertheless, a number of existing NPPs throughout the world have been and are being subjected to review of their

  1. Reassessment of selected factors affecting siting of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.; Mubayi, V.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1997-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has performed a series of probabilistic consequence assessment calculations for nuclear reactor siting. This study takes into account recent insights into severe accident source terms and examines consequences in a risk based format consistent with the quantitative health objectives (QHOs) of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy. Simplified severe accident source terms developed in this study are based on the risk insights of NUREG-1150. The results of the study indicate that both the quantity of radioactivity released in a severe accident as well as the likelihood of a release are lower than those predicted in earlier studies. The accident risks using the simplified source terms are examined at a series of generic plant sites, that vary in population distribution, meteorological conditions, and exclusion area boundary distances. Sensitivity calculations are performed to evaluate the effects of emergency protective action assumptions on the risk of prompt fatality and latent cancers fatality, and population relocation. The study finds that based on the new source terms the prompt and latent fatality risks at all generic sites meet the QHOs of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy by margins ranging from one to more than three orders of magnitude. 4 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Site selection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnappauf, W.

    1982-01-01

    A stock report of the development of the extent as well as the fundamentals of the conflict about nuclear energy shows that the effective law is both another cause and a mirror of the discussions about it. In total the investigation shows that the planning of site selection suffers from a number of legal problems. They are mainly of structural kind and are concerned with the issues of citizens' participation and graduation of procedures which are central for the management of the conflict. Therefore the present set of instruments is hardly able to contribute to increasing the acceptancy. The kind and extent of issues on one hand as well as the dimension of the conflict on the other make clear that the executive power itself is overtaxed. In this situation the legislative authorities are called up to take responsibility upon themselves. There are no objections from the constitutional or other aspects to legal site selection. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Rats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant's environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1992. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population

  4. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report.

  5. Quality assurance in siting of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This guide describes the requirements of quality assurance programme (QAP) that need to be implemented at the siting stage, by the organisation having overall responsibility for the nuclear power plant. The scope of the guide covers the quality assurance aspects related to management, performance and assessment activities during siting stage of NPPs

  6. Regional siting survey for thermal power plants in the state of Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkins, M.L.; DiNunno, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    The selection and evaluation of sites for power plants have become increasingly difficult in recent years as pressures from various societal segments have resulted in government restraints on selection and burning of fossil fuels, on methods of heat dissipation, on acquisition of transmission line rights-of-way, and on environmental impact in general. The key elements in successful application of power plant siting technology are the development of the proper balance among the basic siting considerations and the understanding that level of detail in a study varies in an inverse relationship with the siting area under examination. As the first step in the process of selection and eventual licensing of new thermal power plant sites for a utility in the State of Ohio, the entire state was screened to determine promising candidate regions large enough to offer several possible candidate sites for thermal power plants. Because of the size of the area under consideration and the advantages of developing sites with an ultimate capacity for more than one power plant, sites with an installed capacity of 1100 to 4400 MW(e) were considered for this study. As a result of the preliminary screening conducted in four distinct steps, three candidate regions showed the best overall promise for either nuclear or fossil-fueled power plant development. Tentative identification was made of candidate sites within these candidate regions, and follow-on studies conducted in an increasing level of detail are presently in progress to determine the candidate site(s) most promising for power plant siting. (U.S.)

  7. Geological and geotechnical investigations for nuclear power plants sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, P.R.R.

    1984-09-01

    This dissertation presents a general methodology for the tasks of geological and geotechnical investigations, to be performed in the proposed sites for construction of nuclear Power Plants. In this work, items dealing with the standards applied to licensing of Nuclear Power Plants, with the selection process of sites and identification of geological and geotechnical parameters needed for the regional and local characterization of the area being studied, were incorporated. This dissertation also provides an aid to the writing of Technical Reports, which are part of the documentation an owner of a Nuclear Power Plant needs to submit to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, to fulfill the nuclear installation licensing requirements. Moreover, this work can contribute to the planning of field and laboratory studies, needed to determine the parameters of the area under investigation, for the siting of Nuclear Power Plants. (Author) [pt

  8. On-site tests on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Favennec, J.M.; Neau, P.; Preudhomme, E.

    1996-01-01

    On-site tests and experiments are performed by EDF Research and Development Division on the nuclear power plants to assess the behaviour of major components submitted to thermal and vibratory solicitations. On-going studies deal with the qualification of new nuclear power plant standard and with the feedback of plants under operation. The tests, particularly the investigation tests, correspond to large investments and entail an important data volume which must ensure the continuity over a long period of the order of magnitude of the in-service plant life (around 40 years). This paper addresses the on-site experimental activities, describes the means to be used, and gives an example: the qualification of SG of new 1450 MW nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  10. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3

  11. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  12. Pinellas Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Martin Marietta Specialty Components, Inc., and the US Department of Energy are committed to successfully administering a high quality Environmental Management Program at the Pinellas Plant in Pinellas County, Florida. Part of this commitment includes accurately documenting and communicating to the Pinellas Plant stakeholder the results of their environmental compliance and monitoring activities. The Annual Site Environmental Report presents a comprehensive summary of the results of the environmental monitoring, waste management, and environmental restoration programs at the Pinellas Plant for 1993. This report also includes the plant's performance in the areas of compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and standards and identifies major environmental management program initiatives and accomplishments for 1993

  13. Site descriptive modelling - strategy for integrated evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2003-02-01

    The current document establishes the strategy to be used for achieving sufficient integration between disciplines in producing Site Descriptive Models during the Site Investigation stage. The Site Descriptive Model should be a multidisciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using site investigation data from deep bore holes and from the surface as input. The modelling comprise the following iterative steps, evaluation of primary data, descriptive and quantitative modelling (in 3D), overall confidence evaluation. Data are first evaluated within each discipline and then the evaluations are checked between the disciplines. Three-dimensional modelling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space and its uncertainty) is made in a sequence, where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological model and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modelling etc. The three-dimensional description should present the parameters with their spatial variability over a relevant and specified scale, with the uncertainty included in this description. Different alternative descriptions may be required. After the individual discipline modelling and uncertainty assessment a phase of overall confidence evaluation follows. Relevant parts of the different modelling teams assess the suggested uncertainties and evaluate the feedback. These discussions should assess overall confidence by, checking that all relevant data are used, checking that information in past model versions is considered, checking that the different kinds of uncertainty are addressed, checking if suggested alternatives make sense and if there is potential for additional alternatives, and by discussing, if appropriate, how additional measurements (i.e. more data) would affect confidence. The findings as well as the modelling results are to be documented in a Site Description

  14. Design basis flood for nuclear power plants on coastal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Guide discusses the phenomena causing coastal floods (storm surge, seiche, tsunami and wind-wave) and gives a general description of the methods used and the critical factors involved in the evaluation of such floods and of their associated effects. In addition, some treatment is presented of the possible combinations of two or more of these phenomena to produce a DBF. Methods are also provided for evaluating the reference water levels, taking into account the effect of tides, sea level anomalies and changes in lake level and river flow. Sites vulnerable to coastal flooding are located on open coastal regions, semi-enclosed bodies of water and enclosed bodies of water. Open coastal regions are those portions of land directly exposed to and having a shore on a major body of water. Semi-enclosed bodies of water are lagoons, river estuaries, gulfs, fjords and rias. Enclosed bodies of water are lakes and reservoirs. The phenomena of the lowering of the water level at coastal sites caused by offshore winds, low tides, wave effects or of drawdown caused by tsunamis are discussed. The static and dynamic effects of floods resulting from the various combinations (independent and interdependent) of surface waves of varying frequency are also discussed. Consideration is also given to shoreline instabilities and to the effects of erosion. Estimated flood levels and related effects on the nuclear power plant, which will vary according to the method of analysis and the type of flooding considered, shall be compared with available historical data where this is relevant, to check the conservativeness of the evaluated results

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  16. Case study of siting technology for underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Komada, Hiroya; Honsho, Shizumitsu; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Motojima, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Kameichiro; Nosaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Underground siting method is one of new feasible siting methods for nuclear power plants. This report presents the results on case studies on underground siting. Two sites of a steeply inclined and plateau like configurations were selected. 'Tunnel type cavern; all underground siting' method was applied for the steeply inclined configuration, and 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was applied for the plateau like configuration. The following designs were carried out for these two sites as case studies; (1) conceptual designs, (2) geological surveys and rock mechanics tests, (3) stability analysis during cavern excavations, (4) seismic stability analysis of caverns during earthquake, (5) reinforcement designs for caverns, (6) drainage designs. The case studies showed that these two cases were fully feasible, and comparison between two cases revealed that the 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was more suitable for Japanese islands. As a first step of underground siting, therefore, the authors recommend to construct a nuclear power plant by this method. (author)

  17. War protected underground siting of nuclear power plants -a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-06-01

    In connection with studies concerning the need of war protected nuclear power production the technical and economical conditions with war protection of nuclear power plants have been studied within CDL. Comprehensively one have shown that no technical construction obstacles for siting a nuclear power plant underground exist that the additional costs for underground siting with price level mid 1973 are some 175-250 MSwCr (In today's price level 250 MSwCr will probably correspond to some 300 MSwCr per unit) and that the construction time is some one year longer than for an above ground plant. A study ought to examine more closely the consequences of underground siting from a radiological point of view and what demands on that occasion ought to be put on the technical design. (author)

  18. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Test program for closure activities at a mixed waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Harley, J.P. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A 58-acre site at the Savannah River Plant which was used for disposal of low-level radioactive waste and quantities of the hazardous materials lead, cadmium, scintillation fluid, and oil will be the first large waste site at the Savannah River Plant to be permanently closed. The actions leading to closure of the facility will include surface stabilization and capping of the site. Test programs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic compaction as a stabilization technique and the feasibility of using locally derived clay as a capping material

  20. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, C.M. [ed.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program.

  1. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program

  2. Pinellas Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Inc., and the US Department of Energy are committed to successfully administering a high-quality Environmental, Safety and Health Program at the Pinellas Plant in Pinellas County, Florida. Part of this commitment includes accurately documenting and communicating to the Pinellas Plant stakeholders the results of the Pinellas Plant's environmental compliance and monitoring activities. The Annual Site Environmental Report presents a comprehensive summary of the results of the Environmental Monitoring, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration Programs at the Pinellas Plant for 1995. This report also includes the plant's performance in the areas of compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and standards and identifies major Environmental, Safety and Health Program initiatives and accomplishments for 1995. As a result of the end of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs mission (weapons production) on September 30, 1994, considerable changes at the Pinellas Plant are occurring. The Department of Energy's Environmental Management is now the landlord of the Pinellas Plant to facilitate the plant's new mission of transition to alternate use in support of economic development and safe shutdown. The Department of Energy sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council in March 1995, and it is leasing back a portion of the plant through September 1997, to complete the safe shutdown and transition activities

  3. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant's environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report

  4. Safety criteria for siting a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The guide sets forth requirements for safety of the population and the environment in nuclear power plant siting. It also sets out the general basis for procedures employed by other competent authorities when they issue regulations or grant licences. On request STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland) issues case-specific statements about matters relating to planning and about other matters relating to land use in the environment of nuclear power plants

  5. Cooling water in the study of nuclear power plants sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The location of an electric power plant has its limitations as regards the availability of apt sites. The radiosanitary risk, seismic risk and the overload capacity of the ground can be generically enumerated, being the cooling water availability for an electric power plant a basic requirement. Diverse cooling systems may be employed but the aim must always be that thermal contamination in the immediate environment be the least possible. (Author) [es

  6. Site selection for nuclear power plants and geologic seismologia influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Feitosa, G. de.

    1985-01-01

    The site selection for nuclear power plants is analised concerning to the process, methodology and the phases in an overall project efforts. The factors affecting are analised on a general viewpoint, showing the considerations given to every one. The geologic and seismologic factors influence on the foundation design are more detailed analised, with required investigation and procedures accordingly sub-soil conditions in the site [pt

  7. Subcellular site and nature of intracellular cadmium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying heavy metal accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in higher plants are poorly understood. Since subcellular processes are undoubtedly involved in all these phenomena, it is of interest to study the extent, subcellular site and nature of intracellularly accumulated cadmium in higher plants. Whole plants supplied 109 CdCl 2 or 112 CdSO 4 accumulated Cd into roots and aerial tissues. Preparation of protoplasts from aerial tissues followed by subcellular fractionation of the protoplasts to obtain intact vacuoles, chloroplasts and cytosol revealed the presence of Cd in the cytosol but not in vacuoles or chloroplasts. No evidence was obtained for the production of volatile Cd complexes in tobacco

  8. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the geologic and hydrologic conditions and evaluates potential health risks to workers in the natural gas industry in the vicinity of the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site, where the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission detonated an underground nuclear device in 1967. The 29-kiloton detonation took place 4,240 feet below ground surface and was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, on land administered by Carson National Forest. A site-specific conceptual model was developed based on current understanding of the hydrologic and geologic environment. This conceptual model was used for establishing plausible contaminant exposure scenarios, which were then evaluated for human health risk potential. The most mobile and, therefore, the most probable contaminant that could result in human exposure is tritium. Natural gas production wells were identified as having the greatest potential for bringing detonation-derived contaminants (tritium) to the ground surface in the form of tritiated produced water. Three exposure scenarios addressing potential contamination from gas wells were considered in the risk evaluation: a gas well worker during gas-well-drilling operations, a gas well worker performing routine maintenance, and a residential exposure. The residential exposure scenario was evaluated only for comparison; permanent residences on national forest lands at the Gasbuggy site are prohibited

  9. Usability Evaluation of Public Web Mapping Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    Web mapping sites are interactive maps that are accessed via Webpages. With the rapid development of Internet and Geographic Information System (GIS) field, public web mapping sites are not foreign to people. Nowadays, people use these web mapping sites for various reasons, in that increasing maps and related map services of web mapping sites are freely available for end users. Thus, increased users of web mapping sites led to more usability studies. Usability Engineering (UE), for instance, is an approach for analyzing and improving the usability of websites through examining and evaluating an interface. In this research, UE method was employed to explore usability problems of four public web mapping sites, analyze the problems quantitatively and provide guidelines for future design based on the test results. Firstly, the development progress for usability studies were described, and simultaneously several usability evaluation methods such as Usability Engineering (UE), User-Centered Design (UCD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were generally introduced. Then the method and procedure of experiments for the usability test were presented in detail. In this usability evaluation experiment, four public web mapping sites (Google Maps, Bing maps, Mapquest, Yahoo Maps) were chosen as the testing websites. And 42 people, who having different GIS skills (test users or experts), gender (male or female), age and nationality, participated in this test to complete the several test tasks in different teams. The test comprised three parts: a pretest background information questionnaire, several test tasks for quantitative statistics and progress analysis, and a posttest questionnaire. The pretest and posttest questionnaires focused on gaining the verbal explanation of their actions qualitatively. And the design for test tasks targeted at gathering quantitative data for the errors and problems of the websites. Then, the results mainly from the test part were analyzed. The

  10. Evaluation of Visual and Landscape Impacts of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algohary, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear power plant is a huge structure, and in terms of both size and function may result in an unacceptable visual conflict in both local and wider environment. Also, it has major implications in terms of physical, social, economic, environmental and impact on people. The environmental impacts include the visual and landscape aspects of these plants. This paper outlines the main general ideas of the architecture aspects of nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors. Also, it discusses the site selection considerations: Finally, it introduces an approach for the evaluation of visual and landscape impacts of nuclear power plants

  11. Quality assurance during site construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations related to the establishment and implementation of a quality assurance programme for the site construction activities at nuclear power plants. These include activities such as fabricating, erecting, installing, handling, storing, cleaning, flushing, inspecting, testing, modifying, repairing, and maintaining

  12. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  13. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  14. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-01

    The Gasbuggy site is in northern New Mexico in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County (Figure 1-1). The Gasbuggy experiment was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation, a tight, gas-bearing sandstone formation. The 29-kiloton-yield nuclear device was placed in a 17.5-inch wellbore at 4,240 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), approximately 40 ft below the Pictured Cliffs/Lewis shale contact, in an attempt to force the cavity/chimney formed by the detonation up into the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The test was conducted below the southwest quarter of Section 36, Township 29 North, Range 4 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian. The device was detonated on December 10, 1967, creating a 335-ft-high chimney above the detonation point and a cavity 160 ft in diameter. The gas produced from GB-ER (the emplacement and reentry well) during the post-detonation production tests was radioactive and diluted, primarily by carbon dioxide. After 2 years, the energy content of the gas had recovered to 80 percent of the value of gas in conventionally developed wells in the area. There is currently no technology capable of remediating deep underground nuclear detonation cavities and chimneys. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must continue to manage the Gasbuggy site to ensure that no inadvertent intrusion into the residual contamination occurs. DOE has complete control over the 1/4 section (160 acres) containing the shot cavity, and no drilling is permitted on that property. However, oil and gas leases are on the surrounding land. Therefore, the most likely route of intrusion and potential exposure would be through contaminated natural gas or contaminated water migrating into a producing natural gas well outside the immediate vicinity of ground zero. The purpose of this report is to describe the current site conditions and evaluate the potential health risks posed by the most plausible

  15. Evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on how to determine the ground motion hazards for a plant at a particular site and the potential for surface faulting, which could affect the feasibility of construction and safe operation of a plant at that site. The guidelines and procedures presented in this Safety Guide can appropriately be used in evaluations of site suitability and seismic hazards for nuclear power plants in any seismotectonic environment. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis recommended in this Safety Guide also addresses the needs for seismic hazard analysis of external event PSAs conducted for nuclear power plants. Many of the methods and processes described may also be applicable to nuclear facilities other than power plants. Other phenomena of permanent ground displacement (liquefaction, slope instability, subsidence and collapse) as well as the topic of seismically induced flooding are treated in Safety Guides relating to foundation safety and coastal flooding. Recommendations of a general nature are given in Section 2. Section 3 discusses the acquisition of a database containing the information needed to evaluate and address all hazards associated with earthquakes. Section 4 covers the use of this database for construction of a seismotectonic model. Sections 5 and 6 review ground motion hazards and evaluations of the potential for surface faulting, respectively. Section 7 addresses quality assurance in the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants

  16. Standard protocol for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Verma, P.C.; Rao, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The studies on transfer factors are being carried out at various NPP sites under DAE-BRNS projects for evaluation of site specific transfer factors for radionuclides released from power plants. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  17. Main phases of siting for nuclear power plants with review of required investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbasa, N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the article is a short description of the main phases in the process of siting for nuclear power plants as interpreted and applied by the Institut za elektroprivredu, Zagreb in the screening, comparison and evaluation of the sites for NPPs in the SR of Croatia. The scope and purpose, as well as review of required data and investigations for each particular phase are given. Common used methods for the comparison of sites are described and example of rejection criteria applicable for early phases of the siting is proposed. It is given a list of the most important activities which detailed analysis id indispensable for ending of the evaluation and getting a site permit from the regulatory body. A legal and regulatory basis for carrying out the siting process is also described. (author)

  18. Subcellular site and nature of intracellular cadmium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying heavy metal accumulation, toxicity and tolerance in higher plants are poorly understood. Since subcellular processes are undoubtedly involved in all these phenomena, it is of interest to study the extent of, subcellular site of and nature of intracellularly accumulated cadmium in higher plants. Whole plants supplied 109 CdCl 2 or 112 CdSO 4 accumulated Cd into roots and aerial tissues. Preparation of protoplasts from aerial tissue followed by subcellular fractionation of the protoplasts to obtain intact vacuoles, chloroplasts and cytosol revealed the presence of Cd in the cytosol but not in vacuoles or chloroplasts. Particulate materials containing other cell components were also labeled. Of the 109 Cd supplied to plants, 2 to 10% was recovered in both cytosol preparations and in particulate materials. Cytosol contained proteinaceous--Cd complexes, free metal and low molecular weight Cd complexes. Labeling of protoplasts gave similar results. No evidence was obtained for the production of volatile Cd complexes in tobacco

  19. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

  20. Assessment procedure and probability determination methods of aircraft crash events in siting for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiyan; Zhang Lijun; Huang Weiqi; Yin Qingliao

    2010-01-01

    Assessment procedure of aircraft crash events in siting for nuclear power plants, and the methods of probability determination in two different stages of prelimi- nary screening and detailed evaluation are introduced in this paper. Except for general air traffic, airport operations and aircraft in the corridor, the probability of aircraft crash by military operation in the military airspaces is considered here. (authors)

  1. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A.

    1993-12-01

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations

  2. On site selection of thermoelectric power plants in polluted environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental impact of combined heat-power plants. The selection of the site of these plants depends on the spatial distribution law of pollutants and their chemical interaction with environment. The solutions of a diffusion equation describing a system of chemically interacting pollutants are given and discussed. The environmental impacts are described in terms of wind and atmosphere stability, effective and built stack height and the source distance parameters. The optimal constructive solutions are judged upon the concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen oxides at the ground level which must be kept under the maximum admissible limit. (author). 8 figs

  3. Evaluation and comparison of high population density sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulies, T.S.

    1979-10-01

    Consideration of the population distribution surrounding a potential nuclear site generally includes the calculation of population density over a circular area outward to a radial distance of 30 miles from the site. A recently proposed nuclear site Perryman, Maryland challenged the NRC population density guidelines and motivated this project which was performed under the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program. The report provides a comparison of several site population factor indices for comparing relative public safety aspects of alternative nuclear power plant sites. In addition, it is illustrated that use of the reactor safety study (WASH-1400) consequence model as a tool for comparing the relative safety of alternative sites has potential pitfalls

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  5. Ecological investigations at the Pantex Plant Site, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mazaika, R.R.; Phillips, R.C.

    1993-09-01

    In 1992, Pantex requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conduct a series of ecological surveys to provide baseline information for designing detailed ecological studies on the various ecosystems present at the Pantex plant site near Amarillo, Texas. To this end, PNL scientist and technicians visited the site at different times to conduct investigations and collect samples: July 6--13: birds, small mammals, general habitat assessment; August 10--14: wetland vegetation, birds, small mammals, Playa invertebrates; and September 7--11: birds, small mammals. This report presents the results of these three surveys

  6. Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    This publication provides comprehensive and updated guidance for site evaluation in relation to volcanic hazards. It includes recommendations on assessing the volcanic hazards at a nuclear installation site, in order to identify and characterize, in a comprehensive manner, all potentially hazardous phenomena that may be associated with future volcanic events. It describes how some of these volcanic phenomena may affect the acceptability of the selected site, resulting in exclusion of a site or determining the corresponding design basis parameters for the installation. This Safety Guide is applicable to both existing and new sites, and a graded approach is recommended to cater for all types of nuclear installations. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Overview of volcanic hazard assessment; 3. General recommendations; 4. Necessary information and investigations (database); 5. Screening of volcanic hazards; 6. Site specific volcanic hazard assessment; 7. Nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants; 8. Monitoring and preparation for response; 9. Management system for volcanic hazard assessment; Annex I: Volcanic hazard scenarios; Annex II: Worldwide sources of information.

  7. Pinellas Plant FY1990 site specific implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.D.

    1990-02-01

    This Site Specific Implementation Plan describes the Corrective Action, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management activities to be performed at the Pinellas Plant in FY1990 (October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1989). These FY1990 activities are described in the Pinellas Plant FY1991--95 Five-Year Plan. The information used to prepare this plan reflects the best estimate of the project scope, schedules, regulatory, and funding requirements at the time of plan preparation. The Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Five-Year Plan is a dynamic document and will be modified each year; the Site Specific Implementation Plan will, in turn, be modified each year to reflect new findings, information, and knowledge of the various projects. 4 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Assessment of social values in thermal plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a method for combining social values with techno-economic data for better decision making in thermal nuclear power plant siting. Quantified technical impact data which is socially weighted will allow for the optimal choice of site/design alternatives. In this phase, a study of community leadership in energy/environment issues was conducted in a town familiar with a (nuclear) thermal power plant. Secondly, a linear composite analysis of the measurement problems associated with combining diverse scales of impacts was completed. Third, a revision of the social values instrument used in a previous phase of the study was initiated. Finally, liaison activities with utilities were undertaken. Quantification of three of the technical impact factors is currently underway

  9. Power from waste. [Power plant at landfill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1991-01-01

    Base Load Systems Ltd, a company in the United Kingdom, has just commissioned a power plant in Leicestershire which uses waste gases from a landfill site. The gases power two specially modified turbo charged engine and generator packages. The plant will use approximately 100 cu meters of landfill gas per hour and is expected to feed 1.5MW of electrical power into the supply network of East Midlands Electricity. Once the landfill site has been completely filled and capped with clay, it is estimated that the electrical power output will be 4 MW. At present, since their are no customers for heat in the vicinity, 100 KW of the electricity produced are used to run fans to dissipate the 2.5 MW of waste heat. Base load is also involved elsewhere in combined heat and power projects. (UK).

  10. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone

  11. In situ bioremediation (natural attenuation) at a gas plant waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginn, J.S.; Sims, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    A former manufactured gas plant (MGP) waste site in New York was evaluated with regard to natural attenuation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Parent-compound concentrations of PAHs within an aquifer plume were observed to decrease with time subsequent to source removal of coal tar. Biotransformation-potential studies indicated that indigenous microorganisms in soil from the site were capable of degrading naphthalene and phenanthrene. A biochemical metabolite of phenanthrene degradation, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (1H2NA), was tentatively characterized in coal-tar-contaminated soil from the site-based on liquid chromatographic retention time. Kinetic information was developed for the disappearance of phenanthrene and 1H2NA in nonspiked contaminated soil at the site. The Microtox trademark bioassay was used to evaluate toxicity trends in contaminated soil at the site. Results from the Microtox trademark indicated a decreasing trend in toxicity with respect to time in contaminated site soil. Research results were evaluated with regard to the National Research Council's guidelines for evaluating in situ bioremediation, and were used to enhance site characterization and monitoring information for evaluating the role of bioremediation as part of natural attenuation of PAHs at coal-tar-contaminated sites

  12. External main-induced events in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This safety Guide recomments procedures and provides information for use in implementing that part of the code of safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-S) which concerns man-induced events external to the plant, up to the evaluation of corresponding design basis parameters. Like the code, the Guide forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing codes of practice and safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants

  13. Radiation burden of population in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.

    The significance is discussed of the determination of the radiobiological consequences of normal operation and design basis accidents in nuclear power plant siting. The basic diagram and brief description is given of the programme for calculating the radiation load of the population in the surroundings of the nuclear power plant. The programme consists of two subprogrammes, i.e., the dispersion of radioactive gases (for normal operation and for accidents), the main programme for the determination of biological consequences and one auxiliary programme (the distribution of the population in the surroundings of the power plant). The four most important types of exposure to ionizing radiation are considered, namely inhalation, external irradiation from a cloud, ingestion (water, milk, vegetables), external irradiation from the deposit. (B.S.)

  14. Geoscientific evaluation factors and criteria for siting and site evaluation. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Ericsson, Lars O.; Svemar, C.; Almen, K.E.; Andersson, Johan

    1999-03-01

    The purposes of the present report are to: present the work that has been done to identify the parameters that need to be determined in a geoscientific site investigation and that serve as the basis for the work with geoscientific evaluation factors; give a progress report from the project that was initiated in 1997 named Siting Factors and Criteria for Site Evaluation, with an emphasis on definitions, outline and structure for the execution of the work; present geoscientific requirements on function both general and in detail in the form of an example for the discipline rock mechanics; present geoscientific evaluation factors associated with different stages in the siting work in the form of an example for the discipline hydrogeochemical composition; present plans for further work as regards criteria for site evaluation in different siting stages. The project is under way, and this is to be regarded as a progress report since e.g. criteria for site evaluation will be presented at a later date. The long-term performance and safety of the deep repository must always be evaluated by means of an integrated safety assessment. The work with factors and criteria can never take the place of such an assessment, but can provide guidance regarding its outcome. Requirements and preferences regarding the function of the rock in the deep repository have been clarified in this progress report. What is new here is the structuring that has been carried out, with a classification into different geoscientific disciplines, and the formalism that has been given to the terms requirement, preference and function. Based on fundamental safety and construction functions, requirements on function have been specified for the disciplines geology, thermal properties, hydro-geology, rock mechanics, chemistry and transport properties. Furthermore, function analyses have been identified by means of which it is possible to concretize requirements on function and which geoscientific parameters are

  15. Geoscientific evaluation factors and criteria for siting and site evaluation. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, A.; Ericsson, Lars O.; Svemar, C. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-konsult AB (Sweden); Andersson, Johan [Golder Grundteknik KB (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The purposes of the present report are to: present the work that has been done to identify the parameters that need to be determined in a geoscientific site investigation and that serve as the basis for the work with geoscientific evaluation factors; give a progress report from the project that was initiated in 1997 named Siting Factors and Criteria for Site Evaluation, with an emphasis on definitions, outline and structure for the execution of the work; present geoscientific requirements on function both general and in detail in the form of an example for the discipline rock mechanics; present geoscientific evaluation factors associated with different stages in the siting work in the form of an example for the discipline hydrogeochemical composition; present plans for further work as regards criteria for site evaluation in different siting stages. The project is under way, and this is to be regarded as a progress report since e.g. criteria for site evaluation will be presented at a later date. The long-term performance and safety of the deep repository must always be evaluated by means of an integrated safety assessment. The work with factors and criteria can never take the place of such an assessment, but can provide guidance regarding its outcome. Requirements and preferences regarding the function of the rock in the deep repository have been clarified in this progress report. What is new here is the structuring that has been carried out, with a classification into different geoscientific disciplines, and the formalism that has been given to the terms requirement, preference and function. Based on fundamental safety and construction functions, requirements on function have been specified for the disciplines geology, thermal properties, hydro-geology, rock mechanics, chemistry and transport properties. Furthermore, function analyses have been identified by means of which it is possible to concretize requirements on function and which geoscientific parameters are

  16. Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based approach for Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation (PSPE) on construction sites, with causal relationships and interactions between enablers and the goals of PSPE taken into account. According to a sample of 450 valid questionnaire surveys from 30 Chinese construction enterprises, a SEM model with 26 items included for PSPE in the context of Chinese construction industry is established and then verified through the goodness-of-fit test. Three typical types of construction enterprises, namely the state-owned enterprise, private enterprise and Sino-foreign joint venture, are selected as samples to measure the level of safety performance given the enterprise scale, ownership and business strategy are different. Results provide a full understanding of safety performance practice in the construction industry, and indicate that the level of overall safety performance situation on working sites is rated at least a level of III (Fair) or above. This phenomenon can be explained that the construction industry has gradually matured with the norms, and construction enterprises should improve the level of safety performance as not to be eliminated from the government-led construction industry. The differences existing in the safety performance practice regarding different construction enterprise categories are compared and analyzed according to evaluation results. This research provides insights into cause-effect relationships among safety performance factors and goals, which, in turn, can facilitate the improvement of high safety performance in the construction industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative comparison of the nuclear power plant sites in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J; Sina, A M [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1976-01-01

    A probabilistic method is described for a comparison of nuclear power plant sites in the United Kingdom, which evaluates quantitatively the sites in terms of favourability, by taking into account the real term meteorological conditions, i.e. wind direction, wind speed, and stability distributions, and also the population distribution around the cities. A 'site safety quality factor' is obtained for each site and is used to compare the favourability of each site with respect to releases of radioactivity. The quality factor corresponds to the average number of persons that would be exposed to the specified relative concentration averaged over all weather conditions. The sites compared are Berkeley, Bradwell, Dungeness, Hartlepool, Heysham, Oldbury, Sizewell, and Wylfa.

  18. Land use suitability screening for power plant sites in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Since 1974 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing an automated procedure for land use suitability screening. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has funded the project to aid in the selection of power plant sites in Maryland. Its purpose is to identify candidate areas from which specific candidate sites can be chosen for detailed analyses. The ORNL approach assures that certain key variables are examined empirically for every cell in the study region before candidate sites are selected. Each variable is assigned an importance weight and compatibility score based upon its effect on the economic, social, or ecologic costs associated with construction in a given cell. The weighted scores for each variable are aggregated and output as a suitability score for each cell

  19. Applications of SLAR in nuclear power plant siting: A case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.

    1980-01-01

    Over 10,000 square km of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery was obtained and analyzed for the siting of the first nuclear power plant in the Republic of the Philippines. The imagery was obtained using the Motorola APS/AN-94D (X-band) real aperture system as part of an overall remote sensing program to site and evaluate potential site regions. Analysis of SLAR images, in conjunction with LANDSAT, color, black and white, and thermal infrared images, provided basic information on structure, relative geochronology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and ground water, which facilitated field operations and data synthesis.

  20. Biological fluidized-bed treatment of groundwater from a manufactured gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, G.M.; Scheible, O.K.; Maiello, J.A.; Guarini, W.J.; Sutton, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Bench- and pilot-scale biological treatability studies were performed as part of a comprehensive study for developing an on-site treatment system for contaminated groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site. The bench-scale work, which included evaluations of activated sludge and fluidized-bed biological processes, indicated that a carbon-based fluidized-bed process was most appropriate. The process was then demonstrated on a pilot level at the site. The bench and pilot studies demonstrated significant reductions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and all target organics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  1. SITE-2, Power Plant Siting, Cost, Environment, Seismic and Meteorological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Habegger, L.J.; King, R.F.; Hoover, L.J.; Clark, N.A.; Cobian, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITE2 is designed to (1) screen candidate energy facility sites or areas within an electric utility region, based on the region's physical and socioeconomic attributes, the planned facility's characteristics, and impact assessments, and (2) evaluate the cumulative regional impacts associated with alternate energy supply options and inter-regional energy import/export practices, specifically, comparison of different energy technologies and their regional distribution in clustered or dispersed patterns. 2 - Method of solution: The SITE2 methodology is based on the quantification of three major site-related vectors. A cost vector is determined which identifies site-specific costs, such as transmission costs, cooling costs as related to water availability, and costs of specific controls needed to protect the surrounding environment. An impact vector is also computed for each potential site, using models of health and environmental impacts incurred in areas adjacent to the site. Finally, a site attribute vector is developed which reflects such characteristics as population, seismic conditions, meteorology, land use, and local ecological systems. This vector can be used to eliminate certain sites because of their inability to satisfy specific constraints. These three vectors can be displayed as density maps and combined in a simple overlay approach, similar to that developed by I. L. McHarg in reference 2, to identify candidate sites. Alternatively, the vector elements can be computationally combined into a weighted sum to obtain quantitative indicators of site suitability

  2. SITE-2, Power Plant Siting, Cost, Environment, Seismic and Meteorological Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigerio, N A [Environmental Impact Studies, Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Habegger, L J; King, R F; Hoover, L J [Energy and Environmental Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Clark, N A [Applied Mathematics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Cobian, J M [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States)

    1977-08-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITE2 is designed to (1) screen candidate energy facility sites or areas within an electric utility region, based on the region's physical and socioeconomic attributes, the planned facility's characteristics, and impact assessments, and (2) evaluate the cumulative regional impacts associated with alternate energy supply options and inter-regional energy import/export practices, specifically, comparison of different energy technologies and their regional distribution in clustered or dispersed patterns. 2 - Method of solution: The SITE2 methodology is based on the quantification of three major site-related vectors. A cost vector is determined which identifies site-specific costs, such as transmission costs, cooling costs as related to water availability, and costs of specific controls needed to protect the surrounding environment. An impact vector is also computed for each potential site, using models of health and environmental impacts incurred in areas adjacent to the site. Finally, a site attribute vector is developed which reflects such characteristics as population, seismic conditions, meteorology, land use, and local ecological systems. This vector can be used to eliminate certain sites because of their inability to satisfy specific constraints. These three vectors can be displayed as density maps and combined in a simple overlay approach, similar to that developed by I. L. McHarg in reference 2, to identify candidate sites. Alternatively, the vector elements can be computationally combined into a weighted sum to obtain quantitative indicators of site suitability.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no

  5. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  6. Geomorphologic specificities of selected sites for nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvoda, J.; Demek, J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of geomorphology to the complex evaluation of properties of sites for the construction and operation of nuclear facilities is demonstrated. The unique manifestation of the present geodynamics at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant locality and the spatial correlations of annals of the specific morphotectonic development of georeliefs of that nuclear power plant with the location of the epicentral earthquake zones are shown. The results of the geomorphological survey in the surroundings of the Temelin nuclear power plant construction site are described and a drawing is reproduced showing how the georelief of this locality divides into areas with different categories of occurrence of morpho-structural formations. For the Tetov locality, where the construction of a nuclear power plant is planned, the changes in the course of the Labe (Elbe) river which occurred in the Pleistocene are of importance in the assessment of the intensity of geodynamic processes. The geomorphological and geotectonic complexity of the planned Blahutovice nuclear power plant construction site is demonstrated. A drawing shows the morphotectonic situation in the surroundings of that construction site. (Z.S.). 4 figs

  7. Chemistry evaluation in French EDF Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Production Division of EDF is comprised of 19 power stations (58 PWR reactors) and 2 national engineering organisations. Nuclear Inspection (IN) is an internal assessment unit of the EDF Nuclear Production Directorate. At the request of the Directorate, it carries out periodic evaluations of all the units of the division. The evaluation of the nuclear sites (EGE: Overall Excellence Assessment) is carried out every 4 years, an intermediate evaluation is also carried out between each EGE. These evaluations are independent of the WANO and IAEA evaluations. Exchanges are carried out between Nuclear Inspection and the other international operators (for example, USA (INPO), England, China...) to share site evaluation methods. These evaluations are carried out by a team of 30 inspectors, reinforced during each evaluation by 10 peers who come from the various French nuclear sites. Nuclear Inspection produces a performance standards document for each FUNCTIONAL AREA, which is based on the requirements of the company. On the whole, 13 areas are evaluated during each inspection, in particular: Management, Operations, Maintenance, Engineering and Chemistry. The area of reactor plant chemistry has been evaluated since 2009. The Chemistry performance standards document is written from the EDF internal requirements and international references. During site evaluations, all the performance standards are assessed for compliance. The Chemistry performance standards document is comprised of 3 topics: Management of plant chemistry, The respect of the chemical and radiochemical specifications, The condition of the laboratories and the sampling lines, measuring equipment, and chemical products. The evaluations carried out make it possible to define strengths and weaknesses which the sites must address. After each evaluation, the assessment is presented to the site management and to the director of EDF Nuclear Production. For 4 years these evaluations have allowed progress to

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED)

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  10. Environmental Insights from Siting New Nuclear Power Plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugler, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This described the Part 52 combined licence review process, under which a design certification and an early site permit can come together to allow a limited work authorization to be issued for pre-construction work while the combined Construction and Operation Licence (COL) application is being considered by the regulator. The regulatory then performs ITAAC (Inspection, Test, Analysis, Acceptance Criteria) to verify that the as-build plant conforms to what was licensed. The Siting Safety Review that is performed under the COL process considers factors such as geology, surface faulting, seismology, geotechnical engineering, hydrology, flooding and groundwater. For an existing site, this involves updating the hazard evaluation from the original one. Dose consequence calculations are performed for both design basis accidents and severe accidents. Experience with siting has shown that all applicants deviate from the guidance, that it is difficult to compare existing sites with new sites, that water supply is a bigger issue now than it was for existing reactors and that site selection can come down to a choice 'among the best', rather than the 'best possible'. Consideration of alternative sites is a big part of the process; the U.S.NRC can reject a primary site if an alternative site appears to be more appropriate, though it cannot force an applicant to select a secondary site

  11. Economic evaluation of tokamak power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Steiner, D.

    1977-01-01

    This study reports the impact of plasma operating characteristics, engineering options, and technology on the capital cost trends of tokamak power plants. Tokamak power systems are compared to other advanced energy systems and found to be economically competitive. A three-phase strategy for demonstrating commercial feasibility of fusion power, based on a common-site multiple-unit concept, is presented

  12. Proposed plan for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contaminated material at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site and nearby properties in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry, both of which are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed in the 1950s and 1960s. Various liquid, sludge, and solid wastes were disposed of at the Chemical plant area and in the quarry during that time. The Weldon Spring site is listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The proposed plan is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the history and setting of the Weldon Spring site and briefly describes the contaminated material at the chemical plant area. Chapter 3 defines the scope of the remedial action and its role in the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. Chapter 4 summarizes the risks associated with possible exposures to site contaminants in the absence of remedial action and identifies proposed cleanup levels for soil. Chapter 5 briefly describes the final alternatives considered for the remedial action. Chapter 6 summarizes the evaluation of final alternatives for managing the contaminated material, identifies the currently preferred alternative, and discusses a possible contingency remedy to provide treatment flexibility. Chapter 7 presents the community's role in this action. Chapter 8 is a list of the references cited in this proposed plan

  13. Siting of nuclear power plants in densely populated countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togo, Y.

    1981-01-01

    In evaluating the safety of reactor siting, three typical approaches can be applied; the deterministic approach, the probabilistic approach and the combined approach. In regard to a risk associated with siting, the design of a reactor has to do with both individual and societal risk, while exclusion distance mainly has to do with individual risk, and surrounding population primarily has to do with societal risk. Consequently, in a densely populated area, more attention should be paid to societal risk. There are many reactor sites in the world which can be described as concentrated siting. Although concentrated siting has a lot of merits, such as reducing the construction cost or maintenance cost of reactors, more careful consideration should be paid to safety-related matters of such concentrated reactors because the risk to the individual from accidents caused by concentrated reactors is larger than that from a single reactor. As for the recent controversial issue concerning siting criteria, it appears that the present international consensus on siting philosophy is still valid after the TMI accident. (author)

  14. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant

  15. Conflicts concerning sites for waste treatment and waste disposal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werbeck, N.

    1993-01-01

    The erection of waste treatment and waste disposal flants increasingly meets with the disapproval of local residents. This is due to three factors: Firstly, the erection and operation of waste treatment plants is assumed to necessarily entail harmful effects and risks, which may be true or may not. Secondly, these disadvantages are in part considered to be non-compensable. Thirdly, waste treatment plants have a large catchment area, which means that more people enjoy their benefits than have to suffer their disadvantages. If residents in the vicinity of such plants are not compensated for damage sustained or harmed in ways that cannot be compensated for it becomes a rational stance for them, while not objecting to waste treatment and waste disposal plants in principle to object to their being in their own neighbourhood. The book comprehensively describes the subject area from an economic angle. The causes are analysed in detail and an action strategy is pointed, out, which can help to reduce acceptance problems. The individual chapters deal with emissions, risk potentials, optimization calculus considering individual firms or persons and groups of two or more firms or persons, private-economy approaches for the solving of site selection conflicts, collective decision-making. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Profiling of plants at petroleum contaminated site for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasi, Raymond Oriebe; Atagana, Harrison Ifeanyichukwu

    2018-03-21

    The paucity of information in the literature on the characteristics of plants that could be used for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC)-contaminated sites was the principal reason for this study. The aim of the study was to identify indigenous plants growing in PHC-impacted soil in Umuahia in eastern-Nigeria that have the ability to phytoremediate soils contaminated with hydrocarbons under tropical monsoon climate conditions. A total of 28 native plant species from different families growing in and around hydrocarbon-impacted soil in the vicinity of vandalized pipelines carrying petroleum products were collected and studied for their ability to grow in a hydrocarbon-impacted soil and remove the PHC from the impacted soil. Some of the plants demonstrated the ability to grow in soil with high levels of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), which shows that they may be tolerant to hydrocarbons in soil and could potentially phytoremediate a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Chromolaena odorata, Aspilia africana, Chloris barbata, Pasparlum vaginatum, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Paspalum scrobiculatum, Cosmos bipinnatus, Eragrostis atrovirens, Cyperus rotundus, and Uvaria chamae showed tendencies to phytoremediate contaminated soil. By using bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) as a measure of phytoremediation, results showed that C. odorata, A. africana, and U. chamae demonstrated the highest potentials to phytodegrade hydrocarbons in soil.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  20. Perry Nuclear Plant's Plans for on-site storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratchen, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Because of current radwaste disposal legislation and the eventual denial of access to the Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty burial sites, it was imperative for the Perry nuclear power plant to develop alternative means for handling its generated radioactive waste. The previous radwaste facilities at Perry were developed for processing, packaging, short-term storage, and shipment for burial. In order to meet the changing needs, new facilities have been constructed to handle the processing, packaging, and 5-yr interim storage of both dry active waste (DAW) and dewatered or solidified resin, filter media, etc

  1. Siting Conflicts in Renewable Energy Projects in Sweden: Experiences From the Siting of a Biogas Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Jamil

    2001-05-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to an increased understanding of what characterises conflicts regarding the siting of renewable energy facilities. The paper starts out with a brief introduction to different types of renewable energy and the conflicts they might generate as well as a discussion about the differences and similarities in comparison with conflicts over more controversial issues, such as nuclear plants, chemical factories and the construction of roads. The main part of the paper discusses the results from a case study on a failed attempt to site a biogas plant in southern Sweden. The results show that there was a lack of public participation in the early stages of planning, and that peoples negative perceptions of the possibilities to influence the decision-making and of the attitude of the developer, contributed to the development of a public opposition and a polarisation of the conflict. There is also a discussion about the reasons for a shift in the political support for the project and about the role of the legislation in shaping planning processes that either handle conflicts or make them worse. The paper concludes with the observation that the biogas case, in many ways, resembled traditional siting conflicts and that further research is needed to explore the nature of different renewable energy siting conflicts.

  2. Evaluation of the impact of a committed site on fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Nagy, A.

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic merits of a committed fusion site for development of tokamak, mirror, and EBT reactor from ignition through demo phases were evaluated. Schedule compression resulting from evolving several reactor concepts and/or phases on a committed site as opposed to sequential use of independent sites was estimated. Land, water, and electrical power requirements for a committed fusion site were determined. A conceptual plot plan for siting three fusion reactors on a committed site was configured. Reactor support equipment common to the various concepts was identified as candidates for sharing. Licensing issues for fusion plants were briefly addressed

  3. A risk evaluation model using on-site meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A model is considered in order to evaluate the potential risk from a nuclear facility directly combining the on site meteorological data. The model is utilized to evaluate the environmental consequences from the routine releases during normal plant operation as well as following postulated accidental releases. The doses to individual and risks to the population-at-large are also analyzed in conjunction with design of rad-waste management and safety systems. It is observed that the conventional analysis, which is done in two separate unaffiliated phases of releases and atmospheric dispersion tends to result in unnecessary over-design of the systems because of high resultant doses calculated by multiplication of two extreme values. (author)

  4. Factors of site selection for nuclear power plants in selected industrial states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Obermair, G.; Ringler, W.; Romahn, B.; Sanders, H.

    1978-01-01

    The range of the tasks within the project consists of working out an optimal catalogue of criteria for the site selection for nuclear power plants; establishing a structured documentation system for the criteria and licensing procedures used by selected industrial countries when selecting sites for nuclear power plants; analyzing and evaluating the documented material with the aim of supplying the basis for decisions concerning land use. The tasks are being realized within a technological ring of data (for the period until 1990, reactor types, cooling, power-heat coupling, special sites, block sizes, local concentration) and a set politico-economical ring of data for the following countries: F.R. Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Great Britain, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, France, Netherlands, USA, Japan, Yougoslavia. (HP) [de

  5. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Theresa J.; Wirth, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here

  6. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model

  7. Siting of light-water reactor power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, H.A.G.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear power plant site requirements formulated for environment protection in Germany allow nuclear power plants to be built at any site provided these requirements are duly taken into account in preparing and monitoring the site and in the design of the proposed power plant. After a brief discussion of light water reactor power plant sites, prevailing practice in site planning, site selection criteria, licensing procedure and used criteria, rules and guidelines, this paper reports on some considerations taken into account by the expert advisers and by the licensing authorities and future site planning. (orig.) [de

  8. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Judd, B.R. [Decision Analysis Co., Portola Valley, CA (United States); Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D. [Weston Technical Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  9. Evaluation of nuclear power plant operator's ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)

  10. Criticality safety evaluation in Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Nobutoshi; Nakajima, Masayoshi; Takaya, Akikazu; Ohnuma, Hideyuki; Shirouzu, Hidetomo; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Koji; Suto, Toshiyuki

    2000-04-01

    Criticality limits for equipments in Tokai Reprocessing Plant which handle fissile material solution and are under shape and dimension control were reevaluated based on the guideline No.10 'Criticality safety of single unit' in the regulatory guide for reprocessing plant safety. This report presents criticality safety evaluation of each equipment as single unit. Criticality safety of multiple units in a cell or a room was also evaluated. The evaluated equipments were ones in dissolution, separation, purification, denitration, Pu product storage, and Pu conversion processes. As a result, it was reconfirmed that the equipments were safe enough from a view point of criticality safety of single unit and multiple units. (author)

  11. An Extreme Meteorological Events Analysis For Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Siting Project at Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiadi, Deni; S, Yarianto Sugeng B.; Sriyana; Anzhar, Kurnia; Suntoko, Hadi

    2018-03-01

    The potential sources of meteorological phenomena in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) area of interest are identified and the extreme values of the possible resulting hazards associated which such phenomena are evaluated to derive the appropriate design bases for the NPP. The appropriate design bases shall be determined according to the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (Bapeten) applicable regulations, which presently do not indicate quantitative criteria for purposes of determining the design bases for meteorological hazards. These meteorological investigations are also carried out to evaluate the regional and site specific meteorological parameters which affect the transport and dispersion of radioactive effluents on the environment of the region around the NPP site. The meteorological hazards are to be monitored and assessed periodically over the lifetime of the plant to ensure that consistency with the design assumptions is maintained throughout the full lifetime of the facility.

  12. A new approach to the nuclear power plant site licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidron, A A [Israel Electric Corp. Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    The Israel Electric Corporation Ltd.(IEC) conducted a survey to determine the geotechnical suitability of the Shivta Site for the purpose of erecting a Nuclear Power Station and presented the results in a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) to the Licensing Division of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (LD). The studies for selecting a site in the NW Negev were conducted by multi-disciplinary teams of Israeli and US professionals, beginning in 1982, over a twelve-year period. The investigations involved comprehensive geological, geophysical, geotechnical, hydrological, as well as geomorphic and pedologic evaluations of the region and the then- proposed site locale. The prior studies were completed using highly advanced and modern tools and approaches and provided a significant amount of information related to the tectonic and seismic characteristics of the NW Negev region. (author).

  13. Problems of nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is discussed with regard to external effects on the containment and to the human factor. As for external effects, attention is focused on shock waves which may be due to explosions or accidents in flammable material transport and storage, to missiles, and to earthquake effects. The criteria for evaluating nuclear power plant safety in different countries are shown. Factors are discussed affecting the reliability of man with regard to his behaviour in a loss-of-coolant accident in the power plant. Different types of PWR containments and their functions are analyzed, mainly in case of accident. Views are discussed on the role of destructive accidents in the overall evaluation of fast reactor safety. Experiences are summed up gained with the operation of WWER reactors with respect to the environmental impact of the nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  14. Waset Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data that: (a) Characterize site environmental management performance; (b) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (d) Highlight significant facility programs and efforts. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP site. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. This order requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) (No. NM4890139088-TSDF [treatment, storage, and disposal facility]) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  15. Waset Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-09-26

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data that: (a) Characterize site environmental management performance; (b) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (d) Highlight significant facility programs and efforts. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP site. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A. This order requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) (No. NM4890139088-TSDF [treatment, storage, and disposal facility]) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  16. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations

  17. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A.; Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E.; Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T.; Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A.; Judd, B.R.; Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ''current information'' or ''available evidence.''

  18. Should the public be encouraged to visit nuclear plant sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J. de la

    1993-01-01

    As we all know, technological progress does not only depend on the innovation capacity of scientists and engineers or the sophistication of technology, but also on public acceptance. People - today - are not only more curious about new applications of technology but also more inquiring about their potential impact on their own safety and environment. This is particularly true in the nuclear field, where the people are afraid of nuclear installations and processes unknown to them. On the contrary, the more opportunities they have to see or live near nuclear plants, the less they are inclined to reject them as a whole. The past two decades have confirmed the increasing importance of visitor centres at nuclear plant sites as a major communication tool between the nuclear industry and the public. Already today, for example, 16% of the US public and 11% of the French public have visited a nuclear power plant or its information centre. A rich experience is therefore available from existing visitor centres at nuclear power stations in most industrialised countries. Furthermore, the construction and industrial operation of new facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle presents new challenges in terms of public understanding and acceptance which are progressively taken into account. As a result, visitor centres with new communication strategies and tools are now being put in place at radioactive waste management sites and nuclear fuel cycle sites as well as near nuclear installations being dismantled. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised an international Seminar in November 1992 in Madrid (Spain) in co-operation with the Spanish Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste (ENRESA) and the Union of Spanish Electricity Utilities (UNESA) to: 1. take stock of the experience of OECD countries in the design and operation of visitor centres; 2. assess the educational and information methods and tools used in these centres, and 3. measure their impact on public opinion and

  19. Should the public be encouraged to visit nuclear plant sites?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferte, J de la [External Relations and Public Affairs, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    1993-07-01

    As we all know, technological progress does not only depend on the innovation capacity of scientists and engineers or the sophistication of technology, but also on public acceptance. People - today - are not only more curious about new applications of technology but also more inquiring about their potential impact on their own safety and environment. This is particularly true in the nuclear field, where the people are afraid of nuclear installations and processes unknown to them. On the contrary, the more opportunities they have to see or live near nuclear plants, the less they are inclined to reject them as a whole. The past two decades have confirmed the increasing importance of visitor centres at nuclear plant sites as a major communication tool between the nuclear industry and the public. Already today, for example, 16% of the US public and 11% of the French public have visited a nuclear power plant or its information centre. A rich experience is therefore available from existing visitor centres at nuclear power stations in most industrialised countries. Furthermore, the construction and industrial operation of new facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle presents new challenges in terms of public understanding and acceptance which are progressively taken into account. As a result, visitor centres with new communication strategies and tools are now being put in place at radioactive waste management sites and nuclear fuel cycle sites as well as near nuclear installations being dismantled. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised an international Seminar in November 1992 in Madrid (Spain) in co-operation with the Spanish Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste (ENRESA) and the Union of Spanish Electricity Utilities (UNESA) to: 1. take stock of the experience of OECD countries in the design and operation of visitor centres; 2. assess the educational and information methods and tools used in these centres, and 3. measure their impact on public opinion and

  20. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the ESPDP is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. The results of the technical and licensing evaluations are presented in this report. The purpose, background, and organization of the ESPDP is delineated in Section 1. Section 11 contains flowcharts defining siting application requirements, environmental report requirements, and emergency planning/preparedness requirements for ALWRS. The licensing and technical review results are presented in Section III

  1. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the ESPDP is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. The results of the technical and licensing evaluations are presented in this report. The purpose, background, and organization of the ESPDP is delineated in Section 1. Section 11 contains flowcharts defining siting application requirements, environmental report requirements, and emergency planning/preparedness requirements for ALWRS. The licensing and technical review results are presented in Section III.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States); Basabilvazo, George T. [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016 (ASER) is to provide the information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP facility. DOE Order 231.1B; DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability; and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, which requires DOE facilities to submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer.

  3. Application of microearthquake surveys in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    Earthquakes of magnitude less than 3 are generally referred to as microearthquakes. After an overview of the use of microearthquake survey in decisions related to the siting of nuclear power plants, the main aspects of a microearthquake survey network are discussed. The use of microearthquake surveys in investigating problems related to near-field (floating) earthquakes is also discussed. The discussion is centered on the practical application of such a survey leading from objectives and limitations over to planning, instrumentation, operation, maintenance, processing of the data, and interpretation and reporting of the results. An appendix entitled Earthquake Magnitude gives useful background information for definitions of different types of magnitude and their calculation using the records from microearthquake surveys

  4. Environmental assessment. Y-12 Plant Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, operated by Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), has the following five major responsibilities: production of nuclear weaposn components; fabrication support for weapon design agencies; support for other UCC-ND installations; support and assistance to otehr government agencies; and processing of source and special nuclear materials. This Environmental Assessment describesthe ongoing opertions of Y-12 and evaluates the actual and possible impacts on the environment that continuation of these operatios entails. Information is presented under the following section headings: purpose and need for the proposed action; alternatives; affected environment;; and, environmental consequences

  5. Sustainable siting procedure of small hydroelectric plants: The Greek experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Maria, Efpraxia; Mathioudakis, Vassilis

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to present the procedure under which a sustainable plant, like a small hydroelectric plant (SHP), can be installed and deployed, especially in countries with complicated administrative and legislative systems. Those must be defined by the rules that characterize sustainable spatial planning, which aims at the environmental protection, the insurance of better living conditions and finally at the economic development within the frame of the principle of sustainability and its three basic dimensions: social, economical and environmental. The main principles of spatial planning are accepted from the jurisprudence of the Hellenic Council of State, either as an appropriate condition for the protection of important ecosystems or as specific expression of the principle of prevention of environmental damage. In this framework it is accepted that the development is experienced, initially to a total and general planning, whose essential part is the assessment and modification of distributed land uses. Besides, the main characteristics of the siting of SHPs and the criteria demanded for their smooth integration and operation are presented

  6. Remedial investigation for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. Major goals include eliminating potential public and environmental hazards due to site contamination and releasing the property for alternate uses to the maximum extent practicable. The purpose of the remedial investigation described in this report was to determine the extent of contamination associated with the portion of the Weldon Spring site known as the chemical plant and raffinate pit area. The DOE has assumed responsibility for investigating and remediating all on-site soil contamination and off-site soil which is radiologically contaminated as a result of uranium and thorium processing operations. The DOE has also assumed the responsibility for radiologically contaminated groundwater on and off site. The Weldon Spring site remedial investigation also involved the evaluation of the sources, nature and extent, and environmental fate and transport of contaminants to provide a basis for defining the risks that the contaminants may pose to human health and the environment. Data are included in this report to support the screening of remedial technologies and to permit the development and detailed analysis of alternatives for remedial action at the site during the feasibility study process

  7. Source removal strategy development for manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchin, J.; Nelson, S.

    1994-01-01

    A source removal action plan was developed by Midwest Gas and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources to address the source coal tar contamination within the underground gas holder basin at former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites. The procedure utilizes a mixture of coal, contaminated soil and coal rat sludge to provide a material that had suitable material handling characteristics for shipment and burning in high efficiency utility boilers. Screening of the mixture was required to remove oversized debris and ferrous metal. The resulting mixture did not exhibit toxic characteristics when tested under the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Test results on the coal tar sludges have indicated that the more pure coal tar materials may fail the TCLP test and be classified as a RCRA hazardous waste. The processing procedure was designed to stabilize the coal tar sludges and render those sludges less hazardous and, as a result, able to pass the TCLP test. This procedure was adopted by the Edison Electric Institute to develop a national guidance document for remediation of MGP sites. The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response recommended this strategy to the Regional Waste Management Directors as a practical tool for handling wastes that may exhibit the RCRA characteristics

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  10. Influence of the crustal and subcrustal Vrancea seismic sources on Cernavoda nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Popescu, Emilia; Mircea Radulian

    2002-01-01

    The basis of the seismic hazard assessment in different geographical regions with dense-populated areas and strategic objectives (dams, nuclear power plants, etc.) is the study of seismicity of the seismogenic sources which affect these sites. The purpose of this paper is to provide a complete set of information relative to the Vrancea seismic source (in the crust and the intermediate depth domains) that is fundamental for the seismic hazard evaluation at Cernavoda nuclear power plant site. The analysis that we propose has to deal with the following items: (1) geometrical definition of the seismic sources; (2) setting the earthquake catalog associated to each seismic source; (3) estimation of the maximum possible magnitude; (4) estimation of the frequency - magnitude relationship; (5) computation of the distribution function for focal distance; (6) correlation between focal depth and magnitude; (7) attenuation law. We discuss also the implications of the model parameters on the seismic hazard level. (authors)

  11. Micrometeorological study of the Atucha Nuclear Power Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berri, G.J.; Robbio, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The evaluation of time meteorological data obtained at the micrometeorological station of the Atucha Power Plant during 1979, is presented. Special attention is given to the transport and atmospheric dispersion characteristics through the evaluation of the mean and hourly wind behaviour and the stability classes. Furthermore, it is obtained an estimation of the dispersion factors both for short-term and long-term releases using Gaussians models. As these factors are representative of mean conditions, they should not be applied to the analysis of isolated situations. Finally it is emphasized that, although the results were obtained by means of 1979 data, significative differences are not expected for other years. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants. Volume One. Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The economics of a particular hybrid plant must be evaluated with respect to a specific site. This volume focuses on the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA. The temperature, pressure, and flow rate data given suggests the site deserves serious consideration for a hybrid plant. Key siting considerations which must be addressed before an economic judgment can be attempted are presented as follows: the availability, quality, and cost of coal; the availability of water; and the availability of transmission. Seismological and climate factors are presented. (MHR)

  13. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  14. Annual stability evaluation of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A stability evaluation of the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was completed by the US Bureau of Mines' WIPP evaluation committee. This work included a critical evaluation of the processes employed at WIPP to ensure stability, an extensive review of available deformation measurements, a 3-day site visit, and interviews with the Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse staff. General ground control processes are in place at WIPP to minimize the likelihood that major stability problems will go undetected. To increase confidence in both short- and long-term stability throughout the site (underground openings and shafts), ground stability monitoring systems, mine layout design, support systems and data analyses must be continuously improved. Such processes appear to be in place at WIPP and are discussed in this paper

  15. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Steam Plant -- Level 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level 3 pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the K-1501 Steam Plant at the K-25 Site. The primary objective was to identify and evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the Steam Plant. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated to first reduce the quantity of waste generated and second to recycle the waste. This report provides a process description of the facility; identification, evaluation, and recommendations of P2 options; an implementation schedule with funding sources; and conclusions. Largely for economic reasons, only 3 of the 14 P2 options are being recommended for implementation. All are source reduction options. When implemented, these three options are estimated to reduce the annual generation of waste by 658,412 kg and will result in a cost savings of approximately $29,232/year for the K-25 Site. The recommended options are to: install a flue gas return System in Boiler 7; reduce steam loss from traps; and increase lapse time between rinses. The four boilers currently in operation at the Steam Plant use natural gas or fuel oil as fuel sources

  16. Nuclear power plant simulation facility evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology for evaluation of nuclear power plant simulation facilities with regard to their acceptability for use in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) operator licensing exam is described. The evaluation is based primarily on simulator fidelity, but incorporates some aspects of direct operator/trainee performance measurement. The panel presentation and paper discuss data requirements, data collection, data analysis and criteria for conclusions regarding the fidelity evaluation, and summarize the proposed use of direct performance measurment. While field testing and refinement of the methodology are recommended, this initial effort provides a firm basis for NRC to fully develop the necessary methodology

  17. Field Guide for Evaluating Cottonwood Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.M. Broadfoot

    1960-01-01

    Two field methods have been developed at the Stoneville Research Center for estimating the capability of Midsouth soils to grow eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.). Data for establishing the procedures were collected from 155 plots* at the locations indicated in Figure 1.The methods give site index-that is, tree-growing...

  18. Development of plant status display system for on-site educational training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Junzo; Okamoto, Hisatake; Tsunoda, Ryohei; Watanabe, Takao; Masuko, Jiro.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this system is to make easy the comprehension of the facility and dynamics of nuclear power plants. This report describes the tendency and future position of how the educational training system should be, and furthermore describes the experiment. Main results are as follows. 1. The present status and the future tendency of educational training system for nuclear power plant operators. CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) system has following characteristics. (1) It is easy to introduce plant specific characteristics to the educational training. (2) It is easy to execute the detailed training for the compensation of the full-scale simulator. 2. Plant status display system for on-site educational training system. The fundamental function of the system is as follows. (1) It has 2 CRT displays and voice output devices. (2) It has easy manupulation type of man-machine interface. (3) It has the function for the evaluation of the training results. 3. The effectiveness of this system. The effectiveness evaluation test has been carried out by using this system actually. (1) This system has been proved to be essentially effective and some improvements for the future utilization has been pointed out. (2) It should be faster when the CRT displayes are changed, and it should have the explanation function when the plant transients are displayed. (author)

  19. Multi-criteria GIS-based siting of an incineration plant for municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Gilberto; Zsigraiová, Zdena; Semiao, Viriato

    2011-01-01

    Siting a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plant requires a comprehensive evaluation to identify the best available location(s) that can simultaneously meet the requirements of regulations and minimise economic, environmental, health, and social costs. A spatial multi-criteria evaluation methodology is presented to assess land suitability for a plant siting and applied to Santiago Island of Cape Verde. It combines the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to estimate the selected evaluation criteria weights with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for spatial data analysis that avoids the subjectivity of the judgements of decision makers in establishing the influences between some criteria or clusters of criteria. An innovative feature of the method lies in incorporating the environmental impact assessment of the plant operation as a criterion in the decision-making process itself rather than as an a posteriori assessment. Moreover, a two-scale approach is considered. At a global scale an initial screening identifies inter-municipal zones satisfying the decisive requirements (socio-economic, technical and environmental issues, with weights respectively, of 48%, 41% and 11%). A detailed suitability ranking inside the previously identified zones is then performed at a local scale in two phases and includes environmental assessment of the plant operation. Those zones are ranked by combining the non-environmental feasibility of Phase 1 (with a weight of 75%) with the environmental assessment of the plant operation impact of Phase 2 (with a weight of 25%). The reliability and robustness of the presented methodology as a decision supporting tool is assessed through a sensitivity analysis. The results proved the system effectiveness in the ranking process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  2. Assessment of earthquake-induced tsunami hazard at a power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tsunami hazard due to submarine earthquakes at a power plant site on the east coast of India. The paper considers various sources of earthquakes from the tectonic information, and records of past earthquakes and tsunamis. Magnitude-frequency relationship for earthquake occurrence rate and a simplified model for tsunami run-up height as a function of earthquake magnitude and the distance between the source and site have been developed. Finally, considering equal likelihood of generation of earthquakes anywhere on each of the faults, the tsunami hazard has been evaluated and presented as a relationship between tsunami height and its mean recurrence interval (MRI). Probability of exceedence of a certain wave height in a given period of time is also presented. These studies will be helpful in making an estimate of the tsunami-induced flooding potential at the site

  3. Probabilistic performance assessments for evaluations of the Yucca Mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Noronha, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Site suitability evaluations are conducted to determine if a repository system at a particular site will be able to meet the performance objectives for that system. Early evaluations to determine if the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development have been made in the face of large uncertainties in site features and conditions. Because of these large uncertainties, the evaluations of the site have been qualitative in nature, focusing on the presence or absence of particular features or conditions thought to be important to performance, rather than on results of quantitative performance assessments. Such a qualitative approach was used in the recently completed evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the Early Site-Suitability Evaluation (ESSE). In spite of the qualitative approach, the ESSE was able to conclude that no disqualifying conditions are likely to be present at the site and that all of the geologic conditions that would qualify the site are likely to be met. At the same time, because of the qualitative nature of the approach used in the ESSE, the precise importance of the identified issues relative to performance could not be determined. Likewise, the importance of the issues relative to one another could not be evaluated, and, other than broad recommendations, specific priorities for future testing could not be set. The authors have conducted quantitative performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain site to address these issues

  4. Phytoremediation options for radioactively contaminated sites evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an overview of the most important site and environmental radioactive contamination problems encountered. ► The potential role of different phytomanagement options is discussed and illustrated with examples. ► The phytomanagement options considered are: soil phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, wetlands and alternative land use. - Abstract: The application of nuclear energy and the use of radionuclides for industrial, medical and research purposes have caused significant contamination of certain sites and their environment, which could result in health problems for several centuries if nothing is undertaken to remedy these situations. Except for the immediate environment of the facility, where decontamination activities may be feasible and affordable, the contamination often extents over a vast area and decontamination would be costly and could result in vast amounts of waste. Therefore, more realistic yet efficient remediation options should be searched for of which phytomanagement is among the potential options. A number of phytomanagement approaches will be discussed

  5. Evaluating Sediment Mobility for Siting Nearshore Berms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    placement of dredged sediment that may contain more fine silts and clays than are allowed for placement directly on the beach. The United States Army...used in the density and viscosity calculations. For this technical note an example study site is selected and the sediment mobility indexes are...acceleration due to gravity, sρ is the sediment density, ρ is the water density, v is the kinematic viscosity of water, crθ is the Shields

  6. Thermal power plants in the Oslofjord district - Recipient evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehle, B.; Danielssen, D.; Tveite, S.; Haugen, I.; Nilsen, G.; Audunson, T.; Rye, H.; Thendrup, A.

    1975-11-01

    The results presented in a series of reports from the three institutes concerning the physical characteristics of the waters in the vicinoty of five possible sites for thermal (including nuclear) power plants in the Oslofjord district, and the spreading and effects of thermal effluents on the biological state and resources of these waters, are summarised, and an evaluation of the relative suitability of these sites is made. The sites are ranked as follows:- 1. Naverfjorden or, 2. Langangsfjorden - Saga, with effluent release to the Naverfjord region in both cases; 3. Vardeaasen; 4. Hurum; 5; Brenntangen. The possible intake - outlet arrangements are ranked as follows:-1. Deep intake - surface outlet, 2. Deep intake - deep outlet, or surface intake - surface outlet, 3. Surface intake - deep outlet. (JIW)

  7. An approach to siting nuclear power plants: the relevance of earthquakes, faults and decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.; Brogan, G.E.; Cluff, L.S.; Idriss, I.M.; Mao, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    The regional approach to nuclear power plant siting described in this paper identifies candidate sites within the region and ranks these sites by using decision-analysis concepts. The approach uses exclusionary criteria to eliminate areas from consideration and to identify those areas which are most likely to contain candidate sites. These areas are then examined in greater detail to identify candidate sites, and the number of sites under consideration is reduced to a reasonably manageable number, approximately 15. These sites are then ranked using concepts of decision analysis. The exclusionary criteria applied relate primarily to regulatory-agency safety requirements and essential functional requirements. Examples of such criteria include proximity to population centres, presence of active faults, and the availability of cooling water. In many areas of the world, the presence of active faults and potential negative effects of earthquakes are dominant exclusionary criteria. To apply the 'active fault' criterion the region must be studied to locate and assess the activity of all potentially active faults. This requires complementary geologic (including geomorphic), historical, seismological, geodetic and geophysical investigations of the entire region. Site response studies or empirical attenuation correlations can be used to determine the relevant parameters of anticipated shaking from postulated earthquakes, and analytical testing and evaluation can be used to assess the potential extent of ground failure during an earthquake. After candidate sites are identified, an approach based on decision analysis is used to rank them. This approach uses the preferences and judgements of consumers, utility companies, the government, and other groups concerned with siting and licensing issues in the ranking process. Both subjective and objective factors are processed in a logical manner, as are the monetary and non-monetary factors and achievement of competing environmental

  8. Evaluation of breastfeeding Web sites for patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Barbara A; Oermann, Marilyn H

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of Web sites on breastfeeding for patient education. Descriptive study of 30 Web sites on breastfeeding for patient education, evaluated based on the Health Information Technology Institute (HITI) criteria, readability, and eight content criteria from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statement on breastfeeding. The mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level for readability of the 30 sites was 9.2. Seven of the sites included all eight of the content criteria from the AAP, and three sites did not include any of the information recommended by the AAP content criteria. Nurses should be able to recommend best patient education materials for their patients. The five best Web sites for breastfeeding education are identified for patient teaching, and the HITI criteria are explained for nurses to learn how to evaluate Web sites for themselves and their patients.

  9. Evaluation of a committed fusion site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This report is divided into five technical sections. Section 2 is a summary. In Section 3, which covers device and site analyses the major characteristics of devices that might be placed at the site, as envisioned by major fusion laboratories, are described; the characteristics of a site (baseline site) which would accommodate these devices are defined; and various approaches to a committed site meeting the baseline site requirements are discussed. Section 4 describes the scenarios selected to represent possible site development outcomes; these scenarios are evaluated with respect to comparative cost and schedule effects. Section 5 presents a brief evaluation of the effects fusion-fission hybrids might have on the committed site. Major conclusions and recommendations are discussed in Section 6

  10. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  11. Probabilistic siting analysis of nuclear power plants emphasizing atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases and radiation-induced health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, Ilkka

    1980-01-01

    A presentation is made of probabilistic evaluation schemes for nuclear power plant siting. Effects on health attributable to ionizing radiation are reviewed, for the purpose of assessment of the numbers of the most important health effect cases in light-water reactor accidents. The atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants is discussed, and there is presented an environmental consequence assessment model in which the radioactive releases and atmospheric dispersion of the releases are treated by the application of probabilistic methods. In the model, the environmental effects arising from exposure to radiation are expressed as cumulative probability distributions and expectation values. The probabilistic environmental consequence assessment model has been applied to nuclear power plant site evaluation, including risk-benefit and cost-benefit analyses, and the comparison of various alternative sites. (author)

  12. Economic evaluation of nuclear plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolba, Adel.

    1988-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to prepare a ''fair price'' estimate to serve as bench mark in the course of economic evaluation of bids to construct nuclear power plants. The methodology of determining the present value of all capital investment is used. Running costs of nuclear fuel, operation, and maintenance are also determined. As a result, levelized energy cost is calculated. Sensitivity analysis for different parameters has been conducted, and the results of which are included in this paper

  13. Digital Discernment: An E-Commerce Web Site Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Betsy Page; Boston, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Students entering the business workforce today may well share some responsibility for developing, revising, or evaluating their company's Web site. They may lack the experience, however, to critique their employer's Web presence effectively. The purpose of developing Digital Discernment, an e-commerce Web site evaluation tool, was to prepare…

  14. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force

  15. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force.

  16. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site

  17. Evaluating decommissioning costs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the economic aspects of decommissioning of large nuclear power plants in an attempt to put the subject in proper perspective. This is accomplished by first surveying the work that has been done to date in evaluating the requirements for decommissioning. A review is presented of the current concepts of decommissioning and a discussion of a few of the uncertainties involved. This study identifies the key factors to be considered in the econmic evaluation of decommissioning alternatives and highlights areas in which further study appears to be desirable. 12 refs

  18. A COUNTY-LEVEL MODEL OF MANUFACTURING PLANT RECRUITMENT WITH IMPROVED INDUSTRIAL SITE QUALITY MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kriesel, Warren; McNamara, Kevin T.

    1991-01-01

    Empirical analysis of manufacturing plant location requires the use of a single industrial site quality measure. Under hedonic price theory, the price of industrial sites can be explained by their quality characteristics. The estimated site price is included with ten other location factors in an ordered, categorical logit model of plant attraction to Georgia counties. The results inform public decision-makers of the relative impact of site location factors and how changes in location factors ...

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  20. Evaluation of dynamic properties, local site effects and design ground motions: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitharam, T.G.; Vipin, K.S.; James, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Evidences from past earthquakes clearly shows that the damages due to an earthquake and its severity at a site are controlled mainly by three factors i.e., earthquake source and path characteristics, local geological and geotechnical characteristics, structural design and quality of the construction. Seismic ground response at a site is strongly influenced by local geological and soil conditions. The exact information of the geological, geomorphological and geotechnical data along with seismotectonic details are necessary to evaluate the ground response. The geometry of the subsoil structure, the soil type, the lateral discontinuities and the surface topography will also influence the site response at a particular location. In the case of a nuclear power plant, the details obtained from the site investigation will have multiple objectives: (i) for the effective design of the foundation (ii) assessment of site amplification (iii) for liquefaction potential evaluation. Since the seismic effects on the structure depend fully on the site conditions and assessment of site amplification. The first input required in evaluation of geotechnical aspect of seismic hazard is the rock level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) values. The surface level acceleration values need to be calculated based on the site conditions and site amplification values. This paper discusses various methods for evaluating the site amplification values, dynamic soil properties, different field and laboratory tests required and various site classification schemes. In addition to these aspects, the evaluation of liquefaction potential of the site is also presented. The paper highlights on the latest testing methods to evaluate dynamic properties (shear modulus and damping ratio) of soils and techniques for estimating local site effects. (author)

  1. Performance evaluations of a geothermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, C.; Oktay, Z.; Dincer, I.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of an operational 7.5 MWe binary geothermal power plant in Tuzla-Turkey is performed, through energy and exergy, using actual plant data to assess its energetic and exergetic performances. Eight performance-related parameters, namely total exergy destruction ratio, component exergy destruction ratio, dimensionless exergy destruction, energetic renewability ratio, exergetic renewability ratio, energetic reinjection ratio, exergetic reinjection ratio and improvement potential are investigated. Energy and exergy losses/destructions for the plant and its units are determined and illustrated using energy and exergy flow diagrams. The largest energy and exergy losses occur in brine reinjection unit. The variation of the plant energy efficiency is found between 6% and 12%. Exergy efficiency values change between 35 and 49%. The annual average energy and exergy efficiencies are found as 9.47% and 45.2%, respectively. - Highlights: → Investigation of a geothermal system energetically and exergetically. → Performance assessment of the system through energy and exergy efficiencies. → Utilization of temperature distribution in exergy calculations. → Evaluation of eight energetic and exergetic parameters for the system.

  2. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    species has been evaluated. The exposure pathway considered has been oral ingestion, calculating the contribution of the plant to the daily dose based on the arsenic concentration in the leaves of the plants analyzed. The Bioconcentration Factors are generally very low, the transfer Factors being somewhat higher although rarely exceed the unity. When dealing with phytoremediation of contaminated sites, the contribution of the As level in plants to the daily diet of animals should be used as an indicator for a suitable selection of the vegetal species to be used.

  3. Accident for natural gas well with hydrogen sulfide in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chengjun; Shangguang Zhihong; Sha Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In order to make assessment to the potential impact from accident of natural gas wells with hydrogen sulfide on the habitability of main control room of nuclear power plant (NPP), several assumptions such as source terms of maximum credible accident, conservative atmospheric conditions and release characteristics were proposed in the paper, and the impact on the habitability of main control room was evaluated using toxicity thresholds recommended by foreign authority. Case results indicate that the method can provide the reference for the preliminary assessment to external human-induced events during the siting phrase of NPP. (authors)

  4. Tornado damage at the Grand Gulf, Mississippi nuclear power plant site: aerial and ground surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.T.; McDonald, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    A tornado struck the Grand Gulf nuclear power generating station, Port Gibson, Mississippi, about 11:30 p.m. on April 17, 1978. Storm damage investigators from the University of Chicago and Texas Tech University were dispatched to survey the damage. The meteorological situation that spawned the Grand Gulf tornado and seven others in the area is discussed. Aerial surveys of the entire damage path and detailed surveys of the plant site are presented. An engineering evaluation of the damage is also presented based primarily on information gained from detailed ground surveys

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  6. Volcanoes and associated topics in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to provide draft guidance on the criteria and methods for the evaluation of a site for a nuclear power plant with respect to the potential effects of volcanic activity which may jeopardize its safety and to elicit feedback from Member States. Different types of phenomena associated with volcanism are discussed in terms of their influence on site acceptability and on derivation of design basis parameters. This report was developed for application to new nuclear power plant sites. It does not address the issue of the re-evaluation of existing nuclear power sites to the potential effects of volcanic activity, although it contains general information and criteria useful for this purpose. The guidelines and procedures discussed in this report can appropriately be used as the basis for the safe siting and design of nuclear power plants in different volcanic environments. In this report, the description of the phenomena associated with volcanism and the collection of required data and information are separated from the criteria for hazard assessment. Thus Section 2 gives the non-specialist a general description of the different types of volcanic phenomena and Section 4 provides indication on the acquisition of the database. Section 3 outlines the general requirements to be fulfilled during site selection and evaluation. Sections 5, 6 and 7 provide guidance to perform the hazard assessment and to derive the design basis parameters. Finally, Section 8 deals with monitoring systems. As general information for the non-specialist, Annex I provides the major divisions of geological time. With the same spirit, and recognizing that a complete consensus has not been reached in the scientific community on the use and meaning of some terms, a glossary of volcanological definitions is given in Annex II, applicable only to the use of this report. Finally, Annex III provides an example of a classification of volcanoes that may be used for capability

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of future site alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shain, D.I.; Jones, M.E.; Ryan, K.

    1994-01-01

    Due to rapid changes occurring within the Nuclear Weapons complex, the need for integrated planning designed to combine multiple program needs into one strategic plan has become a necessity. This is more apparent as diverse DOE programs compete for dwindling resources. These programs range from traditional production operations, environmental and waste management, to facility transition, economic development, decontamination and decommissioning, and environmental restoration activities. Each program can influence another, thus increasing the difficulty of distinguishing program elements. The method in developing comprehensive plans becomes even more complicated when environmental compliance issues, regulatory agreements and stakeholder values are considered. AT the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), all of these program conditions exist. This paper addresses a set of tools which are being developed at RFP that provides key planning elements and alternatives assessment for the DOE's Office of Planning and Integration (OPI) and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Officer at RFP. This set of tools is referred to as the Systems Engineering Analysis (SEA)

  8. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository

  9. Site selection and evaluation of nuclear power units in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefille, R.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of sites for nuclear power units in Egypt by SOFRATOME for Nuclear Plants Authority is carried on using a method based on interaction between different criteria. The method and the main results on criterion 'radio-ecological impact' are sketched briefly [fr

  10. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository.

  11. Selection of sites for nuclear power plants in The Netherlands. Pt. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This advice is concerned with the question where possible new nuclear power plants can at best be sited in the Netherlands. Safety risks of power plants are considered (sourceterm analysis, meteorologic aspects). A site analysis is presented on the base of criteria like population density, possible emergency provisions, contamination of agricultural areas etc. Reports of several committees are included. (Auth.)

  12. The subject deserving wide attention for nuclear power plant siting and environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Li Wenhui; Zhang Lingyan

    2009-01-01

    Based on siting work of nuclear power plant, the characteristics of nuclear power plant site selection and environmental impact assessment are analysed in accordance with laws and regulations of nuclear safety and environmental protection. Some subjects deserving attentions are put forward. (authors)

  13. Independent verification in operations at nuclear power plants: Summaries of site visits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donderi, D.C.; Smiley, A.; Ostry, D.J.; Moray, N.P.

    1995-09-01

    A critical review of approaches to independent verification in operations used in nuclear power plant quality assurance programs in other countries was conducted and are detailed in volume 1. This paper is a compilation of the visits to nuclear power plant sites to study independent verification in operations at sites in Canada, USA, Japan, United Kingdom, France and Germany. 3 tabs., 22 figs

  14. First detection in the USA: new plant pathogen, Phytophthora tentaculata, in native plant nurseries and restoration sites in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Rooney-Latham; C. L. Blomquist; T. Swiecki; E. Bernhardt; S.J. Frankel

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora tentaculata Kröber & Marwitz, has been detected in several native plant nurseries in 4 California counties and in restoration sites on orange sticky monkey flower (Diplacus aurantiacus subsp. aurantiacus (W. Curtis) Jeps. [Scrophulariaceae]), toyon (Heteromeles...

  15. A new methodology for repository site suitability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, I.; Kossik, R.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. The major portion of the software is the performance assessment model, which consists of a series of coupled component models for radionuclide transfer. The performance model itself is embedded within a decision analysis model which allows the user to evaluate alternative site characterization strategies. This paper provides an overview of the methodology, and summarizes the basic concepts of RIP

  16. Site layout and balance of plant design for an accelerator-driven materials processing complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunliffe, J.; Taussig, R.; Ghose, S. [Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    High energy proton beam accelerators are under consideration for use in radioisotope production, surplus weapons material destruction, radioactive waste transmutation, and thorium-based energy conversion cycles. While there are unique aspects to each of these applications that must be accommodated in the design of the associated facility, all share a set of fundamental characteristics that in large measure dictate the site layout features and many balance-of-plant (BOP) design requirements found to be common to all. This paper defines these key design determinants and goes on to discuss the manner in which they have been accommodated in the pre-conceptual design for a particular materials production application. An estimate of the costs associated with this BOP design is also presented with the aim of guiding future evaluations where the basic plant designs are similar to that of this specific case.

  17. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  18. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Site-Vicinity Infrastructure for Supporting the Accident Management of a Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Katona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants shall be designed to resist the effects of large earthquakes. The design basis earthquake affects large area around the plant site and can cause serious consequences that will affect the logistical support of the emergency actions at the plant, influence the psychological condition of the plant personnel, and determine the workload of the country’s disaster management personnel. In this paper the main qualitative findings of a study are presented that have been performed for the case of a hypothetical 10−4/a probability design basis earthquake for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. The study covers the qualitative assessment of the postearthquake conditions at the settlements around the plant site including quantitative evaluation of the condition of dwellings. The main goal of the recent phase of the study was to identify public utility vulnerabilities that define the outside support conditions of the nuclear power plant accident management. The results of the study can be used for the planning of logistical support of the plant accident management staff. The study also contributes to better understanding of the working conditions of the disaster management services in the region around the nuclear power plant.

  19. Demographic survey around proposed nuclear power plant site in Haryana covering 30 km radius area from the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was planned to have a demographic survey of the households living within 30 km radius of the proposed site. Objectives of the present study were to attain the quantitative baseline demographic data around (within 30 km radius) the proposed site of nuclear power plant, zone-wise and sector-wise distribution of the population around proposed site up to a distance of 30 km from the site, to obtain the data on socio-economic, cultural, and religious perspectives of the target populations, to obtain the data on disease/illness pattern in the target population, health status and mortality rate

  20. Methods of Identification and Evaluation of Brownfield Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kurtović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of this paper was to determine the importance and potential restoration of brownfield sites in terms of economic prosperity of a particular region or country. In addition, in a theoretical sense, this paper presents the methods used in the identification of brownfield sites such as Smart Growth Network model and Thomas GIS model, and methods for evaluation of brownfield sites or the indexing method, cost-benefit and multivariate analysis.

  1. A pragmatic pairwise group-decision method for selection of sites for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    A pragmatic pairwise group-decision approach is applied to compare two regions in order to select the more suitable one for construction of nulcear power plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The selection methodology is based on pairwise comparison by forced choice. The method facilitates rating of the regions or sites using simple calculations. Two regions, one close to Dhahran on the Arabian Gulf and another close to Jeddah on the Red Sea, are evaluated. No specific site in either region is considered at this stage. The comparison is based on a set of selection criteria which include (i) topography, (ii) geology, (iii) seismology, (iv) meteorology, (v) oceanography, (vi) hydrology and (vii) proximetry to oil and gas fields. The comparison shows that the Jeddah region is more suitable than the Dhahran region. (orig.)

  2. Dose evaluation for the public around the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeishi, Minoru; Furuta, Sadaaki; Miyabe, Kenjiro; Shinohara, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    The dose evaluations for the public around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) have been carried out by using the mathematical models, because the effects on the environmental radiation due to the operation of the TRP are too small to separate from the background level. The models were developed by the site-specific investigations of the environment and reviewed in several times based on the latest scientific knowledge. The maximum annual effective dose through the whole period of the operation of the TRP was evaluated as 1.4 μSv with the data of the discharge monitoring and the meteorological observation in 1992. The evaluated doses revealed to be kept as far below the annual dose limit for the public as 1 mSv. (author)

  3. Characterization and remediation of a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murarka, I.P.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Sherman, M.W.; Taylor, B.B.; Mauro, D.M.; Ripp, J.A.; Taylor, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    From the early 1800s through the late 1940s, the production of gas using coal, coke or oil resulted in generation of large volumes of residues including coal tar, lamp black and wood chips containing cyanides at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. Often, these tarry residues were disposed of by burial at or near these plants. In recent years, old MGP sites have come under increased scrutiny from environmental regulators. To address the issues of groundwater contamination and need for clean-up, it is necessary to accurately determine where the tarry materials are now located and how different chemicals released from tars have migrated away from their sources. EPRI research at a coal-tar disposal site in New York has focused on examining and evaluating conventional and innovative methods for sampling and analysis to delineate the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, and to assess the efficacy of remedial actions. This paper presents some of the results of this research and offers recommendations on conducting size investigations as well as selecting appropriate remediation measures

  4. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: site screening and site evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Brown, A.; Everitt, R.A.; Gascoyne, M.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Martin, C.D.; Soonawala, N.M.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1994-06-01

    The concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is to dispose of the waste in an underground vault, nominally at 500 m to 1000 m depth, at a suitable site in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The feasibility of this concept and assessments of its impact on the environment and human health, will be documented by AECL in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). This report is one of nine primary references for the EIS. It describes the approach and methods that would be used during the siting stage of the disposal project to identify a preferred candidate disposal site and to confirm its suitability for constructing a disposal facility. The siting stage is divided into two distinct but closely related substages, site screening and site evaluation. Site screening would mainly involve reconnaissance investigations of siting regions of the Shield to identify potential candidate areas where suitable vault locations are likely to exist. Site screening would identify a small number of candidate areas where further detailed investigations were warranted. Site evaluation would involve progressively more detailed surface and subsurface investigations of the candidate areas to first identify potentially suitable vault locations within the candidate areas, and then characterize these potential disposal sites to identify the preferred candidate location for constructing the disposal vault. Site evaluation would conclude with the construction of exploratory shafts and tunnels at the preferred vault location, and underground characterization would be done to confirm the suitability of the preferred candidate site. An integrated program of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, geochemical and geomechanical investigations would be implemented to obtain the geoscience information needed to assess the suitability of the candidate siting areas and candidate sites for locating a disposal vault. The candidate siting areas and candidate disposal vault sites would be

  5. Biological toxicity evaluation of Hanford Site waste grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V. Dodd, D.A.; Voogd, J.A.

    1992-10-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years of operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. These wastes are currently stored onsite in single- and double-shell carbon steel tanks. To effectively handle and treat these wastes, their degree of toxicity must be determined. The disposal of the low-level radioactive liquid portion of the wastes involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic blends to form grout. Potential environmental hazards posed by grouts are largely unknown. Biological evaluation of grout toxicity is needed to provide information on the potential risks of animal and plant exposure to the grouts. The fish, rat, and Microtox toxicity tests described herein indicate that the grouts formed from Formulations I and 2 are nonhazardous and nondangerous. Using the Microtox solid-phase protocol, both soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic toxicants in the grouts can be detected. This protocol may be used for rapid screening of environmental pollutants and toxicants

  6. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document

  7. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume

  8. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs{hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document.

  9. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs {hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume.

  10. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  11. Comparisons of alternative sites for the encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havel, R.

    2000-12-01

    This report discuses the pros and cons of localizing the spent fuel encapsulation plant at the planned Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuel or at CLAB (Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel). After weighing together all aspects (economy, technology, safety, transports, personnel and environment) it is concluded that building the encapsulation plant in direct connection to CLAB is the most advantageous alternative

  12. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  13. Community Visions for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormsbee, Lindell e [Civil Engineering, Univ. of KY; Kipp, James A [Univ. of KY, Kentucky water research Institute

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on assessing community preferences for the future use of the PGDP site, given the site's pending closure by US DOE. The project approach fostered interaction and engagement with the public based on lessons learned at other complex DOE environmental cleanup sites and upon the integration of a number of principles and approaches to public engagement from the Project Team's local, state, regional and international public engagement experience. The results of the study provide the community with a record of the diversity of values and preferences related to the environmental cleanup and future use of the site.

  14. An evaluation of the optimum timing for planting short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.; Jefferies, R.; Parfitt, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to determine the optimum timing for planting, evaluate problems due to late planting in the spring, and to study the planting of willows at different times during the autumn. Details are given of the site installation, previous research on the effect of planting date and storage, and assessment of the establishment and biomass productivity and the viability of cuttings in long-term storage. Charts illustrating biomass productivity are presented, and long-term storage of willow cuttings for autumn planting is discussed.

  15. 300 Area steam plant replacement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    Steam to support process operations and facility heating is currently produced by a centralized oil-fired plant located in the 300 Area and piped to approximately 26 facilities in the 300 Area. This plant was constructed during the 1940s and, because of tis age, is not efficient, requires a relatively large operating and maintenance staff, and is not reliable. The US Department of Energy is proposing an energy conservation measure for a number of buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This action includes replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing new natural gas pipelines to provide a fuel source for many of these units and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. A new steel-sided building would be constructed in the 300 Area in a previously disturbed area at least 400 m (one-quarter mile) from the Columbia River, or an existing 300 Area building would be modified and used. This Environmental Assessment evaluates alternatives to the proposed actions. Alternatives considered are: (1) the no action alternative; (2) use of alternative fuels, such as low-sulfur diesel oil; (3) construction of a new central steam plant, piping and ancillary systems; (4) upgrade of the existing central steam plant and ancillary systems; and (5) alternative routing of the gas distribution pipeline that is a part of the proposed action. A biological survey and culture resource review and survey were also conducted

  16. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation

  17. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  18. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations: Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures

  19. Final report of fugitive and diffuse emissions evaluations at the Hanford Site, CY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.; Schmidt, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate several of Hanford's major diffuse emission sources and evaluate the effectiveness of monitoring these sources individually versus collectively. The results from this evaluation may also be utilized to demonstrate Westinghouse's compliance status with the applicable air emissions regulations and determine if additional studies and/or evaluations are necessary. Air sampling results from four waste handling and storage facilities were collected for a one week period and analyzed. The following is a list of the selected sampling sites: Plutonium Finishing Plant; 241-BY Tank Farm; 1301-N Trench; 300 Area Trenches and North Ponds. These sites were chosen as being representative of most of the Hanford waste sites, which are known to be diffuse emission sites. The sites were evaluated on the following criteria: physical size, surface contamination levels, geology, vegetation density, surface cover, potential for occupational exposure, and potential for public exposure. The selected sites vary greatly with the selection criteria parameters, and as a result should provide representative data for most of Hanford's waste sites

  20. Toward a regional power plant siting method: AEC-Maryland regional siting factors study, FY 1974 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffee, S.L.; Miller, C.A.

    1974-11-01

    The ''AEC-Maryland Regional Siting Factors Study'' examines the process of siting in a regional context. It is developing an analysis method to delineate candidate areas for siting of several power plant technology packages, including both fossil-fueled and nuclear options. Tools that are being used include simulation modeling, economic and demographic forecasting, spatial analysis, and computer graphics and numerical manipulation. The approach will describe the trade-offs incurred if a power plant is located in one candidate area rather than in another. In FY 1974, a suitability analysis method was developed which uses engineering and environmental parameters to define a level of environmental cost incurred if a segment of land is used to site a specific technology package. (U.S.)

  1. Introducing PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yi-Hsiang; Shih, Chunkuan; Chiang, Show-Chyuan; Weng, Tung-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PCTRAN is integrated with an atmospheric dispersion algorithm. ► The improved PCTRAN acts as an accident/incident simulator and a data exchange system. ► The software helps the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. ► The evaluation results show the nuclear power plant accident and its off-site dose consequences. ► The software can be used for nuclear power plant emergency responses. - Abstract: Protecting the public from radiation exposure is important if a nuclear power plant (NPP) accident occurs. Deciding appropriate protective actions in a timely and effective manner can be fulfilled by using an effective accident evaluation tool. In our earlier work, we have integrated PCTRAN (Personal Computer Transient Analyzer) with the off-site dose calculation model. In this study, we introduce PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses. If abnormal conditions in the plant are monitored or observed, the plant staffs can distinguish accident/incident initiation events. Thus, the responsible personnel can immediately operate PCTRAN and set up those accident/incident initiation events to simulate the nuclear power plant transient or accident in conjunction with off-site dose distributions. The evaluation results consequently help the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. In this study, we explain and demonstrate the capabilities of PCTRAN for nuclear emergency responses, through applying it to simulate the postulated nuclear power plant accident scenarios.

  2. Sludge stabilization at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to operate two laboratory-size muffle furnaces in glovebox HC-21C, located in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The muffle furnaces would be used to stabilize chemically reactive sludges that contain approximately 25 kilograms (55 pounds) of plutonium by heating to approximately 500 to 1000 degrees C (900 to 1800 degrees F). The resulting stable powder, mostly plutonium oxide with impurities, would be stored in the PFP vaults. The presence of chemically reactive plutonium-bearing sludges in the process gloveboxes poses a risk to workers from radiation exposure and limits the availability of storage space for future plant cleanup. Therefore, there is a need to stabilize the material into a form suitable for long-term storage. This proposed action would be an interim action, which would take place prior to completion of an Environmental Impact Statement for the PFP which would evaluate stabilization of all plutonium-bearing materials and cleanout of the facility. However, only 10 percent of the total quantity of plutonium in reactive materials is in the sludges, so this action will not limit the choice of reasonable alternatives or prejudice the Record of Decision of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Environmental Impact Statement

  3. Strategy for managing mixed waste at a plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fentiman, A.

    1991-01-01

    No waste disposal site is currently accepting mixed waste, but facilities across the country continue to generate it. The waste manager at each site is faced with two problems: how to manage the mixed waste already on-site and how to minimize the amount of new waste generated. A strategy has been developed to address each problem. A key element of the strategy is a building-by-building survey of the site. The survey provides information on how and where mixed waste is generated and stored. This paper describes a method for planning and conducting a site-wide mixed-waste survey. It then outlines approaches to managing existing mixed waste and to minimizing mixed-waste generation using information from the survey

  4. Geologic CO2 Sequestration Potential of 42 California Power Plant Sites: A Status Report to WESTCARB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Katherine B.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagoner, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Forty-two California natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant sites were evaluated for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration potential. The following data were collected in order to gauge the sequestration potential of each power plant site: nearest potential CO2 sink, proximity to oil or gas fi elds, subsurface geology, surface expression of nearby faults, and subsurface water. The data for each site were compiled into a one-page, standalone profi le to serve as a quick reference for future decision-makers. A subset of these data was compiled into a summary table for easy comparison of all 42 sites. Decision-makers will consider the geologic CO2 sequestration potential of each power plant in concert with its CO2 capture potential and will select the most suitable sites for a future carbon capture and storage project. Once the most promising sites are selected, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will conduct additional geologic research in order to construct a detailed 3D geologic model for those sites.

  5. Rock siting of nuclear power plants from a reactor safety standpoint. Status report October 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clearify the advantages and disadvantages of an underground nuclear power plant from a reactor safety point of view, compared to a plant above ground. Principles for the technical design of a rock sited BWR nuclear power plant is presented. Also questions of sabotage and closing down the plant at the end of the operational period are treated. (K.K.)

  6. Case study of manufactured gas plant site remediations using thermal desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, R.G.; Hayes, T.; Slimon, K.F.; Unites, D. [Southern California Gas Company, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Southern California Gas Company (SoCal Gas) has recently remediated five of its former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites using on-site and off-site thermal desorption. This technology has proven effective in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils with widely variable concentrations. At two of the five sites, MGP-contaminated materials were excavated and thermally treated on site. At the other sites, MGP-contaminated materials were excavated and transported directly to an off-site thermal desorber. Much of the production was of oil-gas, giving lampblack contamination, but some coal tar was also present.

  7. Pinellas Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a comprehensive summary of the results of the Environmental Monitoring, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration Programs at the Pinellas Plant, in Pinellas County, Florida for 1994. This report also includes the plant's performance in the areas of compliance with applicable regulatory requirements and standards and identifies major Environmental, Safety and Health Program initiatives and accomplishments for 1994. As a result of the end of Department of Energy Defense Programs mission production on September 30, 1994, considerable changes at the Pinellas Plant occurred. These changes, which included transitioning the plant toward alternate use in support of economic development and safe shutdown, both increased and heightened Environmental, Safety and Health responsibilities. In December 1994, the Department of Energy announced it had reached an agreement to sell the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council in March 1995. The plant is being leased back by the Department of Energy through September 1997 to complete safe shutdown, reconfiguration, transfer of equipment to other Department of Energy production facilities, and transition to commercial ventures. Permit modifications and transfers will be completed during 1995 to reflect the new ownership by the Pinellas County Industry Council and to include new tenants as needed

  8. Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle test and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the past many DOE and DoD facilities involved in handling nuclear material realized a need to enhance the safely and security for movement of sensitive materials within their facility, or ''intra-site''. There have been prior efforts to improve on-site transportation; however, there remains a requirement for enhanced on-site transportation at a number of facilities. The requirements for on-site transportation are driven by security, safety, and operational concerns. The Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) was designed to address these concerns specifically for DOE site applications with a standardized vehicle design. This paper briefly reviews the ISTV design features providing significant enhancement of onsite transportation safety and security, and also describes the test and evaluation activities either complete of underway to validate the vehicle design and operation

  9. Joint use of laboratory bioassays and field-collected plants to evaluate toxicity and contaminant bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.P.; Byron, E.R.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil toxicity tests using lettuce (Latuca saliva) were conducted using soil samples collected as part of ecological risk assessments at two facilities in California. At some sites, terrestrial plants were collected in the field for chemical analysis. Ecological concerns focused on exposures to plants, phytophagous insects, and their secondary consumers, such as birds and small mammals. The toxicity tests were used to assess potential exposures to a variety of site-specific contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other inorganic substances. Site soils were combined with clean control soils to produce toxicity test soil dilutions containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% site soils. Observations of seed germination and growth were made at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Toxicity test results were combined with soil chemical analytical results and physical characteristics to establish NOAELs and LOAELs. Bioaccumulation in the lettuce and field-collected plants was evaluated by comparing plant contaminant to soil contaminant concentrations. Allometric equations and sublethal toxicity data were used to predict potential effects on birds and small mammals. Whole-body contaminant concentrations in insects collected on some of the plants in the field were also considered in evaluating the potential for toxicity to insectivorous birds. The study indicated that contaminant uptake was occurring in the field-collected and bioassay plants but not the insects. Site factors in addition to soil contaminant concentration influenced the potential for plant toxicity and bioaccumulation

  10. Decommissioning strategy and schedule for a multiple reactor nuclear power plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Deiglys Borges; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose Rubens, E-mail: deiglys.monteiro@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    The decommissioning is an important part of every Nuclear Power Plant life cycle gaining importance when there are more than one plant at the same site due to interactions that can arise from the operational ones and a decommissioning plant. In order to prevent undesirable problems, a suitable strategy and a very rigorous schedule should implemented and carried. In this way, decommissioning tasks such as fully decontamination and dismantling of activated and contaminated systems, rooms and structures could be delayed, posing as an interesting option to multiple reactor sites. The present work aims to purpose a strategy and a schedule for the decommissioning of a multiple reactor site highlighting the benefits of delay operational tasks and constructs some auxiliary services in the site during the stand by period of the shutdown plants. As a case study, will be presented a three-reactor site which the decommissioning process actually is in planning stage and that should start in the next decade. (author)

  11. Decommissioning strategy and schedule for a multiple reactor nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Deiglys Borges; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose Rubens

    2015-01-01

    The decommissioning is an important part of every Nuclear Power Plant life cycle gaining importance when there are more than one plant at the same site due to interactions that can arise from the operational ones and a decommissioning plant. In order to prevent undesirable problems, a suitable strategy and a very rigorous schedule should implemented and carried. In this way, decommissioning tasks such as fully decontamination and dismantling of activated and contaminated systems, rooms and structures could be delayed, posing as an interesting option to multiple reactor sites. The present work aims to purpose a strategy and a schedule for the decommissioning of a multiple reactor site highlighting the benefits of delay operational tasks and constructs some auxiliary services in the site during the stand by period of the shutdown plants. As a case study, will be presented a three-reactor site which the decommissioning process actually is in planning stage and that should start in the next decade. (author)

  12. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry`s initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants.

  13. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  14. Modeling groundwater flow at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater flow in the shallow unconfined aquifer at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles County, Missouri, was modeled with the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) groundwater flow and contaminant transport computer code. The modeling was performed in support of a hydrogeological characterization effort that is part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement process being carried out by the US Department of Energy at the site. This report presents the results of model development and calibration. In the calibration procedure, the range of field-measured hydrogeological parameters was tested to obtain the best match between model-predicted and measured groundwater elevations. After calibration, the model was used to evaluate whether the presence of an on-site disposal cell would impact the ability to remediate contaminated groundwater beneath the cell. The results of the numerical modeling, which were based on an evaluation of steady-state groundwater flow velocity plots, indicated that groundwater would flow beneath the disposal cell along natural gradients. The presence of a disposal cell would not significantly affect remediation capability for groundwater contamination

  15. Site-Specific Atmospheric Dispersion Characteristics of Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M. H.; Kim, E. H.; Suh, K. S.; Hwang, W. T.; Choi, Y. G.

    2001-01-01

    Site-specific atmospheric dispersion characteristics have been analyzed. The northwest and the southwest wind prevail on nuclear sites of Korea. The annual isobaric surface averaged for twenty years around Korean peninsula shows that west wind prevails. The prevailing west wind is profitable in the viewpoint of radiation protection because three of four nuclear sites are located in the east side. Large scale field tracer experiments over nuclear sites have been conducted for the purpose of analyzing the atmospheric dispersion characteristics and validating a real-time atmospheric dispersion and dose assessment system FADAS. To analyze the site-specific atmospheric dispersion characteristics is essential for making effective countermeasures against a nuclear emergency

  16. Rock siting of nuclear power plants from a reactor safety standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    The study has aimed at surveying the advantages and disadvantages of a rock sited nuclear power plant from a reactor safety standpoint. The studies performed are almost entirely concentrated on the BWR alternative. The design of a nuclear power plant in rock judged most appropriate has been studied in greater detail, and a relatively extensive safety analysis has been made. It is found that the presented technical design of the rock sited alternative is sufficiently advanced to form a basis for further projecting treatment. The chosen technical design of the reactor plant demands a cavern with a 45-50 metre span. Caverns without strengthening efforts with such spans are used in mines, but have no previously been used for industrial plants. Studies of the stability of such caverns show that a safety level is attainable corresponding to the safety required for the other parts of the nuclear power plant. The conditions are that the rock is of high quality, that necessary strengthening measures are taken and that careful studies of the rock are made before and during the blasting, and also during operation of the plant. When locating a rock sited nuclear power plant, the same criteria must be considered as for an above ground plant, with additional stronger demands for rock quality. The presented rock sited nuclear power plant has been assessed to cost 20 % more in total construction costs than a corresponding above ground plant. The motivations for rock siting also depend on whether a condensing plant for only electricity production, or a plant for combined power production and district heating, is considered. The latter would under certain circumstances make rock siting look more attractive. (author)

  17. Possible sites for future nuclear power plants in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaar, Ilan, E-mail: ilany@energy.gov.il [Ministry of National Infrastructure, Energy and Water Resources, Chief Scientist Office, 14 Hartum St., POB 36148, Jerusalem 9136002 (Israel); Walter, Ayelet [Ministry of National Infrastructure, Energy and Water Resources, Chief Scientist Office, 14 Hartum St., POB 36148, Jerusalem 9136002 (Israel); Sanders, Yovav [Sysnet Group, Habarzel St. 32, Tel Aviv 69710 (Israel); Felus, Yaron [Survey of Israel, 1 Lincoln St., POB 14171, Tel-Aviv 61141 (Israel); Calvo, Ran; Hamiel, Yariv [Geological Survey of Israel, 30 Malkhe Israel St., Jerusalem 95501 (Israel)

    2016-03-15

    A preliminary work aimed at allocating suitable new sites for possible NPPs in Israel is presented. The work is based on Israel's present NPP siting criteria, supported by selected procedure performed by various countries that conducted similar process. The site selection process was conducted in two stages: first, a selection procedure using demographic analysis was conducted; second, a seismological and geological analysis process was performed in the remaining area. From the combined two screening processes results, an overall new area of 569 km{sup 2} was located as a possible area for future construction of NPPs in Israel. Further and more comprehensive work, based on the IAEAs site selection guidelines, has to be performed in the future, in order to verify the preliminary findings presented in this work.

  18. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sixteen Nigerian medicinal plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of our evaluation of plants from the Nigerian ethnobotany,sixteen extracts from fourteen medicinal plants were evaluated for toxicity and inhibition of tumour cell growth using human rhabdomyosarcoma(RD) cell line. The plant samples were extracted by maceration in methanol at room temperature and were ...

  19. Effectiveness evaluation of alternative fixed-site safeguard security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of a fixed-site physical protection system must consider the interrelationships of barriers, alarms, on-site and off-site guards, and their effectiveness against a forcible adversary attack intent on creating an act of sabotage of theft. A computer model, Forcible Entry Safeguard Effectiveness Model (FESEM), was developed for the evaluation of alternative fixed-site protection systems. It was written in the GASP IV simulation language. A hypothetical fixed-state protection system is defined and relative evaluations from a cost-effectiveness point of view are presented in order to demonstrate how the model can be used. Trade-offs involving on-site and off-site response forces and response times, perimeter system alarms, barrier configurations, and varying levels of threat are analyzed. The computer model provides a framework for performing inexpensive experiments on fixed-site security systems, for testing alternative decisions, and for determining the relative cost effectiveness associated with these decision policies

  20. The Choice of Sites for the First Nuclear Power Plants in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra do Prado, L.

    1966-01-01

    In selecting the sites for nuclear power plants a decision has to be taken as to (1) which area of the country is best suited for the purpose - e.g. the area of Recife, Rio or Sao Paulo, etc. - given the trend in energy requirements and the availability of resources, and (2) where to site the plant or plants within that area. In this paper I shall concentrate on the first of these problems and shall be concerned with assessing the merits and demerits of installing nuclear power plants in certain regions of Brazil which seem particularly well suited for the purpose

  1. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  2. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites

  3. Geotechnical evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1978-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to demonstrate the acceptability of geologic disposal of radioactive waste by locating a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the salt beds 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP will serve as a permanent repository for defense generated transuranic contaminated waste and will also be used as a facility in which experiments and demonstrations with all radioactive waste types can be conducted. The present area being proposed for the WIPP is the second such location in the Delaware Basin for which new site data have been developed; the first site proved geologically unacceptable. Ecologic and socioeconomic aspects have been investigated and extensive geophysical, geological and hydrologic studies have been conducted to allow an evaluation of site acceptability. Geotechnical aspects of site characterization are examined. These studies are now sufficiently complete that the site can be recommended for further development of the WIPP

  4. Development of a comprehensive management site evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.; Onishi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is in the process of preparing regulations that will define the necessary conditions for adequate disposal of low-level waste (LLW) by confinement in an LLW disposal facility. These proposed regulations form the context in which the motivation for the joint Los Alamos National Laboratory Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory program to develop a site-specific, LLW site evaluation methodology is discussed. The overall effort is divided into three development areas: land-use evaluation, environmental transport modelling, and long term scenario development including long-range climatology projections. At the present time four steps are envisioned in the application of the methodology to a site: site land use suitability assessment, land use-ecosystem interaction, contaminant transport simulation, and sensitivity analysis. Each of these steps is discussed in the paper. 12 refs

  5. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  6. Hydrologic investigations to evaluate a potential site for a nuclear-waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, is being evaluated by the U.S. Department of Energy for its suitability as a site for a mined geologic respository for high-level nuclear wastes. The repository facility would be constructed in densely welded tuffs in the unsaturated zone. In support of the evaluation, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting hydrologic investigations of both the saturated and unsaturated zones, as well as paleohydrologic studies. Investigation in saturated-zone hydrology will help define one component of ground-water flow paths and travel times to the accessible environment. A two-dimensional, steady-state, finite-element model was developed to describe the regional hydrogeologic framework. The unsaturated zone is 450 to 700 meters thick at Yucca Mountain; precipitation averages about 150 millimeters per year. A conceptual hydrologic model of the unsaturated zone incorporates the following features: minimal net infiltration, variable distribution of flux, lateral flow, potential for perched-water zones, fracture and matrix flow, and flow along faults. The conceptual model is being tested primarily by specialized test drilling; plans also are being developed for in-situ testing in a proposed exploratory shaft. Quaternary climatic and hydrologic conditions are being evaluated to develop estimates of the hydrologic effects of potential climatic changes during the next 10,000 years. Evaluation approaches include analysis of plant macrofossils in packrat middens, evaluation of lake and playa sediments, infiltration tests, and modeling effects of potential increased recharge on the potentiometric surface

  7. Energy saving and consumption reducing evaluation of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu; Han, Miaomiao

    2018-03-01

    At present, energy saving and consumption reduction require energy saving and consumption reduction measures for thermal power plant, establishing an evaluation system for energy conservation and consumption reduction is instructive for the whole energy saving work of thermal power plant. By analysing the existing evaluation system of energy conservation and consumption reduction, this paper points out that in addition to the technical indicators of power plant, market activities should also be introduced in the evaluation of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant. Ttherefore, a new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction is set up and the example power plant is calculated in this paper. Rresults show that after introducing the new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction, the energy saving effect of the power plant can be judged more comprehensively, so as to better guide the work of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant.

  8. Performance evaluation of cogeneration power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacone, M.

    2001-01-01

    The free market has changed the criteria for measuring the cogeneration plant performances. Further at the technical-economic parameters, are considered other connected at the profits of the power plant [it

  9. Wind data for wind driven plant. [site selection for optimal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodhart, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Simple, averaged wind velocity data provide information on energy availability, facilitate generator site selection and enable appropriate operating ranges to be established for windpowered plants. They also provide a basis for the prediction of extreme wind speeds.

  10. The importante of physical and mathematical models for nuclear power plants site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.L.P.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the release of effluents from nuclear installations for the site selection of nuclear power plants is discussed. The main available analysis methods, physical and mathematical, is presented [pt

  11. The knowledge-based off-site emergency response system for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, L.W.; Loa, W.W.; Wang, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge-based expert system for a nuclear power plant off-site emergency response system is described. The system incorporates the knowledge about the nuclear power plant behaviours, site environment and site geographic factors, etc. The system is developed using Chinshan nuclear power station of Taipower Company, Taiwan, ROC as a representative model. The objectives of developing this system are to provide an automated intelligent system with functions of accident simulation, prediction and with learning capabilities to supplement the actions of the emergency planners and accident managers in order to protect the plant personnel and the surrounding population, and prevent or mitigate property damages resulting from the plant accident. The system is capable of providing local and national authorities with rapid retrieval data from the site characteristics and accident progression. The system can also provide the framework for allocation of available resources and can handle the uncertainties in data and models

  12. A method of risk assessment for a multi-plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.F.

    1983-06-01

    A model is presented which can be used in conjunction with probabilistic risk assessment to estimate whether a site on which there are several plants (reactors or chemical plants containing radioactive materials) meets whatever risk acceptance criteria or numerical risk guidelines are applied at the time of the assessment in relation to various groups of people and for various sources of risk. The application of the multi-plant site model to the direct and inverse methods of risk assessment is described. A method is proposed by which the potential hazard rating associated with a given plant can be quantified so that an appropriate allocation can be made when assessing the risks associated with each of the plants on a site. (author)

  13. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  14. Nuclear energy center site survey reactor plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 required the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to make a nuclear energy center site survey (NECSS). Background information for the NECSS report was developed in a series of tasks which include: socioeconomic inpacts; environmental impact (reactor facilities); emergency response capability (reactor facilities); aging of nuclear energy centers; and dry cooled nuclear energy centers

  15. Distributional effects of the fiscal impact of power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, D.P.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Classical economic base analysis is grounded in the concept that export activity drives the local economy and that economic impacts due to development can be traced to changes in the export base. Local government activities are frequently treated as a consequence of economic change, but no significant economic impact has been associated with imported tax dollars. In this paper the siting of a power reactor is examined, and it is concluded that the major economic impact related to the siting may result from increases in the tax base, which permit either increased public expenditure or increased disposable income through tax rate decreases. It is argued that as the fraction of the tax base that is owned nonlocally increases, the community perceives a price change, since smaller amounts of local income must be foregone to purchase a constant level of public services. This relationship is estimated using a sample of rural counties drawn from the State of Tennessee. The empirical results generally support the importance of the price variable in determining discretionary expenditures out of local disposable incomes. This finding conforms to other results obtained through an examination of actual reactor sitings, and points to the importance of understanding community responses to increased tax base for understanding local economic impacts from reactor siting

  16. PAH loss during bioremediation of manufactured gas plant site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D C [and others

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory studies using soil samples from a former gas works site showed that PAH in the soil were present in a form resistant to biodegradation, whereas added naphthalene and phenanthrene were quickly degraded. The PAH already present were not extractable into water, and were not toxic to bacteria.

  17. Manufacturing plant performance evaluation by discrete event simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Rasid Osman; Rosnah Mohd Yusuff; Napsiah Ismail; Zulkiflie Leman

    2002-01-01

    A case study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a manufacturing plant using discrete event simulation technique. The study was carried out on animal feed production plant. Sterifeed plant at Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Selangor, Malaysia. The plant was modelled base on the actual manufacturing activities recorded by the operators. The simulation was carried out using a discrete event simulation software. The model was validated by comparing the simulation results with the actual operational data of the plant. The simulation results show some weaknesses with the current plant design and proposals were made to improve the plant performance. (Author)

  18. Scar evaluation of split thickness skin graft donor site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Muha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Split thickness skin graft harvesting causes a certain degree of scaring on the donor site. Donor site scar can cause aesthetic and functional sequelae on the patient's body. Our goal was to study the process of donor site selection, and then evaluate donor site scars and their impact on patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This retrospective study included 45 patients aged 5 to 61 years (in average 36, who have been treated with STSG in the 2004–2010 period. 57.8% of them were men. On a follow-up visit, we photographed healed skin defects and donor sites. We then determined and compared the surface areas of skin defect and the donor site using the Adobe® Illustrator® CS5 computer program. Donor site scars were assessed according to the Vancouver scar scale (VSS. We examined scar’s light touch sensitivity with monofilaments and skin colouring compared to adjacent healthy skin using colorimeter. Patients were also interviewed about their treatment course in a form of a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS. Our research has revealed that 20.0% of patients participated in the decision making process of choosing the donor site, while in 80.0% the donor site was chosen by the surgeon himself. 6.7% of patients were not satisfied with their donor site. Most of the patients (37/45 had donor sites on their thighs. In average, the donor site surface area was 94% bigger than the skin defect area. We found statistically significant differences in VSS values, light touch sensitivity and skin colouring between donor site scaring and adjacent healthy skin. CONCLUSIONS. Donor site scar can represent a lasting aesthetic and functional disability for patients. Our research has shown that most of the patients do not participate in the donor site selection process, but are satisfied with their donor site. In most cases, STGSs are harvested from the thigh, other anatomical regions, where scarring would be aesthetically less obtrusive, are underused

  19. Transport properties site descriptive model. Guidelines for evaluation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Sten; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    2004-04-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models within the SKB Site Investigation programme. Similar reports have been produced for the other disciplines in the site descriptive modelling (Geology, Hydrogeology, Hydrogeochemistry, Rock mechanics, Thermal properties, and Surface ecosystems). These reports are intended to guide the site descriptive modelling, but also to provide the authorities with an overview of modelling work that will be performed. The site descriptive modelling of transport properties is presented in this report and in the associated 'Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock', which describes laboratory measurements and data evaluations. Specifically, the objectives of the present report are to: Present a description that gives an overview of the strategy for developing Site Descriptive Models, and which sets the transport modelling into this general context. Provide a structure for developing Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models that facilitates efficient modelling and comparisons between different sites. Provide guidelines on specific modelling issues where methodological consistency is judged to be of special importance, or where there is no general consensus on the modelling approach. The objectives of the site descriptive modelling process and the resulting Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models are to: Provide transport parameters for Safety Assessment. Describe the geoscientific basis for the transport model, including the qualitative and quantitative data that are of importance for the assessment of uncertainties and confidence in the transport description, and for the understanding of the processes at the sites. Provide transport parameters for use within other discipline-specific programmes. Contribute to the integrated evaluation of the investigated sites. The site descriptive modelling of

  20. Blasting jobs on the building site of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voda, J.; Podel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The problems are discussed of the preparation and implementation on the Temelin nuclear power plant building site of blasting, the volume of drilling and the choice of the drill hammer - all based on experience gained during the construction of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The amount of explosives used on the Temelin site will be 1400 t. The use of mechanical charging may shorten the preparation of the site by 20 to 30%. Explosive emulsion slurries are being developed from home raw materials whose application will reduce the volume of drilling by 15%. The method of controlled breaking secures adequate quality of peripheral walls and bottom chink but special explosives will have to be used. Seismic effects are discussed of blasting on dwellings, agricultural and industrial buildings in the vicinity of the site, on-site buildings, underground mains and special structures of the nuclear power plant. (E.S.)

  1. The part played by applied geology in nuclear power plant site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giafferi, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Site-related geological problems are one of the constraints affecting the environment of nuclear power plants. The natural features (soil and subsoil) at the nuclear power plant site affect numerous factors in the design, construction and operation of the civil engineering structures. The site geological criteria are not solely restricted to the soil as a static support for the structures. Earth tremors in France are of moderate intensity but the likelihood of their occurrence must nevertheless be taken into account for each site. Studies must concern the geological and seismic features of the region as well as the soil and subsoil configurations and composition in the immediate vicinity of the site in order to determine the physical characteristics of the earthquakes so that the safety of the plant can be guaranteed; in many cases, water tables have also to be taken into consideration. Geologic survey techniques are discussed. 13 figs., 7 refs

  2. Research on psychological evaluation method for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative psychology evaluation methods to the nuclear power plant operators were analyzed and discussed in the paper. The comparison analysis to the scope and result of application was carried out between method of outline figure fitted and method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The research results can be referenced to the evaluation of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  3. Evaluative Testing of 5LA3421: A Multicomponent Prehistoric and Historic Site, Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles, Mona; Baker, Thann; Markussen, Christine; Nathan, Randy; Duke, Philip

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2002, evaluative testing was undertaken at a large multicomponent site for the purpose of evaluating the potential of this site to yield significant information about the prehistory...

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report, for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires DOE facilities, that conduct environmental protection programs, to annually prepare a Site Environmental Report (SER). The purpose of the SER is to provide an abstract of environmental assessments conducted in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit. The content of this SER is not restricted to a synopsis of the required data, in addition, information pertaining to new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1995 calendar year are also included. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). The EMP provides inclusive guidelines implemented to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater. air, soil, and biotic matrices are monitored for an array of radiological and nonradiological factors. The baseline radiological surveillance program encompasses a broader geographic area that includes nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Most elements of nonradiological assessments are conducted within the geographic vicinity of the WIPP site.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE facility that conducts significant environmental protection programs to prepare an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). The purpose of the ASER is to summarize environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts. This ASER not only documents the required data, it also documents new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1994 calendar year. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) (DOE/WIPP 94-024). The EMP defines a comprehensive set of parameters that must be monitored to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radiological and nonradiological activity levels. The baseline radiological surveillance program covers the broader geographic area that encompasses nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Nonradiological studies focus on the area immediately surrounding the WIPP site.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE facility that conducts significant environmental protection programs to prepare an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). The purpose of the ASER is to summarize environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts. This ASER not only documents the required data, it also documents new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1994 calendar year. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) (DOE/WIPP 94-024). The EMP defines a comprehensive set of parameters that must be monitored to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radiological and nonradiological activity levels. The baseline radiological surveillance program covers the broader geographic area that encompasses nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Nonradiological studies focus on the area immediately surrounding the WIPP site

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report, for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires DOE facilities, that conduct environmental protection programs, to annually prepare a Site Environmental Report (SER). The purpose of the SER is to provide an abstract of environmental assessments conducted in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit. The content of this SER is not restricted to a synopsis of the required data, in addition, information pertaining to new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1995 calendar year are also included. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). The EMP provides inclusive guidelines implemented to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater. air, soil, and biotic matrices are monitored for an array of radiological and nonradiological factors. The baseline radiological surveillance program encompasses a broader geographic area that includes nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Most elements of nonradiological assessments are conducted within the geographic vicinity of the WIPP site

  8. Seismic PSA method for multiple nuclear power plants in a site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakata, Tadakuni [Nuclear Safety Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    The maximum number of nuclear power plants in a site is eight and about 50% of power plants are built in sites with three or more plants in the world. Such nuclear sites have potential risks of simultaneous multiple plant damages especially at external events. Seismic probabilistic safety assessment method (Level-1 PSA) for multi-unit sites with up to 9 units has been developed. The models include Fault-tree linked Monte Carlo computation, taking into consideration multivariate correlations of components and systems from partial to complete, inside and across units. The models were programmed as a computer program CORAL reef. Sample analysis and sensitivity studies were performed to verify the models and algorithms and to understand some of risk insights and risk metrics, such as site core damage frequency (CDF per site-year) for multiple reactor plants. This study will contribute to realistic state of art seismic PSA, taking consideration of multiple reactor power plants, and to enhancement of seismic safety. (author)

  9. Insights from the U.S. department of Energy plant safety evaluation program of VVER and RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, M.C.; Binder, J.L.; Pasedag, W.F.

    2001-01-01

    Throughout the years 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy has worked build capability in countries of the former Soviet Union to assess the safety of their VVER and RBMK reactors. Through this Plant Safety Evaluation Program, deterministic and probabilistic analyses have been used to provide a documented plant risk profile to support safe plant operation and to set priorities for safety upgrades. Work has been sponsored at thirteen nuclear power plant sites in eight countries. The Plant Safety Evaluation Program has resulted in immediate and long-term safety benefits for the Soviet-designed nuclear plants. (author)

  10. A Risk Severity Index for industrial plants and sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planas, E.; Arnaldos, J.; Silvetti, B.; Vallee, Agnes; Casal, J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk index (Risk Severity Index, S) has been devised to allow the assessment of the risk level originated by a given installation or site over the affected zone. A set of threshold levels for thermal radiation, toxic concentration and overpressure, together with the probabilities and frequencies associated to critical events and their effects have been the basis for calculating the values of S. A computer tool has been designed to perform a quick calculation of the diverse Risk Severity Indexes (for a critical event, for a dangerous phenomenon, for a type of effect and for the whole installation) and to plot a map of the risk severity levels around the site. The methodology has been applied to diverse test cases and it has proved to be useful for risk assessment, for comparative studies and for land use planning

  11. The link between off-site-emergency planning and plant-internal accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.

    1995-02-01

    A variety of accident management measures has been developed and implemented in the German nuclear power plants. They constitute a fourth level of safety in the defence-in-depth concept. The containment venting system is an important example. A functioning link with well defined lines of communication between plant-internal accident management and off-site disaster emergency planning has been established.

  12. Evaluation of tolerance to soils contaminated with diesel oil in plant species with bioremediation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petenello, Maria Cristina; Feldman, Susana Raquel.

    2012-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons or their derivate can be remediated by different methods. Many of them use live organisms such as plants that are able to mineralize these compounds, turning them into more simple molecules, similar to natural molecules. When the use of plants is decided, it is important to employ native plants because they are already adapted to the particular ecological conditions of the site. The response of spartina argentinensis, paspalum atratum, paspalum guenoarun and melilotus albus to the presence of diesel oil was evaluated considering seed germination, plant emergence and biomass production of plants growing on soils experimentally contaminated with different concentrations of diesel oil (1 and 2 %). Although all the parameters evaluated showed the negative impact of the presence of diesel-oil, the plants continued growing; therefore they can be considered useful management options for soil phytoremediation.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site gravity survey and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrows, L.J.; Fett, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    A portion of the WIPP site has been extensively surveyed with high-precision gravity. The main survey (in T22S, R31E) covered a rectangular area 2 by 4-1/3 mi encompassing all of WIPP site Zone II and part of the disturbed zone to the north of the site. Stations were at 293-ft intervals along 13 north-south lines 880 ft apart. The data are considered accurate to within a few hundredths of a milligal. Long-wavelength gravity anomalies correlate well with seismic time structures on horizons below the Castile Formation. Both the gravity anomalies and the seismic time structures are interpreted as resulting from related density and velocity variations within the Ochoan Series. Shorter wavelength negative gravity anomalies are interpreted as resulting from bulk density alteration in the vicinity of karst conduits. The WIPP gravity survey was unable to resolve low-amplitude, long-wavelength anomalies that should result from the geologic structures within the disturbed zone. It did indicate the degree and character of karst development within the surveyed area

  14. Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches

  15. Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches.

  16. Insights from Siting New Nuclear Power Plants in the Central and Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Clifford G.; Kugler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed its review for four early site permits and for four standard reactor designs. It is currently reviewing applications for fourteen combined license applications and three additional reactor designs. The staff is applying lessons it has learned from the reviews to date to the review work going forward. The licensing process being used by current applicants differs significantly from that used by the current operating fleet. The previous process required two steps. First an applicant had to obtain a construction permit to build the plant. Then, near the end of construction, the applicant had to obtain an operating license. Under the process in Part 52, an applicant can apply for a combined license (COL) that allows construction and (once certain conditions are met) operation of a new plant - a one-step process. An applicant for a COL may reference an early site permit (ESP13), a standard design certification, both, or neither. In addition to developing Part 52, the NRC also revised CFR Part 100 by adding Subpart B, which includes sections 100.21, 'Non-seismic siting criteria', and 100.23, 'Geologic and seismic siting criteria'. The NRC staff also revised the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800) and developed Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, 'Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (LWR Edition).' The NRC staff incorporated into the revision of NUREG-0800 and development of RG 1.206 some early lessons learned from its review of the first three ESPs. Staff work begins before the application is received, as the staff interacts with the applicant to identify issues that will require special treatment or specific staff resources. After the application is submitted, if the NRC finds the application acceptable, the safety and environmental reviews begin, proceeding in parallel. The safety review culminates in the issuance of a safety evaluation report (SER) after it

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  19. Site-characterization data needs for hydrogeological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J. [Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Monmouth, ON (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A review of data utilization and data sufficiency for the multiple lines of hydrological analysis in the SITE-94 study yields insight regarding how site characterization relates to key uncertainties in geologic-barrier performance for performance assessment (PA). Significant uncertainties arise from (1) lack of data regarding interrelationships between hydraulic and transport properties in water-conducting features, (2) insufficient data to discriminate between different conceptual models for large-scale spatial correlation of hydraulic properties, and (3) inadequate determination of effective boundary conditions for site-scale models. For future site characterization in support of hydrological modelling for PA, recommendations that can be offered includes: (1) to develop methods for the evaluation of site-specific transport properties, particularly flow porosity, flow wetted surface, matrix diffusion coefficients, and possibly effective sorption coefficients, (2) to emphasize the use of multiple tracers and multiple scales of observation in pumping and tracer tests, in order to allow evaluation of the effects of scale and heterogeneity in hydrologic and transport properties, (3) to develop a structured, systematic approach to borehole investigations, sampling, and core logging, in order to ensure that the data thus gathered will support meaningful statistical analysis, and to ensure that the development of alternative conceptual models is supported, and finally (4) to improve documentation and checking of site-characterization data in order to avoid unnecessary introduction of uncertainty in PA. A full list of recommendations is given in Chapter 4 of this report. 31 refs.

  20. Site-characterization data needs for hydrogeological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.

    1997-12-01

    A review of data utilization and data sufficiency for the multiple lines of hydrological analysis in the SITE-94 study yields insight regarding how site characterization relates to key uncertainties in geologic-barrier performance for performance assessment (PA). Significant uncertainties arise from (1) lack of data regarding interrelationships between hydraulic and transport properties in water-conducting features, (2) insufficient data to discriminate between different conceptual models for large-scale spatial correlation of hydraulic properties, and (3) inadequate determination of effective boundary conditions for site-scale models. For future site characterization in support of hydrological modelling for PA, recommendations that can be offered includes: (1) to develop methods for the evaluation of site-specific transport properties, particularly flow porosity, flow wetted surface, matrix diffusion coefficients, and possibly effective sorption coefficients, (2) to emphasize the use of multiple tracers and multiple scales of observation in pumping and tracer tests, in order to allow evaluation of the effects of scale and heterogeneity in hydrologic and transport properties, (3) to develop a structured, systematic approach to borehole investigations, sampling, and core logging, in order to ensure that the data thus gathered will support meaningful statistical analysis, and to ensure that the development of alternative conceptual models is supported, and finally (4) to improve documentation and checking of site-characterization data in order to avoid unnecessary introduction of uncertainty in PA. A full list of recommendations is given in Chapter 4 of this report

  1. International workshop on site investigation and evaluation based on the siting process in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Stroem, A.

    2001-06-01

    SKB's goal is to commence surface based site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the international workshop on site characterisation held at Aespoe April 2001 was to: present the SKB site investigation and evaluation programme to a group of international experts; discuss whether the available toolbox of investigation methods for surface based site investigations is appropriate and state-of-the-art in an international perspective; and by working group sessions discuss the level of ambition in the programme for site investigation for each discipline. This report summarises the conclusions of the workshop in general terms. Many of the detailed comments and ideas obtained at the workshop have already inspired and will also directly inspire the on-going planning work for site characterisation. The core activity at the workshop was the work performed by working groups. They addressed what should be considered for a site characterisation programme, based on the generic planning made so far by SKB. The working groups also outlined site specific characterisation programmes for the sites suggested by SKB. The tasks were strictly confined to technical and scientific modelling issues. The working group chairmen presented the working group results at the workshop and have also submitted short memos to SKB. The present document is a compilation of these memos. The SKB generic programme as presented in the existing top level documents, 'Requirements and Criteria and Overall Programme', received general endorsement and was appreciated for being comprehensive and systematic. For example, it contains comprehensive lists of parameters to be measured. However, there is need for prioritisation and sequencing. This is actually included in the current planning process at SKB where the generic programme later this year will be adapted to

  2. Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear installations. It supplements the Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The present publication provides guidance and recommends procedures for the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. It supersedes Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3 (2002). In this publication, the following was taken into account: the need for seismic hazard curves and ground motion spectra for the probabilistic safety assessment of external events for new and existing nuclear installations; feedback of information from IAEA reviews of seismic safety studies for nuclear installations performed over the previous decade; collective knowledge gained from recent significant earthquakes; and new approaches in methods of analysis, particularly in the areas of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and strong motion simulation. In the evaluation of a site for a nuclear installation, engineering solutions will generally be available to mitigate, by means of certain design features, the potential vibratory effects of earthquakes. However, such solutions cannot always be demonstrated to be adequate for mitigating the effects of phenomena of significant permanent ground displacement such as surface faulting, subsidence, ground collapse or fault creep. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance on evaluating seismic hazards at a nuclear installation site and, in particular, on how to determine: (a) the vibratory ground motion hazards, in order to establish the design basis ground motions and other relevant parameters for both new and existing nuclear installations; and (b) the potential for fault displacement and the rate of fault displacement that could affect the feasibility of the site or the safe operation of the installation at

  3. 78 FR 56749 - Site Characteristics and Site Parameters for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ..., ``Geologic Characterization Information,'' (currently titled as ``Basic Geologic and Seismic Information... Ensuring Hazard- Consistent Seismic Input for Site Response and Soil Structure Interaction Analyses,'' NUREG-2115 and NUREG-2117; (2) adding information concerning the Geologic Mapping License Condition; (3...

  4. Care of personnel on the building site of the Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurial, P.

    1984-01-01

    The accommodation is described of workers on the building site of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. The quality is appraised of accommodation, catering and refreshments. There is a health care unit on site and 15 beds are reserved at the Trebic hospital for emergency cases. Trade union and youth organizations look after sports and cultural activities. (E.S.)

  5. Fruiting of browse plants affected by pine site preparation in east Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Douglas Richardson

    1977-01-01

    Pine planting sites prepared by burning yielded 120 kg/ha of browse fruits the third growing season after site treatment. Control plots yielded 74, KG-bladed plots 57, and chopped plots 41 kg/ha. Blackberries, American beautyberry, sumac, Sebastian bush, muscadine grape, blueberries, and southern wax-myrtle were the principal species. Most fruit was available in summer...

  6. Pantex Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the environmental monitoring program at Pantex Plant for 1989. It has been prepared in accordance with the United States Department of Energy Order 5400.1. This report presents monitoring data for both radioactive and nonradioactive species in the local environment. Plant activities involve the handling of significant quantities of uranium, plutonium, and tritium in the form of completed parts received from other DOE facilities, resulting in a very low potential for release of these radionuclides to the atmosphere. In May 1989, there was an accidental release of 40,000 curies (Ci) of tritium (conservatively estimated). The normal releases during the year were 0.12 Ci of tritium and 21 {mu}Ci of uranium-238. The USEPA issued a draft Administrative Order of Consent under section 3008(h) in 1988. Negotiations between DOE and EPA are still continuing. Chromium at a level above drinking water standards was found in a perched groundwater well in zone 12. Also, trace amounts of solvents and high explosives were found in the perched groundwater in zone 12. 12 refs., 10 figs., 53 tabs.

  7. Pantex Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the environmental monitoring program at Pantex Plant for 1989. It has been prepared in accordance with the United States Department of Energy Order 5400.1. This report presents monitoring data for both radioactive and nonradioactive species in the local environment. Plant activities involve the handling of significant quantities of uranium, plutonium, and tritium in the form of completed parts received from other DOE facilities, resulting in a very low potential for release of these radionuclides to the atmosphere. In May 1989, there was an accidental release of 40,000 curies (Ci) of tritium (conservatively estimated). The normal releases during the year were 0.12 Ci of tritium and 21 μCi of uranium-238. The USEPA issued a draft Administrative Order of Consent under section 3008(h) in 1988. Negotiations between DOE and EPA are still continuing. Chromium at a level above drinking water standards was found in a perched groundwater well in zone 12. Also, trace amounts of solvents and high explosives were found in the perched groundwater in zone 12. 12 refs., 10 figs., 53 tabs

  8. An approach to evaluating alternatives for wind power plant locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman, Ateekh Ur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision approaches are preferred for achieving multi-dimensional sustainable renewable energy goals. A more critical issue faced by the wind power industry is the selection of a location to tap prospective energy, which needs to be evaluated on multiple measures. In this paper, the aim is to assess and rank alternative wind power plant locations in Saudi Arabia. The approach presented here takes multiple criteria into consideration, such as wind speed, wind availability, site advantages, terrain details, risk and uncertainty, technology used, third party support, projected demand, types of customers, and government policies. A comparative analysis of feasible alternatives that satisfy all multi- criteria objectives is carried out. The results obtained are subjected to sensitivity analysis. Concepts such as ‘threshold values’ and ‘attribute weights’ make the approach more sensitive.

  9. Air toxics evaluation for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokey, D.; Orr, W.

    1994-01-01

    An emission inventory of nonradiological hazardous air pollutants (HAP) was prepared for TVA's Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN). The purpose of this effort was to determine whether BFN is a major HAP emission source. About 40 specific HAP were identified in products used at FBN. HAP emission totals from BFN were estimated at 6 T/Y, well below the major-source cutoff. Off-site waste disposal reduced gross emission estimates by about 8 percent. HAP emission evaluation by product categories showed the largest portion due to paints and coatings, followed by cleaning compounds. HAP emission breakdown by chemical species showed xylene to be the predominate HAP emitted, followed by methyl ethyl ketone

  10. A method for site-dependent planning and its application to the preselection of sites for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.

    1979-01-01

    In the first part of the paper a computer-aided method for dealing with the problems of site-dependent planning is described. By means of the modular program system COPLAN complex conjunction between locally varying data can be performed rapidly and accurately with respect to spatial orientation. The system consists of data input, numerous ways of processing, and graphical representation of the results. The second part shows the application of the system to preselection of sites for thermal power plants. By means of a method analyzing its usefulness, the suitability of each point in (the German Federal State of) Baden-Wuerttemberg as a power plant site is determined. Compared with the currently used methods of preliminary site selection the present method is distinguished by area-covering calculation, the possibility of balancing up advantages and disadvantages, as well as transparency and suitability for being checked up. The paper establishes and considers criteria from the fields of operational economy, safety, ecology, and district planning. The computations are performed for different orders of preference. It is shown that there are regions of sites which are acceptable with respect to a large spectrum of object systems. (orig.) [de

  11. Building dismantlement and site remediation at the Apollo Fuel Plant: When is technology the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Apollo fuel plant was located in Pennsylvania on a site known to have been used continuously for stell production from before the Civil War until after World War II. Then the site became a nuclear fuel chemical processing plants. Finally it was used to convert uranium hexafluoride to various oxide fuel forms. After the fuel manufacturing operations were teminated, the processing equipment was partially decontaminated, removed, packaged and shipped to a licensed low-level radioactive waste burial site. The work was completed in 1984. In 1990 a detailed site characterization was initiated to establishe the extent of contamination and to plan the building dismantlement and soil remediation efforts. This article discusses the site characterization and remedial action at the site in the following subsections: characterization; criticality control; mobile containment; soil washing; in-process measurements; and the final outcome of the project

  12. Regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection in Malaysia-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, N A; Hashim, S; Ramli, A T; Bradley, D A; Hamzah, K

    2016-12-01

    Malaysia has initiated a range of pre-project activities in preparation for its planned nuclear power programme. Clearly one of the first steps is the selection of sites that are deemed suitable for the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Here we outline the Malaysian regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection, emphasizing details of the selection procedures and site characteristics needed, with a clear focus on radiation safety and radiation protection in respect of the site surroundings. The Malaysia Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) site selection guidelines are in accord with those provided in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and United Stated Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents. To enhance the suitability criteria during selection, as well as to assist in the final decision making process, possible assessments using the site selection characteristics and information are proposed.

  13. Selection of sites for nuclear power plants in The Netherlands. Pt. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In this report a policy proposal is presented concerning the selection of location sites for new nuclear power plants in the Netherlands. Firstly it is investigated which of the 29 already selected location sites are not to be taken into further account because of obvious obstructions (close vicinity of a big city etc.). The remaining sites are judged on the base of local population magnitude. The sites that pass the last criteria are relatively compared from a large number of viewpoints. To round off the selection procedure the government will explain why they consider the finally selected sites to be suitable for location of new nuclear power plants. Steps are indicated to prevent the decrease of planologic suitability of the selected location sites. (Auth.)

  14. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Alternative off-site power supply improves nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjorgiev, Blaže; Volkanovski, Andrija; Kančev, Duško; Čepin, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Additional power supply for mitigation of the station blackout event in NPP is used. • A hydro power plant is considered as an off-site alternative power supply. • An upgrade of the probabilistic safety assessment from its traditional use is made. • The obtained results show improvement of nuclear power plant safety. - Abstract: A reliable power system is important for safe operation of the nuclear power plants. The station blackout event is of great importance for nuclear power plant safety. This event is caused by the loss of all alternating current power supply to the safety and non-safety buses of the nuclear power plant. In this study an independent electrical connection between a pumped-storage hydro power plant and a nuclear power plant is assumed as a standpoint for safety and reliability analysis. The pumped-storage hydro power plant is considered as an alternative power supply. The connection with conventional accumulation type of hydro power plant is analysed in addition. The objective of this paper is to investigate the improvement of nuclear power plant safety resulting from the consideration of the alternative power supplies. The safety of the nuclear power plant is analysed through the core damage frequency, a risk measure assess by the probabilistic safety assessment. The presented method upgrades the probabilistic safety assessment from its common traditional use in sense that it considers non-plant sited systems. The obtained results show significant decrease of the core damage frequency, indicating improvement of nuclear safety if hydro power plant is introduced as an alternative off-site power source

  16. Plant remains of archaeological site Casa Vieja, Callango (Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A paleoethnobotanical study was carried out at the Middle Horizon archaeological site of Casa Vieja, located in Callango within the Lower Ica Valley. A total of 23 species were identified, all determined to be of the Magnoliopyta Division, 78 % (or 18 species were Magnoliopsid and 22% (or 15 species Liliopsid. The Fabaceae are the best represented family with 6 species. Most of the analyzed samples correspond to seeds of Gossypium barbadense “cotton”. Seventy percent of the species were probably used as food; 48% for artifact-making and construction and 52% for medicinal and curative purposes.

  17. Nuclear architecture and landscape: the power plant creates the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, Claude; Bouvier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    The implementation, from 1974, of the French nuclear programme, was associated with an 'Architecture Plan' requested by Michel Hug, Equipment Manager at power utility EDF. The objective was to create an architecture language specific to nuclear power. Far from trying to hide the nuclear power stations, the nuclear architecture college conversely designed one set of ambitious and powerful shapes. Systematically associated to one landscape and to one colourist, the architect sought to use in the best possible way the potentialities available on one site. The power station should not blend in with the landscape, but on the contrary, participate in the creation of a fresh landscape

  18. Regulatory inspection activities on nuclear power plant sites during construction in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.V.

    1977-01-01

    The work of regulatory inspection of the construction of the plant on the site is performed not only by the inspector who has been allocated to inspection duties for that site but also by the specialist staff who are involved with the safety assessment of the plant. The co-ordination of this work is described in the paper and examples are given of inspection activities associated with the enforcement requirements of licence conditions as well as those related to the inspection of the plant itself. (author)

  19. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  20. Accident hazard evaluation and control decisions on forested recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1971-01-01

    Accident hazard associated with trees on recreation sites is inherently concerned with probabilities. The major factors include the probabilities of mechanical failure and of target impact if failure occurs, the damage potential of the failure, and the target value. Hazard may be evaluated as the product of these factors; i.e., expected loss during the current...

  1. Hanford Site background: Evaluation of existing soil radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report is an evaluation of the existing data on radiological background for soils in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The primary purpose of this report is to assess the adequacy of the existing data to serve as a radiological background baseline for use in environmental restoration and remediation activities at the Hanford Site. The soil background data compiled and evaluated in this report were collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Washington State Department of Health (DOH) radiation surveillance programs in southeastern Washington. These two programs provide the largest well-documented, quantitative data sets available to evaluate background conditions at the Hanford Site. The data quality objectives (DQOs) considered in this evaluation include the amount of data, number of sampling localities, spatial coverage, number and types of radionuclides reported, frequency of reporting, documentation and traceability of sampling and laboratory methods used, and comparability between sets of data. Although other data on soil radionuclide abundances around the Hanford Site exist, they are generally limited in scope and lack the DQOs necessary for consideration with the PNL and DOH data sets. Collectively, these two sources provide data on the activities of 25 radionuclides and four other parameters (gross alpha, gross beta, total uranium, and total thorium). These measurements were made on samples from the upper 2.5 cm of soil at over 70 localities within the region

  2. Engineering Geological Evaluation Of A Proposed Landfill Site At ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of a location at Aba-Kulodi adjacent to kilometre 8 along the Ibadan / Ile-Ife expressway, Southwestern Nigeria was carried out to determine its suitability or otherwise as a landfill site. Two Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) 30.00m apart were executed to obtain subsurface information on depth to bedrock and ...

  3. The Homecourt coke plant site: a successful redeveloped brown field case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnier, P.; Piguet, O.; Lereboullet, L.

    2006-01-01

    The environmental diagnosis of the coke plant site in Homecourt has been carried out over the last 15 years. Bail Industrie has selected two zones on the site for a remediation program in view of their further redevelopment. The weakly polluted grounds were submitted to a bio treatment, while the more polluted grounds were treated by thermal desorption. Tars have been incinerated off site. To assess the effectiveness of the treatment, percolation tests are carried out. (authors)

  4. Archaeological reconnaissance of a proposed site for the Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, J.

    1976-01-01

    An archaeological reconnaissance was carried out on Sections 20, 21, 28, and 29 of T 22 S, R 31 E, Eddy County, NM, the core area of a site proposed for disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). This site is located in the Los Medanos area east of Carlsbad, NM. Results of the survey are presented in sections on survey techniques, geology, terrain, floristics, cultural resources, theoretical considerations, site description, and recommendations

  5. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  6. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs

  7. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP) candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Shazmeen Daniar; Basri, Nor Afifah; Omar, Nurlyana; Koh, Meng-Hock; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saridan Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad

    2017-10-01

    Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP) by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA) is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point of view of

  8. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin Shazmeen Daniar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point

  9. Off-site preparedness and nuclear-power-plant licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The first year and a half in which off-site emergency preparedness issues have been litigated before the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards of the NRC have surfaced unique problems of proof for the applicant as well as the staff. These problems seem to be abating as the boards and the parties become more comfortable with the field and its issues, and as FEMA-NRC emergency management expertise gains credibility. Emergency preparedness presentations have also improved as the parties have become more sensitive to the seasonality of the preparedness case, and have increasingly attempted to raise it at a time when a fully developed set of facts is available for the record. Off-site preparedness issues are only now beginning to be raised on appeal to the NRC appeals board, the full commission, and the courts. Helpful guidance on what constitutes an adequate record in this area will undoubtedly be forthcoming in decisions handed down by these bodies in the months ahead

  10. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow at Kori Nuclear Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Wook; Sohn, Soon Whan; Chon, Chul Min; Kim, Kue Youn

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the understanding of hydrogeological characteristics of nuclear power sites is getting more importance with increasing public concerns over the environment since such understanding is essential for an environmentally friendly operation of plants. For such understanding, the prediction of groundwater flow pattern onsite plays the most critical role since it is the most dynamic of the factors to be considered. In this study, the groundwater flow at the Kori Plant 1 site has been simulated numerically with aim of providing fundamental information needed for improving the understanding of the hydrogeological characteristics of the site

  11. Development of the on-site power supply in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, D-5000 Koeln 1, Cologne (Germany)

    1986-02-15

    The design of the on-site power supply is different in German Nuclear Power Plants, depending on age and size of the plant. The cause for this is the evolution of the safety requirements. The general development of the design of safety Systems, which resulted in a strict separation of redundant trains is also reflected in the design of the emergency power system and even the complete on-site power supply System. This will be demonstrated by different examples. The advantages of this design with respect to the availability of on-site power will be explained and verified by means of operating experience. (author)

  12. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes

  13. Cytochrome c1 exhibits two binding sites for cytochrome c in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; González-Arzola, Katiuska; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-10-01

    In plants, channeling of cytochrome c molecules between complexes III and IV has been purported to shuttle electrons within the supercomplexes instead of carrying electrons by random diffusion across the intermembrane bulk phase. However, the mode plant cytochrome c behaves inside a supercomplex such as the respirasome, formed by complexes I, III and IV, remains obscure from a structural point of view. Here, we report ab-initio Brownian dynamics calculations and nuclear magnetic resonance-driven docking computations showing two binding sites for plant cytochrome c at the head soluble domain of plant cytochrome c1, namely a non-productive (or distal) site with a long heme-to-heme distance and a functional (or proximal) site with the two heme groups close enough as to allow electron transfer. As inferred from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, the two binding sites exhibit different equilibrium dissociation constants, for both reduced and oxidized species, that are all within the micromolar range, thus revealing the transient nature of such a respiratory complex. Although the docking of cytochrome c at the distal site occurs at the interface between cytochrome c1 and the Rieske subunit, it is fully compatible with the complex III structure. In our model, the extra distal site in complex III could indeed facilitate the functional cytochrome c channeling towards complex IV by building a "floating boat bridge" of cytochrome c molecules (between complexes III and IV) in plant respirasome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The potential environmental impacts and the siting of proposed nuclear power plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the methodology of assessing environmental impacts from the nuclear power plants and analyses the potential radiological impacts on the environment from proposed nuclear power plants in China. Preliminary studies show that the environmental impacts of the effluents of routine release from PWRs to the proposed sites are extremely small, even if nuclear power plants are constructed either on the Bohai Sea shore with a narrow mouth or in the densely populated regions of Sunan. Thus, the suitability of sites depends mainly on the acceptability of possible exposure to the residents following postulated accidental release of radioactive materials. The paper also discusses relations between the nuclear plant siting and population distribution around the site and compares the distribution of the proposed sites in China with that of other countries sites in according to China actual situation, it is reasonable to adopt a prudent policy that the first series of nuclear power plants in China should be built in relatively low population areas

  15. Impact of external events on site evaluation: a probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccarino, E.; Giuliani, P.; Zaffiro, C.

    1975-01-01

    A probabilistic method is proposed for definition of the reference external events of nuclear sites. The external events taken into account are earthquakes, floods and tornadoes. On the basis of the available historical data for each event it is possible to perform statistical analyses to determine the probability of occurrence on site of events of given characteristics. For earthquakes, the method of analysis takes into consideration both the annual frequency of seismic events in Italy and the probabilistic distribution of areas stricken by each event. For floods, the methods of analysis of hydrological data and the basic criteria for the determination of design events are discussed and the general lines of the hydraulic analysis of a nuclear site are shown. For tornadoes, the statistical analysis has been performed for the events which occurred in Italy during the last 40 years; these events have been classified according to an empirical intensity scale. The probability of each reference event should be a function of the potential radiological damage associated with the particular type of plant which must be installed on the site. Thus the reference event could be chosen such that for the whole of the national territory the risk for safety and environmental protection is the same. (author)

  16. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the Early Site Plan Demonstration Program (ESPDP) is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. This document provides appendices A and B of this report. Appendix A contains a list of regulations, regulatory guidance, and acceptance criteria; Appendix B contains a cross-reference index of siting-related documentation

  17. Hanford performance evaluation program for Hanford site analytical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, L.P.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, states that it is the responsibility of DOE contractors to ensure that ''quality is achieved and maintained by those who have been assigned the responsibility for performing the work.'' Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) is designed to meet the needs of the Richland Operations Office (RL) for maintaining a consistent level of quality for the analytical chemistry services provided by contractor and commmercial analytical laboratory operations. Therefore, services supporting Hanford environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, and waste management analytical services shall meet appropriate quality standards. This performance evaluation program will monitor the quality standards of all analytical laboratories supporting the Hanforad Site including on-site and off-site laboratories. The monitoring and evaluation of laboratory performance can be completed by the use of several tools. This program will discuss the tools that will be utilized for laboratory performance evaluations. Revision 0 will primarily focus on presently available programs using readily available performance evaluation materials provided by DOE, EPA or commercial sources. Discussion of project specific PE materials and evaluations will be described in section 9.0 and Appendix A

  18. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  19. Evaluating biological transport of radionuclides at low-level waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to develop and demonstrate methods for evaluating the long-term impact of biological processes at low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. As part of this effort, we developed order-of-magnitude estimates of dose-to-man resulting from animal burrowing activity and plant translocation of radionuclides. Reference low-level waste sites in both arid and humid areas of the United States were examined. The results of our evaluation for generalized arid LLW burial site are presented here. Dose-to-man estimates resulting from biotic transport are compared with doses calculated from human intrusion exposure scenarios. Dose-to-man estimates, as a result of biotic transport, are of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from a more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at LLW sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by our findings. These results indicate that biotic transport has the long-term potential to mobilize radionuclides. Therefore, biotic transport should be carefully evaluated during burial site assessment

  20. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the guidebook is to assist an organisation responsible for a nuclear power project in evaluating and establishing an economic order of merit among competing bids. An approximate overall time schedule for a first nuclear power plant project is provided. A schematic outline of technical bid evaluation is given. The basic procedure of economic bid evaluation is outlined, e.g. evaluation of the present worth of all cost items of plant capital investment, of the nuclear cycle, of O and M costs (operation and maintenance costs), and of economic corrections. All these cost items are evaluated for the economic life of the plant and corrected for escalation where applicable

  1. Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.W.; Lane, N.K.; Swenson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is one of the many tools used to evaluate and select remedial alternatives and evaluate the risk associated with selected remedial alternatives during and after implementation. The risk evaluation of remedial alternatives (RERA) is performed to ensure selected alternatives are protective of human health and the environment. Final remedy selection is promulgated in a record of decision (ROD) and risks of the selected alternatives are documented. Included in the ROD documentation are the risk-related analyses for long-term effectiveness, short-term effectiveness, and overall protection of human health and the environment including how a remedy will eliminate, reduce or control risks and whether exposure will be reduced to acceptable levels. A major goal of RERA in the process leading to a ROD is to provide decision-makers with specific risk information that may be needed to choose among alternatives. For the Hanford Site, there are many considerations that must be addressed from a risk perspective. These include the large size of the Hanford Site, the presence of both chemical and radionuclide contamination, one likelihood of many analogues sites, public and worker health and safety, and stakeholder concern with ecological impacts from site contamination and remedial actions. A RERA methodology has been promulgated to (1) identify the points in the process leading to a ROD where risk assessment input is either required or desirable and (2) provide guidance on how to evaluate risks associated with remedial alternatives under consideration. The methodology and evaluations parallel EPA guidance requiring consideration of short-term impacts and the overall protectiveness of remedial actions for evaluating potential human health and ecological risks during selection of remedial alternatives, implementation of remedial measures, and following completion of remedial action

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the seismic hazard at Cernavoda NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Serban, V.; Androne, M.

    2001-01-01

    The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is a methodology by which one evaluates the probability of exceeding different parameters of the ground motions (the maximum ground acceleration - PGA and the ground response spectrum - SA) as effect of the seismic action, on a given site at a future time moment. Due to the large uncertainties in the geological, geophysical, seismological input data, as well as, in the models utilised, various interpretation schemes are applied in the PSHA analyses. This interpretation schemes lead to opinion discrepancies among specialists which finally lead to disagreements in estimating the values of the seismic design for a given site. In order to re-evaluate the methodology and to improve the PSHA result stability, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored a project for defining methodological guides of performing PSHA analyses. The project was implemented by a panel of 7 experts, the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee - SSHAC. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of the seismic hazard for the Cernavoda NPP site by application of the methodology mentioned, by taking into account the possible sources which could affect the site (the Vrancea focus, Galati - Tulcea fault, Sabla - Dulovo fault and local earthquakes)

  3. Estimating release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar contaminated soil at manufactured gas plant sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.S.

    1998-04-01

    One of EPRI's goals regarding the environmental behavior of organic substances consists of developing information and predictive tools to estimate the release potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils at manufactured gas (MGP) plant sites. A proper assessment of the distribution of contaminants under equilibrium conditions and the potential for mass-transfer constraints is essential in evaluating the environmental risks of contaminants in the subsurface at MGP sites and for selecting remediation options. The results of this research provide insights into estimating maximum release concentrations of PAHs from MGP soils that have been contaminated by direct contact with the tar or through years of contact with contaminated groundwater. Attention is also given to evaluating the use of water-miscible cosolvents for estimating aqueous phase concentrations, and assessing the role of mass-transfer constraints in the release of PAHs from MGP site soils

  4. Screening criteria of volcanic hazards aspect in the NPP site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Siwhan

    2013-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the completeness of regulation in Indonesia particularly on volcanic hazards aspects in the evaluation of nuclear power plant site. Volcanic hazard aspect needed to identify potential external hazards that may endanger the safety of the operation of nuclear power plants. There are four stages for evaluating volcanic hazards, which are initial assessment, characterization sources of volcanic activity in the future, screening volcanic hazards and assessment of capable volcanic hazards. This paper discuss the third stage of the general evaluation which is the screening procedure of volcanic hazards. BAPETEN Chairman Regulation No. 2 Year of 2008 has only one screening criteria for missile volcanic phenomena, so it required screening criteria for other hazard phenomena that are pyroclastic flow density; lava flows; avalanche debris materials; lava; opening hole new eruptions, volcano missile; tsunamis; ground deformation; and hydrothermal system and ground water anomaly. (author)

  5. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-07-01

    The environmental impacts associated with remedial actions in connection with residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site located in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The Canonsburg site is an 18.5-acre property that was formerly owned by the Vitro Rare Metals Company. The expanded Canonsburg site would be 30-acre property that would include the Canonsburg site (the former Vitro Rare Metals plant), seven adjacent private houses, and the former Georges Pottery property. During the period 1942 through 1957 the Vitro Manufacturing Company and its successor, the Vitro Corporation of America, processed onsite residues and ores, and government-owned ores, concentrates, and scraps to extract uranium and other rare metals. The Canonsburg site is now the Canon Industrial Park. In addition to storing the residual radioactive materials of this process at the Canonsburg site, about 12,000 tons of radioactively contaminated materials were transferred to a railroad landfill in Burrell Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. This Canonsburg FEIS evaluates five alternatives for removing the potential public health hazard associated with the radioactively contaminated materials. In addition to no action, these alternatives involve various combinations of stabilization of the radioactively contaminated materials in place or decontamination of the Canonsburg and Burrell sites by removing the radioactively contaminated materials to another location. In addition to the two sites mentioned, a third site located in Hanover Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania has been considered as a disposal site to which the radioactively contaminated materials presently located at either of the other two sites might be moved.

  6. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The environmental impacts associated with remedial actions in connection with residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site located in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The Canonsburg site is an 18.5-acre property that was formerly owned by the Vitro Rare Metals Company. The expanded Canonsburg site would be 30-acre property that would include the Canonsburg site (the former Vitro Rare Metals plant), seven adjacent private houses, and the former Georges Pottery property. During the period 1942 through 1957 the Vitro Manufacturing Company and its successor, the Vitro Corporation of America, processed onsite residues and ores, and government-owned ores, concentrates, and scraps to extract uranium and other rare metals. The Canonsburg site is now the Canon Industrial Park. In addition to storing the residual radioactive materials of this process at the Canonsburg site, about 12,000 tons of radioactively contaminated materials were transferred to a railroad landfill in Burrell Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. This Canonsburg FEIS evaluates five alternatives for removing the potential public health hazard associated with the radioactively contaminated materials. In addition to no action, these alternatives involve various combinations of stabilization of the radioactively contaminated materials in place or decontamination of the Canonsburg and Burrell sites by removing the radioactively contaminated materials to another location. In addition to the two sites mentioned, a third site located in Hanover Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania has been considered as a disposal site to which the radioactively contaminated materials presently located at either of the other two sites might be moved

  7. A proposal on siting counterplan of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Hitoshi

    1980-01-01

    As for the nuclear power generation in Japan. 21 plants with 14.95 million kW capacity have started the operation in 14 years. It is equivalent to more than 12% of the total capacity of power stations. But the environment around the development of nuclear power generation becomes more and more strict recently, and the formation of the consensus of residents becomes a very large political problem. The lead time from the proposal of construction to the local community to the commencement of operation was 8 years and 1 month in the case of 10 nuclear power stations in operation, but it is extended to 15 years and 6 months in the case of 4 power stations under construction. The prefectures where nuclear power stations are located were seven at the end of 1970, and only three were added during 9 years thereafter. It shows the difficulty of the location of nuclear power stations in new prefectures. In order to attain 78 million kW of nuclear power generation by 1995, the location of 50 million kW must be decided in coming several years in view of the lead time. The progress of the studies in the Atomic Industrial Forum, the strengthening of security system in the sistricts concerned, the formation of open environment for informations, the improvement of the setup concerning the compensation to fishery and others, and the studies on the law concerning the special measures for the districts where nuclear facilities are located are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  8. Mobile radiological monitoring around Nuclear Power Plant site at Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.S.; Saindane, S.S.; Sharma, R.; Suri, M.M.K.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.; Rao, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Real time mobile radiological monitoring around nuclear facilities is required for establishing background radiation dose rate data and to detect any increase in the radiation level which is attributable to the atmospheric releases from Nuclear facilities. Mobile radiation survey using mobile monitoring systems was carried out in the Emergency Planning Zone around Tarapur Atomic Power station during plant operation, taking the wind direction also into consideration. For identifying the potential difficulties during an emergency scenario and to understand the variation of the measured values several systems/instruments were used simultaneously for mapping the dose rates. As demonstrated during this monitoring programme, 40mm x 40mm NaI(Tl) detector based Portable Mobile Gamma Spectrometry System (PMGSS) which is attached with a GPS can acquire and store large amount of gamma spectra tagged with positional coordinates and can enhance the capacity of decision makers during any accidental situation. The average of dose rates measured from various locations around Tarapur Atomic Power Station is 70 - 80 nGy.h -1 . The higher dose rate in the range of 110-125 nGy.h -1 measured at one of the location is due to higher concentration of natural radioactivity mainly by 40 K which was confirmed by the gamma spectrometric measurement. (author)

  9. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs

  11. The Contribution of Palaeoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations, published in 2010, covers all aspects of site evaluation relating to seismic hazards and recommends the use of prehistoric, historical and instrumental earthquake data in seismic hazard assessments. Prehistoric data on earthquakes cover a much longer period than do historical and instrumental data. However, gathering such data is generally difficult in most regions of the world, owing to an absence of human records. Prehistoric data on earthquakes can be obtained through the use of palaeoseismic techniques. This publication describes the current status and practices of palaeoseismology, in order to support Member States in meeting the recommendations of SSG-9 and in establishing the necessary earthquake related database for seismic hazard assessment and reassessment. At a donors’ meeting of the International Seismic Safety Centre Extrabudgetary Project in January 2011, it was suggested to develop detailed guidelines on seismic hazards. Soon after the meeting, the disastrous Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 11 March 2011 and the consequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred. The importance of palaeoseismology for seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation was highlighted by the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, no methodology for performing investigations using palaeoseismic techniques has so far been available in an IAEA publication. The detailed guidelines and practical tools provided here will be of value to nuclear power plant operating organizations, regulatory bodies, vendors, technical support organizations and researchers in the area of seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation for nuclear installations, and the information will be of importance in support of hazard assessments in the future

  12. Nuclear power plant attempts in Turkey and the first licensed site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bektur, Y.; Bezdegumeli, U.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, detailed information regarding Turkey's past attempts for the construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and site survey studies conducted for this plant is given. Also, some important characteristics of the first licensed site, namely Akkuyu, are summarized. There were four attempts made for the construction of an NPP in the past. However, all of them failed due to technical, economical and/or some other reasons. Akkuyu site has been selected among around 25 candidate sites for the reasons that bulky materials can be transported there by sea; it is located near the major electricity demand centers; soil-structure interaction and slab stability are suitable for the construction of an NPP; its surrounding is one of the most sparsely populated areas of Turkey; and it is seismically the most stable region in earthquake-prone Turkey, e.g. Turkish Electricity Authority (TEK) was granted a site license for the Akkuyu in 1976. (author)

  13. Utility survey on nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, D.F.; Bauman, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the large U.S. utilities were surveyed by telephone and mail on questions concerning nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers (NECs). The main purpose of the survey was for guidance of ERDA's NEC program. The questions covered the following topics: availability of sites; impact of environmental and other restraints; plans for development of multi-unit sites; interest in NEC development; interest in including fuel-cycle facilities in NECs; and opinions on the roles desired for the state and Federal governments in power plant siting. The main conclusion of the survey was that, while many utilities were considering multiple-unit sites of 2 to 5 units, none were planning larger energy centers at the present time. However, several expressed interest in NECs as a long-range future development

  14. Site infrastructure as required during the construction and erection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.; Wagner, H.

    1978-01-01

    In general, in an exchange of experience on constructing nuclear power plants priority is given to design and lay-out, financing, quality assurance etc., but in this paper an attempt has been made to describe range and type of site infrastructure required during construction and erection. Site infrastructure will make considerable demands on the planning, supply of material and maintenance that may result from the frequently very isolated location of power plant sites. Examples for specific values and experiences are given for a nuclear power plant with two units on the 1300-MW type at present under construction of the Persian Gulf in Iran. Data concerning the site infrastructure, including examples, are given and explained on the basis of graphs. The site is split up into a technical and a social infrastructure. The main concern of the technical site infrastructure is the timely provision and continuous availability of electric energy, water, communication grids, workshops, warehouses, offices, transport and handling facilities, as well as the provision of heavy load roads, harbour facilities, etc. The social site infrastructure in general comprises accommodation, food supplies and the care and welfare of all site personnel, which includes a hospital, school, self-service shop, and sport and recreation facilities. (author)

  15. Countermeasures for siting and environment of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Koichi

    1976-01-01

    Though the requests to urge the construction of nuclear power plants increased since the oil crisis, it is clear that it is necessary to take some countermeasures without delay at present because the location problems are in deadlock. Drastic change of the way of thinking should be made first if the social and political extensions of the problem are considered. It must require the persevering effort based on long-range outlook. Accordingly, emphasis is put on the introduction of the environmental administration in U.S. which seems to have many respects to be referred to in the following description. Then National Environmental Policy Act and the permission and approval procedures for nuclear power stations in U.S. are described, and the details of environmental disputes are listed. It reveals the discrepancy of the actual circumstances in Japan and the United States, and that the important portion of the U.S. experience and concept is not learned by Japanese. The Government lacks the recognition that the public acceptance of safety is not obtained till the report of safety investigation and environmental assessment by the governmental organizations are entrusted to people's judgement. That is, the procedures to win the public acceptance are omitted in Japan. The thoroughness of environmental protection is first of all necessary for achieving the target of nuclear power development. Since it seems to be nothing but the countermeasures for the public acceptance of nuclear power generation to cope with ''60 mens' testimony'', the main points of the ''Sixty mens' testimony'' in Fukushima public hearing are cited at the end, which is supposed to include almost all opposite opinions. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Economic evaluation of laser enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Takashi; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1983-08-01

    Operational characteristics of Laser Enrichment Plant are described based on the data available at present. And its economy is also discussed from the view point of investment and energy consumption. In the procedure of this estimation, the composition of the plant is firstly considered, secondly each component is designed, and thirdly the production cost of each component is estimated. Then the sensitivity of the component cost on the plant cost is analysed, which leads to the optimization of the product cost and the determination of the economic plant size, etc. The results shows that the power cost of the electric gun occupies the large majority of the total power cost, and that the capital cost of laser devices occupies most of the total capital cost. (author)

  17. An Evaluation System for Checking the Status of I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JinWoo, Hyun; Hak-Yeong, Chung; ChanHo, Sung

    2006-01-01

    I and C upgrade has been hot issue around the world as progresses of degradation, aging and obsolescence have been getting worse with the continual I and C system operation, it is very difficult to develop I and C evaluation system for the real application to nuclear power plants due to complexity or reliability aspects of the methodology. Thus, to improve these problems related to evaluation and application of I and C systems, we have been developing an evaluation system which embarks an objective evaluation methodology and works on internet for convenience. This Evaluation system has been established based on the evaluation factors including system importance, performance, maintenance, aging, economic efficiency and the continuance of equipment supply, and each evaluation factor has some questionnaires which are composed of questions requiring quantitative and qualitative answers. The applied evaluation algorithm consists of scoring process among evaluation factors and weighting factor allocation process. The Evaluation system has a structure based on web environment. With this system, staffs from plant sites can directly conduct the evaluation of each I and C system status of the plant, survey of results, survey of upgrade information, and upgrade/maintenance plan. Also head office utilizes this system for the survey of the evaluation results, upgrade or maintenance plan of each site and especially acquires some useful information for making finance plans. (authors)

  18. Criteria and evaluation of shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    The criteria for shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes as developed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission-US and International Atomic Energy Agency are discussed. Emphasis has been given to: elaboration of various basic components of a national Strategy for radioactive waste disposal; development of technical requirements; environmental standards, consensus among scientific community and public confidence. Aspects of site selection, evaluation/characterization and site suitability are dealt with. Some results of characterization of a site for tempory storage of low level solid radioactive wastes in Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo are described. The methods used for hydrological characterization include use of artificial tritium for unsaturated zone and radioactive tracers like I-131, Cr 51 Cl 3 , Cr 51 EDTA, Br 82 for the saturated zone. (Author) [pt

  19. Criteria and evaluation of shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria for shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes as developed by Nuclear Regulatory Comission-US and International Atomic Energy Agency are discussed. Emphasis has been given to: elaboration of various basic components of a national strategy for radioactive waste disposal; development of technical requirements; environmental standards, consensus among scientific community and public confidence. Aspects of site selection, evaluation/characterization and site suitability are dealt with. Some results of characterization of a site for temporary storage of low level solid radioactive wastes in Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN - CNEN/Sao Paulo are described. The methods used for hydrological characterization include use of artificial tritium for unsaturated zone and radioactive tracers like I - 131, Cr 51 Cl 3 , Cr 51 EDTA, Br 82 for the saturated zone. (Author) [pt

  20. A method for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative approach for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurement activities is developed and illustrated with an example application to hypothetical measurement schemes at a potential geologic repository site for radioactive waste. The method is a general one and could also be applied at sites for underground disposal of hazardous chemicals. The approach presumes that measurements will be undertaken to support predictions of the performance of some aspect of a constructed facility or natural system. It requires a quantitative performance objective, such as groundwater travel time or contaminant concentration, against which to compare predictions of performance. The approach recognizes that such predictions are uncertain because the measurements upon which they are based are uncertain. The effectiveness of measurement activities is quantified by a confidence index, β, that reflects the number of standard deviations separating the best estimate of performance from the predetermined performance objective. Measurements that reduce the uncertainty in predictions lead to increased values of β. 5 refs., 4 figs

  1. Environmentally acceptable endpoints for PAHs at a manufactured gas plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroo, H.F.; Jensen, R.; Loehr, R.C.; Nakles, D.V.; Fairbrother, A.; Liban, C.B. [ThermoRetec Corp., Carson, CA (USA)

    2000-09-01

    Samples from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site in Santa Barbara, CA were tested to evaluate the environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) process for setting risk-based cleanup criteria. The research was part of an ongoing effort to develop and demonstrate a protocol for assessing risk-based criteria for MGP sites that incorporates the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six soil samples were subjected to a battery of physical and biological tests that focused on determining the 'availability' of the soil-bound contaminants to groundwater, ecological receptors, and human receptors. Results demonstrated that sorption to soil, matrix effects, aging, and treatment can significantly reduce chemical availability. Including these reduced availability results in risk assessment calculations yielded environmentally protective cleanup levels almost 3-10 times greater than levels derived using California default risk assessment assumptions. Using an EAE-based approach for MGP soils, especially those containing lampblack, could provide more realistic risk assessment. 23 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Middlesex Sampling Plant Site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site in Middlesex, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. The site became contaminated from operations conducted in support of the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1943 and 1967. Activities conducted at the site included sampling, storage, and shipment of uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores and residues. Uranium guidelines for single radioisotopes and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the MSP site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The RESRAD computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four scenarios were considered for the site. These scenarios vary regarding future land use at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed

  3. Problems in Siting Nuclear Power Plants in Japan and Efforts to Solve Them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inouye, T. [Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1967-09-15

    The rapidly growing demand for energy in Japan will require a total capacity of 30 to 40 thousand MW(e) in nuclear power by 1985. Materialization of this development programme must naturally be supported by securing the requisite sites for the nuclear power plants. The following factors make siting of nuclear power plants more difficult in Japan than in any other country: a small, densely populated territory with little level land, that is already completely utilized for agricultural and/or industrial purposes; small rivers and an active marine-product industry developed along most of the seacoasts, both of which create difficult cooling-water problems; frequent earthquakes; and the fear of possible radioactivity, which prevails in the only nation in the world to have suffered from the atomic bomb. There are at present four nuclear power plants in operation or under construction in Japan with a total capacity of about 1.3 thousand MW(e). However, the plants in these construction programmes have been sited on the basis of taking the easiest course available although there were several possible solutions to choose from. It is pointed out here that the long-range nuclear power development programme will call for a fundamental solution to enable siting a large number of power plants under the adverse conditions in Japan. Accordingly, a study was made, which included quantitative analyses of reactor siting factors and suggested measures for solving the siting problems. The analyses were based on nuclear power plant sites assumed to be located on the seacoast and characterized by low-population density, desirable geology and favourable topography. It was assumed that seacoast siting was more economical than inland siting. Although the study was made by a general survey using maps, it was shown that approximately 10% of the total coastline areas would be eligible for reactor siting, but most of these areas in this case are located in the northern part of Japan, far from

  4. Economics of plant production on marginal sites in the state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesemer, Andrea; Andreas, Gurgel; Ines, Bull

    2017-04-01

    Marginal sites are defined by economics. It is not possible to produce any profit there under given conditions of markets and policy even when management is optimized. In the state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a portion of nearly 20 % of arable land is characterized by such conditions. There are often to find sandy sites below 28 soil points with low storage capacity and irregular water supply. Animal husbandry as a type of agricultural upgrading has a more important role in the south and southwest of the state than in the regions with better soil quality. The percentage of Maize was already in 2003 twice as high in the regions with more marginal sites. After implementation of the Renewable Energy Act many enterprises started built biogas plants. In 2010, the portion of maize was raised to 20 %. The increase of Maize was combined with a reduction of growing other fodder crops, rye and also by reducing set-aside areas. The scale of the cash crops Rape (16%), Wheat (15 %) and barley (9 %) stayed the same. The yields and production processes of several selected farms in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern were analyzed for the years 2011 to 2016. The farms reached 6.6 tons per hectare of wheat and 6.1 tons per hectare of barley on soils below 28 soil points. Hybrid rye achieved 5.4 tons per hectare and rape 3.0. Maize was especially dependent on water supply and made between 30 and 35 tons per hectare. The big problem in these regions is caused by high production costs in cropping. More than a half of the costs is required for seeds, fertilization and crop protection. However, the remaining revenues are not adequate for paying work and fix costs as an evaluation of farms in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern shows. It is not a valid option to set more land that is arable aside in regions with much marginal sites because cropping is a strategic investment there. Therefore, it is important to make effort on crop rotations and optimization of production intensities to decrease costs per unit and to

  5. Evaluation of the suitability of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.; Chaturvedi, L.; Little, M.S.; Rehfeldt, K.; Spiegler, P.

    1983-05-01

    Determination of the suitability of the site for WIPP is only the first major phase in the evaluation of the radiological impact of the repository on the public health and safety. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) will continue to independently review the design of the facility, the operational procedures, the criteria for packaging and shipment of the waste, the plans, procedures and results of the WIPP experiments, emergency preparedness, adherence to EPA and pertinent NRC regulations, and other important features of the project. EEG has concluded from existing evidence that the Los Medanos site for the WIPP project has been characterized in sufficient detail to warrant confidence in the validation of the site for the permanent emplacement of approximately 6 million cubic feet of defense transuranic waste. This conclusion is based on the assumption that the maximum surface dose rate for the unshielded remote-handled transuranic waste canisters will be 100 rem/hr with a maximum radionuclide concentration of 23 Ci/liter. The Site and Preliminary Design Validation program, through the drilling of two shafts to the selected repository level at 2160 ft below the surface and excavation of about 9000 ft of tunnels, has confirmed the interpretations made about the subsurface geological conditions at the site. For an assessment of the potential radiation effects of the nuclear waste repository on the public health and safety, it is necessary to understand the regional geological and hydrological setting. Much work has been done to understand these conditions and to address several specific issues which have arisen as a result of such studies. However, it is almost inevitable that some questions remain unanswered at a given time in the decision-making process. EEG has identified work which still needs to be done at the Los Medanos site in order to improve confidence in the worst case scenario models of possible breaches of the repository

  6. Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginger M. Thurston

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Active restoration is one strategy to reverse tropical forest loss. Given the dynamic nature of climates, human populations, and other ecosystem components, the past practice of using historical reference sites as restoration targets is unlikely to result in self-sustaining ecosystems. Restoring sustainable ecological processes like pollination is a more feasible goal. We investigated how flower cover, planting design, and landscape forest cover influenced bird pollinator visits to Inga edulis trees in young restoration sites in Costa Rica. I. edulis trees were located in island plantings, where seedlings had been planted in patches, or in plantation plantings, where seedlings were planted to cover the restoration area. Sites were located in landscapes with scant (10–21% or moderate (35–76% forest cover. Trees with greater flower cover received more visits from pollinating birds; neither planting design nor landscape forest cover influenced the number of pollinator visits. Resident hummingbirds and a migratory bird species were the most frequent bird pollinators. Pollination in the early years following planting may not be as affected by details of restoration design as other ecological processes like seed dispersal. Future work to assess the quality of various pollinator species will be important in assessing this idea.

  7. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the Early Site Plan Demonstration Program (ESPDP) is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. This document provides appendices C and D of this report. Appendix C contains data from the licensing and technical reviews; Appendix D contains technology toolkit data sheets

  8. Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors

  9. Evaluation of Phosphorus Site Assessment Tools: Lessons from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Andrew; Kleinman, Peter; Baffaut, Claire; Beegle, Doug; Bolster, Carl; Collick, Amy; Easton, Zachary; Lory, John; Nelson, Nathan; Osmond, Deanna; Radcliffe, David; Veith, Tamie; Weld, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Critical source area identification through phosphorus (P) site assessment is a fundamental part of modern nutrient management planning in the United States, yet there has been only sparse testing of the many versions of the P Index that now exist. Each P site assessment tool was developed to be applicable across a range of field conditions found in a given geographic area, making evaluation extremely difficult. In general, evaluation with in-field monitoring data has been limited, focusing primarily on corroborating manure and fertilizer "source" factors. Thus, a multiregional effort (Chesapeake Bay, Heartland, and Southern States) was undertaken to evaluate P Indices using a combination of limited field data, as well as output from simulation models (i.e., Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender, Annual P Loss Estimator, Soil and Water Assessment Tool [SWAT], and Texas Best Management Practice Evaluation Tool [TBET]) to compare against P Index ratings. These comparisons show promise for advancing the weighting and formulation of qualitative P Index components but require careful vetting of the simulation models. Differences among regional conclusions highlight model strengths and weaknesses. For example, the Southern States region found that, although models could simulate the effects of nutrient management on P runoff, they often more accurately predicted hydrology than total P loads. Furthermore, SWAT and TBET overpredicted particulate P and underpredicted dissolved P, resulting in correct total P predictions but for the wrong reasons. Experience in the United States supports expanded regional approaches to P site assessment, assuming closely coordinated efforts that engage science, policy, and implementation communities, but limited scientific validity exists for uniform national P site assessment tools at the present time. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. A Site Selection Model for a Straw-Based Power Generation Plant with CO2 Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lv

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on the location of a straw-based power generation plant has a great influence on the plant’s operation and performance. This study explores traditional theories for site selection. Using integer programming, the study optimizes the economic and carbon emission outcomes of straw-based power generation as two objectives, with the supply and demand of straw as constraints. It provides a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to solve the site selection problem for a straw-based power generation plant. It then provides a case study to demonstrate the application of the model in the decision on the site selection for a straw-based power generation plant with a Chinese region. Finally, the paper discusses the result of the model in the context of the wider aspect of straw-based power generation.

  11. Review of Investigations on Site Selection for Nuclear Power Plants in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbasa, N.

    2008-01-01

    A review of site investigation for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Croatia that had been performed from 1964, when investigation started for the first nuclear power plant, to 1994 when the activities were stopped, is presented therein. Brief results of the main investigation were presented including the Tanja site on the Danube upstream of Vukovar. It is the best of all the investigated locations for nuclear power plant in Croatia. The review of results for site selection of low and intermediate level of radioactive waste disposal is also given. The position of nuclear power plants in the strategic documents of the Republic of Croatia was analysed. It is concluded that the status of nuclear facilities in the main strategic documents must be improved because the energy future in Croatia - as almost in all European countries - could hardly be successful without any further development of nuclear energy.(author)

  12. Review of Investigations on Site Selection for Nuclear Power Plants in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malbasa, N [Ekonerg, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-07-01

    A review of site investigation for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Croatia that had been performed from 1964, when investigation started for the first nuclear power plant, to 1994 when the activities were stopped, is presented therein. Brief results of the main investigation were presented including the Tanja site on the Danube upstream of Vukovar. It is the best of all the investigated locations for nuclear power plant in Croatia. The review of results for site selection of low and intermediate level of radioactive waste disposal is also given. The position of nuclear power plants in the strategic documents of the Republic of Croatia was analysed. It is concluded that the status of nuclear facilities in the main strategic documents must be improved because the energy future in Croatia - as almost in all European countries - could hardly be successful without any further development of nuclear energy.(author)

  13. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.1 Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction...

  14. The site of a nuclear power plant and environmental safety; Ydinvoimalaitoksen sijaintipaikka ja ympaeristoen turvallisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to give the reader a general view of the things associated with the site of a nuclear power plant. In this context the effect of a nuclear power plant and site on environmental safety is considered. Planning, construction and operating a nuclear power plant require several judgements and licenses based on different laws. The location of the planned nuclear facility project and environmental conditions contribute in great detail to the compliance arguments of permits. At first the environmental impacts of the siting project and its alternatives shall be investigated in the Environmental Impact Assessment procedure. Then the decision in principle according to the Nuclear Energy Act can be applied from the Council of State, the decision shall further be confirmed by Parliament. When the decision in principle is considered the overall good of society shall be assessed by means of considering i.a. site alternatives and safety. The safety related basic principle is that operation of a nuclear power plant may not cause danger to the environment, public or property. After the affirmative principle approval the construction license and later on the operation license can be applied from the Council of State, these licenses need to be supported i.a. by building and environmental licenses of separate authorities. Also some international contracts concern realisation of a nuclear power plant siting. The nuclear power plant site shall be suitable for the needs of the electricity production and the transmission system and it shall be technically appropriate for building and operation of a power plant. The site shall be safe enough on the other hand from the view of external events threatening the power plant - although one can be partly prepared for these things in the design of the plant - and on the other hand from the point of public safety. Requirements for the safety of the site are directed in the decision of the Council of State's general

  15. Method of safety evaluation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraszkiewicz, P.; Zahn, P.

    1988-01-01

    A novel quantitative technique for evaluating safety of subsystems of nuclear power plants based on expert estimations is presented. It includes methods of mathematical psychology recognizing the effect of subjective factors in the expert estimates and, consequently, contributes to further objectification of evaluation. It may be applied to complementing probabilistic safety assessment. As a result of such evaluations a characteristic 'safety of nuclear power plants' is obtained. (author)

  16. Comparison of the incidence of Listeria on equipment versus environmental sites within dairy processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, T J; Flanders, K J; Donnelly, C W

    1995-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the incidence of Listeria contamination of processing equipment with that of the general dairy processing environment. A total of 378 sponge samples obtained from 21 dairy plants were analyzed for Listeria using three different enrichment media. Use of extended microbiological analysis allowed us to identify 26 Listeria positive sites which would have not been identified had a single test format been employed. Eighty (80) of 378 sites (21.2%) were identified as Listeria positive. Listeria innocua was isolated from 59 of the 80 (73.8%) positive samples, L. monocytogenes was identified in 35 (43.8%) of the positive samples, and L. seeligeri was isolated from 5 (6.3%) of the Listeria positive samples. Positive equipment samples were obtained from 6 of the 21 (28.6%) plants and 19 of the 21 (90.5%) plants had positive environmental sites. Seventeen of the 215 (7.9%) samples from equipment were positive for Listeria species. Eleven of these sites, including 3 holding tanks, 2 table tops, 3 conveyor/chain systems, a pasta filata wheel, a pint milk filler and a brine pre-filter machine, were positive for L. monocytogenes. Nineteen of the 21 (90.5%) plants had positive environmental sites. Sixty-three of the 163 (41.1%) samples from environmental sites were Listeria positive and 24 were positive for L. monocytogenes. Two-tailed student t-test analysis of the mean frequencies indicated that the level of contamination was significantly higher (p plant, and that greater emphasis needs to be placed on the cleaning and sanitizing of the plant environment.

  17. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  18. Site-specific proteolytic degradation of IgG monoclonal antibodies expressed in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehle, Verena K; Lombardi, Raffaele; van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Paul, Mathew J; Di Micco, Patrizio; Morea, Veronica; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello; Ma, Julian K-C

    2015-02-01

    Plants are promising hosts for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, proteolytic degradation of antibodies produced both in stable transgenic plants and using transient expression systems is still a major issue for efficient high-yield recombinant protein accumulation. In this work, we have performed a detailed study of the degradation profiles of two human IgG1 mAbs produced in plants: an anti-HIV mAb 2G12 and a tumour-targeting mAb H10. Even though they use different light chains (κ and λ, respectively), the fragmentation pattern of both antibodies was similar. The majority of Ig fragments result from proteolytic degradation, but there are only a limited number of plant proteolytic cleavage events in the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains. All of the cleavage sites identified were in the proximity of interdomain regions and occurred at each interdomain site, with the exception of the VL /CL interface in mAb H10 λ light chain. Cleavage site sequences were analysed, and residue patterns characteristic of proteolytic enzymes substrates were identified. The results of this work help to define common degradation events in plant-produced mAbs and raise the possibility of predicting antibody degradation patterns 'a priori' and designing novel stabilization strategies by site-specific mutagenesis. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Preliminary results on food consumption rates for off-site dose calculation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun; Bang, Sun Young; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    The Internal dose by food consumption mostly account for radiological dose of public around nuclear power plants(NPP). But, food consumption rate applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which is the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI in 1988. is not reflected of the latest dietary characteristics. The Ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. To update the food consumption rates of the maximum individual, the analysis of the national food investigation results and field surveys around nuclear power plant sites have been carried out

  20. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  1. Earthquakes and associated topics in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. The main purpose of the text is to provide guidance on the determination of the design basis ground motions for a nuclear power plant at a chosen site and on the determination of the potential for surface faulting at that site. Additionally, the Guide discusses other permanent displacement phenomena (liquefaction, slope instability, subsidence and collapse) and introduces the topic of seismically induced flooding. Volcanic activity is not dealt with except in connection with tsunamis. 55 refs

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Site environmental report for calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental Impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental Impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include air quality, water quality, soil properties, meteorological, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area Including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, and no waste has been received; certain elements required by DOE Order 5400.1 are not presented In this report. The most significant addition to the 1991 report is the inclusion of the first four appendices, the Radiological Baseline Program (DOE/WIPP 92-037), the Salt Impact Studies (DOE/WIPP 92-038), the Disturbed Land Reclamation Techniques (DOE/WIPP 92-039), and the Background Water Characterization for the WIPP (DOE/WIPP 92-013). These appendices are independently published and available to interested parties by the DOE reference number. These summaries will not be published in future ASER'S. They will, however, be referenced as a basis for evaluating similar data collected during the Test and subsequent Operational phases of the WIPP

  3. Safety Considerations in the Selection of Nuclear Power Plant Candidate Sites in Johor State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, A.T.; Basri, N.A.; Abu Hanifah, N.Z.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best options for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation / production, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. The most obvious challenges are to ensure the nation’s safety and to handle security issues that may arise from a nuclear power plant site. This paper aims to propose a site for nuclear power plant in Johor State, Malaysia as well as listing the possible safety challenges in the process. The site selection uses the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) guideline document as the main reference, supported by documents from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and from various countries. Only five site characteristics are chosen as study parameters – geological features and seismic data, air dispersion analysis using meteorological data, population distribution, safety zones and emergency supports. This paper concluded that site number 2 (CS2) at Tanjung Tenggaroh, Mersing is the most suitable area for nuclear power plant in Johor state. It has the least possible risks, safety and security issues. (author)

  4. Safety Considerations in the Selection of Nuclear Power Plant Candidate Sites in Johor State, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, A. T.; Basri, N. A.; Abu Hanifah, N. Z.H., [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best options for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation / production, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. The most obvious challenges are to ensure the nation’s safety and to handle security issues that may arise from a nuclear power plant site. This paper aims to propose a site for nuclear power plant in Johor State, Malaysia as well as listing the possible safety challenges in the process. The site selection uses the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) guideline document as the main reference, supported by documents from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and from various countries. Only five site characteristics are chosen as study parameters – geological features and seismic data, air dispersion analysis using meteorological data, population distribution, safety zones and emergency supports. This paper concluded that site number 2 (CS2) at Tanjung Tenggaroh, Mersing is the most suitable area for nuclear power plant in Johor state. It has the least possible risks, safety and security issues. (author)

  5. Site fidelity by bees drives pollination facilitation in sequentially blooming plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Jane E; Thomson, James D

    2016-06-01

    Plant species can influence the pollination and reproductive success of coflowering neighbors that share pollinators. Because some individual pollinators habitually forage in particular areas, it is also possible that plant species could influence the pollination of neighbors that bloom later. When flowers of a preferred forage plant decline in an area, site-fidelity may cause individual flower feeders to stay in an area and switch plant species rather than search for preferred plants in a new location. A newly blooming plant species may quickly inherit a set of visitors from a prior plant species, and therefore experience higher pollination success than it would in an area where the first species never bloomed. To test this, we manipulated the placement and timing of two plant species, Delphinium barbeyi and later-blooming Gentiana parryi. We recorded the responses of individually marked bumble bee pollinators. About 63% of marked individuals returned repeatedly to the same areas to forage on Delphinium. When Delphinium was experimentally taken out of bloom, most of those site-faithful individuals (78%) stayed and switched to Gentiana. Consequently, Gentiana flowers received more visits in areas where Delphinium had previously flowered, compared to areas where Delphinium was still flowering or never occurred. Gentiana stigmas received more pollen in areas where Delphinium disappeared than where it never bloomed, indicating that Delphinium increases the pollination of Gentiana when they are separated in time. Overall, we show that individual bumble bees are often site-faithful, causing one plant species to increase the pollination of another even when separated in time, which is a novel mechanism of pollination facilitation.

  6. Water hammer in USA nuclear power plants and it's evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuqian.

    1987-01-01

    The results of evaluations about the water hammer events in USA nuclear power plants in recent years are summarily reported. The evaluations included underlying causes and frequency of water hammer events, damages incurred and systems affected. Through the evaluations about water hammer events and on the basis of past operation experiences in nuclear power plants, the design and operational modifications to prevent or mitigate water hammer events were presented. The NRC's current opinions relating to the water hammer problems are summarized, the importance of water hammer events for nuclear power plants construction in China is indicated

  7. Maryland Power Plant Siting Project: an application of the ORNL-Land Use Screening Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Since 1974 the Resource Analysis Group in the Regional and Urban Studies Section of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing a procedure for regional and local siting analysis known as the ORNL Land Use Screening Procedure (LUSP). This document is the final report of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Project (MPPSP) in which the ORNL LUSP was used to identify candidate areas for power plant sites in northern Maryland. Numerous candidate areas are identified on the basis of four different siting objectives: the minimization of adverse ecologic impact, the minimization of adverse socioeconomic impact, the minimization of construction and operating costs, and a composite of all siting objectives. Siting criteria have been defined for each of these objectives through group processing techniques administered to four different groups of siting specialists. The siting priorities and opinions of each group have been expressed quantitatively and applied to a geographic information system containing 52 variables for each 91.8-acre cell in the northern eight counties of Maryland

  8. Maryland Power Plant Siting Project: an application of the ORNL-Land Use Screening Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Since 1974 the Resource Analysis Group in the Regional and Urban Studies Section of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing a procedure for regional and local siting analysis known as the ORNL Land Use Screening Procedure (LUSP). This document is the final report of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Project (MPPSP) in which the ORNL LUSP was used to identify candidate areas for power plant sites in northern Maryland. Numerous candidate areas are identified on the basis of four different siting objectives: the minimization of adverse ecologic impact, the minimization of adverse socioeconomic impact, the minimization of construction and operating costs, and a composite of all siting objectives. Siting criteria have been defined for each of these objectives through group processing techniques administered to four different groups of siting specialists. The siting priorities and opinions of each group have been expressed quantitatively and applied to a geographic information system containing 52 variables for each 91.8-acre cell in the northern eight counties of Maryland.

  9. Angkor site monitoring and evaluation by radar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fulong; Jiang, Aihui; Ishwaran, Natarajan

    2014-11-01

    Angkor, in the northern province of Siem Reap, Cambodia, is one of the most important world heritage sites of Southeast Asia. Seasonal flood and ground sinking are two representative hazards in Angkor site. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing has played an important role for the Angkor site monitoring and management. In this study, 46 scenes of TerraSAR data acquired in the span of February, 2011 to December, 2013 were used for the time series analysis and hazard evaluation; that is, two-fold classification for flood area extracting and Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry (MT-InSAR) for ground subsidence monitoring. For the flood investigation, the original Single Look Complex (SLC) TerraSAR-X data were transferred into amplitude images. Water features in dry and flood seasons were firstly extracted using a proposed mixed-threshold approach based on the backscattering; and then for the correlation analysis between water features and the precipitation in seasonally and annually. Using the MT-InSAR method, the ground subsidence was derived with values ranging from -50 to +12 mm/yr in the observation period of February, 2011 to June, 2013. It is clear that the displacement on the Angkor site was evident, implying the necessity of continuous monitoring.

  10. Radiation environmental monitoring and assessment of plant-221 site ten years after decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Gu Zhijie; Pan Wei; Ren Xiaona; Hu Xiaolin; She Haiqiang

    2011-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since nuclear facility decommissioning practice for Plant-221 finished. Environmental radiation monitoring and post assessment of the decommissioning site of Plant-221 was carried out during 2003-2006, which was organized by Department of Environmental Protection and executed by China Institute for Radiation Protection, Environmental Radiation Monitoring station of Qinghai Province, etc. It shows that the decommissioning practice for Plant-221 complied with relevant limits for decommissioning, and its environmental radiation situation has not had significant change in general after 10 years, and the potential impact to the public and the environmental is acceptable. (authors)

  11. Problems of developing remedial strategy for the uranium ore processing legacy site Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant site (Dneprodzerginsk, Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riazantsev, V.; Bugai, D.; Skalskyy, A.; Tkachenko, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present results of works and studies carried out in the frame of ongoing national and international projects aimed at developing the remedial strategy for the Soviet era legacy uranium production site Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant, Dneprodzerginsk, Ukraine. The site includes several uranium mill tailings, contaminated buildings, ore storage grounds and other contaminated facilities. Taking into account the necessity to implement provisions of the new IAEA standards (Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, No. GSR Part 3 (Interim) and others) as well as the provisions of the ICRP 103 publication, the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate Ukraine developed the draft of the new licensing requirements for activities of uranium ores processing.

  12. The evaluation of uptake of tritiated methane to the plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, Hideki; Andoh A, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru

    2003-01-01

    The experiment of the exposure of tritiated methane (CH 3 T) to plants was carried. Plants were put in the airtight container that CH 3 T gas was added. The amount of light that it irradiated plants was changed, and the amounts of photosynthesis as the metabolic change activities of the plants were adjusted, and processes of assimilation to the plant of CH 3 T were evaluated under a constant temperature. The leaves in the container and the inside gas were collected in every interval, and tritium concentrations in the samples were determined. It is observed that CH 3 T concentration in the container decreased under both the light and dark conditions. On changing from dark to light condition, there was no change in the decreasing tendency of the CH 3 T concentration. These show that tritiated methane would be taken in the plants without the photosynthesis process, but through the oxidation by microorganism on plants. (author)

  13. Handbook for the planning, co-ordination and evaluation of emergency exercises in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtborn, I.; Bath, N.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiency of the on-site emergency organization in German nuclear power plants is tested regularly through emergency exercises. To achieve federal harmonization on a high level of quality a handbook for the planning, co-ordination and evaluation of such exercises has been developed in the frame of the regulatory investigation programme. In this handbook requirements are set out for emergency training. Key elements are a modular structure, rules to be observed and guidance for post-exercise evaluation. (orig.) [de

  14. Seismic analysis of two 1050 mm diameter heavy water upgrading towers for 235 MWe Kaiga Atomic Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.; Narwaria, Suresh; Vardarajan, T.G.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with the analysis carried out for the evaluation of earthquake induced stresses and deflections in two 1050 mm diameter heavy water upgrading towers for Kaiga Atomic Power Plant Site. The analysis of upgrading tower has been carried out for two mutually perpendicular horizontal excitations and one vertical excitation applied simultaneously. The upgrading towers have been analysed using beam model taking into account soil-structure interaction. Response spectrum analysis has been carried out using site spectra for 235 MWe Kaiga reactor site. The seismic analysis has been performed for both the towers with supporting structure along with concrete pedestals and raft foundation. The towers have been checked for its stability due to compressive stresses to avoid buckling so that the nearby safety related structures are not geopardised in the event of safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) loading. (author). 14 refs., 12 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Nuclear power plant construction and financial assistance - as regards subsidies for promotion of power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the institutional framework for the granting of subsidies in particular to promote nuclear power plant construction in Japan. It also analyses the technical criteria applied and lists the type of improvements to various facilities and equipment made with such subsidies. (NEA) [fr

  16. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  17. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site

  18. Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides guidance on the process of risk evaluation of remedial alternatives (RERA) at the Hanford Site. Remediation activities at the Hanford Site are being conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This document identifies points in the remedial alternative selection process where risk assessment input is either required or desirable. For each of these points of application, the document identifies issues to consider and address, and suggests possible approaches, techniques, and appropriate levels of detail. The level of detail of a RERA is driven by the need to use risk as a criterion for selecting a remedial alternative. Such a document is needed to ensure that RERA is conducted in a consistent manner, and to prevent restating or creating guidance within each RERA

  19. Actions concerning nuclear power plant life evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, M.; Fabbri, S.; Mizrahi, R.; Savino, E.J.; Versaci, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main activities to be undertaken by CNEA will be to provide technological assistance to NASA in problems concerning NPP operation. Works on life extensions of NPP are included in these activities. To fulfill these requirements the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) has constituted a technical committee for Nuclear Power Plants Support (CAPCEN). CAPCEN should be the knowledge reservoir of those issues concerning the performance, safety and life extension of Nuclear Power Plants. One of CAPCEN's most important activities is to promote research work connected with such issues. The main technical areas are: Pressure Vessel and Piping, Heat Exchanges and Fuel Channels and Reactor Inner Components. Efforts are focused on the identification of the main components susceptible of ageing, the study of their ageing mechanisms, the follow-up of their behaviour during operation, and the measures taken to extend their life. (author)

  20. Contribution to evaluating nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razga, J.; Horacek, P.

    1990-01-01

    Large-scale accidents pose the highest risk in the use of nuclear power. They are the major factor that has to be taken into account when assessing the effect of nuclear power plants on human health and on the environment. In Czechoslovak conditions, the effectiveness of provisions made to reduce the hazard of large-scale nuclear power plant accidents must be considered from the following aspects: effect on human health, consequences of long-term disabling of the infrastructure, potential of human and material reserves in coping with the accident, consequences of power failure for the electricity system, effect on agricultural production and catering, risk of ground and surface water contamination in the Labe or Danube river basin, and international political aspects. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 18 refs

  1. The fuzzy TOPSIS and generalized Choquet fuzzy integral algorithm for nuclear power plant site selection - a case study from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurt, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    The location selection for nuclear power plant (NPP) is a strategic decision, which has significant impact on the economic operation of the plant and sustainable development of the region. This paper proposes fuzzy TOPSIS and generalized Choquet fuzzy integral algorithm for evaluation and selection of optimal locations for NPP in Turkey. Many sub-criteria such as geological, social, touristic, transportation abilities, cooling water capacity and nearest to consumptions markets are taken into account. Among the evaluated locations, according to generalized Choquet fuzzy integral method, Inceburun–Sinop was selected as a study site due to its highest performance and meeting most of the investigated criteria. The Inceburun-Sinop is selected by generalized Choquet fuzzy integral and fuzzy TOPSIS Iğneada–Kırklareli took place in the first turn. The Mersin–Akkuyu is not selected in both methods. (author)

  2. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  3. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-enterobacterial potential of nine ethnobotanically selected plants traditionally used in different parts of India for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as cholera, diarrhea or dysentery. Methods: The methanol extracts of these plants were screened for antibacterial activity against 11 ...

  4. Demands and criteria for the site selection from the view of the power plant owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beising, R.; Staebler, K.

    1976-01-01

    The methods as shown by the concrete example of the site provision plan for Baden-Wuerttemberg have proved extremely useful. The pragmatic method of site selection which ensures as little clash of interests as possible between the power plant and other preservation interests such as e.g. environment preservation, recreation areas, development axes, water economics is the only possible method for the densely populated areas of the Federal Republic. The numerous physical constraints in our Land only allow an optimisation of site search within the limited possibilities. (HP) [de

  5. Effects of Mechanical Site Preparation on Growth of Oaks Planted on Former Agricultural Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hodges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research comparing subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing treatments. A total of 4,320 bare-root Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley, Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckley, and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt. seedlings were planted in February 2008 on three Mississippi sites. All sites were of comparable soils and received above average precipitation throughout the three-year duration of the study. Four site preparation treatments were replicated at each site, with 480 seedlings planted in each of nine replications, and a total of 1,440 seedlings per species planted across all sites. Mechanical treatments were installed using 3.1 m row centers, with treatments as follows: control, subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing. Treatment effects on seedling height, groundline diameter (GLD, and survival were analyzed. Seedlings exhibited greater height in bedded and combination plowed areas (79.7 cm to 102.7 cm and 82.6 cm to 100.1 cm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (70.4 cm to 84.6 cm and 71.4 cm to 86.9 cm, respectively. Greater GLD was observed in bedded and combination plowed areas (11.9 mm to 18.4 mm and 12.2 mm to 18.3 mm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (10.2 mm to 14.6 mm and 10.5 mm to 15.6 mm, respectively. Survival was high for this study (94.%, and no differences were detected among treatments.

  6. Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Pahan and Teli ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and using the guided field-walk method.

  7. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  8. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this Site-Specific Plan (SSP) is to describe past, present, and future activities undertaken to implement Environmental Restoration and Waste Management goals at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The SSP is presented in sections emphasizing Environmental Restoration description of activities, resources, and milestones

  9. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  10. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2016), EGU2016-8464 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : earthworms * succession * plant communities * Collembola communities * post-mining sites Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  11. Evaluation of site effects in Loja basin (southern Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guartán, J.; Navarro, M.; Soto, J.

    2013-05-01

    Site effect assessment based on subsurface ground conditions is often crucial for estimating the urban seismic hazard. In order to evaluate the site effects in the intra-mountain basin of Loja (southern Ecuador), geological and geomorphological survey and ambient noise measurements were carried out. A classification of shallow geologic materials was performed through a geological cartography and the use of geotechnical data and geophysical surveys. Seven lithological formations have been analyzed, both in composition and thickness of existing materials. The shear-wave velocity structure in the center of the basin, composed by alluvial materials, was evaluated by means of inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion data obtained from vertical-component array records of ambient noise. VS30 structure was estimated and an average value of 346 m s-1 was obtained. This value agrees with the results obtained from SPT N-value (306-368 m s-1). Short-period ambient noise observations were performed in 72 sites on a 500m × 500m dimension grid. The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was applied in order to determine a ground predominant period distribution map. This map reveals an irregular distribution of predominant period values, ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 s, according with the heterogeneity of the basin. Lower values of the period are found in the harder formation (Quillollaco formation), while higher values are predominantly obtained in alluvial formation. These results will be used in the evaluation of ground dynamic properties and will be included in seismic microzoning of Loja basin. Keywords: Landform classification, Ambient noise, SPAC method, Rayleigh waves, Shear velocity profile, Ground predominant period. ;

  12. Site selection of a dual purpose nuclear power plant in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, F.M.; Obeid, M.A.; El-Malahy, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    Selecting a nuclear power plant site for power production and water desalination is a very complex problem, especially in countries with moderate technology. Many interrelated factors affect the process, and professional judgments by various experts are involved. Four sites, all located on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea, were chosen as potential sites for building such a plant. (All sites were in either the northern or southern section of the coast; the central part was excluded for pilgrims' safety.) The East Coast was completely eliminated in the initial screening process due to its strategic location, the existence of oil fields and refineries, and its proximity to other Arabian (Persian) Gulf countries (to minimize radioactive releases to these countries in case of an accident). A computer code based on Saaty's eigenvalue technique and developed in a previous study was used in this analysis. Twenty-one main criteria were considered, and the sites were ranked to determine which was most desirable. Site 4 was found to be most suitable, followed by site 3

  13. Re-assessment of plant carbon dynamics at the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment site: interactions of atmospheric [CO2] with nitrogen and water availability over stand development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather R. McCarthy; Ram Oren; Kurt H Johnsen; Anne Gallet-Budynek; Seth G. Pritchard; Charles W Cook; Shannon L. LaDeau; Robert B. Jackson; Adrien C. Finzi

    2010-01-01

    The potential for elevated [CO2]-induced changes to plant carbon (C) storage, through modifications in plant production and allocation of C among plant pools, is an important source of uncertainty when predicting future forest function. Utilizing 10 yr of data from the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment site, we evaluated the...

  14. Remediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund SiteRemediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company, Portland Plant, Superfund Site is located adjacent tothe Willamette River in Portland, Oregon and addresses contamination of soil, groundwater, and riversediments stemming from creosoting operations...

  15. Evaluating Mobile Phones and Web Sites for Academic Information Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Farhan; Nadeem Akhtar; Amnah Firdous; Malik Muhammad Saad Missen; Muhammad Ali Nizamani; Hina Asmat

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an exponential growth in use of mobile phones among people. Smart phone invention has digitized life of a common man especially after introduction of 3G/4G technology. People are used to use Internet on the move because of this advancement in technology. This advancement has also motivated usability design researchers to propose more usable designs for both smart phones and web sites. This work focuses on evaluation of web usability of mobile phones as well ...

  16. Plant integration of MITICA and SPIDER experiments with auxiliary plants and buildings on PRIMA site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellin, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.fellin@igi.cnr.it; Boldrin, Marco; Zaccaria, Pierluigi; Agostinetti, Piero; Battistella, Manuela; Bigi, Marco; Palma, Samuele Dal Bello Mauro Dalla; Fiorentin, Aldo; Luchetta, Adriano; Maistrello, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Diego; Ocello, Edoardo; Pasqualotto, Roberto; Pavei, Mauro; Pomaro, Nicola; Rizzolo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni; Valente, Matteo; Zanotto, Loris; Calore, Luca; and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Focus on plant integration work supporting the realization of SPIDER and MITICA fusion experiments hosted in PRIMA buildings complex in Padova, Italy. • Huge effort of coordination and integration among many stakeholders, taking into account several constrains coming from experiments requirements (on-going) and precise time schedule and budget on buildings construction. • The paper also deals of interfaces management, coordination and integration of many competences, problems solving to find best solution also considering other aspects like safety and maintenance. - Abstract: This paper presents a description of the PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator) Plant Integration work, aimed at the construction of PRIMA Buildings, which will host two nuclear fusion test facilities named SPIDER and MITICA, finalized to test and optimize the neutral beam injectors for ITER experiment. These activities are very complex: inputs coming from the experiments design are changing time to time, while the buildings construction shall fulfill precise time schedule and budget. Moreover the decision process is often very long due to the high number of stakeholders (RFX, IO, third parties, suppliers, domestic agencies from different countries). The huge effort includes: forecasting what will be necessary for the integration of many experimental plants; collecting requirements and translating into inputs; interfaces management; coordination meetings with hundreds of people with various and different competences in construction and operation of fusion facilities, thermomechanics, electrical and control, buildings design and construction (civil plants plus architectural and structural aspects), safety, maintenance and management. The paper describes these activities and also the tools created to check and to validate the building design, to manage the interfaces and the organization put in place to achieve the required targets.

  17. Plant integration of MITICA and SPIDER experiments with auxiliary plants and buildings on PRIMA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellin, Francesco; Boldrin, Marco; Zaccaria, Pierluigi; Agostinetti, Piero; Battistella, Manuela; Bigi, Marco; Palma, Samuele Dal Bello Mauro Dalla; Fiorentin, Aldo; Luchetta, Adriano; Maistrello, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Diego; Ocello, Edoardo; Pasqualotto, Roberto; Pavei, Mauro; Pomaro, Nicola; Rizzolo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni; Valente, Matteo; Zanotto, Loris; Calore, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Focus on plant integration work supporting the realization of SPIDER and MITICA fusion experiments hosted in PRIMA buildings complex in Padova, Italy. • Huge effort of coordination and integration among many stakeholders, taking into account several constrains coming from experiments requirements (on-going) and precise time schedule and budget on buildings construction. • The paper also deals of interfaces management, coordination and integration of many competences, problems solving to find best solution also considering other aspects like safety and maintenance. - Abstract: This paper presents a description of the PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator) Plant Integration work, aimed at the construction of PRIMA Buildings, which will host two nuclear fusion test facilities named SPIDER and MITICA, finalized to test and optimize the neutral beam injectors for ITER experiment. These activities are very complex: inputs coming from the experiments design are changing time to time, while the buildings construction shall fulfill precise time schedule and budget. Moreover the decision process is often very long due to the high number of stakeholders (RFX, IO, third parties, suppliers, domestic agencies from different countries). The huge effort includes: forecasting what will be necessary for the integration of many experimental plants; collecting requirements and translating into inputs; interfaces management; coordination meetings with hundreds of people with various and different competences in construction and operation of fusion facilities, thermomechanics, electrical and control, buildings design and construction (civil plants plus architectural and structural aspects), safety, maintenance and management. The paper describes these activities and also the tools created to check and to validate the building design, to manage the interfaces and the organization put in place to achieve the required targets.

  18. The Expedited Remedial Action Program: A case study. The Alhambra Front Street manufactured gas plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padleschat, J.A.; McMahon, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    Early in 1995, the Department of Toxic Substances Control asked Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas) to enter one of its manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites into the new Expedited Remedial Action Program (ERAP). SoCalGas initially was not enthusiastic about the new program. Nevertheless, SoCalGas submitted an application for its Alhambra MGP site to be selected for the ERAP. The Alhambra Site was accepted into ERAP in November 1995, and was the first ERAP site to have orphan shares. MGP sites are well suited to the ERAP. They often involve few potentially responsible parties and can be expected to have the same primary contaminants: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are a byproduct of the gas manufacturing process, and petroleum hydrocarbons from the crude oil feedstock used to manufacture the gas.

  19. Power plant siting; an application of the nominal group process technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelker, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The application of interactive group processes to the problem of facility siting is examined by this report. Much of the discussion is abstracted from experience gained in applying the Nominal Group Process Technique, an interactive group technique, to the identification and rating of factors important in siting nuclear power plants. Through this experience, interactive group process techniques are shown to facilitate the incorporation of the many diverse factors which play a role in siting. In direct contrast to mathematical optimization, commonly represented as the ultimate siting technique, the Nominal Group Process Technique described allows the incorporation of social, economic, and environmental factors and the quantification of the relative importance of these factors. The report concludes that the application of interactive group process techniques to planning and resource management will affect the consideration of social, economic, and environmental concerns and ultimately lead to more rational and credible siting decisions

  20. Evaluation Of The Exclusion And Low Population Areas Around A Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.

    2011-01-01

    Being adjacent to the nuclear power plant (NPP) the exclusion area (EA) is the area of greatest importance. It essentially defines a buffer zone where the public has no access. It helps to define the fenced plant area, the site area and the public area. Also, the low population area is the area immediately surrounding the exclusion area near a licensed reactor in terms of public safety and the ability of residents to get away from the plant in an emergency. This study clarifies their significance and reviews the international approach on them. Assuming the nuclear power plant site at the north coast of Egypt, the exclusion area and low population area are determined according to CFR (2002). In this method, a maximum possible amount of radioactivity release (called a source term) should be assumed. The boiling water reactor (BWR) with a power 1000 MW was used to carry the calculation and assuming a severe loss of coolant accident with meltdown of reactor. The site specific data have been collected, investigated and processed. The effect of the degree of atmospheric stability and building width of the plant were examined. The proceeding factors that control the determination of exclusion area and low population area should be taken into consideration in the site evaluation stage and design basis of NPP to set a minimum distances for them