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Sample records for plant salacia reticulata

  1. Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice

    Tomoko Akase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract, a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Improvement in Human Immune Function with Changes in Intestinal Microbiota by Salacia reticulata Extract Ingestion: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Yuriko Oda

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Salacia in the Hippocrateaceae family are known to inhibit sugar absorption. In a previous study, administration of Salacia reticulata extract in rats altered the intestinal microbiota and increased expression of immune-relevant genes in small intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of S. reticulata extract in human subjects by examining the gene expression profiles of blood cells, immunological indices, and intestinal microbiota. The results revealed an improvement in T-cell proliferation activity and some other immunological indices. In addition, the intestinal microbiota changed, with an increase in Bifidobacterium and a decrease in Clostridium bacteria. The expression levels of many immune-relevant genes were altered in blood cells. We concluded that S. reticulata extract ingestion in humans improved immune functions and changed the intestinal microbiota.UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000011732.

  3. Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.

    Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity.

  4. Orally administered Salacia reticulata extract reduces H1N1 influenza clinical symptoms in murine lung tissues putatively due to enhanced natural killer cell activity

    Gustavo Adolfo Romero-Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE, a plant rich in phytochemicals such as salacinol, kotalanol and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro NK cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  5. Orally Administered Salacia reticulata Extract Reduces H1N1 Influenza Clinical Symptoms in Murine Lung Tissues Putatively Due to Enhanced Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Egashira, Masayo; Harada, Yuri; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE), a plant rich in phytochemicals, such as salacinol, kotalanol, and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro natural killer (NK) cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response, including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  6. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1β-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

    Sekiguchi Yuusuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1β (IL-1β-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850 μg/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25 μg dry matter per millilitre of the extract inhibited IL-1β-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1β-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1β-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

  7. A simple and effective method for vegetative propagation of an endangered medicinal plant Salacia oblonga Wall.

    Deepak, K G K; Suneetha, G; Surekha, Ch

    2016-01-01

    Salacia oblonga Wall. is an endangered medicinal plant whose conservation is urgently needed, as it is extensively used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. This study shows an easy, effective and simple method of conserving genetic identity and producing elite clones of S. oblonga through vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation was achieved using roots (R), stems with leaves (SL) and stems without leaves (S) with different concentrations (0-500 ppm) of indole butyric acid (IBA). Explants S and SL showed maximum shooting response with 300 ppm IBA and explant R showed maximum response with 200 ppm IBA.

  8. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  9. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    Prasad G. Jamkhande; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthe...

  10. Pharmacologically tested aldose reductase inhibitors isolated from plant sources—A concise report

    D.K.Patel; R.Kumar; K.Sairam; S.Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR),a cytosolic,monomeric oxidoreductase,is a key enzyme in the polyol pathway which controls the conversion of glucose to sorbitol.The accumulation of sorbitol by the activation of AR enzymes in lens,retina,and sciatic nerves leads to the cause of diabetic defects resulting in various secondary complications,viz.retinopathy,neuropathy,nephropathy and Alzheimer's disease.Thus,reduction of the polyol pathway flux by AR inhibitors could be a potential therapeutic opening in the treatment and prevention of diabetic complications.At present,the AR inhibitors belong to two different chemical classes.One is the hydantoin derivatives,such as Sorbinil,Dilantin,and Minalrestat,and the other is the carboxylic acid derivatives,such as Epalrestat,Alrestatin,and Tolrestat.However,it is known that most of these synthethic compounds have unacceptable side-effects.Well known medicinal plants like Chrysanthemum indicum,Chrysanthemum morifolium,Prunus mume,Myrcia multiflora,Centella asiatica,and Salacia reticulata,Salacia oblonga,and Salacia chinensis exhibited potent AR inhibitory activity.The present review summarizes the list of plant material,and their isolated phytoconstituents which have been tested for their AR inhibitory activity.This litreature review covers the period to 2011,and a total of 72 plants are listed.

  11. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Antidermatophytic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Raamphal Plant (Annona reticulata Aqueous Leaves Extract

    P. Shivakumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Annona reticulata leaf aqueous extract. The biosynthesised silver nanoparticles were confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of dark brown colour indicated the synthesis of silver in the reaction mixture. The silver nanoparticles were found to be spherical, rod, and triangular in shape with variable size ranging from 23.84 to 50.54 nm, as evident by X-ray diffraction studies, TEM. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and TEM analysis indicate that the particles are crystalline in nature. The nanoparticles appeared to be associated with some chemical compounds which possess hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, confirmed by FTIR. This is the first and novel report of silver nanoparticles synthesised from Annona reticulata leaves extract and their antidermatophytic activity.

  12. An updated review on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Salacia oblonga

    Priya Singh Kushwaha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salacia oblonga (S. oblonga, a perennial herb, has been used for thousands of years in ayurvedic medicine and is closely associated with prevention, treatment, and cure of various human ailments such as obesity and diabetes. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds such as polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane-type triterpenes, eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. This review is aimed to survey the literature covering the phytochemistry and pharmacology of S. oblonga and to review the scientific data including active components and their multi-targeted mechanisms of action against various metabolic syndromes. We also included clinical trials related to this plant in this review. The overview would assist researchers to gather scientific information related to S. oblonga in future.

  13. An Updated Review on the Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Clinical Trials of Salacia oblonga

    Kushwaha, Priya Singh; Singh, Ashok K.; Keshari, Amit K.; Maity, Siddhartha; Saha, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Salacia oblonga (S. oblonga), a perennial herb, has been used for thousands of years in ayurvedic medicine and is closely associated with prevention, treatment, and cure of various human ailments such as obesity and diabetes. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds such as polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane-type triterpenes, eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. This review is aimed to survey the literature covering the phytochemistry and pharmacology of S. oblonga and to review the scientific data including active components and their multi-targeted mechanisms of action against various metabolic syndromes. We also included clinical trials related to this plant in this review. The overview would assist researchers to gather scientific information related to S. oblonga in future. PMID:28082793

  14. Physical properties of trans-neptunian binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea and (42355) Typhon-Echidna

    Stansberry, J. A.; Grundy, W. M.; Mueller, M.; Benecchi, S. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Noll, K. S.; Buie, M. W.; Levison, H. F.; Porter, S. B.; Roe, H. G.

    2012-01-01

    We report new Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope results concerning the physical properties of the trans-neptunian object (TNO) binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea (formerly 2004 SB60), and (42355) Typhon-Echidna (formerly 2002 CR46). The mass of the (120347) Salacia-Actaea system is 4.

  15. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

    Samantha Salomão Caramori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari, and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro. The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora (Mart. G. Don. (bacupari e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro, coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

  16. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 μg/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 μg/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 μg/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 μg/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 μg/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia

  17. Bioefficacy of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicide) and nontarget fish Poecilia reticulata.

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2011-05-01

    In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, extracts of medicinal plants Plumbago zeylanica and Cestrum nocturnum have been tested for larvicidal activity against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values of all the extracts in different solvents of both the plants were less than 50 ppm (15.40-38.50 ppm) against all tested larval instars. Plant extracts also affected the life cycle of A. aegypti by inhibition of pupal development and adult emergence with increasing concentrations. The larvicidal stability of the extracts at five constant temperatures (19°C, 22°C, 25°C, 28°C, and 31°C) evaluated against fourth instar larvae revealed that toxicity of both plant extracts increases with increase in temperature. Toxicity studies carried out against fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common nontarget organism in the habitats of A. aegypti, showed almost nil to meager toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the plant extracts. The qualitative analysis of crude extracts of P. Zeylanica and C. nocturnum revealed the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with predominance of plumbagin in P. zeylanica and saponins in C. nocturnum. Partially purified plumbagin from P. zeylanica and saponins from C. nocturnum were obtained, and their presence was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and biochemical tests. The bioassay experiment of partially purified secondary metabolites showed potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larval form. Therefore, this study explored the safer and effective potential of plant extracts against vector responsible for diseases of public health importance.

  18. Larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pergularia daemia plant latex against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi and nontarget fish Poecillia reticulata.

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2012-08-01

    In present study, the bioactivity of latex-producing plant Pergularia daemia as well as synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against the larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi mosquito larvae was determined. The range of concentrations of plant latex (1,000, 500, 250, 125, 62.25, and 31.25 ppm) and AgNPs (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, and 0.3125 ppm) were prepared. The LC(50) and LC(90) values for first, second, third, and fourth instars of synthesized AgNPs-treated first, second, third, and fourth instars of A. aegypti (LC(50) = 4.39, 5.12, 5.66, 6.18; LC(90) = 9.90, 11.13, 12.40, 12.95 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50) = 4.41, 5.35, 5.91, 6.47; LC(90) = 10.10, 12.04, 13.05, 14.08 ppm) were found many fold lower than crude latex-treated A. aegypti (LC(50) = 55.13, 58.81, 75.66, 94.31; LC(90) = 113.00, 118.25, 156.95, 175.71 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50) = 81.47, 92.09, 96.07, 101.31; LC(90) = 159.51, 175.97, 180.67, 190.42 ppm). The AgNPs did not exhibit any noticeable effects on Poecillia reticulata after either 24 or 48 h of exposure at their LC(50) and LC(90) values against fourth-instar larvae of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. The UV-visible analysis shows absorbance for AgNPs at 520 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 44 to 255 nm with average size of 123.50 nm. AgNPs were clearly negatively charged (zeta potential -27.4 mV). This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity P. daemia-synthesized AgNPs.

  19. Use of an infrared thermometer for assessment of plant water stress in neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Sayan Sdoodee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, water stress causes stomatal closure in citrus, and this leads to higher leaf temperature. Recently, it has been reported that infrared thermometry technique can be used for detecting stomatal closure indirectly to assess plant water stress. Therefore, it was proposed to apply to neck orange. An experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design. There were 3 treatments of watering levels: 1 wellwatering (W1, 2 3-day interval watering (W2, and 3 6-day interval watering (W3 with 6 replicates. Eighteen 2-year-old trees of neck orange were used, and each tree was grown in a container (0.4 m3 filled with mixed media of soil, compost and sand (1:1:1. During 18 days of the experimental period, it was found that leaf water potential and stomatal conductance of the plants in W2 and W3 treatments decreased with the progress of water stress. There was high correlation (r2 = 0.71** between leaf water potential and stomatal conductance as a linear regression (Y = 0.0044X-1.8635. Canopy temperature (Tc and air temperature (Ta of each tree were measured by an infrared thermometer, and Tc-Ta was assessed. At the end of the experimental period, it was found that Tc-Ta was significantly highest in the W3 treatment (3.5ºC followed by the of W2 treatment (2ºC, while it was lowest in the W1 treatment (1ºC. The relationship between Tc-Ta and stomatal conductance was high as polynomial (Y = 0.0002X2 0.0572X+3.9878, r2 = 0.70**. This indicated that stomatal closure or decreasing stomatal conductance caused increasing of Tc-Ta in the leaves. Hence, it suggests that infrared thermometer is a convenient device for the assessment of plant water stress in neck orange.

  20. Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3β-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3β-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3β-hydroxy-olean-9(11:12-diene and the mixture of α-amirin and β-amirin. β-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

  1. In vivo Induction of Tetraploid in Tangerine Citrus Plants (Citrus reticulata Blanco) with the Use of Colchicine.

    Surson, Suntaree; Sitthaphanit, Suphasit; Wongma, Nattapong

    2015-01-01

    This in vivo experiment was carried out at Sakhon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Sakhon Nakhon Province, Thailand during March-October 2013. The study aims to search for some possibilities in inducing a large number of tetraploid sets of chromosomes in tangerine citrus seedlings with the use of colchicine chemical. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Seeds of tangerine citrus were treated with colchicine solutions. The experiment consisted of seven treatments, i.e., T1 with 0.0% colchicine (control), T2 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T3 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T4 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T5 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T6 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T7 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h. The experiment was conducted for 91 days. The results showed that colchicine compound severely and significantly affected germination of tangerine citrus seeds. Colchicine of 0.2% in the solution with seeds submerged for 24 h gave the highest percentages of tetraploid chromosomes in seedlings of tangerine citrus (63.64%). Colchicine significantly affected seed germination, plant height, stomata density and leaf index of the tangerine citrus seeds and seedlings. Colchicine had no significant effect on poly-embryos, mono-embryos, leaf number, leaf area, leaf weight, leaf length and stomata length of the tangerine citrus seedlings.

  2. LC-MS Quantification of Mangiferin in hydroalcoholic extract of Salacia oblonga, Salacia roxburghii and polyherbal formulation

    Ilango Kaliappan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangiferin is the one of the major active constituents in the tubers of the Salacia species, which is one of the valuable species in Ayurveda with antidiabetic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, anticaries and anticancer potentials. A simple and rapid liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry analysis was developed for the quantification of Mangiferin in two species ofSalaciaand also in polyherbal formulation. This method allowed the direct coupling of an electron spray mass selective detector for the LC system with photo diode array detector, Phenomenex C18 column, acetonitrile and aqueous formic acid (0.5% as mobile phase. Under these conditions, Mangiferin was well separated from the mixture of components present in the extract and detected with mass spectrometry (mass selective detector.Liquid chromatography coupled with electron spray mass was used in positive ion mode and detected at m/z 423(M+1+. The proposed method is more accurate and sensitive can be used for the routine quantification of the Mangiferin in the herbal extracts as well as polyherbal formulations.

  3. The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling

    Lan He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of the application of herbal medicines in amelioration of renal fibrosis, or the underlying mechanisms by which such benefits are mediated. The efficacy of the Ayurvedic antidiabetic medicine Salacia oblonga (SO root on rat renal fibrosis was investigated. An aqueous extract from SO (100 mg/kg, p.o., 6 weeks diminished renal glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, as revealed by van Giesen-staining. SO also reduced renal salt-soluble, acid-soluble and salt-insoluble collagen contents. These changes were accompanied by normalization of hypoalbuminemia and BUN. Gene profiling revealed that the increase in transcripts encoding the glomerulosclerotic mediators collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 observed in ZDF rat kidney was suppressed by SO. In rat-derived mesangial cells, similar to the effect of the AT1 antagonist telmisartan, SO and its major component mangiferin suppressed the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and increased mRNA expression and/or activities of collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, AT1, TGF-β1 and PAI-1. Considered together the present findings demonstrate that SO attenuates diabetic renal fibrosis, at least in part by suppressing anigiotensin II/AT1 signaling. Further, it now emerges that mangiferin is an effective antifibrogenic agent.

  4. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  5. Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)

    Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

  6. Study on the Dynamic Change Law of Essential Oil Components in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium from the Same Plant%源于同一植株陈皮挥发油成分动态变化规律研究

    王坚; 韦正; 陈鸿平; 银玲; 刘荣; 刘友平

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究源于同一植株不同生长期陈皮挥发油成分的变化规律.方法采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取挥发油,GC-MS测定;GC-MS数据分析与AMDIS软件进行解析.结果:4批陈皮共定性、定量72个化合物,总含量分别为95.542%,92.138%,98.655%,96.201%.含量最高的2个化合物是柠檬烯与芳樟醇,分别占43.78 ~ 68.432%,9.258 ~ 15.724%.结论:4批次陈皮挥发油几乎含有相同的物质成分,各成分在含量上有一定差异.一些物质的量变规律对于揭示陈皮挥发油类成分的动态变化规律具有重要意义.%Objective: To investigate the qualitative and quantitative change law of essential oil components in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CRP) harvested in different time from the same plant. Method: The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The overlapped peaks were resolved by the programs of GC-MS data analysis and AMDIS. Result: A total of 72 compounds in the essential oils of four batches CRP were identified, which represented 95.542% , 92. 138% , 98.655% , and 96.201% of the total relative content, respectively. The two compounds that have the highest content are limonene and linalool, accounting for 43.78-68.432% and 9.258-15. 724% respectively. Quantitative changes of some compounds present regularity. Conclusion: The essential oil of each batch CRP has almost the same chemical constituents, whereas the relative content of each constituent shows some difference. The quantitative change law of some components may have important meaning to explore the dynamic change law of volatile oil components in CRP. The combined utilization of programs of GC-MS data analysis and AMDIS can efficiently solve the difficulty in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of overlapped peaks.

  7. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  8. Alelopatia de Salacia campestris Walp. sobre a germinação e crescimento inicial de alface e tomate

    F. S. Santana; R. S. P. Malheiros; M. V. Linhares Neto; T. M. B. Falcão; L. L. Machado; A. M. Mapeli

    2014-01-01

    Muitos metabólitos sintetizados pelas plantas e liberados no ambiente, afetam o desenvolvimento de outras espécies vegetais, afetando principalmente a germinação e o crescimento inicial das plântulas, fenômeno este chamado de alelopatia. Em vista disso o trabalho teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos alelopáticos do extrato etanólico do caule de Salacia campestris Walp. na germinação e crescimento inicial de alface e tomate. O extrato foi ensaiado nas concentrações 0, 250, 500 e 1000 mg/L....

  9. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi.

    Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco; de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Kong, Xiang-Fei; Li, Jiong-Tang; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a member of the Poeciliidae family, is one of the most popular aquarium fish. Here, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata. The genome is 16,570 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The structure of non-coding control region was also analyzed. Comparing the mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata with its congener Xiphophorus maculatus revealed the high sequence similarity and the identical gene structure. The complete mitochondrial genome of the guppy would help study the evolution of Poeciliidae family.

  11. Non-additive gene regulation in a citrus allotetraploid somatic hybrid between C. reticulata Blanco and C. limon (L.) Burm.

    Bassene, J B; Froelicher, Y; Dubois, C; Ferrer, R M; Navarro, L; Ollitrault, P; Ancillo, G

    2010-09-01

    Polyploid plants often produce new phenotypes, exceeding the range of variability existing in the diploid gene pool. Several hundred citrus allotetraploid hybrids have been created by somatic hybridization. These genotypes are interesting models to study the immediate effects of allopolyploidization on the regulation of gene expression. Here, we report genome-wide gene expression analysis in fruit pulp of a Citrus interspecific somatic allotetraploid between C. reticulata cv 'Willowleaf mandarin'+C. limon cv 'Eureka lemon', using a Citrus 20K cDNA microarray. Around 4% transcriptome divergence was observed between the two parental species, and 212 and 160 genes were more highly expressed in C. reticulata and C. limon, respectively. Differential expression of certain genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. A global downregulation of the allotetraploid hybrid transcriptome was observed, as compared with a theoretical mid parent, for the genes displaying interspecific expression divergence between C. reticulata and C. limon. The genes underexpressed in mandarin, as compared with lemon, were also systematically repressed in the allotetraploid. When genes were overexpressed in C. reticulata compared with C. limon, the distribution of allotetraploid gene expression was far more balanced. Cluster analysis on the basis of gene expression clearly indicated the hybrid was much closer to C. reticulata than to C. limon. These results suggest there is a global dominance of the mandarin transcriptome, in consistence with our previous studies on aromatic compounds and proteomics. Interspecific differentiation of gene expression and non-additive gene regulation involved various biological pathways and different cellular components.

  12. Effect of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis regulates the kidney carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Periyar Selvam Sellamuthu; Palanisamy Arulselvan; Balu Periamallipatti Muniappan; Murugesan Kandasamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic effect of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis) on the activities of kidney carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in chemically induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in adult male rats, as a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by mangiferin and glibenclamide (positive control drug) for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed and carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities were analyzed in the kidney. Results: Diabetic control rats showed a significant increase in the level of fasting blood glucose and also increase the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in kidney on successive days of the experiment as compared with their basal values. Daily oral administration of mangiferin showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose when compared to diabetic control. The anti-hyperglycemic effect was obtained with the dose of 40 mg/kg b.wt. In addition, treatment of mangiferin shows alteration in kidney carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including gluconeogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-disphosphatase. These results were comparable with positive control drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study provide evidence of the anti-diabetic potential of mangiferin, mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate key metabolic enzyme activities.

  13. Brightness illusion in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman species share similar perceptual mechanisms. One experimental strategy to compare visual perception of vertebrates consists in assessing how animals react in the presence of visual illusions. To date, this methodological approach has been widely used with mammals and birds, while few studies have been reported in distantly related species, such as fish. In the present study we investigated whether fish perceive the brightness illusion, a well-known illusion occurring when 2 objects, identical in physical features, appear to be different in brightness. Twelve guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were initially trained to discriminate which rectangle was darker or lighter between 2 otherwise identical rectangles. Three different conditions were set up: neutral condition between rectangle and background (same background used for both darker and lighter rectangle); congruent condition (darker rectangle in a darker background and lighter rectangle in a lighter background); and incongruent condition (darker rectangle in a lighter background and lighter rectangle in a darker background). After reaching the learning criterion, guppies were presented with the illusory pattern: 2 identical rectangles inserted in 2 different backgrounds. Guppies previously trained to select the darker rectangle showed a significant choice of the rectangle that appears to be darker by human observers (and vice versa). The human-like performance exhibited in the presence of the illusory pattern suggests the existence of similar perceptual mechanisms between humans and fish to elaborate the brightness of objects.

  14. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and in silico PASS prediction of Annona reticulata Linn. root extract

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections and diseases are frequently associated with several pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi. Plants of the reticulata genus are a notable source of new therapeutic agents including antioxidant and antimicrobial. This study reports the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic root extract of Annona reticulata Linn. The antioxidant property of extract was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide assay. Antibacterial tests were performed using the agar cup method whereas Poison plate method was used to assess sensitivity of fungal strains. The biological potential of major phytoconstituents as antimicrobial agent was screened by new software based tool, PASS. The dose dependent scavenging was observed at concentrations 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μg/ml which were compared to ascorbic acid. The probable activity (Pa of neoannonin using PASS was found to be 0.541. The extract was significantly active against all strains of bacteria but the largest zone of inhibition was found against B. cereus. Predominant growth reduction was observed in fungi Tricoderma viride and Candida albicans. The results indicate that the extract show potential as a source of new antimicrobial drug and may impart health benefits by its antioxidant property.

  15. Morphological, ontogenetic and molecular characterization of Scutellospora reticulata (Glomeromycota)

    De Souza, F.A.; Declerck, S.; Smit, E.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Scutellospora reticulata (CNPAB11) was characterized using morphological, ontogenetic and molecular approaches. Spore ontogenesis was studied using Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots and observations were compared with those published for eight other, pot-cultur

  16. EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA).

    Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac/L for 2 hr and then t...

  17. EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA

    Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy Poecilia reticulata following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac 1-1 for 2 h and then tr...

  18. Alelopatia de Salacia campestris Walp. sobre a germinação e crescimento inicial de alface e tomate

    F. S. Santana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Muitos metabólitos sintetizados pelas plantas e liberados no ambiente, afetam o desenvolvimento de outras espécies vegetais, afetando principalmente a germinação e o crescimento inicial das plântulas, fenômeno este chamado de alelopatia. Em vista disso o trabalho teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos alelopáticos do extrato etanólico do caule de Salacia campestris Walp. na germinação e crescimento inicial de alface e tomate. O extrato foi ensaiado nas concentrações 0, 250, 500 e 1000 mg/L. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de germinação (%G, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, comprimento da radícula (CR e hipocótilo (CH. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste Scott Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. O extrato promoveu estímulo médio no índice de velocidade de germinação de 60 e 12%, para alface e tomate, respectivamente. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no crescimento radicular e do hipocótilo de plântulas de alface. Em plântulas de tomate observou-se decréscimo médio de 20,5% no comprimento do hipocótilo. Assim, a espécie em estudo apresenta potencial alelopatico evidenciado pelo aumento do IVG no alface, e redução das plántulas de tomate, porém novos estudos são necessários.

  19. Salacinol and Related Analogs: New Leads for Type 2 Diabetes Therapeutic Candidates from the Thai Traditional Natural Medicine Salacia chinensis

    Morikawa, Toshio; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Kinouchi, Eri; Tanabe, Genzoh; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of a hot water extract of stems of Salacia chinensis (SCE) was evaluated in vivo in KK-Ay mice, a typical type 2 diabetes mellitus mice model. Administration of CE-2 dietary feed containing 0.25 and/or 0.50% of SCE for three weeks to KK-Ay mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels without significant changes in body weight or food intake. Glucose tolerance was improved by administration to KK-Ay mice for 27 days of AIN93M purified dietary feed containing 0.12% of SCE. No suppressive effect with respect to HbA1c level was observed when AIN93M/Glc dietary feed in which all digestible glucides were replaced with glucose was administered with SCE. Thus, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity approved as the mechanism of action of the antidiabetic effect of SCE by in vitro investigation was reconfirmed also in in vivo studies. Evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the active constituents, salacinol (1), kotalanol (3), and neokotalanol (4), by employing human α-glucosidases revealed that these compounds inhibited them as potently (IC50 = 3.9–4.9 μM for maltase) as they inhibited rat small intestinal α-glucosidase. The principal sulfonium constituents (1–4) were highly stable in an artificial gastric juice. In addition, 1–4 were hardly absorbed from the intestine in an experiment using the in situ rat ligated intestinal loop model. The results indicate that these sulfoniums are promising leads for a new type of anti-diabetic agents. PMID:25734563

  20. Salacinol and Related Analogs: New Leads for Type 2 Diabetes Therapeutic Candidates from the Thai Traditional Natural Medicine Salacia chinensis

    Toshio Morikawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effect of a hot water extract of stems of Salacia chinensis (SCE was evaluated in vivo in KK-Ay mice, a typical type 2 diabetes mellitus mice model. Administration of CE-2 dietary feed containing 0.25 and/or 0.50% of SCE for three weeks to KK-Ay mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels without significant changes in body weight or food intake. Glucose tolerance was improved by administration to KK-Ay mice for 27 days of AIN93M purified dietary feed containing 0.12% of SCE. No suppressive effect with respect to HbA1c level was observed when AIN93M/Glc dietary feed in which all digestible glucides were replaced with glucose was administered with SCE. Thus, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity approved as the mechanism of action of the antidiabetic effect of SCE by in vitro investigation was reconfirmed also in in vivo studies. Evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the active constituents, salacinol (1, kotalanol (3, and neokotalanol (4, by employing human α-glucosidases revealed that these compounds inhibited them as potently (IC50 = 3.9–4.9 μM for maltase as they inhibited rat small intestinal α-glucosidase. The principal sulfonium constituents (1–4 were highly stable in an artificial gastric juice. In addition, 1–4 were hardly absorbed from the intestine in an experiment using the in situ rat ligated intestinal loop model. The results indicate that these sulfoniums are promising leads for a new type of anti-diabetic agents.

  1. Evaluation of aeroponics for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis, Leptadenia reticulata and Tylophora indica - three threatened medicinal Asclepiads.

    Mehandru, Pooja; Shekhawat, N S; Rai, Manoj K; Kataria, Vinod; Gehlot, H S

    2014-07-01

    The present study explores the potential of aeroponic system for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis (Paimpa) a rare, threatened and endemic edible species, Leptadenia reticulata (Jeewanti), a threatened liana used as promoter of health and Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merill, a valuable medicinal climber. Experiments were conducted to asses the effect of exogenous auxin (naphthalene acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-acetic acid) and auxin concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5gl(-1)) on various root morphological traits of cuttings in the aeroponic chamber. Amongst all the auxins tested, significant effects on the length, number and percentage of rooting was observed in IBA treated nodal cuttings. Cent per cent of the stem cuttings of C. edulis rooted if pre-treated with 2.0 gl(-1) of IBA for 5 min while 97.7 % of the stem cuttings of L. reticulata and 93.33 % of stem cuttings of Tylophora indica rooted with pre-treatment of 3.0 gl(-1) of IBA for 5 min. Presence of at least two leaves on the nodal cuttings of L. reticulata and T. indica was found to be a prerequisite for root induction. In all the species, the number of adventitious roots per cutting and the percentage of cuttings rooted aeroponically were significantly higher than the soil grown stem cuttings. Shoot growth measured in terms of shoot length was significantly higher in cuttings rooted aeroponically as compared to the cuttings rooted under soil conditions. All the plants sprouted and rooted aeroponically survived on transfer to soil. This is the first report of clonal propagation in an aeroponic system for these plants. This study suggests aeroponics as an economic method for rapid root induction and clonal propagation of these three endangered and medicinally important plants which require focused efforts on conservation and sustainable utilization.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes

    Dhanya, K. I.; Swati, V. I.; Vanka, Kanth Swaroop; Osborne, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds are known to exhibit various antimicrobial properties, since it harbours an enormous range of indigenous bioactive compounds. The emergence of drug resistant strains has directed to the identification of prospective metabolites from seaweed and its endophytes, thereby exploiting the properties in resisting bacterial diseases. The current study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Ulva reticulate, for which metabolites of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes were extracted and assessed against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the hexane extract of isolate VITDSJ2 was effective against all the tested pathogens but a significant inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, Gas chromatography coupled with Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the existence of phenol, 3, 5-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl) in the crude hexane extract which is well-known to possess antibacterial activity. The effective isolate VITDSJ2 was identified to be the closest neighbour of Pseudomonas stutzeri by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The crude extracts of the seaweed Ulva reticulata was also screened for antibacterial activity and the hexane extract was effective in showing inhibition against all the tested pathogens. The compound in the crude extract of Ulva reticulata was identified as hentriacontane using GC-MS. The extracts obtained from dichloromethane did not show significant activity in comparison with the hexane extracts. Hence the metabolites of Ulva reticulata and the bacterial secondary metabolites of the endophytes could be used in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  3. The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea in southeastern Brazil

    Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35, 77.1% (27 had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22 had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35, 77,1% (27 tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22 possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas.

  4. EFFECT OF LEPTADENIA RETICULATA LINN ON STRESS MODULATED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF MALE RATS

    Santosh B. T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the day today life the persons living and working in the area were the environmental factors such as chemical, physical, or emotional, stress may adversely affect the testicular functions that is enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis will takes place. All the organisms survive by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with their environment. The organization of this homeostasis exists at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. But some of the physical, mental, or emotional stress acts as a threat to this equilibrium, So this alteration in the homeostasis by stress will cause decreased libido, changes in the motor activity, increased arousal, vigilance and increased tolerance of pain.So the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Leptadenia reticulata plant methanolic and chloroform extracts in the low 50mg/kg, mid 100mg/kg, high 250mg/kg and a safety 200mg/kg oral dose will overcome the stress induced sexual dysfunction or not. So to evaluate whether the Leptadenia reticulata active constituents have got aphrodisiac as well as infertility treatment activity was assessed by studying the following sexual behavioral parameters, number of mounts, ejaculation latency, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and the histopathological study of testis, will give a clear idea of the study.In this study the obtained results will show that chloroform extract is having more potent aphrodisiac activity when compared to normal, because it has got increased number of mounts, intromission interval, Number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time shows its potent aphrodisiac in both normal and stressed rats. Significant (P<0.05 weight gain in testis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vasdeferens, epididymis, with declined weight gain in adrenal gland indicating HPA/HPG axis regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for significant

  5. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.

    Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples.

  6. Experience-Dependent Color Constancy in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    I. E. Intskirveli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability to recognize the color of surfaces in fish (Poecilia reticulata, bred from birth in conditions of artificial light with constant spectral content. The capacity for color constancy significantly deteriorated when compared that to the control group. Further alteration of lighting conditions and transfer into natural daylight conditions restored the suppressed function to its normal level. We suggest that the color constancy function belongs in the visual system-response functions, the full development of which requires the accumulation of individual visual experience.

  7. Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S

    2013-01-01

    Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal.

  8. Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Daphne Soares

    Full Text Available Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal.

  9. Determination of the precise sequences of computationally predicted miRNAs in Citrus reticulata by miR-RACE and characterization of the related target genes using RLM-RACE.

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Song, Changnian; Han, Jian; Shangguan, Lingfei; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs play vital roles in various biological and metabolic processes by regulating the expression of their target genes in model plants. Since there are limited reports on miRNAs in Citrus reticulata (Crt-miRNAs), the determination of precise sequences of miRNAs is essential to further analyze the functions of miRNAs in Citrus reticulata. Here, miR-RACE, a recently developed technique for determination of the potential miRNAs computationally, was employed to identify the precise sequences of Crt-miRNAs. Tissue- and development-specific expression of nine miRNAs were identified by quantitative RT-PCR in the leaves, stems, flowers and fruits Subsequently, 10 potential target genes were predicated for the eight Crt-miRNAs, most of which were transcription factors and disease resistance proteins. Four target genes were experimentally validated by Poly (A) polymerase-mediated 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RNA ligase-mediated 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (PPM-RACE and RLM-RACE). Our findings showed that regulatory miRNAs in C. reticulata may play a key role in regulating growth, development, and response to disease. Future work is required to study the functions of miRNAs and their targets of C. reticulata.

  10. Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) from Brazil.

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2011-01-01

    Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2%) with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09). The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.

  11. The effect of social environment during ontogeny on life history expression in the guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    Magellan, K; Magurran, A E

    2009-07-01

    The effects of the social environment during development on life-history decisions and adult behaviour were assessed using male guppies Poecilia reticulata. Males raised with adults developed secondary sexual characteristics later than males raised either singly or with four of their siblings indicating social inhibition of maturation was evident in P. reticulata. There was no effect, however, of rearing environment on male behaviour. The results reveal that social environment during development can influence life-history decisions but is less important than immediate social context in determining male behavioural phenotype in P. reticulata.

  12. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi

    Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1 and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1, and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05 from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1 and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1. Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plantsO aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Leptadenia reticulata stems against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Amit Kumar Nema

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stems of L. reticulata showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The ethanolic extract is more potent in hepatoprotection in CCl 4 -indiced liver injury model as compared with aqueous extract.

  14. Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859

    Philip Shaddock

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007.

  15. Environmental factors influencing adult sex ratio in Poecilia reticulata: laboratory experiments.

    McKellar, A E; Hendry, A P

    2011-10-01

    The potential causes of adult sex ratio variation in guppies Poecilia reticulata were tested in laboratory experiments that evaluated the mortality rates of male and female P. reticulata exposed to potential predators (Hart's rivulus Rivulus hartii and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium crenulatum) and to different resource levels. Poecilia reticulata mortality increased in the presence of R. hartii and M. crenulatum, and low resource levels had an effect on mortality only in the presence of M. crenulatum. Rivulus hartii preyed more often on male than on female P. reticulata, and this sex-biased predation was not simply the result of males being smaller than females. In contrast, no sex-biased mortality was attributable to M. crenulatum or low resource levels.

  16. Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic activities and characterization of a new naturally occurring quinone methide pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative isolated from Salacia leptoclada Tul. (Celastraceae) originated from Madagascar

    Fatiany Pierre Ruphin; Robijaona Baholy; Randrianarivo Emmanuel; Raharisololalao Amelie; Marie-Therese Martin; Ngbolua Koto-te-Nyiwa

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To validate scientifically the traditional use of Salacia leptoclada Tul. (Celastraceae) (S. leptoclada) and to isolate and elucidate the structure of the biologically active compound. Methods:Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetonic extract of the stem barks of S. leptoclada was carried out by a combination of chromatography technique and biological experiments in viro using Plasmodium falciparum and P388 leukemia cell lines as models. The structure of the biologically active pure compound was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Results:Biological screening of S. leptoclada extracts resulted in the isolation of a pentacyclic triterpenic quinone methide. The pure compound exhibited both in vitro a cytotoxic effect on murine P388 leukemia cells with IC50 value of (0.041±0.020) µg/mL and an antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain FC29 of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of (0.052±0.030) µg/mL. Despite this interesting anti-malarial property of the lead compound, the therapeutic index was weak (0.788). In the best of our knowledge, the quinone methide pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative compound is reported for the first time in S. leptoclada. Conclusions:The results suggest that furthers studies involving antineoplastic activity is needed for the development of this lead compound as anticancer drug.

  17. Tracking the startle response of guppies Poecilia reticulata in three dimensions.

    Vanesyan, A; Rodd, F H; Ryu, W S

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of startle behaviours of guppies Poecilia reticulata, in dyads or alone, from two populations that show distinct differences in shoaling behaviour was performed. During the first few seconds after a startling stimulus, changes in behaviour, which could be critical if an individual is to survive a predatory attack, and the interactions between pairs of P. reticulata were examined. The enhanced social interactions immediately after the stimulus, as a proxy for shoaling behaviour, and their dissipation were quantified. Social (individuals tested in dyads) v. asocial (tested alone) responses to the startling stimulus were also compared. The three-dimensional reconstruction, from a two-camera, high-frame-rate tracking system allowed for the tracking of the individuals' speed and speed recovery and, for P. reticulata in dyads, interindividual distance and orientation. For the dyads from the high-predation population, the closer the individuals were to each other, the more likely they were to be parallel, but no correlation was found for the low-predation P. reticulata. The startle response of P. reticulata comprised the following sequence: freezing, darting and skittering and recovery to pre-stimulus swimming behaviour. Upon repeated encounters with the stimulus, a reduced shoaling and startle response was observed, although the rate of reduction was faster in P. reticulata from the high-predation population than those from the low-predation population. The results are discussed in light of what is known about the anti-predator behaviour of this species.

  18. The effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on sex reversal of guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Cek, Sehriban; Turan, Funda; Atik, Esin

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L(-1)) of TT was investigated for sex reversal in the Poecilia reticulata. TT extract was administered by immersion of newly born offspring once weekly for two months. Among the dosages used in the present study 0.15 g L(-1) TT was the most effective dosage that ensured maximum male ratio (80%, p 0.05). Total survival rates in all treatments and control were uniformly high ranging from 83 to 87% (p > 0.05). It is concluded that TT has no negative effect on survival rate of P. reticulata. All groups of TT-treated fish exhibited successful growth acceleration comparing to the control group, but only TT treatment at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.1 g L(-1) TT significantly improved growth rate of P. reticulata (p reticulata demonstrated that TT treated new-born progenies showed successful sex reversal, spermatogenesis and better growth rate than untreated progenies.

  19. Crystal structure of a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from Artemisia reticulata

    A. K. Bauri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H24O2 {systematic name: 1-[6-hydroxy-7-(propan-2-yl-4-methylidene-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-inden-1-yl]ethanone} was isolated from A. reticulata by column chromatography over silica gel by gradient solvent elution. The molecule comprises a bicyclo[4.3.0]nonane ring bearing acetoxy, hydroxy and isopropyl substituents, and an exocyclic double bond on the cyclohexane ring. In the bicyclic skeleton, the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation ring and the cyclopentane ring is in an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. These chains are cross-linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. Laterality enhances numerical skills in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Marco eDadda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that cerebral lateralization can significantly enhance cognition and that this was one of the primary selective forces shaping its wide-spread evolution amongst vertebrate taxa. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the link between cerebral lateralization and numerical discrimination. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were sorted into left, right and non-lateralized groups using a standard mirror test and their numerical discrimination abilities tested in both natural shoal choice and abstract contexts. Our results show that strongly lateralized guppies have enhanced numerical abilities compared to non-lateralized guppies irrespective of context. These data provide further credence to the notion that cerebral lateralization can enhance cognitive efficiency

  1. In vitro culture of embryos of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Martyn, Ulrike; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2006-03-01

    The rich variation in adult color patterns of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) has attracted the attention of geneticists and ecologists for almost a century. Studies on their embryogenesis, however, have been limited by the fact that guppies are live bearers. We have observed normal development after explantation of guppy embryos from the ovary of pregnant females at various times after last parturition, and found that development of each batch of eggs is slightly asynchronous, most likely due to asynchronous fertilization. We have cultured explanted embryos in vitro and continuously observed their development. Although embryos explanted a few days after fertilization survived up to 4 weeks in culture, they did not complete their development. In contrast, embryos explanted at late stages of gestation could hatch and develop to fertile adults. Our embryo culture techniques overcome some of the limitations of using livebearers as study objects, and they allow continuous observation of and accessibility to live embryos at all stages.

  2. Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae from Brazil Metacestoides de Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae em Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae no Brasil

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2% with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09. The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818. This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.Em estudo da helmintofauna de peixes oriundos da represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, exemplares de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 foram encontrados naturalmente infectados por larvas de cestóides. De 250 espécimes de P. reticulata coletados e analisados entre fevereiro e agosto de 2010, 23 (prevalência de infecção 9,2% apresentavam-se infectados por um metacestóides cada (intensidade média 1, abundância média 0,09. A análise dos parasitos, em especial a morfologia dos acúleos rostelares, permitiram a identificação de Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818. Este é o primeiro registro de metacestóide de G. auritus para a América do Sul, sendo P. reticulata um novo hospedeiro conhecido para o parasito.

  3. Impacts of the antidepressant fluoxetine on the anti-predator behaviours of wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Saaristo, Minna; McLennan, Alisha; Johnstone, Christopher P; Clarke, Bradley O; Wong, Bob B M

    2017-02-01

    Chemical pollution from pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognised as a major threat to aquatic communities. One compound of great concern is fluoxetine, which is one of the most widely prescribed psychoactive drugs in the world and frequently detected in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 28-d fluoxetine exposure at two environmentally relevant levels (measured concentrations: 4ng/L and 16ng/L) on anti-predator behaviour in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata). This was achieved by subjecting fluoxetine-exposed and unexposed guppies to a simulated bird strike and recording their subsequent behavioural responses. We found that exposure to fluoxetine affected the anti-predator behaviour of guppies, with exposed fish remaining stationary for longer (i.e. 'freezing' behaviour) after the simulated strike and also spending more time under plant cover. By contrast, control fish were significantly more active and explored the tank more, as indicated by the distance covered per minute over the period fish spent swimming. Furthermore, behavioural shifts were sex-dependent, with evidence of a non-monotonic dose-response among the fluoxetine-exposed fish. This is one of the first studies to show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine can alter the anti-predator behaviour of adult fish. In addition to the obvious repercussions for survival, impaired anti-predator behaviour can have direct impacts on fitness and influence the overall population dynamics of species.

  4. Efficacy of commercially available products against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infections on guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Jones, Lewis L; Cable, Jo

    2015-07-23

    The demand for ornamental fish has led to a steep rise in aquaculture for the hobbyist trade, promoting the emergence, persistence and spread of various infectious diseases. Complete control of disease outbreaks with antibiotics and chemical-based medicines is rare, but plant compounds may herald potential alternatives effective against a range of pathogens. Melafix® and Pimafix® are formulated with the essential oils cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) and West Indian bay (Pimenta racemosa) and are marketed against bacterial and fungal infections, respectively. Previous experiments showed high efficacy of emulsified cajuput oil against gyrodactylids; the current study tested Melafix® and Pimafix® and their individual compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppies Poecilia reticulata. In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish.

  5. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects.

  6. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro antioxidative effect and antimicrobial potential against standard human pathogenic strains

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively with n-butanol, chloroform and acetone solvents. Methanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant screening using DPPH free radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extract and fractions were analyzed on eight different clinical bacterial and fungal strains using agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method (MIC and MMC determination. The antioxidant activity showed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed potent inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacterial strains while in case of fungal strains the maximum effect was observed against Candida blanki. The maximum zone of inhibition of n-butanol, chloroform and acetone fractions was observed against B. subtilis, and E. coli respectively while all fractions exhibited potent inhibitory effect against C. blanki. MIC and MBC values were determined for active samples, methanol extract and chloroform fraction against Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which revealed lower MIC and MBC values. The fungal strains Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. blanki were used to calculate MIC and MFC values for methanol extract and acetone fraction which demonstrated lower MIC and MFC values. The results provided evidence that the plant is richly supplied with numerous phytoconstituents that might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant, antimicrobial agents and supplementary food.

  7. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master Yan Zhenghua from prescriptions with citri reticulatae pericarpium based on data mining].

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Sheng, Xiao-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. After analyzed by data mining, such as apriori algorithm, the frequency of single medicine, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules between drugs and core drug combinations can be get from the database. Through the analysis of 1 027 prescriptions with pericarpium citri reticulatae, these prescriptions were commonly used to treat stomach aches, cough and other syndromes. The most frequency drug combinations were "Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium-Poria", "Paeoniae Radix Rubra-Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium" and so on. The drug association rules that the confidence was 1 were "Glycyrrhizae Radix ex Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Paeoniae Alba Radix-Cyperi Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Poria --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", and so on. The drugs in the prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor Yan mostly had the effects of regulating the flow of Qi and invigorate blood circulation, which reflected the clearly thought when making prescriptions.

  8. Larvivorous activity of Poecilia reticulata against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in a polluted water drain in Hardwar, India.

    Dua, Virendra K; Pandey, A C; Rai, Swapnil; Dash, A P

    2007-12-01

    The efficacy of the larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata against mosquito larvae was monitored in a drain at Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Hardwar, India. The water was polluted and the water flow was in some way impeded. Poecilia reticulata failed to feed on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in this drain. Laboratory experiments also confirmed the inefficacy of P. reticulata as a predator of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae during the first 24 h. Significant differences in the efficacy of P. reticulata against Cx. quinquefasciatus were recorded between polluted water and drinking water. Poecilia reticulata preferred to feed on other available food present in the polluted water rather than on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. This was verified by the identification of plankton in the gut content of the fish and by the high density of plankton present in the polluted water.

  9. Geographical variation in allometry in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Egset, C K; Bolstad, G H; Rosenqvist, G; Endler, J A; Pélabon, C

    2011-12-01

    Variation in static allometry, the power relationship between character size and body size among individuals at similar developmental stages, remains poorly understood. We tested whether predation or other ecological factors could affect static allometry by comparing the allometry between the caudal fin length and the body length in adult male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) among populations from different geographical areas, exposed to different predation pressures. Neither the allometric slopes nor the allometric elevations (intercept at constant slope) changed with predation pressure. However, populations from the Northern Range in Trinidad showed allometry with similar slopes but lower intercepts than populations from the Caroni and the Oropouche drainages. Because most of these populations are exposed to predation by the prawn Macrobrachium crenulatum, we speculated that the specific selection pressures exerted by this predator generated this change in relative caudal fin size, although effects of other environmental factors could not be ruled out. This study further suggests that the allometric elevation is more variable than the allometric slope.

  10. Determination of the Presence of Huanglongbing in Seeds and Movement of the Pathogen in Citrus reticulata

    Hajivand Shokrollah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease is a fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacterium in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Using universal primers, the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of three strains of the bacterium were obtained by PCR. However there is very little information on seed transmission and HLB pathogen movement to find a way for control or reduce the severity of HLB on the field. The study was conducted to detect HLB pathogen in seeds of Citrus, to determine pathogen movement in citrus seedling after infection and to detect the HLB pathogen in citrus roots. Approach: Seeds of Citrus reticulata cv. Limau Madu were collected from infected orchard and were germinated in screenhouse condition. The seeds of Citrus reticlata cv. L. Madu were planted in screenhouse too for HLB pathogen movement and HLB detection in roots. The seedlings were inoculated using infected grafting methods. Results: HLB was not amplified in new seedlings after germination. HLB moved slowly reaching up to 1.5 cm after 2 weeks, 1.5-4.5 cm after eight weeks and detected on 4.5-9 cm after 14 weeks below the grafting area. HLB was also detected up to 9-15 cm after 16 weeks, 15-24 cm after twenty weeks, 24-28.5 cm after 22 weeks and 28.5-30 cm after 24 weeks below the grafting area. Conclusion: Base on conventional PCR test, HLB disease in citrus is not seed borne and it can reach to the roots 26 weeks after inoculation.

  11. Catalytic and synergistic antibacterial potential of green synthesized silver nanoparticles: Their ecotoxicological evaluation on Poecillia reticulata.

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were fabricated at a rapid rate from leaf extract of medicinally important plant Alstonia macrophylla. Biosynthesized AgNPs are of spherical shape and narrow size (70 nm), exhibiting a surface plasmon resonance peak at 435 nm, and a zeta potential of -30.8 mV and have a crystalline nature. A diverse biochemical consortium of protein, terpenoids, phenolics, and flavonoids in leaf extract of A. macrophylla was found to be responsible for AgNP synthesis as evidenced from qualitative-quantitative chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies. Nitroaromatic compounds are anthropogenic pollutants with long-lasting environmental persistence and are needed to transform into less toxic derivatives. 4-Nitrophenol and p-nitroaniline were reduced to less hazardous and commercially useful 4-aminophenol and p-phenylenediamine by phytosynthesized AgNPs. Rate constants of 0.052 and 0.040 Min(-1) were calculated for 4-nitrophenol and p-nitroaniline reduction, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography also confirms the reduction of these nitroaromatic compounds. Combinational studies could be one of the strategies to overcome microbial resistance to antibiotics. In synergistic antibacterial assay, the highest increase in a fold area of 3.84 was reported against Staphylococcus aureus using a combination of AgNPs with penicillin. Biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be less toxic (LC50 = 9.13 ppm) than chemically synthesized AgNPs having a LC50 value of 2.86 ppm against nontarget fish Poecillia reticulata. Our green nanosynthesis method offers a faster rate of formation of stable AgNPs having antibacterial and catalytic potential with lower environmental toxicity.

  12. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabradisplays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  13. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Liu, LiLi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-09-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studies on their early development of live bearers like the guppy including lineage tracing and genetic manipulations, have been limited. Therefore, to optimize conditions of embryo in vitro culture, explanted embryos from pregnant females were incubated in embryo medium (L-15 medium, supplemented with 5, 10, 15, 20% fetal bovine serum, respectively). We investigated whether the contents of FBS in vitro culture medium impact the development of embryos, and whether they would hatch in vitro. Our study found that in 5% of FBS of the medium, although embryos developed significantly slower in vitro than in the ovary, it was impossible to exactly quantify the developmental delay in culture, due to the obvious spread in developmental stage within each batch of eggs, and embryos can only be maintained until the early-eyed. And although in culture with 20% FBS the embryos can sustain rapid development of early stage, but cannot be cultured for the entire period of their embryonic development and ultimately died. In the medium with 10% and 15% FBS, the embryos seems well developed, even some can continue to grow after follicle ruptures until it can be fed. We also observed that embryonic in these two culture conditions were significantly different in development speed, in 15% it is faster than 10%. But 10% FBS appears to be more optimizing condition than 15% one on development process of embryos and survival rate to larvae stage.

  14. Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco based on evaporation replenishment (ER irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The irrigation water quantity given per day per plant under different treatments in various months varied from 21.3-158.5 liters per plant, 17.5-153.4 liters per plant and 20.9-164.5 liters per plant in different months during 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12. The highest quantity of water was applied under the irrigation scheduled at 80 % evaporation replenishment (ER treatment and it varied from 46.8-164.5 liters per plant in 2009-12. The average mandarin plant height was 4.57-4.83 m, stock girth was 51.5-56.3 cm and canopy volume 62.4-71.2 m3. The only canopy volume was found significant among the various scheduling treatments. The fruit yield and quality was significantly affected under various evaporation replenishment (ER based drip irrigation scheduling treatments. The highest fruit yield (17.25 and 21.48 tones per ha higher TSS, juice percentage and lower acidity was observed under irrigation at 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during the study period. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (12.7 and 12.4 was found in the irrigation schedule with 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during 2010-12.

  15. Fine QTL mapping of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) fruit characters using high-throughput SNP markers

    Seedlessness, flavor, and color are top priorities for mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) cultivar improvement. Given long juvenility, large tree size, and high breeding cost, marker-assisted selection (MAS) may be an expeditious and economical approach to these challenges. The objectives of this s...

  16. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  17. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata

    de Oliveira, Luciana G.; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR GABA IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA-RETICULATA BY MEANS OF BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS

    TIMMERMAN, W; ZWAVELING, J; WESTERINK, BHC

    1992-01-01

    Brain microdialysis was used to characterize extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) of freely moving rats. The extracellular GABA in the SNR was characterized using acutely implanted probes (4-8 h after surgery; day 1) and chronically implanted probes (

  19. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

    Werner, M.; Schroeder, J.H.

    1980-07-01

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions.

  20. Occurrence of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Immatures of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Insecta: Plecoptera: Perlidae

    Fernanda Avelino-Capistrano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available First register of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in immature of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Plecoptera: Perlidae. The insects were collected in rivers of Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil.

  1. Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Hermens, J.L.M.; Leeuwangh, Peter; Musch, Aalt

    1985-01-01

    In this study acute lethal concentrations (LC50) to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were determined for mixtures of 4 groups of aquatic pollutants. The groups were composed of 11 nonreactive, nonionized organic chemicals, 11 chloroanilines, 11 chlorophenols, and 9 reactive organic halides. Earlier s

  2. PROLIFERATIVE LESIONS IN SWIMBLADDER OF JAPANESE MEDAKA ORYZIAS LATIPES AND GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA

    Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5,000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the four cases from medaka and...

  3. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome

    Rodd F Helen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in

  4. USE OF THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) IN CARCINOGENESIS TESTING UNDER NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM PROTOCOLS

    that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), although less widely u...

  5. Larvivorous potential of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, in anopheline mosquito control in riverbed pools below the Kotmale dam, Sri Lanka.

    Kusumawathie, P H D; Wickremasinghe, A R; Karunaweera, N D; Wijeyaratne, M J S

    2008-01-01

    The larvivorous potential of Poecilia reticulata was studied in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory, the number of anopheline larvae consumed per fish per day and the number of larvae in fecal matter per fish were determined. In the field study, 29 of 60 selected riverbed pools in Kotmale oya, below the Kotmale dam, were stocked with P reticulata, whereas the rest served as controls. Anopheline larval surveys were carried out starting from 1 day prior to stocking of fish and on selected days subsequently. P. reticulata consumed an average of 117 +/- 32.33 larvae per fish per day. Fecal matter of P. reticulata contained an average of 2.7 +/- 2.68 larvae per fish . There was a significant reduction in the number of pools positive for anopheline larvae (P < .001) after stocking fish and the number of larvae per pool (P < .001) and per 100 dips (P < .001) as compared with controls.

  6. Effect of foliar spray from seaweed liquid fertilizer of Ulva reticulata (Forsk.) on Vigna mungo L. and their elemental composition using SEM- energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis

    G Ganapathy Selvam; K Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the effect of seaweed liquied fertilizer (SLF) of Ulva reticulata, as biochemical characteristics of Vigna mungo as well as leaf morphometric analysis such as epidermal and stomata cell variation and distribution of minerals in the leaf. Methods:Experiments were conducted on black gram to study the potential green alga of Ulva reticulata as a biofertilizer. The seeds were sown in soil and SLF were added to soil bed in five different concentrations separately (1%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% w/v). Results: Seaweed extract was applied as a foliar spray, the SLF treated plants show maximum growth in 2% of SLF among the various experimental concentrations as well as control. Biochemical profiles like chlorophyll a and b, protein, sugar and starch were found to be higher at 2%. A significant increase in the number of epidermal and stomata cells were observed in 2% SLF treated plants. Whereas at higher concentrations of SLF such as 4%, 6%, and 8% the values of all the parameters were significantly decreased than in the control group. Further the leaf of 2% SLF treated V. mungo have subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopic analysis it reveals that thepresence of ten elements in the following order: Ca>P>N>Na>K>Mg>Mn>S>Fe>Zn in treated and Ca>N>P>Na>Mg>Mn>K>Zn>S>Fe in control plant. The data generated from study reveal that SLF of U. reticulatea could be used as foliar spray at low concentration of 2% to maximize the growth and yield of V. mungo and also increase the number of stomata in the leaf. Conclusion:The main objective of study result would be the manorial requirement for organic forming and serve as a cost effective ecofriendliness for sustainable agriculture and environment.

  7. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata in the presence of alternative preys

    Barnali Manna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872 on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B were measured following Manly’s selectivity index (Si as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms.Results: The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2, 33 = 34.91; p<0.001. The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05 – 0.27; p< 0.05 compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances.Interpretation & conclusion: P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

  8. TRIAGEM METABÓLICA POR PKS E NRPS EM ACTINOBACTÉRIAS ENDOFÍTICAS DE Citrus reticulata

    Pedro L. R. da Cruz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides are natural products widely found in bacteria, fungi and plants. The biological activities associated with these metabolites have attracted special attention in biopharmaceutical studies. Polyketide synthases act similarly to fatty acids synthetases and the whole multi-enzymatic set coordinating precursor and extending unit selection and reduction levels during chain growth. Acting in a similarly orchestrated model, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases biosynthesize NRPs. PKSs-I and NRPSs enzymatic modules and domains are collinearly organized with the parent gene sequence. This arrangement allows the use of degenerated PCR primers to amplify targeted regions in the genes corresponding to specific enzymatic domains such as ketosynthases and acyltransferases in PKSs and adenilation domains in NRPSs. Careful analysis of these short regions allows the classifying of a set of organisms according to their potential to biosynthesize PKs and NRPs. In this work, the biosynthetic potential of a set of 13 endophytic actinobacteria from Citrus reticulata for producing PKs and NRP metabolites was evaluated. The biosynthetic profile was compared to antimicrobial activity. Based on the inhibition promoted, 4 strains were considered for cluster analysis. A PKS/NRPS phylogeny was generated in order to classify some of the representative sequences throughout comparison with homologous genes. Using this approach, a molecular fingerprint was generated to help guide future studies on the most promising strains.

  9. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection

    Yun Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi using digital gene expression (DGE profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata from southwest coast of Kanyakumari, India

    Sundaram Ravikumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata species collected from the Kanyakumari coast of India to determine their potential for bioactivity. Methods: The algal extract was prepared using n-butanol for evaluating the antibacterial activity of Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: It was observed that the n-butanolic extract of the seaweed powder of Ulva reticulata (25–100 mg/mL exerted notable antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains. The maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in all concentrations. Conclusions: The results obtained in the present investigation supported the traditional use of the seaweeds against various infections. However, further investigation has been carried out to elucidate the exact mechanism and isolation of active principle.

  11. Designation of a neotype and redescription of Hesione reticulata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan (Annelida, Hesionidae)

    Jimi, Naoto; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The hesionid polychaete Hesione reticulata von Marenzeller, 1879 was described from Enoshima Island, Japan and has been recorded also from the Red Sea. Depending on researchers, it has been regarded as either a distinct species or synonymous with older established ones. The type specimen has been lost. In order to clarify its taxonomic status, Hesione reticulata is herein redescribed, illustrated, and a neotype is proposed based on recent material collected near the type locality. The diagnostic features include the presence of several dorsal, discontinuous longitudinal bands, interrupted by pale segmental spots; prostomium with tiny antennae; a tuberculated dorsal integument; acicular lobes double; and neurochaetal blades with guards approaching the distal tooth. The dorsal color pattern in life enables a clear distinction from similar species such as Hesione intertexta Grube, 1878 amongst others. Mitochondrial COI barcoding sequences are deposited in the DNA Data Bank of Japan. A key to Hesione species from Japan is also included.

  12. Evaluation of skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata blanco peel

    Vinita D Apraj

    2016-01-01

    Abbreviation Used: ECM: Extracellular matrix, UV: Ultra violet, ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase, Chc: Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, GC-MS: Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy, RT: Room Temperature, μg GAE/ mg: Microgram Gallic acid equivalent / milligram, W/V: Weight by Volume, μg QE/ mg: Microgram Quercetin equivalent / milligram, CR HAE: Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, CR CAE: Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, EC50: Half Maximal Effective Concentration, PMS NADH: Phenazine methosulfate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NBT: Nitroblue tetrazolium, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, APS: Ammonium Persulphate, AAPH: 2,2 -azobis(2-amidino-propane dihydrochloride, TROLOX: (± 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl chromane-2-carboxylic acid, ORAC: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, FALGPA: N-[3-(2-Furyl acryloyl]-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala, SANA: Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide, Rf: Retardation Factor, MSD: Mass Selective Detector

  13. Antibacterial activity ofUlva reticulata from southwest coast of Kanyakumari, India

    Sundaram Ravikumar; Lawrance Anburajan; Balakrishnan Meena

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity ofUlva reticulata species collected from the Kanyakumari coast of India to determine their potential for bioactivity. Methods:The algal extract was prepared usingn-butanol for evaluating the antibacterial activity ofSalmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus andListeria monocytogenes. Results:It was observed that then-butanolic extract of the seaweed powder ofUlva reticulata (25–100 mg/mL) exerted notable antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains. The maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited againstEscherichia coli andBacillus cereus in all concentrations. Conclusions:The results obtained in the present investigation supported the traditional use of the seaweeds against various infections. However, further investigation has been carried out to elucidate the exact mechanism and isolation of active principle.

  14. Acute toxicity of lanthanum to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Stanislava Mácová

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanides are widely used in industry as well as medicine, where serve as contrast agents in imaging methods and techniques. Due to these facts, lanthanides can become significant pollutants of living environment. In our work, we were focused in investigation of toxicity of lanthanum on juvenile stages of two fish species- Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata and embryonic stages of D. rerio. The 96hLC50 values were 156.33 ± 5.59 mg.l–1 for juvenile D. rerio and 128.38 ± 5.29 mg.l–1 for juvenile P. reticulata. The 144hLC50 for embryonic stages of D. rerio was 152.98 ± 8.06 mg.l–1. Results of toxicity tests indicate possible toxicity of lanthanum in the case of presence in aquatic environment.

  15. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity in gill erythrocyte cells of Poecilia reticulata exposed to a glyphosate formulation.

    De Souza Filho, José; Sousa, Caio César Neves; Da Silva, Cláudio Carlos; De Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2013-11-01

    Poecilia reticulata were exposed to herbicide Roundup Transorb(®) for micronucleus test, nuclear abnormalities and comet assay. The exposure-concentrations were based on CL50-96 h following 0, 1.41, 2.83, 4.24 and 5.65 μL L(-1) for 24 h. Micronucleus and comets were significantly increased in the gill erythrocyte cells after herbicide exposure compared with the non-exposed group. Results showed a gradual increase in the number of damaged cells, indicating a concentration-dependent effect and that this herbicide was mutagenic and genotoxic to P. reticulata and this effect could be attributed to a combination of compounds contained in the formulation with the active ingredient glyphosate.

  16. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi

    Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua,Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly,Marina Parissi; Morais,Selene Maia de; Andrade-Júnior,Heitor Franco de; Carvalho, Camila Aparecida de; Lima,Josemar Coelho; Magalhães,Hilton César Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the mu...

  17. Parallel evolution and vicariance in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) over multiple spatial and temporal scales.

    Alexander, Heather J; Taylor, John S; Wu, Sampson Sze-Tsun; Breden, Felix

    2006-11-01

    Well-studied model systems present ideal opportunities to understand the relative roles of contemporary selection versus historical processes in determining population differentiation and speciation. Although guppy populations in Trinidad have been a model for studies of evolutionary ecology and sexual selection for more than 50 years, this work has been conducted with little understanding of the phylogenetic history of this species. We used variation in nuclear (X-src) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences to examine the phylogeographic history of Poecilia reticulata Peters (the guppy) across its entire natural range, and to test whether patterns of morphological divergence are a consequence of parallel evolution. Phylogenetic, nested clade, population genetic, and demographic analyses were conducted to investigate patterns of genetic structure at several temporal scales and are discussed in relation to vicariant events, such as tectonic activity and glacial cycles, shaping northeast South American river drainages. The mtDNA phylogeny defined five major lineages, each associated with one or more river drainages, and analysis of molecular variance also detected geographic structuring among these river drainages in an evolutionarily conserved nuclear (X-src) locus. Nested clade and other demographic analyses suggest that the eastern Venezuela/ western Trinidad region is likely the center of origin of P. reticulata. Mantel tests show that the divergence of morphological characters, known to differentiate on a local scale in response to natural and sexual selection pressures, is not associated with mtDNA genetic distance; however, TreeScan analysis identified several significant associations of these characters with the haplotype tree. Parallel upstream/downstream patterns of morphological adaptation in response to selection pressures reported in P. reticulata within Trinidad rivers appears to persist across the natural range. Our results together with previous

  18. Experimental study to evaluate the pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Milad Adel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae has emerged as an important fish pathogen over the last decade in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of S. iniae in Poecilia reticulata. Atotal of 60 apparently healthy P. reticulata were obtained from ornamental fish pet store and injected intraperitoneally with 1.5×106 cfu of bacteria. For 14 days after challenge, the rate of mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The first clinical signs was observed in challenged fish 48 hrs after injection of S. iniae and first mortality was observed 72 hrs after injection. No significant differences in mortality and clinical signs between both sexes were observed. Streptococcus iniae was collected from internal organs of fishes challenged, and was confirmed using the conventional biochemical tests and PCR. It is concluded that, P. reticulata is susceptible to streptococcosis and can play an important role in transmission of the disease to other ornamental fish species and also cultured fish.

  19. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

    ML Martins

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  20. Effect of short-time exposures to nickel and lead on brain monoamine oxidase from Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata.

    Senatori, Ornella; Setini, Andrea; Scirocco, Annunziata; Nicotra, Antonietta

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work was to verify, in two small size freshwater teleosts Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata, the effects of short-time exposures (24 and 72 h) to a sublethal dose (500 microg/L) of nickel and lead, on brain monoamine oxidase (MAO), an important neural enzyme. The 24-h treatment using both metals caused a strong reduction of MAO activity in D. rerio brain, whereas causing a slight MAO activity stimulation in P. reticulata brain. The same treatment in both species did not affect the brain MAO mRNA production as showed by RT-PCR. Extending the duration of treatment as far as 72 h, partly (D. rerio) or completely (P. reticulata) reversed the metal effects on brain MAO activity suggesting that mechanisms to neutralize the metals had been activated.

  1. Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea

    Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults and sexes (male and female. From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2% showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%. Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual and males (3.47 ± 1.42.Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825, de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2% mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%. Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando

  2. Investigation of acute toxicity of pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic, 25%EC) on guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859).

    Lawal, M O; Samuel, O B

    2010-04-15

    Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L(-1) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (p reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged.

  3. Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata in a packed column.

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Jegan, J; Palanivelu, K; Velan, M

    2005-07-01

    Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata were investigated in a packed bed up-flow column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as bed height and flow rate. At a bed height of 25 cm, the metal-uptake capacity of U. reticulata for copper, cobalt and nickel was found to be 56.3+/-0.24, 46.1+/-0.07 and 46.5+/-0.08 mgg(-1), respectively. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was used to analyze the experimental data. The computed sorption capacity per unit bed volume (N0) was 2580, 2245 and 1911 mgl(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. The rate constant (K(a)) was recorded as 0.063, 0.081 and 0.275 lmg(-1)h(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. In flow rate experiments, the results confirmed that the metal uptake capacity and the metal removal efficiency of U. reticulata decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model was used to fit the column biosorption data at different flow rates and model constants were evaluated. The column regeneration studies were carried out for three sorption-desorption cycles. The elutant used for the regeneration of the biosorbent was 0.1 M CaCl2 at pH 3 adjusted using HCl. For all the metal ions, a decreased breakthrough time and an increased exhaustion time were observed as the regeneration cycles progressed, which also resulted in a broadened mass transfer zone. The pH variations during both sorption and desorption process have been reported.

  4. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erbaşli, Kazim

    2004-07-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l.

  5. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Kilham, Susan S; Reznick, David N

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  6. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Eugenia Zandonà

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP and high predation (HP pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  7. CrWSKP1, an SKP1-like Gene, Is Involved in the Self-Incompatibility Reaction of “Wuzishatangju” (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Peng Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 genes play crucial roles in plant development and differentiation. However, the role of SKP1 in citrus is unclear. Herein, we described a novel SKP1-like gene, designated as CrWSKP1, from “Wuzishatangju” (Citrus reticulata Blanco. The cDNA sequence of CrWSKP1 is 779 base pairs (bp and contains an open reading frame (ORF of 477 bp. The genomic sequence of the CrWSKP1 gene is 1296 bp with two exons and one intron. CrWSKP1 has high identity with SKP1-like genes from other plant species within two conserved regions. Approximately 85% of pollen tubes of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transgenic tobaccos became twisted at four days after self-pollination. Pollen tube numbers of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants entering into ovules were significantly fewer than that of the control. Seed number of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants was significantly reduced. These results suggested that the CrWSKP1 is involved in the self-incompatibility (SI reaction of “Wuzishatangju”.

  8. CrWSKP1, an SKP1-like Gene, Is Involved in the Self-Incompatibility Reaction of "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco).

    Li, Peng; Miao, Hongxia; Ma, Yuewen; Wang, Lu; Hu, Guibing; Ye, Zixing; Zhao, Jietang; Qin, Yonghua

    2015-09-09

    Plant S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) genes play crucial roles in plant development and differentiation. However, the role of SKP1 in citrus is unclear. Herein, we described a novel SKP1-like gene, designated as CrWSKP1, from "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The cDNA sequence of CrWSKP1 is 779 base pairs (bp) and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp. The genomic sequence of the CrWSKP1 gene is 1296 bp with two exons and one intron. CrWSKP1 has high identity with SKP1-like genes from other plant species within two conserved regions. Approximately 85% of pollen tubes of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transgenic tobaccos became twisted at four days after self-pollination. Pollen tube numbers of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants entering into ovules were significantly fewer than that of the control. Seed number of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants was significantly reduced. These results suggested that the CrWSKP1 is involved in the self-incompatibility (SI) reaction of "Wuzishatangju".

  9. CrWSKP1, an SKP1-like Gene, Is Involved in the Self-Incompatibility Reaction of “Wuzishatangju” (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    Li, Peng; Miao, Hongxia; Ma, Yuewen; Wang, Lu; Hu, Guibing; Ye, Zixing; Zhao, Jietang; Qin, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Plant S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) genes play crucial roles in plant development and differentiation. However, the role of SKP1 in citrus is unclear. Herein, we described a novel SKP1-like gene, designated as CrWSKP1, from “Wuzishatangju” (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The cDNA sequence of CrWSKP1 is 779 base pairs (bp) and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp. The genomic sequence of the CrWSKP1 gene is 1296 bp with two exons and one intron. CrWSKP1 has high identity with SKP1-like genes from other plant species within two conserved regions. Approximately 85% of pollen tubes of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transgenic tobaccos became twisted at four days after self-pollination. Pollen tube numbers of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants entering into ovules were significantly fewer than that of the control. Seed number of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants was significantly reduced. These results suggested that the CrWSKP1 is involved in the self-incompatibility (SI) reaction of “Wuzishatangju”. PMID:26370985

  10. Leaf Litterfall and Decomposition of Polylepis reticulata in the Treeline of the Ecuadorian Andes

    Juan Pinos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litterfall contributes significantly to carbon fluxes in forests. A crucial open question for the sustainability of mountain forests is how climate change will affect this and other carbon fluxes (eg photosynthesis and respiration. Leaf litterfall and decomposition of Polylepis reticulata, an endemic species of the Andes, were analyzed during a period of 1 year at 6 experimental plots located in the Andean páramo between 3700 and 3900 m above sea level in Cajas National Park, Ecuador. Litterfall was collected in each plot using 5 randomly distributed traps. Every trap had a 40-cm diameter (0.125 m2 and was suspended 0.8 to 1.0 m above the ground. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was analyzed using litter bags. Eighteen bags with approximately 20 g of dry litter were placed in the litter layer in each experimental plot and collected 30, 60, 90, 150, 210, 300, and 365 days after they were installed. The mean annual litterfall recorded was 3.77 Mg ha−1, representing 51% of the leaf biomass present in the canopy, so the leaf life span of P. reticulata in Cajas National Park is 1.98 years. Litterfall occurred all year, with no significant seasonal pattern. The mean decomposition rate (k obtained for this study period was 0.38 year−1. This study contributes to the information gap on litterfall and decomposition in natural forests located at the highest elevations in the world.

  11. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni

    Manal A Hamed

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

  12. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

    Lia de Barros Leite Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I, from implantation to major organogenesis (II, and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III. We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I, pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic.

  13. Examining the link between personality and laterality in a feral guppy Poecilia reticulata population.

    Irving, E; Brown, C

    2013-08-01

    This study examined whether variation in the strength and direction of lateralization in a detour task was linked with variation in three common personality measurements: boldness, activity and sociability, in a population of wild guppies Poecilia reticulata. Additionally, the aim was to determine whether any consistent correlations between these behavioural traits, known as behavioural syndromes, were present in the study population. The results revealed that all three personality traits were highly repeatable over time in both sexes. Evidence of a complex syndrome in the form of a correlation between boldness, sociability and activity was found; however, this relationship was only present in males. Males that were more active in a familiar environment emerged more quickly from shelter into a novel environment and were more social. In general, male P. reticulata were bold, active and antisocial compared to females, with these differences probably a reflection of opposing life-history strategies. Only a weak link between the strength of cerebral lateralisation and personality was discovered and this was mediated by sex.

  14. Toxicity response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides

    ALIAKBAR HEDAYATI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hedayati A, Tarkhani R, Shadi A. 2012. Mortality response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 6-10. This research was performed to determine and compare acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the freshwater guppy Poecilia reticulata. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h was attained by probit analysis by Finney’s and using the maximum-likelihood procedure (SPSS. The 24-96 h LC50 for the diazinon were 40.9±0.98, 33.2±0.84, 23.2±0.74 and 16.8±0.57 ppm respectively. The 24-96 h LC50 for the deltamethrin were 0.297±0.13, 0.236±0.16, 0.204±0.47 and 0.195±0.06 ppm respectively. In the present study, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin was more toxic than diazinon to this species. LC50 values obtained in the present study were different from the corresponding values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish.

  15. Localization of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the forebrain of the guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    Parafati, M; Senatori, O; Nicotra, A

    2009-10-01

    The current study reports for the first time the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in the forebrain of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Numerous small TH-ir neurons were observed in the olfactory bulbs, located mainly in the periphery of the bulbs. The TH-ir telencephalic neurons are localized in the ventral telencephalic area where they are grouped in three distinct nuclei (Vv,Vd and Vp) composed of a small number of cells forming a continuous strip. The largest number of forebrain TH-ir neurons was observed in the diencephalon where both small and larger neurons are present. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons are subdivided in large nuclei located in the preoptic region (nSC, nPOp and nPOm), the thalamus (nDM), the pretectal region (nPPv and nAP), the hypothalamus (nPP and nRP) and the posterior tuberculum (nPT). Many diencephalic nuclei are distributed in periventricular regions and no TH-ir cells were observed in the paraventricular organ. A comparative analysis indicates that the present observations are consistent with the general pattern of TH-ir neurons distribution reported for the forebrain of other teleosts, but with some interspecies variability present, mainly in the diencephalon. This paper also provides valuable neuroanatomical information for P. reticulata, a teleost frequently used in toxicological tests, for future studies investigating the effects of environmental pollutants on the catecholaminergic system.

  16. Uptake and elimination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) at sublethal and lethal aqueous concentrations.

    Eck, van J.M.C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Deneer, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have been studied in an accumulation and elimination experiment. At a sublethal exposure, uptake and elimination rate constants of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were determined, employing a first-order one-compartment model. The consta

  17. [Inheritance of organelle genomes of the somatic hybrid between Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and flying dragon (Poncirus trifoliata)].

    Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Guo, Wen-Wu; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2002-04-01

    Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) was successfully applied to analyze the organelle composition of three eight-year-old trees of the somatic hybrid between Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and Flying Dragon (Poncirus trifoliata). Five chloroplast and five mitochondrial universal primer pairs were used. All chloroplast primer pairs (rbcL-rbcL, rbcL-PSA I, TrnH-Trnk, TrnD-TrnT, TrnK-TrnK) and three (nad 1 exon B-nad 1 exon C, 18S rRNA-5S rRNA, nad 4 exon 1-nad 4 exon 2) of the five mitochondrial primer pairs, were efficiently amplified, but no polymorphism was detected, when the PCR products were digested by eleven restriction endonucleases, including, Hin6 I, Bus RI, Taq I, Msp I, HinfI, AluI, Dra I, EcoR I, Hind III, BamH I and Pst I respectively, three polymorphic cpDNA-CAPS markers (rbcL-rbcL/Hin 6 I, TrnD-TrnT/BusR I, TrnD-TrnT/Taq I) and one mtDNA-CAPS marker (nad 1-nad1/Msp I) were found. The results showed that cpDNA in the somatic hybrid plants came from Flying Dragon, the mesophyll parent, and mtDNA from Cleopatra mandarin, the embryogenic suspension parent uniformly. In order to prove the reliability of CAPS results, and to get more detailed information about the mtDNA inheritance, RFLP analyses was conducted. Genomic DNA of the somatic hybrids and their corresponding parents were digested by five restriction endonucleases (Dra I, EcoR I, Hind III, BamH I and Pst I), and hybridized with five mitochondrial probes (Cob, Pro 2, Pro I, atp 6, 26S rRNA) as well as one chloroplast probe, i.e. the PCR product of Flying Dragon with the primer pair of trnd 1-trnt 1. The results were in line with those of CAPS, and no novel bands were detected, which indicated that no organelle DNA recombination or rearrangement have been detected in the hybrid plants. The research showed that novel pattern of nuclear-mitochondria-chloroplast interaction could be reached via protoplast fusion.

  18. Investigation of the genotoxic effects of chlorine bleach and dishwashing detergent on Guppy (Poecillia reticulata Peters, 1859) by using the micronucleus test

    ARSLAN, Pınar; DALGIÇ, Mehmet Ali; SARIÇAKMAK, Sedanur; SARIGİL, Necla; ÜLKER, Şeyma; MEMMİ, Burcu KOÇAK

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the potential genotoxic effects of dishwashing detergent and chlorine bleach, which pollute aquatic ecosystems due to domestic, industrial and general uses were investigated on the standard test organism Guppy (Poecillia reticulata Peters, 1859) by using the fish erythrocyte micronucleus test. The fish were exposed to dishwashing detergent and chlorine bleach at 15 μl/L concentration for 96 hours and blood samples were taken after 96 hours from Poecillia reticulata. M...

  19. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    Jani Switu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

  20. Acute toxicity and toxic interaction of chromium and nickel to common guppy Poecilia reticulata (Peters)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

    1990-06-01

    The acute toxicity of heavy metals in combination to the common guppy has been reported. Information on the combined effects of chromium and nickel to fish is rather scarce. Toxicity of nickel and chromium to fish is generally low. These two elements are usually less toxic than silver, cadmium, copper and thallium; depending on test conditions, these may also be less hazardous than zinc, lead and arsenic. The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute toxicity of Ni and Cr singly and the toxic interaction of these two metal ions on survival of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). This species was selected for static bioassays because it can be easily cultured and raised under laboratory conditions through a complete life cycle, and it is one of the most common fish used for laboratory toxicity studies.

  1. Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Kwan, Lucia; Cheng, Yun Yun; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2013-10-23

    Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive or unreceptive (i.e. resistant) females. Our analyses demonstrate that the gonopodial claws function to increase sperm transfer to unreceptive females during uncooperative matings but not during receptive matings. Up to threefold more sperm were transferred to unreceptive females by clawed than declawed males. These data suggest that the claw is a sexually antagonistic trait, functioning to aid in transferring sperm to resistant females, and implicate sexual conflict as a selective force in the diversification of the gonopodium in the Poeciliidae.

  2. Effect of male age on sperm traits and sperm competition success in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Gasparini, C; Marino, I A M; Boschetto, C; Pilastro, A

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations can accumulate in the germline with age, decreasing the genetic quality of sperm and imposing a cost on female fitness. If these mutations also affect sperm competition ability or sperm production, then females will benefit from polyandry as it incites sperm competition and, consequently, minimizes the mutational load in the offspring. We tested this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species characterized by polyandry and intense sperm competition, by investigating whether age affects post-copulatory male traits and sperm competition success. Females did not discriminate between old and young males in a mate choice experiment. While old males produced longer and slower sperm with larger reserves of strippable sperm, compared to young males, artificial insemination did not reveal any effect of age on sperm competition success. Altogether, these results do not support the hypothesis that polyandry evolved in response to costs associated with mating with old males in the guppy.

  3. Heterozygosity and orange coloration are associated in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Herdegen, M; Dudka, K; Radwan, J

    2014-01-01

    The good-genes-as-heterozygosity hypothesis predicts that more elaborate male sexual ornaments are associated with higher levels of heterozygosity. Recent theoretical work suggests that such associations are likely to arise in finite, structured populations. We investigated the correlation between multilocus heterozygosity (MLH), which was estimated using 13 microsatellite loci, and male coloration in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a model species in sexual selection research. We found that MLH was a significant predictor of the relative area of orange spots, a trait that is subject to strong female preference in this species. Neither the relative area of black spots nor the number of black or orange spots was significantly correlated with MLH. We found no statistical support for local effects (i.e. strong effects of heterozygosity at specific markers), which suggests that relative orange spots area reflects genome-wide heterozygosity.

  4. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Deere, Kerry A; Grether, Gregory F; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2012-05-07

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation most directly affected by the pigment ratio. To test this hypothesis, we crossed two populations differing in drosopterin production and produced an F(2) generation with variable drosopterin levels. When the carotenoid content of the orange spots was held constant, female guppies preferred males with intermediate drosopterin levels. This shows that females do not simply prefer males with greater orange spot pigment content; instead, the ratio of the pigments also affects male attractiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for a hypothesized agent of countergradient sexual selection.

  5. The effects of familiarity and group size on mating preferences in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Mariette, M M; Zajitschek, S R K; Garcia, C M; Brooks, R C

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that frequency dependence in the attractiveness of a particular phenotype to mates can contribute to the maintenance of polymorphism. However, these preferences for rare and unfamiliar male phenotypes have only been demonstrated in small, controlled experiments. Here, we tested the preference for unfamiliar mates in groups of six to 96 individuals over 13 days, in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). We observed individual behaviour in situ to test whether fish discriminate two unfamiliar individuals among many familiar ones. We found that unfamiliar males and females were preferred over the familiar fishes in all groups and that this effect decayed over time. Increasing group sizes and levels of sexual activity did not hamper the preference for unfamiliar mates, providing further support for the role of frequency dependent mate choice in the maintenance of trait polymorphism in natural populations.

  6. Euclinostomum heterostomum infection in guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured in Southern Thailand.

    Suanyuk, Naraid; Mankhakhet, Suchanya; Soliman, Hatem; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-05-27

    During April to June 2009 and February 2010 to February 2011, numerous digenetic trematode metacercariae were observed embedded in the muscles of guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured at Kidchakan Supamattaya Aquatic Animal Health Research Center, Songkhla, southern Thailand. A total of 424 guppies were examined to identify the parasite and to study its pathogenicity. Based on conventional parasitological techniques, the parasitic digenean found in the guppies was identified as Euclinostomum heterostomum Rudolphi, 1809. Histological analysis revealed numerous metacercariae embedded in the fish muscle. A life cycle study indicated that the snail Indoplanorbis exustus was the first intermediate host, with the guppies serving as the second intermediate host. No E. heterostomum metacercariae were found in cohabited fish species, giant sailfin molly Poecilia velifera or platy Xiphophorus maculatus, which indicated that the guppy was the only suitable fish host present.

  7. Juvenile compensatory growth has negative consequences for reproduction in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Auer, Sonya K; Arendt, Jeffrey D; Chandramouli, Radhika; Reznick, David N

    2010-08-01

    Compensatory or 'catch-up' growth may be an adaptive mechanism that buffers the growth trajectory of young organisms from deviations caused by reduced food availability. Theory generally assumes that rapid juvenile compensatory growth impacts reproduction only through its positive effects on age and size at maturation, but potential reproductive costs to juvenile compensatory growth remain virtually unexplored. We used a food manipulation experiment to examine the reproductive consequences of compensatory growth in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Compensatory growth did not affect adult growth rates, litter production rates or investment in offspring size. However, compensatory growth had negative effects on litter size, independent of the effects of female body length, resulting in a 20% decline in offspring production. We discuss potential mechanisms behind this observed cost to reproduction.

  8. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  9. Cloning and expression analysis of a prion protein encoding gene in guppy ( Poecilia reticulata)

    Wu, Suihan; Wei, Qiwei; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Dengqiang; Zou, Guiwei; Chen, Daqing

    2008-11-01

    The full length cDNA of a prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of guppy ( Poecilia reticulata) and the corresponding genomic DNA were cloned. The cDNA was 2245 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1545 bp encoding a protein of 515 amino acids, which held all typical structural characteristics of the functional PrP. The cloned genomic DNA fragment corresponding to the cDNA was 3720 bp in length, consisting of 2 introns and 2 exons. The 5' untranslated region of cDNA originated from the 2 exons, while the ORF originated from the second exon. Although the gene was transcribed in diverse tissues including brain, eye, liver, intestine, muscle and tail, its transcript was most abundant in the brain. In addition, the transcription of the gene was enhanced by 5 salinity, implying that it was associated with the response of guppy to saline stress.

  10. Adenylate cyclase 5 is required for melanophore and male pattern development in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Kottler, Verena A; Künstner, Axel; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Langenecker, Tobias; Hoffmann, Margarete; Sharma, Eshita; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are colorful fish that have attracted the attention of pigmentation researchers for almost a century. Here, we report that the blond phenotype of the guppy is caused by a spontaneous mutation in the guppy ortholog of adenylate cyclase 5 (adcy5). Using double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, we linked the blond phenotype to a candidate region of 118 kb, in which we subsequently identified a 2-bp deletion in adcy5 that alters splicing and leads to a premature stop codon. We show that adcy5, which affects life span and melanoma growth in mouse, is required for melanophore development and formation of male orange pigmentation traits in the guppy. We find that some components of the male orange pattern are particularly sensitive to loss of Adcy5 function. Our work thus reveals a function for Adcy5 in patterning of fish color ornaments.

  11. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit.

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    Ganapathy Selvam G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  13. Dopaminergic presynaptic modulation of nigral afferents: its role in the generation of recurrent bursting in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Jose De Jesus Aceves; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Ricardo eHernandez; Victor ePlata; Osvaldo eIbanez-Sandoval; Elvira eGalarraga; Jose eBargas

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) afferents: i) striatonigral terminals (direct pathway) posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and GABA transmission. ii) Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases excita...

  14. Dopaminergic Presynaptic Modulation of Nigral Afferents: Its Role in the Generation of Recurrent Bursting in Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata Neurons

    Aceves, José de Jesús; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernández, Ricardo; Plata, Víctor; Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) afferents: (i) striatonigral terminals (direct pathway) posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and GABA transmission. (ii) Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases exci...

  15. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  16. Testing the interactive effects of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids on ejaculate traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    Rahman, M M; Gasparini, C; Turchini, G M; Evans, J P

    2015-05-01

    Using the polyandrous livebearing guppy Poecilia reticulata, this study revealed no main effects of carotenoids in the diet on ejaculate traits, but significant main effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on sperm viability and weak but significant interacting effects of both nutrients on sperm length. Collectively, these findings not only add evidence that PUFAs are critical determinants of sperm quality, but also provide tentative evidence that for some traits these effects may be moderated by carotenoid intake.

  17. Evaluation of aeroponics for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis, Leptadenia reticulata and Tylophora indica – three threatened medicinal Asclepiads

    Mehandru, Pooja; Shekhawat, N. S.; Rai, Manoj K.; Kataria, Vinod; Gehlot, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the potential of aeroponic system for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis (Paimpa) a rare, threatened and endemic edible species, Leptadenia reticulata (Jeewanti), a threatened liana used as promoter of health and Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merill, a valuable medicinal climber. Experiments were conducted to asses the effect of exogenous auxin (naphthalene acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-acetic acid) and auxin concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5...

  18. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms under In-vitro

    Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Extraction of volatile oil was carried out by Clevenger’s apparatus. Volatile chemical components were measured by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity was carried by Agar well diffusion assay with reference to standard fluconazole and tetracycline. Results: The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), γ-terpene (2.6 %) andβ-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the clinically isolated pathogenic microbial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Conclusions: The potential antimicrobial activity of volatile oil present in fruit peels of C. reticulata can be useful for treatment of skin disorder and/or in aroma. Therapy, it can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

  19. Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit

    Júnior Cesar Modesto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S��o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit

  20. CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: 2. CULTURING, DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF FISH IN THE FIELD

    Sustriayu Nalim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu percobaan pemberantasan vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus dengan penyebaran ikan pema­kan jentik Poecilia reticulata di sawah telah dilakukan. Untuk memacu peran serta petani, penyebaran ikan P. reticulata dilakukan bersamaan dengan minapadi di mana ikan Cyprinus carpio dipelihara di sawah. Beberapa aspek yang diteliti dalam percobaan ini adalah (1 biologi jentik An. aconitus dan ikan dan (2 cara-cara berkembangbiaknya ikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penyebaran An. aconitus di sawah pada umumnya 1/2 — 1 meter dari tepi pematang sawah, daya makan ikan P. reticulata rata rata adalah 119,4 jentik/hari, daya reproduksi rata-rata ikan P. reticulata adalah 109,3 ikan/bulan, daya produksi ikan C. carpio berkisar antara 5000 — 10.000 telur/3 bulan tergantung pada umur ikan betina. Kepadatan ikan P. reticulata 2 ikan/m2 dapat menanggulangi populasi jentik di sawah.

  1. [Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poecilidae) in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México].

    Murillo, Patricia Devezé; Mendiola, Juan Lorenzo Reta; Sánchez Luna, Basilio

    2004-12-01

    Poecilia reticulata, also known as guppy, is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures. The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days. We developed a technology for raising guppys, which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction, nursery, feeding, and commercialization, evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study. The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico. Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH levels). A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City. Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season, place of origin, and resistance to handling. The hydrobiological characteristics were: average temperature 31.4 degrees C, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl(-1), and pH level 6.8. With these values we built a production function, and used it to evaluate profitability. We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16, with a net annual income of US$257.67. The system may provide two permanent jobs.

  2. Intrinsic reproductive isolation between Trinidadian populations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Russell, S T; Magurran, A E

    2006-07-01

    Although Trinidadian populations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, show considerable adaptive genetic differentiation, they have been assumed to show little or no reproductive isolation. We tested this assumption by crossing Caroni (Tacarigua River) and Oropuche (Oropuche R.) drainage populations from Trinidad's Northern Range, and by examining multiple aspects of reproductive compatibility in the F1, F2 and BC1 generations. In open-aquarium experiments, F1 males performed fewer numbers of mating behaviours relative to parental population controls. This is the first documentation of hybrid behavioural sterility within a species, and it suggests that such sterility may feasibly be involved in causing speciation. The crosses also uncovered hybrid breakdown for embryo viability, brood size and sperm counts. In contrast, no reductions in female fertility were detected, indicating that guppies obey Haldane's rule for sterility. Intrinsic isolation currently presents a much stronger obstacle to gene flow than behavioural isolation, and our results indicate that Trinidadian populations constitute a useful model for investigating incipient speciation.

  3. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

  4. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish.

  5. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms

    Yokoyama Jun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

  6. Impact of expected value on neural activity in rat substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    Bryden, Daniel W; Johnson, Emily E; Diao, Xiayang; Roesch, Matthew R

    2011-06-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is thought to serve as the output of the basal ganglia, whereby associative information from striatum influences behavior via disinhibition of downstream motor areas to motivate behavior. Unfortunately, few studies have examined activity in SNr in rats making decisions based on the value of predicted reward similar to those conducted in primates. To fill this void, we recorded from single neurons in SNr while rats performed a choice task in which different odor cues indicated what reward was available on the left or on the right. The value of reward associated with a leftward or rightward movement was manipulated by varying the size of and delay to reward in separate blocks of trials. Rats were faster or slower depending on whether the expected reward value was high or low, respectively. The number of neurons that increased firing during performance of the task outnumbered those that decreased firing. Both increases and decreases were modulated by expected value and response direction. Neurons that fired more or less strongly for larger reward tended to fire, respectively, more or less strongly for immediate reward, reflecting their common motivational output. Finally, value selectivity was present prior to presentation of cues indicating the nature of the upcoming behavioral response for both increasing- and decreasing-type neurons, reflecting the internal bias or preparatory set of the rat. These results emphasize the importance of increasing-type neurons on behavioral output when animals are making decisions based on predicted reward value.

  7. Identification of anti-asthmatic compounds in Pericarpium citri reticulatae and evaluation of their synergistic effects

    Qian SHI; Ze LIU; Yang YANG; Peng GENG; Yuan-yuan ZHU; Qi ZHANG; Fang BAI; Gang BAI

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-asthmatic mechanisms of the traditional Chinese medicine Pericarpium citri reticulatae (PCR).Methods: The alkaloid section (AS) of PCR was extracted using an ion exchange resin, separated, and purified into different fractions by semi-preparative HPLC. These fractions were screened for beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonistic activity using rat β2AR-transfected CHO-CRE-EGFP cells. AS and its isolated components were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight MS (UPLC/Q-Tof MS) and were evaluated for their spasmolytic and antitussive activities both in vitro and in vivo in a guinea pig model.Results: We demonstrated that the AS component responsible for activating β2AR signaling was synephrine. Both AS and synephrine showed significant spasmolytic effects on acetylcholine chloride (ACh)-induced contractions in isolated guinea pig trachea, and they protected against histamine-induced experimental asthma by prolonging the latent period. We further identified stachydrine as the antitussive component that could significantly reduce citric acid-induced coughing. The combination of these two bioactive compounds had a more potent spasmolytic activity in comparison with the single use of synephrine or stachydrine.Conclusion: We conclude that synephrine and stachydrine are the key components of AS that mediate asthma relief due to their synergism when used in combination.

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POECILIA RETICULATA (GUPPY

    Aparna Balakrishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activities against candidate indicator strains, adhesion to mucus and biofilm formation of potential probiotic strains isolated from Poecilia reticulata were evaluated. Four isolated strains (MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 showed moderate to strong antagonistic activities against the tested five indicator strains (Aeromonas hydrophila1739, Vibrio cholera 3906, Flavobacterium 2495, Acinetobacter 1271 and Alcaligenes 1424 and these isolates were further identified using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Except the whole cell product, the other three cellular components, namely, heat-killed whole cell product, intracellular product and extracellular product of all the four selected isolates were equally effective, as revealed by the zone of inhibitions to the tested indicator strains. The in vitro adhesion property or the ability of colonization is often considered as a selection criteria for probiotics. All the selected four strains had higher adhesion abilities than the indicator strains. Further, these four strains had the ability to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The in vitro characterization of these four strains suggests possibility of using the isolates, as individual strain or in combination, for probiotic therapy in aquaculture.

  9. Enzymatic Alterations and Genotoxic Effects Produced by Sublethal Concentrations of Organophosphorous Temephos in Poecilia reticulata.

    Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário

    2015-01-01

    The responses of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues of Poecilia reticulata exposed to sublethal and environmentally relevant concentrations of 0.005, 0.01, or 0.02 mg/L of the organophosphorous (OP) pesticide temephos (TE) for 168 h. Activities of enzymes brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and liver carboxylesterase (CbE) were determined. Nuclear abnormalities (NA) and micronucleus (MN) frequency in gill erythrocytes were also measured. No mortality was observed over the experimental period; however, brain AChE activities were decreased significantly in guppies in all TE treatment groups after 72 h of exposure. Hepatic CbE activities of fish were increased in all TE treatment groups at 96, 120, and 144 h of exposure. The frequencies of MN and NA in fish gill erythrocytes displayed a marked rise after 168 h of exposure to concentrations of 0.01 or 0.02 mg/L TE. Thus, determination of these parameters may be employed as potential indices of exposure to TE using this sentinel organism for monitorining.

  10. Temporal variation at the MHC class IIb in wild populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Fraser, Bonnie A; Ramnarine, Indar W; Neff, Bryan D

    2010-07-01

    Understanding genetic diversity in natural populations is a fundamental objective of evolutionary biology. The immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are excellent candidates to study such diversity because they are highly polymorphic in populations. Although balancing selection may be responsible for maintaining diversity at these functionally important loci, temporal variation in selection pressure has rarely been examined. We examine temporal variation in MHC class IIB diversity in nine guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations over two years. We found that five of the populations changed significantly more at the MHC than at neutral (microsatellite) loci as measured by F(ST), which suggests that the change at the MHC was due to selection and not neutral processes. Additionally, pairwise population differentiation measures at the MHC were higher in 2007 than in 2006, with the signature of selection changing from homogenizing to diversifying selection or neutral evolution. Interestingly, within the populations the magnitude of the change at the MHC between years was related to the change in the proportion of individuals infected by a common parasite, indicating a link between genetic structure and the parasite. Our data thereby implicate temporal variation in selective pressure as an important mechanism maintaining diversity at the MHC in wild populations.

  11. Effects of methylphenidate on responses to novelty in a teleost fish (Poecilia reticulata).

    De Serrano, Alex R; Fong, Charmaine; Rodd, F Helen

    2016-04-01

    Novelty seeking, the willingness to explore novel stimuli, can have important fitness consequences. The neurotransmitter dopamine has been linked to this behavior in studies on lab animals including rodents and fish; however, few studies have investigated this association in individuals from natural populations. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) show variation in willingness to explore novel objects and environments, and females tend to show a preference for novel males. In this study, we asked whether we could enhance interest in several types of novel stimuli in lab-reared, female Trinidadian guppies by administering methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant known to increase dopamine levels. We scored their responses to three different types of novelty: novel environments, objects, and males. Treated females showed enhanced exploratory behavior: they traversed relatively more inner squares of the novel environment (open-field test); they spent more time inspecting a novel object; and they showed greater interest in the second male guppy to which they were exposed than control fish. We also found a positive association between our metrics of exploration in the open field and novel object tests. Our other assays suggest that these differences were not the result of increased activity or reduced levels of stress. Therefore, our results suggest that dopamine plays a role in the responsiveness of guppies to novelty; this opens the door to studies of behavioral mechanisms in natural populations.

  12. The Genome of the Trinidadian Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, and Variation in the Guanapo Population

    Künstner, Axel; Hoffmann, Margarete; Fraser, Bonnie A.; Kottler, Verena A.; Sharma, Eshita; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2016-01-01

    For over a century, the live bearing guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has been used to study sexual selection as well as local adaptation. Natural guppy populations differ in many traits that are of intuitively adaptive significance such as ornamentation, age at maturity, brood size and body shape. Water depth, light supply, food resources and predation regime shape these traits, and barrier waterfalls often separate contrasting environments in the same river. We have assembled and annotated the genome of an inbred single female from a high-predation site in the Guanapo drainage. The final assembly comprises 731.6 Mb with a scaffold N50 of 5.3 MB. Scaffolds were mapped to linkage groups, placing 95% of the genome assembly on the 22 autosomes and the X-chromosome. To investigate genetic variation in the population used for the genome assembly, we sequenced 10 wild caught male individuals. The identified 5 million SNPs correspond to an average nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.0025. The genome assembly and SNP map provide a rich resource for investigating adaptation to different predation regimes. In addition, comparisons with the genomes of other Poeciliid species, which differ greatly in mechanisms of sex determination and maternal resource allocation, as well as comparisons to other teleost genera can begin to reveal how live bearing evolved in teleost fish. PMID:28033408

  13. Immunohistochemical and histochemical characteristics of the olfactory system of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae).

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Ciani, Franco; Franceschini, Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Olfaction in fish has been studied using preferentially macrosmatic species as models. In the present research, the labelling patterns of different neuronal markers and lectins were analyzed in the olfactory neurons and in their bulbar axonal endings in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, belonging to the group of microsmatic fish. We observed that calretinin immunostaining was confined to a population of olfactory receptor cells localized in the upper layers of the sensory mucosa, probably microvillous neurons innervating the lateral glomerular layer. Immunoreactivity for S100 proteins was mainly evident in crypt cells, but also in other olfactory cells belonging to subtypes projecting in distinct regions of the bulbs. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) was not detected in the olfactory system of the guppy. Lectin binding revealed the presence of N-acetylglucosamine and alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues in the glycoconjugates of numerous olfactory neurons ubiquitously distributed in the mucosa. The low number of sugar types detected suggested a reduced glycosidic variability that could be an index of restricted odorant discrimination, in concordance with guppy visual-based behaviors. Finally, we counted few crypt cells which were immunoreactive for S100 and calretinin. Crypt cells were more abundant in guppy females. This difference is in accordance with guppy gender-specific responses to pheromones. Cells immunoreactive to calretinin showed no evidence of ventral projections in the bulbs. We assumed the hypothesis that their odorant sensitivity is not strictly limited to pheromones or sexual signals in general.

  14. Linking reproduction, locomotion, and habitat use in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Banet, Amanda I; Svendsen, Jon C; Eng, Kevin J; Reznick, David N

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy inhibits locomotion, increases predation risk and may translate into reduced survival. The extent to which animals modify behavior in the wild to compensate for the locomotor costs of pregnancy remains poorly understood. We have investigated how reproductive allocation (RA-the proportion of body mass devoted to reproduction) affects locomotor performance and habitat use in Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations from low- and high-predation regimes. During steady swimming, females with high RA had increased tail beat amplitudes, indicating increased swimming costs. Females with high RA also exhibited slower escape velocities, which may result in an increased risk of predation. In low-predation localities, females with high RA used habitats with a lower water velocity, suggesting that females may be modifying behavior to offset the locomotor costs of pregnancy. Habitat use in high-predation localities was severely restricted to areas without predators, which had a relatively slower water velocity with little or no variation in current. These results provide a link between the performance-related costs of reproduction and behavior in a natural setting and show that animals may compensate for reproductive traits that constrain locomotor performance by modifying habitat use.

  15. The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

    2006-09-01

    Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

  16. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-07

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species.

  17. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Prion Protein Encoding Gene in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    WU Suihan; WEI Qiwei; YANG Guanpin; WANG Dengqiang; ZOU Guiwei; CHEN Daqing

    2008-01-01

    The full length eDNA of a prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and the corresponding ge-nomic DNA were cloned.The cDNA was 2245 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1545 bp encoding a pro-tein of 515 amino acids,which held all typical structural characteristics of the functional PrP.The cloned genomic DNA fragmentcorresponding to the eDNA was 3720 bp in length,consisting of 2 introns and 2 exons.The 5' untranslated region of eDNA origi-nated from the 2 exons,while the ORF originated from the second exon.Although the gene was transcribed in diverse tissues in-cluding brain,eye,liver,intestine,muscle and tail,its transcript was most abundant in the brain.In addition,the transcription of thegene was enhanced by 5 salinity,implying that it was associated with the response of guppy to saline stress.

  18. Waterborne zinc alters temporal dynamics of guppy Poecilia reticulata epidermal response to Gyrodactylus turnbulli (Monogenea).

    Gheorghiu, Cristina; Marcogliese, David J; Scott, Marilyn E

    2012-03-20

    The present study assessed the histological changes in the epidermis of Poecilia reticulata induced by the combined effects of an ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli and differing concentrations of waterborne zinc (Zn). Infected guppies were exposed to 0, 15, 30, 60, or 120 µg Zn l-1 and monitored over 3 wk during the exponential increase in parasite numbers on the fish. The fish epidermis responded within 3 d to G. turnbulli infection with a rapid increase in epidermal thickness and a modest increase in number, but not size or composition, of mucous cells. In contrast, in the presence of combined waterborne Zn and infection, mucous cell numbers declined rapidly. As the parasite numbers increased, the epidermis remained thicker than normal, and the number and size of mucous cells decreased. The addition of Zn led to a dramatic thickening of the epidermis during the exponential growth of the parasite population. Mucous cell numbers remained depressed. Temporal changes in mucous cell size were Zn concentration dependent. At 60 µg Zn l-1, cells returned to normal size as infection progressed, whereas they remained extremely small at 120 µg Zn l-1. Changes in mucin composition previously reported in response to Zn alone were subdued in the presence of the parasite except at 60 µg Zn l-1, where all cells contained only acidic mucins. Together these results demonstrate that, on exposure to both Zn and G. turnbulli infection, the epidermal response is initially a protective response to both stressors, and then mainly driven by the increased parasite burden.

  19. Gene duplication and divergence of long wavelength-sensitive opsin genes in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Watson, Corey T; Gray, Suzanne M; Hoffmann, Margarete; Lubieniecki, Krzysztof P; Joy, Jeffrey B; Sandkam, Ben A; Weigel, Detlef; Loew, Ellis; Dreyer, Christine; Davidson, William S; Breden, Felix

    2011-02-01

    Female preference for male orange coloration in the genus Poecilia suggests a role for duplicated long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in facilitating behaviors related to mate choice in these species. Previous work has shown that LWS gene duplication in this genus has resulted in expansion of long wavelength visual capacity as determined by microspectrophotometry (MSP). However, the relationship between LWS genomic repertoires and expression of LWS retinal cone classes within a given species is unclear. Our previous study in the related species, Xiphophorus helleri, was the first characterization of the complete LWS opsin genomic repertoire in conjunction with MSP expression data in the family Poeciliidae, and revealed the presence of four LWS loci and two distinct LWS cone classes. In this study we characterized the genomic organization of LWS opsin genes by BAC clone sequencing, and described the full range of cone cell types in the retina of the colorful Cumaná guppy, Poecilia reticulata. In contrast to X. helleri, MSP data from the Cumaná guppy revealed three LWS cone classes. Comparisons of LWS genomic organization described here for Cumaná to that of X. helleri indicate that gene divergence and not duplication was responsible for the evolution of a novel LWS haplotype in the Cumaná guppy. This lineage-specific divergence is likely responsible for a third additional retinal cone class not present in X. helleri, and may have facilitated the strong sexual selection driven by female preference for orange color patterns associated with the genus Poecilia.

  20. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  1. Proteomic and histopathological response in the gills of Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide.

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Santos, Ana Paula Rezende Dos; Yamada, Áureo Tatsumi; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are one of the most used herbicide nowadays, whilst there is growing concern over their impact on aquatic environment. Since data about the early proteomic response and toxic mechanisms of GBH in fish is very limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the early toxicity of GBH in the gills of guppies Poecilia reticulata using a proteomic approach associated with histopathological index. Median lethal concentration (LC50,96 h) was determined and LC50,96h values of guppies exposed to GBH were 3.6 ± 0.4 mg GLIL(-1). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry, 14 proteins regulated by GBH were identified, which are involved in different cell processes, as energy metabolism, regulation and maintenance of cytoskeleton, nucleic acid metabolism and stress response. Guppies exposed to GBH at 1.82 mg GLIL(-1) showed time-dependent histopathological response in different epithelial and muscle cell types. The histopathological indexes indicate that GBH cause regressive, vascular and progressive disorders in the gills of guppies. This study helped to unravel the molecular and tissue mechanisms associated with GBH toxicity, which are potential biomarkers for biomonitoring water pollution by herbicides.

  2. Genetically and environmentally mediated divergence in lateral line morphology in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Fischer, Eva K; Soares, Daphne; Archer, Kathryn R; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Hoke, Kim L

    2013-08-15

    Fish and other aquatic vertebrates use their mechanosensory lateral line to detect objects and motion in their immediate environment. Differences in lateral line morphology have been extensively characterized among species; however, intraspecific variation remains largely unexplored. In addition, little is known about how environmental factors modify development of lateral line morphology. Predation is one environmental factor that can act both as a selective pressure causing genetic differences between populations, and as a cue during development to induce plastic changes. Here, we test whether variation in the risk of predation within and among populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) influences lateral line morphology. We compared neuromast arrangement in wild-caught guppies from distinct high- and low-predation population pairs to examine patterns associated with differences in predation pressure. To distinguish genetic and environmental influences, we compared neuromast arrangement in guppies from different source populations reared with and without exposure to predator chemical cues. We found that the distribution of neuromasts across the body varies between populations based on both genetic and environmental factors. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate variation in lateral line morphology based on environmental exposure to an ecologically relevant stimulus.

  3. Optimization of handling and refrigerated storage of guppy Poecilia reticulata sperm.

    Sun, C; Huang, C; Su, X; Zhao, X; Dong, Q

    2010-07-01

    Sperm collection methods and the effect of osmolality, ions, sugar, temperature, pH and dilution ratio on sperm motility were investigated in guppies Poecilia reticulata. The present study revealed that the sperm was motile in a wide range of osmolalities (200-470 mOsm kg(-1)) either in Hanks balanced-salt solution (HBSS) or in non-electrolyte solutions such as glucose or sucrose. Sperm collected from crushing testes yielded lower motility and shorter motility duration than samples collected without crushing but gentle disruption. Dilution ratios within the range of 1:50 to 1:500 of sperm to HBSS had minimal effect on sperm motility during extended refrigerated storage. Examination of storage temperature showed that refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C was superior to room temperature (25 degrees C). Sperm was found to tolerate a wide range of pH from 5.6 to 7.8, but motility was affected negatively by pH values >7.8.

  4. Controlled infection of Poecilia reticulata Peters (guppy) with Tetrahymena by immersion and intraperitoneal injection.

    Sharon, G; Pimenta-Leibowitz, M; Vilchis, M C L; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a protozoan parasite, which infects guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, and causes substantial economical losses in commercial farms worldwide. Studies of guppy infected by Tetrahymena require standardized infection protocols. The LD50 for Tetrahymena infection of guppies by intraperitoneal (IP) injection was calibrated, and the level obtained was 946 parasites per fish. Guppy infection with Tetrahymena by immersion, imitating the natural route of infection via the integument, was studied under normal or stress conditions. Exposure to cold and netting (CNI) and to cold only (CI) followed by immersion exposure to 10 000 Tetrahymena per mL resulted in 22.5% and 19.2% mortality, respectively, as compared to 14.2% and 10% in groups that were netted only (NI) or non-stressed (I). Histopathology revealed that immersion infection resulted in a systemic infection. Lysozyme levels, measured 3 weeks after infection, were significantly higher in the CNI group (288 μg per mg protein) compared with CI-, NI- and I-treated groups (94.5, 64 and 62.3 μg mg(-1), respectively). There was no evident parasite immobilization activity in body homogenates, suggesting no development of acquired immunity. Re-infection by IP injection revealed no increase in protection in any of the treatment groups, mortality range of 56.3-75%, higher than in the non-exposed control (40.6% mortality).

  5. Intraspecific ecomorphological variations in Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes: comparing populations of distinct environments

    Fábio T. Mise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphological variations, according to the principles of ecomorphology, can be related to different aspects of the organism way of life, such as occupation of habitats and feeding behavior. The present study sought to examine the intraspecific variation in two populations of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, that occur in two types of environments, a lotic (Maringá Stream and a lentic (Jaboti Lake. Due to a marked sexual dimorphism, males and females were analyzed separately. Thus, the proposed hypotheses were that the populations that occur in distinct environments present morphological differences. The morphological variables were obtained using morphometric measurements and the ecomorphological indexes. The data were summarized in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Manova was made to verify significant differences in morphology between the populations. Males and females showed similar ecomorphological patterns according to the environment they occur. In general the population from Maringá Stream had fins with major areas, and the Jaboti Lake population eyes located more dorsally. Additionally, others morphological differences such as wider mouth of the males from Maringá Stream, wider heads on Jaboti Lake females and more protractible mouths on males from Jaboti Lake suggest a set of environmental variables that can possibly influence the ecomorphological patterns of the populations, as the water current, availability of food resources and predation. In summary, the initial hypotheses could be confirmed, evidencing the occurrence of distinct ecomorphotypes in the same species according to the environment type.

  6. Intra-retinal variation of opsin gene expression in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Rennison, Diana J; Owens, Gregory L; Allison, W Ted; Taylor, John S

    2011-10-01

    Although behavioural experiments demonstrate that colouration influences mate choice in many species, a complete understanding of this form of signalling requires information about colour vision in the species under investigation. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) has become a model species for the study of colour-based sexual selection. To investigate the role of opsin gene duplication and divergence in the evolution of colour-based mate choice, we used in situ hybridization to determine where the guppy's nine cone opsins are expressed in the retina. Long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins were more abundant in the dorsal retina than in the ventral retina. One of the middle wavelength-sensitive opsins (RH2-1) exhibited the opposite pattern, while the other middle wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2-2) and the short wavelength-sensitive opsins (SWS1, SWS2A and SWS2B) were expressed throughout the retina. We also found variation in LWS opsin expression among individuals. These observations suggest that regions of the guppy retina are specialized with respect to wavelength discrimination and/or sensitivity. Intra-retinal variability in opsin expression, which has been observed in several fish species, might be an adaptation to variation in the strength and spectral composition of light entering the eye from above and below. The discovery that opsin expression varies in the guppy retina may motivate new behavioural experiments designed to study its role in mate choice.

  7. Direct and indirect ecosystem effects of evolutionary adaptation in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Bassar, Ronald D; Ferriere, Regis; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Marshall, Michael C; Travis, Joseph; Pringle, Catherine M; Reznick, David N

    2012-08-01

    Ecological and evolutionary processes may interact on the same timescale, but we are just beginning to understand how. Several studies have examined the net effects of adaptive evolution on ecosystem properties. However, we do not know whether these effects are confined to direct interactions or whether they propagate further through indirect ecological pathways. Even less well understood is how the combination of direct and indirect ecological effects of the phenotype promotes or inhibits evolutionary change. We coupled mesocosm experiments and ecosystem modeling to evaluate the ecological effects of local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The experiments show that guppies adapted to life with and without predators alter the ecosystem directly through differences in diet. The ecosystem model reveals that the small total indirect effect of the phenotype observed in the experiments is likely a combination of several large indirect effects that act in opposing directions. The model further suggests that these indirect effects can reverse the direction of selection that direct effects alone exert back on phenotypic variation. We conclude that phenotypic divergence can have major effects deep in the web of indirect ecological interactions and that even small total indirect effects can radically change the dynamics of adaptation.

  8. Cryptosporidium huwi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Ryan, Una; Paparini, Andrea; Tong, Kaising; Yang, Rongchang; Gibson-Kueh, Susan; O'Hara, Amanda; Lymbery, Alan; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    The morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 1 from the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium huwi n. sp. is proposed to reflect its genetic and biological differences from gastric and intestinal Cryptosporidium species. Oocysts of C.huwi n. sp. over-lap in size with Cryptosporidium molnari, measuring approximately 4.4-4.9 µm (mean 4.6) by 4.0-4.8 µm (mean 4.4 µm) with a length to width ratio of 1.04 (0.92-1.35) (n = 50). Similar to C.molnari, C.huwi n. sp. was identified in the stomach only and clusters of oogonial and sporogonial stages were identified deep within the epithelium. However, phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences indicated that C. huwi n. sp. exhibited 8.5-9.2% and 3.5% genetic distance from C.molnari isolates and piscine genotype 7 respectively. At the actin locus, the genetic distance between C.huwi n. sp. and C.molnari was 16.6%. The genetic distance between C.huwi n. sp. and other Cryptosporidium species at the 18S locus was 13.2%-17% and at the actin locus was 18.9%-26.3%. Therefore C. huwi n. sp. is genetically distinct from previously described Cryptosporidium species.

  9. VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 % constituting l-limonene (92.4 %, -terpene (2.6 % and -phellandrene (1.8 %. The volatile oil after heating at 110C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained the above three major components in varied amounts. -Pinene, -phellandrene, l-limonene, - terpinene and l-linalool were detected in all oil samples. -Thujene and trans--caryophyllene were produced when the oil was treated with silica gel for 24 hours. Trans-Verbenol was determined when the oil was heated at 110C for 24 hours and exposed to sunlight for 48 hours. Terpen-4-ol disappeared in all the samples except exposition to the sunlight. Cis--farnesene, present in the fruit peels in trace amount, was not detected in other oil samples after impact of physical factors.

  10. Norethindrone-induced masculinization and progeny testing in guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859).

    Basavaraja, N; Chandrashekhara, B H; Ahamad, Rather Mansoor

    2014-03-01

    Norethindrone(NE) was evaluated for its efficacy on alteration of sex ratio of P. reticulata. Either the young fry or the brooders and the resultant fry were fed a commercial diet incorporated with NE at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg(-1) diet (ppm) for 30-40 d in rectangular glass aquaria; this was followed by 40-60 d rearing on NE-free diet in out-door concrete tanks. In general, the androgen treatment altered sex ratio, leading to the production of a dose dependent increase in the percentage of males. The oral administration of the steroid at 75 ppm for 40 d or 100 ppmfor 30 or 40 d to first feeding fry, yielded 100% males. On the other hand, NE administration to brooders before parturition and the resultant fry also produced an all-male population of guppy. The sex ratio of the untreated control was almost 1:1. The survival of fish in all the trials was high, ranging between 67 and 100%. Mating masculinized males ("XX" male) with normal female resulted in an all-female progeny, while crossing normal male (XY) from treatment groups with normal female sired normal sex ratio (1:1), elucidating XX-XY sex determination system in the guppy.

  11. Natural variation of male ornamental traits of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Tripathi, Namita; Hoffmann, Margarete; Dreyer, Christine

    2008-12-01

    Male ornamental traits of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, provide an outstanding example of natural variation in sex-linked male-advantageous traits that are shaped by both sexual and environmental selection. A substantial fraction of the underlying genes is known to be genetically linked to the sex-determining region on the differentiating Y-chromosome. Intercrosses between parental populations originating from geographically distant locations in East Trinidad and Cumaná (Venezuela) were used to study segregation of ornamental traits in male progeny. In addition, we performed backcrosses to compare segregation of ornaments in presence or absence of prominent traits linked to the Y-chromosome. Another backcross strategy involving XY females from the laboratory strain zebrinus maculatus allowed studying additive and dominant effects of alleles on two different Y-chromosomes on pattern formation. For genetic mapping, we have previously developed nuclear SNP markers linked to expressed genes, including several genes known to be important for pattern formation in other species. Of these candidate genes 15 were placed on 11 different linkage groups. Our phenotypic and genotypic analysis of progeny from mapping crosses and backcrosses suggests several genetic mechanisms that enhance natural variation, namely, additive effects of codominant alleles, suppressive actions of dominant alleles, and a complex interplay between sex-linked and autosomal cofactors.

  12. Modulation of synaptic GABAA receptor function by zolpidem in substantia nigra pars reticulata

    Li-li ZHANG; Lei CHEN; Yan XUE; Wing-ho YUNG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) constitutes one of the output centers of the basal ganglia, and its abnormal activity is believed to contribute to some basal ganglia motor disorders. Different lines of evidence revealed a major contribution of GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition in controlling the activity of SNr. The benzodiazepine binding site within the GABAA receptor is a modulation site of significant clinical interest. A high density of benzodiazepine binding sites has been reported in the rat SNr. In the present study, we investi-gate the effects of activating benzodiazepine binding sites in the SNr. Methods: Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and motor behavior were applied. Results: Superfusion of zolpidem, a benzodiazepine binding agonist, at 100 nmol/L signifi-cantly prolonged the decay time of GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents. The prolongation on decay time induced by zolpidem was sensitive to the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil, confirming the specificity on the ben-zodiazepine site. Zolpidem at 1 μmol/L exerted a stronger prolongation on the decay time. A further experiment was performed on behaving rats. A unilateral microinjection of zolpidem into the rat SNr caused a robust contralateral rotation, which was significantly different from that of control animals receiving the vehicle injection. Conclusion: The present in vitro and in vivo findings that zolpidem significantly potentiated GABA currents and thus inhibited the activity of the SNr provide a rationale for further investigations into its potential in the treatment of basal ganglia disorders.

  13. Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata; Reducao da toxicidade aguda de efluentes industriais e domesticos tratados por irradiacao com feixe de eletrons, avaliada com as especies Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone

    2001-07-01

    Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

  14. Biometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de Plathymenia reticulata benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae Biometry of fruits and seeds and germination of Plathymenia reticulata benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae

    Renata de Melo Ferreira Lopes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou comparar características biométricas de frutos e sementes e o efeito de diferentes escarificações, temperaturas e luz na germinação de Plathymenia reticulata Benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. Foram registrados comprimento, largura, espessura, massa da matéria seca e fresca de frutos (n = 100 e sementes (n = 100 de cada espécie. Os diferentes tratamentos foram escarificações mecânica e química e temperaturas (fotoperíodo/nictoperíodo de 20, 30 e 35/15 °C (12/12 e 0/24 e 25 e 35 °C (12/12. Os frutos de P. foliolosa mostraram-se mais largos, espessos e pesados e as sementes, mais compridas e espessas do que as de P. reticulata. As sementes de ambas as espécies não apresentaram fotoblastismo. A escarificação ácida não aumentou significativamente a germinabilidade das sementes em relação ao grupo-controle, enquanto a escarificação mecânica incrementou significativamente a germinabilidade apenas de P. foliolosa. As germinabilidades a 25 °C das sementes de P. reticulata intactas, escarificadas com ácido e lixa foram, respectivamente, de 55%, 60% e 89%. Para as sementes de P. foliolosa esses valores foram 48%, 37,5% e 83%, respectivamente.Esses resultados apontam limitações na germinação de P. foliolosa impostas pelo tegumento, entretanto o efeito deste restringindo a germinação das sementes intactas decresceu com a elevação da temperatura.This study aimed to compare the biometry of fruits and seeds, as well as the effect of different scarification, temperature and light conditions on the germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. We measured the length, width, thickness, and fresh mass of fruits (n= 100 and seeds (n= 100 of each specie. The different treatments were mechanic and acid scarification, temperatures (photoperiod/nictoperiod of 20, 30 and 35/15 °C (12/12 and 0/24 and 25 and 35 °C (12/12. P. foliolosa fruits were wider, thickener and heavier

  15. CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 3. FIELD TRIAL AND EVALUATION

    Sustriayu Nalim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi kemungkinan menggunakan minapadi sebagai cara pemberantasan nyamuk Anopheles aconitus. Minapadi dilakukan dengan ikan Cyprinus carpio. Dengan tersedianya air di sawah untuk ikan, ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia Reticulata yang ditebarkan dapat hidup pula. Penebaran dilakukan oleh masyarakat. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa melalui minapadi yaitu dengan penebaran, ikan P. reticulata pada kepadatan 2 ekor /m2, populasi An. aconitus selama 5 tahun dapat diturunkan sebanyak 99,7% dan S.P.R. malaria sebanyak 98.8%. [1] Regency Health Service, Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java.

  16. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.

    Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  18. In vitro evaluation of adhesion and aggregation abilities of four potential probiotic strains isolated from guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Aparna Balakrishna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the probiotic-related characteristics of four strains of bacteria isolated from the normal flora of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. In vitro results showed that the strains, namely, MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 had higher adhesion abilities than the tested indicator strains. However, an association between the cell-surface hydrophobicity and the ability to adhere to the intestinal mucus was not observed for these strains. Further, the selected strains were strongly autoaggregating (autoaggregation percentage ≥ 80 and also showed strain-specific coaggregation abilities with the tested indicator strains.

  19. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  20. Bioactive Fraction of Annona reticulata Bark (or) Ziziphus jujuba Root Bark along with Insulin Attenuates Painful Diabetic Neuropathy through Inhibiting NF-κB Inflammatory Cascade

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Ramanathan, Muthiah; Talukdar, Narayan C.; Kotoky, Jibon

    2017-01-01

    The present study explains the neuroprotective ability of bioactive fractions of Annona reticulata bark (ARB) and Ziziphus jujuba root bark (ZJ) along with insulin against diabetic neuropathy. By using different solvents of increasing polarity ARB and ZJ were undergone for bioactive guided fractionation. The neuroprotective ability of the all the plant fractions were tested against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines and DRG neuronal cells. Among all the fractions tested, the methanol extract of ARB and ZJ (ARBME and ZJME) and its water fractions (ARBWF and ZJWF) exhibited significant neuroprotection against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y cells and DRG neuronal cells. Further both the active fractions were tested against streptozotocin (55 mg/kg i.p.) induced diabetic neuropathy in male Wistar rats. Body weight changes, blood glucose levels and pain threshold through hot plate, tail immersion, cold plate and Randall-Sillitto methods were measured throughout the study at weekly interval. After completion of the drug treatment period, all the animals were sacrificed to measure the sciatic nerve lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzyme levels (SOD, catalase, and GSH) and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, iNOS, and NFκB) through ELISA and western blotting analysis. Results of this study explain that ARBME, ZJME, ARBWF, and ZJWF along with insulin potentially attenuate the thermal, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in diabetic neuropathic rats, where insulin treatment alone failed to diminish the same. Reduction of sciatic nerve oxidative stress, NF-κB and iNOS mediated inflammatory cascade and normalization of abnormal cytokine release confirms the possible mechanism of action. The present study confirms the neuroprotective ability of ARB and ZJ against painful diabetic neuropathy through inhibiting oxidative stress and NF-κB inflammatory cascade.

  1. Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin

    Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia após o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

  2. Functional Redundancy and Divergence within the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED Gene Family1[W][OA

    Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Esteve-Bruna, David; González-Bayón, Rebeca; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Caldana, Camila; Hannah, Matthew A.; Willmitzer, Lothar; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    A number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants exhibit leaf reticulation, having green veins that stand out against paler interveinal tissues, fewer cells in the interveinal mesophyll, and normal perivascular bundle sheath cells. Here, to examine the basis of leaf reticulation, we analyzed the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED (RER) gene family, several members of which cause leaf reticulation when mutated. Although transcripts of RE, RER1, and RER3 were mainly detected in the bundle sheath cells of expanded leaves, functional RER3:GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN was visualized in the chloroplast membranes of all photosynthetic cells. Leaf reticulation in the re and rer3 loss-of-function mutants occurred, along with accumulation of reactive oxygen species, in a photoperiod-dependent manner. A comparison of re and rer3 leaf messenger RNA expression profiles showed more than 200 genes were similarly misexpressed in both mutants. In addition, metabolic profiles of mature leaves revealed that several biosynthetic pathways downstream of pyruvate are altered in re and rer3. Double mutant analysis showed that only re rer1 and rer5 rer6 exhibited synergistic phenotypes, indicating functional redundancy. The redundancy between RE and its closest paralog, RER1, was confirmed by overexpressing RER1 in re mutants, which partially suppressed leaf reticulation. Our results show that RER family members can be divided into four functional modules with divergent functions. Moreover, these results provide insights into the origin of the reticulated phenotype, suggesting that the RER proteins functionally interconnect photoperiodic growth, amino acid homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism during Arabidopsis leaf growth. PMID:23596191

  3. Reasons for the invasive success of a guppy (Poecilia reticulata population in Trinidad.

    Caya Sievers

    Full Text Available The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing

  4. Phenotypic plasticity changes correlations of traits following experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Handelsman, Corey A; Ruell, Emily W; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-11-01

    Colonization of novel environments can alter selective pressures and act as a catalyst for rapid evolution in nature. Theory and empirical studies suggest that the ability of a population to exhibit an adaptive evolutionary response to novel selection pressures should reflect the presence of sufficient additive genetic variance and covariance for individual and correlated traits. As correlated traits should not respond to selection independently, the structure of correlations of traits can bias or constrain adaptive evolution. Models of how multiple correlated traits respond to selection often assume spatial and temporal stability of trait-correlations within populations. Yet, trait-correlations can also be plastic in response to environmental variation. Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes across environments, is of particular interest because it can induce population-wide changes in the combination of traits exposed to selection and change the trajectory of evolutionary divergence. We tested the ability of phenotypic plasticity to modify trait-correlations by comparing phenotypic variance and covariance in the body-shapes of four experimental populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to their ancestral population. We found that phenotypic plasticity produced both adaptive and novel aspects of body-shape, which was repeated in all four experimental populations. Further, phenotypic plasticity changed patterns of covariance among morphological characters. These findings suggest our ability to make inferences about patterns of divergence based on correlations of traits in extant populations may be limited if novel environments not only induce plasticity in multiple traits, but also change the correlations among the traits.

  5. Triacylglyceride, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Features of Virgin Camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua Oils

    María Pilar Vázquez-Tato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO, Camellia reticulata (CR and Camellia sasanqua (CS were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%–84.47%; 5.69%–7.78%; 0.26%–0.41% and 8.04%–11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively. The CR oil showed the best antioxidant potential in the three in vitro models tested. With regard to EC50 values (µg/mL, the order in DPPH radical-scavenging was CR (33.48 < CO (35.20 < CS (54.87. Effectiveness in reducing power was CR (2.81 < CO (3.09 < CS (5.32. IC50 for LPO inhibition were 0.37, 0.52 and 0.75 µg/mL for CR, CO and CS, respectively. All the oils showed antimicrobial activity, and exhibited different selectivity and MICs for each microorganism tested (E. coli, B. cereus and C. albicans. B. cereus was the less sensitive species (MIC: 52.083 ± 18.042 for CO; 41.667 ± 18.042 for CR; 104.167 ± 36.084 for CS mg/mL and the E. coli was the most sensitive to camellia oil’s effect. The standard gentamicin presented higher MIC for E. coli (4.2 than the CR (MIC= 2.6 and CO (MIC = 3.9 oils.

  6. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M. T.; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range. PMID:26863538

  7. Functional heterogeneity of NMDA receptors in rat substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata neurones.

    Suárez, F; Zhao, Q; Monaghan, D T; Jane, D E; Jones, S; Gibb, A J

    2010-08-01

    The nigra substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and substantia pars reticulata (SNr) form two major basal ganglia components with different functional roles. SNc dopaminergic (DA) neurones are vulnerable to cell death in Parkinson's disease, and NMDA receptor activation is a potential contributing mechanism. We have investigated the sensitivity of whole-cell and synaptic NMDA responses to intracellular ATP and GTP application in the SNc and SNr from rats on postnatal day (P) 7 and P28. Both NMDA current density (pA/pF) and desensitization to prolonged or repeated NMDA application were greater in the SNr than in the SNc. When ATP levels were not supplemented, responses to prolonged NMDA administration desensitized in P7 SNc DA neurones but not at P28. At P28, SNr neurones desensitized more than SNc neurones, with or without added ATP. Responses to brief NMDA applications and synaptic NMDA currents were not sensitive to inclusion of ATP in the pipette solution. To investigate these differences between the SNc and SNr, NR2 subunit-selective antagonists were tested. NMDA currents were inhibited by ifenprodil (10 microM) and UBP141 (4 microM), but not by Zn(2+) (100 nm), in both the SNr and SNc, suggesting that SNc and SNr neurones express similar receptor subunits; NR2B and NR2D, but not NR2A. The different NMDA response properties in the SNc and SNr may be caused by differences in receptor modulation and/or trafficking. The vulnerability of SNc DA neurones to cell death is not correlated with NMDA current density or receptor subtypes, but could in part be related to inadequate NMDA receptor desensitization.

  8. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Populations in Panama.

    Celestino Martínez

    Full Text Available Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection, could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not variation in the native range.

  9. Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    Nelly eMühlhoff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.

  10. Transgenerational effects of 17α-ethinyl estradiol on anxiety behavior in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Porseryd, Tove; Hallgren, Stefan; Dinnetz, Patrik; Olsén, Håkan; Porsch Hällström, Inger

    2015-11-01

    Environmental contaminants can cause alterations that can be transgenerationally transmitted to subsequent generations. Estrogens are among those contaminants shown to induce heritable changes that persist over generations in mammals. Results in other vertebrates are few. We have analyzed the effects on anxiety of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in the F1 and F2 generations in guppies, Poecilia reticulata, obtained from F0 fish maternally exposed to 0 or 20ng/L EE2 until birth. F0 males and females were bred with fish of the same treatment but different families producing F1 offspring. Behavior in the novel tank test at 6months revealed that males with EE2-exposed parents had significantly longer latency to the upper half of the tank than control males, while no EE2 effects were observed in females. Also in F2, obtained from F1 as above, males in the EE2 group had longer latency time compared to control males, with no differences due to EE2-exposure of F0 observed in females. In the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test, latency to first transition to black compartment and total transitions to black were significantly altered in females due to EE2 exposure of F0 while the total time in black was higher in males with EE2-exposed F0 compared with controls. The increased anxiety in the F2 generation demonstrates a transgenerational anxiety phenotype and shows that non-reproductive behavior can be transgenerationally modified by estrogens in fish.

  11. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama.

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M T; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range.

  12. Reasons for the invasive success of a guppy (Poecilia reticulata) population in Trinidad.

    Sievers, Caya; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann, Margarete; Dreyer, Christine; Ramnarine, Indar; Magurran, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing process and showed

  13. Selection at the MHC class IIB locus across guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations.

    Fraser, B A; Ramnarine, I W; Neff, B D

    2010-02-01

    The highly diverse genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are important in the adaptive immune system and are expected to be under selection from pathogens. Thus, the MHC genes provide an exceptional opportunity to investigate patterns of selection within and across populations. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation at the MHC class IIB gene and six microsatellite loci across 10 populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the northern range of Trinidad. We found a high level of diversity at the MHC, with a total of 43 alleles in 142 individuals. At the population level, we found that neutral evolution could not fully account for the variability found at the MHC. Instead, we found that MHC F(ST) statistics were lower than F(ST) derived from the microsatellite loci; 33 of 45 population pairwise estimates for the MHC were significantly lower than those for the microsatellite loci, and MHC F(ST) estimates were consistently lower than those predicted by a coalescent model of neutral evolution. These results suggest a similar selection acting across populations, and we discuss the potential roles of directional and balancing selection. At the sequence level, we found evidence for both positive and purifying selection. Furthermore, positive selection was detected within and adjacent to the putative peptide-binding region (PBR) of the MHC. Surprisingly, we also found a purifying selection at two sites within the putative PBR. Overall, our data provide evidence for selection for functional diversity at the MHC class IIB gene at both the population and nucleotide levels of guppy populations.

  14. Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Kemp, Darrell J; Reznick, David N; Grether, Gregory F; Endler, John A

    2009-12-22

    Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable 'solutions' are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting fish among sites of varying predation pressure, thus effectively manipulating the strength and nature of natural selection. Here, we contrast the evolutionary outcome of two such introductions conducted in the Trinidadian El Cedro and Aripo Rivers. We use sophisticated colour appraisal methods that account for full spectrum colour variation and which incorporate the very latest visual sensitivity data for guppies and their predators. Our data indicate that ornamentation evolved along different trajectories: whereas Aripo males evolved more numerous and/or larger orange, black and iridescent markings, El Cedro males only evolved more extensive and brighter iridescence. Examination of the El Cedro experiment also revealed little or no ornamental evolution at the control site over 29 years, which contrasts markedly with the rapid (approx. 2-3 years) changes reported for introduction populations. Finally, whole colour-pattern analysis suggested that the greatest visual difference between El Cedro introduction and control fish would be perceived by the two most salient viewers: guppies and the putatively dangerous predator Crenicichla alta. We discuss whether and how these evolutionary trajectories may result from founder effects, population-specific mate preferences and/or sensory drive.

  15. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pgarlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (pgarlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (pgarlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy.

  16. MHC class IIB additive and non-additive effects on fitness measures in the guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    Fraser, B A; Neff, B D

    2009-12-01

    The genetic architecture of fitness at the class IIB gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the guppy Poecilia reticulata was analysed. Diversity at the MHC is thought to be maintained by some form of balancing selection; heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection or spatially and temporally fluctuating selection. Here these hypotheses are evaluated by using an algorithm that partitions the effect of specific MHC allele and genotypes on fitness measures. The effect of MHC genotype on surrogate measures of fitness was tested, including growth rate (at high and low bulk food diets), parasite load following a parasite challenge and survival. The number of copies of the Pore_a132 MHC allele was inversely related to infection by Gyrodactylus flukes and it appeared to be positively related to faster growth. Also, genotypes combining the Pore_a132 or other relatively common alleles paired with rare MHC alleles produced both advantageous and detrimental non-additive effects. Thus, the genetic architecture underlying fitness at the MHC is complex in the P. reticulata.

  17. Diet of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1959 in streams from Paraná River basin: influence of the urbanization

    Gustavo Henrique Zaia Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the diet of Poecilia reticulata in rural (RS and urban stream (US and under seasonal influence. We hypothesized that rainfall have a strong negative impact on the diet of the species in the US, due to its abrupt effect on food resources; in RS this effect is less apparent. Both streams belong to Pirapó River sub-basin, Paraná River basin. Fishes were sampled bimonthly, between July 2007 and June 2008 in three sample sites along the longitudinal gradient of the streams, using electrofishing. According to the Feeding Index, in both streams the population consumed almost exclusively detritus associated with aquatic organisms (>95%, regardless of the hydrological period. The main taxa explored by fish were Simuliidae in RS and Chironomidae in US. The diet was significantly different between streams; however, the seasonal factor was not significant, showing that the results were partially consistent with the suggested proposal. In US stream the diet of the fish followed an ordinarily pattern found in urban environments. Thus, P. reticulata can be used as a tool to assess environmental conditions due to its ability to reach bioindicator organisms, such as Chironomidae species.

  18. Effects of Bagging on Fruit Qualities of Citrus reticulata cv. Unshiu%套袋对温州蜜柑果实品质的效应

    张义; 王雪芳

    2011-01-01

    22 years old Citrs reticulata Blanco cv. Unshiu plants were used as experimental material. The fruit bagging tests were carried out with different color of bags (with red, yellow, blue, white film bags; Bagged on July 1, bags removed on Sept 25), different removal dates of bag (on Sept 5, Sept 20 and October 5 with bag non-removal as the check; Bagging on July 1; All bags made from yellow craft papers) and different bagging dates (on July 2, Aug 4 and Sept 9; Bag removed on Sept 27; All bags made from yellow craft papers) to study the effects of bagging on fruit qualities. The results showed all the fruit bagging treatments could improve fruit surface, enhance coloration, reduce very significantly Vc content and titratable acid content, increase very significantly solid-acid ratio, increase significantly or very significantly soluble solid contents in most of the treatments, and didn't show an inconsistent effects on fruit qualities among the treatments. By comprehensive analysis on fruit qualities, the blue and red bags were the best and the white ones were the worst. The best bag removing date was Sept 20 and the best bagging dates were July 2 and Aug 4, bagging too late was bad.%以22年生温州蜜柑(Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Unshiu)植株为试材,分别进行了果袋颜色(分别是红、黄、蓝、白色,套袋时期7月1日,摘袋时期9月25日)、摘袋时期(套袋时期7月1日,摘袋时期分别为9月5日、9月20日、10月5日,以不摘袋为对照,黄色牛皮纸袋)和套袋时期(套袋时期分别为7月2日、8月4日、9月9日;摘袋时期在9月27日,黄色牛皮纸袋)试验,研究套袋对温州蜜柑果实品质的影响.结果表明,在3个试验中,套袋处理均能提高果面的光洁度,增进着色,极显著地降低了果实中可滴定酸和维生素C的含量,极显著地提高了固酸比和糖酸比,大多数能极显著地提高可溶性固形物的含量,但对可溶性糖含量影响不太一致.综合来

  19. EXTRACELLULAR GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA RETICULATA MEASURED BY MICRODIALYSIS IN AWAKE RATS - EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STIMULANTS

    TIMMERMAN, W; WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) was challenged by local infusion of various receptor-specific agents to obtain additional information on the physiological significance of extracellular GABA levels as measured by microdialysis in awake rats. No

  20. [Dynamic changes of soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve, Fujian Province of East China].

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Rong; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Guang-Shui; Wan, Xiao-Hua

    2012-06-01

    From January 2009 to December 2009, the soil respiration in the Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve was measured with Li-8100, aimed to characterize the dynamic changes of the soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature and moisture in the two orchards. The monthly variation of the soil respiration in the orchards was single-peaked, with the peak appeared in July (3.76 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) ) and August (2.69 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)). Soil temperature was the main factor affecting the soil respiration, and explained 73%-86% of the monthly variation of soil respiration. The average annual soil respiration rate was significantly higher in Citrus reticulata orchard than in Castanea henryi orchard, with the mean value being 2.68 and 1.55 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate and soil moisture content in Castanea henryi orchard, but less correlation in Citrus reticulata orchard. The Q10 value of the soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards was 1.58 and 1.75, and the annual CO2 flux was 10.01 and 5.77 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively.

  1. Effects of acute and chronic administration of olanzapine in comparison to clozapine and haloperidol on extracellular recordings of substantia nigra reticulata neurons in the rat brain

    Timmerman, W; Heijmen, M; Westerink, B.H.C.; Bruggeman, R; den Boer, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rationale : Previously, we have shown that the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and risperidone, unlike haloperidol, decreased the firing rate of substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) neurons. As the SNR receives substantial input from the striatum, an area where motoric side-effects of antipsychotics

  2. Relative importance of the area and intensity of the orange spots of male guppies Poecilia reticulata as mating traits preferred by females.

    Karino, K; Shimada, Y; Kudo, H; Sato, A

    2010-07-01

    Digitally modified videos of male guppies Poecilia reticulata were used to examine the relative importance of the area and intensity of the orange spots as mating traits preferred by females. The females prioritized the area of the orange spots over intensity for their mate preference.

  3. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  4. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  5. Holographic quantitative structure-activity relationship for prediction acute toxicity of benzene derivatives to the guppy(poecilia reticulata)

    HUANG Hong; WANG Xiao-dong; DAI Xuan-li; YU Ya-juan; WANG Lian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Holographic quantitative structure-activity relationship(HQSAR) is an emerging QSAR technique with the combined application of molecular hologram, which encoded the frequency of occurrence of various molecular fragment types, and the subsequent partial least squares(PLS) regression analysis. In this paper, the acute toxicity data to the guppy(poecilia reticulata) for a series of 56 substituted benzenes, phenols, aromatic amines and nitro-aromatics were subjected and this resulted in a model with a high predictive ability. The influence of fragment size and fragment distinction parameters on the quality of HQSAR model was investigated. The robustness and predictive ability of the model were also validated by leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation procedure and external testing data set.

  6. Ecotoxicological assessment of tannery effluent using guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as an experimental model: a biomarker study.

    Aich, Anulipi; Goswami, Abhishek Roy; Roy, Utpal Singha; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Tannery wastewater in the East Calcutta Wetlands (a Ramsar site of West Bengal; number 1208) exerts adverse effects on commercial fish production and subsequently affects humans. The present study was conducted to investigate acute and chronic toxicity of tannery effluent on a fish biosystem by examining oxidative stress enzyme expression in different organs including liver, gills, and muscle following exposure. Phosphatases, both alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, and antioxidant superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities were determined in guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to sublethal concentrations of composite tannery effluent. Data demonstrated that tannery effluent was capable of interfering with metabolic processes of fish by altering stress enzyme activities in fish organs, resulting in cellular injury. Data suggest that elevated activities of stress enzymes in fish upon exposure to environmental pollutants may serve as important biomarkers for oxidative stress.

  7. Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Kottler, Verena A; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation.

  8. Acute toxicity of trichlorofon on four viviparous fish: Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri (Cyprinodontiformes: Poecilidae

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine toxicity and safety margins of trichlorofon in different species as trichlorofon toxicity has a large variation in the susceptibility of different species. Methods: In this research, four viviparous aquarium fish were exposed to trichlorofon for 96 h. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of trichlorofon (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L for 96 h and mortality were recorded, separately. Results: The 96 h LC50 of Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri were 9.80, 9.80, 9.95 and 7.99 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this research, LC50 values indicated Xiphophorus helleri was the most resistant and Gambusia holbrooki, with a few differences, was the most sensitive species compared with the fishes examined.

  9. Opposite selection on behavioural types by active and passive fishing gears in a simulated guppy Poecilia reticulata fishery.

    Diaz Pauli, B; Wiech, M; Heino, M; Utne-Palm, A C

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed whether fishing gear was selective on behavioural traits, such as boldness and activity, and how this was related with a productivity trait, growth. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata were screened for their behaviour on the shy-bold axis and activity, and then tested whether they were captured differently by passive and active fishing gear, here represented by a trap and a trawl. Both gears were selective on boldness; bold individuals were caught faster by the trap, but escaped the trawl more often. Boldness and gear vulnerability showed weak correlations with activity and growth. The results draw attention to the importance of the behavioural dimension of fishing: selective fishing on behavioural traits will change the trait composition of the population, and might eventually affect resilience and fishery productivity.

  10. Temporal dynamics of epidermal responses of guppies Poecilia reticulata to a sublethal range of waterborne zinc concentrations.

    Gheorghiu, C; Marcogliese, D J; Scott, M E

    2009-12-01

    This study assessed the histological changes in the epidermis of guppies Poecilia reticulata induced by waterborne zinc (Zn). Laboratory-reared P. reticulata fry were maintained individually in separate vessels containing artificial water (8 microg l(-1) Zn) to which 0, 15, 30, 60 or 120 microg l(-1) Zn was added. Their epidermal response to Zn was monitored regularly over 4 weeks. Compared with controls, mucus was rapidly released and mucous cell numbers decreased at all concentrations. Thereafter mucous release, epidermal thickness, numbers and size of mucous cells fluctuated at a rate that varied with Zn concentration, but fluctuations declined after day 18. Results clearly highlight the dynamic nature of the epidermal response to sublethal concentrations of waterborne Zn. In general, low concentrations of Zn induced a rapid response with reduced numbers and size of mucous cells and shift in mucin composition, and a subsequent thickening of the epidermis. Epidermal thickness and mucous cell area fluctuated over time but were normal after a month of exposure to low Zn concentrations. The number of mucous cells, however, remained low. Virtually all mucous cells from fish maintained in 15 and 60 microg l(-1) Zn contained acidic mucins throughout the month, whereas fish maintained at 30 microg l(-1) Zn responded by production of neutral mucins during the first 12 days followed by a mixture of neutral and acidic mucins. At 120 microg l(-1) Zn, the most dramatic effects were the gradual but sustained decrease in numbers and area of mucous cells, and the shift to acidic mucins in these cells. Thus, as concentration of Zn increased, the epidermal responses indicated a disturbed host response (dramatic decline in mucous cell numbers, with mixed composition of mucins), which may have been less effective in preventing Zn uptake across the epithelium.

  11. PEMBUATAN KARBON AKTIF DARI KULIT JERUK KEPROK (Citrus reticulata UNTUK ADSORBSI PEWARNA REMAZOL BRILLIANT BLUE

    Asriningtyas Ajeng Erprihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Limbah kulit jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulata sering dijumpai di industri pembuatan berbagai macam minuman seperti jus, sirup, dan sari buah. Limbah kulit jeruk ini hanya akan dibuang begitu saja dengan jumlah banyak, dan pada akhirnya limbah ini akan mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu upaya peningkatan nilai ekonomis limbah kulit jeruk dapat dilakukan dengan mengolahnya menjadi karbon aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok dengan aktivasi kimia, luas permukaan, serta mengetahui kemampuannya dalam mengadsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue. Kulit jeruk yang telah dibersihkan dari kotoran, dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 120oC selama 3 jam. Aktivator yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah H3PO4 dengan rasio massa aktivator : massa karbon 1:1. Aktivasi dilakukan pada temperatur 600oC selama 1 jam, kulit jeruk kemudian dicuci dengan aquades dan dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 150oC selama 6 jam. Setelah itu, dilakukan uji bilangan iodin terhadap sampel hasil penelitian. Adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif kulit jeruk dilakukan dengan variasi waktu kontak dan massa karbon aktif untuk mencari kondisi adsorpsi optimum. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif pada kulit jeruk keprok pada waktu kontak 30 menit dengan massa karbon aktif 1 gram. Karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok memiliki luas permukaan karbon aktif sebesar 529,17 mg/g berdasarkan daya serapnya terhadap larutan iodin. Orange peel (Citrus reticulate waste is often found in industrial manufacturing various kinds of beverages such as juice, syrup, fruit juice. Orange peel waste is just be thrown away with the lot number, and in the end of this waste will pollute the environment. One of the efforts to increase the economic value of orange peel waste by using the process which convert waste into activated carbon. This research aims are to produce activated carbon

  12. The role of predation in variation in body shape in guppies Poecilia reticulata: a comparison of field and common garden phenotypes.

    Burns, J G; Di Nardo, P; Rodd, F H

    2009-10-01

    The body shapes of both wild-caught and laboratory-reared male and female Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata from two low-predation and two high-predation populations were studied, but predation regime did not seem to be the most important factor affecting body shape. Instead, complicated patterns of plasticity in body shape among populations and the sexes were found. In particular, populations differed in the depth of the caudal peduncle, which is the muscular region just anterior to the tail fin rays and from which most swimming power is generated. Strikingly, the direction of population differences in caudal peduncle depth observed in wild-caught individuals was reversed when P. reticulata were raised in a common laboratory environment.

  13. Toxicity of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s., Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), and potential biocontrol agent, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    Anogwih, Joy A

    2014-08-01

    The toxicity of an emulsifiable formulation of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and predator fish Poecilia reticulata Peters (Pisces: Poeciliidae) was investigated. Acute toxicity tests were carried out to determine the effect of the larvicide on mosquito larvae and fish species. To investigate the nontarget effects on P. reticulata, fish of similar size (3.5 +/- 0.2 cm) were randomly selected and exposed for 28 d, under static renewal bioassay, to sublethal concentrations of the larvicide capable of killing 30 and 70% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The 24 h LC50 value of pirimiphos methyl on the test organisms ranged between 20.44 and 697.30 microg liter(-1). The ultrastructural changes observed in the intestinal cells of P. reticulata were characterized by degenerating cell membranes with gradual loss of gray area in pycnotic nucleus at lower concentration. Marked damage was found at higher concentration including distinct loss of gray areas in cytosol, absence of cristae, numerous ruptures, and several dead cells. Pirimiphos methyl was toxic to a predatory fish species, and for its relevance in vector control and crop protection, warrants cumulative assessment to establish its comprehensive ecological risk, and the dosage required for field larviciding.

  14. Detection and Estimation of alpha-Amyrin, beta-Sitosterol, Lupeol, and n-Triacontane in Two Medicinal Plants by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

    Saikat S. Mallick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of four components, namely, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, and n-triacontane from two medicinally important plants, Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. In Ayurveda, both plants have been reported to possess immunomodulatory activity. Chromatographic separation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using a suitable mobile phase. The densitometric scanning was done after derivatization at λ = 580 nm for α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, and lupeol, and at 366 nm for n-triacontane. The developed HPTLC method has been validated and used for simultaneous quantitation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. The developed HPTLC method is simple, rapid, and precise and can be used for routine quality control.

  15. Predation intensity does not cause microevolutionary change in maximum speed or aerobic capacity in trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters).

    Chappell, Mark; Odell, Jason

    2004-01-01

    We measured maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and burst speed in populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from contrasting high- and low-predation habitats but reared in "common garden" conditions. We tested two hypothesis: first, that predation, which causes rapid life-history evolution in guppies, also impacts locomotor physiology, and second, that trade-offs would occur between burst and aerobic performance. VO(2max) was higher than predicted from allometry, and resting VO(2) was lower than predicted. There were small interdrainage differences in male VO(2max), but predation did not affect VO(2max) in either sex. Maximum burst speed was correlated with size; absolute burst speed was higher in females, but size-adjusted speed was greater in males. For both sexes, burst speed conformed to allometric predictions. There were differences in burst speed between drainages in females, but predation regime did not affect burst speed in either sex. We did not find a significant correlation between burst speed and VO(2max), suggesting no trade-off between these traits. These results indicate that predation-mediated evolution of guppy life history does not produce concomitant evolution in aerobic capacity and maximum burst speed. However, other aspects of swimming performance (response latencies or acceleration) might show adaptive divergence in contrasting predation regimes.

  16. Abnormal burst patterns of single neurons recorded in the substantia nigra reticulata of behaving 140 CAG Huntington's disease mice.

    Murphy-Nakhnikian, Alexander; Dorner, Jenelle L; Fischer, Benjamin I; Bower-Bir, Nathan D; Rebec, George V

    2012-03-14

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that causes neurological pathology in the basal ganglia and related circuitry. A key site of HD pathology is striatum, the principal basal ganglia input structure; striatal pathology likely changes basal ganglia output but no existing studies address this issue. In this report, we characterize single-neuron activity in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) of awake, freely behaving 140 CAG knock-in (KI) mice at 16-40 weeks. KI mice are a well characterized model of adult HD and are mildly symptomatic in this age range. As the primary basal ganglia output nucleus in rodents, the SNr receives direct innervation from striatum, as well as indirect influence via polysynaptic inputs. We analyzed 32 single neurons recorded from KI animals and 44 from wild-type (WT) controls. We found increased burst rates, without a concordant change in spike discharge rate, in KI animals relative to WTs. Furthermore, although metrics of burst structure, such as the inter-spike interval in bursts, do not differ between groups, burst rate increases with age in KI, but not WT, animals. Our findings suggest that altered basal ganglia output is a physiological feature of early HD pathology.

  17. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of sugar and organic acid metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) fruit during fruit maturation.

    Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways.

  18. Fine scale spatial genetic structure in Pouteria reticulata (Engl. Eyma (Sapotaceae, a dioecious, vertebrate dispersed tropical rain forest tree species

    John W. Schroeder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dioecious tropical tree species often have small flowers and fleshy fruits indicative of small-insect pollination and vertebrate seed dispersal. We hypothesize that seed mediated gene flow should be exceed pollen-mediated gene flow in such species, leading to weak patterns of fine scale spatial genetic structure (SGS. In the present study, we characterize novel microsatellite DNA markers and test for SGS in sapling (N=100 and adult trees (N=99 of the dioecious canopy tree Pouteria reticulata (Sapotaceae in a 50 ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama. The five genetic markers contained between five and 15 alleles per locus, totaling 51 alleles in the sample population. Significant SGS at local spatial scales (<100m was detected in the sapling (dbh≈1cm and adult (dbh≥20cm size classes, but was stronger in the former (sapling Sp=0.010±0.004, adult Sp=0.006±0.002, suggesting demographic thinning. The degree of SGS was lower than the value expected for non-vertebrate dispersed tropical trees (Sp=0.029, but similar to the average value for vertebrate dispersed tropical trees (Sp=0.009 affirming the dispersal potential of vertebrate dispersed tropical trees in faunally intact forests.

  19. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings

    Syed Wasim Ahmad Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco for a period of 120 days (85%–90% relative humidity at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C.

  20. Disruption of dopaminergic transmission remodels tripartite synapse morphology and astrocytic calcium activity within substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    Bosson, Anthony; Boisseau, Sylvie; Buisson, Alain; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille

    2015-04-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia circuitry particularly sensitive to pathological dopamine depletion. Indeed, hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders characteristic of Parkinson's disease. The neuronal processing of basal ganglia dysfunction is well understood but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has rarely been considered. We thus investigated the influence of the disruption of dopaminergic transmission on plastic changes at tripartite glutamatergic synapses in the rat SNr and on astrocyte calcium activity. In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, we observed structural plastic changes of tripartite glutamatergic synapses and perisynaptic astrocytic processes. These findings suggest that subthalamonigral synapses undergo morphological changes that accompany the pathophysiological processes of Parkinson's disease. The pharmacological blockade of dopaminergic transmission (with sulpiride and SCH-23390) increased astrocyte calcium excitability, synchrony and gap junction coupling within the SNr, suggesting a functional adaptation of astrocytes to dopamine transmission disruption in this output nucleus. This hyperactivity is partly reversed by subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation which has emerged as an efficient symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, our results demonstrate structural and functional reshaping of neuronal and glial elements highlighting a functional plasticity of neuroglial interactions when dopamine transmission is disrupted.

  1. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  2. Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters

    I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism in guppies because YY individuals are easily induced in the boratory. However, note that YY individuals are also produced in natural populations. Our results indicated that YY crossing-over was another important source of phenotypic variability - probably because recombination may be possible ver the entire length of Y chromosomes, and at very high frequencies due to high degrees of homology. Thus, crossing-over between Y chromosomes is yet another mechanism that can contribute to extreme pattern polymorphism in the guppy, a popular aquarium and important research model species.

  3. Chronic effects of Cd on the reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) through Cd-accumulated midge larvae (Chironomus yoshimatsui)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1987-12-01

    Chronic effects of Cd on the growth and reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were studied using a food chain model, midge larvae as prey and guppy as predator. The transfer rate of Cd from the midge to the guppy was between 0.5 and 1% during the 30-day experiment. Growth rate of the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (270 micrograms/g dry wt) for 30 days was not impaired. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (210 micrograms/g) for 2 months decreased to ca. 80% of the control. Guppies had been fed the Cd-accumulated midges from 30 days old for 7 months. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed midge larvae-accumulated 500, 800, and 1300 micrograms Cd/g for 6 months decreased to 79, 65, and 55% of the control, respectively. Similar effects of Cd on the reproduction of guppy were shown between the guppies fed the Cd-accumulated midge larvae (500 micrograms Cd/g) and exposed to 10 or 20 micrograms Cd/liter for the 6 months. The Cd concentrations of the digestive tract, liver, and kidney increased strongly, indicating that such Cd accumulation was brought on mainly through the Cd-accumulated midges. Mortality of the female guppies fed larvae-accumulated 1300 micrograms Cd/g increased abruptly from the 6 months of the experiment, whereas no male guppy died during the experiment.

  4. Study on the toxicity of sodium bromide to different fresh water organisms. [Scenedesmus pannonicus; Daphnia magna; Poecilia reticulata; Oryzias latipas

    Canton, J.H.; Wester, P.W.; Mathijssen-Spiekman, E.A.

    1983-08-01

    The toxicity of sodium bromide for fresh water organisms was tested using algae (Scenedesmus pannonicus), crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and fish (Poecilia reticulata and Oryzias latipes). Depending on the species tested, the acute toxicity varied from 44 to 5800 mg Br-/litre (EC50 values) and the No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOEC values) in the long-term tests varied from 7.8 to 250 mg Br-/litre. Bromide ion markedly impaired reproduction in both crustaceans and fish. Histologically no effects were observed in the long-term test with Oryzias, but in the reproduction test with Poecilia, hyperplasia of the thyroid, atrophy and degeneration of the musculature and regressive changes in the female reproductive tract were observed. As a criterion of water quality, 1 mg Br-/litre has been proposed, on the basis of reproductive performance in the Poecilia test. The concentrations found in surface water frequently exceed this value and sometimes reach levels at which acute effects on water organisms can be expected.

  5. Community Analysis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata Based on SSU rDNA

    Peng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. and red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization, spore density, and hyphal length did not differ significantly between two rootstocks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 173 screened AMF sequences clustered in at least 10 discrete groups (GLO1~GLO10, all belonging to the genus of Glomus Sensu Lato. Among them, GLO1 clade (clustering with uncultured Glomus accounting for 54.43% clones was the most common in trifoliate orange roots, while GLO6 clade (clustering with Glomus intraradices accounting for 35.00% clones was the most common in red tangerine roots. Although, Shannon-Wiener indices exhibited no notable differences between both rootstocks, relative proportions of observed clades analysis revealed that composition of AMF communities colonizing two rootstocks varied severely. The results indicated that native AMF species in citrus rhizosphere had diverse colonization potential between two different rootstocks in the present orchards.

  6. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  7. Temporal change in inbreeding depression in life-history traits in captive populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata): evidence for purging?

    Larsen, L-K; Pélabon, C; Bolstad, G H; Viken, A; Fleming, I A; Rosenqvist, G

    2011-04-01

    Inbreeding depression, which generally affects the fitness of small populations, may be diminished by purging recessive deleterious alleles when inbreeding persists over several generations. Evidence of purging remains rare, especially because of the difficulties of separating the effects of various factors affecting fitness in small populations. We compared the expression of life-history traits in inbred populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) with contemporary control populations over 10 generations in captivity. We estimated inbreeding depression as the difference between the two types of populations at each generation. After 10 generations, the inbreeding coefficient reached a maximum value of 0.56 and 0.16 in the inbred and control populations, respectively. Analysing changes in the life-history traits across generations showed that inbreeding depression in clutch size and offspring survival increased during the first four to six generations in the populations from the inbred treatment and subsequently decreased as expected if purging occurred. Inbreeding depression in two other traits was weaker but showed similar changes across generations. The loss of six populations in the inbred treatment indicates that removal of deleterious alleles also occurred by extinction of populations that presumably harboured high genetic load.

  8. Cell proliferation and growth-associated protein 43 expression in the olfactory epithelium in Poecilia reticulata after copper solution exposure

    S Bettini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration in the olfactory mucosa of the teleostean fish Poecilia reticulata when returned to dechlorinated tap water after 4-day exposure to 30 ?g/L of Cu2+. The regeneration process in the olfactory tissue was examined in fishes at 0, 3, 6 and 10 days of recovery in well water. Jade B staining permitted to evaluate the rate of the damage which was especially extended to olfactory neurons. Immediately after the end of exposure, a massive mitotic activity in the basal region of the mucosa was detected by immunostaining with PCNA. After 3 days of recovery the nuclei of the newly formed cells had already finished their migration to the upper portion of the epithelium, and cellular division was much less intense. Simultaneously, immunoreactivity for the neural growth-associated phosphoprotein GAP-43 increased respect to control levels, revealing that the new differentiating PCNA-positive elements belonged to immature neurons. After 6 days in well water no mitotic activity was detected, while the GAP-43 labelling appeared particularly concentrated in the apical surface of the olfactory epithelium.After 10 days the aspect of the olfactory epithelium was almost identical to the control. The present results suggest that after 10 days regeneration seems to be complete and integrity of the tissue restored. Furthermore, the epithelium reconstitution does not show apparent divergence from other fishes or mammals.

  9. Relative host body condition and food availability influence epidemic dynamics: a Poecilia reticulata-Gyrodactylus turnbulli host-parasite model.

    Tadiri, Christina P; Dargent, Felipe; Scott, Marilyn E

    2013-03-01

    Understanding disease transmission is important to species management and human health. Host body condition, nutrition and disease susceptibility interact in a complex manner, and while the individual effects of these variables are well known, our understanding of how they interact and translate to population dynamics is limited. Our objective was to determine whether host relative body condition influences epidemic dynamics, and how this relationship is affected by food availability. Poecilia reticulata (guppies) of roughly similar size were selected and assembled randomly into populations of 10 guppies assigned to 3 different food availability treatments, and the relative condition index (Kn) of each fish was calculated. We infected 1 individual per group ('source' fish) with Gyrodactyus turnbulli and counted parasites on each fish every other day for 10 days. Epidemic parameters for each population were analysed using generalized linear models. High host Kn-particularly that of the 'source' fish-exerted a positive effect on incidence, peak parasite burden, and the degree of parasite aggregation. Low food availability increased the strength of the associations with peak burden and aggregation. Our findings suggest that host Kn and food availability interact to influence epidemic dynamics, and that the condition of the individual that brings the parasite into the host population has a profound impact on the spread of infection.

  10. The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Bahareh Mehrad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulataPeters,1859. Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively with 1 control group. The data obtained from the trial weresubjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to test for effects of dietary treatments. In vitamin Ctreatments the body weight increase (BWI, percent body weight increase (PBWI, specific growth rate(SGR, daily growth rate (DGR and reproductive performance of guppies were increased significantlywith increasing the levels of vitamin C (P<0.05 and highest BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR were observed intreatment 4. There were no significant differences in sex ratio observed between the treatments. Insurvival rate there was significant difference between treatment 2 with treatments 1, 3 and control(P<0.05. This study indicates that BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR and reproductive performance can beimproved by dietary vitamin C supplementation and also may be concluded that the vitamin Crequirement of guppies fish for optimum growth and reproductive performance is 2000 mg/kg of drydiet.

  11. Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata.

    Verena A Kottler

    Full Text Available The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation.

  12. Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres

    2014-08-01

    There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio.

  13. ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Tripathi Namita

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs. About 18,000 ESTs were annotated according to BLASTN and BLASTX results and the sequence information from the 3' UTRs was exploited to generate PCR primers for re-sequencing of genomic DNA from different wild type strains. By comparison of EST-linked genomic sequences from at least four different ecotypes, about 1,700 polymorphisms were identified, representing about 400 distinct genes. Two interconnected MySQL databases were built to organize the ESTs and markers, respectively. A robust phylogeny of the guppy was reconstructed, based on 10 different nuclear genes. Conclusion Our EST and marker databases provide useful tools for genetic mapping and phylogenetic studies of the guppy.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history strategies compensates for a poor start in life in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Auer, Sonya K

    2010-12-01

    Low food availability during early growth and development can have long-term negative consequences for reproductive success. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history decisions may help to mitigate these potential costs, yet adult life-history responses to juvenile food conditions remain largely unexplored. I used a food-manipulation experiment with female Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to examine age-related changes in adult life-history responses to early food conditions, whether these responses varied across different adult food conditions, and how these responses affected overall reproductive success. Guppy females reared on low food as juveniles matured at a later age, at a smaller size, and with less energy reserves than females reared on high food as juveniles. In response to this setback, they changed their investment in growth, reproduction, and fat storage throughout the adult stage such that they were able to catch up in body size, increase their reproductive output, and restore their energy reserves to levels comparable to those of females reared on high food as juveniles. The net effect was that adult female guppies did not merely mitigate but surprisingly were able to fully compensate for the potential long-term negative effects of poor juvenile food conditions on reproductive success.

  15. Pigment pattern formation in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, involves the Kita and Csf1ra receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Kottler, Verena A; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2013-07-01

    Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of the guppy color pattern. Orange pigmentation is absent in the skin of guppies with a lesion in blue, suggesting a defect in xanthophore development. In golden mutants, the development of the melanophore pattern during embryogenesis and after birth is affected. Here, we show that blue and golden correspond to guppy orthologs of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra; previously called fms) and kita. Most excitingly, we found that both genes are required for the development of the black ornaments of guppy males, which in the case of csf1ra might be mediated by xanthophore-melanophore interactions. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two temporally and genetically distinct melanophore populations contribute to the adult camouflage pattern expressed in both sexes: one early appearing and kita-dependent and the other late-developing and kita-independent. The identification of csf1ra and kita mutants provides the first molecular insights into pigment pattern formation in this important model species for ecological and evolutionary genetics.

  16. Beauty in the eyes of the beholders: colour vision is tuned to mate preference in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Sandkam, Benjamin; Young, C Megan; Breden, Felix

    2015-02-01

    A broad range of animals use visual signals to assess potential mates, and the theory of sensory exploitation suggests variation in visual systems drives mate preference variation due to sensory bias. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a classic system for studies of the evolution of female mate choice, provide a unique opportunity to test this theory by looking for covariation in visual tuning, light environment and mate preferences. Female preference co-evolves with male coloration, such that guppy females from 'low-predation' environments have stronger preferences for males with more orange/red coloration than do females from 'high-predation' environments. Here, we show that colour vision also varies across populations, with 'low'-predation guppies investing more of their colour vision to detect red/orange coloration. In independently colonized watersheds, guppies expressed higher levels of both LWS-1 and LWS-3 (the most abundant LWS opsins) in 'low-predation' populations than 'high-predation' populations at a time that corresponds to differences in cone cell abundance. We also observed that the frequency of a coding polymorphism differed between high- and low-predation populations. Together, this shows that the variation underlying preference could be explained by simple changes in expression and coding of opsins, providing important candidate genes to investigate the genetic basis of female preference variation in this model system.

  17. The importance of social dimension and maturation stage for the probabilistic maturation reaction norm in Poecilia reticulata.

    Diaz Pauli, B; Pauli, B D; Heino, M

    2013-10-01

    Maturation is an important event in an organism's life history, with important implications on dynamics of both wild and captive populations. The probabilistic maturation reaction norm (PMRN) has emerged as an important method to describe variation in maturation in wild fish. Because most PMRNs are based on age and size only, it is important to understand limitations of these variables in explaining maturation. We experimentally assessed (i) the sensitivity of age- and size-based PMRNs to unaccounted sources of plasticity, (ii) the role of social environment on maturation and (iii) the significance of estimating PMRNs early and late in the maturation process (initiation and completion of maturation, respectively). We reared male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) under laboratory conditions, subjected to two food levels and three different social cues. We found that growth and social environment affected the maturation in a way that could not be accounted for by their effect on age and size. PMRNs estimated for the initiation stage were less plastic (growth differences and social cues influenced the PMRN shape only little) than those for completion. The initiation of maturation is probably closer to the maturation 'decision' and allows determining factors influencing maturation decision most accurately.

  18. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis.

  19. Rapid characterization of 96 chemical constituents in Citri Reticulatae Folium (leaves of ‘Fuju’) using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn%HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn技术对橘叶(福橘叶)中96个化学成分的快速分离和鉴定

    曹规划; 付庆荣; 张藏曼; 王弘; 陈世忠

    2016-01-01

    为了对橘叶(福橘叶)中的化学成分进行较为系统地研究,我们首次采用液质联用技术((HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn)系统地分离和鉴定了橘叶中的化学成分.最终,我们在橘叶中解析了96个化学成分,包括:31个酚酸类化合物,4个黄酮苷元,6个黄酮单氧苷,10个黄酮双氧苷,5个黄酮单碳苷和5个黄酮双碳苷化合物,以及6个黄酮碳氧苷,5个3-羟基-3-甲基戊二酰基取代的黄酮苷,1个黄烷-3-醇和2个生物碱类化合物,并且初步鉴定出了21个多甲基黄酮类化合物(PMFs).在上述解析的96个化合物中,52个化合物为首次在橘叶中发现,15个化合物为首次在柑橘属植物中发现.同时,我们在橘叶中也发现了9个潜在的新化合物.%In order to systematically investigate the chemical constituents of Citri Reticulatae Folium (leaves of ‘Fuju’),an analytical method that included high-performance liquid chromatography,diode array detection,electrospray ionization,and ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn) was used to separate and identify the individual chemical components of Citri Reticulatae Folium.As a result,96 compounds were tentatively identified in this study:including 31 phenolic acids,4 flavonoid aglycones,6 flavonoid mono-O-glycosides,10 flavonoid-O-diglycosides,5 flavonoid mono-C-glycosides,5 flavonoid di-C-glycosides,6 flavonoid O,C-glycosides,5 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl) glycosyl flavonoids,1 flavan-3-ol,and 2 alkaloids.In addition,21 polymethoxy flavonoids (PMFs) were identified in this paper.Among these compounds,52 compounds,which were previously found in other Citrus plants,have been identified for the first time in Citri Reticulatae Folium.15 compounds have not been previously found in the Citrus genus were identified.Moreover,9 potentially new compounds have also been detected in this paper.This is the first report of the full characterization of chemical components of Citri Reticulatae Folium (leaves of

  20. 不同类型斑竹林结构特征的研究%Studies on Structure Characteristics of Different Types of Ph.reticulata CV.Lacrima-deae Keng et Wen

    徐振国; 郭起荣; 冯云; 黄大勇; 李立杰; 孙立方; 王青

    2012-01-01

    The investigation results of Ph. reticulata CV. Lacrima - deae Keng et Wen show that: there are significant differences in six structure factors such as diameter at breast height,plant height, under branch height, culm weight, uniformity and evenness in different types of Phyllostachys bambasaides f. lacrinla-deae Keng f. et Wen. Whereas the differences in Stand density and bamboo wall thickness factor are not significant. Therefore, the excellent stand structure standard is " density 11 000 plants/hm2, diameter at breast height 5 cm, plant height llm, under branch height 4 m, and culm weight 8 kg, and uniform forest appearance". The correlations among the factors of diameter at breast height, ground diameter, plant height, under branch height,leaf weight and full weight are remarkable. The principal components of stand structure include plant height,under branch height,full weight, culm weight and evenness, the contribution rate is 69.6%.%对斑竹林的调查结果表明:不同林分类型斑竹林的胸径、株高、枝下高、秆重、整齐度、均匀度6个结构因子差异显著,立竹密度、壁厚因子差异不显著;提出优良林分“密度11000株/hm2、胸径5 cm、株高11m、枝下高4 m、秆重8 kg,林相整齐、均匀”的结构标准;立竹胸径、地径、株高、枝下高、秆重因子间相关显著;株高、枝下高、胸径、全重、秆重和均匀度是林分结构的主成分,贡献率69.6%.

  1. A combined spectroscopic and TDDFT study of natural dyes extracted from fruit peels of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Hidayat, Novianto Nur; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the novel spectroscopic investigations and enhanced the electron transfers of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata fruit peels as the photosensitizers for the dye-sensitized solar cells. The calculated TD-DFT-UB3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p)-IEFPCM(UAKS), experiment spectra of ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the main flavonoid (hesperidin and gallocatechin) structures of the dye extracts. The optimized flavonoid structures are calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31 + G(d,p) level. The rutinosyl group of the hesperidin pigment (Citrus reticulata) will be further investigated compared to the gallocatechin (Musa acuminata) pigment. The acidity of the dye extract is treated by adding 2% acetic acid. The energy levels of the HOMO-LUMO dyes are measured by a combined Tauc plot and cyclic voltammetry contrasted with the DFT data. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be performed to model the dye electron transfer. As for the rutinosyl group presence and the acidic treatment, the acidified Citrus reticulata cell under continuous light exposure of 100 mW·cm- 2 yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 3.23 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.48 V, and a fill factor of 0.45 corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.71% because the shifting down HOMO-LUMO edges and the broadening dye's absorbance evaluated by a combined spectroscopic and TD-DFT method. The result also leads to the longest diffusion length of 32.2 μm, the fastest electron transit of 0.22 ms, and the longest electron lifetime of 4.29 ms.

  2. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil.

    Araújo, F G; Peixoto, M G; Pinto, B C T; Teixeira, T P

    2009-02-01

    Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone) were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  3. Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil

    FG. Araújo

    Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.

  4. Genetic improvement of variety pattern chromatic Half BlackBlue or Diamond of ornamental fish Guppy (Poecilia reticulata; Peters, 1859 through mass selection

    Carlos Scotto Espinoza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a standard computerized digitized based on the number of pixels. They found eight characteristic blue color tones in both the body and dorsal fin to be used in the potential for mass selection breeding color pattern of the commercial variety or Half Black-Blue Diamond ornamental fish Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Ten pairs of sires selected with an average of eighty F1 offspring per couple (Total = 734, were randomly selected twelve male animals more attractive for its beauty subjective color, divided into two groups, one blue and one to find a light blue color digital mathematical pattern by the number of pixels.

  5. Crecimiento, Abundancia Y Biomasa De Poecilia reticulata En El Lago Urbano Del Parque Tezozomoc De La Ciudad De México

    2006-01-01

    Los lagos urbanos tienen importancia estética, recreativa, cultural y biológica por albergar organismos generalmente alóctonos, como aves, reptiles, insectos y peces, en particular poecilidos, los cuales son muy tolerantes y se reproducen con facilidad. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue: determinar la variación en la abundancia y biomasa de Poecilia reticulata en el lago del parque Tezozomoc, así como obtener la ecuación de crecimiento. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de juli...

  6. Control of Culex pipiens fatigans(W) by the larvivorous fish Poecillia reticulata and by removal of debris from the breeding habitat.

    Phan-Urai, P; Nelson, M J; Phanthumachinda, B

    1976-03-01

    Twice weekly removal of floating debris from two polluted ponds in Bangkok resulted in 75% reduction of immature populations of C.p. fatigans for seven weeks. Subsequent introduction of the guppy Poecilia reticulata at 10 fish per m2 further reduced the aquatic population to 2% of the pretreatment level during 12 weeks. When debris removal was discontinued, partial recovery of the larval density was observed. When fish were introduced in a plot without prior debris removal, there was no reduction of the mosquito population, and when only part of the debris was removed from one plot, the reduction was immediate.

  7. Opposite functions of histamine H1 and H2 receptors and H3 receptor in substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    Zhou, Fu-Wen; Xu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Yu; LeDoux, Mark S; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2006-09-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a key basal ganglia output nucleus. Inhibitory outputs from SNr are encoded in spike frequency and pattern of the inhibitory SNr projection neurons. SNr output intensity and pattern are often abnormal in movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. In Parkinson's disease, histamine innervation and histamine H3 receptor expression in SNr may be increased. However, the functional consequences of these alterations are not known. In this study, whole cell patch-clamp recordings were used to elucidate the function of different histamine receptors in SNr. Histamine increased SNr inhibitory projection neuron firing frequency and thus inhibitory output. This effect was mediated by activation of histamine H1 and H2 receptors that induced inward currents and depolarization. In contrast, histamine H3 receptor activation hyperpolarized and inhibited SNr inhibitory projection neurons, thus decreasing the intensity of basal ganglia output. By the hyperpolarization, H3 receptor activation also increased the irregularity of the interspike intervals or changed the pattern of SNr inhibitory neuron firing. H3 receptor-mediated effects were normally dominated by those mediated by H1 and H2 receptors. Furthermore, endogenously released histamine provided a tonic, H1 and H2 receptor-mediated excitation that helped keep SNr inhibitory projection neurons sufficiently depolarized and spiking regularly. These results suggest that H1 and H2 receptors and H3 receptor exert opposite effects on SNr inhibitory projection neurons. Functional balance of these different histamine receptors may contribute to the proper intensity and pattern of basal ganglia output and, as a consequence, exert important effects on motor control.

  8. Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.

    Yan-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

  9. Reproduction potentiated in nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) by adding a synthetic peptide to their aqueous environment.

    Davies, Keith G; Zimmerman, Brian; Dudley, Ed; Newton, Russell P; Hart, John E

    2015-03-01

    Ambient exposure to a short synthetic peptide has enhanced fecundity (number of offspring) in invertebrates and vertebrates, ostensibly by disinhibiting reproduction. In separate experiments, nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed via their aqueous environment to a dissolved synthetic hexamer (6mer) peptide, IEPVFT (EPL036), at a concentration of 1 μmol l(-1). In the case of the worms, peptide was added to their aqueous buffer daily throughout the experiment (14 days); for the guppies, peptide administration was on the first 15 alternate days in a 50 week experiment. Fecundity rose by 79% among the worms. The number of descendants of the treated guppies was more than four times that of controls by week 26 (103 versus 25, including 72 juveniles versus 6), with 15.4% more estimated biomass in the test tank in total (i.e. including founders). It was deduced that treated females bred earlier, at a smaller size, and had larger brood sizes. The total number of fish in the control tank had caught up by termination, but biomass continued to lag the test tank. There were no overt signs of toxicity among either the worms or the fish. Bioinformatics has been unilluminating in explaining these results in terms, for example, of mimicry of an endogenous regulator. A mass spectrometric campaign to identify a receptor, using murine brain for expediency, proved inconclusive. Molecular modelling in silico indicated unexpectedly that the hexamer EPL036 might be acting as an antagonist, to pro-fecundity effect; that is, as a blocker of an inhibitor. This suggests that there awaits discovery an evolutionarily conserved reproductive inhibitor and its (anti-fecundity) receptor.

  10. Structure of the female gonoduct of the viviparous teleost Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) during nongestation and gestation stages.

    Campuzano-Caballero, Juan Carlos; Uribe, Mari Carmen

    2014-03-01

    Female teleosts do not have oviducts because Müllerian ducts do not develop. Instead, the caudal region of the ovary, the gonoduct, connects to the exterior. Because of the lack of oviducts in viviparous teleosts, the embryos develop in the ovary, as an intraovarian gestation, unique in vertebrates. This is the first study to address the histology of the gonoduct in a viviparous teleost. The gonoduct of Poecilia reticulata was analyzed during previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, and gestation. The gonoduct lacks germinal cells. From deep to superficial, the wall has simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium, loose connective tissue, longitudinal layer of smooth muscle, and visceral peritoneum. Cells of the immune system occur in the lumen and in the mucosa. The gonoduct was divided in three regions: 1) cephalic, 2) middle, and 3) caudal. At the initial part of each region, thin mucosal folds extend into the lumen. The cephalic region forms a tubular structure with light and irregular folds. The middle region has a wider lumen and is more irregular due to ventral invaginations and irregular and short mucosal folds; beneath the epithelium there are melano-macrophage centers. The caudal region is delimited from the middle region by folds; however, they are thinner than these of the other regions. Ventral invaginations form exocrine glands, and the smooth muscle is thicker than in the other regions. During gestation, cells of the immune system are abundant; melano-macrophage centers become larger and the glands exhibit desquamated cells. These observations suggest roles of the gonoduct in reducing the diameter of the lumen; receiving sperm during vitellogenesis; producing secretions, more abundant during vitellogenesis; and in immunological activity throughout the reproductive cycle. The ciliated epithelium and the thick muscle of the caudal region may be involved during birth.

  11. Ecotoxicological monitoring for the evaluation of environmental recovery of aquatic ecosystems using Poecilia reticulata

    DaSilva, E.M.; Navarro, M.F.T.; Mota, M.F.; Chastinet, C.B.A.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater contamination has led to a considerable environmental impact on the humic acid-rich lake systems of Jaua and Interiagos (Camagari-BA). This was caused by the seepage of rainwater through a dune, which was used for some time as a dumping ground of a titanium dioxide plant. The pH fall in the water has conducted to a precipitation of the humic acids and the disappearance of the local fish fauna. The plant (TIBRAS S/A) initiated a recovery program in 1992 to seal up the contaminated dune, thus avoiding further contamination of the groundwater. During the last two years, ecotoxicity tests have been carried out with lake water, employing young individual of the guppy (Poecilia reticulate), an endemic species, as a test organism. Results for 1993 indicated and confined the contamination of five water stations from a total of eight sampled nearby. The LT{sub 50} were in some cases lower than 60 min. In the end of 1993, a severe drought caused the total disappearance of the surface water in the whole aquatic ecosystem. In May 1994, the testing series restarted and some considerable changes have been detected: the return of the water color for the whole system, an increase in pH and a considerable decrease of toxicity in two other stations. LT{sub 50} values for five stations were above 96 hours. These results are not yet an indicative that the dune sealing has been carried out properly, but are able to show and follow improvements in the biological quality of water bodies.

  12. Reproductive performance of the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata [Peters, 1859] fed with live Artemia franciscana [Kellog, 1906] cultured with inert and live diets

    M. García-Ulloa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento reproductivo del guppy Poecilia reticulata —evaluado como número de crías, longitud estándar, peso húmedo y seco de las crías y su proporción sexual— fue estudiado usando varias dietas para los reproductores. Los tratamientos consistieron en adultos vivos de Artemia franciscana cultivada con microalgas vivas (Tetraselmis suecica y Chaetoceros calcitrans, harina de Spirulina, harina de soya, harina de trigo, una mezcla 50%/50% de dichas harinas y una dieta comercial como grupo control. Después de 45 días bajo condiciones experimentales de laboratorio, no se encontraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 en el número de crías producidas por hembra y en la longitud estándar individual de las crías entre los tratamientos. Las crías producidas por el grupo control fueron más pesadas que las del resto de los tratamientos (4.14 y 1.06 mg de peso húmedo y seco, respectivamente. En promedio, el grupo de reproductores alimentado con Spirulina produjo mayor cantidad de machos. Los resultados destacan el uso de la dieta comercial para cubrir con los requerimientos reproductivos de P. reticulata.

  13. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Svendsen, Jon C; Banet, Amanda I; Christensen, Rune H B; Steffensen, John F; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-09-15

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a live-bearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (O2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, O2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance.

  14. Acute toxicity and environmental risk of teflubenzuron to Daphnia magna, Poecilia reticulata and Lemna minor in the absence and presence of sediment.

    Medeiros, Louise S; Souza, Jaqueline P; Winkaler, Elissandra U; Carraschi, Silvia P; Cruz, Claudinei; Souza-Júnior, Severino C; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the acute toxicity of teflubenzuron (1-(3,5-dichloro-2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea) (TFB) for Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Poecilia reticulata, in the absence and presence of sediment; evaluate the effect of sediment on the TFB bioavailability; and to classify this insecticide according to its environmental poisoning risk for agricultural and aquaculture uses. The tests of TFB acute toxicity were conducted in static system in a completely randomized design with increasing TFB concentrations, and a control group. The TFB has been classified according to the estimated values of EC50 and LC50 by its acute toxicity and environmental risk. The sediment significantly reduced toxicity and bioavailability of TFB in water column. Therefore, the insecticide can be classified as being highly toxic to Daphnia magna, which means the agricultural and aquacultural uses of TFB pose a high risk of environmental toxicity to non-target organisms. However, it was practically non-toxic to L. minor and P. reticulata.

  15. Evaluation of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization against Tetrahymena sp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Sharon, Galit; Nath, Pulak R; Isakov, Noah; Zilberg, Dina

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of the effectiveness of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization based on measurements of antibody (Ab) titers suffers from a shortage of reagents that can detect guppy antibodies (Abs). To overcome this problem, we immunized mice with different preparations of guppy immunoglobulins (Igs) and used the mouse antisera to develop a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most efficient immunogen for mouse immunization was guppy Igs adsorbed on protein A/G beads. Antisera from mice boosted with this immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation were highly specific and contained high Ab titers. They immunoreacted in a Western blot with Ig heavy and light chains from guppy serum, and Ig heavy chain from guppy whole-body homogenate. The mouse anti-guppy Ig was applied in an ELISA aimed at comparing the efficiency of different routes of guppy immunization against Tetrahymena: (i) anal intubation with sonicated Tetrahymena (40,000 Tetrahymena/fish in a total volume of 10 μL) mixed with domperidon, deoxycholic acid and free amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan), or (ii) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sonicated Tetrahymena in complete Freund's adjuvant (15,000 Tetrahymena/fish in total a volume of 20 μL). Negative control fish were anally intubated with the intubation mixture without Tetrahymena, or untreated. ELISA measurement of anti-Tetrahymena Ab titer revealed a significantly higher level of Abs in i.p.-immunized guppies, compared to the anally intubated and control fish. In addition, the efficiency of immunization was tested by monitoring guppy mortality following (i) i.p. challenge with Tetrahymena (900 Tetrahymena/fish) or (ii) cold stress followed by immersion in water containing 10,000 Tetrahymena/mL. Fish mortality on day 14 post-Tetrahymena infection by i.p. injection exceeded 50% in the control and anally intubated fish, compared to 31% in i.p.-immunized fish. Immunization did not protect from

  16. Identification of the pathogenic fungus causing brown spot on tangerine( Citrus reticulata CV.Hongjv%红橘褐斑病病原鉴定

    陈昌胜; 黄峰; 程兰; 冯春刚; 黄涛江; 李红叶

    2011-01-01

    自2007年起重庆万州的红橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco,CV.Hongjv)上爆发一种未曾见过的病害,损失严重,因病斑褐色,故被称之为褐斑病.褐斑病贯穿柑橘整个生长季节,主要为害叶片和果实,严重时也为害新梢,引起大量落叶和落果,甚至枝梢枯死.为明确其病原,本研究从病区多个果园采集发病的叶片、果实和枝梢,检查和分离培养发现病组织中广泛存在链格孢菌(Alternaria)和炭疽菌(Colletotrichum).致病性试验证明只有链格孢菌才能引起类似褐斑症状,而炭疽菌和空白对照都不产生任何症状.通过比较研究这些链格孢菌菌株的形态学,培养性状和多聚半乳糖醛酸酶(endoPG)基因的部分序列,可以断定红橘褐斑病的病原为交链格孢菌[A.alternate(Fr.)Keissler].病原性质的确定将为红橘褐斑病发生规律的研究和控制奠定基础.%An unknown disease has been breaking out and causing a great loss on Hongjv (Citrus reticulata Blanco, CV. Hongjv) since 2007 in Wanzhou, Zhongqing, China. The disease was characterized as the brown spot on affected tissues and named "brown spot disease" temporarily. The disease occurs around a growing season and the severe affected leaves and fruits drop quickly. To determine the causing agent, the infected leaves, fruits and shoots were collected from different orchards. Typical conidiospores and cultures of Alternaria and Colletotrichum were always observed and isolated from infected tissues. However, pathogenici-ty test showed that only the isolates of Alternaria were pathogenic to the leaves and fruits of tangerine (Ci. Reticulata CV. Ponkan). Based on the study of morphology, cultural feature and partial sequence of an endopo-lygalacturonase gene (endoPG), the pathogenic Alternaria was identified as A. Alternate (Fr. ) Keissler. The clarification of pathogen would benefit to the study on epidemiology and control of this disease.

  17. Economic benefits analysis of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ougan in mountainous region%山地无籽瓯柑栽培经济效益分析

    徐象华; 朱国华; 颜福花

    2014-01-01

    采用技术经济分析方法,研究了山地无籽瓯柑良种栽培的成本构成和各项经济指标。结果表明:在15 a一个生产周期中,其内部收益率为34.28%,投资回收期5.82 a,每公顷净现值299240元,设计产量或价格收益率的盈亏平衡点为52.88%。在影响无籽瓯柑良种栽培经济效果的诸因素中,以销售收入变动影响最大,其次为生产成本,从现实情况分析,其市场风险和政策风险是很小的。政府在无籽瓯柑产业资金扶持政策上,应重点考虑对基地建设的资金扶持,或扩大小额贷款范围、延迟还贷时间等政策措施,促进无籽瓯柑产业的发展。%The cost composition and economic indicators of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv .Ougan in mountainous region was analyzed by technical and economic analysis method .The results showed that the internal rate of return in 15-year production cycle was 34.28%, period for recovery of investment was 5.82 years, the net present value was 299 240 yuan· hm-2 , the break-even point of planned output or earnings price ratio was 52.88%.Among the influence factors on economic benefit of cultivation of improved Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ougan, the effect of sales revenue was the largest , the production cost took the second place .According to market in recent years , its market risk and policy risk were quite low.In order to promote the industry development of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ougan, the government should make fund policies to build orchard , enlarge scope of small-amount loans , or delay the time of repay loans and so on .

  18. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided...... by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong...... effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF...

  19. Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand.

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Hongsibsong, Surat; Biesalski, Hans-Konrad

    2010-05-26

    Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) were analyzed in hand-pressed juice and the peeled fruit of 'Sainampueng' tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) grown in northern Thailand. The tangerines were collected from a citrus cluster of small orchard farmers and were cultivated as either agrochemical-based (AB), agrochemical-safe (AS), or organic grown fruits. Juice samples were also measured on contents of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols. The peel-deriving PMFs tangeretin, nobiletin, and sinensetin were found with high concentrations in juice as a result of simple squeezing, whereas amounts of those PMFs were negligibly low in peeled tangerine fruit. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the FGs narirutin, hesperidin, and didymin were several fold higher in peeled fruit than in tangerine juice and significantly higher in organic than AS and AB tangerines. Narirutin and hesperidin in juice from organic produces as well as narirutin in juice from AS produces were significantly higher than respective mean concentrations in juice from AB produces. beta-Cryptroxanthin was the predominant carotenoid beside zeaxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene in tangerine juice. Ascorbic acid concentrations were not predicted by the type of cultivation, whereas alpha-tocopherol was significantly higher in juice from organic than AS produces. In summary, hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol.

  20. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle

    Restrepo C. Orlando

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. reticulata.

  1. [The introduction of the larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1895) (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), a bioregulator of culicids in oxidation ponds and contaminated drainage ditches on the Isla de la Juventud].

    García Avila, I; Koldenkova, L; Santamarina Mijares, A; González Broche, R

    1991-01-01

    The larvivorous fish Poecilla reticulata, internationally known as mosquito larva bioregulators, was introduced in 2 oxidation ponds and 2 ditches containing polluted waters (sewage) without the presence of other fish species, in Isle of Youth, Cuba, in order to control the larva populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito Say, 1823 in these its main breeding sites. After 2.5 months, such reservoirs were free of mosquito larvae. The fish settled within one year, reaching enough density to be used in other aquatoria.

  2. 不同贮存年限的中药陈皮的药效比较%The Comparison of the Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Pericarpium Cirri Reticulatae from Different Storage Period

    彭国生

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the comparison of the efficacy of the different storage life of d Pericarpium Cirri Reticulatae ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine.Method:The medicinal herbs of medicine storage time in 6 months,18 months and 24 months and 36 months were chosen.The pharmacological efficacies of Pericarpium Cirri Reticulatae were chosen as the comparative object.The research of the effect of different fixed number of year Pericarpium Cirri Reticulatae water decoction and volatile oil for animal expectorant were observed.Result:Pericarpium Cirri Reticulatae water decoction of different storage period dependent on the dose,the storage period of 36 months of Pericarpium Cirri Reticulatae naphtha and storage period of 18 months of dried tangerine or orange peel water decoction compared with other life of expectorant effect of medicinal materials,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The naphtha of 36 months and 18 months that have a certain extent for the medicinal materials market and provides a valuable reference for clinical.%目的:探讨不同贮存年限的中药陈皮药材的药效对比。方法:选择笔者所在医院中药房中贮存时间6个月、18个月、24个月、36个月的陈皮药材,以陈皮祛痰的药理功效作为比较对象,观察不同年限陈皮水煎剂及挥发油对动物祛痰的效果研究。结果:不同贮存年限的陈皮水煎剂在剂量上具有依赖性,贮存期为36个月的陈皮挥发油和贮存期为18个月的陈皮水煎剂与其他年限的药材的祛痰效果比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:36个月挥发油和18个月的水煎剂的祛痰效果比较好,在一定程度上为药材市场与临床提供了有价值的参考依据。

  3. Comportamento, sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lebistes, Poecilia reticulata, submetidos a agentes utilizados na profilaxia de doenças - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183 Behaviour, survival, and development of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, submitted to agents used in the prophylaxis of diseases - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento, a sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas saudáveis de Poecilia reticulata submetidas à profilaxia contra bactérias, fungos e parasitas, foi conduzido no Laboratório de Aqüicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, um experimento delineado ao acaso com 6 tratamentos (controle, azul de metileno, cloranfenicol, formalina, KMnO4 e NaCl e 4 repetições. Os banhos profiláticos variaram conforme o tratamento, de 30 minutos a 48 horas. Posteriormente, avaliou-se, por 20 dias, o desenvolvimento dos animais. A análise comportamental realizada durante o banho mostrou que, quando expostos à formalina, os animais perdiam o senso de direção e chocavam-se contra a parede. O desenvolvimento das larvas no tratamento com cloranfenicol apresentou-se melhor (P Aiming to evaluate the behavioural, survival and developmental responses of healthy larvae of Poecilia reticulata subjected to the prophyllatic against bacteria, fungi and parasites, a randomized experiment was carried out at the Aquaculture Laboratory of the State University of Maringá, state of Paraná, using six treatments (control, methylene blue, chloramphenicol, formalin, KMnO4 and NaCl and four repetitions. Length prophylactic treatment varied from 30 minutes to 48 hours. After bath treatment, animals’ growth was evaluated during the following 20 days. Behavioural analysis during bath treatment showed that when the animals were exposed to formalin, they lost their sense of direction and collided against the wall. In the treatment with chloramphenicol, development of the larvae was better (P < 0.05 when treated with formalin. In relation to survival, there were no differences between the treatments. Thus, any methodology may be applied in this study when related to survival. Prophylaxis with chloramphenicol is the preferred treatment to formalin when evaluating growth

  4. Population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in Trinidad and Tobago: evidence for a dynamic source-sink metapopulation structure, founder events and population bottlenecks.

    Barson, N J; Cable, J; Van Oosterhout, C

    2009-03-01

    Riverine fish populations are traditionally considered to be highly structured and subject to strong genetic drift. Here, we use microsatellites to analyse the population structure of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), focussing on the headwater floodplain area of the Caroni drainage in Trinidad. We also analyse the population genetics of guppies in the Northern Drainage in Trinidad, a habitat characterized by rivers flowing directly into the sea, and a small isolated population in Tobago. Upland Caroni populations are highly differentiated and display low levels of genetic diversity. However, we found no evidence to suggest that these upland populations experienced recent population crashes and the populations appear to approach mutation-drift equilibrium. Dominant downstream migration over both short- and long-time frames has a strong impact on the population genetics of lowland Caroni populations. This drainage system could be considered a source-sink metapopulation, with the tributary furthest downstream representing a 'super sink', receiving immigrants from rivers upstream in the drainage. Moreover, the effective population size in the lowlands is surprisingly low in comparison with the apparently large census population sizes.

  5. Microarray Expression Profiling of Postharvest Ponkan Mandarin(Citrus reticulata)Fruit under Cold Storage Reveals Regulatory Gene Candidates and Implications on Soluble Suqars Metabolism

    Andan Zhu; Wenyun Li; Junli Ye; Xiaohua Sun; Yuduan Ding; Yunjiang Cheng; Xiuxin Deng

    2011-01-01

    Low temperature storage is widely applied to maintain citrus postharvest fruit quality.In this study,the transcriptional and metabolic changes in the pulp tissue of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv."Ponkan"were studied for three successive months under cold storage by Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip and gaschromatography,respectively.As many as 2 161 differentially expressed transcripts were identifiedbased on the bayesian hierarchical model.The statistical analysis of gene ontology revealed thatdefenselstress-related genes were induced quickly,while autophagy-related genes were overrepresentedin the late sampling stages,suggesting that the functional shift may coincide with the subsequent stepsof chilling development.We further classified the potential regulatory components and concluded thatethylene may play the crucial role in chilling development in this non-climacteric fruit.To cope withcomplex events,53 upregulated transcription factors represented regulatory candidates.Within these,the AP2-EREBP,C2H2 and AS2 gene family were overrepresented.Cold storage also causes alterationsin various metabolic pathways; a keen interest is paid in deciphering expression changes of solublesugar genes as increased evidence that soluble sugars act as both osmolytes and metabolite signalmolecules.Our results will likely facilitate further studies in this field with promising genetic candidatesduring chilling.

  6. Effects of octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol on the gonads of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed as adults via the water or as embryos via the mother.

    Kinnberg, Karin; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2003-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic compounds have been found in the aquatic environment, and concern has arisen over the ability of these compounds to affect the reproductive system of fish. In this study, the effects of exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of octylphenol or 17beta-estradiol on the gonad structure of fish were examined. Viviparous guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed as adults via the water or as embryos via the mother to 26 microg/l octylphenol or 0.85 microg/l 17beta-estradiol (mean measured water concentrations). Histological examinations revealed effects of the exposures on the gonads of the fish exposed as adults. Indications of blocked spermatogonial mitosis were seen in the testis structure of adult males after exposure to octylphenol or 17beta-estradiol. The post-parturition ovaries of adult females exposed to 17beta-estradiol showed effects suggesting an inhibited yolk deposition. At the tested concentrations, exposure to octylphenol or 17beta-estradiol via the mother fish did not significantly affect the weight, length, gonopodium index or sex distribution of the offspring. However, histology revealed effects on the liver structure, suggesting some effect of maternal exposure to octylphenol or 17beta-estradiol. These findings indicate that although octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol affect the gonad structure of adult male and female guppies, these substances have no significant effects on the sexual differentiation of the embryos at the tested concentrations.

  7. Separation and purification of neohesperidin from the albedo of Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima by combination of macroporous resin and high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Zhang, Jiukai; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Fenglei; Sun, Chongde; Huang, Jianzhen; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a simple and efficient protocol for rapid preparation and separation of neohesperidin from the albedo of Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima was established by the combination of macroporous resin column chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Six types of resin were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests, and D101 macroporous resin was selected for the first cleaning-up procedure, in which 55% aqueous ethanol was used to elute neohesperidin. After treatment with D101 resin, the neohesperidin purity increased 11.83-fold from 4.92% in the crude extract to 58.22% in the resin-refined sample, with a recovery of 68.97%. The resin-refined sample was directly subjected to HSCCC purification with a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (4:1:5, v/v), and 23.6 mg neohesperidin with 97.47% purity was obtained from 60 mg sample in only one run. The recovery of neohesperidin in HSCCC separation procedure was 65.85%. The chemical structure of the purified neohesperidin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS. The established purification process will be helpful for further characterization and utilization of Citrus neohesperidin.

  8. Use of the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) and Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in response to acid mine drainage: laboratory exposure.

    Mohti, Azmah; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Gerhardt, Almut

    2012-09-01

    The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH values (ACID). Test animals in the juvenile stage were used for both species and were exposed to AMD and ACID for 24 hours. The stress behaviors of both test animals consisted mainly of decreased activity in AMD and increased activity in ACID, indicating that the metals in the AMD played a role as a stress factor in addition to pH. The locomotor activity levels of guppies and prawns for the ACID treatment were higher than the locomotor activity levels for the AMD treatment with increasing pH value. For guppies, significant differences were observed when specimens were exposed to AMD and ACID at pH 5.0 and 6.0; the percentage activities were only 16% and 12%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 35% and 40%, respectively, similar to the value of 36% for the controls. Similar trends were also observed for prawns, for which the percentage activities were only 6% and 4%, respectively, for AMD treatment, whereas for ACID treatment, the percentage activities were 31% and 38%, respectively, compared to 44% in the controls. This study showed that both species are suitable for use as indicators for ecotoxicity testing with the MFB.

  9. Disruptions in aromatase expression in the brain, reproductive behavior, and secondary sexual characteristics in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) induced by tributyltin.

    Tian, Hua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-05-01

    Although bioaccumulation of tributyltin (TBT) in fish has been confirmed, information on possible effects of TBT on reproductive system of fish is still relatively scarce, particularly at environmentally relevant levels. To evaluate the adverse effects and intrinsic toxicological properties of TBT in male fish, we studied aromatase gene expression in the brain, sex steroid contents, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive behavior in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to tributyltin chloride at the nominal concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 ng/L for 28 days in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that treatment with 50 ng/L TBT caused an increase in systemic levels of testosterone of male guppies. Gonopodial index, which showed a positive correlation with testosterone levels, was elevated in the 5 ng/L and 50 ng/L TBT treated groups. Real-time PCR revealed that TBT exposure had inhibiting effects on expression of two isoforms of guppy aromatase in the brain, and these changes at the molecular levels were associated with a disturbance of reproductive behavior of the individuals, as measured by decreases in frequencies of posturing, sigmoid display, and chase activities when males were paired with females. This study provides the first evidence that TBT can cause abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics in teleosts and that suppression of reproductive behavior in teleosts by TBT is due to its endocrine-disrupting action as an aromatase inhibitor targeting the nervous system.

  10. Culture and Disease Prevention and Control of Rainbow Fish Poecilia reticulata%孔雀鱼的养殖及病害防治

    陈思行

    2002-01-01

    @@孔雀鱼(Poecilia reticulata)隶属于胎鳝科,胎鳝属。雄鱼色彩鲜艳,五彩缤纷,有些个体体表具蓝黑色小圆斑,周围有淡色的环纹,宛如孔雀的尾翎,故称“孔雀鱼”。它的另一特点是,几乎全年均可繁殖,每个月或隔月就能繁殖一次,每次产幼鱼20~100尾不等;子代经4~5个月便性成熟,一对孔雀鱼一年繁殖后代的数量是惊人的,因此有“百万鱼”(millions)之称。孔雀鱼的英文名为Rainbow fish和Guppy,中文译名常称之为“彩虹鱼”或“格比(鱼)”。此外,尚有摩比鱼、虹鳝和水沟鱼(Longkang Hee)的俗名。……

  11. Acute toxicity of trichlorofon on four viviparous fish:Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri (Cyprinodontiformes:Poecilidae)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Aliakbar Hedayati

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine toxicity and safety margins of trichlorofon in different trichlorofon toxicity has a large variation in the susceptibility of different species. species as Methods: In this research, four viviparous aquarium fish were exposed to trichlorofon for 96 h. sLaCm50 polfe s2 4w he,r e4 8e xhp, o7s2e dh taon ddi f9f6e rhe nwt ecroen actetnaitnraetdio bnys opfr otbriict halnoraolyfosnis software SPSS Version 16. Fish and mortality were recorded, separately. (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L) for 96 h Results: The 96 h LC50 of Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia reticulata, Gambusia holbrooki and Xiphophorus helleri were 9.80, 9.80, 9.95 and 7.99 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this research, LC50 values indicated Xiphophorus hrooki, with a few differences, was the most sensitive elleri wspaesc itehse cmomospt arreesdi swtaitnht tahned f iGshaems beuxsaima ihnoeldb.

  12. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action.

  13. Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta.

    Felipe Dargent

    Full Text Available Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp. in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size.

  14. Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta).

    Dargent, Felipe; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Scott, Marilyn E; Ramnarine, Indar; Fussmann, Gregor F

    2013-01-01

    Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta) and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp.) in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size.

  15. Anti Diabetic Plants Present In West Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh India- A Short Review.

    Venkata Narasimha Kadali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as one of the chronic disease more prevalent in India and rest of the world. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of different organs in the body.There are lots of synthetic drugs present in the market for the treatment of diabetes but they are prone to noxious effects to human systems. Herbs have natural inhibiting potency against various sorts of diseases and they are the ultimate source of bio active compounds which lacks toxic effects. Medicinal plants which have potent anti hyperglycemic effect have been identified and proved experimentally. In this short review an attempt has been made to review some of the medicinal plants such as Annona reticulata, Carica papaya, Coccinia grandis, Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi etc., of about 10 species which are proved to be anti diabetic present in the west godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

  16. Pseudobrânquia do guaru Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859: análise estrutural, morfométrica e histoquímica para detecção de glicoconjugados

    Thiago L. Rocha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia, os parâmetros citomorfométricos e os glicoconjugados presentes na pseudobrânquia de guaru, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae, foram investigados por microscopia de luz acoplada ao sistema de captura e análise de imagens, juntamente por histoquímica com lectinas. A anatomia microscópica indicou que P. reticulata possui pseudobrânquia glandular formada por dois lóbulos, a qual se localiza abaixo do epitélio faringiano. O órgão é constituído por parênquima vascularizado e rico em células pseudobranquiais. Esse tipo celular exibe estado citofisiológico ativo, com abundante sistema de biomembranas e ausência de óstio na superfície apical,que por sua vez é encontrado nas células ricas em mitocôndrias das holobrânquias. Assim, indica-se que as células da pseudobrânquia se distinguem das células das holobrânquias em relação à morfologia, histoquímica e fisiologia. Em decorrência dessas características intrínsecas, a pseudobrânquia de alevinos do guaru pode desempenhar funções não respiratórias nas fases iniciais do desenvolvimento. Além disso, a caracterização da pseudobrânquia do guaru possibilitará estudos futuros sobre o efeito de poluentes aquáticos em espécies biomonitoras, como P. reticulata.

  17. 孔雀鱼HSC70基因的电子克隆与序列分析%In silico cloning and sequence analysis of HSC70 from Poecilia reticulata Peters

    周向红; 彭永兴; 易乐飞

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of HSC70 (70 kDa heat shock cognate) to the adaptability in Poecilia reticulata Peters, one HSC70 gene (designated as /VHSC70) was isolated from P. Reticulata by in silico cloning and traditional RT-PCR amplification technique. The PrHSC70 gene contained 8 introns and a complete coding sequence of 1941 bp. The de duced amino acid sequence of /VHSC70 contained three signature motifs of the HSP70 family, and shared high identity with those of HSP70s and HSC70s from other organisms. The /VHSC70 showed the highest amino acid sequence identity (93. 2% ~ 98. 9% ) with HSC70s from other fishes, and clustered together with them in the phylogenetic tree.%为了研究热激同源蛋白70(70 kDa heat shock cognate,HSC70)在孔雀鱼(Poecilia reticulata Peters)对环境适应中的作用,采用电子克隆与传统实验克隆相结合的技术,分析了孔雀鱼的一个HSC70基因(命名为PrHSC70).PrHSC70基因包含一个长1941 bp的完整编码区,含有8个内含子.PrHSC70蛋白具有HSP70蛋白家族的特征序列,且与其他动物HSC70和HSP70都高度相似.在进化树上PrHSC70与所有鱼类HSC70聚为一簇,与它们的氨基酸序列一致性为93.2%~98.9%.

  18. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  19. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies.

  20. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation in GABAergic projections of the globus pallidus to the reticular thalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra reticulata of the rat decreases locomotor activity.

    Erlij, David; Acosta-García, Jacqueline; Rojas-Márquez, Martín; González-Hernández, Brenda; Escartín-Perez, Erick; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine D4 receptors are localized in the GABAergic projections that globus pallidus (GP) neurons send to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RTN), the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Deficient D4 function in this network could lead to hyperactivity and thus be important in generating some of the symptoms of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), a condition associated with polymorphisms of dopamine D4 receptors. It is then, unexpected that systemic injections of D4 ligands have no significant effects on the motor activity of normal rats. We further examined this issue by microinjecting D4 ligands and psychostimulant drugs in relevant structures. Interstitial dopamine overflow in the RTN was increased by reverse microdialysis of both methylphenidate and methamphetamine. Intranuclear injections in the RTN of methylphenidate, methamphetamine and the selective D4 agonist PD 168,077 reduced motor activity. Intraperitoneal injection of the D4 antagonist L 745,870 blocked the effects of these intranuclear injections. Similarly, intranuclear injections of PD 168,077 in the SNr inhibited motor activity, an effect that was also blocked by intraperitoneal L 745,870. In rats with 6-OHDA induced hemiparkinsonism, intraperitoneal PD 168,077 produced ipsilateral turning behavior that was blocked by L 745,870. Our results suggest that diminished D4 signaling in GP projections could lead to increased traffic through the relay nuclei of the thalamus and hyperactivity. Hence this basal-ganglia-thalamus network may be one of the targets of the beneficial effects that psychostimulant drugs have in disorders associated with D4 receptor abnormalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  2. Dopaminergic control of the globus pallidus through activation of D2 receptors and its impact on the electrical activity of subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra reticulata neurons.

    Omar Mamad

    Full Text Available The globus pallidus (GP receives dopaminergic afferents from the pars compacta of substantia nigra and several studies suggested that dopamine exerts its action in the GP through presynaptic D2 receptors (D2Rs. However, the impact of dopamine in GP on the pallido-subthalamic and pallido-nigral neurotransmission is not known. Here, we investigated the role of dopamine, through activation of D2Rs, in the modulation of GP neuronal activity and its impact on the electrical activity of subthalamic nucleus (STN and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr neurons. Extracellular recordings combined with local intracerebral microinjection of drugs were done in male Sprague-Dawley rats under urethane anesthesia. We showed that dopamine, when injected locally, increased the firing rate of the majority of neurons in the GP. This increase of the firing rate was mimicked by quinpirole, a D2R agonist, and prevented by sulpiride, a D2R antagonist. In parallel, the injection of dopamine, as well as quinpirole, in the GP reduced the firing rate of majority of STN and SNr neurons. However, neither dopamine nor quinpirole changed the tonic discharge pattern of GP, STN and SNr neurons. Our results are the first to demonstrate that dopamine through activation of D2Rs located in the GP plays an important role in the modulation of GP-STN and GP-SNr neurotransmission and consequently controls STN and SNr neuronal firing. Moreover, we provide evidence that dopamine modulate the firing rate but not the pattern of GP neurons, which in turn control the firing rate, but not the pattern of STN and SNr neurons.

  3. Dopamine D1 Receptor Immunoreactivity on Fine Processes of GFAP-Positive Astrocytes in the Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata of Adult Mouse

    Nagatomo, Katsuhiro; Suga, Sechiko; Saitoh, Masato; Kogawa, Masahito; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Yamada, Katsuya

    2017-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons. To address this, we used D1R promotor-controlled, mVenus-expressing transgenic mice. When cells were acutely dissociated from SNr of mouse brain, prominent mVenus fluorescence was detected in fine processes of glia-like cells, but no such fluorescence was detected from neurons in the same preparation, except for the synaptic bouton-like structure on the neurons. Double immunolabeling of SNr cells dissociated from adult wild-type mice brain further revealed marked D1R immunoreactivity in the processes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. Such D1R imunoreactivity was significantly stronger in the SNr astrocytes than that in those of the visual cortex in the same preparation. Interestingly, GFAP-positive astrocytes dissociated from the striatum demonstrated D1R immunoreactivity, either remarkable or minimal, similarly to that shown in neurons in this nucleus. In contrast, in the SNr and visual cortex, only weak D1R immunoreactivity was detected in the neurons tested. These results suggest that the SNr astrocyte may be a candidate recipient for dendritically released dopamine. Further study is required to fully elucidate the physiological roles of divergent dopamine receptor immunoreactivity profiles in GFAP-positive astrocytes. PMID:28203148

  4. Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-Ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour.

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian, Nasim; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Olsén, Håkan; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20 ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminisation of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analysed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions.

  5. Ultra-deep Illumina sequencing accurately identifies MHC class IIb alleles and provides evidence for copy number variation in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Lighten, Jackie; van Oosterhout, Cock; Paterson, Ian G; McMullan, Mark; Bentzen, Paul

    2014-07-01

    We address the bioinformatic issue of accurately separating amplified genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) from artefacts generated during high-throughput sequencing workflows. We fit observed ultra-deep sequencing depths (hundreds to thousands of sequences per amplicon) of allelic variants to expectations from genetic models of copy number variation (CNV). We provide a simple, accurate and repeatable method for genotyping multigene families, evaluating our method via analyses of 209 b of MHC class IIb exon 2 in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Genotype repeatability for resequenced individuals (N = 49) was high (100%) within the same sequencing run. However, repeatability dropped to 83.7% between independent runs, either because of lower mean amplicon sequencing depth in the initial run or random PCR effects. This highlights the importance of fully independent replicates. Significant improvements in genotyping accuracy were made by greatly reducing type I genotyping error (i.e. accepting an artefact as a true allele), which may occur when using low-depth allele validation thresholds used by previous methods. Only a small amount (4.9%) of type II error (i.e. rejecting a genuine allele as an artefact) was detected through fully independent sequencing runs. We observed 1-6 alleles per individual, and evidence of sharing of alleles across loci. Variation in the total number of MHC class II loci among individuals, both among and within populations was also observed, and some genotypes appeared to be partially hemizygous; total allelic dosage added up to an odd number of allelic copies. Collectively, observations provide evidence of MHC CNV and its complex basis in natural populations.

  6. Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' Plant regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. reticulata e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores.This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. reticulata and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen plants were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all plants are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated plants had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all plants had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.

  7. 鸡血藤红色素的提取与基本性质分析%Red Pigment Extraction from Millettia reticulata Benth and Physical and Chemical Properties of Pigment

    许润; 刘建华; 杨广成; 李计龙; 杨迺嘉

    2012-01-01

    探讨鸡血藤红色素的最佳提取溶液,定性定量光、温度、pH值、氧化还原介质对红色素稳定性的影响。结果表明,鸡血藤红色素最佳提取溶剂为65%酸性乙醇(pH1.8),且色素为非花色苷类色素。室内自然光对色素影响不大,该红色素在20~60℃具有较好的稳定性,对氧化剂、还原剂反应敏感。%The red pigment was extracted from Millettia reticulata Benth and the physical and chemical properties of red pigment from Millettia reticulata Benth were investigated, the effects of light, temperature, pH value, oxide-reducing medium on pigment stability were studied. The results showed that the procedure of acid-alcohol extraction gave rather satisfactory results. The pigment does not belong to anthocyanins, and is stable below 20 -- 60 ~C, but its resistance to oxide and reductant is not good.

  8. Rapid screening and identification of compounds with DNA-binding activity from Folium Citri Reticulatae using on-line HPLC-DAD-MS(n) coupled with a post column fluorescence detection system.

    Fu, Qingrong; Zhang, Cangman; Lin, Zongtao; Sun, Hongyang; Liang, Yi; Jiang, Haixiu; Song, Zhiling; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    To study the interactions between natural compounds and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a method has been established combining a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometer with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-FLD). The FLD was used to monitor fluorescence intensity of the ethidium bromide-DNA (EB-DNA) complex when a compound separated by HPLC was introduced. This novel method was used to simultaneously obtain the HPLC fingerprint, UV spectra, MS(n) fragments and DNA-binding activity profile of various components in Folium Citri Reticulatae. As a result, 35 compounds were identified, of which 25 were found in the extract of Folium Citri Reticulatae for the first time, and 33 compounds showed DNA-binding activities, with the most active being feruloylhexaric and p-coumaroylhexaric acids. In addition, the precision, stability and reproducibility of this method were validated by two positive controls, quercetin and hesperidin. This new on-line method is accurate, precise and reliable for further high-throughput screening of DNA-binding compounds from food samples and other complex matrices.

  9. Irrigation Scheduling Using Low Cost Plant Leaf Temperature Sensor Based Water Application System for Increasing Water Productivity of Fruit Crop

    Manish Debnath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensor was designed and developed to measure the plant leaf temperature and ambient temperature in the kinnow orchard. The developed sensor circuit was then interfaced with the drip irrigation head works for irrigation automation. The microcontroller was programmed on based on leaf-air temperature differential values measured by the developed temperature sensors. The developed system was tested in the field for Kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanco crop for its performance. The system maintained the soil moisture content nearer to the field capacity as per the leaf-air temperature differential conditions and used 8 % less water per month per plant compared to the using drip irrigation system. The developed automated system was of low cost which can be afforded by the small and marginal farmers and also easy to install.

  10. Efficacy of ginger-based treatments against infection with Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Levy, G; Zilberg, D; Paladini, G; Fridman, S

    2015-04-30

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish.

  11. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO FRUTO DA VARIEDADE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco: UMA TANGERINA DO TIPO 'PONCÃ' DE MATURAÇÃO PRECOCE FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco: AN EARLY RIPENING 'PONKAN' LIKE MANDARIN

    ROSE MARY PIO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A tangerina-'Poncã' é bastante apreciada pelo consumidor brasileiro. No Estado de São Paulo, a maturação de seus frutos ocorre nos meses de abril a agosto. Com o mercado ávido por frutas de mesa e agravado pelo problema da ocorrência da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC, que afeta principalmente as variedades de laranjas-doces, tem havido um aumento considerável no plantio dessa variedade. Dessa forma, um excesso de produção, num mesmo período, faz com que os preços caiam, desestimulando assim os produtores. O Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM vem buscando outras alternativas no sentido de obter, durante o ano todo, esse tipo de tangerina. Assim sendo, foram realizados estudos de caracterização de frutos, em diversas épocas do ano, com o acompanhamento dos níveis de maturação, envolvendo acessos do Banco de Germoplasma do CCSM. Dentre as variedades estudadas, quanto à precocidade e qualidade dos frutos, destacou-se a Span Americana. A tangerina-'Poncã' tem seu período de maturação para as condições edafoclimáticas do CCSM, nos meses de maio e junho. Já a variedade Span Americana, que apresenta frutos similares à 'Poncã' tradicional, tem maturação bastante precoce, podendo ser iniciada a sua colheita no mês de março.The 'Ponkan' mandarin is highly appreciated by the Brazilian consumer. In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, its fruits mature from April through August. With the market very much in demand for table fruits and due to the problem of occurrence of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC that affects mainly the sweet orange varieties there has been a considerable increase in planting of this variety. By this way, an over of production in a same period makes the prices drop, desistimulating the growers. The Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM is searching other alternatives in order to obtain mandarin fruits all the year. Therefore, fruit characteristics studies in different seasons of the year

  12. Studies on the Stability of Phycocyanion of Rhodella reticulata%蔷薇藻藻蓝蛋白的稳定性研究

    张艳燕; 陈必链; 陈章捷

    2014-01-01

    The unicellular red alga, Rhodella reticulata, can synthesize some bioactive substances such as phycobiliprotein and exopolysaccharides. After extraction by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulfate, phycocyanion (PC) was purified by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column. In this paper, effects of various parameters such as pH, temperature, illumination, food additives and metal ions on the stability of PC of Rhodella reticulate were studied. PC has the most stable activity in pH 7;Lower temperature is in favour of the activity of PC, so do appropriate amount of sucrose and glucose; It had higher stability away from light;Metal ions affect the stability of PC.%蔷薇藻Rhodella reticulata是属于红藻门的一种海洋单细胞微藻,其生长过程中产生藻胆蛋白、胞外多糖等生物活性物质。蔷薇藻经过破碎,通过硫酸铵沉淀和DEAE Sepharose FF柱层析后,可以分离出较纯的藻蓝蛋白。本文从pH、温度、光照、食品添加剂、金属离子等方面对蔷薇藻藻蓝蛋白稳定性作了较全面的研究:藻蓝蛋白在pH为7时最稳定;低温有利于保持藻蓝蛋白的活性;相对于光照,在避光条件下,藻蓝蛋白有较高的稳定性;适当浓度的蔗糖和葡萄糖都有利于藻蓝蛋白的保存;金属离子影响藻蓝蛋白的稳定性。

  13. Radiation processing: An effective quality control tool for hygienization and extending shelf life of a herbal formulation, Amritamehari churnam

    Suchandra Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amritamehari churnam (AC is an antidiabetic polyherbal formulation constituting of four herbal medicinal plants namely Phyllanthus emblica, Salacia reticulata, Tinospora cordifolia and Curcuma longa. The feasibility of using gamma irradiation at doses between 2.5 and 10 kGy to reduce microbial load and enhance shelf life of this formulation was investigated. The irradiated and non-irradiated products were stored at room temperature (25–32 °C and 50–85% R.H., 1.5 years. Acceptability of the irradiated product was assessed based on sensory, microbial, physical and chemical attributes as well as their antioxidant status. A dose 7.5 kGy was sufficient to maintain microbial quality within acceptable limit up to 18 months of storage. No significant differences in sensory properties were observed between the non-irradiated and irradiated sample. The applied dose did not cause any significant qualitative and quantitative changes in the chemical constituents, antioxidant activities as well as physical properties when measured by EPR spectroscopy.

  14. A Review of Natural Stimulant and Non‐stimulant Thermogenic Agents

    Badmaev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are major health issues. Exercise and calorie intake control are recognized as the primary mechanisms for addressing excess body weight. Naturally occurring thermogenic plant constituents offer adjunct means for assisting in weight management. The controlling mechanisms for thermogenesis offer many intervention points. Thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non‐stimulatory or a combination thereof. Examples of stimulatory thermogenic agents that will be discussed include ephedrine and caffeine. Examples of non‐stimulatory thermogenic agents include p‐synephrine (bitter orange extract), capsaicin, forskolin (Coleus root extract), and chlorogenic acid (green coffee bean extract). Green tea is an example of a thermogenic with the potential to produce mild but clinically insignificant undesirable stimulatory effects. The use of the aforementioned thermogenic agents in combination with other extracts such as those derived from Salacia reticulata, Sesamum indicum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cissus quadrangularis, and Moringa olifera, as well as the use of the carotenoids as lutein and fucoxanthin, and flavonoids as naringin and hesperidin can further facilitate energy metabolism and weight management as well as sports performance without adverse side effects. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26856274

  15. Screening of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in Mysore

    Thirumalapura Krishnaiah Mohankumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of death every year. Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Nine different locally available medicinally important plants suspected to posse larvicidal property were screened against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anoph­eles stephensi to a series of concentrations of the methanolic extracts.Methods: Susceptibility tests on Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were conducted using standard WHO methods. The larvae of two mosquito species were exposed to methanolic extracts and mortality counts were made after 24 hours of exposure as per WHO method. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were more susceptible than that of An. stephensi.Results: Among the nine plant species tested, Annona reticulata leaf extract was more effective against Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 95.24 and 262.64 ppm respectively and against An. stephensi larvae 262.71 and 636.94 ppm respectively. The least efficacy was in Cosmos bipinnatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 442.6 and 1225.93 ppm against Ae. aegypti and LC50 and LC90 values of 840.69 and 1334.01 ppm of Thespesia populnea against An. stephensi.Conclusion: The crude methanolic extract of the An. reticulata with good larvicidal efficacy could be considered for further characterization to control mosquito vectors instead of chemical insecticides. High efficacy found in An. re­ticulata extract will be considered for further studies to isolate the bioactive compound.

  16. Early Embryo and Larva of Planocera reticulata:in Vitro Fertilization and SEM Observation%人工授精平角涡虫早期胚胎和幼虫的扫描电镜观察

    汤启友; 王艳杰; 王晓安

    2011-01-01

    为探明平角涡虫(Planocera reticulata)胚胎发育规律,采用人工授精方法,获得不同发育阶段的无卵外胶膜胚胎,并运用扫描电镜技术,观察了受精卵早期胚胎发育和幼虫发育.结果表明,从第3次卵裂开始表现出螺旋式卵裂的特征.在囊胚时期和原肠时期在动物极顶端有几个卵裂球向内下陷形成一凹陷.浮游幼虫期的幼虫利用体表纤毛营自由游泳生活,虫体沿腹中线分布1列向外凸出的长细胞.底栖爬行时期虫体体表纤毛逐渐减少,腹侧形成明显的口和咽.本文讨论了平角涡虫与本目其他涡虫卵裂方式、幼虫发育的异同,以及出现的动物极凹陷的意义.%In order to study the early development of Planocera reticulata, embryos without egg-shell and larva were obtained using in vitro fertilization, and examined by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ). Typical spiral cleavage was observed since the third cleavage. Several micromeres at proximal end of animal pole tended to form an invagination during blastula and gastrula stages. Planktonic larva swam freely with the cilia, which were emanated from the epidermal plates. At the ventral surface of larva, a rank of long cells was situated on the ventral part of embryo along median line. Demersal larva sank to the bottom and opened the external mouth, while at that time the number of cilia decreased obviously. Our results allow a comparison between P. reticulate and other polyclad flatworms in cleavage pattern and larval development. The unexpected finding of a special apical invagination of the blastula and gastrula stage embryos in polyclad P. reticulata was discussed.

  17. CHANGE OF MITOTIC BEHAVIOR AND ULTRA STRUCTURE OF 'FUJU' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) STEM-APEX CLONES AFTER SPACE FLIGHT%航天搭载后福橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco)茎尖无性系有丝分裂行为和细胞超微结构的变化

    吴如健; 黄镜浩; 温寿星; 蔡子坚; 罗土炎; 陈良锋; 王周文

    2011-01-01

    By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of ‘ Fuju' ( Citrus reticulata Blanco), which had been carried by China' s seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone ‘ 08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone ‘08004' was 0.34%, 0.69%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasm olysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone ‘08004’, suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD.%福橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco)茎尖经‘实践八号'育种卫星搭栽后,经组织培养获得其再生植株,以此为材料,结合常规压片法与超薄切片技术,研究航天搭载对福橘当代无性系细胞有丝分裂行为及细胞超微结构的影响.结果表明:航天搭载对福橘茎尖具有诱变作用,所得13个诱变无性系中,有丝分裂过程存在不同程度的异常,其中‘08004'无性系植株的有丝分裂畸变率明显高于其他无性系:中期染色体数目异常畸变率为0.34%,落后染色体畸变率为0.69%,微核畸变率为0.86%;并且有丝分裂过程中纺锤体结构发生异常,可见C-形(0.17%)或S-形纺锤体(1.20%),细胞发生多极分裂(1.03%).绝大多数航天搭载当代无性系

  18. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins

  19. Avaliação dos efeitos antineoplásicos do óleo da Copaifera reticulata Ducke em linhagens de células cancerosas de pulmão

    Tatiana Ranieri

    2015-01-01

    Nos últimos anos as evidências de novos casos de câncer têm alarmado o mundo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar possíveis propriedades antineoplásicas atribuídas ao óleo de Copaifera reticulata Ducke pela etnofarmacologia. Ocorreu pela análise da citotoxicidade deste em cultivos de células normais e cancerosas de pulmão, murinas E10 e E9 e humanas das linhagens NCI-H460 e NCI-H2023. Os cultivos após serem incubados a 37°C foram expostos a oito diferentes concentrações do óleo diluído ...

  20. BABA处理提高采后砂糖桔对青霉菌的抗病性%Postharvest BABA treatment induces resistance of mandrin(Citrus Reticulata Blancdo cv.Shiyueju)fruit to Penicillium digitatum

    汪跃华; 徐兰英; 庞学群; 张昭其

    2011-01-01

    诱导抗病性是水果采后病害生物防治的重要内容之一.对非呼吸跃变型的砂糖桔(Citrus Reticulata Blancdo Cv.Shiyueju)果实进行BABA渗透处理后接种绿霉病菌孢子,结果表明:不同浓度 BABA处理果实的发病率和病斑面积均比对照果实的低,其中0.5g/L BABA处理效果最好,BABA处理提高了沙糖桔果实CHT、GUN、PAL、PPO、POD活性,提高了果皮H2O2含量.

  1. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of edible plant-derived essential oils against the pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Sutthanont, Nataya; Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Junkum, Anuluck; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Chaithong, Udom; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2010-06-01

    The chemical compositions and larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors of selected essential oils obtained from five edible plants were investigated in this study. Using a GC/MS, 24, 17, 20, 21, and 12 compounds were determined from essential oils of Citrus hystrix, Citrus reticulata, Zingiber zerumbet, Kaempferia galanga, and Syzygium aromaticum, respectively. The principal constituents found in peel oil of C. hystrix were beta-pinene (22.54%) and d-limonene (22.03%), followed by terpinene-4-ol (17.37%). Compounds in C. reticulata peel oil consisted mostly of d-limonene (62.39%) and gamma-terpinene (14.06%). The oils obtained from Z. zerumbet rhizome had alpha-humulene (31.93%) and zerumbone (31.67%) as major components. The most abundant compounds in K. galanga rhizome oil were 2-propeonic acid (35.54%), pentadecane (26.08%), and ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (25.96%). The main component of S. aromaticum bud oil was eugenol (77.37%), with minor amounts of trans-caryophyllene (13.66%). Assessment of larvicidal efficacy demonstrated that all essential oils were toxic against both pyrethroid-susceptible and resistant Ae. aegypti laboratory strains at LC50, LC95, and LC99 levels. In conclusion, we have documented the promising larvicidal potential of essential oils from edible herbs, which could be considered as a potentially alternative source for developing novel larvicides to be used in controlling vectors of mosquito-borne disease.

  2. 复方陈皮组合物的降脂减肥作用研究%Study on Anti-obesity Effects of Compound Citrus reticulata Combinations

    刘文志; 卢华杰; 叶晓川; 黄婕; 王龙飞; 刘焱文

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the role of lipid-lowering and losing weight of Compound Citrus reticulata combinations (CPZHW) on the nutritional obese rats. METHODS: The nutritional obesity rat model was established and then divided into 6 groups, i.e. blank control group (constant volume normal saline), model group (constant volume normal saline), atorvastatin group (10 mg·kg‐1) and CPZHW low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups(600,300、 150 mg‐·kg~'). They were given drags intragas-trically once a day for 45 consecutive days. The contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) as well as glucose tolerance in serum were assayed. The amount of increasing weight, food intake and utilization ratio, Lee's index, body-fat ratio,The epididymal fat pad weight, perirenal fat pad weight and the quantities of fat cell in a view were observed. RESULTS: Compared with model group, the body weight, ratio of body weight-lipid, epi-didymis, perinephric fat-pad of CPZHW high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose groups were decreased significantly (P0.05). CONCLUSION: CPZHW plays the role of lipid-lowering and losing weight on nutritional obese rats.%目的:研究复方陈皮组合物(CPZHW)对营养肥胖型大鼠的降脂减肥作用.方法:喂饲高脂饲料以复制营养性肥胖模型大鼠.实验分为空白对照(等容生理盐水)、模型(等容生理盐水)、阿托伐他汀(10 mg·kg-1)和CPZHW高、中、低剂量(600、300、150mg·kg-1)组,灌胃给药,每天1次,连续45 d.检测血清中甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)的含量和糖耐量,计算体重、摄食量、食物利用率、Lee's指数、脂/体比、附睾、肾周脂肪垫重和脂肪细胞数.结果:与模型组比较,CPZHW高、中、低剂量组体重、脂/体比、附睾、肾周脂肪垫重显著减少(P<0.01或P<0.05),大

  3. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants.

    Araújo, Welington L; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Van Vuurde, Jim W L; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2002-10-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC.

  4. 成年态南丰蜜橘试管嫁接育苗技术研究%Studies on in vitro Micrografting of Mature Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Kinokuni’ (Tanaka) H. H. Hu

    丁明华; 吉枝单; 涂艺声

    2014-01-01

    为探索适合成年态南丰蜜橘[Citrus reticulata Blanco‘kinokuni’(Tanaka) H. H. Hu]的快速繁殖技术,对其试管茎尖微嫁接育苗进行研究。结果表明,最好的砧木是苦柚种子苗,以腹接方式的成活率最高。嫁接苗接种在MS+GA31 mg L-1+蔗糖75 g L-1的培养基中,暗培养7 d后转入光周期下培养,嫁接成活率达67.78%。不同移栽基质对嫁接苗的成活率影响不显著。嫁接苗与成年态南丰蜜橘再生芽在形态和POD、CAT及SOD同工酶分子表达上均无明显差异。这表明通过试管茎尖微嫁接技术可保持其遗传稳定性。%In order to exploe the rapid propagation of mature Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Kinokuni’ (Tanaka) H. H. Hu, the breeding technology by in vitro micrografting was studied. The results showed that the most suitable rootstock was bitter pomelo [C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. ‘Maxima’] seedling and the side grafting method had the highest survival. The micrografting seedlings cultured in MS medium with 1 mg L-1 GA3 and 75 g L-1 sugar were at ifrst grown in dark for 7 days, then transferred to light with 10 h d-1, which survival cultured after 25 days reached 67.78%. The transplanting substrate had not signiifcant inlfuence on survival of grafting seedlings. Furthermore, there were no obvious differences between grafting seedlings and adventitious buds in morphology, as well as the isozyme expression of POD, CAT and SOD. It was suggested that the in vitro micografting technique could keep the genetic stability of grafted seedlings.

  5. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba

    Camile Giaretta Sachetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity and the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage. No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as

  6. Analyses of the sediment toxicity of Monjolinho River, São Carlos, São Paulo State, Brazil, using survey, growth and gill morphology of two fish species (Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Aline Fernanda Campagna

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the sediments of the Monjolinho River (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brazil, through partial chronic toxicity bioassays with juveniles of D. rerio and P. reticulata. Histological analyses of the gills and biometric measurements were conducted to detect the possible deleterious effects that caused the death. In all points the sampled the alterations were found in the gills (hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellas and dilation of blood vessels, with the most intense lesions (second stage occurring at the point two. The biometric analysis pointed to inadequate conditions for the growth of the test-organisms when exposed to the sediment samples. These results showed that the conditions of these environments were not suitable for the survival and growth of these fishes.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade dos sedimentos do rio Monjolinho (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brasil, por meio de bioensaios de toxicidade crônicos parciais com juvenis de D. rerio e P. reticulata. Foram realizadas análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos para detectar possíveis efeitos deletérios que antecedam a mortalidade. Em todos os pontos amostrados, foram verificadas alterações nas brânquias (hiperplasia, fusão de lamelas secundárias e dilatação de vasos sanguíneos, sendo no ponto dois foram encontradas lesões mais acentuadas (segundo estágio. A análise biométrica dos indivíduos expostos em amostras de sedimento demonstrou condições inadequadas para o crescimento e desenvolvimentos dos organismos-teste em todo o ambiente estudado. Os sedimentos apresentaram maior toxicidade no período chuvoso, sendo estes resultados confirmados por meio das análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos expostos, as quais demonstraram lesões mais acentuadas no mesmo período. Tal situação possivelmente decorre dos impactos antrópicos os quais o sistema está suscet

  7. Manufacturing Plants

    2010-01-01

    China starts to produce vegetables and fruits in a factory sunshine,air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axiomatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory,scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent,such as deserts, islands,water surfaces,South and North poles and space,as well as in human habitats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  8. Manufacturing Plants

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sunshine, air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axi-omatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory, scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent, such as deserts,islands, water surfaces, South and North poles and space, as well as in human habi-tats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  9. Aquatic plants

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  10. Medicinal Plants.

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  11. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs.

  12. Autoluminescent plants.

    Alexander Krichevsky

    Full Text Available Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  13. Plant volatiles.

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  14. Inhibitory Activities and Application of Four Plant Essential Oils%4种植物精油的抑菌活性及应用

    邓业成; 宁蕾

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory activities of four plant essential oils against eleven animal pathogenic bacteria and environmental mould were determined using broth dilution method and gaseous fumigation. The results showed that The MICs of oils from Litsea mollis , Citrus reticulata, Erigeron acer and Ageratum cony-zoides to the tested animal pathogenic bacteria were 0. 062 5Z~0. 5,0. 125~1 >2~4 and 0- 062 5~0. 125 mL/L,respectively. The inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis,C. reticulata and E. acer were high, and that of A. coNryzoides oil was relatively low. At a dose of 16 μ.L per utensil,the four plant essential oils had inhibition against environmental mould,and the inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis and C. reticulata were higher than that of another two oils. The oils of L, mollis and C. reticulata also had inhibitory effect on mould growth of bread at 27 °C and RH 80%. By studying the formulation of mouth-wash of plant essential oil,the optimum proportion of all components in the mouthwash was confirmed, and the mouthwash of L. mollis essential oil prepared. The removing rate of mouth bacteria by the new mouthwash reached 39. 96% , which was similar to the removing rate by commercial mouthwash and met the demand of industrial product. The principal compounds of four plant essential oils were also identified using GC/MS technique.%采用液体培养基稀释法测定4种植物精油对11种动物病原细菌的最低抑制浓度(MIC),山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油、飞蓬精油和胜红蓟精油的MIC分别为0.062 5~0.5、0.125~1、2~4和0.062 5~0.125mL/L;山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油和胜红蓟精油对供试病原细菌的抑菌活性好,飞蓬精油的抑菌活性相对较差.采用气态熏蒸法测定4种植物精油对环境常见霉菌的抑菌效果,当精油剂量为16μL/皿时,4种植物精油对环境霉菌有抑制作用,山苍子精油和南丰蜜橘精油的抑制效果较好(此2种精油在27℃下对面包霉变

  15. 孔雀鱼、月光鱼耐温限度的初步研究%The Preliminary Study on Temperature Resistance of Poecilia reticulata and Xiphophorus maculates

    杨淞; 韦其锋; 严太明; 曾林; 吴雨函

    2009-01-01

    对孔雀鱼(Poecilia reticulata)和月光鱼(Xiphophorus maculates)的温度耐受限度进行了实验研究.结果表明,孔雀鱼和月光鱼存活温度范围分别是14~36 ℃和12~34 ℃,属热带鱼.温度渐变时雌、雄孔雀鱼和月光鱼的高温半致死温度分别为38.83 ℃(♀)、37.08 ℃(♂)和36.4 ℃;低温半致死温度为12.69 ℃(♀)、13.17 ℃(♂)和8.16 ℃.在温度骤升至35 ℃时,96 h后雌孔雀鱼死亡率为70%,雄孔雀鱼已经全部死亡,而月光鱼的死亡率仅为15%;温度骤降至15 ℃时,96 h后月光鱼无死亡,而雌雄孔雀鱼全部死亡.月光鱼低温耐受性较雌雄孔雀鱼好(P<0.05).两种热带鱼对热、冷冲击的适应能力均较差.

  16. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  17. Plant Behavior

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  18. Plant minichromosomes.

    Birchler, James A; Graham, Nathaniel D; Swyers, Nathan C; Cody, Jon P; McCaw, Morgan E

    2016-02-01

    Plant minichromosomes have the potential for stacking multiple traits on a separate entity from the remainder of the genome. Transgenes carried on an independent chromosome would facilitate conferring many new properties to plants and using minichromosomes as genetic tools. The favored method for producing plant minichromosomes is telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation because the epigenetic nature of centromere function prevents using centromere sequences to confer the ability to organize a kinetochore when reintroduced into plant cells. Because haploid induction procedures are not always complete in eliminating one parental genome, chromosomes from the inducer lines are often present in plants that are otherwise haploid. This fact suggests that minichromosomes could be combined with doubled haploid breeding to transfer stacked traits more easily to multiple lines and to use minichromosomes for massive scale genome editing.

  19. 一种中国南海枝网刺柳珊瑚次级代谢产物研究%Secondary Metabolites of Echinogorgia sassapo reticulata (Esper) from the South China Sea

    赵杰; 侯改芳; 李秀保; 邵长伦; 刘洋; 管华诗; 魏玉西; 王长云

    2011-01-01

    The secondary metabolites of gorgonian Echinogorgia sassapo reticulata (Esper) were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS, and HPLC.Thirteen compounds were isolated from the EtOAc portion of extracts, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis as well as comparing with the data of literatures as..uridine (1), 2'-deoxythymidine (2), 2'-deoxyuridine (3), uracil (4), batyl alcohol (5), 1-O-eicosanylglycerol (6), 11,13-dihydro-7,11-dehydro-3desoxy-zaluzalanin C (7), dibutyl phthalate (8), butyl 2-methylbutyl phthalate (9), (22E)-5α-cholest-22ene-3α,5α,6β-triol (10), (22E, 24S)-24-methyl-5α-cholesta-7,22-diene-3β, 5α, 6β, 9-tetraol (11), (24S)methylene cholestane-3β,5α,6β,18-tetrol (12), cholesterol (13), respectively.Most of them except compounds 3 and 13 were obtained from this genus for the first time.Compound 9 was isolated firstly as a pure natural product, and 12 was obtained from gorgonian for the first time.Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their lethal activity toward the brine shrimp Artemia salina and toxicity toward embryo of zebrafish Danio rerio.%利用硅胶、凝胶 Sephadex LH-20、反相硅胶ODS柱色谱和HPLC等手段对一种中国南海枝网刺柳珊瑚Echinogorgia sassapo reticulata(Esper)的次级代谢产物进行了研究.从提取物的乙酸乙酯相中分离获得13个单体化合物,运用现代波谱技术并结合文献数据,鉴定其结构分别为:尿嘧啶核糖核苷(1),2'-脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(2),2'-脱氧胸腺嘧啶核苷(3),尿嘧啶(4),鲨肝醇(5),1-O-eicosanylglycerol(6),11,13-dihydro-7,11-dehydro-3-desoxy-zaluzalanin C(7),邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(8),邻苯二甲酸1-(2-甲基-丁基)酯-2-丁酯(9),(22E)-5α-cholest-22-eRe-3α,5α6β-triol(10),(22E,24S)-24-methyl-5α-cholesta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β,9-tetraol(11),(24S)-methylene cholestane-3β,5α,6β,18-tetrol(12),胆甾醇(13).除了化合物3和13外,其他化合物均为首次从该属柳珊瑚

  20. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  1. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Jon Christian Svendsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata, both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: 1 gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e. burst-assisted swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 2 variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit correlates with metabolic scope (MS or anaerobic capacity (i.e. maximum EPOC; 3 there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus and minimum cost of transport (COTmin; and 4 variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e. the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance travelled. Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e. EPOC increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg-1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis, a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum

  2. OBSERVATION OF GUPPY (POECITIA RETICULATA) EMBRYONIC CARDIOVASCULAR DEVELOPING IN VIVO AND IN VITRO%孔雀鱼胚胎心血管发育的显微观察

    张奇亚; 李正秋; 桂建芳

    2002-01-01

    心血管系统的组织分化研究是近年热点课题之一[1]。胚体透明且发育速度快的鱼类胚胎由于具备便于观察的特性[2],正广泛用于脊椎动物造血系统的发生、血细胞生成、及血循环系统分化时序、调控因子等研究[3-5]。孔雀鱼(Poecilia reticulata Peters)是卵胎生(Ovoviviparity)鱼类的代表种,其卵子在雌鱼的泄殖腔内受精发育,长成鱼后再出生;同时孔雀鱼又是一种小型观赏鱼类,在实验室易于饲养,能不断提供实验用卵和胚胎。因此,在本实验室长期进行鱼类组织细胞培养的基础上[6-11],制备孔雀鱼胚胎组织标本,并对早期胚胎及心血管系统进行了体外培养,观察和比较了孔雀鱼胚胎心血管系统在体内、外的形成过程。

  3. Histology of female reproductive system and oogenesis process of guppy (Poecilia reticulata)%孔雀鱼雌性生殖器官组织结构及卵子发生的研究

    王晓艳; 王莎莎; 赵玉超; 刘永; 孙帆; 郭恩棉

    2014-01-01

    应用光镜技术研究了孔雀鱼(Poecilia reticulata)雌性生殖器官组织结构和卵子发生的特点,以期为孔雀鱼的良种繁育工作提供基础资料.结果表明,孔雀鱼雌性生殖器官由卵巢、卵子输送管和泄殖孔构成.卵子发生过程经历了6个时相:第Ⅰ时相主要为卵原细胞;第Ⅱ时相是处于小生长期的初级卵母细胞,形成生长环、卵黄核和单层扁平滤泡细胞膜;第Ⅲ时相是进入大生长期的初级卵母细胞,卵黄开始积累,形成2层滤泡细胞膜和2层卵包膜;第Ⅳ时相为发育晚期的初级卵母细胞,细胞发生了极化,卵包膜发育完善;第Ⅴ时相发育成熟,卵黄颗粒凝结呈块状,卵黄泡主要分布于细胞膜内缘,滤泡细胞膜萎缩;第Ⅵ时相是闭锁卵泡,被滤泡细胞消化和吸收转变为卵巢内结缔组织.

  4. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    Ward Pam R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  5. 多氯联苯对孔雀鱼卵黄蛋白原的诱导及检测%Induction and Determination of Vitellogenin in Male Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)after Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    詹翠琼; 黄絮洁; 方展强; 马广智; 姚静

    2007-01-01

    为探讨利用孔雀鱼(Poecilia reticulata)卵黄蛋白原(Vitellogenin,Vtg)作为生物标志物检测环境雌激素的可行性,采用浸浴法分别使用17β-雌二醇(E2)和多氯联苯(PCBs)对雄性孔雀鱼成鱼进行染毒,30d后测定其性腺系数(GSI)和肝指数(LSI),并将鱼体整体匀浆进行常规聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(Native-PAGE)及磷、脂和糖蛋白特异染色分析.结果表明,PCBs对雄性孔雀鱼具有雌激素效应,和E2均可以诱导雄性孔雀鱼体内产生Vtg,但诱导组雄鱼GSI及LSI与对照组比较均无显著性差异(p>0.05).Native-PAGE及磷、脂、糖蛋白特异性分析表明,孔雀鱼Vtg是一种富含磷、脂、糖的蛋白,具有Vtg Ⅰ、Vtg Ⅱ和Vtg Ⅲ等3种形式,其分子量分别为642kDa、541kDa和441kDa.雄性孔雀鱼Vtg可作为环境雌激素监测的有效生物标记物.

  6. 体质量对雌雄孔雀鱼静止代谢率的影响%Effect of Body Mass on the Resting Metabolic Rate of Male and Female Guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    段婷; 李永利; 李格; 谢航; 罗毅平

    2016-01-01

    在25℃下测定了60尾雌雄各半、不同大小的孔雀鱼(Poecilia reticulata)的静止代谢率(Resting metabolic rate).结果表明:雄性孔雀鱼(体质量范围为0.16~1.15 g)静止代谢率范围为0.03~0.37 mg·h-1;雌性孔雀鱼(体质量范围为0.16~2.13 g)静止代谢率的范围为0.03~0.44 mg.h-1.协方差分析表明,孔雀鱼体质量对静止代谢率有显著影响(p<0.05),性别对静止代谢率的影响不显著,性别和体质量对静止代谢率的影响无交互作用.孔雀鱼的个体静止代谢率(A)与体质量(M)的关系可表示为:ln A=0.8581n M-0.643(r2=0.726,n=60,p<0.05).结果提示,尽管孔雀鱼发育非常迅速,但代谢尺度指数仍在文献报道范围内,体质量与代谢率的关系并无特殊性;孔雀鱼的特定体质量静止代谢率高于文献报道的其他鱼类,这可能与该鱼世代周期短、进化速度快有关.

  7. SODIUM FLUORIDE ALTERATION OF PROTEIN CONTENT VIS-À-VIS ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERN OF MUSCLE ESTERASES (E.C.3.1.1.1 IN POECILIA RETICULATA PETERS ON CHRONIC EXPOSURE

    HITESH U. SHINGADIA AND **E.R. AGHARIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A progressive reduction in protein content observed in the muscle of fish in present study was both as a function of time as well as increase in the concentration of fluoride. During chronic exposure to sodium fluoride, the banding pattern of esterase diminished in the treated group of fish viz.  lowest (5.75 ppm, lower intermediate (7.18 ppm, higher intermediate (9.58 ppm and highest (14.37 ppm concentration of the 24 hrs. LC50 (115 ppm value when compared with the control group. SDS-PAGE and staining of the gel revealed that esterase in muscle of fish from control group resolved into six bands (lane-1. Exposure of fluoride to all the four concentrations showed significantly faint and diffused banding pattern of esterases and complete loss of esterase band-1 (Lane 2-5, probably due to chronic stress induced by fluoride. The esterase from band-1 might be sensitive to fluoride intoxication, thus completely vanished during chronic treatment. However in the higher intermediate (9.58 ppm and highest (14.37 ppm sodium fluoride treatment groups, sixth band of esterase (lane 4-5 was found to be very faintly visible on staining. Decrement in protein content & diminution of certain esterase bands in the muscle tissue of the treated group suggest soft tissue (non-skeletal fluorosis induced by sodium fluoride during chronic exposure period, probably could be due to inhibition of biosynthetic mechanism of proteins vis-à-vis esterases. The study of esterase in fish calls attention to sensitive indicator of the environmental pollutants and can be used as contrivance in study of environmental dilapidations. KEY WORDS: Protein, Esterase isozymes, Electrophoresis, Sodium fluoride, Poecilia reticulata.

  8. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  9. Seed planting

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  10. T Plant

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  11. Plant Macrofossils

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  12. Early Performance of Duong Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco on Three Rootstock under Acid Sulfate Soil Fields at Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Khoe Thi Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 1.6 billion hectare area of acid sulfate soils is at Mekong Delta of Vietnam, and Duong mandarin fruits are valued for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties; thereby, the investigation on early performance of Duong mandarin on three rootstock under acid sulfate soil fields (pH below 4 at Mekong Delta of Vietnam was undertaken from 2009 to 2012 for determination of the most promising scion stock combination of Duong mandarin, which introduced to growers for expanding citrus production to increase in income of farmers, and helping to use the sustainable and efficient land resource at acid sulfate soil region of Mekong Delta. Primary results showed that Duong mandarin grafted on Mat orange, Tau lemon and Carrizo citrange were significant differenence in vegetative parameters, fruit yield and quality. It proved that Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were better growth and development on acid sulfate soil fields with below 4 pH in soil and water suspension of 1:2.5 ratio as compared to those grafted on Mat orange and Carrizo citrange rootstocks; whereby, that induced trees with 171.48 cm height, 6.65 m3 canopy volume and 51.84 mm trunk diameter, 1.08 scion/ stock ratio in third year after growing. Moreover, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were with spreading growth performance. In regarding to fruit yield and quality, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon produced highest fruit yield of 9.21 kg per tree per year in third year after planting, and fruit with 115.30g weight, 8.85 brix juice, thinner and somewhat easy peel rind. 

  13. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  14. Flavonoides extraídos de la cascara de naranja tangelo (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi y su aplicación como antioxidante natural en el aceite vegetal sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis

    Matilde Tenorio Domínguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener extractos de flavonoides de la cáscara de naranja tangelo (Citrus reticulata x Citrus paradisi y aplicarlos como, antioxidante natural en el aceite vegetal Sacha inchi(Plukenetia volubilis.La información se obtuvo de las pruebas experimentales, que se realizó en siete etapas: caracterización física y química de la naranja tangelo y delaceite vegetal sacha inchi, obtención de los extractos de flavonoides por soxhlet , detección de los flavonoides de cada extracto por cromatografía de capa fina y cromatografía de papel, identificación y cuantificación de los flavonoides por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC, determinación de la capacidad antioxidante de cada extracto de flavonoide y finalmente se evaluó la actividad antioxidante en el aceite sacha inchi, del extracto que tuvo la mayor capacidad antioxidante, para lo cual se utilizó un diseño multifactorial con dos factores : extractos de flavonoides y concentración con tres niveles: 0,05%; 0,1% y 0,15% y 16 bloques que son los tiempos. Los resultados mostraron que en el extracto acuoso se encontró la mayor cantidad de flavonoides: 100,3724 mg/g, siendo la naringina con 81,1727 mg/g el flavonoide que se encontró en mayor proporción. A la concentración del 0,1% el extracto de flavonoide presentó el menor índice de peróxido a las 384 horas. Se concluye quelos flavonoides presentes en la cascara de naranja tangelo pueden ser utilizados como extractos crudos sin necesidad de purificaciones parciales o totales, para conseguir aumentar la vida útil del aceite sacha inchi.

  15. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes

    Taylor John S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Results Juvenile and adult (male and female guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for >85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR. Conclusions Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we

  16. Screening for estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of plants growing in Egypt and Thailand

    Ali M El-Halawany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing demand for the discovery of new phytoestrogens to be used as a safe and effective hormonal replacement therapy. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of 40 plants from the Egyptian and Thailand folk medicines were screened for their estrogen agonist and antagonist activities. The estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects of the tested extracts were carried out using the yeast two-hybrid assay system expressing ERα and ERβ. In addition, all the extracts were subjected to a naringinase treatment and retested for their estrogenic activity. Results: The methanol extracts of Derris reticulata and Dracaena lourieri showed the most potent estrogenic activity on both estrogen-receptor subtypes, while, the methanol extracts of Butea monosperma, Erythrina fusca, and Dalbergia candenatensis revealed significant estrogenic activity on ERβ only. Nigella sativa, Sophora japonica, Artabotrys harmandii, and Clitorea hanceana showed estrogenic effect only after naringinase treatment. The most potent antiestrogenic effect was revealed by Aframomum melegueta, Dalbergia candenatensis, Dracena loureiri, and Mansonia gagei.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Salacia oblonga against aluminum chloride induced visceral toxicity in albino rats

    S. Nathiya

    2014-04-01

    Result: The results showed that S. oblonga produced significant (pS. oblonga protects against aluminuminduced oxidative stress, which is an important finding that further reinforces the antioxidant properties of this natural product. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 315-319

  18. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  19. Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco by irrigation and paclobutrazol application

    Carlos Henrique dos Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas.The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. The treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 plants, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0

  20. 木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究进展%Research progress of yellow leaf disease of woody plant

    徐万泰; 郭伟红; 秦飞; 马占元; 周素侠

    2011-01-01

    The iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant in our country have covered Ginkgo biloba,Malus pumila,Pyrus bretschneideri,Prunus persica,Vitis vinifera.,Prunus armeniaca,Prunus salicina,Citrus reticulata,Actinidia chinensis,Cinnamomum camphora),Magnolia denudate,Gardenia jasminoides,Areca catechu,Populus tomentosa,Ziziphus jujube,Morus alba and so on.The research on yellow leaf disease of woody plant is mainly concentrated on the performance symptoms,the pathogenesis,controlling techniques and so on.This article reviewed the main achievements of researches on iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant,and the forecast the research prospect.%我国木本植物缺铁性黄化病的研究主要集中于银杏、苹果、梨、桃、葡萄、杏、李、桔、猕猴桃、香樟、白玉兰、栀子、槟榔、毛白杨、枣树、桑树等,研究内容包括表现症状、发病机理、防治技术等。该文综述了木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究的主要成果,并对研究前景进行了展望。

  1. Stress tolerant plants

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  2. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  3. Preventive effects of Citrus reticulata essential oil on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the mechanism%陈皮挥发油对大鼠肺纤维化的干预作用

    周贤梅; 赵阳; 何翠翠; 李建新

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究陈皮挥发油(essential oil extracted from Citrus reticulata,EOCR)对人胚肺成纤维细胞(human embryonic lung fibroblast,HELF)增殖的影响,以及对博莱霉素诱导的大鼠肺纤维化模型的干预作用,并探讨其作用机制.方法:将HELF传代培养,待细胞进入对数生长期后进行实验,采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法测定不同浓度陈皮挥发油对HELF增殖的影响.大鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、强的松组、陈皮挥发油25 mg(EOCR-25)组、陈皮挥发油50 mg(EOCR-50)组、陈皮挥发油100 mg(EOCR-100)组和陈皮挥发油200 mg(EOCR-200)组.除正常组外,其余各组气管内注入博来霉素建立大鼠肺纤维化模型.建模后除正常组、模型组两组大鼠外,其余各组大鼠分别给予相应药物灌胃.各组大鼠于实验第28天处死并留取血清和肺组织.分光光度法测定血清和肺组织超氧化物岐化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)及丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量;双抗夹心酶联免疫吸附法测定肺组织Ⅰ型胶原蛋白(type Ⅰ collagen,ColⅠ)含量;根据积分量表对肺组织病理学变化进行半定量分析;免疫组织化学和原位杂交法检测肺组织中结缔组织生长因子( connective tissue growth factor,CTGF)蛋白及mRNA表达,并进行图像半定量分析.结果:不同浓度EOCR均可抑制HELF的增殖.建模后第7、14、21、28天时,EOCR-50、EOCR-100和EOCR-200组大鼠体质量增幅较模型组显著增加(P<0.05或P<0.01);EOCR-100和EOCR-200组肺泡炎、肺纤维化积分显著低于模型组(P<0.01);EOCR-50、EOCR-100和EOCR-200组血清及肺组织SOD活性显著高于模型组(P<0.01);EOCR-50、EOCR-100和EOCR-200组血清及肺组织MDA含量显著低于模型组(P<0.05);EOCR-100和EOCR-200组肺组织Col Ⅰ含量显著低于模型组(P<0.01),肺组织CTGF 蛋白及mRNA表达量显著低于模型组(P<0.01).结论:陈皮挥发油对博莱霉素诱导所致大鼠肺纤

  4. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications.

  5. Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae: ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba = Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae: occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivando pesquisar a ocorrência de moscasfrugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830. O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E. de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Osíndices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E. de N. zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba.The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerinetrees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830. The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did

  6. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  7. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  8. Kansas Power Plants

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  9. Ethylene insensitive plants

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  10. Plant Growth Regulators.

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  11. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  12. HPLC Determination of Naringin, Hesperidin and Neohesperidin in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium and Aurantii Fructus Extract%HPLC测定陈皮-枳壳药对提取物中柚皮苷、橙皮苷和新橙皮苷的含量

    郭琦丽; 吕武清; 曾莉萍; 李才堂

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立陈皮-枳壳药对提取物中柚皮苷、橙皮苷和新橙皮苷的含量测定方法.方法:采用HPLC,Agilent Hypersill C18(4.0 mm×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈-0.1%磷酸(24∶ 76)为流动相,流速1 mL· min-1,检测波长283 nm,柱温40℃.结果:柚皮苷、橙皮苷和新橙皮分别在6.05 ~60.5,4.34 ~ 43.4,7.14 ~71.40 mg·L-1线性关系良好(r均>0.999 5);加样回收率分别为98.65%,98.66%,100.78%,其RSD分别为2.01%,1.52%,2.11%;重复性RSD分别为2.41%,1.56%,2.52%(n=6).结论:该方法简便可行,重复性好,结果准确可靠,可用于陈皮-枳壳药对提取物中柚皮苷、橙皮苷和新橙皮苷的含量测定.%Objective: To develop a method to determine naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium and Aurantii Fructus. Method; HPLC was used to determine directly naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium and Aurantii Fructus. Phenomsil C18 (4. 0 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) as the chromatographic column, and acetonitrile-10% aqueous phosphoric acid (24:76) as the mobile phase, the flow rate of 1.0 mL -min , the column temperature was at 40 °C. Result; The linearity of verbascoside was good in the range of 6. 05-60. 5 , 4. 3443. 4 and 7. 14-71. 40 mg - L-1 ( r > 0. 999 5 ) . The recovery of the added sample was 98. 65% , 98. 66% and 100. 78% with RSD of 2. 01% , 1. 52% and 2. 11% . Conclusion.- The method is simple, accurate and can be used for the determination of naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin in Tangerine peel and Aurantii Fructus extract.

  13. JSTOR Plant Science

    2010-01-01

    JSTOR Plant Science is an online environment that brings together content, tools, and people interested in plant science. It provides access to foundational content vital to plant science – plant type specimens, taxonomic structures, scientific literature, and related materials, making them widely accessible to the plant science community as well as to researchers in other fields and to the public. It also provides an easy to use interface with powerful functionality that su...

  14. Plant Research '75

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  15. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  16. Pathogen Phytosensing: Plants to Report Plant Pathogens

    C. Neal Stewart

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different

  17. Obtención de un patrón cromático digital para ser utilizado en la mejora genética por selección masal de la variedad Half Black-Blue o Diamante del pez ornamental Guppy (Poecilia reticulata; Peters, 1859

    Carlos Scotto Espinoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo determina un patrón digitalizado computarizado basado en la cantidad de píxeles. S e encontró ocho tonos de color azul característico tanto en el cuerpo como en la aleta dorsal para ser utilizado en el potencial mejoramiento genético por selección masal del patrón cromático de la variedad comercial Half Black - Blue o Diamante del pez orna mental Guppy ( Poecilia reticulata . De diez parejas de padrillos escogidos con un promedio de ochenta crías F1 por cada pareja (Total = 734 , s e seleccion aron al azar los doce animales machos más atractivos por su belleza cromática subjetiva, dividido en d os grupos, uno de color azul y otro de color celeste para encontrar un patrón digital cromático matemático por el número de píxeles.

  18. Postharvest BTH Treatment Induces Resistance of Mandrin(Citrus reticulata Blancdo'Shiyueju')Fruit to Penicillium digitatum%苯并噻二唑处理提高采后沙糖橘对指状青霉菌的抗性

    汪跃华; 徐兰英; 庞学群; 黄雪梅; 张昭其

    2010-01-01

    对沙糖橘(Citrus reticulata Blancdo'Shiyueju')果实进行苯并噻二唑(S-methyl benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate,BTH)渗透处理后接种指状青霉菌孢子,12 h后即可明显诱导果皮中抗病相关蛋白CR-CT1和CR-BG3基因表达并在贮藏期间维持较高水平;不同浓度BTH处理果实的发病率和病斑面积均比对照低,其中以0.025 g·L-1BTH处理的效果最好;BTH处理提高了果皮几丁质酶(CT)、β-1,3-葡聚糖酶(GUN)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性和H2O2含量,表明BTH诱导的沙糖橘果实抗病性与果实CR-CT1和CR-BG3基因的表达增强,CT、GUN、PAL、PPO和POD等相关酶活性和H2O2含量提高密切相关.

  19. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  20. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  1. Plant growth and cultivation.

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  2. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  3. Classification of cultivated plants.

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  4. Plant proton pumps

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react to their co......Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  5. Fundaments of plant cybernetics.

    Zucconi, F

    2001-01-01

    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  6. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  7. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  8. Designing with plants

    Smits, R.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Rainforests are the lungs of the earth and plants can be the lungs of a buildings. Every plant uses CO2, water and light to produce sugars and oxygen; furthermore plants provide shade, take pollutants from th

  9. Plants of the Bayshore.

    Bachle, Leo; And Others

    This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…

  10. Plant Diseases & Chemicals

    Thompson, Sherm

    2008-01-01

    This course discusses the use of chemicals for plant disease control. Specifically, pesticides that can be used both in commercial or home/yard sitautions. This course also teaches how to determine plant diseases that may have caused a plant to die.

  11. Iron stress in plants.

    Connolly, Erin L; Guerinot, Mary

    2002-07-30

    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches

  12. Iron stress in plants

    Connolly, Erin L.; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches.

  13. Recognizing plant defense priming

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  14. Multinationals and plant survival

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  15. Plant Physiology and Development

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...

  16. Parasitóides de lepidópteros minadores presentes em plantas de crescimento espontâneo em pomar orgânicos de citrus montenegro - RS Parasitoids of leafmining lepidoptera in spontaneous growth plants in an organic citrus orchard in montenegro, RS, Brazil

    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar se Phyllocnistis citrella ataca plantas de crescimento espontâneo, presentes em pomar de citros orgânicos, identificar nestas plantas outros lepidópteros minadores e seus parasitóides, e verificar se estes parasitóides são os mesmos relatados para P. citrella. O trabalho foi conduzido no município de Montenegro-RS, em um pomar orgânico do híbrido 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata. Realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais, de maio de 2003 a maio de 2004, coletando-se, em cada ocasião, todas as folhas com minas contidas na área delimitada por um aro de 0,28 m², que era jogado nas linhas e nas entrelinhas de 30 árvores sorteadas. O material coletado foi levado ao laboratório para triagem. Durante o estudo, foram registradas 11 espécies de lepidópteros minadores e 12 espécies de microimenópteros parasitóides. Alguns gêneros identificados neste estudo já haviam sido relatados em várias regiões do mundo com espécies parasitando P. citrella, tais como Chrysocharis, Closterocerus, Sympiesis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae e Bracon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.This work aimed to check if Phyllocnistis citrella attacks spontaneous growth plants present in an organic citrus orchard, to identify in these plants other leafmining Lepidoptera and its parasitoids, and to verify if the parasitoids species are the same ones reported for P. citrella. The work was conducted in Montenegro, RS, in an organic orchard of the hybrid 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata. Samplings were taken every other week, from May 2003 to May 2004, with a ring of 0.28 m² being randomly thrown in the lines and interlines of 30 trees. All the plants with mines inside of the ring were collected. The screening of the material was made in laboratory. Eleven species of leafmining Lepidoptera and 12 species of microhymenopteran parasitoids were found. Some genera identified that this study had been already reported in

  17. Toxic proteins in plants.

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed.

  18. Pharming and transgenic plants.

    Liénard, David; Sourrouille, Christophe; Gomord, Véronique; Faye, Loïc

    2007-01-01

    Plant represented the essence of pharmacopoeia until the beginning of the 19th century when plant-derived pharmaceuticals were partly supplanted by drugs produced by the industrial methods of chemical synthesis. In the last decades, genetic engineering has offered an alternative to chemical synthesis, using bacteria, yeasts and animal cells as factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. More recently, molecular farming has rapidly pushed towards plants among the major players in recombinant protein production systems. Indeed, therapeutic protein production is safe and extremely cost-effective in plants. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out post-translational modifications and, unlike production systems based on mammalian cell cultures, plants are devoid of human infective viruses and prions. Furthermore, a large panel of strategies and new plant expression systems are currently developed to improve the plant-made pharmaceutical's yields and quality. Recent advances in the control of post-translational maturations in transgenic plants will allow them, in the near future, to perform human-like maturations on recombinant proteins and, hence, make plant expression systems suitable alternatives to animal cell factories.

  19. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  20. Risk-taking plants

    Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant’s ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed. PMID:22751307

  1. Conditional sterility in plants

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  2. Plant synthetic biology.

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  3. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants

    Patrycja Redkiewicz; Anna Góra-Sochacka; Tomas Vaněk; Agnieszka Sirko

    2011-01-01

    Plant-based platforms have been successfully applied for the last two decades for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins. The number of commercialized products biomanufactured in plants is, however, rather discouraging. Cytokines are small glycosylated polypeptides used in the treatment of cancer, immune disorders and various other related diseases. Because the clinical use of cytokines is limited by high production costs they are good candidates for plant-made pharmaceuticals. S...

  4. Larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Plumeria rubra plant latex against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Borase, Hemant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2012-05-01

    In the present study activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Plumeria rubra plant latex against second and fourth larval instar of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNps (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 0.3125 ppm) and aqueous crude latex (1,000, 500, 250, 125, 62.50, 31.25 ppm) were tested against larvae of A. aegypti and A. Stephensi. The synthesized AgNps from P. rubra latex were highly toxic than crude latex extract in both mosquito species. The LC(50) values for second and fourth larval instars after 24 h of crude latex exposure were 1.49, 1.82 ppm against A. aegypti and 1.10, 1.74 ppm against A. stephensi respectively. These figures were 181.67, 287.49 ppm against A. aegypti and 143.69, 170.58 ppm against A. stephensi respectively for crude latex extract. The mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentration of AgNPs. The characterization studies of synthesized AgNPs by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Particle size analysis (PSA) and zeta potential confirmed the spherical shape and size (32-200 nm) of silver nanoparticles along with stability. Toxicity studies carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of A. aegypti and A. stephensi showed no toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the AgNPs. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of latex synthesized nanoparticles.

  5. The Kuroshio power plant

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  6. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  7. Plant intelligence and attention.

    Marder, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies.

  8. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  9. Plant Transporter Identification

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  10. Oil from plants

    Calvin, M.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the exhaustion of our supplies of ancient photosynthesis (oil and gas) it is necessary to develop renewable fuels for the future. The most immediate source of renewable fuel is, of course, the annually growing green plants, some of which produce hydrocarbon(s) directly. New plant sources can be selected for this purpose, plants which have high potential for production of chemicals and liquid fuels. Suggestions are made for modification of both the product character and the productivity of the plants. Ultimately, a totally synthetic device will be developed for the conversion of solar quanta into useful chemical form completely independent of the need for arable land.

  11. Phyllotactic Patterns on Plants

    Shipman, Patrick D.; Newell, Alan C.

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate how phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on plants) and the deformation configurations seen on plant surfaces may be understood as the energy-minimizing buckling pattern of a compressed shell (the plant's tunica) on an elastic foundation. The key new idea is that the strain energy is minimized by configurations consisting of special triads of almost periodic deformations. We reproduce a wide spectrum of plant patterns, all with the divergence angles observed in nature, and show how the occurrences of Fibonacci-like sequences and the golden angle are natural consequences.

  12. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  13. Plant biotic interactions

    2016-01-01

    occurring after infestation by olive fly larvae. The last research article by Niu et al.(2016) describes a growth-promoting rhizobacterium that primes induced systemic resistance by suppressing a host R gene-targeting micro RNA pairs and activating host immune responses. This finding further supports the important roles of plant endogenous small RNAs in plant-pathogen interactions. Hailing Jin, Professor Special Issue Editor UC President’s Chair Director of Genetics, Genomics and Bioinformatics Graduate Program, Center for Plant Cell Biology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, USA doi:10.1111/jipb.12476 ©2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences REFERENCES Alagna F, Kal enbach M, Pompa A, De Marchis F, Rao R, Baldwin IT, Bonaventure G, Baldoni L (2016) Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles. J Integr Plant Biol 58:413–425 Castiblanco LF, Sundin GW (2016) New insights on molecular regulation of biofilm formation in plant-associated bacteria. J Integr Plant Biol 58:362–372 da GraSca JV, Douhan GW, Halbert SE, Keremane ML, Lee RF, Vidalakis G, Zhao H (2016) Huanglongbing: An overview of a complex pathosystem ravaging the world’s citrus. J Integr Plant Biol 58:373–387 Giovino A, Martinel i F, Saia S (2016) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus attack affects a group of compounds rather than rearranging Phoenix canariensis metabolic pathways. J Integr Plant Biol 58:388–396 Huang J, Yang M, Zhang X (2016) The function of smal RNAs in plant biotic stress response. J Integr Plant Biol 58:312–327 Kaloshian I, Wal ing LL (2016) Hemipteran and dipteran pests: Effectors and plant host immune regulators. J Integr Plant Biol 58:350–361 Mermigka G, Verret F, Kalantidis K (2016) RNA silencing movement in plants. J Integr Plant Biol 58:328–342 Niu D, Xia J, Jiang C, Qi B, Ling X, Lin S, Zhang W, Guo J, Jin H, Zhao H (2016) Bacil us cereus AR156

  14. Dissociation between the panicolytic effect of cannabidiol microinjected into the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, and fear-induced antinociception elicited by bicuculline administration in deep layers of the superior colliculus: The role of CB1-cannabinoid receptor in the ventral mesencephalon.

    da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Cecílio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2015-07-05

    Many studies suggest that the substantia nigra, pars reticulata (SNpr), a tegmental mesencephalic structure rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and cannabinoid receptor-containing neurons, is involved in the complex control of defensive responses through the neostriatum-nigral disinhibitory and nigro-tectal inhibitory GABAergic pathways during imminently dangerous situations. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role played by CB1-cannabinoid receptor of GABAergic pathways terminal boutons in the SNpr or of SNpr-endocannabinoid receptor-containing interneurons on the effect of intra-nigral microinjections of cannabidiol in the activity of nigro-tectal inhibitory pathways. GABAA receptor blockade in the deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC) elicited vigorous defensive behaviour. This explosive escape behaviour was followed by significant antinociception. Cannabidiol microinjection into the SNpr had a clear anti-aversive effect, decreasing the duration of defensive alertness, the frequency and duration of defensive immobility, and the frequency and duration of explosive escape behaviour, expressed by running and jumps, elicited by transitory GABAergic dysfunction in dlSC. However, the innate fear induced-antinociception was not significantly changed. The blockade of CB1 endocannabinoid receptor in the SNpr decreased the anti-aversive effect of canabidiol based on the frequency and duration of defensive immobility, the frequency of escape expressed by running, and both the frequency and duration of escape expressed by jumps. These findings suggest a CB1 mediated endocannabinoid signalling in cannabidiol modulation of panic-like defensive behaviour, but not of innate fear-induced antinociception evoked by GABAA receptor blockade with bicuculline microinjection into the superior colliculus, with a putative activity in nigro-collicular GABAergic pathways.

  15. 升温/降温速率和驯化模式对斑马鱼及孔雀鱼热耐受性测定的影响%The effects of heating/cooling rate and acclimation mode on the determination of thermal tolerance of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    夏继刚; 蔡瑞钰; 吕潇; 成美玲; 付世建

    2016-01-01

    为了探究升温/降温速率以及驯化模式对不同鱼类热耐受性测定的影响,本研究将斑马鱼(Danio rerio)和孔雀鱼(Poecilia reticulata)于恒温(28℃)和变温(26~30℃)下驯化2周,之后分别以某一特定的升温/降温速率(0.03、0.1、0.3、1和3℃·min-1)测定其热耐受性参数(临界高温CTmax、临界低温CTmin致死高温LTmax、致死低温LTmin).结果表明:升温/降温速率对CTmax、CTmin、LTmax和LLTmin的测定结果均影响显著(P<0.05),两种实验鱼的CTmin和LTmin均随着降温速率的减小而降低,而CTmax和LTmax在低的升温速率下降低或保持不变;驯化模式显著影响CTmin和LTmax(P<O.05),变温驯化有导致两种鱼LTmax增大以及孔雀鱼CTmin降低的趋势;斑马鱼的热耐受幅大于孔雀鱼.结果提示:升温/降温速率对鱼类低温耐受的影响大于高温耐受,并且对热耐受幅窄的鱼类影响更大.

  16. Overview of plant pigments

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  17. The Plant Cell Surface

    Anne-Mie C.Emons; Kurt V.Fagerstedt

    2010-01-01

    @@ Multicellular organization and tissue construction has evolved along essentially different lines in plants and animals. Since plants do not run away, but are anchored in the soil, their tissues are more or less firm and stiff. This strength stems from the cell walls, which encase the fragile cytoplasm, and protect it.

  18. Plants without arbuscular mycorrhizae

    P is second to N as the most limiting element for plant growth. Plants have evolved a number of effective strategies to acquire P and grow in a P-limited environment. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular studies of P-deficiency adaptations that occur in non-mycorrhizal species have provided str...

  19. MRI of intact plants.

    As, H. van; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  20. MRI of intact plants

    As, van H.; Scheenen, T.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  1. Modulating lignin in plants

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  2. NMR, Water and Plants

    As, van H.

    1982-01-01

    This Thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and

  3. Plant pathogen resistance

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  4. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  5. Terrestrial plant methane production

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...

  6. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  7. Annual Plant Reviews

    analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight...

  8. Power plant chemical technology

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  9. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  10. Better Plants Program Overview

    None

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  11. Cellulose metabolism in plants.

    Hayashi, Takahisa; Yoshida, Kouki; Park, Yong Woo; Konishi, Teruko; Baba, Kei'ichi

    2005-01-01

    Many bacterial genomes contain a cellulose synthase operon together with a cellulase gene, indicating that cellulase is required for cellulose biosynthesis. In higher plants, there is evidence that cell growth is enhanced by the overexpression of cellulase and prevented by its suppression. Cellulase overexpression could modify cell walls not only by trimming off the paracrystalline sites of cellulose microfibrils, but also by releasing xyloglucan tethers between the microfibrils. Mutants for membrane-anchored cellulase (Korrigan) also show a typical phenotype of prevention of cellulose biosynthesis in tissues. All plant cellulases belong to family 9, which endohydrolyzes cellulose, but are not strong enough to cause the bulk degradation of cellulose microfibrils in a plant body. It is hypothesized that cellulase participates primarily in repairing or arranging cellulose microfibrils during cellulose biosynthesis in plants. A scheme for the roles of plant cellulose and cellulases is proposed.

  12. Plant plastid engineering.

    Wani, Shabir H; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N B

    2010-11-01

    Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation.

  13. Exploiting plant alkaloids.

    Schläger, Sabrina; Dräger, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants have been used for medicine since ancient times. Modern pharmaceuticals still rely on alkaloid extraction from plants, some of which grow slowly, are difficult to cultivate and produce low alkaloid yields. Microbial cells as alternative alkaloid production systems are emerging. Before industrial application of genetically engineered bacteria and yeasts, several steps have to be taken. Original alkaloid-forming enzymes have to be elucidated from plants. Their activity in the heterologous host cells, however, may be low. The exchange of individual plant enzymes for alternative catalysts with better performance and optimal fermentation parameters appear promising. The overall aim is enhancement and stabilization of alkaloid yields from microbes in order to replace the tedious extraction of low alkaloid concentrations from intact plants.

  14. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  15. Manganese deficiency in plants

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  16. Catalogue of the Lower Cretaceous fossil plant collection from the Autonomous Region of La Rioja (Spain) held at the Geominero Museum (Spanish Geological Survey); Catalogo de la coleccion de plantas fosiles del Cretacico Inferior de la Comunidad Autonoma de La Rioja (Espana) depositada en el Museo Geominero (Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana)

    Fuente, M de la; Gomez, B.

    2008-07-01

    The Collection of Fossil Invertebrate and Flora from Spain constitutes a 76% of the total collections in the Geominero Museum. The fossil plant mega remains form the Lower Cretaceous of La Rioja, included in such collection, have been revised from the bibliographical, museological, systematic and taxonomic points of view, and have shown significant historical and palaeobotanical interests. The 22 specimens come from the localities of Ortigosa de Cameros and Prejano. The samples from Prejano, collected during the production of the Spanish Geological Map of Calahorra in 1947, have an outstanding interest. They allowed giving an accurate age to the lignite in which the fossil plants were found (Lower Cretaceous), after several wrong determinations. The museological study has allowed reorganizing the collections through inventorying, correction of errors and inclusion of new data. In relation to the taxonomic and systematic revision, it has provided a catalogue in which diverse genera and species of ferns (Sphenopteris [Brongniart] Sternberg, 1825; Weichselia reticulata [Stokes and Webb] Fontaine emend. Alvin, 1971) and conifers (Brachyphyllum Brongniart, 1828, Pagiophyllum Heer, 1881, Sphenolepis cf. debile Heer, 1881) have been identified. Moreover, the analysis of the collection from those points of view enabled the detection of specimens that do not belong to it (Pagiophyllum pedreranum Barale, 1989; Montsechia vidalii [Zeiller] Teixeira, 1954). Lower Cretaceous flora collections known from Cameros Basin are rare and fragmentary; as a result, the collection held at the Geominero Museum has additional interest. (Author) 40 refs.

  17. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections.

  18. Plant Sex Determination.

    Pannell, John R

    2017-03-06

    Sex determination is as important for the fitness of plants as it is for animals, but its mechanisms appear to vary much more among plants than among animals, and the expression of gender in plants differs in important respects from that in most animals. In this Minireview, I provide an overview of the broad variety of ways in which plants determine sex. I suggest that several important peculiarities of plant sex determination can be understood by recognising that: plants show an alternation of generations between sporophytic and gametophytic phases (either of which may take control of sex determination); plants are modular in structure and lack a germ line (allowing for a quantitative expression of gender that is not common in animals); and separate sexes in plants have ultimately evolved from hermaphroditic ancestors. Most theorising about sex determination in plants has focused on dioecious species, but we have much to learn from monecious or hermaphroditic species, where sex is determined at the level of modules, tissues or cells. Because of the fundamental modularity of plant development and potentially important evolutionary links between monoecy and dioecy, it may be useful to relax the distinction often made between 'developmental sex determination' (which underpins the development of male versus female flowers in monoecious species) and 'genetic sex determination' (which underpins the separation of males and females in dioecious species, often mediated by a genetic polymorphism and sex chromosomes). I also argue for relaxing the distinction between sex determination involving a genetic polymorphism and that involving responses to environmental or hormonal cues, because non-genetic cues might easily be converted into genetic switches.

  19. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  20. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  1. Plant-soil feedbacks: role of plant functional group and plant traits

    Cortois, R.; Schröder-Georgi, T.; Weigelt, A.; van der Putten, W.H.; De Deyn, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we grew 4

  2. Optofluidics of plants

    Psaltis, Demetri; Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2016-05-01

    Optofluidics is a tool for synthesizing optical systems, making use of the interaction of light with fluids. In this paper we explore optofluidic mechanisms that have evolved in plants where sunlight and fluidic control combine to define most of the functionality of the plan. We hope that the presentation of how plants function, from an optofluidics point of view, will open a window for the optics community to the vast literature of plant physiology and provide inspiration for new ideas for the design of bio-mimetic optofluidic devices.

  3. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Casagranda, Fabio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  4. Plant Genome Duplication Database.

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Junah; Robertson, Jon S; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    Genome duplication, widespread in flowering plants, is a driving force in evolution. Genome alignments between/within genomes facilitate identification of homologous regions and individual genes to investigate evolutionary consequences of genome duplication. PGDD (the Plant Genome Duplication Database), a public web service database, provides intra- or interplant genome alignment information. At present, PGDD contains information for 47 plants whose genome sequences have been released. Here, we describe methods for identification and estimation of dates of genome duplication and speciation by functions of PGDD.The database is freely available at http://chibba.agtec.uga.edu/duplication/.

  5. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  6. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  7. TOR signalling in plants.

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants.

  8. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  9. Lipid signaling in plants

    Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the current status of plant lipid signaling. Written by leading researchers in the field, the chapters include detailed information on the measurement, regulation and function of phospholipases, lipid kinases, lipid phosphatases, inositolpolyphosphates, polyphosphoinositides, ph

  10. Plant stem cell niches.

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  11. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  12. Poison plants (image)

    ... by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called ...

  13. Plant protein glycosylation

    Strasser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an essential co- and post-translational modification of secretory and membrane proteins in all eukaryotes. The initial steps of N-glycosylation and N-glycan processing are highly conserved between plants, mammals and yeast. In contrast, late N-glycan maturation steps in the Golgi differ significantly in plants giving rise to complex N-glycans with β1,2-linked xylose, core α1,3-linked fucose and Lewis A-type structures. While the essential role of N-glycan modifications on distinct mammalian glycoproteins is already well documented, we have only begun to decipher the biological function of this ubiquitous protein modification in different plant species. In this review, I focus on the biosynthesis and function of different protein N-linked glycans in plants. Special emphasis is given on glycan-mediated quality control processes in the ER and on the biological role of characteristic complex N-glycan structures. PMID:26911286

  14. Advanced stellarator power plants

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  16. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  17. Imprinting in plants

    GUTIERREZ-MARCOS Jose

    2009-01-01

    Genomic imprinting leads to the differential expression of parental alleles after fertilization. Imprinting appears to have evolved independently in mammals and flowering plants to regulate the development of nutrient-transfer placental tissues. In addition, the regulation of imprinting in both mammals and flowering plants involves changes in DNA methylation and histone methylation, thus suggesting that the epigenetic signals that regulate imprinting have been co-opted in these distantly related species.

  18. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  19. Plant Transgenerational Epigenetics

    Quadrana, Leandro; Colot, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Transgenerational epigenetics is defined in opposition to developmental epi-genetics and implies an absence of resetting of epigenetic states between generations. Unlike mammals, plants appear to be particularly prone to this type of inheritance. In this review, we summarize our knowledge about trans-generational epigenetics in plants, which entails heritable changes in DNA methylation. We emphasize the role of transposable elements and other repeat sequences in the cr...

  20. The plant mitochondrial proteome

    Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...... context to be defined for them. There are indications that some of these proteins add novel activities to mitochondrial protein complexes in plants....

  1. Wet hydrate dissolution plant

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Kovačević Branimir T.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with capacity of 50,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate ...

  2. Plant Mobile Small RNAs

    Dunoyer, Patrice; Melnyk, Charles; Molnar, Attila; Slotkin, R Keith

    2013-01-01

    In plants, RNA silencing is a fundamental regulator of gene expression, heterochromatin formation, suppression of transposable elements, and defense against viruses. The sequence specificity of these processes relies on small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules. Although the spreading of RNA silencing across the plant has been recognized for nearly two decades, only recently have sRNAs been formally demonstrated as the mobile silencing signals. Here, we discuss the various types of mobile sRNA mol...

  3. Landscaping plant epigenetics.

    McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms.

  4. Silica in higher plants.

    Sangster, A G; Hodson, M J

    1986-01-01

    Opaline silica deposits are formed by many vascular (higher) plants. The capacity of these plants for silica absorption varies considerably according to genotype and environment. Plant communities exchange silica between soil and vegetation, especially in warmer climates. Silica deposition in epidermal cell walls offers mechanical and protective advantages. Biogenic silica particles from plants are also implicated in the causation of cancer. Recent techniques are reviewed which may aid in the identification of plant pathways for soluble silica movement to deposition sites and in the determination of ionic environments. Botanical investigations have focused on silicification of cell walls in relation to plant development, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. Silica deposition in macrohair walls of the lemma of canary grass (Phalaris) begins at inflorescence emergence and closely follows wall thickening. The structure of the deposited silica may be determined by specific organic polymers present at successive stages of wall development. Lowering of transpiration by enclosure of Phalaris inflorescences in plastic bags reduced silica deposition in macrohairs. Preliminary freeze-substitution studies have located silicon, as well as potassium and chloride, in the cell vacuole and wall deposition sites during initial silicification.

  5. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  6. Tetraspanin genes in plants.

    Wang, Feng; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2012-07-01

    Tetraspanins represent a four-transmembrane protein superfamily with a conserved structure and amino acid residues that are present in mammals, insects, fungi and plants. Tetraspanins interact with each other or with other membrane proteins to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains that play important roles in development, pathogenesis and immune responses via facilitating cell-cell adhesion and fusion, ligand binding and intracellular trafficking. Here, we emphasize evolutionary aspects within the plant kingdom based on genomic sequence information. A phylogenetic tree based on 155 tetraspanin genes of 11 plant species revealed ancient and fast evolving clades. Tetraspanins were only present in multicellular plants, were often duplicated in the plant genomes and predicted by the electronic Fluorescent Pictograph for gene expression analysis to be either functionally redundant or divergent. Tetraspanins contain a large extracellular loop with conserved cysteines that provide the binding sites for the interactions. The Arabidopsis thaliana TETRASPANIN1/TORNADO2/EKEKO has a function in leaf and root patterning and TETRASPANIN3 was identified in the plasmodesmatal proteome, suggesting a role in cell-cell communication during plant development.

  7. Power plant siting

    Winter, J.V.; Conner, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Just to keep up with expected demand, the US will need over 500 new power generation units by 1985. Where these power plants will be located is the subject of heated debate among utility officials, government leaders, conservationists, concerned citizens and a multitude of special interest groups. This book offers a balanced review of all of the salient factors that must be taken into consideration in selecting power plant locations. To deal with this enormously complex subject, the authors (1) offer a general overview of the history and reasoning behind present legislation on the state and national levels; (2) describe the many different agencies that have jurisdiction in power plant location, from local water authorities and city councils to state conservation boards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and (3) include a state-by-state breakdown of siting laws, regulations and present licensing procedures. Architects, engineers, contractors, and others involved in plant construction and site evaluation will learn of the trade-offs that must be made in balancing the engineering, economic, and environmental impacts of plant location. The book covers such areas as availability of water supplies for generation or cooling; geology, typography, and demography of the proposed site; and even the selection of the fuel best suited for the area. Finally, the authors examine the numerous environmental aspects of power plant siting.

  8. Plant-mediated insect interactions on a perennial plant

    Stam, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants interact with many organisms around them, and one of the most important groups that a plant has to deal with, are the herbivores. Insects represent the most diverse group of herbivores and have many different ways of using the plant as a food source. Plants can, however, defend themselves aga

  9. Inheritance of Organelle Genomes of the Somatic Hybrid Between Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and Flying Dragon (Poncirus trifoliata)%印度酸桔与飞龙枳属间体细胞杂种的胞质遗传分析

    程运江; 郭文武; 邓秀新

    2002-01-01

    对印度酸桔(Citrus reticulata)+飞龙枳(Poncirus trifoliata)属间体细胞杂种的3棵8年生植株及其融合亲本的胞质基因组进行了CAPS(Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences)和RFLP分析.用5对叶绿体和5对线粒体通用引物对(universal primer pairs)对杂种及亲本的总DNA进行PCR扩增,都没有检测到多态性,但扩增产物分别用11种限制性内切酶酶切后,发现3个有多态性的叶绿体CAPS标记和1个线粒体CAPS标记.结果表明杂种的叶绿体都来源于飞龙枳,而线粒体都来源于印度酸桔.为了证实CAPS分析结果的可靠性,用5种限制性内切酶对总DNA进行单酶切,分别与1个叶绿体探针和5个线粒体探针杂交,结果与CAPS分析一致.初步证实该组合体细胞杂种的胞质遗传组成为:"印度酸桔的线粒体+飞龙枳的叶绿体".结果表明细胞融合确实能导致细胞核、线粒体和叶绿体的重新组合,为柑桔体细胞杂种中线粒体偏向来源于悬浮亲本而叶绿体偏向来源于叶肉亲本的胞质分配现象提供了新的证据,并为通过体细胞融合技术定向转移柑桔胞质基因的品种改良思路提供了重要理论依据.

  10. Plants in alpine environments

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  11. Electroanalysis of Plant Thiols

    Rene Kizek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to unique physico-chemical properties of –SH moiety thiols comprise widegroup of biologically important compounds. A review devoted to biological functions ofglutathione and phytochelatins with literature survey of methods used to analysis of thesecompounds and their interactions with cadmium(II ions and Murashige-Skoog medium ispresented. For these purposes electrochemical techniques are used. Moreover, we revealedthe effect of three different cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 100 μM on cadmiumuptake and thiols content in maize plants during 192 hours long experiments usingdifferential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry to detect cadmium(II ions and highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to determineglutathione. Cadmium concentration determined in tissues of the plants cultivated innutrient solution containing 10 μM Cd was very low up to 96 hours long exposition andthen the concentration of Cd markedly increased. On the contrary, the addition of 100 μMCd caused an immediate sharp increase in all maize plant parts to 96 hours Cd expositionbut subsequently the Cd concentration increased more slowly. A high performance liquidchromatography with electrochemical detection was used for glutathione determination intreated maize plants after 96 and 192 hours of treatment. The highest total content of glutathione per one plant was 6 μg (96 h, 10 μM Cd in comparison with non-treated plant (control where glutathione content was 1.5 μg. It can be concluded that electrochemical techniques have proved to be useful to analyse plant thiols.

  12. Plant ID. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant identification. Presented first are a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about the scientific classification of plants. The following topics are among those discussed: main types of plants; categories of vascular plants; gymnosperms and…

  13. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  14. African names for American plants

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  15. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  16. Engineered plant virus resistance.

    Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-11-01

    Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants.

  17. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  18. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  19. Micropropagation of some ornamental plants

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Spasenoski, Mirko

    2002-01-01

    Till now many horticulture plants have been successfully regenerated on in vitro conditions. Among them there are ornamental plants such as: Rosa-miniature pot roses; myrillocatus geometrizans-cacti, succulent plant; Echinopsis spachiana-cacti, succulent plant and Dianthus cariophyllus-carnation. Regeneration or micropropagation has been used for production of copies(clones) of the original unique plants(Hussery, 1986). Depending on the species, apical or axillar buds was used for micropro...

  20. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  1. Annotation on Mangrove Plants

    王伯荪; 张炜银; 梁士楚; 昝启杰

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the technical terms and definition of mangrove and mangal, as well as mangrove plant. The word mangrove has been used to refer either to the constituent plant of tropical and subtropical intertidal community or to the community itself, but this usage makes more confusion. Being leaved mangrove in the more limited sense for the constituent plant species, mangal was proposed by MacNae (1968) as aterm for mangrove community, which has been universally applied to most previous studies and should be adopted now. Mangrove should be therefore defined as a tropical and subtropical tree restricted to intertidal zones, which possesses some morphological specializion and physiological mechanism adapted to its habitat, and mangal as a tropical and subtropical forest community restricted to marine intertidal zones and periodically inundeated by the tides. A new term ″consortive plant″ is proposed here for herb, liana, epiphyte or parasite, which is restricted in the strict mangrove habitat.

  2. Domestication and plant genomes.

    Tang, Haibao; Sezen, Uzay; Paterson, Andrew H

    2010-04-01

    The techniques of plant improvement have been evolving with the advancement of technology, progressing from crop domestication by Neolithic humans to scientific plant breeding, and now including DNA-based genotyping and genetic engineering. Archeological findings have shown that early human ancestors often unintentionally selected for and finally fixed a few major domestication traits over time. Recent advancement of molecular and genomic tools has enabled scientists to pinpoint changes to specific chromosomal regions and genetic loci that are responsible for dramatic morphological and other transitions that distinguish crops from their wild progenitors. Extensive studies in a multitude of additional crop species, facilitated by rapid progress in sequencing and resequencing(s) of crop genomes, will further our understanding of the genomic impact from both the unusual population history of cultivated plants and millennia of human selection.

  3. Arsenite transport in plants.

    Ali, Waqar; Isayenkov, Stanislav V; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Maathuis, Frans J M

    2009-07-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid which is toxic to living organisms. Natural occurrence of arsenic and human activities have led to widespread contamination in many areas of the world, exposing a large section of the human population to potential arsenic poisoning. Arsenic intake can occur through consumption of contaminated crops and it is therefore important to understand the mechanisms of transport, metabolism and tolerance that plants display in response to arsenic. Plants are mainly exposed to the inorganic forms of arsenic, arsenate and arsenite. Recently, significant progress has been made in the identification and characterisation of proteins responsible for movement of arsenite into and within plants. Aquaporins of the NIP (nodulin26-like intrinsic protein) subfamily were shown to transport arsenite in planta and in heterologous systems. In this review, we will evaluate the implications of these new findings and assess how this may help in developing safer and more tolerant crops.

  4. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  5. Plant redox proteomics

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2011-01-01

    In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox...... PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly...

  6. PV power plants

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  7. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  8. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders

    Kanako eMitsumasu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root-parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones (SLs, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  9. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders.

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  10. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  11. Quantitative plant ecology

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  12. Plant Mobile Small RNAs

    Dunoyer, Patrice; Melnyk, Charles; Molnar, Attila; Slotkin, R. Keith

    2013-01-01

    In plants, RNA silencing is a fundamental regulator of gene expression, heterochromatin formation, suppression of transposable elements, and defense against viruses. The sequence specificity of these processes relies on small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules. Although the spreading of RNA silencing across the plant has been recognized for nearly two decades, only recently have sRNAs been formally demonstrated as the mobile silencing signals. Here, we discuss the various types of mobile sRNA molecules, their short- and long-range movement, and their function in recipient cells. PMID:23818501

  13. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  14. Insects Carrying Damage to Plants of the Gentts Syringa%危害丁香属植物的昆虫种类

    程红; 严善春

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted on insects that cause damage to 13 species (variations) of plants of the genus Syringa in Heilongjiang Forest Botanical Garden and on the Campus of two universities (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine and Northeast Forestry. Universitv) in Harbin. At least 11 species of insects are harmful to the investigated Syringa plants. The trunk borer Phassus excrescens Butler can cause injury and damage to nine species or variations, namely S. oblata Lindl. ,S. villosa Vahl. , S. emodi, S. microphylla Diels, S. vulgaris Linn. , S. velutina Kom. , S. vu!garis dahua' , S. reticu/ara (Blume) Ham var. mandshurica (Maxim.) Hara and S. dilatata, which indicates that P. excrescens attacks an extremely wide range of host plants. The defoliator Psilogranma increta ( Walker, [ 1865 ] ) can damage S. oblata. S. villosa, S. emodi, S. microphylla Diels, S. velutina Diels Linn. and S. uudgaris ev. ‘zihong'. The phloem-sucking insect Coccurra ussuriensis (Borchs) was found only to cause damage to S. reticulata var. mandshurica. Pseudococcus comstocki ( Kuwana, 1902) ) is harmful to S reticulata var. nandshurica and S. microphylla. Lepidosaphes salicina Borchsenius can cause great damage to S. oblata, S. villosa, S. emodi, Syringa oblata Lindl. var. a/ba Hort. ex Rehd. , Syringa dilatata Nakai, Syriaga vulgaris and its variations, and occasionally can be fonnd causing damage to S. reticulata var. mandshurica. Moreover, Dendrothrips ornatus (Jablonowsky, 1894) was found to damage the leaves of Syringa spp. , two unidentified lepidopterous larvae feed on .S oblate, and two species of unidentified thrips and one species of aphid feed on .S retictdata var. mandshurica.%为了明确丁香属(Syringa spp.)植物虫害的防治对象.对黑龙江省森林植物园丁香园、黑龙江中医药大学校园、东北林业大学校园及部分家属区的绿化带内丁香属13种(变种)植物进行了整株虫害调查,系统地分析、总结了危害丁香属的

  15. The plant exocyst

    Zhang, Y.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    exocyst is an octameric vesicle tethering complex that functions upstream of SNARE mediated exocytotic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All proteins in the complex have been conserved during evolution, and genes that encode the exocyst subunits are present in the genomes of all plants invest

  16. Radiosensitivity in plants

    Nauman, A F

    1979-01-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations.

  17. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  18. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  19. Plants under continuous light

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments wer

  20. Chromosome painting in plants.

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  1. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  2. Next Generation Plant Breeding

    Goud, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Van 11-14 november 2012 vond in de Reehorst de conferentie ‘Next Generation Plant Breeding’ plaats. Tijdens deze bijeenkomst kwamen de grote uitdagingen van de toekomstige plantenveredeling aan de orde: de opkomst van nieuwe sequencing-technieken, de bijbehorende enorme hoeveelheid gegevens die gepr

  3. Pinellas Plant facts

    NONE

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  4. Tetrapyrrole Signaling in Plants

    Larkin, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles make critical contributions to a number of important processes in diverse organisms. In plants, tetrapyrroles are essential for light signaling, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the assimilation of nitrate and sulfate, respiration, photosynthesis, and programed cell death. The misregulation of tetrapyrrole metabolism can produce toxic reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is not surprising that tetrapyrrole metabolism is strictly regulated and that tetrapyrrole metabolism affects signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In plants and algae, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and were some of the first plastid signals demonstrated to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plants, the mechanism of tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling remains poorly understood. Additionally, some of experiments that tested ideas for possible signaling mechanisms appeared to produce conflicting data. In some instances, these conflicts are potentially explained by different experimental conditions. Although the biological function of tetrapyrrole signaling is poorly understood, there is compelling evidence that this signaling is significant. Specifically, this signaling appears to affect the accumulation of starch and may promote abiotic stress tolerance. Tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling interacts with a distinct plastid-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that depends on GENOMES UNCUOPLED1 (GUN1). GUN1 contributes to a variety of processes, such as chloroplast biogenesis, the circadian rhythm, abiotic stress tolerance, and development. Thus, the contribution of tetrapyrrole signaling to plant function is potentially broader than we currently appreciate. In this review, I discuss these aspects of tetrapyrrole signaling.

  5. Chromatin dynamics in plants

    Fransz, P.F.; Jong, de J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies in yeast, animals and plants have provided major breakthroughs in unraveling the molecular mechanism of higher-order gene regulation. In conjunction with the DNA code, proteins that are involved in chromatin remodeling, histone modification and epigenetic imprinting form a large netwo

  6. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  7. Plants on the Move

    Bricker, Mary

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to directly interacting with and doing experiments with organisms, plants have some distinct advantages over animals. Their diversity and accessibility allows students to use them in experiments, thus practicing important science inquiry skills. This article describes an investigation that was designed to help students appreciate the…

  8. Engineered minichromosomes in plants.

    Birchler, James A

    2015-02-01

    Engineered minichromosomes have been produced in several plant species via telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation. This approach bypasses the complications of the epigenetic nature of centromere function in plants, which has to date precluded the production of minichromosomes by the re-introduction of centromere sequences to a plant cell. Genes to be added to a cleaved chromosome are joined together with telomere repeats on one side. When these constructs are introduced into plant cells, the genes are ligated to the broken chromosomes but the telomere repeats will catalyze the formation of a telomere on the other end cutting the chromosome at that point. Telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation is sufficiently efficient that very small chromosomes can be generated consisting of basically the endogenous centromere and the added transgenes. The added transgenes provide a platform onto which it should be possible to assemble a synthetic chromosome to specification. Combining engineered minichromosomes with doubled haploid breeding should greatly expedite the transfer of transgenes to new lines and to test the interaction of transgenes in new background genotypes. Potential basic and applied applications of synthetic chromosomes are discussed.

  9. Salinity and Plants.

    Langsford, Simon; Meredith, Steve; Munday, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents science activities that mirror real life issues relating to plants and sustainability. Describes how to turn seed growing activities into an environmental simulation. Discusses the advantages of cross-curriculum learning opportunities. Includes student references and notes for teachers. (KHR)

  10. Peru, People and Plants.

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  11. Phenolics and plant allelopathy.

    Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An

    2010-12-07

    Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  12. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  13. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  15. Plants flex their skeletons

    Foster, Randy; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on the fragile fiber mutants of Arabidopsis has identified microtubule-associated proteins that affect the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls, a major determinant of plant elongation growth. These same proteins are implicated in responses to gibberellin, provoking fresh...

  16. Plants, People, and Politics

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  17. Plant biochemistry course, 1993

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides a brief description of a summer lecture course on metabolic pathways and regulation of flow through these pathways in plants. Descriptions of the 1992 course held at La Jolla,Ca; 1993 course held in Madison, Wis, and plans for the 1994 course projected for East Lansing, MI.

  18. Plant research '76

    1976-01-01

    Overall objective remains unchanged: to contribute to the knowledge, with strong emphasis on fundamental problems, of how plants function, the roles they play in the environment and energy relations of the world, and how these roles may be optimized for the benefit of mankind. (PCS)

  19. Quantitative plant ecology

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement......, will not be covered in this e-book....

  20. Evolution of plant senescence

    Young Mike

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescence is integral to the flowering plant life-cycle. Senescence-like processes occur also in non-angiosperm land plants, algae and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Increasing numbers of genes have been assigned functions in the regulation and execution of angiosperm senescence. At the same time there has been a large expansion in the number and taxonomic spread of plant sequences in the genome databases. The present paper uses these resources to make a study of the evolutionary origins of angiosperm senescence based on a survey of the distribution, across plant and microbial taxa, and expression of senescence-related genes. Results Phylogeny analyses were carried out on protein sequences corresponding to genes with demonstrated functions in angiosperm senescence. They include proteins involved in chlorophyll catabolism and its control, homeoprotein transcription factors, metabolite transporters, enzymes and regulators of carotenoid metabolism and of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Evolutionary timelines for the origins and functions of particular genes were inferred from the taxonomic distribution of sequences homologous to those of angiosperm senescence-related proteins. Turnover of the light energy transduction apparatus is the most ancient element in the senescence syndrome. By contrast, the association of phenylpropanoid metabolism with senescence, and integration of senescence with development and adaptation mediated by transcription factors, are relatively recent innovations of land plants. An extended range of senescence-related genes of Arabidopsis was profiled for coexpression patterns and developmental relationships and revealed a clear carotenoid metabolism grouping, coordinated expression of genes for anthocyanin and flavonoid enzymes and regulators and a cluster pattern of genes for chlorophyll catabolism consistent with functional and evolutionary features of the pathway. Conclusion The expression and phylogenetic