WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant protection products

  1. Natural products for plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeković Živorad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantage applying natural products, such as a secondary metabolites, in plant protection is shortly presented. Acceptable solutions for the enhanced ecological criteria, which are requested by the users of pesticides and consumers of agricultural goods, could be the replacement of classical pesticides by natural products in plant protection. Some natural products are already in use as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides because new biotechnological processes, fermentation and biotransformations provide procedures for their industrial production. In addition to biotechnical processes natural compounds possessing pesticide activities are also prepared by chemical synthesis. An active secondary metabolite must first be isolated from natural sauces and then, based on biological toxicological and ecological studies, acceptable compounds are selected for laboratory and industrial chemical synthesis. Several compounds possessing insecticidal, herbicidal and fungicidal activities, which have been successfully applied for plan protection are presented.

  2. Plant protection products in organic grapevine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Branislava V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pests and grapevine diseases in organic production are suppressed by preventive measures with a view to reducing the impact of the attack. Allowed substances acting on patogenous fungi, insects, mites and other harmful organisms are used, if appropriate. Insecticides of plant origin are used in the organic production of grapevine, as well as vegetable oils, powders and insecticidal soaps that are selective, with a narrow range of effects and of lower toxicity, as well as biological products. As a rule, such plant protection products require a more frequent application. Copper-based and sulphur-based fungicides are still leading products in suppressing grapevine diseases. Researches are directed to decrease the quantity of application and to find their replacement by also efficient fungicides. A special emphasis is put on researching the efficient fungicides for suppressing Botrytis bunch rot and factors causing grapevine wood diseases (Esca and Eutypa in organic production. Along with copper and sulphur, different substances such as bicarbonates, plant extracts and oils, biological products being parasites, patogenous or diseases agent antagonists, and natural products such as milk and whey are applied in the organic production of grapevine.

  3. Risk assessment of plant protection products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk

  4. Farmers' use of personal protective equipment during handling of plant protection products: Determinants of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2016-11-15

    Understanding factors affecting the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during handling of plant protection products (PPPs) is of major importance for the design of tailored interventions to minimize exposure among farmers. However, data regarding this issue are highly limited. Factors related to the use of PPE during handling of PPPs were explored in a survey of cotton farmers in northern Greece. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the farmers based on a questionnaire with structured items on the frequency of use of various personal protective devices during handling of PPPs. New evidence on patterns of PPE use and potential exposure of farmers to PPPs is provided. Most farmers (49.3%) showed potentially unsafe behaviour with respect to PPE use. Hat and boots were the most commonly used protective items during PPPs use, but most of the farmers surveyed reported low frequency of use for gloves, goggles, face mask, coveralls, and respirator. Especially the respirator was reported to be the least used PPE item amongst farmers. Farmers who perceived PPPs as harmful substances or those who had an episode of intoxication in the past reported more frequent use of several PPE items. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the variable episode of intoxication in the past exerted the strongest positive influence on PPE use, followed by the perception of PPPs being hazardous substances, upper secondary education, previous training on PPPs (i.e., spraying equipment, application parameters, risks to human health and environment, safety issues) and farm size under cultivation. Old age exerted a significant negative influence on PPE use, namely, elderly farmers tended not to use PPE. Strategies to maximize the protection of applicators of PPPs from hazardous exposures still require innovation to achieve increased effectiveness. Emphasis on lifelong training and education of farmers about hazards and risks of PPPs is crucial for changing

  5. Environment protection in the area of by-products facilities in coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Tomal; Henryk Zembala; Krzysztof Kalinowski; Milan Fedorov; Ludovt Kosnac; Jan Hromiak [Biuro Projektow Koksoprojekt Sp. z o.o., Zabrze (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    20 slides/overheads outline the presentation on the subject of the environmental protection program implemented at the U.S. Steel Kosice Coking Plant. Actions taken include the control of emissions by a system of cooling coke oven gas. A hermetically sealed system uses nitrogen flow for tar management and hermetic loading of the liquid coal by-product Benzol.

  6. Development of REACH Generic Exposure Scenarios for Substances Used as Coformulants in Plant Protection Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobe, Christopher; Bonifay, Sebastien; Fliege, Ralph; Krass, Joachim; Mostert, Volker; Vosswinkel, Renate; Wormuth, Matthias

    2016-07-14

    This article reviews the interactions between the REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals) regulation and the plant protection product regulation for substances used as coformulants in the European Union, and describes generic exposure scenarios developed for their exposure and risk assessment. The REACH exposure scenarios describe the operational conditions and risk management measures used in the risk assessment of a coformulant, and as such these translate as the boundaries of safe use. The generic exposure scenarios are designed to be simple, and closely integrate with REACH use descriptors and customized exposure models. Clustering of application methods and exposure determinants resulted in four generic exposure scenarios, each covering professional workers or consumers, and application of products in liquid, granular form, or applied on seeds. When used in conjunction with appropriate exposure models, the generic exposure scenarios support efficient first-tier risk assessment of coformulants by utilizing a higher level of abstraction and conservatism than typically used in plant protection product assessments.

  7. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  8. Interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and chloroplast sinks triggers protection and signalling important for plant productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gollan, Peter J.; LIMA-MELO,YUGO; Tiwari, Arjun; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2017-01-01

    The photosynthetic light reactions provide energy that is consumed and stored in electron sinks, the products of photosynthesis. A balance between light reactions and electron consumption in the chloroplast is vital for plants, and is protected by several photosynthetic regulation mechanisms. Photosystem I (PSI) is particularly susceptible to photoinhibition when these factors become unbalanced, which can occur in low temperatures or in high light. In this study we used the pgr5 Arabidopsis m...

  9. Thematic strategy on sustainable use of plant protection products. Prospects and requirements for transferring proposals for plant protection products to biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Lueskow, Heike [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany); Gross, Rita [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The sustainable use of pesticides pursues, independent of the authorisation of single products, the aim to minimise existing environmental risks of pesticide use and therefore contribute to the reduction of its impact on the environmental protection goals. The Thematic Strategy (TS) and the Framework Directive 2009/128/EC (FWD) on sustainable use of pesticides have so far only been implemented for plant protection products (PPP). For biocides there exists no harmonised approach. Within the project the possibilities and requirements for transferring measures of the FWD to the biocide area have been analysed, with specific focus on wood preservatives, insecticides, and antifouling products. Several biocidal active substances are found in the outlets of sewage treatment plants and in surface water, but an inventory of the present environmental impact as well as reliable data on biocide consumption and use patterns, which could be used to identify key action areas, are generally missing. These data are urgently needed for the development of suitable indicators and the definition of the objectives. Sustainable use of biocides addresses the three issues; social, environmental and economic impact at which the ecological background assigns the borderline and beam barrier of the economic and social development. A systematic analysis of the instruments for improving sustainable use of pesticides described in TS and FWD indicated that many issues can be transferred to the biocide area. This concerns e.g. education and training, requirements for sales, the establishment of awareness programmes, control of the machinery for biocide application, the development of best practice standards based on integrated pest management principles, and the collection of statistics on biocide consumption. Some biocide specific characteristics need to be considered: E.g. unlike PPP, the intended use of some biocides is to be directly applied in water bodies or indoors. Furthermore for some

  10. Weed control by direct injection of plant protection products according to specific situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krebs, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming in agriculture allows a site-specific management of the crop. The aim of plant protection is to apply plant protection products (PPP according to the site specific requirements on the field. Within the context of a research program to promote innovation, a sprayer with direct injection of plant protection products was developed. The direct injection offers site specific spraying of different individual PPP in a single pass. The sprayer prototype is equipped with a special spray boom combining three nozzle lines. In order to prevent delay times, the nozzle lines are preloaded before spraying. First results for weed control from test stand measurements and field trials showed that the injection pumps work with high accuracy. The prototype can be used without delay times site specific with up to three different herbicides. Field trials for site-specific weed control in winter wheat demonstrate the applicability of the system under practical conditions. By treatment of subareas herbicides and therefore costs could be saved. A reduction in yield compared with the conventionally treated field areas could not be ascertained. Also an efficacy reduction through washout of active ingredient from target surfaces due to simultaneous use of all three nozzle lines with up to 1050 l/ha application rate could not be detected. At high water spray rates, the efficacy effect occurs delayed. Overall, the newly developed direct injection system proved fieldabillity during the first tests. So weed control can be carried out situation-responsive, which can save herbicides and environmental impacts are reduced.

  11. Interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and chloroplast sinks triggers protection and signalling important for plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Peter J; Lima-Melo, Yugo; Tiwari, Arjun; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2017-09-26

    The photosynthetic light reactions provide energy that is consumed and stored in electron sinks, the products of photosynthesis. A balance between light reactions and electron consumption in the chloroplast is vital for plants, and is protected by several photosynthetic regulation mechanisms. Photosystem I (PSI) is particularly susceptible to photoinhibition when these factors become unbalanced, which can occur in low temperatures or in high light. In this study we used the pgr5 Arabidopsis mutant that lacks ΔpH-dependent regulation of photosynthetic electron transport as a model to study the consequences of PSI photoinhibition under high light. We found that PSI damage severely inhibits carbon fixation and starch accumulation, and attenuates enzymatic oxylipin synthesis and chloroplast regulation of nuclear gene expression after high light stress. This work shows that modifications to regulation of photosynthetic light reactions, which may be designed to improve yield in crop plants, can negatively impact metabolism and signalling, and thereby threaten plant growth and stress tolerance.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. EFSA Guidance Document on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, G.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Clook, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Guidance Document is intended to provide guidance for notifiers and authorities in the context of the review of plant protection products (PPPs) and their active substances under Regulation (EC) 1107/2009. The scientific opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of plant

  13. Residues of plant protection products in grey partridge eggs in French cereal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro, Elisabeth; Devillers, James; Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk

    2016-05-01

    The contamination of the eggs of farmland birds by currently used plant protection products (PPPs) is poorly documented despite a potential to adversely impact their breeding performance. In this context, 139 eggs of 52 grey partridge Perdix perdix clutches, collected on 12 intensively cultivated farmlands in France in 2010-2011, were analysed. Given the great diversity of PPPs applied on agricultural fields, we used exploratory GC/MS-MS and LC/MS-MS screenings measuring ca. 500 compounds. The limit of quantification was 0.01 mg/kg, a statutory reference. A total of 15 different compounds were detected in 24 clutches. Nine of them have been used by farmers to protect crops against fungi (difenoconazole, tebuconazole, cyproconazole, fenpropidin and prochloraz), insects (lambda-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam/clothianidin) and weeds (bromoxynil and diflufenican). Some old PPPs were also detected (fipronil(+sulfone), HCH(α,β,δ isomers), diphenylamine, heptachlor(+epoxyde), DDT(Σisomers)), as well as PCBs(153, 180). Concentrations ranged between literature.

  14. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Ockleford, Colin; Adriaanse, Paulien

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science behind the risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms. The current risk assessment scheme is reviewed, taking into account new regulatory frameworks...... to the dispersal of the majority of in-soil organisms compared to terrestrial non-target arthropods living above soil, the Panel proposes that in-soil environmental risk assessments are made at in- and off-field scale considering field boundary levels. A new testing strategy which takes into account the relevant...

  15. Guidance on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Guidance is intended to provide guidance for notifiers and authorities in the context of the review of plant protection products (PPPs and their active substances under Regulation (EC 1107/2009. The scientific opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees provided the scientific basis for the development of the Guidance. Specific Protection Goals were agreed in consultation with the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health. The Guidance suggests a tiered risk assessment scheme with a simple and cost-effective first tier to more complex higher tier studies under field conditions. Each of the tiers will have to ensure that the appropriate level of protection is achieved.

  16. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for non-target arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment sch...... of the currently used vegetation distribution factor was investigated. It is proposed that new tests be included in order to address exposure via oral uptake of residues and uncertainties related to differences in species sensitivity.......Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment...... dynamics, conducting a landscape-level risk assessment is suggested. A new risk assessment scheme is suggested which integrates modelling approaches. The main exposure routes for non-target arthropods are identified and proposals are made on how to integrate them in the risk assessment. The appropriateness...

  17. How TK-TD and population models for aquatic macrophytes could support the risk assessment for plant protection products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommen, U.; Schmitt, W.; Heine, S.; Brock, T.C.M.; Duquesne, S.; Manson, P.; Meregali, G.; Ochoa-Acuna, H.; Vliet, van P.; Arts, G.H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This case study of the SETAC workshop MODELINK demonstrates the potential use of mechanistic effects models for macrophytes to extrapolate from effects of a plant protection product observed in laboratory tests to effects resulting from dynamic exposure on macrophyte populations in edge-of-field wat

  18. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacchettini, G.; Calliera, M.; Marchis, A.; Glass, R.; Ellis, C.B.; Machera, K.; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.; Spanoghe, P.; Capri, E.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment,

  19. Advanced oxidation to eliminate growth inhibition and to degrade plant protection products in a recirculating nutrient solution in Rose cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Maas, van der A.A.; Meijer, R.J.M.; Khodabaks, M.R.; Blok, C.; Enthoven, N.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive demands a sound ecological and chemical basis for ground and surface waters. This has motivated the Dutch greenhouse industry to seek more sustainable water management procedures which will enable a zero-emission of nutrients and plant protection products (PPP) in th

  20. Proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution of water with plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestdagh, Inge; Bonicelli, Bernard; Laplana, Ramon; Roettele, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results and lessons learned from the TOPPS project (Training the Operators to prevent Pollution from Point Sources), a proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution from Plant Protection Products (PPPs) was made. Within this TOPPS project (2005-2008), stakeholders were interviewed and research and analysis were done in 6 pilot catchment areas (BE, FR, DE, DK, IT, PL). Next, there was a repeated survey on operators' perception and opinion to measure changes resulting from TOPPS activities and good and bad practices were defined based on the Best Management Practices (risk analysis). Aim of the proposal is to suggest a strategy considering the differences between countries which can be implemented on Member State level in order to avoid PPP pollution of water through point sources. The methodology used for the up-scaLing proposal consists of the analysis of the current situation, a gap analysis, a consistency analysis and organisational structures for implementation. The up-scaling proposal focuses on the behaviour of the operators, on the equipment and infrastructure available with the operators. The proposal defines implementation structures to support correct behaviour through the development and updating of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and through the transfer and the implementation of these BMPs. Next, the proposal also defines requirements for the improvement of equipment and infrastructure based on the defined key factors related to point source pollution. It also contains cost estimates for technical and infrastructure upgrades to comply with BMPs.

  1. Modeling diffuse sources of surface water contamination with plant protection products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Sandra; Bock, Michael; Böhner, Jürgen; Lembrich, David

    2015-04-01

    Entries of chemical pollutants in surface waters are a serious environmental problem. Among water pollutants plant protection products (ppp) from farming practice are of major concern not only for water suppliers and environmental agencies, but also for farmers and industrial manufacturers. Lost chemicals no longer fulfill their original purpose on the field, but lead to severe damage of the environment and surface waters. Besides point-source inputs of chemical pollutants, the diffuse-source inputs from agricultural procedures play an important and not yet sufficiently studied role concerning water quality. The two most important factors for diffuse inputs are erosion and runoff. The latter usually occurs before erosion begins, and is thus often not visible in hindsight. Only if it has come to erosion, it is obvious to expect runoff in foresight at this area, too. In addition to numerous erosion models, there are also few applications to model runoff processes available. However, these conventional models utilize approximations of catchment parameters based on long-term average values or theoretically calculated concentration peaks which can only provide indications to relative amounts. Our study aims to develop and validate a simplified spatially-explicit dynamic model with high spatiotemporal resolution that enables to measure current and forecast runoff potential not only at catchment scale but field-differentiated. This method allows very precise estimations of runoff risks and supports risk reduction measures to be targeted before fields are treated. By focusing on water pathways occurring on arable land, targeted risk reduction measures like buffer strips at certain points and adapted ppp use can be taken early and pollution of rivers and other surface waters through transported pesticides, fertilizers and their products could be nearly avoided or largely minimized. Using a SAGA-based physical-parametric modeling approach, major factors influencing runoff

  2. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf p

  3. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf

  4. Reduced risk insecticides to control scale insects and protect natural enemies in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Armored scale insects are among the most difficult to manage and economically important arthropod pests in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants. This is because of morphological traits that protect them from contact insecticides. I compared initial and season-long control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspidae), by reduced-risk insecticides (insect growth regulators [IGRs], neonicotinoids, spirotetramat) to determine if they controlled scale as well as more toxic insecticides such as the organophosphate, acephate, and pyrethroid, bifenthrin. I also evaluated how these insecticides affected natural enemy abundance on experimental plants and survival when exposed to insecticide residue. All insecticides tested reduced first generation euonymus scale abundance. In 2009, reinfestation by second generation euonymus scale was highest on plants treated with acetamiprid and granular dinotefuran. In 2010, systemic neonicotinoids and spirotetramat prevented cottony cushion scale infestation 133 d after treatment whereas scale readily infested plants treated with bifenthrin and horticultural oil. Encarsia spp. and Cybocephalus spp. abundance was related to scale abundance. These natural enemies were generally less abundant than predicted by scale abundance on granular dinotefuran treated plants and more abundant on granular thiamethoxam treated plants. Bifenthrin residue killed 90-100% of O. insidiosus and E. citrina within 24 h. My results indicate that reduced risk insecticides can provide season-long scale control with less impact on natural enemies than conventional insecticides. This could have economic and environmental benefits by reducing the number of applications necessary to protect nursery and landscape plants from scale.

  5. Leaching of plant protection products and their transformation products : proposals for improving the assessment of leaching to groundwater in the Netherlands : version 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Linden, van der A.M.A.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Pol, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of leaching of plant protection products to groundwater is an important aspect of the environmental risk assessment of these substances. Analysis of available Dutch groundwater monitoring data for these substances triggered a critical review of the current Dutch leaching assessment. As a

  6. Sustainability Assessment of Plant Protection Strategies in Swiss Winter Wheat and Potato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of arable crops in Switzerland is subsidized for services performed within the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP program, the crop protection part of which is based on IPM principles. Within PEP, chemical insect control must rely on those approved insecticides that are deemed harmless for beneficial arthropods. Approved insecticides potentially impacting beneficial arthropods may also be applied, but only if unavoidable and with an official permit. In order to assess the ecological and economic sustainability of this PEP program, a reference insecticide strategy illustrating the current PEP requirements was compared with other strategies. For this purpose, a sustainability assessment taking account of ecotoxicological risks and economic viability in addition to the preservation of beneficial arthropods was performed according to the SustainOS methodology. The results show that the one-off use of Audienz (spinosad to control cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus—a key pest in winter wheat—would significantly improve sustainability vis-à-vis the reference (Nomolt (teflubenzuron plus Biscaya (thiacloprid. However, in the case of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in potato crops, where Audienz is considered the reference, no alternative would exhibit better sustainability. Moreover, the study shows that strategies using Novodor (Bacillus thuringiensis protect beneficial species well but have the drawbacks of increased yield risk and higher costs. The conclusions drawn from these analyses allow recommendations for modifications of the PEP requirements for these two pest insects. The SustainOS methodology, a multi-step process combining expert knowledge with quantitative assessments including a sensitivity analysis of key target parameters and a rule-based aggregation of assessment results, yielded valuable insights into the sustainability of different crop protection strategies.

  7. Decommissioning a phosphoric acid production plant: a radiological protection case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, V; Seferlis, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Kehagia, K; Dagli, C; Georgiadis, S; Camarinopoulos, L

    2010-12-01

    During a preliminary survey at the area of an abandoned fertilizer plant, increased levels of radioactivity were measured at places, buildings, constructions and materials. The extent of the contamination was determined and the affected areas were characterized as controlled areas. After the quantitative and qualitative determination of the contaminated materials, the decontamination was planned and performed step by step: the contaminated materials were categorized according to their physical characteristics (scrap metals, plastic pipes, scales and residues, building materials, etc) and according to their level of radioactivity. Depending on the material type, different decontamination and disposal options were proposed; the most appropriate technique was chosen taking into account apart from technical issues, the legal framework, radiation protection issues, the opinion of the local authorities involved as well as the owner's wish. After taking away the biggest amount of the contaminated materials, an iterative process consisting of surveys and decontamination actions was performed in order to remove the residual traces of contamination from the area. During the final survey, no residual surface contamination was detected; some sparsely distributed low level contaminated materials deeply immersed into the soil were found and removed.

  8. PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCT RESIDUES IN APPLES, CAULIFLOWER, CEREALS, GRAPE, LETTUCE, PEAS, PEPPERS, POTATOES AND STRAWBERRIES OF THE SLOVENE ORIGIN IN 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2006, 181 apple, cauliflower, cereal, grape, lettuce, pea, pepper, potato and strawberry samples from Slovene producers were analysed for plant protection product residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 86 different active compounds using four analytical methods. In nine samples (5.0 % exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs were determined which is comparable with the results of the monitoring of plant protection product residues in products of plant origin in the European union, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein in 2005 (4.9 %.

  9. Plant growth-promoting actinobacteria: a new strategy for enhancing sustainable production and protection of grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Grain legumes are a cost-effective alternative for the animal protein in improving the diets of the poor in South-East Asia and Africa. Legumes, through symbiotic nitrogen fixation, meet a major part of their own N demand and partially benefit the following crops of the system by enriching soil. In realization of this sustainability advantage and to promote pulse production, United Nations had declared 2016 as the "International Year of pulses". Grain legumes are frequently subjected to both abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in severe yield losses. Global yields of legumes have been stagnant for the past five decades in spite of adopting various conventional and molecular breeding approaches. Furthermore, the increasing costs and negative effects of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production necessitate the use of biological options of crop production and protection. The use of plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria for improving soil and plant health has become one of the attractive strategies for developing sustainable agricultural systems due to their eco-friendliness, low production cost and minimizing consumption of non-renewable resources. This review emphasizes on how the PGP actinobacteria and their metabolites can be used effectively in enhancing the yield and controlling the pests and pathogens of grain legumes.

  10. Is an ecosystem services-based approach developed for setting specific protection goals for plant protection products applicable to other chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Jackson, Mathew; Whale, Graham; Brown, A Ross; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Woods, Richard; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-02-15

    Clearly defined protection goals specifying what to protect, where and when, are required for designing scientifically sound risk assessments and effective risk management of chemicals. Environmental protection goals specified in EU legislation are defined in general terms, resulting in uncertainty in how to achieve them. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a framework to identify more specific protection goals based on ecosystem services potentially affected by plant protection products. But how applicable is this framework to chemicals with different emission scenarios and receptor ecosystems? Four case studies used to address this question were: (i) oil refinery waste water exposure in estuarine environments; (ii) oil dispersant exposure in aquatic environments; (iii) down the drain chemicals exposure in a wide range of ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic); (iv) persistent organic pollutant exposure in remote (pristine) Arctic environments. A four-step process was followed to identify ecosystems and services potentially impacted by chemical emissions and to define specific protection goals. Case studies demonstrated that, in principle, the ecosystem services concept and the EFSA framework can be applied to derive specific protection goals for a broad range of chemical exposure scenarios. By identifying key habitats and ecosystem services of concern, the approach offers the potential for greater spatial and temporal resolution, together with increased environmental relevance, in chemical risk assessments. With modifications including improved clarity on terminology/definitions and further development/refinement of the key concepts, we believe the principles of the EFSA framework could provide a methodical approach to the identification and prioritization of ecosystems, ecosystem services and the service providing units that are most at risk from chemical exposure.

  11. Magnetic field protects plants against high light by slowing down production of singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala-Yatkin, Marja; Sarvikas, Päivi; Paturi, Petriina; Mäntysaari, Mika; Mattila, Heta; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2011-05-01

    Recombination of the primary radical pair of photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis may produce the triplet state of the primary donor of PSII. Triplet formation is potentially harmful because chlorophyll triplets can react with molecular oxygen to produce the reactive singlet oxygen (¹O₂). The yield of ¹O₂ is expected to be directly proportional to the triplet yield and the triplet yield of charge recombination can be lowered with a magnetic field of 100-300 mT. In this study, we illuminated intact pumpkin leaves with strong light in the presence and absence of a magnetic field and found that the magnetic field protects against photoinhibition of PSII. The result suggests that radical pair recombination is responsible for significant part of ¹O₂ production in the chloroplast. The magnetic field effect vanished if leaves were illuminated in the presence of lincomycin, an inhibitor of chloroplast protein synthesis, or if isolated thylakoid membranes were exposed to light. These data, in turn, indicate that ¹O₂ produced by the recombination of the primary charge pair is not directly involved in photoinactivation of PSII but instead damages PSII by inhibiting the repair of photoinhibited PSII. We also found that an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lacking α-tocopherol, a scavenger of ¹O₂, is more sensitive to photoinhibition than the wild-type in the absence but not in the presence of lincomycin, confirming that the target of ¹O₂ is the repair mechanism.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of Plant Protection Products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik, R.; Arnold, G.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Cresswell, J.; Hart, A.; Pistorius, J.; Sgolastra, F.; Delso, N.S.; Steurbaut, W.; Thompson, H.

    2012-01-01

    The PPR Panel was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees). Specific protection goals options were suggested based on the ecosystem services approach. The diff

  13. Scientific Opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of Plant Protection Products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik, R.; Arnold, G.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Cresswell, J.; Hart, A.; Pistorius, J.; Sgolastra, F.; Delso, N.S.; Steurbaut, W.; Thompson, H.

    2012-01-01

    The PPR Panel was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees). Specific protection goals options were suggested based on the ecosystem services approach. The

  14. Application of chemometric analysis based on physicochemical and chromatographic data for the differentiation origin of plant protection products containing chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, Marek; Płonka, Marlena; Bober, Katarzyna; Dołowy, Małgorzata; Pyka, Alina; Pszczolińska, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and dissimilarities between the pesticide samples in form of emulsifiable concentrates (EC) formulation containing chlorpyrifos as active ingredient coming from different sources (i.e., shops and wholesales) and also belonging to various series. The results obtained by the Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method and also some selected physicochemical properties of examined pesticides including pH, density, stability, active ingredient and water content in pesticides tested were compared using two chemometric methods. Applicability of simple cluster analysis and also principal component analysis of obtained data in differentiation of examined plant protection products coming from different sources was confirmed. It would be advantageous in the routine control of originality and also in the detection of counterfeit pesticides, respectively, among commercially available pesticides containing chlorpyrifos as an active ingredient.

  15. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchettini, Gabriele; Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alexandru; Glass, Richard; Ellis, Clare Butler; Machera, Kyriaki; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Spanoghe, Pieter; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment, promoting integrated pest management and stimulating effective non-chemical alternatives. The core idea of the SUD is that it is necessary to monitor the use of PPPs through the implementation of an appropriate set of risk indicators to monitor progress and trends in risk reduction within the Member States. To contribute to this direction, following a comprehensive analysis of the risk (including procedures of risk assessment and risk management) and involving stakeholders in the decision process, specific toolboxes of practical indirect risk indicators of exposure of Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents were developed and are now available to be used by Member States (MSs) based on their specific context.

  16. Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR was tasked to revise the Guidance Document (GD on Aquatic Ecotoxicology under Council Directive 91/414/EEC (SANCO/3268/2001 rev.4 (final, 17 October 2002. This Guidance of the PPR Panel is the first of three requested deliverables within this mandate. It has its focus on tiered acute and chronic effect assessment schemes with detailed guidance on tier 1 and higher tier effect assessments for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and on proposals regarding how to link effects to exposure estimates. The exposure assessment methodology was not reviewed and it is assumed that the current FOCUS surface water exposure assessment methodology will continue to be used for exposure assessment at EU level. The current GD is intended to be used for authorisation of active substances at EU level as well as for plant protection products at Member State level. The effect assessment schemes in this GD allow for the derivation of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs on the basis of two options: (1 the ecological threshold option (ETO, accepting negligible population effects only, and (2 the ecological recovery option (ERO, accepting some population-level effects if ecological recovery takes place within an acceptable time period. In the tiered effect assessment schemes, in principle, all tiers (1, 2 and 3 are able to address the ETO, while the model ecosystem approach (tier 3, under certain conditions, is able to also address the ERO. The GD provides the scientific background for the risk assessment to aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and is structured to give detailed guidance on all assessment steps. An executive summary joining all parts of the guidance and decision schemes in a concise way is provided and is intended to help applicants and regulatory authorities in day-to-day use.

  17. Guidance proposal for using available DegT50 values for estimation of degradation rates of plant protection products in Dutch surface water and sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Horst, ter M.M.S.; Tiktak, A.; Linden, van der A.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The degradation rate of plant protection products and their transformation products in surface water and sediment may influence their concentrations in Dutch surface water. Therefore the estimation of these rates may be an important part of the assessment of the exposure of aquatic organisms. We

  18. Development and validation of a confirmative LC-MS/MS methode for the determination of ß-exotoxin thuringiensin in plant protection products and selected greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, de T.C.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Zomer, P.; Boers, E.A.M.; Waard, de P.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial products based on Bacillus thuringiensis are registered in many countries as plant protection products (PPPs) and are widely used as insecticides and nematocides. However, certain B. thuringiensis strains produce harmful toxins and are therefore not allowed to be used as PPPs. The serotype

  19. Traditional African plant products to protect stored cowpeas against insect damage : the battle against the beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of the cowpea plant, Vigna unguiculata , a tropical crop, are very susceptible to attack by the cowpea beetle. This specialist beetle needs only the beans to reproduce rapidly.Most farmers in West Africa have few possibilities to treat the beans and they face their stored supply

  20. Traditional African plant products to protect stored cowpeas against insect damage : the battle against the beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of the cowpea plant, Vigna unguiculata , a tropical crop, are very susceptible to attack by the cowpea beetle. This specialist beetle needs only the beans to reproduce rapidly.

    Most farmers in West Africa have few

  1. Survey among agricultural workers about interpretation of plant protection product labels and safety data sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella Rubbiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effectiveness of risk communication in agriculture through examination and interpretation of safety data sheets and product labels for agriculture products classified as hazardous. Labels and safety data sheets were shown to the users inviting them to report their own interpretation of hazard, risk and the need of preventive measures. One area sample was identified in a cluster of wine companies, chosen in a range of medium to large sizes throughout the country, where 100 subjects were interviewed by telephone or direct interview. Participants were surveyed through questions relating to demographic information, education and perception of risk.

  2. How TK-TD and population models for aquatic macrophytes could support the risk assessment for plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Schmitt, Walter; Heine, Simon; Brock, Theo Cm; Duquesne, Sabine; Manson, Phil; Meregalli, Giovanna; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; van Vliet, Peter; Arts, Gertie

    2016-01-01

    This case study of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) workshop MODELINK demonstrates the potential use of mechanistic effects models for macrophytes to extrapolate from effects of a plant protection product observed in laboratory tests to effects resulting from dynamic exposure on macrophyte populations in edge-of-field water bodies. A standard European Union (EU) risk assessment for an example herbicide based on macrophyte laboratory tests indicated risks for several exposure scenarios. Three of these scenarios are further analyzed using effect models for 2 aquatic macrophytes, the free-floating standard test species Lemna sp., and the sediment-rooted submerged additional standard test species Myriophyllum spicatum. Both models include a toxicokinetic (TK) part, describing uptake and elimination of the toxicant, a toxicodynamic (TD) part, describing the internal concentration-response function for growth inhibition, and a description of biomass growth as a function of environmental factors to allow simulating seasonal dynamics. The TK-TD models are calibrated and tested using laboratory tests, whereas the growth models were assumed to be fit for purpose based on comparisons of predictions with typical growth patterns observed in the field. For the risk assessment, biomass dynamics are predicted for the control situation and for several exposure levels. Based on specific protection goals for macrophytes, preliminary example decision criteria are suggested for evaluating the model outputs. The models refined the risk indicated by lower tier testing for 2 exposure scenarios, while confirming the risk associated for the third. Uncertainties related to the experimental and the modeling approaches and their application in the risk assessment are discussed. Based on this case study and the assumption that the models prove suitable for risk assessment once fully evaluated, we recommend that 1) ecological scenarios be developed that are also

  3. Application of the threshold approach for acute fish toxicity testing to plant protection products: a proposed framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Stuart; Clook, Mark; Wheeler, James R

    2014-02-01

    In order to minimise animal testing, this paper explores the feasibility of the "threshold approach" that has been recently developed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Essentially the approach uses a limit test at a single threshold concentration determined by the results of Daphnia and algae tests. If no mortality is observed in the limit test the fish acute value can be expressed as greater than the threshold value. However, if mortality is observed a full concentration-response test is triggered. In order to assess the applicability of the approach to plant protection products (PPP), a database of 185 products (fish, Daphnia and algae endpoints) was constructed and the threshold approach retrospectively applied. However, this analysis did not take into account the use of the data in the regulatory process. To assess whether the "threshold approach" could be used for PPPs the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) held a workshop in December 2010. This meeting brought together representatives from a number of European regulators and researchers as well as industry to discuss the applicability of the approach. The outcome of this discussion is presented in the paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature conditioning in ornamental plant production with a prototype device: root zone cooling in protected environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Burchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest growing costs in greenhouse floriculture is for energy. To reduce energy costs for thermal conditioning was projected an innovative root zone cooling system characterized by two coaxial pipes with hydraulic countercurrent flows. This new system was compared with a traditional system with hydraulic flows cocurrent. The plants were equipped with coolers for obtaining flowering in the summer period by a culture of Alstroemeria spp and were measured energy consumption in each root zone cooling system. The tests also focused on a particular change, made during the tests of previous years, which allows the coaxial system in turning his operation from countercurrent flows to cocurrent flows. The results obtained show that the root zone coaxial cooling system allows to obtain, in comparison to the traditional type, a better temperature uniformity of the root zone ground, both when it is used with countercurrent flows both when it is used with cocurrent flow. The system also allows a slight overall reduction in energy consumption.

  5. Plant Protection Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Allsopp

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the mycorrhizal status of plants growing in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa was undertaken to assess the range of mycorrhizal types and their dominance in species characteristic of this region. Records were obtained by ex­amining the root systems of plants growing in three Cape lowland vegetation types, viz. West Coast Strandveld, West Coast Renosterveld and Sand Plain Lowland Fynbos for mycorrhizas, as well as by collating literature records of mycorrhizas on plants growing in the region. The mycorrhizal status of 332 species is listed, of which 251 species are new records. Members of all the important families in this region have been examined. Mycorrhizal status appears to be associated mainly with taxonomic position of the species. Extrapolating from these results, we conclude that 62% of the flora of the Cape Floristic Region form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas, 23% have no mycorrhizas, 8% are ericoid mycorrhizal, 2% form orchid mycorrhizas, whereas the mycorrhizal status of 4% of the flora is unknown. There were no indigenous ectomycor- rhizal species. The proportion of non-mycorrhizal species is high compared to other ecosystems. In particular, the lack of mycorrhizas in several important perennial families in the Cape Floristic Region is unusual. The diversity of nutrient acquir­ing adaptations, including the range of mycorrhizas and cluster roots in some non-mycorrhizal families, may promote co­existence of plants in this species-rich region.

  6. Bacteriophages as Bactericides in Plant Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksa Obradović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of plant pathogenic bacteria is a serious problem in production of many agricultural crops. High multiplication rate, adaptability and life inside plant tissue make bacteria unsuitable and inaccessible for most of control measures. Consequently, the list of bactericides available for plant protection is very short. Lately, biological control measures have been intensively studied as a potential solution of the problem. Investigation of bacteriophages,viruses that attack bacteria, is a fast-expanding area of research in plant protection. Several experiments have shown that they can be used as a very efficient tool for control of plant pathogenic bacteria. The fact that they are widespread natural bacterial enemies, simple for cultivation and management, host-specific, suitable for integration with other control practices, human and environment friendly, provide a great advantage for the application of phages over other bactericides.

  7. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products NIOSH-Issued Publications Publication Types Alerts Current Intelligence Bulletins Criteria Documents Fact Sheets Health Hazard Evaluations ( ... contact with the plant Indirect contact (touching tools, animals, or clothing with urushiol on them) Inhalation of ...

  8. The value and adaptation of plant uptake models in international trade of produce treated with crop protection products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, C.; Anderson, J.; Snyder, N.;

    2010-01-01

    residues based on limited data sets affords business value by enabling informed product development decisions about the likelihood for MRL compliance for varied product use scenarios. Predicted residues can additionally support the design and conduct of time-constrained interdependent studies required......Crop Protection Product (CPP) national registrations and/or international trade require magnitude and decline of residue data for treated produce. These data are used to assess human dietary risk and establish legal limits (Maximum Residue Limits, MRLs) for traded produce. The ability to predict...... for product registrations. While advances in predicting residues for the case of foliar applications of CPPs have been achieved, predictions for the case of soil applications of CPPs provide additional challenge. The adaptation of a newly developed dynamic model to CPP product use scenarios will be explored...

  9. A critical review on fungi mediated plant responses with special emphasis to Piriformospora indica on improved production and protection of crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial fungi are potentially useful in agriculture sector to avail several services to crop plants such as water status, nutrient enrichment, stress tolerance, protection, weed control and bio-control. Natural agro-ecosystem relies on fungi because of it takes part in soil organic matter decomposition, nutrient acquisition, organic matter recycling, nutrient recycling, antagonism against plant pests, and crop management. The crucial role of fungi in normalizing the toxic effects of phenols, HCN and ROS by β-CAS, ACC demainase and antioxidant enzymes in plants is well documented. Fungi also play a part in various physiological processes such as water uptake, stomatal movement, mineral uptake, photosynthesis and biosynthesis of lignan, auxins and ethylene to improve growth and enhance plant fitness to cope heat, cold, salinity, drought and heavy metal stress. Here, we highlighted the ethylene- and cyclophilin A (CypA)-mediated response of Piriformospora indica for sustainable crop production under adverse environmental conditions.

  10. Powder detergents production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent production. The product meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite production, because all products with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  11. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...

  12. Powder detergents production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing ...

  13. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature......, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  14. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  15. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection... Agriculture intends to reestablish the Plant Variety Protection Board. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul....regulations.gov or by e-mail: Paul.Zankowski@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Plant...

  16. The Resistance of Crops in Plant Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIRZAEVA Gulnara

    2008-01-01

    @@ World crop production requires highly-productive varieties of agricultural crops,which are resistant to pest organisms.Such varieties are also of great importance for the Uzbekistan.Their deficiency may prove to be an obstacle to securing the production of foodstuffs and providing commerce with agricultural products.The cultivation of varieties,which are resistant to insects and mites,provides an opportunity to decrease the number of applied insecticides and acaricides.In addition to the considerable economic advantage,including energy consumption,the growing of resistant varieties is of great ecological importance,protecting environment and health (as a result the risk of chemical pollution becomes less and conditions for agricultural workers are improved).All this,allows us to state that exploration of the theoretical basis of plant resistance to pests and the selection of resistant arieties are a fundamental scientific and real national economic problems.It is known that an immunogenetic system of any organism is called up to protect their morpho-functional integrity.Plant resistance to in sects and mites,as well as other mesophauna,is characterized by many factors that reflect the essence of versatile interrelations that arose in the evolutionary process.

  17. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection

  18. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  19. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  20. Synthesis of positively charged hybrid PHMB-stabilized silver nanoparticles: the search for a new type of active substances used in plant protection products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutyakov, Yurii A.; Kudrinsky, Alexey A.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Zakharova, Olga V.; Klimov, Alexey I.; Yapryntsev, Alexey D.; Zherebin, Pavel M.; Shapoval, Olga A.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2017-07-01

    Modern agriculture calls for a decrease in pesticide application, particularly in order to decrease the negative impact on the environment. Therefore the development of new active substances and plant protection products (PPP) to minimize the chemical load on ecosystems is a very important problem. Substances based on silver nanoparticles are a promising solution of this problem because of the fact that in correct doses such products significantly increase yields and decrease crop diseases while displaying low toxicity to humans and animals. In this paper we for the first time propose application of polymeric guanidine compounds with varying chain lengths (from 10 to 130 elementary links) for the design and synthesis of modified silver nanoparticles to be used as the basis of a new generation of PPP. Colloidal solutions of nanocrystalline silver containing 0.5 g l-1 of silver and 0.01-0.4 g l-1 of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) were obtained by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride in the presence of PHMB. The field experiment has shown that silver-containing solutions have a positive effect on agronomic properties of potato, wheat and apple. Also the increase in activity of such antioxidant system enzymes as peroxidase and catalase in the tissues of plants treated with nanosilver has been registered.

  1. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  2. Assessing the comparative risk of plant protection products to honey bees, non-target arthropods and non-Apis bees

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Mark J.; Alix, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the European Union the placing of pesticides on the market requires as a prerequisite that a risk assessment demonstrates low risks to human health and the environment, among which includes pollinators. Currently risks are evaluated for honey bees and for non-target arthropods (NTA) of cultivated ecosystems. The actual protection of pollinators other than the honey bees, as for example for non-Apis bees, in relation to these risk assessments has recently been questioned and req...

  3. Scientific Opinion on good modelling practice in the context of mechanistic effect models for risk assessment of plant protection products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Panel has interpreted the Terms of Reference as a stepwise analysis of issues relevant to both the development and the evaluation of models to assess ecological effects of pesticides. The regulatory model should be selected or developed to address the relevant specific protection goal. The basis of good modelling practice must be the knowledge of relevant processes and the availability of data of sufficient quality. The opinion identifies several critical steps in order to set models within risk assessment, namely: problem formulation, considering the specific protection goals for the taxa or functional groups of concern; model domain of applicability, which drives the species and scenarios to model; species (and life stage selection, considering relevant life history traits and toxicological/toxicokinetics characteristics of the pesticide; selection of the environmental scenario, which is defined by a combination of abiotic, biotic and agronomic parameters to provide a realistic worst-case situation. Model development should follow the modelling cycle, in which every step has to be fully documented: (i problem definition; (ii model formulation, i.e. design of a conceptual model; (iii model formalisation, in which variables and parameters are linked together into mathematical equations or algorithms; (iv model implementation, in which a computer code is produced and verified; (v model setup, including sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analysis and comparison with observed data, that delivers the regulatory model; (vi prior to actual use in risk assessment, the regulatory model should be evaluated for relevance to the specific protection goals; (vii feedback from risk assessor with possible recommendations for model improvement. Model evaluation by regulatory authorities should consider each step of the modelling cycle: the opinion identifies points of particular attention for the use of mechanistic effect models in pesticide risk assessment

  4. EFFECT OF PROTECTIVE FUNCTION OF VERMICULTURE PRODUCTS ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS IN THE CONDITION OF ABIOTIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Vasilyuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of MgSO4 on morphometric specifics of the Salix alba L., which characterized by high rates of growth and development is investigated. Mg2+ was added in the form of MgSO4*3H2O at a concentration of 2.5 g/l considering of salt water content in the research solutions with S. alba L. and  combined with plant growth regulator (GR of natural origin Humisol. These studies have shown toxicity ofMgSO4 at a concentration of 2.5 g/l during all the period of growth and development. So, MgSO4 had toxic effect on plant growth and development within whole period of observation. We registered negative correlation (R = - 0.99 between toxic properties of salt and the age of the studied plants (for example, the growth rate of shoots and leaf blades by S. alba L. and positive correlation (R = 0.99 while studied the root growth rate, which was caused by the direct contact of rhizosphere and negative stressors. The GR Humisol accelerated the rate of physiological processes of growth and development of shoots and roots in 2-3 times, but the growth of leaf blade was not activated regards the control. The combined effect of magnesium salts and GR levelled toxic concentrations of magnesium sulphate were accelerated plant growth or stimulated growth up to control values, promoted adaptation mechanisms of plants and provided a protective role against excessive salinity. We suggested using the Humisol as a natural product, vermiculture, adaptogene, protector, and fertilizer agent of natural origin, which provides for biota to consume the environmental services without damage to the environment under conditions of excessive pressure of salt stress on plant organism.

  5. Use of the Maximum Cumulative Ratio As an Approach for Prioritizing Aquatic Coexposure to Plant Protection Products: A Case Study of a Large Surface Water Monitoring Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Nathalie; Price, Paul S

    2016-05-17

    This paper uses the maximum cumulative ratio (MCR) as part of a tiered approach to evaluate and prioritize the risk of acute ecological effects from combined exposures to the plant protection products (PPPs) measured in 3 099 surface water samples taken from across the United States. Assessments of the reported mixtures performed on a substance-by-substance approach and using a Tier One cumulative assessment based on the lowest acute ecotoxicity benchmark gave the same findings for 92.3% of the mixtures. These mixtures either did not indicate a potential risk for acute effects or included one or more individual PPPs that had concentrations in excess of their benchmarks. A Tier Two assessment using a trophic level approach was applied to evaluate the remaining 7.7% of the mixtures. This assessment reduced the number of mixtures of concern by eliminating the combination of endpoint from multiple trophic levels, identified invertebrates and nonvascular plants as the most susceptible nontarget organisms, and indicated that a only a very limited number of PPPs drove the potential concerns. The combination of the measures of cumulative risk and the MCR enabled the identification of a small subset of mixtures where a potential risk would be missed in substance-by-substance assessments.

  6. Health Protection Products Are Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    FooDS and beverages that are made from natural ingredients and advertised as therapies are sweeping the consumer market. The health protection products I’ve seen can be divided into five categories. They include: 1. Beverages: tea, haw juice, mineral water; 2. Medicinal liquids: royal jelly, black-boned chicken essence, softshelled turtle essence; 3. Health protection foods: brown rice powder, rice vinegar, asparagus juice, egg-white candy;

  7. Plant Variety Protection and DUS Testing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hui; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Shi-huang; LI Ming-shun; LI Wen-hua

    2002-01-01

    DUS testing technique used for plant variety protection was reviewed in the paper, and somesuggestions were made on how to establish the appropriate technology system in China. Meanwhile, the poten-tial exploitation of the technique was discussed.

  8. Employment Protection and Misallocation of Resources across Plants : International Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2013-01-01

    Employment protection affects aggregate productivity via several channels in potentially contradicting ways, which makes it difficult to establish the relationship between the two. This study focuses on the misallocation of production factors across plants, which has been shown in past studies to su

  9. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity

  10. Plant Natural Product Formononetin Protects Rat Cardiomyocyte H9c2 Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation via Inhibiting ROS Formation and Promoting GSK-3β Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhengyuan; Han, Yifan; Rong, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a major cause of cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury. Based on our pilot experiments, plant natural product formononetin enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells during oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation. For mechanistic studies, we focused on two major cellular factors, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), in the regulation of mPTP opening. We found that formononetin suppressed the formation of ROS and superoxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Formononetin also rescued OGD/reoxygenation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Further studies suggested that formononetin induced Akt activation and GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK-3β activity towards mPTP opening. PI3K and PKC inhibitors abolished the effects of formononetin on mPTP opening and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that formononetin increased the binding of phosphor-GSK-3β to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) while it disrupted the complex of ANT with cyclophilin D. Moreover, immunofluorescence revealed that phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) was mainly deposited in the space between mitochondria and cell nucleus. Collectively, these results indicated that formononetin protected cardiomyocytes from OGD/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting ROS formation and promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation.

  11. Plant Natural Product Formononetin Protects Rat Cardiomyocyte H9c2 Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation via Inhibiting ROS Formation and Promoting GSK-3β Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP is a major cause of cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury. Based on our pilot experiments, plant natural product formononetin enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells during oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD and reoxygenation. For mechanistic studies, we focused on two major cellular factors, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β, in the regulation of mPTP opening. We found that formononetin suppressed the formation of ROS and superoxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Formononetin also rescued OGD/reoxygenation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Further studies suggested that formononetin induced Akt activation and GSK-3β (Ser9 phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK-3β activity towards mPTP opening. PI3K and PKC inhibitors abolished the effects of formononetin on mPTP opening and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that formononetin increased the binding of phosphor-GSK-3β to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT while it disrupted the complex of ANT with cyclophilin D. Moreover, immunofluorescence revealed that phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9 was mainly deposited in the space between mitochondria and cell nucleus. Collectively, these results indicated that formononetin protected cardiomyocytes from OGD/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting ROS formation and promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation.

  12. Autonomous systems for plant protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2010-01-01

    Advances in automation are demanded by the market mainly as a response to high labor costs. Robotic outdoor systems are ready to allow not only economically viable operations but also increased efficiency in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. The aim of this chapter is to give examples of au...... and safe behaviors. In general the potential of saving e.g. of herbicides are huge when high precision targeting based on individual weed plant detections is used....

  13. Autonomous systems for plant protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm;

    2010-01-01

    Advances in automation are demanded by the market mainly as a response to high labor costs. Robotic outdoor systems are ready to allow not only economically viable operations but also increased efficiency in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. The aim of this chapter is to give examples...... of autonomous operations related to crop protection probably commercially available in the near future. Scouting and monitoring together with the efficient application of chemicals or mechanical treatments are operations which can be successful automated. Drawbacks are that current systems are lacking robust...

  14. REXPO: A catchment model designed to understand and simulate the loss dynamics of plant protection products and biocides from agricultural and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, I. K.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Stamm, C.

    2016-02-01

    During rain events, biocides and plant protection products are transported from agricultural fields but also from urban sources to surface waters. Originally designed to be biologically active, these compounds may harm organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Although several models allow either urban or agricultural storm events to be predicted, only few combine these two sources, and none of them include biocide losses from building envelopes. This study therefore aims to develop a model designed to predict water and substance flows from urban and agricultural sources to surface waters. We developed a model based on physical principles for water percolation and substance flow including micro- (also called matrix-) and macropore-flows for the agricultural areas together with a model representing sources, sewer systems and a wastewater treatment plant for urban areas. In a second step, the combined model was applied to a catchment where an extensive field study had been conducted. The modelled and measured discharge and compound results corresponded reasonably well in terms of quantity and dynamics. The total cumulative discharge was only slightly lower than the total measured discharge (factor 0.94). The total modelled losses of the agriculturally used herbicide atrazine were slightly lower (∼25%) than the measured losses when the soil pore water distribution coefficient (describing the partition between soil particles and pore water) (Kd) was kept constant and slightly higher if it was increased with time. The modelled urban losses of diuron from facades were within a factor of three with respect to the measured values. The results highlighted the change in importance of the flow components during a rain event from urban sources during the most intensive rain period towards agricultural ones over a prolonged time period. Applications to two other catchments, one neighbouring and one on another continent showed that the model can be applied using site specific data for

  15. Recommendations for simulations to predict environmental concentrations of active substances of plant protection products and their metabolites in groundwater (PECgw) in the national assessment for authorisation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdt, Gabriele; Gallien, Peter; Nehls, Angelika [Umweltbundesamt Dessau (DE)] (and others)

    2011-09-15

    In the national assessment for authorisation in Germany the leaching behaviour of a plant protection product is determined in a stepwise procedure in accordance with FOCUS groundwater report (2009). The recommendations given in this paper here are related to tier 1 and tier 2, only. A further publication is planned for the tier 3 and tier 4 assessments in accordance with the principles provided by FOCUS. The tier 1 leaching assessment in the EU evaluation process is based on the nine FOCUS (2009) standard groundwater scenarios. In the member state evaluation for Germany, a sub-set of the standard scenarios with climatic and soil conditions found to be relevant for Ger-many are taken into account (Hamburg and Kremsmuenster). The soils of the two scenarios cover the pH-range of agricultural soils and allow the pH-dependent behaviour of compounds to be addressed. For the parameterisation of the degradation behaviour of an active substance and its metabolites in soil the recommendations of FOCUS should be followed. Normalised degradation rates may be taken from either laboratory or from field dissipation studies. For the parameterisation of the sorption behaviour of an active substance and its metabolites in soil the recommendations of FOCUS should be considered. With respect to the correlation of degradation and/or sorption behaviour to soil properties (pH, OC) further detailed recommendations are provided to facilitate the selection of conservative sorption parameters for leaching assessment. Proposals and detailed schemes for the handling of the DT50 and Kfoc values (including their variability) are given. Further recommendations are given in this paper on how to use other modelling parameters e.g. crop rotation, plant uptake factor, formation of metabolites, correlations / multi-correlations of substance parameters to soil properties, and application of statistical methods. Tier 2 of the leaching assessment consists of more refined modelling approaches. This

  16. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeck, Mark; Reynaerts, Arlette; Höfte, Herman; Jansens, Stefan; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Dean, Caroline; Zabeau, Marc; Montagu, Marc Van; Leemans, Jan

    1987-07-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  17. Sequential testing scheme for the assessment of the side-effects of plant protection products on the predatory bug Orius laevigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veire, Van de M.; Sterk, G.; Staaij, van der M.; Ramakers, P.M.J.; Tirry, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a number of test methods, to beused in a sequential scheme, for testing the side-effects ofplant protection products on anthocorid bugs. Orius laevigatuswas used as test species. A `worst case' laboratory method wasdeveloped for evaluating the effect on mortality of the nymphsan

  18. RNAi-mediated plant protection against aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiu-Dao; Liu, Zong-Cai; Huang, Si-Liang; Chen, Zhi-Qin; Sun, Yong-Wei; Duan, Peng-Fei; Ma, You-Zhi; Xia, Lan-Qin

    2016-06-01

    Aphids (Aphididae) are major agricultural pests that cause significant yield losses of crop plants each year by inflicting damage both through the direct effects of feeding and by vectoring harmful plant viruses. Expression of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directed against suitable insect target genes in transgenic plants has been shown to give protection against pests through plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). Thus, as a potential alternative and effective strategy for insect pest management in agricultural practice, plant-mediated RNAi for aphid control has received close attention in recent years. In this review, the mechanism of RNAi in insects and the so far explored effective RNAi target genes in aphids, their potential applications in the development of transgenic plants for aphid control and the major challenges in this regard are reviewed, and the future prospects of using plant-mediated RNAi for aphid control are discussed. This review is intended to be a helpful insight into the generation of aphid-resistant plants through plant-mediated RNAi strategy. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. THE USE OF PLANTS TO PROTECT PLANTS AND FOOD AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS: A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, D S S; Eloff, J N

    2017-01-01

    Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to investigate other possibilities. Several databases were accessed to determine work done on protecting plants against plant fungal pathogens with plant extracts using search terms "plant fungal pathogen", "plant extracts" and "phytopathogens". Proposals are made on the best extractants and bioassay techniques to be used. In addition to chemical fungicides, biological agents have been used to deal with plant fungal diseases. There are many examples where plant extracts or plant derived compounds have been used as commercial deterrents of fungi on a large scale in agricultural and horticultural setups. One advantage of this approach is that plant extracts usually contain more than one antifungal compound. Consequently the development of resistance of pathogens may be lower if the different compounds affect a different metabolic process. Plants cultivated using plants extracts may also be marketed as organically produced. Many papers have been published on effective antimicrobial compounds present in plant extracts focusing on applications in human health. More research is required to develop suitable, sustainable, effective, cheaper botanical products that can be used to help overcome the scourge of plant fungal diseases. Scientists who have worked only on using plants to control human and animal fungal pathogens should consider the advantages of focusing on plant fungal pathogens. This approach could not only potentially increase

  20. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  1. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  2. 77 FR 75607 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations AGENCY: Agricultural... INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul Zankowski, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), Plant Variety Protection... 17, 2012. David Shipman, Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. BILLING CODE 3410-02-P...

  3. Modular Engineering of Production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...

  4. Modular Engineering of Production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...

  5. State power plant productivity programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The findings of a working group formed to review the status of efforts by utilities and utility regulators to increase the availability and reliability of generating units are presented. Representatives from nine state regulatory agencies, NRRI, and DOE, participated on the Working Group. The Federal government has been working cooperatively with utilities, utility organizations, and with regulators to encourage and facilitate improvements in power plant productivity. Cooperative projects undertaken with regulatory and energy commissions in California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Texas, North Carolina and Mighigan are described. Following initiation of these cooperative projects, DOE funded a survey to determine which states were explicitly addressing power plant productivity through the regulatory process. The Working Group was formed following completion of this survey. The Working Group emphasized the need for those power plant productivity improvements which are cost effective. The cost effectiveness of proposed availability improvement projects should be determined within the context of opportunities for operating and capital improvements available to an entire utility. The Working Group also identified the need for: allowing for plant designs that have a higher construction cost, but are also more reliable; allowing for recovery and reducing recovery lags for productivity-related capital expenditures; identifying and reducing disincentives in the regulatory process; ascertaining that utilities have sufficient money available to undertake timely maintenance; and support of EPRI and NERC to develop a relevant and accurate national data base. The DOE views these as extremely important aspects of any regulatory program to improve power plant productivity.

  6. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...... system operation, i.e., it does not rely on information about the possible faults. We illustrate the proposed method using real-world data from a coal driven power plant as well as simulated data from an oil production facility....

  7. The Mars Plant Growth Experiment and Implications for Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather

    Plants are the ultimate and necessary solution for O2 production at a human base on Mars. Currently it is unknown if seeds can germinate on the Martian surface. The Mars Plant growth experiment (MPX) is a proposal for the first step in the development of a plant- based O2 production system by demonstrating plant germination and growth on the Martian surface. There is currently no planetary protection policy in place that covers plants on the Martian surface. We describe a planetary protection plan in compliance with NASA and COSPAR policy for a closed plant growth chamber on a Mars rover. We divide the plant growth chamber into two categories for planetary protection, the Outside: the outside of the chamber exposed to the Martian environment, and the Inside: the inside of the chamber which is sealed off from Mars atmosphere and contains the plant seeds and ancillary components for seed growth. We will treat outside surfaces of the chamber as other outside surfaces on the rover, wiped with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water as per Category IVb planetary protection requirements. All internal components of the MPX except the seeds and camera (including the water system, the plant growth stage and interior surface walls) will be sterilized by autoclave and subjected to sterilizing dry heat at a temperature of 125°C at an absolute humidity corresponding to a relative humidity of less than 25 percent referenced to the standard conditions of 0°C and 760 torr pressure. The seeds and internal compartments of the MPX in contact with the growth media will be assembled and tested to be free of viable microbes. MPX, once assembled, cannot survive Dry Heat Microbial Reduction. The camera with the radiation and CO2 sensors will be sealed in their own container and vented through HEPA filters. The seeds will be vernalized (microbe free) as per current Space Station methods described by Paul et al. 2001. Documentation of the lack of viable microbes on representative seeds

  8. How to evaluate the environmental safety of plant protection products of natural origin - Proposals for decision trees for microbial, semio-chemical, and plant-derived biopesticides: version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; SEC

    2004-01-01

    The environmental safety of crop protection products of natural origin (biopesticides) is to be re-evaluated within a few years' time by the European Union. Also, new biopesticides will enter the EU market, due to the increasing importance of sustainable agriculture. There is, however, almost no gui

  9. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  10. Plant senescence and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Per L.; Culetic, Andrea; Boschian, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants....... With the aim to enhance productivity, a number of functional stay-green cultivars have been selected by conventional breeding, in particular of sorghum and maize. In many cases, a positive correlation between leaf area duration and yield has been observed, although in a number of other cases, stay...... plants, the expression of the IPT gene under control of senescence-associated promoters has been the most successful. The promoters employed for senescence-regulated expression contain cis-elements for binding of WRKY transcription factors and factors controlled by abscisic acid. In most crops...

  11. Dairy Product Manufacturing Costs at Cooperative Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, K. Charles

    1983-01-01

    Cost data are summarized for 14 plants manufacturing cheese, butter, and powder and average costs are presented for each product. Average cost curves are estimated for each plant. The scale of plant for least-cost operations is identified for plants of each product type. Plant capacity utilization and seasonal volume variation and their impacts on manufacturing cost are delineated.

  12. Methane production from plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Methane fermentations of plant biomass were performed to increase basic knowledge necessary for development of suitable conversion technologies. Effects of bacterial inoculants, substrate compounds and varied process conditions were analyzed in batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Use of enriched bacterial populations precultured and adapted to plant materials was proved to be advantageous for inoculation. Methane yields and productivities as well as chemical and bacterial composition of digester fluids were determined at various loading rates and retention times during fermentation of different grass and maize silages. Recycling for favorable amounts of decomposed effluent for neutralization of supplied acid raw materials was important to achieve high methane yields. Quantity and composition of acido-, aceto- and methanogenic bacteria were not essentially influenced by changed fermentation conditions. Results of these laboratory examinations have to be completed by long run and scale up experiments to develop control parameters for plant biogas digesters.

  13. 78 FR 63448 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is intended to notify the... Protection Office, Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural Marketing Service, United States...

  14. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization...

  15. Problems of New Plant Variety Protection System in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuwu; GUAN

    2013-01-01

    Protection of new plant varieties has been long neglected in China, which has already restricted agricultural technological renovation, and influenced export of Chinese agricultural products. The current scientific and technological management system is not favorable for the output of right of new plant variety, and high cost of protecting new plant varieties directly results in agricultural researchers’ ignorance of right of new plant variety. Major causes were concluded as poor intellectual property awareness of peasants and agricultural researchers, government-arranged system for agricultural scientific and technological management, and hardship in safeguarding intellectual property due to the particularity of agricultural technology. In view of these problems, Chinese agricultural scientific and technological management system should be reformed, protection system of new plant varieties improved, more efforts devoted in protecting the right of new plant variety and also the owners’ interest.

  16. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  17. 78 FR 37200 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ..., electronic PVP application/computer database development, and the use of molecular markers for PVP... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural... their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: July 31,...

  18. Consumer protection act for digital products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  19. Plant varieties protection in the European Union: legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Б. Якубенко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Reviewing the EU legislation on plant varie­ties protection including documents of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV that related to the national laws of its member states. Results. Based on the sources processed, the authors give a brief analysis of the basic EU Council Regulation № 2100/94 of 27 July 1994 on Community plant variety rights and regulations of the European Commission adopted to implement it. Basic copyright concepts, features of plant varieties protection in the EU, including those under the UPOV Convention, are also considered. Conclusions. For Ukraine, obtaining full membership in the EU, on the one hand, requires harmonization of its laws with the re­levant EU legislation, on the other – improvement of the present system of plant varieties protection taking into account national interests of Ukraine.

  20. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  1. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  2. Is plant endophyte-mediated defensive mutualism the result of oxidative stress protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S

    2010-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the biology and beneficial effects of plant endophytes on host plants. The current explanation of endophyte protection (defensive mutualism) of host plants is based on the secondary metabolites (alkaloids) with antiherbivore properties produced by the symbiotic association between host plant and endophytes. We propose an alternative explanation of the mechanism of host protection through enhanced stress tolerance to oxidative stress. Several studies have demonstrated the production of different compounds (phenolics) with antioxidant capacity in endophyte-infected plants. Endophytes may also produce mannitol, other carbohydrates and small molecules (proline) with antioxidant capacity. We suggest that enhanced antioxidant production by symbiotic plants may be the result of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by endophytes. In turn, symbiotic plants are protected from oxidative stress produced by plant diseases, droughts, heavy metals and other oxidative stressors by the production of antioxidants. We also discuss the lichen symbiosis and evaluate whether management of ROS also plays a role in this defensive mutualism. Future experiments are needed to evaluate the hypothesis that antioxidants are responsible for enhanced stress tolerance in endophyte-infected plants.

  3. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  4. Plant defense against herbivorous pests: exploiting resistance and tolerance traits for sustainable crop protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Mitchell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.

  5. Plant Defense against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.

  6. Heat flow, plant design and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Patela, E.A.; Linhoff, B. (Linnhoff March Ltd. (GB))

    The modern requirements for energy management, minimum capital cost for plant design and the reduction of plant emissions are placing what would appear to be conflicting demands upon the plant engineers. However, there is an established technology that can provide assistance. Pinch Technology, developed a few years ago as a tool for saving energy in existing plants during the last period of escalating oil prices, has now become an established tool for debottlenecking, yield improvement and capital cost reduction. More recently, it has been shown that Pinch Technology can also be used with regard to flue gas emissions, waste minimization and the evaluation of waste treatment options. (author).

  7. The use of plants to protect plants and food against fungal pathogens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of plants to protect plants and food against fungal pathogens: a review. ... associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to ... may be lower if the different compounds affect a different metabolic process.

  8. Lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquegneau, Christian [Polytechnical University of Mons (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The paper brings some cases and presents the general principles, what the IEC 62305 international standard says, the warning and avoidance and the conclusion about lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants.

  9. Interoperability of Knowledge Units in Plant Protection: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beránková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we provide two case studies on interoperability and transfer of knowledge in the environment of acompany dealing with plant protection. We find that the area of plant protection is highly oriented on workingwith knowledge. In this case interoperability of knowledge can play an important role in acquiring knowledgefrom different environments to solve specific problem in companies dealing with plant protection. Nevertheless,the concept of interoperability is well-developed on the level of data and information only.We stem from our previous works, where we defined a logical concept for the interoperability of knowledge onthe level of knowledge units. The objective of this work is to show how to apply our process model ofknowledge interoperability in a particular plant protection company. Two case studies are provided in order todemonstrate distinguishing between simple knowledge transfer and knowledge interoperability.

  10. Some trial methods of plant protection equipments in Turkey.

    OpenAIRE

    Erimgüner, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Plant Protection Equipments Laboratory of the: Institute for the Plant Protection Chemicals and Equipments in Ankara is handling the mechanical and practical testing of; the equipments intended to be put in Turkey's markets. The testing is carried out as a part of the procedure of the approval scheme. In this article the detailed information's covering the mechanical and practical features required from the «equipments is given.

  11. Tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate-stabilized silver nanoparticles: new frontiers in development of plant protection products with a broad spectrum of action against phytopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutyakov, Yurii A.; Kudrinskiy, Alexey A.; Zherebin, Pavel M.; Yapryntsev, Alexey D.; Pobedinskaya, Marina A.; Elansky, Sergey N.; Denisov, Albert N.; Mikhaylov, Dmitry M.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable agriculture calls for minimal use of agrochemicals in order to protect the environment. It has caused an increase in the rate of nanoparticles use, in particular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their safety for mammals, unique biological activity and a broad spectrum of action against fungal and bacterial pathogens. Until now the use of AgNPs dispersions in the agricultural sector has been essentially limited due to many factors decreased their stability (mixing with other pesticides, presence of electrolytes). We present a versatile synthesis of polyampholyte surfactant (tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate) stabilized AgNPs. We took a close look at unique aggregation behavior (via dynamic light scattering and UV-vis spectroscopy) and biocidal activity of obtained silver colloids. AgNPs are characterized by exclusively high aggregative stability in the presence of coagulating agents NaNO3 and NaSO4 (up to 1 M), during drying/redispergation, and frost/defrost cycles. The dispersion of AgNPs shows high biocidal activity (EC50 is ten times lower than commercial species ones) with respect to Phytophthora infestans and phytopathogenic fungi. This points to the possibility of successful application of silver preparations within agriculture with the goal of partial reduction of the use of toxic and expensive synthetic antibiotics and pesticides.

  12. Chemical plant protection outlays in vast areas farming at the beginning of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Golinowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, several investigations were conducted in the area of chemical plant protection outlays in two vast area farms where simplified system of farming was applied. Analysed outlays consisted of: use of pesticides in kilograms of active substance per 1 ha and real costs of plant protection procedures. Profitability of the outlay was identified with approximate indicator of outlay E1 and E2. The research showed that farm during plant production use from 1 to 10.28 kg AS/ha. Costs of these procedures ranged from 100.50 to 1253.84 PLN/ha depending on the cultivated plant. Profitability of plant protection procedures in wheat and rape cultivation was at the same level in both farms. The highest profitability was reached by maize cultivation.

  13. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  14. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  15. Photovoltaic power plants: production calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.

    Rational sizing of a photovoltaic plant requires a good evaluation of the obtainable electric energy as a function of the many meteorological and plant parameters. A computing procedure is described in detail together with a fully developed numerical example. The procedure is based on monthly usability. It is reliable and it allows designers to take into account the influence of the main plant parameters within rather wide ranges.

  16. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  17. Use of the dog as non-rodent test species in the safety testing schedule associated with the registration of crop and plant protection products (pesticides): present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Rainer J; Spielmann, Horst

    2005-11-01

    The results from a survey of the expert information that is publicly accessible on the use of the dog as test species during the regulatory evaluation of agricultural chemicals and pesticides are reported. Methods that are being used or considered in order to reduce the number of dogs used for this purpose are described. Regulatory evaluation aims at establishing threshold values for safe human exposure; it is based on no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOELs) determined in animal studies. Current regulations require testing in two species, a rodent species (usually rat or mouse), and a non-rodent species (usually the dog). Subchronic (90-day) and chronic (12-month) repeated-dose feeding studies must be routinely conducted in dogs. This report first focuses on the results from a retrospective study analysing data on 216 pesticides kept on record by the Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR (German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment), the competent regulatory authority in Germany. The study was sponsored and coordinated by SET, the German Foundation for the Promotion of Research on Replacement and Complementary Methods to Reduce Animal Testing (Stiftung zur Förderung der Erforschung von Ersatz-und Ergänzungsmethoden zur Einschränkung von Tierversuchen, Mainz) and conducted by the BfR. Since the data submitted for registration of a product is the property of the manufacturer, the study could only proceed with the collaboration of the German Association of Manufacturers of Agricultural Chemicals (Industrieverband Agrar, IVA). To ensure confidentiality, designated codes were used instead of the compounds' proper names when the study was published. The results support two major conclusions. The use of the dog for the testing of pesticides is indeed necessary because the dog has proved to be the most sensitive species for about 15% of the compounds examined. However, chronic studies are only of limited value since they only provide essential information that

  18. N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S. meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Modern air protection technologies at thermal power plants (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Realization of the ecologically safe technologies for fuel combustion in the steam boiler furnaces and the effective ways for treatment of flue gases at modern thermal power plants have been analyzed. The administrative and legal measures to stimulate introduction of the technologies for air protection at TPPs have been considered. It has been shown that both the primary intrafurnace measures for nitrogen oxide suppression and the secondary flue gas treatment methods are needed to meet the modern ecological standards. Examples of the environmentally safe methods for flame combustion of gas-oil and solid fuels in the boiler furnaces have been provided. The effective methods and units to treat flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides and flue ash have been considered. It has been demonstrated that realization of the measures for air protection should be accompanied by introduction of the systems for continuous instrumentation control of the composition of combustion products in the gas path of boiler units and for monitoring of atmospheric emissions.

  20. The Determinants of Plant Variety Protection Applications in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ruifa; Huang Jie; Carl Prày; Huang Jikun

    2007-01-01

    China passed its Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) in 1997 which allowed us to do some initial testing of this proposition. We used a unique dataset on the applications of the new Plant Variety Protection (PVP), morphological characteristics, and institutional sources of all the important varieties of rice in three provinces of China to estimate the determinants of plant variety protection applications in China. The evidence suggests that both the government and private research programs are responding to economic and policy incentives and investing in plant variety protection as economists would expect profit maximizing firms to invest. The discussion of the evolution of the seed industry suggested that the combination of the new seed law in 2000 and the new plant variety protection regulation had changed the structure of the seed industry and provided an important incentive to invest in PVPs both by public research institutes and commercial firms. Finally, there is some preliminary evidence that private firms have smaller incentives to develop new varieties than to purchase the new varieties.

  1. Benefits for Plants in Ant-Plant Protective Mutualisms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trager, Matthew D.; Bhotika, Smriti; Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Andrade, Gilda V.; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; McKeon, C. Seabird; Osenberg, Craig W.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model) and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75) indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial) explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several questions to guide

  2. Benefits for plants in ant-plant protective mutualisms: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Trager

    Full Text Available Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75 indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several

  3. Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briat, Jean-François; Dubos, Christian; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in modern agriculture is increasing biomass production, while improving plant product quality, in a sustainable way. Of the minerals, iron (Fe) plays a major role in this process because it is essential both for plant productivity and for the quality of their products. Fe homeostasis is an important determinant of photosynthetic efficiency in algae and higher plants, and we review here the impact of Fe limitation or excess on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. We also discuss the agronomic, plant breeding, and transgenic approaches that are used to remediate Fe deficiency of plants on calcareous soils, and suggest ways to increase the Fe content and bioavailability of the edible parts of crops to improve human diet.

  4. Plant responses to stresses: role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development.

  5. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables.

  6. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel.

  7. Operational management in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leutscher, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Operational management in pot plant production was investigated by means of system analysis and simulation. A theoretical framework for operational decision-making consisted of elaboration decisions, progress decisions, and adoption decisions. This framework was incorporated in a pot plant

  8. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as

  9. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as fragran

  10. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plant Design

    OpenAIRE

    Littlefield, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    A plant was designed that uses a solar sulfur-ammonia thermochemical water-splitting cycle for the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen is useful as a fuel for stationary and mobile fuel cells. The chemical process simulator Aspen Plus® was used to model the plant and conduct simulations. The process utilizes the electrolytic oxidation of aqueous ammonium sulfite in the hydrogen production half cycle and the thermal decomposition of molten potassium pyrosulfate and gaseous sulfur trioxide in t...

  11. Protection of cadmium chloride induced DNA damage by Lamiaceae plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan; Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the total phenolic content, DNA protecting and radical scavenging activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of three Lamiaceae plants, i.e. Anisomelos malabarica (A. malabarica), Leucas aspera (L. aspera) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum). Methods: The total polyphenols and flavonoids were analyzed in the ethanolic leaf extracts of the lamiaceae plants. To determine the DNA protecting activity, various concentrations of the plant extracts were prepared and treated on cultured HepG2 human lung cancer cells. The pretreated cells were exposed to H2O2 to induce DNA damage through oxidative stress. Comet assay was done and the tail length of individual comets was measured. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion scavenging activities of lamiaceae plants were analyzed. Results: Among the three plant extracts, the highest amount of total phenolic content was found in O. basilicum (189.33 mg/g), whereas A. malabarica showed high levels of flavonoids (10.66 mg/g). O. basilicum also showed high levels of DNA protecting (85%) and radical scavenging activity. Conclusions: The results of this study shows that bioactive phenols present in lamiaceae plants may prevent carcinogenesis through scavenging free radicals and inhibiting DNA damage.

  12. Industrial wastewater treatment plant of sugar production

    OpenAIRE

    Čad, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Sugar as product in our every day’s life’s been consumed in enormous quantities as one of main resources in food and drink industry. Production processes of sugar from sugar beet bring significant environmental impacts with it’s waste waters as the biggest pollutant. The thesis deals with sugar production waste water’s treatment process by presenting an example of waste water treatment plant of sugar factory, therefor presenting the production processes in sugar factories and their environmen...

  13. Sui Generis Plant Variety Protection: The Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Dang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant variety protection relates to intellectual property rights over plant varieties which guarantee rights-holders exclusive commercial rights for a specific period of time. Article 27 (3(b of the TRIPS Agreement, compulsorily mandates that every member-state of the WTO must introduce such protection through domestic legislation by certain set time frames. These rights are one form of IPR being aggressively imposed on developing countries and are often touted as a 'soft' patent regime. Plant variety laws are just as threatening as industrial patents on biodiversity and also represent an attack on the rights of farming an other communities at the local level. From a legal perspective, the protection of plant varieties in India remains an issue which is far from settled even though the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act was adopted in 2001 in compliance with the TRIPS Agreement. This study argued that the goal of the IP regime should be to balance the competing needs of maximizing societal innovation while appropriately rewarding the individuals that contribute to that innovation. Towards this end, the study seeks to analyze the issues related to the protection of plant varieties with reference to the TRIPS agreement along with the biodiversity treaty and the PGRFA Treaty. One of the chief distinguishing features of the PGRFA Treaty is its emphasis on farmers' rights. This characteristic is analyzed further in the Indian context. Conclusion: Plant variety protection is linked to both agricultural innovation and the conservation of biological resources, although on different levels. The present international legal framework remains partly inconclusive with regard to they type of agricultural management that it seeks to encourage. Though the development of sui generis programs for plant variety protection is still in a nascent stage, this paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the Farmers' Rights

  14. Plant biotechnology for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanzi; Song, Jian; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Jack P; Qu, Guan-Zheng; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

    2014-12-01

    Lignocelluloses from plant cell walls are attractive resources for sustainable biofuel production. However, conversion of lignocellulose to biofuel is more expensive than other current technologies, due to the costs of chemical pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis for cell wall deconstruction. Recalcitrance of cell walls to deconstruction has been reduced in many plant species by modifying plant cell walls through biotechnology. These results have been achieved by reducing lignin content and altering its composition and structure. Reduction of recalcitrance has also been achieved by manipulating hemicellulose biosynthesis and by overexpression of bacterial enzymes in plants to disrupt linkages in the lignin-carbohydrate complexes. These modified plants often have improved saccharification yield and higher ethanol production. Cell wall-degrading (CWD) enzymes from bacteria and fungi have been expressed at high levels in plants to increase the efficiency of saccharification compared with exogenous addition of cellulolytic enzymes. In planta expression of heat-stable CWD enzymes from bacterial thermophiles has made autohydrolysis possible. Transgenic plants can be engineered to reduce recalcitrance without any yield penalty, indicating that successful cell wall modification can be achieved without impacting cell wall integrity or plant development. A more complete understanding of cell wall formation and structure should greatly improve lignocellulosic feedstocks and reduce the cost of biofuel production.

  15. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  16. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  17. The potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in protecting endangered plants and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Turnau, Katarzyna; Regvar, Marjana

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened with the extinction of plants and, at the same time, invasion by new species. Plant invasiveness and loss of species can be caused by similar but opposing pressures on the community structures. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can have multiple positive effects on plant growth, productivity, health, and stress relief. Many endangered species live in symbiosis with AMF. However, the list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) indicates that the mycorrhizal status of most of the threatened species has not been assessed. Rare plants often occur in specialized and also endangered habitats and might utilize specialized or unique AMF. The specificity of any endangered plant to its AMF population has not been investigated. Because most of the current AMF isolates that are available colonize a broad range of plant species, selected inocula could be used to promote growth of endangered plants before the proper and more effective indigenous AMF are characterized. Application of AMF in field sites to protect endangered plants is hardly feasible due to the complexity of plant community structures and the large amount of fungal inocula needed. Endangered plants could, however, be grown as greenhouse cultures together with appropriate fungi, and, at the relevant developmental stage, they could be re-planted into native sites to prevent extinction and to preserve plant community ecology.

  18. Plant Drought Tolerance Enhancement by Trehalose Production of Desiccation-Tolerant Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, Juan I.; García-Fontana, Cristina; Román-Naranjo, Desireé; González-López, Jesús; Manzanera, Maximino

    2016-01-01

    A collection of desiccation-tolerant xeroprotectant-producing microorganisms was screened for their ability to protect plants against drought, and their role as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was investigated in two different crops (tomato and pepper). The most commonly described biochemical mechanisms for plant protection against drought by microorganisms including the production of phytohormones, antioxidants and xeroprotectants were analyzed. In particular, the degree of plant protection against drought provided by these microorganisms was characterized. After studying the findings and comparing them with results of the closest taxonomic relatives at the species and strain levels, we propose that trehalose produced by these microorganisms is correlated with their ability to protect plants against drought. This proposal is based on the increased protection of plants against drought by the desiccation-sensitive microorganism Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which expresses the otsAB genes for trehalose biosynthesis in trans.

  19. Plant Drought Tolerance Enhancement by Trehalose Production of Desiccation-Tolerant Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Vilchez Morillas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A collection of desiccation-tolerant xeroprotectant-producing microorganisms was screened for their ability to protect plants against drought, and their role as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was investigated in two different crops (tomato and pepper. The most commonly described biochemical mechanisms for plant protection against drought by microorganisms including the production of phytohormones, antioxidants and xeroprotectants were analyzed. In particular, the degree of plant protection against drought provided by these microorganisms was characterized. After studying the findings and comparing them with results of the closest taxonomic relatives at the species and strain levels, we propose that trehalose produced by these microorganisms is correlated with their ability to protect plants against drought. This proposal is based on the increased protection of plants against drought by the desiccation-sensitive microorganism Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which expresses the otsAB genes for trehalose biosynthesis in trans.

  20. Plant cell culture strategies for the production of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Villarreal, Marisol; Howat, Susan; Hong, SunMi; Jang, Mi Ok; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Eun-Kyong; Loake, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Plants have evolved a vast chemical cornucopia to support their sessile lifestyles. Man has exploited this natural resource since Neolithic times and currently plant-derived chemicals are exploited for a myriad of applications. However, plant sources of most high-value natural products (NPs) are not domesticated and therefore their production cannot be undertaken on an agricultural scale. Further, these plant species are often slow growing, their populations limiting, the concentration of the target molecule highly variable and routinely present at extremely low concentrations. Plant cell and organ culture constitutes a sustainable, controllable and environmentally friendly tool for the industrial production of plant NPs. Further, advances in cell line selection, biotransformation, product secretion, cell permeabilisation, extraction and scale-up, among others, are driving increases in plant NP yields. However, there remain significant obstacles to the commercial synthesis of high-value chemicals from these sources. The relatively recent isolation, culturing and characterisation of cambial meristematic cells (CMCs), provides an emerging platform to circumvent many of these potential difficulties. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 149-158].

  1. System and Software Design for the Plant Protection System for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Seok; Kim, Young Geul; Choi, Woong Seock; Sohn, Se Do [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The Reactor Protection System(RPS) protects the core fuel design limits and reactor coolant system pressure boundary for Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOOs), and provides assistance in mitigating the consequences of Postulated Accidents (PAs). The ESFAS sends the initiation signals to Engineered Safety Feature - Component Control System (ESF-CCS) to mitigate consequences of design basis events. The Common Q platform Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) was used for Shin-Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 and Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Units 1, 2, 3 and 4 since Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) based on Common Q PLC was applied for Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 5 and 6. The PPS for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SHN 1 and 2) was developed using POSAFE-Q PLC for the first time for the PPS. The SHN1 and 2 PPS was delivered to the sites after completion of Man Machine Interface System Integrated System Test (MMIS-IST). The SHN1 and 2 PPS was developed to have the redundancy in each channel and to use the benefits of POSAFE-Q PLC, such as diagnostic and data communication. The PPS application software was developed using ISODE to minimize development time and human errors, and to improve software quality, productivity, and reusability.

  2. Localization of equipment for digital plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, H. Y.; Lee, C. K. and others

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this project lies on the development of design requirements, establishment of structure and manufacture procedures, development of the software verification and validation(V and V) techniques of the digital plant protection system. The functional requirements based on the analog protection system and digital design requirements are introduced, the processor and system bus for safety grade equipment are selected and the interface requirements and the design specification have been developed in order to manufacture the quick prototype of the digital plant protection system. The selection guidelines of parts, software development and coding and testing for digital plant protection system have been performed through manufacturing the quick prototype based on the developed design specification. For the software verification and validation, the software review plan and techniques of verification and validation have been researched. The digital validation system is developed in order to verify the quick prototype. The digital design requirements are reviewed by the software safety plan and V and V plans. The formal methods for verifying the safety-grade software are researched, then the methodology of formal analysis and testing have been developed.

  3. Risk assessment of riparian plant invasions into protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2007-04-01

    Protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated. River corridors represent crucial links to the surrounding landscape but are also major conduits for invasion of alien species. We developed a framework to assess the risk that alien plants in watersheds adjacent to a protected area will invade the protected area along rivers. The framework combines species- and landscape-level approaches and has five key components: (1) definition of the geographical area of interest, (2) delineation of the domain into ecologically meaningful zones, (3) identification of the appropriate landscape units, (4) categorization of alien species and mapping of their distribution and abundance, and (5) definition of management options. The framework guides the determination of species distribution and abundance through successive, easily followed steps, providing the means for the assessment of areas of concern. We applied the framework to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We recorded 231 invasive alien plant species (of which 79 were major invaders) in the domain. The KNP is facing increasing pressure from alien species in the upper regions of the drainage areas of neighboring watersheds. On the basis of the climatic modeling, we showed that most major riparian invaders have the ability to spread across the KNP should they be transported down the rivers. With this information, KNP managers can identify areas for proactive intervention, monitoring, and resource allocation. Even for a very large protected area such as the KNP, sustainable management of biodiversity will depend heavily on the response of land managers upstream managing alien plants. We suggest that this framework is applicable to plants and other passively dispersed species that invade protected areas situated at the end of a drainage basin.

  4. Farmers’ Privilege under the Protection of New Plant Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies farmers’privilege under the protection of new plant varieties,and points out that farmers’privilege is given to balance interests of plant breeders and relevant public.Based on this,it analyzes shortcomings of farmers’privilege regulations,and puts forward that it is required to improve farmers’privilege regulations in subjects,objects and contents of rights on the basis of learning from advanced legislation experience of foreign countries,and build the interest sharing mechanism between breeders and farmers.

  5. Mo99 Production Plant Layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-25

    The NorthStar Medical Technologies 99Mo production facility configuration is envisioned to be 8 accelerator pairs irradiating 7 100Mo targets (one spare accelerator pair undergoing maintenance while the other 7 pairs are irradiating targets). The required shielding in every direction for the accelerators is initially estimated to be 10 feet of concrete. With the accelerator pairs on one (ground) level and spaced with the required shielding between adjacent pairs, the only practical path for target insertion and removal while minimizing floor space is vertical. The current scheme then requires a target vertical lift of nominally 10 feet through a shield stack. It is envisioned that the lift will be directly into a hot cell where an activated target can be removed from its holder and a new target attached and lowered. The hot cell is on a rail system so that a single hot cell can service all active target locations, as well as deliver the ready targets to the separations lab. On this rail system, coupled to the hot cell, will be a helium recovery and clean-up system. All helium coolant equipment is located on the upper level near to the target removal point.

  6. Pesticide productivity, host-plant resistance and productivity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Widawsky, David; Rozelle, Scott; Jin, Songqing; Huang, Jikun

    1998-01-01

    Pesticides are used as the primary method of pest control in Asian rice production. Conditions in China have led to demand for high and increasing rice yields, resulting in intensive cultivation and adoption of fertilizer responsive varieties. The consequence has been widespread pest infestations. Many studies have estimated pesticide productivity, but few have estimated the productivity of alternative methods of pest control, namely host-plant resistance. None have estimated the substitutabi...

  7. Research on Intellectual Property Rights Protection of Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of definition of agricultural plant genetic resources,this paper takes the two most important forms of intellectual property protection regarding agricultural plant genetic resources-patent rights and new plant variety rights as an example,to expound the current situation of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.It reveals the problems of intellectual property protection as follows:the awareness of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources is weak;the system of laws and regulations is not sound;the protection system is not perfect;the management system lacks standardization.It further puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions as follows:promote the protection awareness of agricultural plant genetic resources in whole society;enact special law system to protect agricultural plant genetic resources;improve the management system of agricultural plant genetic resources;strengthen the international protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.

  8. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  9. Microbial Diversity-Based Novel Crop Protection Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc.; DuPont Experimental Station; Yalpani, Ronald Flannagan, Rafael Herrmann, James Presnail, Tamas Torok, and Nasser; Herrmann, Rafael; Presnail, James; Torok, Tamas; Yalpani, Nasser

    2007-05-10

    Extremophilic microorganisms are adapted to survive in ecological niches with high temperatures, extremes of pH, high salt concentrations, high pressure, radiation, etc. Extremophiles produce unique biocatalysts and natural products that function under extreme conditions comparab le to those prevailing in various industrial processes. Therefore, there is burgeoning interest in bioprospecting for extremophiles with potential immediate use in agriculture, the food, chemical, and pharm aceutical industries, and environmental biotechnology. Over the years, several thousand extremophilic bacteria, archaea, and filamentous fungi were collected at extreme environmental sites in the USA, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone surrounding the faeild nuclear power plant in Ukraine, in and around Lake Baikal in Siberia, and at geothermal sites on the Kamchatka peninsula in Russia. These organisms were cultured under proprietary conditions, and the cell- free supernatants were screened for biological activities against plant pathogenic fungi and major crop damaging insects. Promising peptide lead molecules were isolated, characterized, and sequenced. Relatively high hit rates characterized the tested fermentation broths. Of the 26,000 samples screened, over thousand contained biological activity of interest. A fair number of microorganisms expressed broad- spectrum antifungal or insecticidal activity. Two- dozen broadly antifungal peptides (AFPs) are alr eady patent protected, and many more tens are under further investigation. Tapping the gene pool of extremophilic microorganisms to provide novel ways of crop protection proved a successful strategy.

  10. Software development for bistable module of SMART plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Park, H. S.; Jeo, C. W. [Samchang Enterprise Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. G.; Park, H. Y.; Koo, I. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Digitalized PPS(Plant Protection System) is going on development for SMART. The PPS consists of two different types of CPUs and DSP boards for the each functional processor modules of PPS. Software for the system has been progressed with teamwork of CASE TOOL to develop the reliable software. In this paper, we propose the software development method and show the examples for Bistable module through the functional analysis and the development of Structure Chart and M-Spec.

  11. Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Roderick C

    2010-05-12

    Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals.

  12. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  13. Plant-Based Vaccines: Production and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Laere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based vaccine technologies involve the integration of the desired genes encoding the antigen protein for specific disease into the genome of plant tissues by various methods. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer and transformation via genetically modified plant virus are the common methods that have been used to produce effective vaccines. Nevertheless, with the advancement of science and technology, new approaches have been developed to increase the efficiency of former methods such as biolistic, electroporation, agroinfiltration, sonication, and polyethylene glycol treatment. Even though plant-based vaccines provide many benefits to the vaccine industry, there are still challenges that limit the rate of successful production of these third-generation vaccines. Even with all the limitations, continuous efforts are still ongoing in order to produce efficient vaccine for many human and animals related diseases owing to its great potentials. This paper reviews the existing conventional methods as well as the development efforts by researchers in order to improve the production of plant-based vaccines. Several challenges encountered during and after the production process were also discussed.

  14. Production of renewable polymers from crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beilen, Jan B; Poirier, Yves

    2008-05-01

    Plants produce a range of biopolymers for purposes such as maintenance of structural integrity, carbon storage, and defense against pathogens and desiccation. Several of these natural polymers are used by humans as food and materials, and increasingly as an energy carrier. In this review, we focus on plant biopolymers that are used as materials in bulk applications, such as plastics and elastomers, in the context of depleting resources and climate change, and consider technical and scientific bottlenecks in the production of novel or improved materials in transgenic or alternative crop plants. The biopolymers discussed are natural rubber and several polymers that are not naturally produced in plants, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates, fibrous proteins and poly-amino acids. In addition, monomers or precursors for the chemical synthesis of biopolymers, such as 4-hydroxybenzoate, itaconic acid, fructose and sorbitol, are discussed briefly.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  16. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  17. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  18. Plant Community Traits of Shohada Protected Area, West Azerbijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Shohada Protected Area, consisting of Shohada Valley and its adjacent areas with an area of 577 hectares is located in south of Urmia, and is known as an important natural plant station of Urmia. It is studied with respect to the important factors which influence the vegetation cover in whole, particularly, with regard the composition and formation of plant communities. To study the area, Brown-Blanquets method was used. Plant samples were taken from 77 sample plots. The study resulted in recognition of four herbaceous types and seven shrub types in the studied area. In addition, the investigation led to the fact that the most important factors which influence the vegetation cover, are: geographical orientation, altitude, gradient and soil texture. The study also resulted in preparation of a colored vegetation map with a scale of 1:20000.

  19. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  20. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Ambus, Per

    2012-03-01

    In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH(4) ) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH(4) production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH(4) in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. In consequence, scaling up of aerobic CH(4) emission needs to take into consideration other potential sources than pectin. Due to the large uncertainties related to effects of stimulating factors, genotypic responses and type of precursors, we conclude that current attempts for upscaling aerobic CH(4) into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH(4) precursors in plant material.

  1. Leaf mimicry in a climbing plant protects against herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Carrasco-Urra, Fernando

    2014-05-05

    Mimicry refers to adaptive similarity between a mimic organism and a model. Mimicry in animals is rather common, whereas documented cases in plants are rare, and the associated benefits are seldom elucidated [1, 2]. We show the occurrence of leaf mimicry in a climbing plant endemic to a temperate rainforest. The woody vine Boquila trifoliolata mimics the leaves of its supporting trees in terms of size, shape, color, orientation, petiole length, and/or tip spininess. Moreover, sequential leaf mimicry occurs when a single individual vine is associated with different tree species. Leaves of unsupported vines differed from leaves of climbing plants closely associated with tree foliage but did not differ from those of vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Consistent with an herbivory-avoidance hypothesis, leaf herbivory on unsupported vines was greater than that on vines climbing on trees but was greatest on vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Thus, B. trifoliolata gains protection against herbivory not merely by climbing and thus avoiding ground herbivores [3] but also by climbing onto trees whose leaves are mimicked. Unlike earlier cases of plant mimicry or crypsis, in which the plant roughly resembles a background or color pattern [4-7] or mimics a single host [8, 9], B. trifoliolata is able to mimic several hosts.

  2. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially Protected...

  3. Carbohydrates in plant immunity and plant protection: roles and potential application as foliar sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eTrouvelot

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. Some of them are elicitors of plant defenses whereas other ones act as signaling molecules in a manner similar to phytohormones. This review first describes the main classes of carbohydrates associated to plant immunity, their role and mode of action. More precisely, the state of the art about perception of PAMP, MAMP and DAMP type oligosaccharides is presented and examples of induced defense events are provided. A particular attention is paid to the structure / activity relationships of these compounds. The role of sugars as signaling molecules, especially in plant microbe interactions, is also presented. Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora.

  4. Plant Glutathione Biosynthesis: Diversity in Biochemical Regulation and Reaction Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eGalant

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, exposure to temperature extremes, heavy metal-contaminated soils, drought, air pollutants, and pathogens results in the generation of reactive oxygen species that alter the intracellular redox environment, which in turn influences signaling pathways and cell fate. As part of their response to these stresses, plants produce glutathione. Glutathione acts as an antioxidant by quenching reactive oxygen species, and is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that eliminates damaging peroxides. Plants also use glutathione for the detoxification of xenobiotics, herbicides, air pollutants (sulfur dioxide and ozone, and toxic heavy metals. Two enzymes catalyze glutathione synthesis: glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL, and glutathione synthetase (GS. Glutathione is a ubiquitous protective compound in plants, but the structural and functional details of the proteins that synthesize it, as well as the potential biochemical mechanisms of their regulation, have only begun to be explored. As discussed here, the core reactions of glutathione synthesis are conserved across various organisms, but plants have diversified both the regulatory mechanisms that control its synthesis and the range of products derived from this pathway. Understanding the molecular basis of glutathione biosynthesis and its regulation will expand our knowledge of this component in the plant stress response network.

  5. Plant glutathione biosynthesis: diversity in biochemical regulation and reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, Ashley; Preuss, Mary L; Cameron, Jeffrey C; Jez, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    In plants, exposure to temperature extremes, heavy metal-contaminated soils, drought, air pollutants, and pathogens results in the generation of reactive oxygen species that alter the intracellular redox environment, which in turn influences signaling pathways and cell fate. As part of their response to these stresses, plants produce glutathione. Glutathione acts as an anti-oxidant by quenching reactive oxygen species, and is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that eliminates damaging peroxides. Plants also use glutathione for the detoxification of xenobiotics, herbicides, air pollutants (sulfur dioxide and ozone), and toxic heavy metals. Two enzymes catalyze glutathione synthesis: glutamate-cysteine ligase, and glutathione synthetase. Glutathione is a ubiquitous protective compound in plants, but the structural and functional details of the proteins that synthesize it, as well as the potential biochemical mechanisms of their regulation, have only begun to be explored. As discussed here, the core reactions of glutathione synthesis are conserved across various organisms, but plants have diversified both the regulatory mechanisms that control its synthesis and the range of products derived from this pathway. Understanding the molecular basis of glutathione biosynthesis and its regulation will expand our knowledge of this component in the plant stress response network.

  6. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  7. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  8. Sowing quality of seeds sunflower, depending on the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants

    OpenAIRE

    Буряк, Ю. І.; Огурцов, Ю. Є.; Чернобаб, О. В.; Клименко, І. І.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this work was to study the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants on the sowing quality of seeds parental forms and hybrids of sunflower.Methodology and materials. Research conducted in the Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya. Yuriev NAAS. The predecessor of sunflower – winter wheat. Sunflower seeds parent lines Сх1010А, Х720В, Х526В and hybrids F1 Romance and Maximus were sown in optimal terms with the seeding norm of 57 thousand pieces of viable seeds p...

  9. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nontarget plant protection data... protection data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through158.130 describe how to use this... table shows the nontarget plant protection data requirements. The table notes are shown in paragraph...

  10. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection.

  11. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  12. Terrestrial plant production and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Andrew D

    2010-03-01

    The likely future increase in atmospheric CO(2) and associated changes in climate will affect global patterns of plant production. Models integrate understanding of the influence of the environment on plant physiological processes and so enable estimates of future changes to be made. Moreover, they allow us to assess the consequences of different assumptions for predictions and so stimulate further research. This paper is a review of the sensitivities of one such model, Hybrid6.5, a detailed mechanistic model of terrestrial primary production. This model is typical of its type, and the sensitivities of the global distribution of predicted production to model assumptions and possible future CO(2) levels and climate are assessed. Sensitivity tests show that leaf phenology has large effects on mean C(3) crop and needleleaved cold deciduous tree production, reducing potential net primary production (NPP) from that obtained using constant maximum annual leaf area index by 32.9% and 41.6%, respectively. Generalized Plant Type (GPT) specific parameterizations, particularly photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf N, affect mean predicted NPP of higher C(3) plants by -22.3% to 27.9%, depending on the GPT, compared to NPP predictions obtained using mean parameter values. An increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentrations from current values to 720 ppm by the end of this century, with associated effects on climate from a typical climate model, is predicted to increase global NPP by 37.3%. Mean increases range from 43.9-52.9% across different C(3) GPTs, whereas the mean NPP of C(4) grass and crop increases by 5.9%. Significant uncertainties concern the extent to which acclimative processes may reduce any potential future increase in primary production and the degree to which any gains are transferred to durable, and especially edible, biomass. Experimentalists and modellers need to work closely together to reduce these uncertainties. A number of research priorities are suggested

  13. Pilot plant study for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    Most of domestic alcohol fermentation factory adopt batch process of which productivity is lower than continuous fermentation process. They have made great effort to increase productivity by means of partial unit process automatization and process improvement with their accumulated experience but there is technical limitation in productivity of batch fermentation process. To produce and supply fuel alcohol, economic aspects must be considered first of all. Therefore, development of continuous fermentation process, of which productivity is high, is prerequisite to produce and use fuel alcohol but only a few foreign company possess continuous fermentation technic and use it in practical industrial scale fermentation. We constructed pilot plant (5 Stage CSTR 1 kl 99.5 v/v% ethanol/Day scale) to study some aspects stated below and our ultimate aims are production of industrial scale fuel alcohol and construction of the plant by ourselves. Some study concerned with energy saving separation and contamination control technic were entrusted to KAIST, A-ju university and KIST respectively. (author) 67 refs., 100 figs., 58 tabs.

  14. De-novo design of antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Zeitler

    Full Text Available This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of "healthy" food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents.

  15. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  16. The Necessity and Feasibility of Setting up the Direction of"the Quality and Safety of Agricultural Products"in the Plant Protection Specialty%植物保护专业设置“农产品质量与安全”方向的必要性与可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小毛; 龙友华; 尹显慧

    2016-01-01

    Based on the current situation of China's agricultural products quality and safety, this paper set the professional di-rection of the agricultural products quality and safety in Guizhou College of plant protection professional application process, from the quality and safety of agricultural products discipline connotation, social need, the direction of the professional teach-ing characteristics, the discipline foundation and development prospect of aspects, in plant protection professional setting ag-ricultural products quality and safety professional direction on the necessity and feasibility are discussed, in order to provide reference for counterparts.%基于目前我国农产品质量与安全的形势,本文结合在贵州大学植物保护专业下设置“农产品质量与安全”专业方向的申请过程,从农产品质量与安全的学科内涵、社会需求,该专业方向的办学特色、学科基础及发展前景等方面入手,对在植物保护专业设置设置农产品质量与安全专业方向的必要性与可行性进行了探讨,以期为同行提供参考。

  17. Fact Sheet - Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants NESHAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet summarizing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants (40 CFR 63 Subparts AA and BB).

  18. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The safety level of the plants is maintained at an acceptable level. SKI has in its regulatory supervision not found any known deficiencies in the barriers which could result in release of radioactive substances in excess of the permitted levels. SKI considers that improvements have been implemented during the year in the management, control and following up of safety work at the plants. In some cases, SKI has imposed requirements that improvements be made. Extensive measures are under way at the nuclear power plants to comply with the safety requirements in SKI's regulations, SKIFS 2004:2 concerning the design and construction of nuclear power reactors, and the stricter requirements regarding physical protection. Concurrently preparations are underway at eight of the ten units for thermal power increases. At the Forsmark plant considerable efforts have been during the year to correct the deficiencies in the safety culture and quality assurance system that became apparent in 2006. A programme to improve the execution of activities has been established in accordance with SKI's decision. SKI considers that the plant has developed in a positive direction but that there are further possibilities for improvement with regard to internal control. This is amongst other things concerns the areas internal auditing, independent safety review function, and working methods. SKI has had special supervision of the plant since 28 September, 2006. At the Oskarshamn plant work has been carried out to improve the organisation and routines in several areas. The plant has established routines which provide the basis to ensure that decisions are taken in a stringent manner. The quality assurance system has a clearer structure and there is a better defined division of work. Some measures remain to be dealt with in 2008. The Ringhals plant has also worked with attitudes to routines and internal control. SKI considers that the measures have good prerequisites to provide a

  19. Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae in plant protection and human health--influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Maria; Klingen, Ingeborg; Birch, Andrew N E; Bones, Atle M; Bruce, Toby J A; Johansen, Tor J; Meadow, Richard; Mølmann, Jørgen; Seljåsen, Randi; Smart, Lesley E; Stewart, Derek

    2011-05-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO(2) are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists.

  20. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  1. Gymnosporangium Species – An Important Issue of Plant Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lāce Baiba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rusts (Fungi, Basidiomycota, Pucciniomycotina, Pucciniomycetes, Pucciniales are one of the most important causal agents of diseases and they are infecting many plants including cereals and field crops, vegetables, trees and many ornamentals. They have been studied for a long time and have economic importance among the plant diseases caused by agents of different species of fungi. In Europe, thirteen rust genera have been reported, of which the genus Gymnosporangium is the second largest after genus Phragmidium. The most significant fruit tree rust pathogen is the genus Gymnosporangium. The literature review shows quite limited scientific information about this genus and its species. Studies have mainly focused on some stages of the pathogen development cycle, which are significant for the spread of diseases - uredo and teleito stages. Special attention of the review was paid to European pear rust (caused by G. sabinae (Dicks. G. Winter, the distribution of which has increased during the last ten years, especially in organic pear orchards. Currently there is a limited number of scientific publications about European pear rust, and they are mainly based only on observations in vitro without trials in the field, despite the fact that it has become one of the most devastating diseases. Therefore, the presented review analyses the rust exploration history, diversity and distribution of species, life cycle, development biology and plant protection issues.

  2. Alien plant invasions of protected areas in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaba, Michael; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Hughes, Alice C; Corlett, Richard T

    2017-08-24

    Alien plants are invading protected areas worldwide, but there is little information from tropical Asia. Java has the longest record of human occupation in Asia and today supports 145 m people. Remnants of natural ecosystems survive in 12 small National Parks surrounded by dense human populations, making them highly vulnerable to invasions. We surveyed eight of these, along a rainfall gradient from lowland rainforest with >3000 mm annual rainfall to savanna with <1500 mm, and a 0-3158 m altitudinal gradient, using 403 10 × 5 m plots along trails. We found 67 invasive alien plant species, of which 33 occurred in only one park and two (Chromolaena odorata and Lantana camara) in all. Historical factors relating to plant introduction appeared to be as important as environmental factors in determining which species occurred in which park, while within parks canopy cover and altitude were generally most influential. Spread away from trails was only evident in open habitats, including natural savannas in Baluran National Park, threatened by invasion of Acacia nilotica. Existing control attempts for invasive aliens are reactive, localized, and intermittent, and insufficient resources are currently available for the early detection, prompt action, and continued monitoring that are needed.

  3. [Efficacy of plant products against herpetic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, P; Reichling, J

    2011-12-01

    Essential oils from various aromatic medicinal plants are highly active against some viral infections, e.g. labial herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 1. Balm oil, tea tree oil and peppermint oil demonstrate in vitro a significant antiherpetic activity, mainly related to a direct drug-virus particle interaction, some essential oils also act directly virucidal. Interestingly, these essential oils are also highly active against acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus strains. In clinical studies, tea tree oil has been shown to possess antiherpetic, anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, as well as to accelerate the healing process of herpes labialis. Applying diluted essential oils three to four times daily for the antiherpetic treatment of affected areas is recommended. Some companies have marketed plant products, e.g. from Melissa, for the treatment of recurrent herpetic infections.

  4. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  5. Natural products from resurrection plants: potential for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gechev, Tsanko S; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Benina, Maria; Mehterov, Nikolay; Toneva, Valentina; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Resurrection species are a group of land plants that can tolerate extreme desiccation of their vegetative tissues during harsh drought stress, and still quickly - often within hours - regain normal physiological and metabolic functions following rehydration. At the molecular level, this desiccation tolerance is attributed to basal cellular mechanisms including the constitutive expression of stress-associated genes and high levels of protective metabolites present already in the absence of stress, as well as to transcriptome and metabolome reconfigurations rapidly occurring during the initial phases of drought stress. Parts of this response are conferred by unique metabolites, including a diverse array of sugars, phenolic compounds, and polyols, some of which accumulate to high concentrations within the plant cell. In addition to drought stress, these metabolites are proposed to contribute to the protection against other abiotic stresses and to an increased oxidative stress tolerance. Recently, extracts of resurrection species and particular secondary metabolites therein were reported to display biological activities of importance to medicine, with e.g. antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral activities, rendering them possible candidates for the development of novel drug substances as well as for cosmetics. Herein, we provide an overview of the metabolite composition of resurrection species, summarize the latest reports related to the use of natural products from resurrection plants, and outline their potential for medical applications.

  6. Silage seepage and water protection. Production and recovery of silage seepage from animal feed and biomass for biogas plants. 7. ed.; Silagesickersaft und Gewaesserschutz. Anfall und Verwertung von Silagesickersaft aus Futtermitteln und Biomasse fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiekers, Hubert [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Attenberger, Erwin [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The production of silage is now standard and an important basis for a successful milk and beef production. Silage is also needed in agricultural biogas plants as a substrate for energy production. This publication is intended to serve agriculture as a source of information and guidance document for the construction and operation of silos and the administration as an orientating work aid. The factors influencing the accumulation of silage seepage and the possibilities of prevention in silage and silage management are presented and evaluated from environmental and legal perspective. [German] Die Produktion von Silage ist heute Standard und eine wichtige Grundlage fuer eine erfolgreiche Milch- und Rindfleischerzeugung. Silage wird auch in landwirtschaftlichen Biogasanlagen als Substrat zur Energieerzeugung benoetigt. Die vorliegende Publikation soll der Landwirtschaft als Informationsquelle und Handlungsanleitung fuer den Bau und Betrieb von Siloanlagen und der Verwaltung als orientierende Arbeitshilfe dienen. Die Einflussgroessen auf den Anfall an Sickersaeften und die Moeglichkeiten der Vermeidung bei der Silierung und dem Silagemanagement werden dargestellt und aus umwelt- und rechtlicher Sicht bewertet.

  7. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  9. EXPERIENCE OF USE OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF MEANS OF PLANT PROTECTION DURING RICE GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadzhidi A. P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the development of the Russian market of means of plant protection was made. It was established that the companies-vendor of means of plant protection in Russia have a wide range of output products and extensive application areas. The leaders of the national market of products of plant protection among domestic and foreign manufacturers were identified. The condition of the production and the structure of the Russian market of rice in 2001-2013years were analyzed. The measures of government support provided for rice farmers by "program of state support of agricultural development and market’s regulation of agricultural products, raw materials and food for 2013-2020", were characterized. The analysis of the existing systems of protection of rice showed that the rice farmers have the potential of production to increase yields. Remedies for the seeds protection, controlling diseases (fungicides and pests (insecticides are used very rarely in the system of rice protection. A segmentation of the herbicide market in the Krasnodar region was made. The advantages of the new herbicide called "CITADEL 25" of the Singenta company, the world leader in the market of means of protection of plants, for increasing profitability of cultivation of rice were characterized. The reaction of clients to the price offer of the main herbicides for protection of rice was studied. By results of research the card of values of clients and their preferences was made. The experience of the “Singenta” company in use of the integrated marketing communications for change of values of producers of rice in the Russian Federation is given

  10. Interannual variability of plant phenology in tussock tundra: modelling interactions of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Laundre, J.A.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a linked model of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw in order to estimate interannual variability of arctic plant phenology and its effects on plant productivity. The model is tested using 8 years of soil temperature data, and three years of bud break data of Betu

  11. A PILOT PLANT FOR THE BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omrani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Manure and Putreseible garbage are some of the main sources of pathogenic germs in countryside’s. On the other hand, demand for fertilizer and energy increases in rural areas every day. To study Potential of cow manure for these requirements a 16,5m3 pilot plant was designed and constructed as fermentation tank near animal husbandry of karaj Agriculture Faculty. Some 260kg cow manure and water with the ratio of 4 and 7 was fed to fermentation tank every day. Average daily biogas production was 3.4m3, which was burned successfully in a gas range. Gas production was reduced by 86% during coldest winter days. Design for control of gas pressure and reservation of excessive gas was successful. Concentration of nitrate in sludge increased by 1.6 folds compared to row material. Some bacteria and Parasites were reduced drastically.

  12. The Recent Advances in Plant Protection Researches of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoYuyuan; LiangGemei

    2005-01-01

    There are eight examples briefly given in this paper, namely, (1) Polymyxa graminis and the cereal viruses it transmits; (2) the geographical types and facultative migration of cotton bollworm as well as the safety of Bt transgenic cotton; (3) development of crop near-isogenic lines with resistance to diseases; (4) molecular-biological researches induced resistance of rice by infection of blast fungus;(5) to use cytological and molecular-biological techniques for breeding wheat varieties resistant to barley yellow dwarf virus; (6) mass rearing and field releasing of Microplitis mediator for cotton bollworm control; (7) identification and recombination of insecticidal crystal genes of Bacillus thuringiensis; and (8) interplanting of diverse resistance rice varieties for sustainable control of blast disease; which reflect the general situation of recent advances in plant protection researches of China.

  13. Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences. Well-designed prospective studies are needed. The lack of evidence showing an association between plant-based diets and childhood obesity does not mean that such diets should not be encouraged. Plant foods are highlighted in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and children do not meet the current recommendations for most plant foods. Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption.

  14. Using Repellent Products to Protect against Mosquito-Borne Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Share Using Repellent Products to Protect against Mosquito-Borne Illnesses More Information CDC-Avoid Mosquito Bites ... safety precautions . Top of Page Finding EPA-Registered Mosquito Adulticides and Larvicides The National Pesticide Information Center's ...

  15. Protection of the Geographical Indication Right and New Plant Variety Right of Green Chinese Onion in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai; HU; Shuting; WANG; Zhiguo; SUN; Wanzhen; XIONG; Limin; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Geographical indication right and new plant variety right are important agricultural intellectual property.This article researches the current situation on protection of geographical indication right of green Chinese onion resources and new plant variety right.And it puts forward the following measures for improvement:(i)Promoting the implementation of geographical indication product protection based on the national quality system;(ii)Establishing the national quality standards of geographical indication green Chinese onion,in order to improve quality standardization;(iii)Encouraging more enterprises within the scope of protection of geographical indication to use special signs of geographical indication;(iv)Unifying the green Chinese onion brands within the scope of protection of geographical indication;(v)Achieving the dual protection of geographical indication right and new variety right of green Chinese onion;(vi)Developing the tourism resources on geographical indication green Chinese onion,to develop tourism agriculture.

  16. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  17. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  18. Production of gladiolus submitted to gibberellic acid in a protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Pereira Carvalho-Zanão

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus is an important cut flower commercialized in Brazil, and the use of gibberellic acid (GA3 to cultivate it in a protected environment may promote the production of high quality flower spikes. This study aimed at evaluating the production of flower spikes and corms of gladiolus ('White Friendship' cultivar submitted to high concentrations and application methods of gibberellic acid, in a protected environment. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, being two application methods (foliar spraying and corm soaking and four concentrations (0 mg L-1, 250 mg L-1, 500 mg L-1 and 1,000 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, with six replications and two plants per experimental unit. The following traits were evaluated: plant height, number of leaves per plant, marketable harvest point of flower spikes, number of florets per flower spike, flower panicle length, stem and floret diameter, corm perimeter, number of cormels per plant and production of corm fresh matter and leaf dry matter, flower spikes, corms and cormels. High concentrations of GA3 are not recommended for the production of flower spikes and corms of the gladiolus 'White Friendship' cultivar. The corm soaking application method anticipates the harvest of flower spikes and produces a higher number of cormels per plant. Regardless of the application method, the concentration of 550 mg L-1 of GA3 increases the cormel yield of the 'White Friendship' cultivar.

  19. 76 FR 36896 - Notice of Establishment of a New Plant Protection and Quarantine Stakeholder Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Protection and Quarantine Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... of interest. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the PPQ Stakeholder Registry... Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) stakeholder registry is an email subscription service that allows...

  20. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    other things. Up-to-date and documented safety analyses must be prepared and actively be included in both the preventive safety work and in connection with plant modifications. The licensees have implemented design analysis projects for a long period of time and clarified and stringent regulations for safety analyses have entered into force in 2005. As a result, updated safety reports exist for many of the facilities and schedules exist for the supplementary work that remains to be done. SKI's reinforced supervision of Barsebaeck 2 continued until the closure of the reactor on May 31, 2005. In SKI's opinion, BKAB mainly handled the lengthy facility closure in a satisfactory manner. The handling of nuclear waste at the nuclear facilities has mainly functioned well. The same applies to the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB). The overall evaluation of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is that radiation protection at Swedish nuclear power plants has functioned well in 2005. The total radiation dose to the personnel at Swedish nuclear power plants was 9.2 manSv, which agrees with the average value of the total radiation doses over the last five years (9 manSv). No-one received a radiation dose in excess of the established dose limits and the radiation levels in the facilities are largely unchanged compared with previous years. The radiation doses to the public from the Swedish nuclear power plants continue to be low. SSI considers that continuous work is also needed in the future at the facilities to further reduce radioactive releases by applying the best available technique (BAT) and other measures. The control measurements that SSI is conducting on environmental samples from around the nuclear power facilities as well as on radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements.

  1. Analysis on Protection of GI Product Liupao Tea and Suggestions of its Industrial Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From humanistic characteristics,historical origin,fame,quality,and the correlation between quality and production region,we analyze key factors of protection for Geographic Indication product Liupao Tea.We also analyze industrial development of Liupao Tea from processing threshold,scale of processing enterprises,standard and index,planting base,research and development and technology popularization,and pesticide control.In line with these situations,we put forward following suggestions.First,it is proposed to raise standard index and formulate national standard for Liupao Tea.Second,we should popularize the industrial mode of "market + association(enterprise) + base" and establish demonstration area for protection of Geographic Indication product Liupao Tea.Third,it is recommended to raise the production and processing threshold.Fourth,we should establish special production inspection and research and development institution.Fifth,it is suggested to set up independent supervision organization.

  2. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a ...

  3. Protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against dehydration stress in the resurrection plant Craterostigma pumilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Ahmad; Walker, Berkley J; Oung, Hui Min Olivia; Charuvi, Dana; Jahns, Peter; Cousins, Asaph B; Farrant, Jill M; Reich, Ziv; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The group of homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants evolved the unique capability to survive severe drought stress without dismantling the photosynthetic machinery. This implies that they developed efficient strategies to protect the leaves from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photosynthetic side reactions. These strategies, however, are poorly understood. Here, we performed a detailed study of the photosynthetic machinery in the homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plant Craterostigma pumilum during dehydration and upon recovery from desiccation. During dehydration and rehydration, C. pumilum deactivates and activates partial components of the photosynthetic machinery in a specific order, allowing for coordinated shutdown and subsequent reinstatement of photosynthesis. Early responses to dehydration are the closure of stomata and activation of electron transfer to oxygen accompanied by inactivation of the cytochrome b6 f complex leading to attenuation of the photosynthetic linear electron flux (LEF). The decline in LEF is paralleled by a gradual increase in cyclic electron transport to maintain ATP production. At low water contents, inactivation and supramolecular reorganization of photosystem II becomes apparent, accompanied by functional detachment of light-harvesting complexes and interrupted access to plastoquinone. This well-ordered sequence of alterations in the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes helps prepare the plant for the desiccated state and minimize ROS production. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology.

  5. Flyash in the plant protection scenario of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanasamy, P. [Annamalaio University, Annamalainagar (India). Dept. of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture

    2003-07-01

    To counter pesticidal hazards in agriculture and the environment, intensive efforts are in full swing to unearth pest control technologies involving biological pesticides and other substances of natural origin. Considering flyash, a waste material available in enormous quantities from thermal power plants, a series of probes were made to assess utility of the lignite flyash (LFA) and coal flyash (CFA) as a pesticide and a carrier in insecticide formulation. Specific doses of PFA were evaluated for their efficacy against pests of rice and vegetables like eggplant, bhendi and tomato in laboratory and field conditions. Insecticides like B.H.C. 10% dust and 50% wettable powder, and Malathion 25% wp and Carbofuran 3% granules were synthesized with LFA as a carrier following ISI specifications and were evaluated against rice pests in comparison with commercial chemicals. Results revealed that PFA and CFA were found effective at 40 kg/ha against various pests of rice, egg plant, bhendi and tomato. Fly ash dust expressed its potential in effecting changes in body organs, major biochemical and by histology of certain key pests, thus rendering them dead ultimately. All the flyash-based insecticides excelled the commercial chemical pesticides in their efficacy against rice pest and their cost of production was significantly less than that of the marketed products. Based on the findings, a package of recommendations involving flyash for rice and vegetables has been developed. Utilisation of fly ash as a dust insecticide and a carrier in insecticide formulations will interest those concerned about profitable exploitation of the flyash in agriculture. 11 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Unsaturated lipid matrices protect plant sterols from degradation during heating treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, Blanca; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2016-04-01

    The interest in plant sterols enriched foods has recently enhanced due to their healthy properties. The influence of the unsaturation degree of different fatty acids methyl esters (FAME: stearate, oleate, linoletate and linolenate) on a mixture of three plant sterols (PS: campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) was evaluated at 180 °C for up to 180 min. Sterols degraded slower in the presence of unsaturated FAME. Both PS and FAME degradation fit a first order kinetic model (R(2)>0.9). Maximum oxysterols concentrations were achieved at 20 min in neat PS and 120 min in lipid mixtures and this maximum amount decreased with increasing their unsaturation degree. In conclusion, the presence of FAME delayed PS degradation and postponed oxysterols formation. This protective effect was further promoted by increasing the unsaturation degree of FAME. This evidence could help industries to optimize the formulation of sterol-enriched products, so that they could maintain their healthy properties during cooking or processing.

  7. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  8. The Effect of a Digital Learning Environment on Children's Conceptions about the Protection of Endemic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stella; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a pilot learning intervention for improving children's ideas about plant protection. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase aimed at exploring children's ideas about plant protection. These ideas were taken into account for the design and development of a digital learning environment. The second…

  9. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 12 Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Nielsen, Niels E. [Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Lab, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK1871, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wilcox, Andrew [Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cd, 660 g ha{sup -1} for Pb, 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cu, 350 g ha{sup -1} for Mn, and 205 g ha{sup -1} for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 {mu}m) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 {mu}m) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  10. Distribution of endangered and protected species of synanthropic plants in Łask

    OpenAIRE

    Suwara-Szmigielska, Sylwia

    2008-01-01

    The article presents description and distribution of protected and endangered species of synanthropic plants found in the Łask area in 2001-2002. The research was carried out with the use of a cartogram method. As a result, ten species of protected plants were found in the researched area, four of which under strict protection, and six under partial protection. Eight out of the ten protected species are in the danger of extinction. Zadanie pt. „Digitalizacja i udostępnienie w C...

  11. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Gaping Dutchman's pipe. Allium sativum .... covered the outer layer (testa) of the grains (thereby serving as food ... Table 3. Effect of plant extracts on Sitophilus zeamais adult emergence (7 weeks post-treatment). Plants.

  12. Customer protection on the market of textile products

    OpenAIRE

    Leinveberová, Tereza

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is devoted to the customer protection on the market of textile products. The aim of the thesis is to analyse customers' knowledge in the field of textile labelling, to record their preferences when buying clothes and to observe customers' opinions about competency of textile vendors. The secondary aim is to define textile vendors' attitudes to quality brands, textile education and customers' interests in information provided on product labels. The market research was obta...

  13. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J.; Helmus, Matthew R.; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R.; Zanne, Amy E.; Pearse, William D.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Fagan, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more–in terms of volume and diversity–if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country’s plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more

  14. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J; Helmus, Matthew R; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R; Zanne, Amy E; Pearse, William D; Kraft, Nathan J B; Miteva, Daniela A; Fagan, William F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more-in terms of volume and diversity-if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country's plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more

  15. Effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the protection of olive plants against oxidative stress induced by drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O. Fouad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive trees are often subjected to a long dry season with low water availability which induces oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of native Rhizophagus manihotis (Rma and non-native Funneliformis mosseae (Fmo arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi (AMF in enhancing olive protection against oxidative stress induced by water deficit. Olive plantlets, cv. Picholine marocaine, were inoculated (AM-plants or not (NM-plants with Rma or Fmo and subjected to well-watered (75% of field capacity or water-stressed (25% of field capacity conditions. After two months, obtained results showed that water stress significantly decreased growth and biomass production of NM-plants, but AMF alleviated the detrimental effects of water deficit on the growth of olive plants. Inoculation with Rma increased shoot height by 120%, root length by 56%, fresh weight by 170% (shoot and 210% (root, and dry weight by 220% (shoot and 220% (root compared to NM-plants. AM colonization enhanced drought tolerance in terms of protection against oxidative stress. Mycorrhizal plants showed lower levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA and electrolyte leakage (EL than NM-plants. Rma colonization decreased two times H2O2, 2.6 times MDA and two times EL levels compared to NM-plants. This protective effect seems to be due to the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase (534 U mg-1 protein, catalase (298 U mg-1 protein, guaiacol peroxidase (47 U mg-1 protein, and ascorbate peroxidase (305 U mg-1 protein which were highest in Rma-plants. Moreover, Rma-plants showed the lowest oxidative damage to lipid and highest soluble protein content. Thus, the native AMF Rma ought to be considered as a biological tool for enhancing olive tolerance to drought.

  16. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce...... aerobic CH4 into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  17. Endophytes: exploitation as a tool in plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanushi Dutta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are symptomless fungal or bacterial microorganisms found in almost all living plant species reported so far. They are the plant-associated microbes that form symbiotic association with their host plants by colonizing the internal tissues, which has made them valuable for agriculture as a tool in improving crop performance. Many fungal endophytes produce secondary metabolites such as auxin, gibberellin etc that helps in growth and development of the host plant. Some of these compounds are antibiotics having antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal properties, which strongly inhibit the growth of other microorganisms, including plant pathogens. This article reviews the endophyte isolated from different plants, mode of endophytic infection and benefits derived by the host plant as a result of endophytism.

  18. Crude extracts of bacterially expressed dsRNA can be used to protect plants against virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Marisol

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA is a potent initiator of gene silencing in a diverse group of organisms that includes plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and mammals. We have previously shown and patented that mechanical inoculation of in vitro-transcribed dsRNA derived from viral sequences specifically prevents virus infection in plants. The approach required the in vitro synthesis of large amounts of RNA involving high cost and considerable labour. Results We have developed an in vivo expression system to produce large amounts of virus-derived dsRNAs in bacteria, with a view to providing a practical control of virus diseases in plants. Partially purified bacterial dsRNAs promoted specific interference with the infection in plants by two viruses belonging to the tobamovirus and potyvirus groups. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that easy to obtain, crude extracts of bacterially expressed dsRNAs are equally effective protecting plants against virus infections when sprayed onto plant surfaces by a simple procedure. Virus infectivity was significantly abolished when plants were sprayed with French Press lysates several days before virus inoculation. Conclusion Our approach provides an alternative to genetic transformation of plant species with dsRNA-expressing constructs capable to interfere with plant viruses. The main advantage of this mode of dsRNA production is its simplicity and its extremely low cost compared with the requirements for regenerating transgenic plants. This approach provides a reliable and potential tool, not only for plant protection against virus diseases, but also for the study of gene silencing mechanisms in plant virus infections.

  19. Production of recombinant proteins in suspension-cultured plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasson, Carole; Michel, Rémy; Lienard, David; Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Sourrouille, Christophe; de March, Ghislaine Grenier; Gomord, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Plants have emerged in the past decade as a suitable alternative to the current production systems for recombinant pharmaceutical proteins and, today their potential for low-cost production of high quality, much safer and biologically active mammalian proteins is largely documented. Among various plant expression systems being explored, genetically modified suspension-cultured plant cells offer a promising system for production of biopharmaceuticals. Indeed, when compared to other plant-based production platforms that have been explored, suspension-cultured plant cells have the advantage of being totally devoid of problems associated with the vagaries of weather, pest, soil and gene flow in the environment. Because of short growth cycles, the timescale needed for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell culture can be counted in days or weeks after transformation compared to months needed for the production in transgenic plants. Moreover, recovery and purification of recombinant proteins from plant biomass is an expensive and technically challenging business that may amount to 80-94% of the final product cost. One additional advantage of plant cell culture is that the recombinant protein fused with a signal sequence can be expressed and secreted into the culture medium, and therefore recovered and purified in the absence of large quantities of contaminating proteins. Consequently, the downstream processing of proteins extracted from plant cell culture medium is less expensive, which may/does balance the higher costs of fermentation. When needed for clinical use, recombinant proteins are easily produced in suspension-cultured plant cells under certified, controllable and sterile conditions that offer improved safety and provide advantages for good manufacturing practices and regulatory compliance. In this chapter, we present basic protocols for rapid generation of transgenic suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum, Oriza sativa and Arabidopis

  20. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Okada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alzheimer′s disease (AD is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds′ aqueous extracts (PSAE for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN. Materials and Methods: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce. PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. Results: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. Conclusion: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  1. Exploiting plant-microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-10-01

    Although many plant-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on their host, their importance during plant growth and development is still underestimated. A better understanding of their plant growth-promoting mechanisms could be exploited for sustainable growth of food and feed crops, biomass for biofuel production and feedstocks for industrial processes. Such plant growth-promoting mechanisms might facilitate higher production of energy crops in a more sustainable manner, even on marginal land, and thus contribute to avoiding conflicts between food and energy production. Furthermore, because many bacteria show a natural capacity to cope with contaminants, they could be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation or to protect the food chain by reducing levels of agrochemicals in food crops.

  2. Factors Influencing Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Plant Protection Machinery Subsidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linping; WANG; Liangmei; CAI

    2013-01-01

    In order to have an overview of implementation of the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery in Fujian Province, based on the questionnaire data on Fujian Province, we use Logit model to conduct empirical analysis of factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery. Research results show that there are 69.4% of farmers willing to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery; farmers’ growing area has a significant impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery, and there is negative correlation; educational level, experience in planting, family farming pure income all have a significant positive impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy.

  3. Metabolic engineering for the production of plant isoquinoline alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Andrew; Desgagné-Penix, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Several plant isoquinoline alkaloids (PIAs) possess powerful pharmaceutical and biotechnological properties. Thus, PIA metabolism and its fascinating molecules, including morphine, colchicine and galanthamine, have attracted the attention of both the industry and researchers involved in plant science, biochemistry, chemical bioengineering and medicine. Currently, access and availability of high-value PIAs [commercialized (e.g. galanthamine) or not (e.g. narciclasine)] is limited by low concentration in nature, lack of cultivation or geographic access, seasonal production and risk of overharvesting wild plant species. Nevertheless, most commercial PIAs are still extracted from plant sources. Efforts to improve the production of PIA have largely been impaired by the lack of knowledge on PIA metabolism. With the development and integration of next-generation sequencing technologies, high-throughput proteomics and metabolomics analyses and bioinformatics, systems biology was used to unravel metabolic pathways allowing the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches to increase production of valuable PIAs. Metabolic engineering provides opportunity to overcome issues related to restricted availability, diversification and productivity of plant alkaloids. Engineered plant, plant cells and microbial cell cultures can act as biofactories by offering their metabolic machinery for the purpose of optimizing the conditions and increasing the productivity of a specific alkaloid. In this article, is presented an update on the production of PIA in engineered plant, plant cell cultures and heterologous micro-organisms.

  4. Fault Transient Analysis and Protection Performance Evaluation within a Large-scale PV Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a short-circuit test within a large-scale PV power plant with a total capacity of 850MWp is discussed. The fault currents supplied by the PV generation units are presented and analysed. According to the fault behaviour, the existing protection coordination principles with the plant are considered and their performances are evaluated. Moreover, these protections are examined in simulation platform under different operating situations. A simple measure with communication system is proposed to deal with the foreseeable problem about the current protection scheme in the PV power plant.

  5. Entropy production and optimization of geothermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2012-09-01

    Geothermal power plants are currently producing reliable and low-cost, base load electricity. Three basic types of geothermal power plants are currently in operation: single-flashing, dual-flashing, and binary power plants. Typically, the single-flashing and dual-flashing geothermal power plants utilize geothermal water (brine) at temperatures in the range of 550-430 K. Binary units utilize geothermal resources at lower temperatures, typically 450-380 K. The entropy production in the various components of the three types of geothermal power plants determines the efficiency of the plants. It is axiomatic that a lower entropy production would improve significantly the energy utilization factor of the corresponding power plant. For this reason, the entropy production in the major components of the three types of geothermal power plants has been calculated. It was observed that binary power plants generate the lowest amount of entropy and, thus, convert the highest rate of geothermal energy into mechanical energy. The single-flashing units generate the highest amount of entropy, primarily because they re-inject fluid at relatively high temperature. The calculations for entropy production provide information on the equipment where the highest irreversibilities occur, and may be used to optimize the design of geothermal processes in future geothermal power plants and thermal cycles used for the harnessing of geothermal energy.

  6. Plants and endophytes: equal partners in secondary metabolite production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Well known plant production systems should be re-evaluated due to findings that the interesting metabolite might actually be produced by microbes intimately associated with the plant, so-called endophytes. Endophytes can be bacteria or fungi and they are characterized usually by the feature that they do not cause any harm to the host. Indeed, in some cases, such as mycorrhizal fungi or other growth promoting endophytes, they can be beneficial for the plant. Here some examples are reviewed where the host plant and/or endophyte metabolism can be induced by the other partner. Also, partial or complete biosynthesis pathways for plant secondary metabolites can be attributed to such endophytes. In other cases the host plant is able to metabolize substances from fungal origin. The question of the natural role of such metabolic changes for the endophyte will be briefly touched. Finally, the consequences for the use of plant cultures for secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  7. Role of root microbiota in plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Andrzej; Poole, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The growing human population requires increasing amounts of food, but modern agriculture has limited possibilities for increasing yields. New crop varieties may be bred to have increased yields and be more resistant to environmental stress and pests. However, they still require fertilization to supplement essential nutrients that are normally limited in the soil. Soil microorganisms present an opportunity to reduce the requirement for inorganic fertilization in agriculture. Microorganisms, due to their enormous genetic pool, are also a potential source of biochemical reactions that recycle essential nutrients for plant growth. Microbes that associate with plants can be considered to be part of the plant's pan-genome. Therefore, it is essential for us to understand microbial community structure and their 'metagenome' and how it is influenced by different soil types and crop varieties. In the future we may be able to modify and better utilize the soil microbiota potential for promoting plant growth.

  8. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract protects plants against important phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, C; Konstantinidou-Doltsinis, S; Schmitt, A

    2010-01-01

    In previous investigations an ethanolic plant extract from Glycyrrhiza glabra (2.5% w/v) showed 100% efficacy against late blight (Phytophthora infestans) on detached tomato leaves. Based on these findings, the objective of this work was to investigate the effect of this extract against different important plant pathogenic fungi. Tests were carried out on potted plants. Against P. infestans, efficacies of 75% and 58% were achieved on tomato and potato plants with 5% extract concentration, respectively. Against another Oomycete, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, on cucumber, application of a 2.5% extract led to an efficacy of above 90%. The EC50-value was calculated to be 0.5% In a trial on beans against bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus), G. glabra extract (5% concentration) showed 92% efficacy. In contrast, against powdery mildew on cucumber (Podosphaera xanthii), no disease reduction was found. Overall, the results indicate a high potential for the extract of G. glabra to control a number of important plant pathogens.

  9. Plant Design for the Production of DUAGG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2003-02-04

    The cost of producing DUAGG is an important consideration for any interested private firm in determining whether DUCRETE is economically viable as a material of construction in next-generation spent nuclear fuel casks. This study analyzed this project as if it was a stand-alone project. The capital cost includes engineering design, equipment costs and installation, start up, and management; the study is not intended to be a life-cycle cost analysis. The costs estimated by this study are shown in Table ES.1, and the conclusions of this study are listed in Table ES.2. The development of DUAGG and DUCRETE is a major thrust of the Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Project. An obvious use of depleted uranium is as a shielding material (e.g., DUCRETE). DUCRETE is made by replacing the conventional stone aggregate in concrete with DUAGG. One objective of this project is to bring the development of DUCRETE to a point at which a demonstrated basis exists for its commercial deployment. The estimation of the costs to manufacture DUAGG is an important part of this effort. Paul Lessing and William Quapp developed DUAGG and DUCRETE as part of an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) program to find beneficial uses for depleted uranium (DU). Subsequently, this technology was licensed to Teton Technologies, Inc. The DUAGG process mixes DUO{sub 2} with sintering materials and additives to form pressed briquettes. These briquettes are sintered at 1300 C, and the very dense sintered briquettes are then crushed and classified into gap-graded size fractions. The graded DUAGG is then ready to be used to make high-strength heavy DUCRETE. The DUCRETE shielding will be placed into an annular steel cask-shell mold, which has internal steel reinforcing bars. The objectives of this study are to (1) use previous DUAGG process developments to design a plant that will produce DUAGG at a baseline rate, (2) determine the size of the equipment required to meet

  10. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 11. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are some of the most abundant soil organisms and are an essential part of soil ecology. These organisms are used as indicator organisms and can be linked to soil health. Biological collections contain vast amounts of data, with the National Collection of Nematodes housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council being no different. During the digitising of the collection a number of unpublished records of plant nematodes reported from protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal were found in the South African Plant-Parasitic Nematode Survey database. A total of 222 plant nematode species belonging to 39 genera were reported from the province, with only 94 of these species reported from the protected areas and 172 and 159 species reported from uncultivated (outside the protected areas and cultivated areas, respectively. Only nine species, Criconema silvum, Criconema talanum, Helicotylenchus marethae, Ogma dracomontanum, Ogma louisi, Ogma ueckermanni, Paralongidorus deborae, Trichodorus rinae and Xiphinemella marindae were described from protected areas, whilst O. dracomontanum, P. deborae and T. rinae were subsequently also reported from other provinces.Conservation implications: A higher degree of diversity of nematodes was observed in the unprotected areas of the province. The observation suggests that nematode fauna, and by implication also other invertebrates, are not adequately protected.

  11. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  12. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  13. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 12. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-inhabiting nematodes, including plant-parasitic nematodes, are considered to be the most abundant multicellular organisms in the soil, and of particular interest since they are an integral part of the interlocking chain of nutrient conversions. Because of their abundance and relative susceptibility to both physical and chemical changes, these organisms are used as indicator organisms. The National Collection of Nematodes (NCN consists of a core collection, the Meloidogyne Collection and the Juan Heyns Collection, which are housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council in Pretoria. Vast amounts of biodiversity data are contained in NCN, and the digitising of the collection from 2007 to 2014 yielded unpublished locality information, especially datasets of plant nematodes reported from protected areas of the Eastern Cape. Two hundred and thirty plant nematode species belonging to 36 genera were reported from the Eastern Cape. Of these, only 80 were from protected areas, whilst 163 were from uncultivated areas (outside protected areas and 148 from cultivated areas. Ten species were described from protected areas, namely Criconemoides silvicola, Meloinema silvicola, Ogma tuberculatum, Paralongidorus cebensis, Paralongidorus hanliae, Scutellonema tsitsikamense, Trichodorus vandenbergae, Xiphinema erriae, Xiphinema ornatizulu and Xiphinema simplex. Only M. silvicola, O. tuberculatum, P. cebensis and S. tsitsikamense were not reported from other provinces, suggesting endemism.Conservation implications: The diversity of nematode fauna is not adequately protected as most nematode biodiversity in the Eastern Cape lies outside protected areas, with only 80 of the 230 plant-feeding nematode species in the province being reported from protected areas.

  14. Genomics generates new insights into host plant defense and offers novel strategies for crop protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant diseases and insect pests are the important threats to agricultural production, and crop losses to diseases and insects can be greater than about 30% of the annual global production. Managing the health of crop plants to assure sustainable agricultural production can be very challenging. How...

  15. Foaming in Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation Processes - FY01 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2002-07-23

    The LAW evaporation processes currently being designed for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant are subject to foaming. Experimental simulant studies have been conducted in an effort to achieve an effective antifoam agent suitable to mitigate such foaming.

  16. 77 FR 75606 - Renewal of the Plant Variety Protection Board Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Renewal of the Plant Variety Protection Board Charter AGENCY: Agricultural..., USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), 1400 Independence Ave. SW.; Rm. 4512-South Bldg., Mail Stop..., Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. BILLING CODE 3410-02-P...

  17. Current approaches toward production of secondary plant metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarfaraj Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the tremendous source for the discovery of new products with medicinal importance in drug development. Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs, which are currently used in one or more countries in the world. Secondary metabolites are economically important as drugs, flavor and fragrances, dye and pigments, pesticides, and food additives. Many of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The evolving commercial importance of secondary metabolites has in recent years resulted in a great interest in secondary metabolism, particularly in the possibility of altering the production of bioactive plant metabolites by means of tissue culture technology. Plant cell and tissue culture technologies can be established routinely under sterile conditions from explants, such as plant leaves, stems, roots, and meristems for both the ways for multiplication and extraction of secondary metabolites. In vitro production of secondary metabolite in plant cell suspension cultures has been reported from various medicinal plants, and bioreactors are the key step for their commercial production. Based on this lime light, the present review is aimed to cover phytotherapeutic application and recent advancement for the production of some important plant pharmaceuticals.

  18. Plant nutrition in future greenhouse production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    In the introduction chapter it was claimed that greenhouse production has no longer arguments as a supply market. The products of the greenhouse industry became in free competition with those from field production from all over the world. In this competition the greenhouse industry has developed int

  19. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Facility Registry Service (FRS) Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) and NPDES, along with Clean Watersheds Needs Survey...

  20. [Protective properties of avermectine complex and plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamborko, N A; Pindrus, A A

    2009-01-01

    Antimutagen properties of avermectine complex of Avercom synthesized by Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2161, and growth regulators of plants (GRP) of bioagrostim-extra, ivin and emistim-C have been revealed in experiments with test-cultures of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100, TA 98. Avercom and plant growth regulators neutralize by toxication 27-48% and mutagen action of pesticides on soil microbial associations by 19.0-30.0%.

  1. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phytotoxicity Tier I: Seed germination/seedling emergence (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-1 Vegetative vigor (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-1 Aquatic plant growth (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-2 Tier II: Seed germination/seedling emergence (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Vegetative vigor (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Aquatic plant growth...

  2. UVR8 mediated plant protective responses under low UV-B radiation leading to photosynthetic acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-08-01

    The UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 regulates the expression of several genes leading to acclimation responses in plants. Direct role of UVR8 in maintaining the photosynthesis is not defined but it is known to increase the expression of some chloroplastic proteins like SIG5 and ELIP. It provides indirect protection to photosynthesis by regulating the synthesis of secondary metabolites and photomorphogenesis. Signaling cascades controlled by UVR8 mediate many protective responses thus promotes plant acclimation against stress and secures its survival.

  3. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

  4. Pseudomyrmex ants and Acacia host plants join efforts to protect their mutualism from microbial threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Heil, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Plants express numerous 'pathogenesis-related' (PR) proteins to defend themselves against pathogen infection. We recently discovered that PR-proteins such as chitinases, glucanases, peroxidases and thaumatin-like proteins are also functioning in the protection of extrafloral nectar (EFN) of Mexican Acacia myrmecophytes. These plants produce EFN, cellular food bodies and nesting space to house defending ant species of the genus Pseudomyrmex. More than 50 PR-proteins were discovered in this EFN and bioassays demonstrated that they actively can inhibit the growth of fungi and other phytopathogens. Although the plants can, thus, express PR-proteins and secrete them into the nectar, the leaves of these plants exhibit reduced activities of chitinases as compared to non-myrmecophytic plants and their antimicrobial protection depends on the mutualistic ants. When we deprived plants of their resident ants we observed higher microbial loads in the leaves and even in the tissue of the nectaries, as compared to plants that were inhabited by ants. The indirect defence that is achieved through an ant-plant mutualism can protect plants also from infections. Future studies will have to investigate the chemical nature of this mechanism in order to understand why plants depend on ants for their antimicrobial defence.

  5. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  6. Optimization of Jatropha curcas pure plant oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna

    2015-01-01

    The use of pure plant oils as fuel, either directly or after conversion of the oil to bio-diesel, is considered to be one of the potential contributions to the transformation of the current fossil oil based economy to a sustainable bio-based one. The production of oil producing seeds using plants

  7. Bioconversion potential of plant enzymes for the production of pharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, N; Woerdenbag, HJ; vanUden, W

    1995-01-01

    Plant enzymes are able to catalyze regio- and stereospecific reactions. Freely suspended and immobilized plant cells as well as enzyme preparations can therefore be applied for the production of pharmaceuticals by bioconversion, as such or in combination with chemical syntheses. This review paper

  8. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  9. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  10. The mycorrhizal contribution to plant productivity, plant nutrition and soil structure in experimental grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Streitwolf-Engel, Ruth; Riedl, Ralph; Siegrist, Sabine; Neudecker, Angelica; Ineichen, Kurt; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Sanders, Ian R

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can influence plant diversity and ecosystem productivity. However, little is known about the effects of AMF and different AMF taxa on other important community properties such as nutrient acquisition, plant survival and soil structure. We established experimental grassland microcosms and tested the impact of AMF and of different AMF taxa on a number of grassland characteristics. We also tested whether plant species benefited from the same or different AMF taxa in subsequent growing seasons. AMF enhanced phosphorus acquisition, soil aggregation and survival of several plant species, but AMF did not increase total plant productivity. Moreover, AMF increased nitrogen acquisition by some plant species, but AMF had no effect on total N uptake by the plant community. Plant growth responses to AMF were temporally variable and some plant species obtained the highest biomass with different AMF in different years. Hence the results indicate that it may be beneficial for a plant to be colonized by different AMF taxa in different seasons. This study shows that AMF play a key role in grassland by improving plant nutrition and soil structure, and by regulating the make-up of the plant community.

  11. Plant Variety Protection in Sub-Saharan Africa: Balancing Commercial and Smallholder Farmers’ Interests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de B.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries, through their regional organizations, have embarked on the harmonisation of plant variety protection (PVP) systems. These initiatives are largely modelled on the UPOV 1991 act, which claims to incentivize plant breeding and facilitate agricultural development. Civil

  12. Gene delivery into plant cells for recombinant protein production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Qiang; Lai, Huafang

    2015-01-01

    .... In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost...

  13. Analysis on Protection of GI Product Hanyuan Chinese Prickly Ash and Suggestions of its Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Hanyuan Prickly Ash is a type of GI products with very deep cultural essence.From such humanistic factors as name origin,historical origin,fame,cultivation technology,and management measure,and such natural factors as climatic environment and soil conditions,this paper analysis key factors for protection of GI product Hanyuan Prickly Ash.Then it discusses about industrial development of Hanyuan Prickly Ash from suitable planting areas and climate.It proposes that we should gradually raise safety and hygienic indexes,revise and implement local standards,strengthen popularization of harmless production technologies and quality control of product,promote "enterprise + base" industrial model,and implement government marketing of brand and industry.

  14. Catalytic production of aromatics and olefins from plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, W.O.; Rodewald, P.G.; Weisz, P.B.

    1980-08-01

    Hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-like plant materials offer the possibility of relatively simple and energy-efficient processing to liquid fuels or petrochemicals. The use of such highly reduced photosynthesis products as potential fuels has been advocated by Calvin and coworkers, and Buchanan and coworkers have evaluated several hundred plant species for the presence of hydrocarbons. The yield of extracted oils may exceed 10 wt % of the plant dry weight. Some field growth studies of the most promising of these plants are underway, e.g., by Calvin in California, by Native Plants, Inc., and by the Diamond Shamrock Co., in conjunction with the University of Arizona, mostly with Euphorbia and related genera. Exploratory studies were performed to determine if direct catalytic upgrading of the hydrocarbon-like plant constituents could be carried out. A preliminary report has been published recently. A variety of plant materials were shown to be upgraded to liquid premium fuels by relatively simple catalytic processing over Mobil's shape selective zeolite, ZSM-5. The present paper contains additional information on the conversion of a variety of plant materials with special emphasis on the production of petrochemicals, and discusses key mechanistic aspects of the reactions. Feedstocks were chosen to represent different types of plant materials: corn oil, castor oil and jojoba seed oil; plant extracts from Euphorbia lathyrus and Grindelia squarrosa; and hydrocarbons obtained by tapping of trees such as copaiba oil and natural rubber latex.

  15. Secondary Broccoli Production Depending On Sowing And Planting Dates

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Desislava

    2014-01-01

    The investigation was carried out during the period of 2009-2011 at the Institute of Agriculture – Kyustendil, located in the Southwest Bulgaria. Four broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) hybrids were grown by the technology of late field production with different sowing and planting dates. The aim of the research was to establish a relationship between planting time and secondary yield of broccoli. Some morphological characteristics and production traits of an additional yield of...

  16. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C.; McGuire, A. David; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    International society has made a commitment to mainstreaming biodiversity conservation into broader socioeconomic development, but an incomplete theoretical basis translates into a lack of practical applications, especially regarding how individual plant productivity changes in response to the overall species loss. In this study, we developed niche–efficiency theory to address two mechanisms behind the effects of biodiversity on individual plant productivity. Supported by empirical evidence a...

  17. Plant Products for Pharmacology: Application of Enzymes in Their Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zarevúcka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Different plant products have been subjected to detailed investigations due to their increasing importance for improving human health. Plants are sources of many groups of natural products, of which large number of new compounds has already displayed their high impact in human medicine. This review deals with the natural products which may be found dissolved in lipid phase (phytosterols, vitamins etc.. Often subsequent convenient transformation of natural products may further improve the pharmacological properties of new potential medicaments based on natural products. To respect basic principles of sustainable and green procedures, enzymes are often employed as efficient natural catalysts in such plant product transformations. Transformations of lipids and other natural products under the conditions of enzyme catalysis show increasing importance in environmentally safe and sustainable production of pharmacologically important compounds. In this review, attention is focused on lipases, efficient and convenient biocatalysts for the enantio- and regioselective formation / hydrolysis of ester bond in a wide variety of both natural and unnatural substrates, including plant products, eg. plant oils and other natural lipid phase compounds. The application of enzymes for preparation of acylglycerols and transformation of other natural products provides big advantage in comparison with employing of conventional chemical methods: Increased selectivity, higher product purity and quality, energy conservation, elimination of heavy metal catalysts, and sustainability of the employed processes, which are catalyzed by enzymes. Two general procedures are used in the transformation of lipid-like natural products: (a Hydrolysis/alcoholysis of triacylglycerols and (b esterification of glycerol. The reactions can be performed under conventional conditions or in supercritical fluids/ionic liquids. Enzyme-catalyzed reactions in supercritical fluids combine the

  18. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  19. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements.

  20. Target product profiles for protecting against outdoor malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killeen Gerry F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual sprays (IRS have decimated malaria transmission by killing indoor-feeding mosquitoes. However, complete elimination of malaria transmission with these proven methods is confounded by vectors that evade pesticide contact by feeding outdoors. Methods For any assumed level of indoor coverage and personal protective efficacy with insecticidal products, process-explicit malaria transmission models suggest that insecticides that repel mosquitoes will achieve less impact upon transmission than those that kill them outright. Here such models are extended to explore how outdoor use of products containing either contact toxins or spatial repellents might augment or attenuate impact of high indoor coverage of LLINs relying primarily upon contact toxicity. Results LLIN impact could be dramatically enhanced by high coverage with spatial repellents conferring near-complete personal protection, but only if combined indoor use of both measures can be avoided where vectors persist that prefer feeding indoors upon humans. While very high levels of coverage and efficacy will be required for spatial repellents to substantially augment the impact of LLINs or IRS, these ambitious targets may well be at least as practically achievable as the lower requirements for equivalent impact using contact insecticides. Conclusions Vapour-phase repellents may be more acceptable, practical and effective than contact insecticides for preventing outdoor malaria transmission because they need not be applied to skin or clothing and may protect multiple occupants of spaces outside of treatable structures such as nets or houses.

  1. PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT CROP MONITORING USING REMOTE SENSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of past and anticipated plantings of transgenic corn in the United States requires a new approach to monitor this important crop for the development of pest resistance. Remote sensing by aerial and/or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pest...

  2. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Flint Hughes,; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  3. Harnessing plant-microbe interactions for enhancing farm productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Catriona; Singh, Brajesh

    2014-01-01

    Declining soil fertility and farm productivity is a major global concern in order to achieve food security for a burgeoning world population. It is reported that improving soil health alone can increase productivity by 10-15% and in combination with efficient plant traits, farm productivity can be increased up to 50-60%. In this article we explore the emerging microbial and bioengineering technologies, which can be employed to achieve the transformational increase in farm productivity and can simultaneously enhance environmental outcomes i.e., low green house gas (GHG) emissions. We argue that metagenomics, meta-transcriptomics and metabolomics have potential to provide fundamental knowledge on plant-microbes interactions necessary for new innovations to increase farm productivity. Further, these approaches provide tools to identify and select novel microbial/gene resources which can be harnessed in transgenic and designer plant technologies for enhanced resource use efficiencies.

  4. Production of Aromatic Plant Terpenoids in Recombinant Baker's Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerstorfer-Augustin, Anita; Pichler, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Plant terpenoids are high-value compounds broadly applied as food additives or fragrances in perfumes and cosmetics. Their biotechnological production in yeast offers an attractive alternative to extraction from plants. Here, we provide two optimized protocols for the production of the plant terpenoid trans-nootkatol with recombinant S. cerevisiae by either (I) converting externally added (+)-valencene with resting cells or (II) cultivating engineered self-sufficient production strains. By synthesis of the hydrophobic compounds in self-sufficient production cells, phase transfer issues can be avoided and the highly volatile products can be enriched in and easily purified from n-dodecane, which is added to the cell broth as second phase.

  5. Fire Protection at wind power plants (WEA). Proceedings; Brandschutz bei Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the VdS meeting of VDS Schadensverhuetung GmbH (Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13th May, 2009, in Cologne (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Fire Protection at wind power systems - a regulary guide of GDV and German Lloyd (VdS 3523) for the practice (Andreas Pflugradt); (b) Experiences of damage of the insurance companies (Jan Pohl); (c) Fire protectional plants and facilities for wind power plants - Fire detection and fire extinction systems (Heike Siefkes, Horst Berger); (d) Certification of wind power plants and their concepts of fire protection (Volker Riedlinger); (e) Recommendation of insurance companies for maintenance (Mingyi Wang); (f) Condition monitoring as a measure for prevention of damages (Moritz Nuesperling); (g) Emergency information system for wind power plants (WEA-NIS) (Mesut Gezen).

  6. Using Hairy Roots for Production of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize a wide variety of natural products, which are traditionally termed secondary metabolites and, more recently, coined specialized metabolites. While these chemical compounds are employed by plants for interactions with their environment, humans have long since explored and exploited plant secondary metabolites for medicinal and practical uses. Due to the tissue-specific and low-abundance accumulation of these metabolites, alternative means of production in systems other than intact plants are sought after. To this end, hairy root culture presents an excellent platform for producing valuable secondary metabolites. This chapter will focus on several major groups of secondary metabolites that are manufactured by hairy roots established from different plant species. Additionally, the methods for preservations of hairy roots will also be reviewed.

  7. Plant Diversity Surpasses Plant Functional Groups and Plant Productivity as Driver of Soil Biota in the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Bessler, Holger; Brenner, Johanna; Engels, Christof; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Partsch, Stephan; Roscher, Christiane; Schonert, Felix; Temperton, Vicky M.; Thomisch, Karolin; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Scheu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in the impacts of plant diversity and presence of key functional groups on soil biota by investigating the performance of soil microorganisms and soil fauna two, four and six years after the establishment of model grasslands. The results indicate that temporal changes of plant community effects depend on the trophic affiliation of soil animals: plant diversity effects on decomposers only occurred after six years, changed little in herbivores, but occurred in predators after two years. The results suggest that plant diversity, in terms of species and functional group richness, is the most important plant community property affecting soil biota, exceeding the relevance of plant above- and belowground productivity and the presence of key plant functional groups, i.e. grasses and legumes, with the relevance of the latter decreasing in time. Conclusions/Significance Plant diversity effects on biota are not only due to the presence of key plant functional groups or plant productivity highlighting the importance of diverse and high-quality plant derived resources, and supporting the validity of the singular hypothesis for soil biota. Our results demonstrate that in the long term plant diversity essentially drives the performance of soil biota questioning the paradigm that belowground communities are not affected by plant diversity and reinforcing the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning. PMID:21249208

  8. Plant diversity surpasses plant functional groups and plant productivity as driver of soil biota in the long term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Eisenhauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied changes in the impacts of plant diversity and presence of key functional groups on soil biota by investigating the performance of soil microorganisms and soil fauna two, four and six years after the establishment of model grasslands. The results indicate that temporal changes of plant community effects depend on the trophic affiliation of soil animals: plant diversity effects on decomposers only occurred after six years, changed little in herbivores, but occurred in predators after two years. The results suggest that plant diversity, in terms of species and functional group richness, is the most important plant community property affecting soil biota, exceeding the relevance of plant above- and belowground productivity and the presence of key plant functional groups, i.e. grasses and legumes, with the relevance of the latter decreasing in time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plant diversity effects on biota are not only due to the presence of key plant functional groups or plant productivity highlighting the importance of diverse and high-quality plant derived resources, and supporting the validity of the singular hypothesis for soil biota. Our results demonstrate that in the long term plant diversity essentially drives the performance of soil biota questioning the paradigm that belowground communities are not affected by plant diversity and reinforcing the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning.

  9. Protecting Plants against Pests and Pathogens with Entomopathogenic Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyser, Chad Alton

    is an increasingly important area of research. Efforts to maximize agricultural output are significantly dependent on reliable means for pest suppression. Biological control, or the use of living organisms to suppress a pest population, is a leading alternative to traditional chemical-based pesticides for crop...... protection. The fungal genus Metarhizium is one of the most intensely researched groups of entomopathogenic fungi and several isolates have been successfully employed as biopesticides for crop protection; however, inconsistent field reliability has limited wider implementation. Research emphasizing...... of variability with in the species. The results of these studies further clarify the important role Metarhizium spp. play in the natural environment and highlight their vast potential to be implemented as biological control agents of important pest insects....

  10. Plant-Derived Natural Products for Parkinson's Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, T; Vinayagam, J; Singh, R; Jaisankar, P; Mohanakumar, K P

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products have made their own niche in the treatment of neurological diseases since time immemorial. Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, has no cure and the treatment available currently is symptomatic. This chapter thoughtfully and objectively assesses the scientific basis that supports the increasing use of these plant-derived natural products for the treatment of this chronic and progressive disorder. Proper considerations are made on the chemical nature, sources, preclinical tests and their validity, and mechanisms of behavioural or biochemical recovery observed following treatment with various plants derived natural products relevant to PD therapy. The scientific basis underlying the neuroprotective effect of 6 Ayurvedic herbs/formulations, 12 Chinese medicinal herbs/formulations, 33 other plants, and 5 plant-derived molecules have been judiciously examined emphasizing behavioral, cellular, or biochemical aspects of neuroprotection observed in the cellular or animal models of the disease. The molecular mechanisms triggered by these natural products to promote cell survivability and to reduce the risk of cellular degeneration have also been brought to light in this study. The study helped to reveal certain limitations in the scenario: lack of preclinical studies in all cases barring two; heavy dependence on in vitro test systems; singular animal or cellular model to establish any therapeutic potential of drugs. This strongly warrants further studies so as to reproduce and confirm these reported effects. However, the current literature offers scientific credence to traditionally used plant-derived natural products for the treatment of PD.

  11. Production of Virus-free Carnation Plants through Heat Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mangal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exposure of carnation plants infected with carnation, latent virus (CLV to two temperature regimes (35 + 2 "C and 40 +2 "C for different periods (1 to 4 weeks revealed thatthe exposure to different temperatures for different periods has a negative correlation with the survival of plants. Whereas only 33.33 per cent plants survived after 4 weeks at 35 + 2 "C, the plants when exposed to 40+ 2 "C for the same period could not tolerate the heat shock. However, only those plants which were exposed to 35 + 2 "C for 4 weeks and those exposed to 40 + 2 "C for 3 weeks were free from CLV. However, because of better survival rate, the higher temperature regime of 40 + 2 "C is recommended for production of virus-tested carnation plants.

  12. Pharmaceuticals and Personal-Care Products in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, Mireia; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) derived from agricultural, urban, and industrial areas accumulate in plants at concentrations (ng to μg kg(-1)) that can be toxic to the plants. Importantly, the dietary intake of these PPCP-contaminated plants may also pose a risk to human health, but currently little is known about the fate of PPCPs in plants and their effect on or risk to the ecosystem. In this Opinion article we propose that in-depth research on the use of plants as a monitoring device for assessing the use and environmental presence of PPCPs is warranted. The toxicity of PPCPs to plants and their microbiota needs to be established, as well as any toxic effects on herbivores including humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  14. Concepts in production ecology for analysis and design of animal and plant-animal production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de G.W.J.; Ridder, de N.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of a hierarchy in growth factors (defining, limiting and reducing growth factors), as developed for plant production has shown its usefulness in the analysis and design of plant production systems. This hierarchy presents a theoretical framework for the analysis of biophysical conditions in

  15. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

  16. The Plant Hormone Cytokinin Confers Protection against Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Eman; Stopper, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Modulating key dynamics of plant growth and development, the effects of the plant hormone cytokinin on animal cells gained much attention recently. Most previous studies on cytokinin effects on mammalian cells have been conducted with elevated cytokinin concentration (in the μM range). However, to examine physiologically relevant dose effects of cytokinins on animal cells, we systematically analyzed the impact of kinetin in cultured cells at low and high concentrations (1nM-10μM) and examined cytotoxic and genotoxic conditions. We furthermore measured the intrinsic antioxidant activity of kinetin in a cell-free system using the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay and in cells using the dihydroethidium staining method. Monitoring viability, we looked at kinetin effects in mammalian cells such as HL60 cells, HaCaT human keratinocyte cells, NRK rat epithelial kidney cells and human peripheral lymphocytes. Kinetin manifests no antioxidant activity in the cell free system and high doses of kinetin (500 nM and higher) reduce cell viability and mediate DNA damage in vitro. In contrast, low doses (concentrations up to 100 nM) of kinetin confer protection in cells against oxidative stress. Moreover, our results show that pretreatment of the cells with kinetin significantly reduces 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide mediated reactive oxygen species production. Also, pretreatment with kinetin retains cellular GSH levels when they are also treated with the GSH-depleting agent patulin. Our results explicitly show that low kinetin doses reduce apoptosis and protect cells from oxidative stress mediated cell death. Future studies on the interaction between cytokinins and human cellular pathway targets will be intriguing. PMID:28005918

  17. Fertiliser products from biogas plants; Biokaasulaitosten lopputuotteet lannoitevalmisteina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marttinen, S.; Paavola, T.; Ervasti, S. [and others

    2013-02-01

    The use of end-products from biogas plants was studied from the perspective of plant nutrition and agriculture. The tasks included development of generally applicable methods for determining nitrogen and phosphorus in different fertiliser products in order to predict their fertiliser effect. The degradation of the products in soil was also studied. The work included both laboratory and field scale experiments. Additionally, the stability and possible phytotoxicity of the products was studied. The content of harmful contaminants and microbiological risks of the products were determined. The aim was to offer information on the characteristics and usability of the products for producers and users of the products and for supervising officials. Of the analysis methods tested, 1:60 water extraction was the best general method to describe the content of soluble, plant-available nitrogen in different organic fertiliser products. In liquid fertiliser products, nitrogen is more readily available for plants than in solid products and the fertilising effect is comparable to that of mineral fertilisers. The fertilising effect of solid organic fertiliser products is somewhat lower than that of mineral fertilisers due to surface application and mixing into the cultivation layer. This results in lower plant-availability than with mineral fertilisers which are injected into soil. Solid products contain significant amounts of total phosphorus, the solubility of which is low. As it may be solubilised over long periods of time, the 1:5 water extraction required by the current Finnish legislation of fertiliser products underestimates the usability of phosphorus. Due to the more sensitive yield response of organic fertiliser products to changes in conditions, as opposed to mineral fertilisers, it is also recommended to use an application strategy in which part of the soluble nitrogen originates from organic fertilisers and part from mineral fertilisers. Also due to legislative

  18. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C; McGuire, A David; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-05

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  19. Earthworms increase plant production: a meta- analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Lubbers, I.M.; Vos, H.M.J.; Brown, G.G.; Deyn, de G.B.; Groenigen, van K.J.

    2014-01-01

    To meet the challenge of feeding a growing world population with minimal environmental impact, we need comprehensive and quantitative knowledge of ecological factors affecting crop production. Earthworms are among the most important soil dwelling invertebrates. Their activity affects both biotic and

  20. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  1. Convergence of terrestrial plant production across global climate gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaletz, Sean T; Cheng, Dongliang; Kerkhoff, Andrew J; Enquist, Brian J

    2014-08-07

    Variation in terrestrial net primary production (NPP) with climate is thought to originate from a direct influence of temperature and precipitation on plant metabolism. However, variation in NPP may also result from an indirect influence of climate by means of plant age, stand biomass, growing season length and local adaptation. To identify the relative importance of direct and indirect climate effects, we extend metabolic scaling theory to link hypothesized climate influences with NPP, and assess hypothesized relationships using a global compilation of ecosystem woody plant biomass and production data. Notably, age and biomass explained most of the variation in production whereas temperature and precipitation explained almost none, suggesting that climate indirectly (not directly) influences production. Furthermore, our theory shows that variation in NPP is characterized by a common scaling relationship, suggesting that global change models can incorporate the mechanisms governing this relationship to improve predictions of future ecosystem function.

  2. Acquisition and statistical analysis of reliability data for I and C parts in plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. J.; Byun, S. S.; Han, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Lim, J. S.; Oh, S. J.; Park, K. Y.; Song, H. S. [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This project has been performed in order to construct I and C part reliability databases for detailed analysis of plant protection system and to develop a methodology for analysing trip set point drifts. Reliability database for the I and C parts of plant protection system is required to perform the detailed analysis. First, we have developed an electronic part reliability prediction code based on MIL-HDBK-217F. Then we have collected generic reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system. Statistical analysis procedure has been developed to process the data. Then the generic reliability database has been constructed. We have also collected plant specific reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3,4 units. Plant specific reliability database for I and C parts has been developed by the Bayesian procedure. We have also developed an statistical analysis procedure for set point drift, and performed analysis of drift effects for trip set point. The basis for the detailed analysis can be provided from the reliability database for the PPS I and C parts. The safety of the KSNP and succeeding NPPs can be proved by reducing the uncertainty of PSA. Economic and efficient operation of NPP can be possible by optimizing the test period to reduce utility's burden. 14 refs., 215 figs., 137 tabs. (Author)

  3. An update on polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), a leucine-rich repeat protein that protects crop plants against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalunke, Raviraj M; Tundo, Silvio; Benedetti, Manuel; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the pectin-depolymerizing activity of polygalacturonases secreted by microbial pathogens and insects. These ubiquitous inhibitors have a leucine-rich repeat structure that is strongly conserved in monocot and dicot plants. Previous reviews have summarized the importance of PGIP in plant defense and the structural basis of PG-PGIP interaction; here we update the current knowledge about PGIPs with the recent findings on the composition and evolution of pgip gene families, with a special emphasis on legume and cereal crops. We also update the information about the inhibition properties of single pgip gene products against microbial PGs and the results, including field tests, showing the capacity of PGIP to protect crop plants against fungal, oomycetes and bacterial pathogens.

  4. 76 FR 20368 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Protection Project. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kelly Moroney, Refuge Manager, (530) 934-2801... Plant Protection Feasibility Study in August 2005 to identify alternatives that meet the PCGID-PID's pumping plant and fish screen protection objectives. In 2005, River Partners prepared a...

  5. Localized products in France: definition, protection and value-adding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Bérard

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La notion de production localisée recouvre une réalité particulièrement importante en France, à la fois sur le terrain, à travers la grande diversité des produits, et dans l’imaginaire des Français. Les dispositifs de valorisation dont ces produits peuvent bénéficier renforcent l’intérêt porté à certains d’entre eux. Dans un tel contexte, il importe de mieux comprendre ce qui fait leur spécificité, d’approfondir certaines notions, de mettre l’accent sur ce qui les différencie réellement. Ce sont les critères d’ordre culturel associant un lieu à une histoire et à un groupe social qui permettent d’organiser et de penser cette famille foisonnante et polymorphe.En marge des demandes formelles de protection de l’indication géographique, de nombreuses initiatives contribuent à valoriser les productions locales. Elles sont le fait d'acteurs issus d'horizon divers, dans le cadre d'actions coordonnées, sans être réellement formalisées.Tous les pays n’ont pas le même rapport au lieu. L’inscription d’un produit dans un territoire est le fruit d’un ensemble de critères au poids plus ou moins important selon l’histoire économique et sociale du pays, sa culture, les rapports de force locaux, le milieu naturel.The concept of local production is a particular reality in France, both in the field itself, home to a huge variety of such products, and in the imagination of the French people. Regional products, terroir products, local, traditional and free-range products... There are countless terms to define this uniquely varied family that is thought to add meaning and promote attachment and as such, much coveted. The protection measures now in place make some of these products seem particularly interesting. Within such a context, what matters is to understand what makes local products special, exploring certain concepts, emphasizing what really makes them different and trying to make sense of their profusion

  6. Sustainable Product: Personal Protective Equipment Manufactured with Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Aparecido Boa Vista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the case of manufacturing of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE using as raw material biopolymers produced from ethanol from sugar cane, known as green polypropylene, produced since 2008 by BRASKEM. This article studied the PPE for the employee’s head protection, named helmet by NR 6, which is used in situations of exposure to weather and work scenarios in places where there is risk of impact from falling or projecting objects, burns, electric shock, and solar radiation. The MSA, green helmet manufacturer, made an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by comparing the two manufacturing processes of the helmet shell, covering the January 1 to December 31, 2011 period. It concluded that the sustainable helmet (green polyethylene and pigments robs 231g of CO2 from the atmosphere per produced unit, while the helmet’s production with traditional raw materials (polyethylene and petrochemical pigments found that, for each unit produced, 1029g of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere. The study showed that substitution of raw materials has led to reduction in the impact generated in the helmets’ production.

  7. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  8. New solutions for by-products plants developed by Koksoprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Tomal; R. Zajdel; H. Zembala

    2002-07-01

    The paper focuses on recent and current activities of KOKSOPROJEKT Company oriented towards up-to-dating and optimization of its own developed processes and technical solutions. As a result of these activities the investment and operation cost have been decreased and European standards in environmental protection have not only been met, but even exceeded. From among many developments in this field this paper only presents three reliable and efficient processes for coke oven gas desulfurizing: ammonia process, potash-vacuum process and catalytic-soda (KAT-SOD) process. All of mentioned technologies have been implemented in Polish coking plants, and the desulfurization plants operate with good results. 1 tab.

  9. Automated production of plant-based vaccines and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz, Holger; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F; Briggs, John; Sharpe, Aaron; Shu, Sudong; Sharon, Andre

    2012-12-01

    A fully automated "factory" was developed that uses tobacco plants to produce large quantities of vaccines and other therapeutic biologics within weeks. This first-of-a-kind factory takes advantage of a plant viral vector technology to produce specific proteins within the leaves of rapidly growing plant biomass. The factory's custom-designed robotic machines plant seeds, nurture the growing plants, introduce a viral vector that directs the plant to produce a target protein, and harvest the biomass once the target protein has accumulated in the plants-all in compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines (e.g., current Good Manufacturing Practices). The factory was designed to be time, cost, and space efficient. The plants are grown in custom multiplant trays. Robots ride up and down a track, servicing the plants and delivering the trays from the lighted, irrigated growth modules to each processing station as needed. Using preprogrammed robots and processing equipment eliminates the need for human contact, preventing potential contamination of the process and economizing the operation. To quickly produce large quantities of protein-based medicines, we transformed a laboratory-based biological process and scaled it into an industrial process. This enables quick, safe, and cost-effective vaccine production that would be required in case of a pandemic.

  10. Labour Protection and Productivity in EU Economies: 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompei, Fabrizio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines cross-national and sectoral differences in multifactor productivity growth in sixteen European countries from 1995 to 2005. The main aim is to ascertain the role of flexible employment contracts and collective labour relationships in explaining the ample differentials recorded in the European economy. We use the EU KLEMS database for growth accounting and a broad set of indicators of labour regulations, covering two distinct 'areas' of labour regulation: employment laws and collective relations laws. This comprehensive approach allows us to consider arrangements that regulate allocation of labour inputs (fixed-term and part-time contracts, hours worked and the payoff and decision rights of employees. We find that, since 1995, European countries have not followed similar patterns of growth. A large number of variations between European economies are caused by marked differentials in multifactor productivity and part of this heterogeneity is caused by sectoral diversities. We show that, in labour-intensive sectors such as services, fixed-term contracts, which imply shorter-term jobs and lower employment tenures, may discourage investment in skills and have detrimental effects on multifactor productivity increases. Employment protection reforms which slacken the rules of fixed-term contracts cause potential drawbacks in terms of low productivity gains. We also find that more stringent regulation of these practices, as well as a climate of collective relations, sustain long-term relationships and mitigate these negative effects

  11. In vitro production of plant peroxidases--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rábade, Nuria; Del Carmen Oliver-Salvador, María; Salgado-Manjarrez, Edgar; Badillo-Corona, Jesús Agustín

    2012-04-01

    In the latest two decades, the interest received by plant enzymes has increased significantly. Plant enzymes such as peroxidases are widely used in medicine as diagnostic tools and in the bioremediation and biobleaching industries, among others. Traditionally, these enzymes have been obtained from a natural source, a process that is sometimes laborious and affected by weather conditions and low yields. To overcome this hurdle, some efforts have been made to establish plant cell cultures in vitro to use the system as a continuous source of plant enzymes. The focus of this review will be the production of plant peroxidases in vitro, including novel approaches such as the use of bioreactors and genetically transformed tissues to enhance the yield of desired enzymes.

  12. Secondary Plant Products Causing Photosensitization in Grazing Herbivores: Their Structure, Activity and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems.

  13. Secondary Plant Products Causing Photosensitization in Grazing Herbivores: Their Structure, Activity and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jane C.; Kessell, Allan; Weston, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems. PMID:24451131

  14. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications.

  15. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in food production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L. monocytogenes has been established in different plants for the production of food, including dairy plants, abattoirs, plants for the processing of fish, as well as those for the production of ready-to-eat (RTE food and this fact is being considered as the primary mechanism of food contamination with this bacteria. There is also the factor of numerous and diverse contaminated production equipment, because it has certain parts that are inaccessible for the necessary cleaning and disinfection. The temperature, position, as well as the material of the work surface are also linked to the contamination of plants with this bacteria. Investigations carried out so far have helped toward the better understanding of the manner and time of contamination of food items in the course of the production process, but there are still unresolved problems, including most certainly the biggest one - the adherence of bacteria and the creation of a biofilm, when the bacteria is in that condition more resistant to so-called stress factors which are usually used in the food industry for the purpose of decontamination of the surfaces with which foods come into contact. The control of L. monocytogenes in food production plants is possible primarily by using an integrated programme, compatible with the systems Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP and Good Hygiene Practice (GHP, necessary in the production of food that is safe for the consumer. Essentially, the control measures that can contribute to reducing the incidence of findings of L.monocytogenes in the finished product, as well as the reducing of the level of contamination with this bacteria are linked, on the one hand, with hygiene procedures in the production process, and, on the other, with the applied technological procedures.

  17. Existing large steam power plant upgraded for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanti, L.; Franzoni, A.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F. [University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    This paper presents and discusses the results of a complete thermoeconomic analysis of an integrated power plant for co-production of electricity and hydrogen via pyrolysis and gasification processes fed by various coals and mixture of coal and biomass, applied to an existing large steam power plant (ENEL Brindisi power plant - 660 MWe). Two different technologies for the syngas production section are considered: pyrolysis process and direct pressurized gasification. Moreover, the proximity of a hydrogen production and purification plants to an existing steam power plant favors the inter-exchange of energy streams, mainly in the form of hot water and steam, which reduces the costs of auxiliary equipment. The high quality of the hydrogen would guarantee its usability for distributed generation and for public transport. The results were obtained using WTEMP thermoeconomic software, developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa, and this project has been carried out within the framework of the FISR National project 'Integrated systems for hydrogen production and utilization in distributed power generation'.

  18. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

    2013-11-05

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.

  19. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  20. Application of Graph Theory to Cost-Effective Fire Protection of Chemical Plants During Domino Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Landucci, Gabriele; Reniers, Genserik

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we have introduced a methodology based on graph theory and multicriteria decision analysis for cost-effective fire protection of chemical plants subject to fire-induced domino effects. By modeling domino effects in chemical plants as a directed graph, the graph centrality measures such as out-closeness and betweenness scores can be used to identify the installations playing a key role in initiating and propagating potential domino effects. It is demonstrated that active fire protection of installations with the highest out-closeness score and passive fire protection of installations with the highest betweenness score are the most effective strategies for reducing the vulnerability of chemical plants to fire-induced domino effects. We have employed a dynamic graph analysis to investigate the impact of both the availability and the degradation of fire protection measures over time on the vulnerability of chemical plants. The results obtained from the graph analysis can further be prioritized using multicriteria decision analysis techniques such as the method of reference point to find the most cost-effective fire protection strategy. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Support of protective work of human error in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Yuriko [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    The nuclear power plant human factor group of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd. supports various protective work of human error conducted at the nuclear power plant. Its main researching theme are studies on human factor on operation of a nuclear power plant, and on recovery and common basic study on human factor. In addition, on a base of the obtained informations, assistance to protective work of human error conducted at the nuclear power plant as well as development for its actual use was also promoted. Especially, for actions sharing some dangerous informations, various assistances such as a proposal on actual example analytical method to effectively understand a dangerous information not facially but faithfully, construction of a data base to conveniently share such dangerous information, and practice on non-accident business survey for a hint of effective promotion of the protection work, were promoted. Here were introduced on assistance and investigation for effective sharing of the dangerous informations for various actions on protection of human error mainly conducted in nuclear power plant. (G.K.)

  2. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process.

  3. Pseudomyrmex ants and Acacia host plants join efforts to protect their mutualism from microbial threats

    OpenAIRE

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Plants express numerous ‘pathogenesis-related’ (PR) proteins to defend themselves against pathogen infection. We recently discovered that PR-proteins such as chitinases, glucanases, peroxidases and thaumatin-like proteins are also functioning in the protection of extra-floral nectar (EFN) of Mexican Acacia myrmecophytes. These plants produce EFN, cellular food bodies and nesting space to house defending ant species of the genus Pseudomyrmex. More than 50 PR-proteins were discovered in this EF...

  4. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Projet Production EPR 1, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  5. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  6. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  7. Glycine betaine protects tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants at low temperature by inducing fatty acid desaturase7 and lipoxygenase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabudak, T; Bor, M; Özdemir, F; Türkan, İ

    2014-03-01

    Cold stress is among the environmental stressors limiting productivity, yield and quality of agricultural plants. Tolerance to cold stress is associated with the increased unsaturated fatty acids ratio in the plant membranes which are also known to be substrates of octadecanoid pathway for jasmonate and other oxylipins biosynthesis. Accumulation of osmoprotectant, glycine betaine (GB) is well known to be effective in the protecting membranes and mitigating cold stress effects but, the mode of action is poorly understood. We studied the role of GB in cold stress responses of two tomato cultivated varieties; Gerry (cold stress sensitive) and T47657 (moderately cold stress tolerant) and compared the differences in lypoxygenase-13 (TomLOXF) and fatty acid desaturase 7 (FAD7) gene expression profiles and physiological parameters including relative growth rates, relative water content, osmotic potential, photosynthetic efficiency, membrane leakage, lipid peroxidation levels. Our results indicated that GB might have a role in inducing FAD7 and LOX expressions for providing protection against cold stress in tomato plants which could be related to the desaturation process of lipids leading to increased membrane stability and/or induction of other genes related to stress defense mechanisms via octadecanoid pathway or lipid peroxidation products.

  8. INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN MORPHOGENESIS REGENERATED PLANTS POTATO IN VITRO TO INTENSIFY PRODUCTION OF ELITE PLANTING MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Miakisheva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the need to use the techniques of modern biotechnology in primary seed potatoes in the Russian Federation. At present time, the playback of potatoes does not meet current phytosanitary requirements, moreover, there is a low yield of potatoes in the whole country and the region for a long period of time. The potato yield that annually produced in Russia is much lower than the world's, and does not meet the genetic capabilities of used varieties. Modern methods of biotechnology have undeniable advantages and make it possible to carry out year-round operation for the production of elite planting material of potato. Effective implementation of such activities is provided by careful selection of plant cultivation conditions in vitro, selection of breeding gound and environmental components for each variety in order to provide the maximum parameters of plant growth and productivity. During research we examined the effect of vitamin component of breeding ground according to the formula of  Murashige and Skoog, containing thiamine, pyridoxine, and niacin (the co-enzymes that involved in biochemical reactions of the plants. The effect of vitamin complex on the above-ground plant parts (plant height and number of internodes, as well as indicators of root formation (number and length of roots was studied for regenerated plants of four potato varieties: Adretta, Red Scarlett, Lubava, and Kuznechanka. We proved a positive effect of vitamin component on plant morphogenesis. For each variety we determined the optimal ratio in nutriculture medium.

  9. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Water plays a central role affecting all aspects of the dynamics in aridland ecosystems. Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. The ecological studies in this project revolve around one fundamental premise: that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process. In contrast, hydrogen is not fractionated during water uptake through the root. Soil water availability in shallow, deep, and/or groundwater layers vary spatially; therefore hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap provide a direct measure of the water source currently used by a plant. The longer-term record of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios is recorded annually in xylem tissues (tree rings). The research in this project addresses variation in stable isotopic composition of aridland plants and its consequences for plant performance and community-level interactions.

  10. Qualified Coatings in Nuclear Power Plants. Commercial products; Qualified Coatings in Nuclear Power Plants. Commercial products. Pinturas homologadas en centrales nucleares. Productos comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcena, J.; Nunez, B.; Romero, M.; Baladiam, M.

    2014-07-01

    Recently, the supplier of paints that were qualified for use in nuclear applications as protective coatings have ceased to supply in Spain the paints that was used in areas or components with special requirements for nuclear power plants (NPPs). This lack of the common commercial products called for the search for and homologation of other products. A study was performed on the current status of the homologation of commercial products for NPPs and on the codes and standards governing them. The criteria to be met have been defined and the results of the tests performed on the selected paints have been compared against the established criteria so as to allow the homologation of the paints. (Author)

  11. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil: A memoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  12. Generation of protective immune response against anthrax by oral immunization with protective antigen plant-based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorantala, Jyotsna; Grover, Sonam; Rahi, Amit; Chaudhary, Prerna; Rajwanshi, Ravi; Sarin, Neera Bhalla; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2014-04-20

    In concern with frequent recurrence of anthrax in endemic areas and inadvertent use of its spores as biological weapon, the development of an effective anthrax vaccine suitable for both human and veterinary needs is highly desirable. A simple oral delivery through expression in plant system could offer promising alternative to the current methods that rely on injectable vaccines extracted from bacterial sources. In the present study, we have expressed protective antigen (PA) gene in Indian mustard by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and in tobacco by plastid transformation. Putative transgenic lines were verified for the presence of transgene and its expression by molecular analysis. PA expressed in transgenic lines was biologically active as evidenced by macrophage lysis assay. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral immunization with plant PA in murine model indicated high serum PA specific IgG and IgA antibody titers. PA specific mucosal immune response was noted in orally immunized groups. Further, antibodies indicated lethal toxin neutralizing potential in-vitro and conferred protection against in-vivo toxin challenge. Oral immunization experiments demonstrated generation of immunoprotective response in mice. Thus, our study examines the feasibility of oral PA vaccine expressed in an edible plant system against anthrax.

  13. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  14. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  15. Impact of Implementing 1991 Act of the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuhong

    2006-01-01

    The Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants is abbreviated as UPOV. The Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants has 1961/1972 Act ,1978 Act and 1991 Act. China is member of UPOV and its regulations of protection of new varieties of plants conform to 1978 Act. At present, there is big debate whether China accedes to 1991 Act. This paper mainly discussed advantages and possibilities that China accedes to 1991 Act, and concluded that it is highly desirable that China should consider acceding to 1991 Act in order to contribute to development of system on protection of new varieties of plants.

  16. Plant traits mediate consumer and nutrient control on plant community productivity and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan; Tuomi, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths) that differed in plant functional traits related to resource acquisition and palatability. Infertile habitats were dominated by species with traits indicative of a slow-growing strategy: high C:N ratio, low specific leaf area, and high condensed tannins. We found that herbivory counteracted the effect of fertilization on biomass, and that this response differed between the two habitats and was correlated with plant functional traits. Live biomass dominated the treatment responses in infertile habitats, whereas litter accumulation dominated the treatment responses in fertile habitats and was strongly negatively associated with resident community tannin concentration. Species richness declined under herbivore exclusion and fertilization in fertile habitats, where litter accumulation was greatest. Community means of plant C:N ratio predicted treatment effects on diversity: fertilization decreased and herbivory increased dominance in communities originally dominated by plants with high C:N, while fertilization increased and herbivory diminished dominance in communities where low C:N species were abundant. Our results highlight the close interdependence between consumer effects, soil nutrients, and plant functional traits and suggest that plant traits may provide an improved understanding of how consumers and nutrients influence plant community productivity and diversity.

  17. Woody plant willow in function of river water protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babincev Ljiljana M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal area surrounding the river Ibar, in the area between cities of Kosovska Mitrovica and Leposavić in the north of Kosovo and Metohija, is occupied with seven industrial waste dumps. These dumps were all part of the exploitation and flotation refinement of raw mineral materials, metallurgic refinement of concentrates, chemical industry, industrial refinement and energetic facilities of Trepča industrial complex. The existing waste dumps, both active and inactive, are of heterogenic chemical composition. Its impact on the river water is shown by the content of heavy metals found in it. Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc would be economically unrewarding, regardless of the technology used. Wooden plant that prevails in this area is white willow. This work is focused on the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn from the water of the river Ibar using white willow. Roots of the willow are cultivated using the method of water cultures in an individual solution of heavy metals and river water sample. The preparation of the samples for analysis was performed by burning the herbal material and dissolving ashes in the appropriate acids. The concentrations of metals were determined by the stripping analysis. In the investigated heavy metal solutions the biomass increase is 25.6% in lead solution, 27.3% in cadmium and 30.7% in zinc solution. The increase of biomass in nutritional solution, without the heavy metals, is 32.4% and in river water sample 27.5%. The coefficient of bioaccumulation in solutions with heavy metals is 1.6% in lead solution, 1.9% in cadmium and 2.2% in zinc solution. Heavy metals accumulation is 18.74 μg of lead, 20.09 μg of cadmium and 22.89 μg of zinc. The coefficient of bioaccumulation of the water samples, that contained 44.83 μg/dm3 of lead, 29.21 μg/dm3 of cadmium and 434.00 μg/dm3 of zinc, during the period of 45 days, was 30.3% for lead, 53.4% for cadmium and 3.9% for zinc. The concentrations of accumulated metals

  18. Plant triacylglycerols as feedstocks for the production of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, Timothy P; Benning, Christoph; Ohlrogge, John

    2008-05-01

    Triacylglycerols produced by plants are one of the most energy-rich and abundant forms of reduced carbon available from nature. Given their chemical similarities, plant oils represent a logical substitute for conventional diesel, a non-renewable energy source. However, as plant oils are too viscous for use in modern diesel engines, they are converted to fatty acid esters. The resulting fuel is commonly referred to as biodiesel, and offers many advantages over conventional diesel. Chief among these is that biodiesel is derived from renewable sources. In addition, the production and subsequent consumption of biodiesel results in less greenhouse gas emission compared to conventional diesel. However, the widespread adoption of biodiesel faces a number of challenges. The biggest of these is a limited supply of biodiesel feedstocks. Thus, plant oil production needs to be greatly increased for biodiesel to replace a major proportion of the current and future fuel needs of the world. An increased understanding of how plants synthesize fatty acids and triacylglycerols will ultimately allow the development of novel energy crops. For example, knowledge of the regulation of oil synthesis has suggested ways to produce triacylglycerols in abundant non-seed tissues. Additionally, biodiesel has poor cold-temperature performance and low oxidative stability. Improving the fuel characteristics of biodiesel can be achieved by altering the fatty acid composition. In this regard, the generation of transgenic soybean lines with high oleic acid content represents one way in which plant biotechnology has already contributed to the improvement of biodiesel.

  19. Cameroonian medicinal plants: Pharmacology and derived natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, antiparasitic including anti-malarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products.

  20. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant characters of broccoli determinants of head production

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Daniela Brandelero; Betania Brum; Lindolfo Storck; Jessica Cardoso; Talita Slota Kutz; Thiago de Oliveira Vargas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increasing consumption of single-head broccoli is due to several factors, among them there are food production in minimally processing form and the existence of hybrids that adapt to various climates, in addition to the simple harvesting of this typical architecture.This study aimed to identify the most relevant plant characters of broccoli, represented by growth characters, which are determinant in the production and canopy area. The study was conducted in an experimental area ...

  2. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Chen; Huafang Lai

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene d...

  3. Influence of plant community composition on biomass production in planted grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschell, Max A; Webster, Christopher R; Flaspohler, David J; Fortin, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    United States energy policy mandates increased use of renewable fuels. Restoring grasslands could contribute to a portion of this requirement through biomass harvest for bioenergy use. We investigated which plant community characteristics are associated with differences in biomass yield from a range of realistic native prairie plantings (n = 11; i.e., conservation planting, restoration, and wildlife cover). Our primary goal was to understand whether patterns in plant community composition and the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) were related to productivity as evidenced by dormant season biomass yield. FQI is an objective measure of how closely a plant community represents that of a pre-European settlement community. Our research was conducted in planted fields of native tallgrass prairie species, and provided a gradient in floristic quality index, species richness, species diversity, and species evenness in south-central Wisconsin during 2008 and 2009. We used a network of 15 randomly located 1 m2 plots within each field to characterize the plant community and estimate biomass yield by clipping the plots at the end of each growing season. While plant community composition and diversity varied significantly by planting type, biomass yield did not vary significantly among planting types (ANOVA; P >0.05). Biomass yield was positively correlated with plant community evenness, richness, C4 grass cover, and floristic quality index, but negatively correlated with plant species diversity in our multi-season multiple linear mixed effects models. Concordantly, plots with biomass yield in the lowest quartile (biomass yield biomass yield > 5800 kh/ha). Our results suggest that promoting the establishment of fields with high species evenness and floristic quality may increase biomass yield, while simultaneously supporting biodiversity.

  4. Production System of Virus-free Apple Plants Using Heat Treatment and Shoot Tip CultureShoot Tip Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gunsup Lee; Il Sheob Shin; Kang Hee Cho; Se Hee Kim; Juhee Shin; Dae Hyun Kim; Jeong Hee Kim; Hyun Ran Kim

    2013-01-01

    In worldwide, viral diseases of apple plants has caused the serious problems like reduced production and malformation of fruits. Also, the damages of apple plants by virus and/or viroid infection (Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple stem grooving virus, Apple mosaic virus, and Apple scar skin viroid) were reported in Korea. However there is few report about the protection approach against the infection by apple viruses. Therefore, this paper introduced the experimental protocol...

  5. An ants-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanan, M. C.; Bronstein, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ant protection of extrafloral nectar-secreting plants (EFN plants) is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the extrafloral nectar-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5000m2, and workers visit between five and thirty-four extrafloral nectar-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to twenty nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms PMID:23515612

  6. Protection of Vine Plants against Esca Disease by Breathable Electrospun Antifungal Nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Viola; Molnar, Melanie; Wang, Hui; Reich, Steffen; Agarwal, Seema; Fischer, Michael; Greiner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The harmful Esca disease in vine plants caused by wood-inhabiting fungi including Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) is spreading all across the world. This disease leads to poor vine crops and a slow decline or to a sudden dieback of the vine plants. The pruning wounds of vine plants are the main entry point for Pch. While model experiments with aerosol particles recommend electrospun nonwovens as a suitable barrier to block Pch, tests with living spores show clearly that only electrospun fibrous nonwovens do not prevent Pch invasion. However it is found, that with antifungal additives electrospun nonwovens could be applied successfully for blocking of Pch to infect the substrate. Thereby, a highly useful concept for the protection of vine plants against Esca disease is provided which could also serve as a concept for related plant diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nuclear driven water decomposition plant for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.; Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a hydrogen production plant using a very-high-temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) to energize a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical system for water decomposition has been prepared. A graphite-moderated helium-cooled VHTR is used to produce 1850 F gas for electric power generation and 1600 F process heat for the water-decomposition process which uses sulfur compounds and promises performance superior to normal water electrolysis or other published thermochemical processes. The combined cycle operates at an overall thermal efficiency in excess of 45%, and the overall economics of hydrogen production by this plant have been evaluated predicated on a consistent set of economic ground rules. The conceptual design and evaluation efforts have indicated that development of this type of nuclear-driven water-decomposition plant will permit large-scale economic generation of hydrogen in the 1990s.

  8. Energy Resiliency for Marine Corps Logistics Base Production Plant Barstow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Barstow, we would like to thank Mr. Paul Florez and Mr. Tony Mesa for their critical energy-related inputs. At Marine Corps Logistics Command...Production Plant Barstow, we would like to thank Mrs. Alicia Florez and Mr. John Peterson for hosting us and creating a detailed picture of the inner

  9. Initial biochar effects on plant productivity derive from N fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, S.L.; Memelink, Ilse; Hodgson, Edward; Jones, S.; Voorde, van de T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract


    Background and aim

    Biochar application to soil is widely claimed to increase plant productivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not conclusively described. Here, we aim to elucidate these mechanisms using stable isotope

  10. Cytokinin production by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and selected mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Salamone, I E; Hynes, R K; Nelson, L M

    2001-05-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is through the production of plant growth regulators. Five plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains produced the cytokinin dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR) in pure culture. Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18, a rifampicin-resistant mutant (RIF), and two TnphoA-derived mutants (CNT1, CNT2), with reduced capacity to synthesize cytokinins, was further characterized in pure culture using immunoassay and thin layer chromatography. G20-18 produced higher amounts of three cytokinins, isopentenyl adenosine (IPA), trans-zeatin ribose (ZR), and DHZR than the three mutants during stationary phase. IPA was the major metabolite produced, but the proportion of ZR and DHZR accumulated by CNT1 and CNT2 increased with time. No differences were observed between strain G20-18 and the mutants in the amounts of indole acetic acid synthesized, nor were gibberellins detected in supernatants of any of the strains. Addition of 10(-5) M adenine increased cytokinin production in 96- and 168-h cultures of strain G20-18 by approximately 67%. G20-18 and the mutants CNT1 and CNT2 may be useful for determination of the role of cytokinin production in plant growth promotion by PGPR.

  11. Initial biochar effects on plant productivity derive from N fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, S.L.; Memelink, Ilse; Hodgson, Edward; Jones, S.; Voorde, van de T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract


    Background and aim

    Biochar application to soil is widely claimed to increase plant productivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not conclusively described. Here, we aim to elucidate these mechanisms using stable isotope probing.


    Methods

  12. Decentralized Coordination of Load Shedding and Plant Protection Considering High Share of RESs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    variable using voltage drop data coordinated with plant protection scheme. A frequency anti stalling scheme is developed to interrupt more load feeders in case of frequency stall between consecutive set points. This time-based approach adjusts the time delay of the relay stages to disconnect the feeders...

  13. Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i Pathogenesis-Related (PR proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and lipoxygenase (LOX which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants.

  14. Antelope bitterbrush reestablishment: a case study of plant size and browse protection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Randy Johnson; Joel P. Okula

    2006-01-01

    After an intense stand-replacement fire in south-central Oregon, 1-y-old (1+0) bareroot seedlings of antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC. [Rosaceae]) were outplanted over a 4-y period. Paired-plots were established to examine the benefits of protecting the plants from damage due to animal browsing with Vexar mesh tubing. In the first...

  15. Dominant plant taxa predict plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment across precipitation and soil gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Philip A.; Newingham, Beth A.; Polley, H. Wayne; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.; Nowak, Robert S.; Smith, Stanley D.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere will continue to be enriched with carbon dioxide (CO2) over the coming century. Carbon dioxide enrichment often reduces leaf transpiration, which in water-limited ecosystems may increase soil water content, change species abundances and increase the productivity of plant communities. The effect of increased soil water on community productivity and community change may be greater in ecosystems with lower precipitation, or on coarser-textured soils, but responses are likely absent in deserts. We tested correlations among yearly increases in soil water content, community change and community plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in experiments in a mesic grassland with fine- to coarse-textured soils, a semi-arid grassland and a xeric shrubland. We found no correlation between CO2-caused changes in soil water content and changes in biomass of dominant plant taxa or total community aboveground biomass in either grassland type or on any soil in the mesic grassland (P > 0.60). Instead, increases in dominant taxa biomass explained up to 85 % of the increases in total community biomass under CO2 enrichment. The effect of community change on community productivity was stronger in the semi-arid grassland than in the mesic grassland, where community biomass change on one soil was not correlated with the change in either the soil water content or the dominant taxa. No sustained increases in soil water content or community productivity and no change in dominant plant taxa occurred in the xeric shrubland. Thus, community change was a crucial driver of community productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in the grasslands, but effects of soil water change on productivity were not evident in yearly responses to CO2 enrichment. Future research is necessary to isolate and clarify the mechanisms controlling the temporal and spatial variations in the linkages among soil water, community change and plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment. PMID

  16. Network reorganization and breakdown of an ant–plant protection mutualism with elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Amelia S. C.; Moses, Jimmy; Redmond, Conor; Novotny, Vojtech; Klimes, Petr; Fayle, Tom M.

    2017-01-01

    Both the abiotic environment and the composition of animal and plant communities change with elevation. For mutualistic species, these changes are expected to result in altered partner availability, and shifts in context-dependent benefits for partners. To test these predictions, we assessed the network structure of terrestrial ant-plant mutualists and how the benefits to plants of ant inhabitation changed with elevation in tropical forest in Papua New Guinea. At higher elevations, ant-plants were rarer, species richness of both ants and plants decreased, and the average ant or plant species interacted with fewer partners. However, networks became increasingly connected and less specialized, more than could be accounted for by reductions in ant-plant abundance. On the most common ant-plant, ants recruited less and spent less time attacking a surrogate herbivore at higher elevations, and herbivory damage increased. These changes were driven by turnover of ant species rather than by within-species shifts in protective behaviour. We speculate that reduced partner availability at higher elevations results in less specialized networks, while lower temperatures mean that even for ant-inhabited plants, benefits are reduced. Under increased abiotic stress, mutualistic networks can break down, owing to a combination of lower population sizes, and a reduction in context-dependent mutualistic benefits. PMID:28298349

  17. ORGANIC PRODUCTION AND ITS ROLE IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica ARSIC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Serbia, as a relatively small country, which dos not have a lot number of comparative advantages in the process of globalization can only be, in addition to human resources, rely on their natural resources. Favorable climate, large areas of arable land and forests, healthy environment conducive to the development of organic farming, which may be a response to the process of European integration and the necessity of trade across national borders. Methods of organic agriculture that are already use in many countries in the world, has shown excellent results in the conservation of soil biodiversity, soil and water purification from pesticides and fertilizers. Biological control of pests, the use of natural substances in disease control, fertilizer use, such as manure and compost to increase soil fertility measures that are in accordance with the requirements of a healthy environment, and measures to allow maintenance of the ecological balance in nature. This paper seeks to address the conditions that are important for organic production and considering the natural resources and new agricultural techniques to reduce pollution by analyzing the controlled production conditions and identify measures for sustainable development of high quality food, protection of ecosystems, as well as maintaining and increasing soil fertility.

  18. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  19. Biotechnology for Sustainable Crop Production and Protection: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manjunath

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, transgenic crops were grown on 134 million hectares in 25 countries, including India, in six continents by about 14million farmers, marking an 80-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization on 1.7 m ha in the USA and fiveother countries in 1996. The dominant transgenic traits were herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, deployed either alone orboth stacked in the same plant. A recent survey of the global impact of biotech crops estimated that in 2008 alone, the totalcrop production gain globally for the 4 principal biotech crops - maize, soybean, cotton and canola - was 29.6 million metrictons while the net economic benefit to the biotech farmers was US$ 9.2 billion. The cumulative benefits for the period 1996-2008 were yield gains of 167 million tons and economic returns of US$ 51.9 billion. In India, the area planted with Bt-cottonincreased significantly from year to year since its introduction in 2002 and reached 8.4 million hectares in 2009. The overallbenefits from Bt-cotton included an yield increase of up to 63% due to effective control of bollworms, pesticide reduction by50%, net profit to farmers up to Rs.10,000/hectare and turned India from an importer to a major exporter of cotton. Theseindicate that biotechnology has made significant contributions to higher productivity, lower costs of production and increasedeconomic benefits and that it has enormous potential for the future with new traits, events and crops. Over 60 countries,including India, are engaged in research on about 55 crop species to incorporate transgenes to bestow various traits such asresistance to pests, diseases or herbicides; tolerance to environmental stresses like drought, cold or salinity; enhanced cropyields, nutrition or shelf-life, etc. However, unreasonable opposition to biotechnology and undue delays in regulatoryapprovals are some of the major challenges that need to be addressed so as to make full use of this technology which

  20. Biogas and mineral fertiliser production from plant residues of phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2011-07-01

    The former uranium mining site in Ronneburg, Thuringia, Germany was known as a big source of uranium with more than 113,000 tons of uranium mined from 1946 to 1990. This area has been remediated since the nineties of the last century. However, nowadays the site in Ronneburg is still specially considered because of the heterogeneous contamination by many heavy metals and the vegetation can be affected. Three plant species including Indian mustard - Brassica juncea L., triticale - x. Triticosecale Wittmaek and sunflower - Helianthus annuus L. were seeded as accumulators of heavy metals and radionuclides in the phytoremediation process in 2009 and 2010 in Ronneburg. The subsequent utilization of the plant residues after phytoremediation is of special consideration. Batch fermentation of harvested plant materials under the mesophilic condition showed that all of the investigated plant materials had much higher biogas production than liquid cow manure except triticale root, of which biogas yield per volatile solid was not significantly higher than the one of sludge. The highest biogas yields (311 L{sub N}/kg FM and 807 L{sub N}/kg VS) were achieved from the spica of triticale after 42 days of retention of anaerobic digestion. Triticale shoot residues generated higher biogas and methane yields than the previously reported triticale materials that were harvested from the uncontaminated soil Triticale was considered as the highest potential species in biogas production, beside the best growth ability on the acidic soil at the test field site with highest biomass production. Biogas yield of Indian mustard shoot was also high but dramatically varied from 2009 to 2010. Digestates after anaerobic digestion of plant residues contained various macronutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur, and various micronutrients such as iron, manganes, zinc, etc. The accumulation levels of heavy metals in the investigated plant materials were not the hindrance factors

  1. Plant expressed EtMIC2 is an effective immunogen in conferring protection against chicken coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, K; Sriraman, R; Subramanian, B Mohana; Rao, N Hanumantha; Balaji, K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Srinivasan, V A

    2011-11-15

    Coccidiosis is an economically important disease affecting poultry industry and remains one of the major problems globally. Developing a cost effective sub-unit vaccine may help mitigate loss in the industry. Here, we report expressing one of the microneme proteins, EtMIC2 from Eimeria tenella in tobacco using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. The ability of plant expressed recombinant EtMIC2 in eliciting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were measured in the immunized birds. The protective efficacy in the vaccinated birds against a homologous challenge was also evaluated. Birds immunized with plant expressed EtMIC2 showed good sero-conversion, reduced oocyst output and increased weight gain when compared to control birds. Our data indicate that use of plant expressed recombinant EtMIC2 in birds was safe and had the potential in imparting partial protection in chickens against homologous challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, Mukund V; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2011-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers causes environmental pollution, emergence of agricultural pests and pathogens, and loss of biodiversity. Nanotechnology, by virtue of nanomaterial related properties, has potential agro-biotechnological applications for alleviation of these problems. The literature pertaining to the role of nanotechnology in plant and soil systems demonstrates that nanomaterials may assist in a) the controlled release of agrochemicals for nutrition and protection against pests and pathogens, b) delivery of genetic material, c) sensitive detection of plant disease and pollutants and d) protection and formation of soil structure. For instance, porous silica (15nm) and biodegradable, polymeric chitosan (78nm) nanoparticles displayed slow release of encapsulated pesticide and fertilizer, respectively. Further, nanosized gold (5-25nm) delivered DNA to plant cells while iron oxide (30nm) based nanosensors detected pesticides at minute levels. These functions assist the development of precision farming by minimizing pollution and maximizing the value of farming practice.

  3. Concept for the Emergency Protection in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In 1991, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) issued a concept of the regulations for the cloud phase 1 of an nuclear power plant accident in Switzerland valid at that time in co-operation with the Federal Commission for AC Protection (KOMAC) and the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission (KSA). This concept replaced the version of 1977, which then formed the basis for emergency preparedness in Switzerland. Legal changes, such as the civil protection legislation and the ordinance on the distribution of iodine tablets to the population, as well as experience gained from the emergency exercises necessitated a revision of the existing concept. The present concept is issued by the Federal Commission for AC Protection (KOMAC) and deals with all phases of an accident sequence in a Swiss nuclear power plant focussing on the pre- and cloud phase. It also gives an overview of responsibilities and alert procedures for accidents at foreign nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations, as well as of accidents in connection with transportation of radioactive materials. The concept is designed to help the federal and cantonal authorities in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in charge of emergency protection in preparing their emergency procedure specifications, and in the realisation of the readiness for emergencies. Furthermore, it shall serve the cantons as a guideline for the preparation of emergency specifications for the communities. The concept is based on the assumption that the executive bodies and emergency forces provided for the general civil protection are employed in case of an accident at a nuclear power plant. (authors)

  4. Genetic evidence for natural product-mediated plant-plant allelopathy in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meimei; Galhano, Rita; Wiemann, Philipp; Bueno, Emilio; Tiernan, Mollie; Wu, William; Chung, Ill-Min; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Tudzynski, Bettina; Sesma, Ane; Peters, Reuben J

    2012-02-01

    • There is controversy as to whether specific natural products play a role in directly mediating antagonistic plant-plant interactions - that is, allelopathy. If proved to exist, such phenomena would hold considerable promise for agronomic improvement of staple food crops such as rice (Oryza sativa). • However, while substantiated by the presence of phytotoxic compounds at potentially relevant concentrations, demonstrating a direct role for specific natural products in allelopathy has been difficult because of the chemical complexity of root and plant litter exudates. This complexity can be bypassed via selective genetic manipulation to ablate production of putative allelopathic compounds, but such an approach previously has not been applied. • The rice diterpenoid momilactones provide an example of natural products for which correlative biochemical evidence has been obtained for a role in allelopathy. Here, we apply reverse genetics, using knock-outs of the relevant diterpene synthases (copalyl diphosphate synthase 4 (OsCPS4) and kaurene synthase-like 4 (OsKSL4)), to demonstrate that rice momilactones are involved in allelopathy, including suppressing growth of the widespread rice paddy weed, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli). • Thus, our results not only provide novel genetic evidence for natural product-mediated allelopathy, but also furnish a molecular target for breeding and metabolic engineering of this important crop plant. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  6. Estimating seed production of common plants in seasonally flooded wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubhan, Murray K.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a technique to quickly estimate seed production of common moist-soil plants because previously reported methods were too time consuming to be of value to waterfowl resource managers. Eleven regression equations were developed for 13 plant species in the upper Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Estimated time to collect a sample was 1.5 minutes. Easily measured vegetation characteristics such as inflorescence number, inflorescence length, and plant height were used as independent variables to estimate seed mass of known mass samples. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.79 for rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria) to 0.96 for smartweeds (Polygonum spp.). The accuracy and precision of equations tested using independent data indicate that the technique can be used to detect changes in seed mass of moist-soil plants in seasonally flooded impoundments. Because of the small sample area per plot used (0.0625 m2) and changes in the density of plants within an impoundment, we recommend that as many samples as economically feasible be collected to reliably estimate seed production.

  7. Algorithms for short-term production planning of cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotzauer, E.

    1998-03-01

    A cogeneration plant, feeding its output water into a district-heating network, may include several types of energy producing units. The most important being the Co-generation unit, which produces both heat and electricity. Most plants also have a Heat water storage. Finding the optimal production of both heat and electricity and the optimal use of the storage is a challenging mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. The calculations may be divided into two sub-problems. The unit commitment problem is the problem to determine when a unit should be producing (on) or not (off). To solve the economic dispatch problem is to find the optimal production plan given which units are producing in each time interval. Together the solution of these two problems form the solution of the short-term production-planning problem. In this thesis a general approach for the mathematical modeling of a co-generation plant is presented. The model objective function is nonlinear, with nonlinear constraints. Internal plant temperatures, mass flows, storage losses, minimal up and down times and time dependent start-up costs are considered. The demand for heat, the forward temperature from the plant, the return temperature to the plant and the price of electricity are assumed to be known quantities. The net electric power produced is sold for the estimated current market price of electricity. The unit commitment problem is solved with an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation. The dual search direction is computed by the sub gradient method and the step length by the Polyak rule II. A heuristic method for the generation of primal feasible solutions is developed. The economic dispatch problem is solved using a combination of dynamic programming and general-purpose solvers. Algorithms to find starting values for the problem are developed. The model and the algorithms are implemented in MATLAB, illustrated with numerical examples and analyzed with numerical tests

  8. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  9. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed.

  10. Hexaconazole induces antioxidant protection and apigenin-7-glucoside accumulation in Matricaria chamomilla plants subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojati, Mostafa; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Ghanati, Faezeh; Panahi, Mehdi

    2011-05-15

    In this experiment, the possibility of enhancing the water deficit stress tolerance of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) during two growth stages by the exogenous application of hexaconazole (HEX) was investigated. To improve water deficit tolerance, HEX was applied in three concentrations during two different stages (50 and 80 days after sowing). After HEX applications, the plants were subjected to water deficit stress. Although all HEX concentrations improved the water deficit stress tolerance in chamomile plants, the application of 15 mg L(-1) provided better protection when compared to the other concentration. The exogenous application of HEX provided significant protection against water deficit stress compared to non-HEX-treated plants, significantly affecting the morphological characteristics and aspects of productivity, the relative water, protein and proline contents; non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants; and the flower's apigenin-7-glucoside content. These results suggest that the HEX-induced tolerance to water deficit stress in chamomile was related to the changes in growth variables, antioxidants and the apigenin-7-glucoside content.

  11. The Effect of a Digital Learning Environment on Children's Conceptions about the Protection of Endemic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stella; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a pilot learning intervention for improving children's ideas about plant protection. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase aimed at exploring children's ideas about plant protection. These ideas were taken into account for the design and development of a digital learning environment.…

  12. Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: A case study from Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Pereira, M.E.; Duarte, A.C.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models

  13. Plant resistance mechanisms to air pollutants: rhythms in ascorbic acid production during growth under ozone stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.H. (Climate Stress Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between ozone (O3) tolerance and leaf ascorbic acid concentrations in O3-susceptible (O3-S) 'Hark' and O3-resistant (O3-R) 'Hood' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cultivars were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leaf samples were analyzed at 4 intervals during a 24 h period. Soybean cultivars grown in the greenhouse with charcoal filtered (CF) and nonfiltered (NF) air showed daily oscillations in ascorbic acid production. Highest ascorbic acid levels in leaves during light coincided with highest concentrations of photochemical oxidants in the atmosphere at 2:00 p.m. The resistant genotype produced more ascorbic acid in its trifoliate leaves than did the corresponding susceptible genotype. Under CF air (an O3-reduced environment) O3-S and O3-R cultivars showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. In NF air (an O3 stress environment) the O3-R cultivar alone showed rhythms in ascorbic acid production. Results indicated that superior O3 tolerance in the Hood soybean cultivar (compared with Hark) was associated with a greater increase in endogenous levels of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid may scavenge free radicals and thereby protect cells from injury by O3 or other oxyradical products. Plants defend themselves against photochemical oxidant stress, such as O3, by several mechanisms. Experimental evidence indicates that antioxidant defense systems existing in plant tissues may function to protect cellular components from deleterious effects of photochemical oxidants through endogenous and exogenous controls.

  14. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations...... of the efficiency control of the de-oiling hydrocyclone and the water level control of the upstream separator, are discussed and formulated. Some of our latest research results on the analysis and control of slugging flows in production well-pipeline-riser systems are also presented. The ultimate objective...... of this research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs....

  15. Processing biogas plant digestates into value-added products - BIOVIRTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paavola, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), e-mail: teija.paavola@mtt.fi; Torniainen, M. (Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: merja.torniainen@evira.fi; Kaparaju, P. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)), e-mail: prasad.kaparaju@jyu.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The objective of BIOVIRTA project is to develop technologies and practices with which digestates, originating from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes and by-products can be refined to value-added and safe products for various end-uses. It is expected that the operational preconditions for biogas plants will be significantly enhanced when the end-products are proven safe and applicable. Selection of the raw materials for anaerobic co-digestion is the main operational strategy that could influence the nutrient content in the digestate. This has been clearly established in the laboratory and full-scale studies with various digestates originating from different raw materials. The nutrient content in the digestate also affects the opportunities to produce refined digestate products. In this project, the possibilities for several processing technologies, e.g. mechanical separation, stripping, and struvite production have been intensively evaluated for the production of different digestate products. Their mass balances have also been estimated. The feasibility for the use of the digestate products has been assessed based on their chemical and hygienic quality and for various end-uses, including as organic fertiliser and/or soil improver in crop production. The results of these field-experiments showed that the yield of barley fertilised with digestate products was comparable to inorganic fertilisers. (orig.)

  16. Control and Protection of Wind Power Plants with VSC-HVDC Connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    Wind power plants are the fastest growing source of renewable energy. The European Union expects to generate 230 GW wind power, in which the offshore wind power is expected to contribute 40 GW. Offshore wind power plants have better wind velocity profile leading to a higher energy yield. Europe has...... a huge potential of offshore wind energy, which is a green and sustainable resource. All these have led to the development of offshore wind power plants. However, overall cost of the offshore installation, operation, and maintenance are higher than those of the onshore wind power plants. Therefore...... oscillations, and hence, lower dc voltage overshoots in the VSC-HVDC system. On the protection side, the coordination of over-current relays has been analysed in the new environment. A simple yet reliable scheme utilizing the well-known over-current relay characteristics has been presented for the detection...

  17. The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M., E-mail: jmarchetti@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Camino La Carrindanga km 7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of the mayor economic parameters for biodiesel production. {yields} Variations of profitability of a biodiesel plant due to changes in the market scenarios. {yields} Comparison of economic indicators of a biodiesel production facility when market variables are modified. - Abstract: Biodiesel appears as one of the possible alternative renewable fuels to substitute diesel fuel derived from petroleum. Several researches have been done on the technical aspects of biodiesel production in an attempt to develop a better and cleaner alternative to the conventional process. Economic studies have been carried out to have a better understanding of the high costs and benefits of different technologies in the biodiesel industry. In this work it is studied the effect of the most important economic variables of a biodiesel production process over the general economy of a conventional plant which employs sodium methoxide as catalyst. It has been analyzed the effect of the oil price, the amount of free fatty acid, the biodiesel price, the cost of the glycerin, the effect due to the modification on the methanol price, the washing water price, and several others. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases.

  18. Photosynthetic light reactions--an adjustable hub in basic production and plant immunity signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Tikkanen, Mikko; Durian, Guido; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-08-01

    Photosynthetic efficiency is a key trait that influences the sustainable utilization of plants for energy and nutrition. By now, extensive research on photosynthetic processes has underscored important structural and functional relationships among photosynthetic thylakoid membrane protein complexes, and their roles in determining the productivity and stress resistance of plants. Photosystem II photoinhibition-repair cycle, for example, has arisen vital in protecting also Photosystem I against light-induced damage. Availability of highly sophisticated genetic, biochemical and biophysical tools has greatly expanded the catalog of components that carry out photoprotective functions in plants. On thylakoid membranes, these components encompass a network of overlapping systems that allow delicate regulation of linear and cyclic electron transfer pathways, balancing of excitation energy distribution between the two photosystems and dissipation of excess light energy in the antenna system as heat. An increasing number of reports indicate that the above mentioned mechanisms also mediate important functions in the regulation of biotic stress responses in plants. Particularly the handling of excitation energy in the light harvesting II antenna complexes appears central to plant immunity signaling. Comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms and regulatory cross-talk, however, still remain elusive. This review highlights the current understanding of components that regulate the function of photosynthetic light reactions and directly or indirectly also modulate disease resistance in higher plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  20. Biodiversity in agricultural soils, sustainable plant production and control of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens Soils are very heterogeneous substrates providing an environmental matrix with varying spatial and temporal gradients of pH, organic carbon, particle size distribution and moisture content. Chemical, physical as well as biological factors are operational and soil includes a vast variety of soil-dwelling invertebrates and microbes that interact with each other and the environment to influence plant productivity directly and indirectly. A review of recent literature on the role of soil biodiversity highlights the important role of soil invertebrates, notably earthworms, in influencing soil characteristics and soil borne plant pathogens. Earthworms are widely recognized as having critical functions in soil in regulating key processes that impact favourably on plant productivity and simultaneously eliminating or reducing soil borne diseases. The aim of this review is firstly to contribute towards a clarification of the role of soil biodiversity in general and to focus specifically on that of earthworms and their role in influencing plant pathogens and parasites. Evidence is provided that their activities can support plant productivity and suppress pathogens. Once the nature and extent of their role is better known and they are confirmed to support plant productivity to the extent that many soil biologists believe, the next logical step is to utilize knowledge of their ecology to create and manage favourable environmental conditions to ensure their survival and activity in agricultural soils. Agricultural management practices that favour soil organisms are also reviewed. Implementing these will make the services of soil biota available to improve and sustain agro-ecosystems. This requires a better understanding of the preferences and tolerance ranges of these organisms and their interactions before we can apply methodologies in general to manipulate environmental conditions to maximise the benefits that they may offer.

  1. Efficacy of Specific Plant Products on Microorganisms Causing Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, M Rajini; Prakash, A Ravi; Sreenath, G; Reddy, Vikram Simha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining. Naturally available plant products are known to be less harmful with fewer side effects and also economical for the patient. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices. Materials and Methods Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media. Results Clove oil was the most effective of all products against microorganisms causing caries with zone of inhibition - 30mm followed by ginger-garlic paste - 25mm, Neem - 15mm, tea tree oil - 15mm. Conclusion Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc. PMID:28209019

  2. Speech production in noise with and without hearing protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Jennifer B.; Frank, Tom

    2003-08-01

    People working in noisy environments often complain of difficulty communicating when they wear hearing protection. It was hypothesized that part of the workers' communication difficulties stem from changes in speech production that occur when hearing protectors are worn. To address this possibility, overall and one-third-octave-band SPL measurements were obtained for 16 men and 16 women as they produced connected speech while wearing foam, flange, or no earplugs (open ears) in quiet and in pink noise at 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 dB SPL. The attenuation and the occlusion effect produced by the earplugs were measured. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) was also calculated for each condition. The talkers produced lower overall speech levels, speech-to-noise ratios, and SII values, and less high-frequency speech energy, when they wore earplugs compared with the open-ear condition. Small differences in the speech measures between the talkers wearing foam and flange earplugs were observed. Overall, the results of the study indicate that talkers wearing earplugs (and consequently their listeners) are at a disadvantage when communicating in noise.

  3. Nanotechnology based surface treatments for corrosion protection and deposit control of power plant equipment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Nanotechnology can provide possibilities for obtaining new valuable information regarding performance and corrosion protection in power plants. In general the desired performance of the contact surfaces is an easy-to-release effect. This is in order to prolong the time interval between cleaning periods or make the cleaning procedures easier and less expensive. Corrosion protection is also desired in order to extend the life time of various parts in the power plants and thus optimize the energy output and overall efficiency of the plant. Functional sol-gel coating based on nanotechnology is tested in a variety of conditions. Applications of functional sol-gel coatings were performed in the condenser and on seven air preheaters at Fynsvaerket, Odense, with corrosion protection as the main issue. Coatings with easy-to-clean effects were tested in the Flue Gas Desulphurization plant at Nordjyllandsvaerket, Aalborg, with the aim of reducing gipsum deposit. Thermo stabilized coatings were tested on tube bundles between in the passage from the 1st to 2end pass and on the wall between 1st and 2end pass at Amagervaerket, Copenhagen, and in the boiler at Haderslev CHP plant. The objective of this test were reducing deposits and increasing corrosion protection. The tested coatings were commercial available coatings and coatings developed in this project. Visual inspections have been performed of all applications except at Nordjyllandsvaerket. Corrosion assessment has been done at DTU - Mechanical Engineering. The results range from no difference between coated and uncoated areas to some improvements. At Amagervaerket the visual assessment showed in general a positive effect with a sol-gel hybrid system and a commercial system regarding removal of deposits. The visual assessment of the air preheaters at Fynsvaerket indicates reduced deposits on a sol-gel nanocomposite coated air preheater compared to an uncoated air preheater. (Author)

  4. Diurnal adjustment in ultraviolet sunscreen protection is widespread among higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Tobler, Mark A; Ryel, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) in the epidermis of higher plants reduces the penetration of solar UV radiation to underlying tissues and is a primary mechanism of acclimation to changing UV conditions resulting from ozone depletion and climate change. Previously we reported that several herbaceous plant species were capable of rapid, diurnal adjustments in epidermal UV transmittance (T UV), but how widespread this phenomenon is among plants has been unknown. In the present study, we tested the generality of this response by screening 37 species of various cultivated and wild plants growing in four locations spanning a gradient of ambient solar UV and climate (Hawaii, Utah, Idaho and Louisiana). Non-destructive measurements of adaxial T UV indicated that statistically significant midday decreases in T UV occurred in 49 % of the species tested, including both herbaceous and woody growth forms, and there was substantial interspecific variation in the magnitude of these changes. In general, plants in Louisiana exhibited larger diurnal changes in T UV than those in the other locations. Moreover, across all taxa, the magnitude of these changes was positively correlated with minimum daily air temperatures but not daily UV irradiances. Results indicate that diurnal changes in UV shielding are widespread among higher plants, vary both within and among species and tend to be greatest in herbaceous plants growing in warm environments. These findings suggest that plant species differ in their UV protection "strategies" though the functional and ecological significance of this variation in UV sunscreen protection remains unclear at present.

  5. The Complexity of Bioactive Natural Products in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Tina

    Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive natural products promoting their fitness. These specialized metabolites may serve as chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens and may inhibit the growth and development of competing species. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two...... classes of defence compounds, which have diverging properties, but also share common biosynthetic features. Hydroxynitrile glucosides are produced in species across the plant kingdom, whereas glucosinolates are found almost exclusively within the Brassicales, which generally does not contain...... these two plant species interesting gateways for addressing these questions of evolution. The presented research demonstrates that the biosynthetic pathway for the hydroxynitrile glucoside alliarinoside in A. petiolata does not follow the general scheme for hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis in other...

  6. Pharmaceutical proteins in plants. A strategic genetic engineering approach for the production of tuberculosis antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Roger; Denise, Hubert; Vivares, Christian; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Vitale, Sandro; Pedrazzini, Emmanuela; Ma, Julian; Dix, Phil; Gray, John; Pezzotti, Mario; Conrad, Udo; Robinson, David

    2008-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a re-emerging disease that is considered a major human health priority as well as an important disease of livestock. TB is also a zoonosis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis, the human and bovine causative agents, respectively, are very closely related. Protection against TB is essentially achieved through vaccination with the Bacille Calmetle-Guerin (BCG) strain of M. bovis. Protection is, however, incomplete, and novel improved vaccines are currently under investigation. Production of protective antigens in transgenic plants, or "pharming," is a promising emerging approach, and a zoonosis-like TB is a good model for investigating the potential of this approach. Pharma-Planta, a European Commission-funded project and consortium, was set up to address this topic, within which a component is aimed at assessing the production efficacy and stability of the TB antigens in different compartments of the plant cell. This article is meant to introduce this promising approach for veterinary medicine by describing the ongoing project and its specific genetic engineering strategy.

  7. Habitat models to assist plant protection efforts in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manen, F.T.; Young, J.A.; Thatcher, C.A.; Cass, W.B.; Ulrey, C.

    2005-01-01

    During 2002, the National Park Service initiated a demonstration project to develop science-based law enforcement strategies for the protection of at-risk natural resources, including American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.), and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [syn. Actaea racemosa L.]). Harvest pressure on these species is increasing because of the growing herbal remedy market. We developed habitat models for Shenandoah National Park and the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway to determine the distribution of favorable habitats of these three plant species and to demonstrate the use of that information to support plant protection activities. We compiled locations for the three plant species to delineate favorable habitats with a geographic information system (GIS). We mapped potential habitat quality for each species by calculating a multivariate statistic, Mahalanobis distance, based on GIS layers that characterized the topography, land cover, and geology of the plant locations (10-m resolution). We tested model performance with an independent dataset of plant locations, which indicated a significant relationship between Mahalanobis distance values and species occurrence. We also generated null models by examining the distribution of the Mahalanobis distance values had plants been distributed randomly. For all species, the habitat models performed markedly better than their respective null models. We used our models to direct field searches to the most favorable habitats, resulting in a sizeable number of new plant locations (82 ginseng, 73 bloodroot, and 139 black cohosh locations). The odds of finding new plant locations based on the habitat models were 4.5 (black cohosh) to 12.3 (American ginseng) times greater than random searches; thus, the habitat models can be used to improve the efficiency of plant protection efforts, (e.g., marking of plants, law enforcement activities). The field searches also

  8. Study on the Current Situation and Protection Countermeasures of Wild Plant Resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the current situation and protection countermeasures of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve. [Method] The current situation of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve was researched by means of route survey, sample plot survey and literature survey, and then the main impact factors of wild plant resources were analyzed by using participatory rural appraisal and problem tree analysis, finally protection countermeasures were put ...

  9. Production of therapeutic proteins through plant tissue and cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza S. Gharelo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pharmaceutical recombinant protein is increasingly used in treatment of many diseases such as hepatitis, anemia, diabetes and cancer. Different protein expression systems have been used for the expression of recombinant proteins in which each of them face obstacles that make utilizing them as comprehensive expression system in order to express wide variety of proteins difficult. Plant cell as a eukaryotic expression system have many advantages compared to other hosts. They are very "safe" and significantly decrease concerns about the contamination of recombinant proteins with human pathogens. In addition to this, plants as eukaryotic expression system perform proper post-translational modification, in case of eukaryotic proteins, and appropriate folding resulting in right function in biological environments. Therefore, the production of pharmaceutical protein through plant cells can be absolutely promising approach. In this review, the production of pharmaceutical protein in plant cells, advantages and disadvantages, offered methods and techniques for developing recombinant protein yields, and affective factors on the whole process of pharmaceutical protein expression in the molecular level will be reviewed.

  10. Classification of explosives transformation products in plant tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.L.; Jones, R.P. (Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MI (United States). Waterways Experiment Station); Escalon, L.; Parker, D. (AScI Corp., McLean, VA (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Explosives contamination in surface or groundwater used for the irrigation of food crops and phytoremediation of explosives-contaminated soil or water using plant-assisted biodegradation have brought about concerns as to the fate of explosives in plants. Liquid scintillation counting, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography were utilized to characterize explosives (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and trinitrotoluene) and their metabolites in plant tissues obtained from three separate studies. Analyzing tissues of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), corn (Zea mays), lettuce (Lacuta sativa), tomato (Lyopersicum esculentum), radish (Raphanus sativus), and parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) from three studies where exposure to explosives at nontoxic levels occurred showed that extensive transformation of the explosive contaminant occurred, variations were noted in uptake and transformation between terrestrial and aquatic plants, the products had significantly higher polarity and water solubility than the parent compounds, and the molecular sizes of the transformation products were significantly greater than those of the parent compounds.

  11. Genetic improvement of plants for enhanced bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanghamitra; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between "feedstock versus foodstock" continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.

  12. Production of plant virus inhibitor by Phytolacca americana suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, M; Hayashi, M; Tanaka, H

    1975-09-01

    The inhibitory activity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection was assayed with the extracts of various callus tissues derived from the intact plants. Phytolacca americana callus was selected as a producer of the virus inhibitor and its cultural conditions in suspension were examined for cell growth and the inhibitor production. A modified liquid medium containing twofold concentrations of all components in that of Murashige and Skoog plus2,4-D (1.0 mg/liter) and sucrose (6%), but without any vitamins and glycine was chosen for production of higher levels of the inhibitor. TMV infections in tobacco, bean, and tomato plants were markedly inhibited by the introduction of the disrupted whole broth of suspension cultured P. americana.

  13. Plant metabolic engineering strategies for the production of pharmaceutical terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical terpenoids belong to the most diverse class of natural products. They have significant curative effects on a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malaria and Alzheimer’s disease. Nowadays, elicitors, including biotic and abiotic elicitors, are often used to activate the pathway of secondary metabolism and enhance the production of target terpenoids. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, several plant metabolic engineering strategies hold great promise to regulate the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoids. Overexpressing terpenoids biosynthesis pathway genes in homologous and ectopic plants is an effective strategy to enhance the yield of pharmaceutical terpenoids. Another strategy is to suppress the expression of competitive metabolic pathways. In addition, global regulation which includes regulating the relative transcription factors, endogenous phytohormones and primary metabolism could also markedly increase their yield. All these strategies offer great opportunities to enhance the supply of scarce terpenoids drugs, reduce the price of expensive drugs and improve people's standards of living.

  14. Mathematical verification of a nuclear power plant protection system function with combined CPN and PVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Son, Han Seong; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In this work, an automatic software verification method for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) protection system is developed. This method utilizes Colored Petri Net (CPN) for modeling and Prototype Verification System (PVS) for mathematical verification. In order to help flow-through from modeling by CPN to mathematical proof by PVS, a translator has been developed in this work. The combined method has been applied to a protection system function of Wolsong NPP SDS2(Steam Generator Low Level Trip) and found to be promising for further research and applications. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  15. A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lip...

  16. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  17. MODERN WAYS OF INULIN PRODUCTION FROM PLANT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovoy V. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the patent research in the field of modern production technologies of Inulin from plant material. It has been established that the differences of the currently known methods of production of inulin are concluded in selecting raw materials pretreatment inulin-containing modes type extractant and extraction methods, methods of purification inulincontaining extract and methods for producing the final product. A significant amount of Inulin production methods is based on use of freshly feedstock. A number of methods have been patented involving the extraction Inulin from plant raw materials previously stabilized by drying. In most of the methods, inulin extraction is carried out at elevated temperatures with water or aqueous salt solutions. Several technologies involve extraction with organic solvents at low temperatures. Have been patented several processes in which the extraction is replaced by a separation process using inulincontaining juice and physical and mechanical methods. Some of the known processes provide for the extraction process to further operations, such as blanching vegetable raw materials, sonication, vibration impact, processing enzymes. The most promising direction to improve manufacturing technology of inulin from fresh plant raw materials is to conduct research on the use of electromagnetic fields at microwave frequencies, the inactivating effects of which on enzyme systems is an established fact that, in turn, would eliminate the use of chemical agents for inactivation of oxidative enzymes. In addition, considering that more effective are the methods for the preparation of inulin from freshly harvested plant material, are relevant researches on development of innovative technologies to prepare it for storage and its storage, which will provide inhibition of unwanted biochemical and microbiological processes that occur during storage and lead to a loss of inulin

  18. Research of beekeeping products using as radioprotectors for plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. О. Oginova

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted on a winter wheat, which was cultivated in a 30-km area in the year ofChernobylaccident, allowed to ascertain that complex use of sodium humate and beekeeping products is ineffective for diminishing the negative irradiation influence on the early growth processes of plants. Only the simultaneous use of humic preparations and anodic extraction of propolis has permanent positive effect.

  19. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  20. Add value products of honeybee plant-derived origin

    OpenAIRE

    Iop, Silvia C.F.; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Dotto, Dalva M.R.; Cirolini, Andreia; Beltrami, Naiane

    2016-01-01

    Although honey extraction is an ancient practíce, its use as a source of income is more recent. Over the years several techniques have been developed to achieve greater amounts of honey and also to ensure the quality of the product. Furthermore, bees during their life cycle produce wax, royal jelly, pollen and propolis besides honey. Pollen and propolis are such as honey, plant derivatives, while the wax and royal jelly are products secreted by glands of the bees. This chapter aims to pres...

  1. Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation. Well-established agricultural management by agrotechnological means has shown no longer to be effective enough to confront with this challenge. Instead, in order to maximize the production, it is advisable to implement such practices in combination with biological applications. Nowadays, high technologies are widely adopted into agricultural production, biological diversity conservation and crop improvement. Wang et al. has nicely outlined the utilization of DNA-based technologies in this field. Among these are the applications of (i) DNA markers into cultivar identification, seed purity analysis, germplasm resource evaluation, heterosis prediction, genetic mapping, cloning and breeding; and (ii) gene expression data in supporting the description of crop phenology, the analytic comparison of crop growth under stress versus non-stress conditions, or the study of fertilizer effects. Besides, various purposes of using transgenic technologies in agriculture, such as generating cultivars with better product quality, better tolerance to biotic or abiotic stress, are also discussed in the review. One of the important highlights in this issue is the review of the benefits brought by high-throughput sequencing technology, which is also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS). It is not so difficult to recognize that its application has allowed us to carry out biological studies at much deeper level

  2. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaart, Jan G; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Lotz, Lambertus A P; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2016-05-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product classes with a different degree of genetic modification. For each product class, recent examples are described to illustrate the potential for breeding new crops with improved traits. Finally, we touch upon the future applications of these methods, such as cisgenic potato genotypes in which specific combinations of Phytophthora infestans resistance genes have been stacked for use in durable cultivation, or the creation of new disease resistances by knocking out or removing S-genes using genome-editing techniques.

  3. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Harpole, W. Stanley; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Calabrese, Laura B.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Collins, Scott L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Frater, Paul; Gasarch, Eve I.; Gruner, Daneil S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Lambers, Janneke Hille Ris; Humphries, Hope; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam D.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Mortensen, Brent; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Wang, Gang; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters-2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity an

  4. Plant characters of broccoli determinants of head production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Daniela Brandelero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The increasing consumption of single-head broccoli is due to several factors, among them there are food production in minimally processing form and the existence of hybrids that adapt to various climates, in addition to the simple harvesting of this typical architecture.This study aimed to identify the most relevant plant characters of broccoli, represented by growth characters, which are determinant in the production and canopy area. The study was conducted in an experimental area in Pato Branco city, PR. The 11 characters were evaluated for 365 plants, spaced with 0.8x0.5m, on a blank experiment. The characters of group 1 (height, number of leaves, stem height, stem diameter were evaluated on the 21 and 58 day after transplanting (DAT, and the leaf area was evaluated on the 17 and 32 DAT. The characters of group 2 were quantity of fresh head mass and canopy area. At the initial stage of cultivation, on the 17 and 21 DAT, variations in the plants characters did not lead toany variation in production. The higher number of leaves and the larger stem diameter on the 58 DAT determined the greater mass of the broccoli heads.

  5. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  6. Phenylphenalenones protect banana plants from infection by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and are deactivated by metabolic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, William; Chandran, Jima N; Menezes, Riya C; Otálvaro, Felipe; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Phenylphenalenones, polycyclic aromatic natural products from some monocotyledonous plants, are known as phytoalexins in banana (Musa spp.). In this study, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics along with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to explore the chemical responses of the susceptible 'Williams' and the resistant 'Khai Thong Ruang' Musa varieties to the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the agent of the black leaf Sigatoka disease. Principal component analysis discriminated strongly between infected and non-infected plant tissue, mainly because of specialized metabolism induced in response to the fungus. Phenylphenalenones are among the major induced compounds, and the resistance level of the plants was correlated with the progress of the disease. However, a virulent strain of M. fijiensis was able to overcome plant resistance by converting phenylphenalenones to sulfate conjugates. Here, we report the first metabolic detoxification of fungitoxic phenylphenalenones to evade the chemical defence of Musa plants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Study on Total Factor Energy Efficiency of Coal-fired Power Plants Considering Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-ping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we measure the total-factor energy efficiency under the constraint of environment of 13 coal-fired power plants in Hebei province over the period of 2009 to 2011 using the DEA model which based on the environmental production technology and the directional distance function. The results indicate that the total factor energy efficiency of sample power plants is still at sub-optimal level of around 0.84 and the efficiency is over estimated when without looking at environmental impacts. This indicates that undesirable outputs have a significant influence on energy efficiency of power plants. Poor performance of few power plants is due to their ability to manage the undesirable outputs need to be improved. In order to improve energy efficiency and achieve sustainable development, plants should concentrate on both energy saving and emission reduction at the same time.

  8. Using Patents to Protect Traditional Knowledge on the Medicinal Uses of Plants in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The movement towards the protection of traditional knowledge particularly on the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP in South Africa reflects a global albeit belated interest in the protection of traditional knowledge associated with biological resources. Hence, it was not surprising South Africa like most developing nation, sought in response to instances of the misappropriation of its TKMUP and other TK associated with its biological resources, to provide a measure of protection for such knowledge using the intellectual property (IP system. This is evident in the adoption of the Policy Framework for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge through the Intellectual Property System in 2008 which identified patent as one of the major IP tools in the protection of the TK. The Policy Framework represents a paradigmatic shift from South Africa’s earlier sceptical and dialectical approach to, and experience with the IP system in context of TK. This paper therefore examines the benefits and challenges involved in using the patent system in the protection of TK particularly those relating to the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP. Such examination became necessary as South Africa’s natural capital of biological diversity, together with its wealth of indigenous TK, has been recognised as an important resource base for promoting economic growth through biological innovations under the recently adopted Bio-economy Strategy. It finds that patents offer a great potential in not only protecting TKMUP from misappropriation, but also in promoting the commercialisation of innovative TKMUP or inventions based on or derived from TKMUP in South Africa. However, this can only be possible if the challenges identified in this paper can be successfully navigated.

  9. Production Analysis of Biogas Plant in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Slaboch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an agriculture production analysis of biogas plant in the Czech Republic and evaluates the effect of input-factors and their relevance. Cobb-Douglas functions for crop, livestock and total agriculture production are used. Econometric models are used for structure and magnitude determination of land and labour factors at individual farms, which lead to an increase of production defined in scenarios. Estimations are based on cross-section data. Results indicate statistical significance and the economically highest effect of land and fixed assets on the total agriculture production. The results of first period model show, that there is preferably a need for an increase of fixed assets when enlarging the livestock production. There is an increase of the importance of wages in total and livestock production in 2011 compared to 2010. The crop production is dependent on land are in the most, but the model must be rejected because of parameters intensity and economic justification. Quantification of relationships among variables can be used for planning of the whole production or its components.

  10. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  11. Impacts of recreation and tourism on plant biodiversity and vegetation in protected areas in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Hill, Wendy

    2007-12-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the impact of recreation and tourism in protected areas on plant biodiversity and vegetation communities in Australia. Despite the international significance of the Australian flora and increasing visitation to protected areas there has been limited research on recreational and tourism impacts in Australia. As overseas, there are obvious direct impacts of recreation and tourism such as clearing of vegetation for infrastructure or damage from trampling, horse riding, mountain biking and off road vehicles. As well, there are less obvious but potentially more severe indirect impacts. This includes self-propagating impacts associated with the spread of some weeds from trails and roads. It also includes the severe impact on native vegetation, including many rare and threatened plants, from spread of the root rot fungus Phytopthora cinnamomi. This review highlights the need for more recreational ecology research in Australia.

  12. Plants extracts on the service of production eco-friendly poultry products

    OpenAIRE

    Feofilova, J.; Nesteruk, N.

    2013-01-01

    Plants extracts contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, they are relevant in nutrition for poultry because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for animal nutrition and health. The purpose of this review ...

  13. Equivalent Modeling of DFIG-Based Wind Power Plant Considering Crowbar Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Qianlong Zhu; Ming Ding; Pingping Han

    2016-01-01

    Crowbar conduction has an impact on the transient characteristics of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) in the short-circuit fault condition. But crowbar protection is seldom considered in the aggregation method for equivalent modeling of DFIG-based wind power plants (WPPs). In this paper, the relationship between the growth of postfault rotor current and the amplitude of the terminal voltage dip is studied by analyzing the rotor current characteristics of a DFIG during the fault process...

  14. Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Moenne; Jorge Castro; Jeannette Vera; Alberto Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense res...

  15. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C; Bronstein, Judith L

    2014-09-01

    Mutualism is an often complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and, in exchange, protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40 °C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0 °C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species.

  16. Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases accumulating during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Burg, Harrold A; Harrison, Stuart J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Vervoort, Jacques; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2006-12-01

    Resistance against the leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum is mediated by the tomato Cf proteins which belong to the class of receptor-like proteins and indirectly recognize extracellular avirulence proteins (Avrs) of the fungus. Apart from triggering disease resistance, Avrs are believed to play a role in pathogenicity or virulence of C. fulvum. Here, we report on the avirulence protein Avr4, which is a chitin-binding lectin containing an invertebrate chitin-binding domain (CBM14). This domain is found in many eukaryotes, but has not yet been described in fungal or plant genomes. We found that interaction of Avr4 with chitin is specific, because it does not interact with other cell wall polysaccharides. Avr4 binds to chitin oligomers with a minimal length of three N-acetyl glucosamine residues. In vitro, Avr4 protects chitin against hydrolysis by plant chitinases. Avr4 also binds to chitin in cell walls of the fungi Trichoderma viride and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli and protects these fungi against normally deleterious concentrations of plant chitinases. In situ fluorescence studies showed that Avr4 also binds to cell walls of C. fulvum during infection of tomato, where it most likely protects the fungus against tomato chitinases, suggesting that Avr4 is a counter-defensive virulence factor.

  17. TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN PLANT PROTECTION IN THE PRECISION FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Jurišić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of precision farming as a larger amount of information is its availability to the farmer in making decision. Direct comparison of perennial parameters obtained from the plot results in purposefully, argumentative and optimal use of resources for work (while keeping in mind the ecological impact. Today, the development of satellite navigation technology and monitoring of agricultural machinery, and reducing the cost of these devices again revived the question of the precision agriculture application. Advanced farmers in developed agricultural countries already regularly apply some of the technological possibilities of precision farming. Precision agriculture and plant protection allow the farmer realizing high incomes while keeping safe natural resources. Using modern GIS technology machines collect data directly from the plot using sensors and integrate themselves into the data processing system. Processed information is used by a farmer taking GreenStar system for the new planned operation and achieving significant time and money spare. Precision agriculture offers the possibility of optimal care of each plant, not just the average, or the entire field. Low risk investments are one of the main factors of choice precise plant protection. The use of pilotless aircrafts remote sensing allow fast and economical obtaining data and sufficient precision information. Using modern technology such as Variable Rate Application (applying a variable volume and GreenStar software package it is possible to regulate the amount of care and protection.

  18. Protective effect of some plant oils on diazinon induced hepatorenal toxicity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and exposure to environmental pollutants are still some of the major global health issues. Pesticides have been linked to a wide range of health hazards. The toxicity of pesticides depends on several factors such as its chemical properties, doses, exposure period, exposure methods, gender, genetics, age, nutritional status and physiological case of exposed individuals. Medicinal plants, natural products and nutrition continue to play a central role in the healthcare system of large proportions of the world’s population. Alternative medicine plays an important role in health services around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive, sesame and black seed oils on hepatorenal toxicity induced by diazinon (DZN in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. The first group served as control. The second group was exposed to DZN. The third group was treated with olive oil and DZN. Rats of the fourth group were subjected to sesame oil and DZN. Rats of the fifth group were exposed to black seed oil and DZN. The sixth, seventh and eighth groups were supplemented with olive, sesame and black seed oils respectively. Rats of the ninth group were treated with corn oil. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in rats exposed to DZN. Moreover, levels of serum glutathione and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. Several histopathological changes were observed in the structures of liver and kidney due to DZN exposure. This study showed that these oils attenuated the physiological disturbances and histopathological alterations induced by DZN intoxication. Moreover, the antioxidant properties of these oils support the bioactive roles of its protective effects on DZN toxicity. This study therefore

  19. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIDANANDA NAGAMANGALA KANCHISWAMY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs and their potential physiological effects on crops and analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use.

  1. The physical protection in the nuclear power plants; La proteccion fisica en las instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Zorilla, A.; Lardiez, P.

    2008-07-01

    Although from the time it was born the nuclear industry has hard a substantial level of physical protection, it has been since the creation of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear when specific national rules and regulations have begun to be enacted and when a progressive strengthening of this class of protection has taken place in Spain. This is especially true of recent years, when terrorist attacks of major consequences and ecologist actions of a certain importance have caused major concern in both Regulatory Body and the Sector itself. This is no doubt that this course of action to improve protective measures is going to be a constant feature in both the operation of existing installations and in the design and operation of newly built plants. (Author)

  2. Analytic study for physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho, E-mail: thw@snu.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The physical protection system (PPS) is investigated. • General NPPs are modeled in the study. • Possible terror cases, likelihood, and consequence are studied. • PPS is constructed by analytical methods. - Abstract: The nuclear safeguard is analyzed in the aspect of the physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The PPS is reviewed and its related terror scenarios are investigated. The PPS is developed using analytical methods. In the terror scenarios, there are 8 possible cases for the terror attacks to the NPPs. Then, the likelihood of terror is classified by the general terror incidents. The consequence of terror is classified by Design Basis Threat (DBT) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) scale. The physical protection method is suggested by defense-in-depth constraints and severe accident countermeasures. Finally, the advanced PPS is constructed, which could be used for the preparation for the possible terror attacks in the NPPs.

  3. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  4. A Study on Salt Attack Protection of Structural and Finishing Materials in Power Plant Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W.B.; Kweon, K.J.; Suh, Y.P.; Nah, H.S.; Lee, K.J.; Park, D.S.; Jo, Y.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This is a final report written by both KEPRI and KICT as a co-operative research titled {sup A} study on Salt Protection of Structural and Finishings in Power Plant Structures{sup .} This study presented the methods to prevent the chloride-induced corrosion of power plant structures through collection and analysis of research datum relating to design, construction and maintenance for the prevention of structural and finishing materials, thru material performance tests for anti-corrosion under many kinds of chloride-induced corrosion environments. As a result, this study proposed the guidelines for design, construction and maintenance of power plant structures due to chloride-induced corrosion. (author). 257 refs., 111 figs., 86 tabs.

  5. Overcoming the plasticity of plant specialized metabolism for selective diterpene production in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignea, Codruta; Athanasakoglou, Anastasia; Andreadelli, Aggeliki

    2017-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity...

  6. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  7. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  8. Characterisation of radioactive waste products associated with plant decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, J; Fero, A H; Gil, C; Hagler, R J; Santiago, J L; Holgado, A; Swenson, R

    2005-01-01

    The inventory of radioactivity that must be considered in the decommissioning of a typical 1000 MWe Spanish pressurised water reactor (PWR) was investigated as part of a generic plant decommissioning study. Analyses based on DORT models (in both R-Z and R-theta geometries) were used with representative plant operating history and core power distribution data in defining the expected neutron environment in regions near the reactor core. The activation analyses were performed by multiplying the DORT scalar fluxes by energy-dependent reaction cross sections (based on ENDF/B-VI data) to generate reaction rates on a per atom basis. The results from the ORIGEN2 computer code were also used for determining the activities associated with certain nuclides where multi-group cross section data were not available. In addition to the bulk material activation of equipment and structures near the reactor, the activated corrosion-product (or 'crud') deposits on system and equipment surfaces were considered. The projected activities associated with these sources were primarily based on plant data and experience from operating PWR plants.

  9. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  10. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time.

  11. Plant-based fertilizers for organic vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and kale (Brassica oleracea sabellica) supplied with organic matter consisting of a wide range of plant species with varying nutrient concentrations. Further, field experiments were conducted with leek (Allium porrum) and celery (Apium graveolens dulce) supplied...... with high P and S concentrations increased the nutrient uptake and yield of pot-grown cauliflower and kale. Field experiments showed that the production of cauliflower and kale decreased when the carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio of applied green manure increased. In kale, for example, application of 160 kg...... N ha–1 in early harvested lucerne (Medicago sativa) with a C : N ratio of 10 resulted in the highest kale production whereas application of an equal amount of N in late harvested lucerne with a C : N ratio of 20 produced 34% less. Differences in vegetable production were not due to the amount of N...

  12. Indicators of energy efficiency in ammonia productions plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio V. Tavares

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes tools for the assessment of energy efficiency in ammonia production plants using key performance indicators (KPI. Monitoring the consumption of inputs in the industry could generate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously producing gains in energy efficiency in industrial operations. The continuous monitoring of performance indicators relative to emissions data and the consumption of natural resources allows for effective and direct intervention, resulting in improvements in production processes and operating practices. The use of such information by operating teams, in conjunction with management actions focused on continuous improvement, could lead to energy efficiency gains, a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and make production processes more profitable.

  13. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection for 125I production activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, T; Potter, C A

    2001-08-01

    Not all operational radiation protection situations lend themselves to simple solutions. Often a Radiation Protection Program must be developed and implemented for difficult situations. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection was developed for 125I production activities. Defense in depth relies on key radiation protection elements that tend to be mutually supportive and in combination provide reasonable assurance that the overall desired level of protection has been provided. For difficult situations, defense in depth can provide both a reasonable and appropriate approach to radiation protection.

  14. Antioxidant Capacity Determination in Plants and Plant-Derived Products: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the analytical methods applied to antioxidant and antioxidant capacity assessment in plant-derived products. Aspects related to oxidative stress, reactive oxidative species’ influence on key biomolecules, and antioxidant benefits and modalities of action are discussed. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant balance is critically discussed. The conventional and nonconventional extraction procedures applied prior to analysis are also presented, as th...

  15. Biological protection of plants in agricultular landscape--state of the art,problems and ways of their decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sokolov M S; Kolombet L V

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1. Biological protection of plants: definition and objectives. Technologically, biological protection of plants (hereinafter bioprotection) is a high agricultural technology involving agricultural landscape approach and basee on an ecological imperative, namely "use living beings against living beings". In a wide sense, present-day bioprotection is a fundamental and applied field of knowledge providing harmless suppression of harmful agents during cultivation and storage of agricultural crops by use natural and (or) artificially constructed organisms (including genetically modified ones having pesticidal properties ) and products of their live cycle. The overall objective of bioprotection consists in producing harmless, profitable and high-quality vegetative raw material, food, fodder. At the same time, bioprotection agrotechnologies are important environment forming and environment maintaining factors, steady and positively influencing the health of both rural ethnos, and agrosphere as a whole. Realization of integrated bioprotection approaches should provide minimum destruction of beneficial and non-target organisms, excluding the succession of harmful species and appearance of species resistant to biocontrol agents.

  16. Algorithm of actions to identify and reduce risks in the production of milk and plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foods with a new generation of functional and improved consumer properties, corresponds to the modern concepts of nutrition science and consumer needs. functional food production is a major global trend in food science and the subject of innovation. One of the important trends is the use of plant complexes and plant food systems. Using the plant complexes (PC and plant food systems (PFS provides a number of benefits: improved consumer properties of the product, do not need to change the process, it is possible to control directional rheological properties and consistency of the finished products, reduced the number of risk points in the production cycle. This paper describes the development of an algorithm of action to identify and mitigate risks in the production of milk and plant products. Also conducted a risk analysis, identified and assessed the risks in the process of production, installed capacity of available resources to reduce the level of risk. Established and submitted to the critical control points in production processes, as well as the critical limits for each critical control points, and the procedure for corrective action in case of violations of the past. During the study, measured changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora of semi-finished and Quantity of Mesophilic Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Microorganisms (QMAFAnM. To determine QMAFAnM samples were taken: 1 – cheesecakes (control, 2 – cheesecakes with RPS. Microbiological studies analyzed frozen-conjugated semi-finished products was determined within 90 days. It is clear from the data that the cottage cheese with semi-finished products have a lower RPM 11.7%. Analyzing the data, it is possible to conclude that the physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of products was developed to set standards on cheese semi-finished products. multilevel structure that characterizes the quality indicators has been developed and is

  17. Plant ecology. Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lauchlan H; Pither, Jason; Jentsch, Anke; Sternberg, Marcelo; Zobel, Martin; Askarizadeh, Diana; Bartha, Sandor; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Bennett, Jonathan A; Bittel, Alex; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Boldrini, Ilsi I; Bork, Edward; Brown, Leslie; Cabido, Marcelo; Cahill, James; Carlyle, Cameron N; Campetella, Giandiego; Chelli, Stefano; Cohen, Ofer; Csergo, Anna-Maria; Díaz, Sandra; Enrico, Lucas; Ensing, David; Fidelis, Alessandra; Fridley, Jason D; Foster, Bryan; Garris, Heath; Goheen, Jacob R; Henry, Hugh A L; Hohn, Maria; Jouri, Mohammad Hassan; Klironomos, John; Koorem, Kadri; Lawrence-Lodge, Rachael; Long, Ruijun; Manning, Pete; Mitchell, Randall; Moora, Mari; Müller, Sandra C; Nabinger, Carlos; Naseri, Kamal; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Palmer, Todd M; Parsons, Sheena; Pesek, Mari; Pillar, Valério D; Pringle, Robert M; Roccaforte, Kathy; Schmidt, Amanda; Shang, Zhanhuan; Stahlmann, Reinhold; Stotz, Gisela C; Sugiyama, Shu-ichi; Szentes, Szilárd; Thompson, Don; Tungalag, Radnaakhand; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; van Rooyen, Margaretha; Wellstein, Camilla; Wilson, J Bastow; Zupo, Talita

    2015-07-17

    The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and comprising a wide range of site productivities, we provide evidence in support of the HBM pattern at both global and regional extents. The relationships described here provide a foundation for further research into the local, landscape, and historical factors that maintain biodiversity.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity Determination in Plants and Plant-Derived Products: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Magdalena Pisoschi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the analytical methods applied to antioxidant and antioxidant capacity assessment in plant-derived products. Aspects related to oxidative stress, reactive oxidative species’ influence on key biomolecules, and antioxidant benefits and modalities of action are discussed. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant balance is critically discussed. The conventional and nonconventional extraction procedures applied prior to analysis are also presented, as the extraction step is of pivotal importance for isolation and concentration of the compound(s of interest before analysis. Then, the chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrochemical methods for antioxidant and antioxidant capacity determination in plant-derived products are detailed with respect to their principles, characteristics, and specific applications. Peculiarities related to the matrix characteristics and other factors influencing the method’s performances are discussed. Health benefits of plants and derived products are described, as indicated in the original source. Finally, critical and conclusive aspects are given when it comes to the choice of a particular extraction procedure and detection method, which should consider the nature of the sample, prevalent antioxidant/antioxidant class, and the mechanism underlying each technique. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for each method.

  19. Evolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity on plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, Marc W; Cardinale, Bradley J; Oakley, Todd H

    2008-11-04

    Loss of biological diversity because of extinction is one of the most pronounced changes to the global environment. For several decades, researchers have tried to understand how changes in biodiversity might impact biomass production by examining how biomass correlates with a number of biodiversity metrics (especially the number of species and functional groups). This body of research has focused on species with the implicit assumption that they are independent entities. However, functional and ecological similarities are shaped by patterns of common ancestry, such that distantly related species might contribute more to production than close relatives, perhaps by increasing niche breadth. Here, we analyze 2 decades of experiments performed in grassland ecosystems throughout the world and examine whether the evolutionary relationships among the species comprising a community predict how biodiversity impacts plant biomass production. We show that the amount of phylogenetic diversity within communities explained significantly more variation in plant community biomass than other measures of diversity, such as the number of species or functional groups. Our results reveal how evolutionary history can provide critical information for understanding, predicting, and potentially ameliorating the effects of biodiversity loss and should serve as an impetus for new biodiversity experiments.

  20. Solar enriched methane production: Assessment of plant potentialities and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Piemonte

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The crucial environmental issue due to fossil fuel use in our society and industries and more and more perceived by the communities is stimulating the development of innovative technologies with the scope of reducing GHGs and pollutants emissions, improving plants efficiency and exploiting renewable energy sources. The idea proposed in the present work links this context: a novel hybrid plant for the production of a mixture of methane and hydrogen (20%vol, called enriched-methane, from a steam reforming reactor whose heat duty is supplied by a concentrating solar power (CSP plant by means of a molten salt stream is here conceived, modelled and assessed. The enriched-methane mixture can be applied in methane internal combustion engines (ICE reducing CO, CO2, unburned emissions and improving engine efficiency. Moreover, the residual sensible heat of solar-heated molten salt stream can be used to generate medium-pressure steam and to produce electricity by a steam-turbine. Therefore, the plant proposed is co-generative, producing both hydrogen and electricity from a solar source. The behaviour of methane steam reforming reactor is simulated by means of a 2D mathematical model and the design of a cogenerative solar plant is proposed, evaluating its potentialities in terms of MWh of electricity produced and number of vehicles fed by enriched-methane. A single CSP module (surface requirement = 1.5 hectares coupled with a 4-tubes-and-shell shaped reactor is able to produce 686 tons/year of hydrogen, equivalent to 3.430 tons/year of 20%vol H2-CH4 mixture and 3.097 MWh/year of clean electricity.

  1. Measuring NO Production by Plant Tissues and Suspension Cultured Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Vitecek; Vilem Reinohl; Russell L.Jones

    2008-01-01

    We describe an inexpensive and reliable detector for measuring NO emitted in the gas phase from plants.The method relies on the use of a strong oxidizer to convert NO to NO2 and subsequent capture of NO2 by a Griess reagent trap.The set-up approaches the sensitivity for NO comparable to that of instruments based on chemiluminescence and photoacoustic detectors.We demonstrate the utility of our set-up by measuring NO produced by a variety of well established plant sources.NO produced by nitrate reductase (NR) in tobacco leaves and barley aleurone was readily detected,as was the production of NO from nitrite by the incubation medium of barley aleurone.Arabidopsis mutants that overproduce NO or lack NO-synthase (AtNOS1) also displayed the expected NO synthesis phenotype when assayed by our set-up.We could also measure NO production from elicitor-treated suspension cultured cells using this set-up.Further,we have focused on the detection of NO by a widely used fluorescent probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM).Our work points to the pitfalls that must be avoided when using DAF-FM to detect the production of NO by plant tissues.In addition to the dramatic effects that pH can have on fluorescence from DAF-FM,the widely used NO scavengers 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) can produce anomalous and unexpected results.Perhaps the most serious drawback of DAF-FM is its ability to bind to dead cells and remain NO-sensitive.

  2. The replacement of fishmeal by plant proteins in piglet production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to EC Commission Decision 9/2001 on BSE protection (OJEC, 2001, feedstuffs containing fishmeal can be produced only in establishments manufacturing animal feed which do not prepare feedstuffs for ruminant animals and which are authorised for this purpose by the competent authority. This fact, leading to a reduction of the productive capacity of small establishments, and the increasing aversion of consumers towards the use of animal protein in feedstuffs justify the studies about the possibility of excluding fishmeal from young animal formulations. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the total replacement of fishmeal by some vegetable protein sources in piglet diets.

  3. Sustrates and nutrient solutions for obtaining pipper seedlings and its influences on the production in crops protected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairely Sarduy Díaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the productive success in the production of the pepper (Capsicum annum L. in protected crop is necessary to guarantee the quality of the seedlings. For that the objective of this investigation was to evaluate mixtures with crowd + coconut fiber and worm humus as substrates and three nutritious solutions for the production of seedlings of pepper and its later influence on the production. In the nursery phase an assay in a design totally randomized was used in factorial arrangement 32, being the factors, substrate and nutritious solution where variables of growth and development were evaluated, in 25 seedlings for treatment. In the experiment in field phase was given pursuit to the plants coming from the nine treatments of the nursery phase in a design at random blocks with four replicas, where components of the yield were evaluated in 10 plants by parcel and the yield in the total parcel. The data were processed by means of a variance analysis using the statistical package SPSS version 15. The employment of worm humus with the nutritious solution B and the humus with the crowd and coconut plus the application of the nutritious solutions A and B allows obtaining pepper seedlings with the established quality. These combinations stand out in the production phase for the percentage of flourishing plants, mass of the fruits and the yield, for that the employment of these substrates, constitute new alternatives for this technology.

  4. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-09-30

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station.

  5. Conceptual Framework for Physical Protection Against Sabotage Considering Plant-specific Radiological Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joung Hoon; Yu, Dong Han [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    According to the Generation IV (Gen IV) Technology Roadmap, Gen IV nuclear energy systems (NESs) should highlight proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) as one of the four goals along with sustainability, safety and reliability, and economics. Especially, physical protection (PP) is the typical important characteristic of an NES that impedes the theft of materials suitable for nuclear explosives or radiation dispersal devices (RDD) and the sabotage of facilities and transportation by subnation entities and other non-Host State adversaries. These two subjects have been studied separately. Proliferation is commonly considered as an international concern and the past work on the PR assessments can be found. On the other hands, PP is regarded as a State security concern, much of which is classified and facility-dependent. Recently, more concern has been focused on the PP design and regulation because of rapid environment changes including radiological consequences by internal sabotage and nuclear terrorism by RDDs. The current PP Regulation has been applied intensively to the existing nuclear facilities and could be a possible guidance for the future GEN-IV NESs. This paper first reviews the IAEA guide document, INFCIRC/225, which was accepted as the standard international guideline in the physical protection area. It has been updated several times up to now, and is undergoing another revision. The paper introduces current substantial changes in the document regarding PP including the national nuclear security and sabotage in the nuclear facilities. Then, it presents a conceptual framework for physical protection against sabotage considering plant-specific radiological consequence after malicious acts within certain vital areas. The framework combines the newly developed method of vital area identification, the current PSA level 2 works, and physical protection concepts. This would help to improve a design concept of new physical protection

  6. Sulfite Reductase Protects Plants against Sulfite Toxicity1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Plant sulfite reductase (SiR; Enzyme Commission 1.8.7.1) catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide in the reductive sulfate assimilation pathway. Comparison of SiR expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Rheinlands Ruhm’) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants revealed that SiR is expressed in a different tissue-dependent manner that likely reflects dissimilarity in sulfur metabolism between the plant species. Using Arabidopsis and tomato SiR mutants with modified SiR expression, we show here that resistance to ectopically applied sulfur dioxide/sulfite is a function of SiR expression levels and that plants with reduced SiR expression exhibit higher sensitivity than the wild type, as manifested in pronounced leaf necrosis and chlorophyll bleaching. The sulfite-sensitive mutants accumulate applied sulfite and show a decline in glutathione levels. In contrast, mutants that overexpress SiR are more tolerant to sulfite toxicity, exhibiting little or no damage. Resistance to high sulfite application is manifested by fast sulfite disappearance and an increase in glutathione levels. The notion that SiR plays a role in the protection of plants against sulfite is supported by the rapid up-regulation of SiR transcript and activity within 30 min of sulfite injection into Arabidopsis and tomato leaves. Peroxisomal sulfite oxidase transcripts and activity levels are likewise promoted by sulfite application as compared with water injection controls. These results indicate that, in addition to participating in the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, SiR also plays a role in protecting leaves against the toxicity of sulfite accumulation. PMID:23221833

  7. Real-time corrosion control system for cathodic protection of buried pipes for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Sik [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young; Lim, Bu Taek; Park, Heung Bae [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Since the operation period of nuclear power plants has increased, the degradation of buried pipes gradually increases and recently it seems to be one of the emerging issues. Maintenance on buried pipes needs high quality of management system because outer surface of buried pipe contacts the various soils but inner surface reacts with various electrolytes of fluid. In the USA, USNRC and EPRI have tried to manage the degradation of buried pipes. However, there is little knowledge about the inspection procedure, test and manage program in the domestic nuclear power plants. This paper focuses on the development and build-up of real-time monitoring and control system of buried pipes. Pipes to be tested are tape-coated carbon steel pipe for primary component cooling water system, asphalt-coated cast iron pipe for fire protection system, and pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe for sea water cooling system. A control system for cathodic protection was installed on each test pipe which has been monitored and controlled. For the calculation of protection range and optimization, computer simulation was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (Altsoft co.)

  8. Catch the Best: Novel Screening Strategy to Select Stress Protecting Agents for Crop Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Zachow

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change increases stress levels for crops and affects the economic and environmental aspects of agricultural management systems. The application of stress tolerance-mediating microorganisms is an auspicious strategy for improving crop protection, and as such, we developed a direct selection strategy to obtain cultivable microorganisms from promising bioresources using the bait plants, maize, oilseed rape, sorghum and sugar beet. Alpine mosses, lichens and primrose were selected as bioresources, as each is adapted to adverse environmental conditions. A 10% crop-specific selection was found for bait plant rhizosphere communities using cultivation-independent fingerprints, and their potential role as stress protecting agents (SPA was evaluated following the cultivation of captured bacteria. In addition to assays identifying phytopathogen antagonism and plant growth promotion capacities, our evaluation included those that test the ability to allocate nutrients. Moreover, we developed new assays to measure tolerance in diverse stress conditions. A score scheme was applied to select SPAs with desired properties, and three Pseudomonas species with pronounced antagonistic activity that showed elevated tolerance to desiccation and an improved seed germination rate were subsequently chosen. Screening for environmentally-conditioned and host-adapted microorganisms provides a novel tool for target-oriented exploitation of microbial bioresources for the management of ecofriendly crops facing biotic and abiotic stresses.

  9. Variation in the effectiveness of biotic defence: the case of an opportunistic ant-plant protection mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, Bruno; Anstett, Marie-Charlotte; Dounias, Edmond; McKey, Doyle B

    2001-11-01

    Benefits to plants in facultative ant protection mutualisms are highly variable. This allows examination of the sources of this variation and the mechanisms by which ants protect plants. We studied opportunistic interactions between ants and an extrafloral nectary-bearing vine, Dioscorea praehensilis, during 3 different years. Variation in plant protection among years was striking. Several factors affected the effectiveness of the biotic defence. Stems recently emerged from the underground tuber were self-supporting, contacting no other plants and encountering few foraging ants. Stems then became lianescent, and contact with supporting plants greatly increased ant recruitment. Both species and number of ant workers influenced the effect of ants on the major herbivore, the chrysomelid beetle Lilioceris latipennis. Protective actions included limitation of oviposition (reduction in the number of eggs laid on the plant) and predation, leading to increased larval mortality. The probability of successful predation was strongly dependent on larval size. If temporarily low ant-patrolling activity allows larvae to grow beyond a critical size, their mechanical (thick integument) or chemical (plant-derived compounds in a fecal shield) defences become more effective against ants. Secondary metabolites derived from the host plant thus appear to be important for the anti-predator mechanisms of this beetle, being necessary for its survival and reproduction on a host plant that actively recruits ants as a biotic defence against herbivores.

  10. A Study of a nuclear hydrogen production demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa and others [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ki Kwang [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kwang Deog [Korea Institute od Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The current energy supply system is burdened environmental and supply problems. The concept of a hydrogen economy has been actively discussed worldwide. KAERI has set up a plan to demonstrate massive production of hydrogen using a VHTR by the early 2020s. The technological gap to meet this goal was identified during the past few years. The hydrogen production process, a process heat exchanger, the efficiency of an I/S thermochemical cycle, the manufacturing of components, the analysis tools of VHTR, and a coated particle fuel are key areas that require urgent development. Candidate NHDD plant designs based on a 200 MWth VHTR core and I/S thermochemical process have been studied and some of analysis results are presented in this paper.

  11. In plant activation: an inducible, hyperexpression platform for recombinant protein production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein.

  12. Micropropagation of tulip: production of virus-free stock plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwyszyńska, Małgorzata; Sochacki, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    We describe here a new tulip micropropagation method based on the cyclic shoot multiplication in presence of the thidiazuron (TDZ), which enables the production of virus-free stock plants, speeds up breeding, and provides new genotypes for the market. In our novel protocol, cyclic shoot multiplication can be performed for 2-3 years by using TDZ instead of other cytokinins, as 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and N(6)-(-isopentyl)adenine (2iP). It makes possible to produce 500-2,000 microbulbs from one healthy plant. There are six main stages of tulip micropropagation. Stage 0 is the selection of true-to-type and virus-free plants, confirmed by ELISA. Fragments of flower stems isolated from bulbs are used as initial explants. Shoot multiplication is based on the regeneration of adventitious shoots, which are sub-cultured every 8 weeks. In the Stage 3, the specially prepared shoots are induced by low temperature treatment to form bulbs which finally develop on a sucrose-rich medium at 20 degrees C. Bulbs are then dried for 6 weeks and rooted in vivo. The number of multiplication subcultures should be limited to 5-10 cycles in order to lower the risk of mutation. Virus indexing should be repeated 3-4 times, at the initial stage and then during shoot multiplication. Genetic stability of micropropagated shoots can be confirmed using molecular markers.

  13. Plant-microbe interactions: Plant hormone production by phylloplane fungi. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, T.; Ilvesoksa, J.; Rosenqvist, H.

    1993-06-23

    The molds Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides and the yeast Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from the leaves of three short-rotation Salix clones, were found to produce indole-3-acetic acid (a growth promoter of plants). Abscisic acid (a growth inhibitor of plants) production was detected in B. cinerea. The contents of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the leaves of the Salix clones and the amounts of fungal propagules in these leaves were also measured, in order to evaluate whether the amounts of plant growth regulators produced by the fungi would make a significant contribution to the hormonal quantities of the leaves. The content of abscisic acid, and to a lesser degree that of indole-3-acetic acid, showed a positive correlation with the frequency of infection by the hormone producing organisms. The amounts of hormone producing fungi on leaves that bore visible colonies were, however, not sufficiently high to support the argument that neither the fungal production of abscisic nor indole-3-acetic acid would to a significant degree contribute to the hormonal contents of the leaves of the Salix clones.

  14. Intellectual property protection of pharmaceutical products and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Stojanović Snežana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of intellectual property is significantly increasing within new international economic and commercial relationships. Intellectual capital is being increasingly recognised as one of the most important domains belonging to the greatest and the most powerful world companies. Intellectual property protection is a complex category and it comprises legal, technical and economical-financial aspects.

  15. Evaluation of Animal and Plant Resources Status Quo after the Reservoir Construction in Turks River and Protection Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to assess the status quo of animal and plant resources in Turks River after the construction of the reservoir.[Method] Through field investigation,document check and sample identification,the distribution of animal and plants resources in Turks River after the construction of the reservoir was studied and corresponding protection measures were proposed.[Result] Under the influence of reservoir,there were fifteen types of rare animals,one species of national primary protected animals,...

  16. Simulation and sensitivity analysis for heavy linear paraffins production in LAB production Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Hajir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkyl benzene (LAB is vastly utilized for the production of biodegradable detergents and emulsifiers. Predistillation unit is a part of LAB production plant in which that produced heavy linear paraffins (nC10-nC13. In this study, a mathematical model has been developed for heavy linear paraffins production in distillation columns, which has been solved using a commercial code. The models have been validated by the actual data. The effects of process parameters such as reflux rate, and reflux temperature using Gradient Search technique has been investigated. The sensitivity analysis shows that optimum reflux in columns are achieved.

  17. Electrospinning of Biodegradable and Biocompatible Nanofiber Patches from Solutions of ``Green'' Materials for Plant Protection against Fungi Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Soumyadip; Lee, Minwook; Yarin, Alexander; Moghadam, S. M. Alavi; Meinke, Matthias; Schroeder, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible soy protein/petroleum-derived polymer monolithic fibers containing adhesives were electrospun on commercial rayon pads. The polymers used, PVA and PCL, are widely used in the biomedical industry, including such applications as drug delivery and scaffold manufacturing. Soy protein is an abundant waste of SoyDiesel production, and is widely used as a nutrient. The soy content in our fibers was as high as 40% w/w. Four different adhesives, including ordinary wood glue, repositionable glue and FDA-approved pressure-sensitive glue were used for electrospinning and electrospraying. The normal and shear adhesive strengths of the patches developed in this work were measured and compared. The adhesive strength was sufficient enough to withstand normal atmospheric conditions. These biodegradable and biocompatible nano-textured patches are ready to be used on prune locations without being carried away by wind and will protect plants against fungi attack at these locations, preventing diseases like Vine Decline.

  18. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  19. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  20. Biochar amendment improves soil fertility and productivity of mulberry plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has the potential to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. A field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Bangladesh Sericulture Research and Training Institute (BSRTI, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biochar on soil properties, growth, yield and foliar disease incidence of mulberry plant. The study consisted of 6 treatments: control, basal dose of NPK, rice husk biochar, mineral enriched biochar, basal dose + rice husk biochar and basal dose + mineral enriched biochar. Growth parameters such as node/meter, total branch number/plant, total leaf yield/hectare/year were significantly increased in basal dose + mineral enriched biochar treated plot in second year compared with the other fertilizer treatments. In second year, the total leaf yield/hectare/year were also 142.1% and 115.9% higher in combined application of basal dose + mineral enriched biochar and basal dose + rice husk biochar, respectively, than the control treatment. The soil properties such as organic matter, phosphorus, sulphur and zinc percentage were significantly increased with both the (mineral enriched and rice husk biochar treated soil applied with or without recommended basal dose of NPK than the control and only the recommended basal dose of NPK, respectively. Further, the lowest incidences of tukra (6.4%, powdery mildew (10.4% and leaf spot (7.6% disease were observed in second year under mineral enriched biochar treated plot than the others. The findings revealed that utilization of biochar has positive effect on the improvement of soil fertility and productivity as well as disease suppression of mulberry plant.

  1. Polyphenolic glycoconjugates from medical plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family protect human lymphocytes against γ-radiation-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szejk, Magdalena; Poplawski, Tomasz; Sarnik, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Czechowski, Franciszek; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia; Gancarz, Roman; Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Radioprotective effects of the water-soluble polyphenolic glycoconjugates, isolated from flowers of Sanguisorba officinalis L.(SO) and Erigeron canadensis L.(EC), and from leaves of Fragaria vesca L. (FV) and Rubus plicatus Whe. Et N. E. (RP), against γ-radiation-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. Cell treatment with glycoconjugates (1, 5 and 25μg/mL) prior exposure to 10/15Gy radiation resulted in concentration-dependent reduction of DNA damage including oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay), substantial inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and restoration of superoxide dismutase and S-glutathione transferase activities. Glycoconjugates isolated from SO and EC ensured better protection versus these from RP and FV, with the SO product potential comparable to that of the reference quercetin. Strong antioxidant/radioprotective activity of the SO and EC glycoconjugates could be attributed to high abundance of syringol-type and ferulic acid units in their matrices, respectively. Moreover, polyphenolic glycoconjugates (25μg/mL), including RP and FV products, significantly decreased DNA damage when applied post-radiation suggesting their modulating effects on DNA repair pathways. Preliminary data on the glycoconjugate phenolic structural units, based on GLC/MS of the products of pyrolysis and in situ methylation, in relation to application of plant products as potential radioprotectors is promising and deserves further investigation.

  2. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  3. Computer Security: Protect your plant: a "serious game" about control system cyber-security

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Control system cyber-security is attracting increasing attention: from cybercriminals, from the media and from security researchers.   After the legendary “Stuxnet” attacks of 2010 against an Iranian uranium enrichment plant, the infiltration of Saudi Aramco in 2012, and most recently the hacking of German blast furnaces, we should be prepared. Just imagine what would happen if hackers turned off the lights in Geneva and the Pays-de-Gex for a month? (“Hacking control systems, switching lights off!"). Or if attackers infiltrated CERN’s accelerator or experiment control systems and stopped us from pursuing our core business: delivering beams and recording particle collisions (“Hacking control systems, switching... accelerators off?"). Now you can test your ability to protect an industrial plant against cyber-threats! The Computer Security Team, in collaboration with Kaspersky Lab, is organising a so-...

  4. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  5. Interaction and Coordination among Nuclear Power Plants, Power Grids and Their Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyang Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants (NPPs have recently undergone rapid development in China. To improve the performance of both NPPs and grids during adverse conditions, a precise understanding of the coordination between NPPs and grids is required. Therefore, a new mathematical model with reasonable accuracy and reduced computational complexity is developed. This model is applicable to the short, mid, and long-term dynamic simulation of large-scale power systems. The effectiveness of the model is verified by using an actual NPP full-scope simulator as a reference. Based on this model, the interaction and coordination between NPPs and grids under the conditions of over-frequency, under-frequency and under-voltage are analyzed, with special stress applied to the effect of protection systems on the safe operation of both NPPs and power grids. Finally, the coordinated control principles and schemes, together with the recommended protection system values, are proposed for both NPPs and grids. These results show that coordination between the protection systems of NPPs and power networks is a crucial factor in ensuring the safe and stable operation of both NPPs and grids. The results can be used as a reference for coordination between NPPs and grids, as well as for parameter optimization of grid-related generator protection of NPPs.

  6. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  7. The Impacts of Macroergonomics on Environmental Protection and Human Performance in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Azadeh, J Nouri, I Mohammad Fam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and his performance is a vital factor in protection of asset including environmental properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have impact on overall performance of the power plants in context of total human engineering or macroergonomics. The systems being studied are the control rooms and maintenance departments of a 2000 MW thermal power plant. To achieve the above objective, the TSD factors were addressed and assessed through a detailed questionnaire. The relationships between TSD factors and human performance were then examined through non-parametric correlation analysis (Kramer’s Phi and Kruskal-Wallis test of means. The results of this study show that the macroergonomic factors such as organizational and safety procedures, teamwork, self-organization, job design and information exchange, influence human performance in the power plant. The findings also suggest that the selected macroergonomic factors are correlated to human performance and must be considered, designed and tested concurrently with the engineering factors at the design phase of the system developmental cycle. Consequently, total system’s faults and organizational errors are reduced to an acceptable level and human performance is significantly increased. The main goal in such program is customer's satisfaction (Internal customers. However, more elaboration on the scientific tools for implementation of TDS factors in context of human performance is also under investigation.

  8. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  9. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chinese Food Product Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-guo; WANG Shu-ting; XIONG Wan-zhen; HUANG Li-min

    2012-01-01

    The geographical Indications intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage are the general focus of attention of the world today. In the Chinese food product resources, there are 44 kinds of national geographical indication products, 41 national geographical indication trademarks, 9 kinds of national and 212 kinds of provincial-level intangible cultural heritage. This article introduces the geographical indication protection and geographical indication trademark registration of the Chinese food products, the protection of intangible cultural heritage of traditional craftsmanship; discusses the countermeasures for the protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage; finally puts forth several recommendations.

  10. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  11. Novel plant virus-based vaccine induces protective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated antiviral immunity through dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Patrick; Denis, Jérôme; Lapointe, Réjean; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Currently used vaccines protect mainly through the production of neutralizing antibodies. However, antibodies confer little or no protection for a majority of chronic viral infections that require active involvement of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been shown to be efficient inducers of cell-mediated immune responses, but administration of an adjuvant is generally required. We recently reported the generation of a novel VLP system exploiting the self-assembly property of the papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) coat protein. We show here that uptake of PapMV-like particles by murine splenic dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo leads to their maturation, suggesting that they possess intrinsic adjuvant-like properties. DCs pulsed with PapMV-like particles displaying the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) p33 immunodominant CTL epitope (PapMV-p33) efficiently process and cross-present the viral epitope to p33-specific transgenic T cells. Importantly, the CTL epitope is also properly processed and presented in vivo, since immunization of p33-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice with PapMV-p33 induces the activation of large numbers of specific CTLs. C57BL/6 mice immunized with PapMV-p33 VLPs in the absence of adjuvant develop p33-specific effector CTLs that rapidly expand following LCMV challenge and protect vaccinated mice against LCMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate the efficiency of this novel plant virus-based vaccination platform in inducing DC maturation leading to protective CTL responses.

  12. PRODUCT CERTIFICATION AND LEGAL PROTECTION TO ENHANCE INDONESIAN TRADITIONAL HERBAL PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to empower traditional herbs producer and help legal protection of Indonesian traditional medicines, implementing Participatory Research and juridical-sociological approaches. Data were collected through literary, questionnaire, interview and Focus Group Discussion. The first year study revealed that Herbal Producer Association worked with all members, persuading government offices to get product certification and effective trademark licenses. In the second year study the researchers and Producers Association trained and facilitated vendors to endorse trademark, label registry, and markets shares. Producers maintain traditional medicine management, because product certification is hard to achieve. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberdayakan produsen jamu/OT dan membantu perlindungan hukumnya, dengan memanfaatkan pendekatan penelitian partisipatoris dan sosiologis yuridis. Data dikumpulkan dengan literatur, kuesioner, wawancara dan Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Pada tahun pertama organisasi gabungan pengusaha jamu (GP Jamu bersama-sama dengan seluruh anggotanya mendorong pemerintah untuk perolehan sertifikasi produk izin edar dan merek secara efektif. Pada tahun kedua, peneliti dan gabungan pengusaha jamu melakukan pelatihan guna perolehan izin edar, pendaftaran merek, dan peningkatan pemasaran. Para pengusaha jamu tradisional perlu terus menerus didampingi karena perolehan izin edar terkesan sulit.

  13. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  14. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  15. In vitro study of natural plant products against oral bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddiqui R; Siti AsmaH; Tang L; Jie CC; Rosliza AR; Roziawati Y

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of selected plant product against several bacterial which commonly causes oral infection.It was hope that in future,this product will become the remedy for treatment of oral infection and with the hope that it can substitute antibiotics.Methods:A total of 5 species of oral bacteria from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)were employed in this study(S.mutans,S.aureus,P.aeruginosa,S.sobri-nus and L.salivarius).Three types of natural plants crude extracts were used (garlic,curry leaves and cloves).Bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of these herbs were tested.Results:It was shown garlic had an-tibacterial effects on all bacteria.The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC in g/mL)of garlic towards S. aureus,P.aeruginosa,S.mutans,S.sobrinus and L.salivarius were 0.3,1.8,1.2,0.5 and 1.8,respectively. There was significant difference among the MIC of garlic on tested bacteria.It was more potent toward S.au-reus.The curry leaf solution on the other hand,did not show any zone of inhibition in all bacteria plates but adversely showed enhanced growth of those bacteria.Clove had shown its antibacterial effects on S.aureus and P.aeruginosa.The clove was more potent toward S.aureus with the MIC of 0.45 g/mL.P.aeruginosa was more sensitive to clove compared to garlic.For S.aureus,it was more sensitive to garlic compared to clove. Conclusion:The antibacterial activity of garlic and clove crude extracts shown in our study further confirm these natural plants'potential usage in therapeutic use for oral diseases or infections.This could be the platform for the interested party to do research and development on it and to produce oral health products which are more affordable for lower economic income groups and with fewer side effects as seen in synthetic drug.

  16. Competition and facilitation in multispecies plant-herbivore systems of productive environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jef; Olff, Han

    1998-01-01

    We develop a multispecies plant-herbivore model to explore how plant competition for light and the selectivity of herbivores affect abundance patterns of plants and herbivores along productivity gradients. The model considers a small and a tall plant species, a generalist herbivore, and a selective

  17. Green electricity production with living plants and bacteria in a fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Snel, J.F.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    The world needs sustainable, efficient, and renewable energy production. We present the plant microbial fuel cell (plant-MFC), a concept that exploits a bioenergy source in situ. In the plant-MFC, plants and bacteria were present to convert solar energy into green electricity. The principal idea is

  18. Influence of ingredients of motor transport exhausts on the seed productivity of adornment flowering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic descriptions of the seminal productivity for some ornamental flowering plants under influence of cars’ emissions are presented. Decreasing of the seminal productivity, germinating capacity of seeds and mass of thousand seeds was found. Recommendations on plants using for planting of the cities environment polluted by vehicles emissions are proposed.

  19. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Minobu Kasai; Keisuke Koide; Yuya Ichikawa

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implica...

  20. Growth and conversion of solar energy of grafted tomato plants under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pedó

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The grafting technique favors cultivation tomato under conditions environment adverse, being the effects on the physiology of scarce plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the growth and solar energy conversion efficiency in grafted tomato and not grafted in greenhouse. The grafting was performed by grafting of cleft and the treatments consisted of tomato plants grafted on hybrid Kaguemusha® and not grafted. The samples for growth analysis were performed at intervals of fourteen days after transplanting (DAT by the end of the crop cycle. At each harvest, plants were separated into organs, being determined to total dry matter (Wt, rates of dry matter production (Ct and relative growth (Rw, net assimilation (Ea, leaf area index (L, growth rate, leaf area (Ca, relative growth of leaf area (Ra, leaf area ratio (Fa, leaf weight (Fw, specific leaf area (Sa, conversion efficiency solar energy (? and assimilation rate of fruit (Efr. From the analysis of data growth, the plants grafted on the hybrid Kaguemusha® had higher Wt, Ct, Rw, Ea and ? compared to non-grafted that showed a high Fa and Fw. Therefore, the stress caused by grafting did not affect the growth at the end of the development cycle of tomato plants, being important feature to keep the crop yield

  1. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    ... and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored...

  2. Management of pests and diseases of tropical sericultural plants by using plant-derived products:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R T Gahukar

    2015-01-01

    Host plants of domesticated silkworms in tropical countries are attacked by an array of insect pests, disease pathogens and nematodes. In order to reduce resulting plant damage, chemicals have been extensively used. In recent years, products extracted/isolated from 47 plant species have been tested as replacements for or to minimize the use of hazardous chemicals. Bioefficacy of the extract in water or chemical solvent, crude seed/leaf oil, and cake is discussed, and integrated management of major and occasional pests and plant diseases is proposed in sericultural plants in order to produce chemical-free foliage.

  3. Altered sucrose metabolism impacts plant biomass production and flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather D; Beamish, Leigh; Reid, Anya; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2010-04-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) was transformed with three genes involved in sucrose metabolism, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase, EC 2.7.7.9), sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14). Plants harbouring the single transgenes were subsequently crossed to produce double and triple transgenic lines, including: 2 x 35S::UGPase x SPS, 4CL::UGPase x SPS, 2 x 35S::SuSy x SPS, 4CL::SuSy x SPS, 2 x 35S::UGPase x SuSy x SPS, and 4CL::UGPase x SuSy x SPS. The ultimate aim of the study was to examine whether it is possible to alter cellulose production through the manipulation of sucrose metabolism genes. While altering sucrose metabolism using UGPase, SuSy and SPS does not have an end effect on cellulose production, their simultaneous overexpression resulted in enhanced primary growth as seen in an increase in height growth, in some cases over 50%. Furthermore, the pyramiding strategy of simultaneously altering the expression of multiple genes in combination resulted in increased time to reproductive bud formation as well as altered flower morphology and foliar stipule formation in 4CL lines. Upregulation of these sucrose metabolism genes appears to directly impact primary growth and therefore biomass production in tobacco.

  4. New natural antioxidants for protecting omega-3 rich products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    to oxidation because of their unsaturated nature. Addition of antioxidants is one method. to prevent lipid oxidation. As synthetic antioxidants may have carcinogenic effects at higher levels, the replacement of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants is now in demand. We have isolated natural...... antioxidants from yoghurt, potato peel, fish protein hydrolysates and seaweed, which were able to protect highly unsaturated fish oil from oxidation. These antioxidant extracts may have potential for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  5. Antioxidant, oxidative DNA damage protective and antimicrobial activities of the plant Trigonella foenum-graecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Vishwakarma, Shri P; Singh, Ram L

    2014-09-01

    The plant Trigonella foenum-gracecum (TFG) is used as antidiabetic and diuretic. In order to ascertain antioxidant potential of leaf (early and mature) and seed of TFG, total phenolics, free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation, ferric thiocyanate assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and DNA damage protective activities were determined. The study was further carried out to assay the antimicrobial activity and HPLC analysis of plant parts. Ethanol extracts of leaf (early and mature) exhibited a high content of phenolics (54.79 and 41.28 g kg(-1) GAE) when it was compared with seed extract (23.85 g kg(-1) GAE). Results showed that mature TFG leaf extract had the lowest IC50 for the free radical scavenging assay (IC50 = 2.23 mg mL(-1)), superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 2.71 mg mL(-1)), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 17.30 mg mL(-1)) and highest reducing power (10.14 ascorbic acid equivalents mL(-1)). However, the ethanol seed extract showed the maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the ferric thiocyanate assay. Mature leaf also showed the maximum DNA damage protection activity and higher concentration of phytochemicals. The results showed that the mature TFG leaf had a higher antioxidant activity, which may be due to the presence of total phenolics. It may be used in herbal drugs or as a nutritional supplement. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Protective effect of secondary plant metabolites from Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. against carbofuran induced damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sanjukta; Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh; Ghosh, Santinath; Dhar, Pubali

    2013-12-01

    Plausible interactions between food contaminants and natural constituents in vivo and protective effect of polyphenols present in I. aquatica against carbofuran toxicity in Charles Foster rats were evaluated. Determinations based on antioxidant enzyme activities showed significant alterations in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in tissues (liver and brain) and plasma of pesticide treated group while polyphenolic extracts from I. aquatica (IAE) attenuated their activities when given alongwith carbofuran. IAE decreased enhanced lipid peroxidation levels in plasma and erythrocyte membrane and cholesterol levels in brain and plasma. IAE also minimized histopathological degenerative changes produced by carbofuran. While single cell gel electrophoresis showed that secondary metabolites in leafy vegetables produced a combinatorial effect with pesticide at cellular level, DNA fragmentation level in bone marrow cells showed a decline in the IAE treated rats. Food safety adversely affected by various chemical contaminants can be retained by plant polyphenols and secondary plant constituents that can be found together in bolus. Therefore, the present study gives an insight into the protective role of naturally found polyphenols against pesticide toxicity.

  7. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  8. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  9. Ultrapure Gases — From the Production Plant to the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simgen, H.; Zuzel, G.

    2007-03-01

    Radioactive noble gas isotopes are a potential source of background in low-level physics experiments, since they are present in the atmosphere and also in widely used gases produced from the atmosphere. We have studied the 39Ar, 85Kr and 222Rn contamination of commercially available nitrogen using low background proportional counters and a rare gas mass spectrometer. It was found that air separation plants are very effective in removing traces of radioactive noble gases and that the available purity can be significantly higher than commercial specifications. On the other hand the gas handling processes which are necessary to deliver gases from the production plant to the customer are a possible source of re-contaminations and determine in most cases the achievable purity. By simulating these processes under realistic conditions we have establish together with the Italian company `SOL group' a well controlled delivery path which can hold the purity. For the short-lived 222Rn the initial contamination is less critical, because it decays away. Instead the emanation rate of the cryogenic tank was found to determine the achievable purity, since it permanently delivers new 222Rn.

  10. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  11. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  12. [Instrumental analysis of medicinal plants and their drug products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, G; Lemberkovics, E

    1994-05-01

    The experiences obtained during the development of gas chromatographic and other (GC, TLC and infrared spectrophotometric) methods for the 7th edition of the Hungarian Pharmacopoeia for essential oils and drugs containing essential oils are summarized with emphasis on the selection of suitable internal standard for the gas chromatographic assays. The qualitative and quantitative estimation of bitter compounds and polyphenoles e.g. flavonoids and procyanidines by means of ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometry and HPLC is also described. Some HPLC methods for the determination of anthocyan and carotinoid derivatives are also presented. These are not yet included in the pharmacopoeia but are successfully used for the analytical investigation of commercially available medicinal plants and drug products made thereof.

  13. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The demonstration unit was hauled to the test site on trailers that were place on a test pad located adjacent to the ash pond and re-assembled. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities. Representative feed ash for the operation of the filed testing unit was excavated from a location within the lower ash pond determined from coring activities. Approximately 150 tons of ash was excavated and pre-screened to remove +3/8 inch material that could cause plugging problems during operation of the demonstration unit.

  14. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  15. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  16. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  17. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  18. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  19. A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-09-01

    The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lipid-like droplets, which are supposed to consist of cutin monomers that have not been transported out of the cells. The eibi1 cuticle is fragile due to a defective cutin matrix. The rice ortholog of the EIBI1 gene has a similar pattern of expression, young shoot but not flag leaf blade, as the barley gene. The model of the function of Eibi1 is discussed. The HvABCG31 full transporter functions in the export of cutin components and contributed to land plant colonization, hence also to terrestrial life evolution.

  20. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers' predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  1. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  3. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  4. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  5. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  6. How nitric oxide donors can protect plants in a changing environment: what we know so far and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free radical nitric oxide (NO plays important roles in plant growth and defense. Owing to its small size and lipophilicity, NO acts as a crucial signaling molecule in plants, crossing cell membranes and enhancing cell communication. Indeed, NO donors have been shown to modulate a variety of physiological processes, such as plant greening, seed germination, iron homeostasis and mitochondrial respiration. Recently, several papers have reported the protective actions upon application of low molecular weight NO donors in plants under abiotic stress. Exogenous NO is able to improve plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, metal toxicity, and extreme temperatures. This protection is assigned to the NO-mediated redox signaling in plants, which involves interplay with reactive oxygen species and modulation of gene expression and protein function. This review reports and discusses the recent advantages, pitfalls, challenges, and perspectives in the applications of low molecular weight NO donors in plants under abiotic stress. The combination of nanotechnology and NO donors as an efficient approach to protect plants under challenging environments is also discussed.

  7. Antigen Production in Plant to Tackle Infectious Diseases Flare Up: the Case of SARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia C eDemurtas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS is a dangerous infection with pandemic potential. It emerged in 2002 and its aetiological agent, the SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV, crossed the species barrier to infect humans, showing high morbidity and mortality rates. No vaccines are currently licensed for SARS-CoV and important efforts have been performed during the first outbreak to develop diagnostic tools. Here we demonstrate the transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of two important antigenic determinants of the SARS-CoV, the nucleocapsid protein (N and the membrane protein (M using a virus-derived vector or agro-infiltration, respectively. For the M protein, this is the first description of production in plants, while for plant-derived N protein we demonstrate that it is recognized by sera of patients from the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong in 2003. The availability of recombinant N and M proteins from plants opens the way to further evaluation of their potential utility for the development of diagnostic and protection/therapy tools to be quickly manufactured, at low cost and with minimal risk, to face potential new highly infectious SARS-CoV outbreaks.

  8. Antigen Production in Plant to Tackle Infectious Diseases Flare Up: The Case of SARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurtas, Olivia C; Massa, Silvia; Illiano, Elena; De Martinis, Domenico; Chan, Paul K S; Di Bonito, Paola; Franconi, Rosella

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a dangerous infection with pandemic potential. It emerged in 2002 and its aetiological agent, the SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), crossed the species barrier to infect humans, showing high morbidity and mortality rates. No vaccines are currently licensed for SARS-CoV and important efforts have been performed during the first outbreak to develop diagnostic tools. Here we demonstrate the transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of two important antigenic determinants of the SARS-CoV, the nucleocapsid protein (N) and the membrane protein (M) using a virus-derived vector or agro-infiltration, respectively. For the M protein, this is the first description of production in plants, while for plant-derived N protein we demonstrate that it is recognized by sera of patients from the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong in 2003. The availability of recombinant N and M proteins from plants opens the way to further evaluation of their potential utility for the development of diagnostic and protection/therapy tools to be quickly manufactured, at low cost and with minimal risk, to face potential new highly infectious SARS-CoV outbreaks.

  9. Economic Analysis on Protection of Farmers’ Benefits Based on Market of Agricultural Means of Production and Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De; CHEN; Dongmei; XIANG; Shengping; SHI

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by many factors,farmers remain very unfavorable position in market transaction and thus fail to ensure their reasonable benefits.In accordance with basic theory of microeconomics,this paper analyzes mutual relation between market of agricultural means of production and agricultural product market,compares economic decisions of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural product circulation service providers in monopoly condition and perfect competitive market,expounds influence of monopoly position of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural products service providers on economic benefits of farmers,and elaborates weak position and economic damage of farmers in transaction with various economic entities.Through analysis,it further recognizes necessity for protection of farmers’benefits and puts forward corresponding countermeasures:(1)regulating providers of agricultural means of production;(2)strengthening construction of agricultural product market circulation system;(3)improving organization of farmers;(4)setting up and improving production subsidy system of farmers.

  10. Modelling production processes in a vehicle recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Vladimir; Dimitrijevic, Branka

    2012-09-01

    The European Directive on end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) fundamentally changed the business philosophy of the European vehicle recycling system, which was exclusively profit-oriented. As the dominant participants of this system, vehicle recycling plants (VRPs) are especially affected by its implementation. For VRPs to successfully respond to the prescribed eco-efficiency quotas, investment will be needed to procure modern sorting equipment as well as to achieve full transformation of their production process. However, before VRPs decide to make this very important investment decision, it is necessary to determine the adequacy of such a decision in detail. Consequently, the following questions become unavoidable: Can modernly equipped VRPs conduct profitable business? Are eco-efficiency quotas actually attainable? How will the new changes in vehicle design influence VRPs? To provide answers to these essential questions, a production planning model of a modernly equipped VRP was first developed and then tested extensively using real data. Based on the answers provided by the proposed model testing analysis it was concluded that VRP transformation is not only necessary but completely justified and that the final success of the ELV Directive is realistic.

  11. Risk analysis of sterile production plants: a new and simple, workable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapp, Guenther; Holzknecht, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A sterile active ingredient plant and a sterile finished dosage filling plant both comprise very complex production processes and systems. The sterility of the final product cannot be assured solely by sterility testing, in-process controls, environmental monitoring of cleanrooms, and media fill validations. Based on more than 15 years experience, 4 years ago the authors created a new but very simple approach to the risk analysis of sterile plants. This approach is not a failure mode and effects analysis and therefore differs from the PDA Technical Report 44 Quality Risk Management for Aseptic Processes of 2008. The principle involves specific questions, which have been defined in the risk analysis questionnaire in advance, to be answered by an expert team. If the questionnaire item is dealt with appropriately, the answer is assigned a low-risk number (1) and if very weak or deficient it gets a high-risk number (5). In addition to the numbers, colors from green (not problematic) through orange to red (very problematic) are attributed to make the results more striking. Because the individual units of each production plant have a defined and different impact on the overall sterility of the final product, different risk emphasis factors have to be taken into account (impact factor 1, 3, or 5). In a well run cleanroom, the cleanroom operators have a lower impact than other units with regard to the contamination risk. The resulting number of the analyzed production plant and the diagram of the assessment subsequently offers very important and valuable information about a) the risk for microbiological contamination (sterility/endotoxins) of the product, and b) the compliance status of the production plant and the risk of failing lots, as well as probable observations of upcoming regulatory agency audits. Both items above are highly important for the safety of the patient. It is also an ideal tool to identify deficient or weak systems requiring improvement and upgrade

  12. Biofuel Production by Fermentation of Water Plants and Agricultural Lignocellulosic by-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anker Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While at present most energy crops are depriving human feedstock, fermentation of agricultural residues and fast growing water plants possesses a good prospect to become a significant source for bio-fuel; as both substrates are widely available and do not require agricultural areas. Water hyacinth for instance can be cultivated in fresh, brackish or wastewater and owing to its rapid growth and availability. Since owing to its natural abundance it is considered to be an invasive plant in most continents, its utilization and use as a renewable energy source may also contribute for its dilution and control. Agricultural lignocellulosic surplus by-products are also a promising fermentable substrate for bioethanol production, as it decreases both disposal expenses and greenhouse gases emissions. This paper describes a scheme and methodology for transformation of any lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel by simple cost effective operation scheme, integrating an innovative process of mechanochemical activation pre-treatment followed by fermentation of the herbal digest and ethanol production through differential distillation. Under this approach several complex and costly staged of conventional ethanol production scheme may be replaced and by genetic engineering of custom fermenting microorganisms the fermentation process becomes a fully continuous industrial process.

  13. Indirect drivers of plant diversity-productivity relationship in semiarid sandy grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. A. Zuo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although patterns between plant diversity and ecosystem productivity have been much studied, a consistent relationship has not yet emerged. Differing patterns between plant diversity and productivity have been observed in response to spatial variability of environmental factors and vegetation composition. In this study, we measured vegetation cover, plant diversity, productivity, soil properties and site characteristics along an environmental gradient (mobile dune, semi-fixed dune, fixed dune, dry meadow, wet meadow and flood plain grasslands of natural sandy grasslands in semiarid areas of northern China. We used multivariate analysis to examine the relationships between environmental factors, vegetation composition, plant diversity and productivity. We found a positive correlation between plant diversity and productivity. Vegetation composition aggregated by the ordination technique of non-metric multidimensional scaling had also a significantly positive correlation with plant diversity and productivity. Environmental gradients in relation to soil and topography affected the distribution patterns of vegetation composition, species diversity and productivity. However, environmental gradients were a better determinant of vegetation composition and productivity than of plant diversity. Structural equation modeling suggested that environmental factors determine vegetation composition, which in turn independently drives both plant diversity and productivity. Thus, the positive correlation between plant diversity and productivity is indirectly driven by vegetation composition, which is determined by environmental gradients in soil and topography.

  14. Radiological protection in nuclear power plants; La proteccion radiologica en las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorrilla R, S. [CFE. Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    This presentation sharing experiences which correspond to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This nuclear power plant is located at level 2 of four possible, in the classification performance of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), which means the mexican nuclear power plant is classified in terms of its performance indicators and above the average achieved by their counterparts americans and canadians. In the national context, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde has also been honored with several awards such as the National Quality Award, the Clean Industry Certificate, the distinction of Environmental Excellence and others of similar importance. For the standards of WANO, the basic idea is that there are shortcomings in one of nuclear power plant concern to all partners. The indicators used for the classification will always go beyond more compliance with regulations, which are assumed, and rather assume come or a path to excellence. Among the most important indicators are: the collective dose, the percentage of areas declared as contaminated, the number, type and tendency of contamination personal cases, the number of dosimetry alarms, the number of unplanned exposures, loss control of high radiation areas and the release of contaminated material outside the restricted areas. Furthermore, as already indicated, nuclear power plants are of special care situations, such as, carrying out work in areas with radiation fields of more than 15 mSv h{sup -1}, the movement of spent fuel in the reload floor. The consideration of the minimum total effective dose equivalent as a criterion for prescribing tools that reduce exposures, but may increase the external cases of contaminated casualties, the experience in portals such as workers subject to radiology, where exposure in industrial radiography, and so on. Special mention deserve the conditions generated during fuel reload stops, which causes a massive personnel movement, working simultaneously on

  15. The Impact of Implementation of Total quality Management on Plants' Productivity: Evidence from Poultry Processing Plants- Saudi Arabia- Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELHAJ ABDELMOULA.ELSIDDIG MUSA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Productivity index as an important business determinant factor for profitability and business performance has been studied in this research versus TQM varibles. The study highlighted out the impacts ofimplementation of TQM on productivity in poultry processing plants in Saudi Arabia – Central Region. The significance of this research represented in exploring the impact of TQM practices on Poultry Processing Plants' productivity. Seven determinants of TQM practices and their impacts were measured against productivity. The determinants included top management commitment, customer focus, rewards & training, continual improvement, cooperation & teamwork, prevention focus and m