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Sample records for plant phaseolus vulgaris

  1. Description of Phaseolus vulgaris L. aborting embryos from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenized plants

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    Silué, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM and cotyledons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to those observed in wild-type samples. Mutant embryos show also hyperhydricity and contain low amount of chlorophyll. Genetic analyses of F1, F2 and F3 populations from the crosses carried out between the mutagenized plants with aborting embryos and the wild-type plants indicated that the embryo abortion phenotype is maternally inherited and controlled by a single recessive gene. These Phaseolus mutant plants with aborting embryos constitute a valuable material for plant embryogenesis studies.

  2. Two endornaviruses show differential infection patterns between gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, Surasak; Valverde, Rodrigo A; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A; Osorno, Juan M; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of two plant endornaviruses, Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, in breeding lines, cultivars, landraces, and wild genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) collected from the two centers of common bean domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. The two endornaviruses were detected in many genotypes of Mesoamerican origin but rarely in genotypes of Andean origin. The results suggest that these two endornaviruses were introduced into the Mesoamerican modern genotypes during common bean domestication and provide more evidence for the existence of two divergent gene pools of common bean.

  3. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... ... important processes in the root system will be discussed. Key words: Genetic transformation, Phaseolus vulgaris, Agrobacterium rhizogenes. INTRODUCTION. Grain legumes are important agricultural crops, especially for developing countries, where they provide proteins in vegetarian or meat-poor diets.

  4. Composite Phaseolus vulgaris plants with transgenic roots as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large seeded grain legumes such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) are very important crops with seeds that are major protein source for people in developing countries, but their yields and improvement lag behind the economically more important cereals. For research purposes ...

  5. Physiological traits of endornavirus-infected and endornavirus-free common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv Black Turtle Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, S; Valverde, R A

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the physiological traits of eight lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Black Turtle Soup, four of which were double-infected with Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, and four of which were endornavirus-free. Plants from all eight lines were morphologically similar and did not show statistically significant differences in plant height, wet weight, number of days to flowering and pod formation, pods per plant, pod thickness, seed size, number of seeds per pod, and anthocyanin content. However, the endornavirus-infected lines had faster seed germination, longer radicle, lower chlorophyll content, higher carotene content, longer pods, and higher weight of 100 seeds, all of which were statistically significant. The endornaviruses were not associated with visible pathogenic effects.

  6. Gamma radiation effects on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in flowering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Matsumoto, K.; Marchezoni, S.A.; Ando, A.; Menten, J.O.M.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing the 60 Co source in the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Sao Paulo University, for gamma-irradiation of plants in flower was shown by an experiment with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Pots with two bean plants in flower, variety Carioca, line 6E 1 , were put individually in the center of the source. Doses used were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kR. The development of these plants after irradiation till harvest and seedling emergence of their progeny were observed. The effects of gamma-rays and the advantages of irradiation of plants in flower were discussed, and recommendable procedures for research workers who need to use the 60 Co source of the CENA are suggested. (Author) [pt

  7. Phosphorus use efficiency in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tripartite symbiosis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) 147 with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in sand culture by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, plant growth and phosphorus use ...

  8. Sucrose metabolizing enzymes in cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris Enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em cultura celular de Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Marcia Ometto de Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the activity of sucrose metabolizing enzymes in extracts of cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Invertase pathway was identified in the three studied species. Sucrose synthase pathway was also responsible for sucrose metabolism in Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris cells. Activity values higher than 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein were found for acid and neutral invertases, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase in the cell extract of the three plant species. Sucrose synthase showed low activity in Bauhinia forficata cells. As sucrose concentration in the culture medium decreased, sucrose synthase activity increased in C. zedoaria and P. vulgaris cells. The glycolytic enzymes activity gradually reduced at the end of the culture period, when carbohydrate was limited.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em culturas de célula em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. A via da invertase foi identificada nas três espécies estudadas. A via da sacarose sintase também foi responsável pelo metabolismo da sacarose em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Foram encontradas atividades maiores que 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 de proteína das enzimas invertase ácida e alcalina, UDPglicose pirofosforilase e fosfoglicomutase no extrato celular das três espécies de plantas. A sacarose sintase mostrou atividade baixa nas células de Bauhinia forficata. À medida que a concentração de sacarose no meio de cultura diminuiu, a atividade da sacarose sintase aumentou em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Ao final do período de cultura, quando os carboidratos se tornaram limitantes, as atividades das enzimas glicolíticas reduziram-se gradualmente.

  9. Galactooligosaccharides of seeds during growth of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans

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    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative changes of raffinose and stachyose in seeds of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. during their growth and maturation in a two year experiment were investigated. Trace amounts of raffinose were found in Ph. vulgaris seeds during their vegeta tive growth in 1990. Time of raffinose accumulation in seeds in 1991 began not earlier than on 33rd day since inflorescence. Stachyose started to accumulate in seeds between 33rd and 47th day after inflorescence of all tested cultivars. It was noticed that stachyose and raffinose contents in seeds of most tested cultivars after ten years of storage did not differ significantly when compared to not stored ones.

  10. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm 2 of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  11. Restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast DNA of Phaseolus vulgaris L. vr. Rio Negro Análise de restrição do DNA cloroplástico de Phaseolus vulgaris vr. Rio Negro

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    Sergio Echeverrigaray

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The chloroplast DNA of Phaseolus vulgaris L. vr. Rio Negro was isola ted from chloroplasts obtained by descontiuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. The restriction analysis with the enzymes HindIII, EcoRI and BamHI and their combination, allowed to identified more than 20 fragments of 18 to 0.65kb. The size of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cp DNA was estimated in 140kb with the presence of a repeat sequence of about 22kb.O DNA cloroplástico do cultivar Rio Negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. foi isolado a partir de cloroplastos obtidos por gradiente descontínuo de sacarose. A análise de restrição com as enzimas HindIII, EcoRI e BamHI e a combinação destas, permitiu a identificação de mais de 20 fragmentos na faixa de 18 a 0.65kb. O tamanho do cp DNA de Phaseolus vulgaris L. foi estimado em 140kb com a existência de sequências repetidas de aproximadamente 22kb.

  12. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Key words: Genetic diversity, ISSR, Phaseolus vulgaris. INTRODUCTION ..... effective germplasm conservation and for setting germ- plasm collection ... conservation and research programs of the species. Furthermore, the ...

  13. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  14. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS ON PHASEOLUS. VULGARIS SEEDLINGS. Sale, F.A.. Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of ..... Sale, F.A. (2009). Allelopathic influence of Acacia auriculiformis. Eucalyptus citriodora and Gliricidia sepium on germination, growth and yield of millet.

  15. Plant uptake of MBOCA (4,4'-methylene-bis (2-chloroaniline)). [Brassica oleracea L. ; Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Sorghum vulgare Pers. ; Dactylis glomerata L. ; Daucus carrota L

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    Voorman, R; Penner, D

    1986-09-01

    (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA was absorbed by cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, but did not move beyond the absorption point. Radio autographs of bean, sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and carrot (Daucus carrota L.) plants exposed to (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA via hydroponic culture showed considerable radioactivity associated with the roots with only limited translocation of (/sup 14/C) into upper plant parts. Bean and cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) plants grown in (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA amended soil translocated virtually no (/sup 14/C) into aerial parts, but again considerable radioactivity was found on roots. Radioactivity could not be rinsed off roots with water or acetone, and a small amount of radioactivity was observed in the xylem-phloem layer of the carrot root.

  16. The bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on growth of phaseolus-vulgaris plant

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    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Mehdipour, L.A.; Behnejad, B.B. [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Objective: Plants absorb radioactive elements from phosphate fertilizers, and also from naturally occurring radiation in the soil, air and water. It has long been known that low doses of ionizing radiation evoke stimulatory effects in a wide variety of living organisms. However, as far as we know, there is no published report on the bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-effects of low doses of diagnostic X-rays on growth rate of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) plants. Materials and Methods: Before cultivation, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) seeds were soaked in tap water for 2 days followed by another 2 days of covering under a wet cloth. Four hundred newly cultivated seeds were randomly divided into two groups of 200 plants each. In this experiment, two seeds were cultivated in each dish (100 dishes for irradiation group and 100 for sham-irradiation group). Fifteen days after starting cultivation, newly grown plants were irradiated with X-rays. Plants were exposed to a single dose of X-ray (80 kVp, 80 mAs) for 6 days. On day 29, plants were pulled out from the ' soil. Length of plant stem, length of root, number of leaves and plant weight were measured. Results: The stem length in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants was 296.5{+-}13.57 and 223.96{+-}15.02 mm respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Although the number of leaves in irradiated plants was higher than that of sham-irradiated plants (7.05{+-}0.18 and 6.74{+-}0.19 respectively), the difference was not statistically significant. The stem diameter in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants were 3.52{+-}0.12 and 3.35{+-}0.09 mm respectively, but the difference again was not statistically significant (P<0.00 1). Plant weight in irradiated samples was less than that of non-irradiated plants but it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The overall results indicate that diagnostic doses of X-rays can

  17. A non-destructive selection method for faster growth at suboptimal temperature in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, E.; Oeveren, J.C. van; Jansen, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed to select common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants whose growth is less effected at a suboptimal temperature. Shoot weight was determined at a suboptimal (14°C) and optimal temperature (20°C), 38 days after sowing and accessions identified with a

  18. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  19. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as influenced by fungicide seed treatment. Ndeye Fatou Diaw GUENE, Adama DIOUF and Mamadou GUEYE*. MIRCEN/ Laboratoire commun de microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, BP 1386, DAKAR, Senegal. Accepted 23 June 2003.

  20. THE ACTION OF UV RADIATION ON MITOTIC INDEX AND MITOTIC DIVISION PHASES AT PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L

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    Csilla Iuliana Bara

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, damaging effects of UV radiations on bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. plantule root tips were investigated. Our study proves that by bean plants, the decrease of cell division frequency appears to be part of protection mechanism against especially the short waved UV radiation, with variations depending on cultivar.

  1. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  2. The interaction between endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium moniliforme and PGIP from Phaseolus Vulgaris studied by surface plasmon resonance and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, B; Cervone, F; Roepstorff, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris. PG hydrolyses the homogalacturonan of the plant cell wall and is considered an important pathogenicity factor of many fungi. PGIP is a specific inhibitor of fungal PGs and is thought to be involved in plant defence against phytopathogenic fungi. SPR was used either to study the effect...

  3. Evaluation of gamma radiation (60-Co) induced mutation in two Phaseolus vulgaris varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Two varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (Jutiapan and San Martin) were irradiated at 0, 8, 15, 20 and 30 kR doses in a 60-cobalt gamma source, to identify mutants and 20% lethality. M 2 plants showing morphogical mutations were selected. Differences in sensitivity to irradiation of the two varieties were noted, using data and physiological effects of M 1 . Selection and analysis for protein content were in M 3 as well as hereditary changes. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Utilisation des mutations induites pour l'étude de l'embryogenèse chez le haricot Phaseolus vulgaris L. et deux plantes modèles Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. et Zea mays L.

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    Silué, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of induced mutations in embryogenesis study in bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. and Zea mays L.. Breeding of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., through interspecific hybridizations with the species Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. as female parents leads to the abortion of immature embryos. Identification of genes required for embryo development could partly explain the abortion of hybrid embryos; induced mutations could thus be an alternative to identify key genes involved in Phaseolus embryogenesis. This paper is a review which shows a few examples of the use of induced mutations in the identification of essential genes for embryogenesis in two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn. for dicots and Zea mays L. for monocots. In these two species, embryo development mutants have been isolated using insertional mutagenesis and chemical mutagenesis with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS. Arabidopsis embryo mutants are affected in apical-basal axis polarity, radial pattern and in post-embryonic stages. Some Arabidopsis embryo mutants are defected in auxin signalisation. In maize, defective kernel (dek mutants are affected in the embryo and the endosperm, while in embryo specific (emb mutants, only the embryo is affected. In common bean, plants deficient in seed development were isolated using EMS mutagenesis. Embryos inside the seeds fail to growth at different stages of development and show abnormalities mainly in the suspensor and the cotyledons.

  5. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results

  6. EVALUATING THE ACCUMULATION TREND OF L-DOPA IN DARK-GERMINATED SEEDS AND SUSPENSION CULTURES OF Phaseolus vulgaris L. BY AN EFFICIENT UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

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    Samira Rahmani-Nezhad

    Full Text Available Seed germination and plant cell cultures provide an alternative mean for producing secondary metabolites. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the effect of seed dark germination and some elicitors and precursors on the production of L-DOPA in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Callus cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators. L-DOPA produced was quantified by UV-spectrophotometric method. In this study, a user-friendly, quick, and economical UV-spectrophotometric method was described to determine L-DOPA content in extracts from 33 biotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The method is based on the nitrosation of L-DOPA to form a yellow solution and then formation of a red solution by adding base which is measurable at 470 nm. According to our statistical studies, this method showed high efficiency and selectivity for quantitative determination of L-DOPA in herbal extracts from dried plant seeds, dark-germinated seeds and callus cultures. L-DOPA content in dark-germinated seeds and suspension cultures increased significantly to approximately several-fold compared to the control. The implication from this study is that elicitor treatment and precursor feeding of Phaseolus vulgaris L. can significantly improve the parkinson’s relevant L-DOPA content.

  7. Radiation induced mutations in Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rubeai, M.A.F.

    1982-01-01

    A selection of various macro- and micro-mutations was undertaken in the M2 generation of Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars after seed exposure to acute gamma radiation doses of 2.5, 5, 7, 10 and 15 Kr. The chlorophyll mutation was positively correlated with dose. Nevertheless, the highest frequency was at 7 Kr. Several interesting morphological mutants were observed. There were dwarf, stiff stem, shiny small leaf, narrow leaf and green giant mutants. Two selected micromutants were superior in seed yield capacity to their parents. The high yields were related to the high number of pods per plant. In 'The Prince' (seed color: red with beige marbling) several mutants with seeds of black color marbled with beige were selected. These seeds gave M3 segregants exhibiting a range of seed colors including white. Many of these M3 plants were short, early flowering and highly sterile. The work demonstrated that the pigmentation character can readily be changed, and confirmed that the variability induced by radiation can be exploited to obtain desirable mutations. (Author) [pt

  8. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  9. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  10. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  11. Efficiency of Trichome-Based Plant Defense in Phaseolus vulgaris Depends on Insect Behavior, Plant Ontogeny, and Structure

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    Zhenlong Xing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant trichomes often function as physical barriers in preventing arthropod feeding and oviposition. Even though insects are frequently reported being entrapped and killed by trichome traps, the actual trapping behavior has not yet been described in detail. Capture experiments showed that capture efficiency during the plant's vegetative stage was considerably higher than in the fruiting and cotyledon stages. The ventral surface of the leaf was more effective in trapping flies than other parts of the plant. Capture-events monitoring showed that the mouthparts, legs, and ovipositor of Liriomyza trifolii adults are the body parts involved in entrapment by surface trichomes on Phaseolus vulgaris plants, and subsequently, deter their ability to feed, walk, and oviposit. Of the three main body parts normally affected, mouthparts was found to be the body part most susceptible to the trichomes. Entrapments were most often caused by landing, followed by puncturing or feeding, and occasionally by walking or fighting. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical microscopy, we determined the susceptible positions of each body part and found that the flies were all trapped by hooked trichomes. This study revealed the process by which leafminer flies are entrapped by surface trichomes of the host plant and evaluated the capture efficiency. The results will contribute to our understanding of physical defenses against herbivores.

  12. Flatulence-causing galactooligosaccharides of Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phaseolus coccineus beans were assayed for the presence of raffinose and stachyose in whole seeds and in the morphological parts of the seed: cotyledon, hypocotyl and hull. The quantitative composition of the galactooligosaccharides of Ph. coccineus was compared with Ph. vulgaris seeds. The major galactooligosaccharide of Ph. coccineus seeds is stachyose. Another galactooligosaccharide, verbascose, was present in Ph. coccineus seeds in very low amounts (0.04%. The highest concentrations of raffinose and stachyose were found in the hypocotyl, 1.11% and 7.48%, respectively. The hull contained the lowest quantities of stachyose and only traces of raffinose.

  13. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  14. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-01

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 μg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  15. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  16. Crop physiological analysis of seed quality variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Physiological maturity, harvest maturity, earliness, common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., morphological markers, variation, moisture content, dry weight, viability, vigour, electrical conductivity, tetrazolium, seed lot, seed

  17. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  18. Influence of 60Co gamma radiation on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and beams Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes Rego, A.F. de; Rodrigues, Z.A.; Oliveira, M.L. de; Santana, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Influence of gamma radiation on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh, 1833) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) and the beans Phaseolus vulgaris (L.). The effects of 60 CO gamma radiation, 50 Gy, on both Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) seedbeans and adults of Zabrotes subfasciatus were studied using the no free choise method. Radiation decreased insect fertility hence insect population and it damage loss of weight and germination of seedbeans. However, radiation resulted in abnamal seedlings, showing various degrees of morphological malformation, although there was no effect on germination rates or seedling vigor. (Author) [pt

  19. Incorporation of 14CO2 by illuminated intact leaves of bean (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.G. de

    1980-01-01

    Bean plants were grown in hydroponic nutrient solution, maintained in controlled environment. Measurements of the photosynthetic activity using the method of 14 CO 2 incorporation in intact leaves with portable equipment were made on the central leaflet of the first trifoliate leaf except when the effect of leaf age was studied in which case all central leaflets of the same branch were used. The data obtained indicated differences in the photosynthetic efficiency of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars. Relative differences in RuDP carboxylase activity in the crude extracts of leaves, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content were also observed. Rates of 14 CO 2 incorporation at saturating light varied from 14.94 to 22.96 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h and the 6 studied cultivars could be divided into two classes: Classe 1 (above 20 mg CO 2 .dm -2 .h): Pirata-1, Rosinha G-2, and Pintadinho Precoce; Classe 2 (below 20 mg CO 2 .dm - 2 .h): Carioca, Rosinha Precoce and Pintado. Plants of the same cultivar showed a relatively high variability and a strong dependence in relation to environmental conditions. Differences among cultivars in relation to RuDP carboxylase activity, leaf area and leaf age were correlated to photosynthetic rate. (Author) [pt

  20. Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different soil moisture levels near Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniafu, M.M.; Macharia, J.N.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv GLP-2 under two soil moisture levels in two contrasting seasons near Nairobi, Kenya were investigated. The experiment confirms that dry weights and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are

  1. Effect of variable protein contents in diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans on performance, organ weights and blood variables in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Weerden, E.J. van

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effects of antinutritional factors present in Phaseolus vulgaris on piglets, rats and chickens. Also the hypothesis of whether the negative effect on weight gain due to the inclusion of raw Phaseolus vulgaris in the diet can be attributed to an insufficient supply of

  2. Formation of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenoorth, Johanna Margriet

    1980-01-01

    n this thesis the development of adventitious roots on green leaf cuttings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is studies. The use of green leaf cuttings has the advantage that the leaf blade provides the developing roots inthe petiole with all the nutrients required, a disadvantage is that the composition of

  3. Local (gut) and systemic metabolism of rats is altered by consumption of raw bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L var athropurpurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santidrián, Santiago; de Moya, Carmen Cavallé; Grant, George; Frühbeck, Gema; Urdaneta, Elena; García, María; Marzo, Florencio

    2003-03-01

    The composition of the raw legume Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. athropurpurea (PhVa) and its effects on the metabolism of young growing rats have been evaluated. The levels of protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrate, fibre and bioactive factors present in PhVa were comparable with those in other Phaseolus vulgaris varieties. However, the lectins of PhVa were predominantly of the leucoagglutinating type, and concentrated in the albumin protein fraction. Rats fed a diet (110 g total protein, 16.0 MJ/kg) in which PhVa meal provided about half of the protein excreted high levels of N in faeces and urine, and grew more slowly, than rats fed a high-quality control diet (ad libitum or pair-fed). Small intestine, large intestine and pancreas weights were increased (by almost 100 %, PPhVa, which were concentrated in the albumin protein fraction, whereas in many other Phaseolus vulgaris lines they are distributed across the globulin and albumin fractions.

  4. Estudio de la fitohemaglutinina proveniente del frijol colorado (Phaseolus Vulgaris Study of phytohemagglutinin from red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández Díaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron preparaciones crudas de fitohemaglutinina (PHA a partir de frijol colorado (Phaseolus vulgaris por 2 métodos: extracción acuosa y extracción ácida. Por el método ácido se obtuvieron mejores resultados en cuanto a concentración de proteínas y pureza de la misma. Se empleó la cromatografía en hidroxiapatita para separar las isoformas que forman la PHA y se obtuvieron 5 fraccciones proteicas que se evaluaron funcionalmente junto con las preparaciones crudas, a través de sus propiedades eritroaglutinantes y leucoaglutinantes. A medida que se aumentó la fuerza iónica del medio se observó que las fracciones obtenidas presentaban una disminución relativa de la actividad leucoaglutinante, así como un incremento relativo de la actividad eritroaglutinante. Las preparaciones crudas y las fracciones se evaluaron electroforéticamente y se obtuvieron bandas muy similares a la de la PHA patrón utilizadaRaw preparations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA were obtained from red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris by 2 methods: aqueous extraction and acid extraction. Better results were obtained with the acid methods as regards the protein concentration and its purity. Hydroxyapatite chromatography was used to separate the isoforms forming the phytohemagglutinin. 5 protein fractions were obtained and functionally evaluated together with the raw preparations through their erythroagglutinating and leukoagglutinating properties. As the ionic force of the medium increased it was observed that the fractions obtained presented a relative decrease of the leukoagglutinating activity as well as a relative rise of the crythroagglutinating activity. The raw preparations and the fractions were electrophoretically evaluated and bands very similar to that of the PHA used as a pattern were obtained

  5. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated.

  6. Evidence for the endophytic colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) roots by the diazotroph Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M A; Souza, E M; Baura, V; Wassem, R; Yates, M G; Pedrosa, F O; Monteiro, R A

    2011-03-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium, which associates with important agricultural plants. In the present study, we have investigated the attachment to and internal colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris roots by the H. seropedicae wild-type strain SMR1 and by a strain of H. seropedicae expressing a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) to track the bacterium in the plant tissues. Two-day-old P. vulgaris roots were incubated at 30°C for 15 min with 6 x 10(8) CFU/mL H. seropedicae SMR1 or RAM4. Three days after inoculation, 4 x 10(4) cells of endophytic H. seropedicae SMR1 were recovered per gram of fresh root, and 9 days after inoculation the number of endophytes increased to 4 x 10(6) CFU/g. The identity of the recovered bacteria was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of P. vulgaris roots inoculated with H. seropedicae RAM4 showed that the bacterial cells were attached to the root surface 15 min after inoculation; fluorescent bacteria were visible in the internal tissues after 24 h and were found in the central cylinder after 72 h, showing that H. seropedicae RAM4 is capable of colonizing the roots of the dicotyledon P. vulgaris. Determination of dry weight of common bean inoculated with H. seropedicae SMR1 suggested that this bacterium has a negative effect on the growth of P. vulgaris.

  7. Evidence for the endophytic colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris(common bean roots by the diazotroph Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Schmidt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium, which associates with important agricultural plants. In the present study, we have investigated the attachment to and internal colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris roots by the H. seropedicae wild-type strain SMR1 and by a strain of H. seropedicae expressing a red fluorescent protein (DsRed to track the bacterium in the plant tissues. Two-day-old P. vulgaris roots were incubated at 30°C for 15 min with 6 x 10(8 CFU/mL H. seropedicae SMR1 or RAM4. Three days after inoculation, 4 x 10(4 cells of endophytic H. seropedicae SMR1 were recovered per gram of fresh root, and 9 days after inoculation the number of endophytes increased to 4 x 10(6 CFU/g. The identity of the recovered bacteria was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of P. vulgaris roots inoculated with H. seropedicae RAM4 showed that the bacterial cells were attached to the root surface 15 min after inoculation; fluorescent bacteria were visible in the internal tissues after 24 h and were found in the central cylinder after 72 h, showing that H. seropedicae RAM4 is capable of colonizing the roots of the dicotyledon P. vulgaris. Determination of dry weight of common bean inoculated with H. seropedicae SMR1 suggested that this bacterium has a negative effect on the growth of P. vulgaris.

  8. Effects of radiation quality on the opening of stomata in intact Phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorska, K.; Kozłowska, B.; Ciereszko, I.; Maleszewski, S.

    1997-01-01

    In intact French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves blue radiation enhanced opening of stomata both when it was used individually and when it was used as preirradiation before ''white light'' irradiation. Effects of red radiation were just the contrary

  9. Differential proteomics reveals the hallmarks of seed development in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parreira, J R; Bouraada, J; Fitzpatrick, M A; Silvestre, S; Bernardes da Silva, A; Marques da Silva, J; Almeida, A M; Fevereiro, P; Altelaar, A F M; Araújo, S S

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most consumed staple foods worldwide. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling seed development. This study aims to comprehensively describe proteome dynamics during seed development of common bean. A high-throughput gel-free

  10. Nutritional and water effect on fluoride uptake and respiration of bean seedlings. [Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applegate, H G; Adams, D F

    1960-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were grown in an atmosphere containing 2.0 +/- 0.21 g F /mT (1.6 ppb). The effect of N, P, K, Fe, and Ca deficiencies and the effect of osmotic pressures of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 pounds on fluoride uptake and fluoride-mediated respiration were studied. The data showed that P deficient plants took up more fluoride than plants deficient in any of the other elements studied. Fluoride-mediated respiration was phosphorous dependent, however. Plants low in Fe or K showed increased uptake of fluoride. Nitrogen had no effect on fluoride uptake under the conditions of this experiment. Plants low in Fe showed inhibition of oxygen uptake. This inhibition was accentuated by fluoride. The interactions of N, K and Ca with fluoride on respiration were complex. Neither fluoride uptake nor fluoride-mediated respiration appeared to be linked directly to the water economy of the plants. 14 references, 6 tables.

  11. Soil to plant 137Cs transfer factors in Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris in a semi-arid ecosystem from a radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, M.L.; Segovia, N.; Gaso, M.I.; Palacios, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 137 Cs in soil, maize plants, (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been performed at the confined Storage Centre for Radioactive Waste from Mexico. Under field conditions the site was divided in four zones with different soil contamination characteristics. The plants were grown 'in situ' reproducing the local agricultural practices without fertilizers, pesticides or artificial irrigation.The 137 Cs determinations were performed using a low background gamma spectrometry system with an HPGe detector. The results indicate that one of the zones had a striking 137 Cs contamination in the soil and the uptake by the grown plants showed the highest specific activities at the root. For the edible parts of the plants the amount of 137 Cs in the maize grains was one order of magnitude lower than for the beans. The transfer factors ranges for the different parts of the maize plants was from 0.001 in the grain to 0.6 in the root. (author)

  12. Resistance or tolerance to the golden mosaic virus of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), obtained by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.

    1979-09-01

    Experiments were carried out with the objective of selecting, evaluation and using induced mutants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic - a virus disease of beans. Seeds from three bean cultivars were treated with gamma-ray or the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). After golden mosaic inoculation of 50,000 M 2 seedlings, in a insectary, screening was made and a tolerant mutant (TMD-1) was selected. Evaluation of TMD-1 was carried out by comparing it with the parent cultivar Carioca, indicating that, although showing lower productivity than the original material, (what prevented it from being used directly on a commercial basis), it maintained the same reaction to rust, bacterial blight, and common mosaic. Studies on the genetic basis of the mutation were also done. The possibility of using this mutant in a plant breeding programme aimed at obtaining resistance to golden mosaic was demonstrated in crosses between TMD-1 and two cultivars, to which transference of tolerance was possible. (Author) [pt

  13. Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin immunohistochemistry. A comparison between autoradiographic and lectin tracing of neuronal efferents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; Karst, H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    The autoradiographic pattern of anterograde labeling as a result from injections with tritiated amino acids is compared to the labeling of efferents with Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin after lectin injections in the same nucleus visualized by immunohistochemical methods. This comparison is made

  14. Onderzoekingen over virusziekten van de boon (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Want, van der J.P.H.

    1954-01-01

    Three viruses were studied which produce diseases in French beans, Phaseolus virus I (PV1), Phaseolus virus 2 (PV2) and a virus isolated from white clover (WKV). Included are symptoms, host plants, properties in vitro, occurrence and spread in the field. Special attention was given to the

  15. EFFECT OF ORGASOL ON SNAP BEAN CROP (Phaseolus vulgaris L. WITH AND WITHOUT CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS EFEITO DO ORGASOL NA CULTURA DE FEIJÃO-DE-VAGEM (Phaseolus vulgaris L. NA PRESENÇA E NA AUSÊNCIA DE ADUBAÇÃO QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Orgasol, an organic compound of animal origin, was tested on seeds and on snap crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, with and without chemical fertilizer (NPK in two planting dates. The orgasol-s with three applied doses (0, 1 and 2 ml/l of water on a first date and 0, 3 and 6 ml/l, on a second date had no influence on seed germination and pods production on this crop.

    O Orgasol, um composto orgânico de origem animal, foi testado em sementes e na cultura do feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, em duas épocas de plantio, na presença e na ausência de adubação química. O Orgasol-S foi empregado nas doses de 0, 1 e 2 ml/litro de água na primeira época de plantio e 0, 3 e 6 ml/litro de água na segunda época. Este composto não influenciou a germinação nem a produção de vagens na cultura estudada.

  16. Phenotypic variation in a core collection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.; Waninge, J.; Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    Forty accessions, forming a core collection of mainly bush type of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm in the Netherlands, were evaluated for 14 qualitative and quantitative traits at the Agricultural University, Wageningen (WAU), the Netherlands in 1992. These and an additional 117

  17. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  18. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  19. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  20. Cellulosimicrobium funkei-like enhances the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris by modulating oxidative damage under Chromium(VI toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnannan Karthik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of agriculture land by heavy metals is a worldwide risk that has sped up noticeably since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, there arise the demands of heavy metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacterial strains for specific metal contaminated agricultural sites restoration. In this study, 36 bacterial isolates were screened out from the rhizospheric soil of Phaseolus vulgaris. Among these, two bacterial strains AR6 and AR8 were selected based on their higher Cr(VI tolerance (1200 and 1100 μg/mL, respectively and the maximum production of plant growth promoting substances. In the molecular characterization study, both the bacterial strains showed 99% homology with Cellulosimicrobium funkei KM032184. In greenhouse experiments, the exposure of Cr(VI to P.vulgaris inhibited the growth and photosynthetic pigments and increased the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant expressions. However, rhizosphere bacterial inoculations alleviated the negative effect of Cr(VI and enhanced the seed germination rate (89.54%, shoot (74.50%,root length (60%, total biomass (52.53%, chlorophyll a (15.91%, chlorophyll b (17.97%, total chlorophyll (16.58% and carotenoid content (3.59%. Moreover, bacterial inoculations stabilized and modulated the antioxidant system of P. vulgaris by reducing the accumulation of Cr in plant tissues. The present finding shows the Cr(VI tolerance and plant growth promoting properties of the rhizosphere bacterial strains which might make them eligible as biofertilizer of metal-contaminated soils.

  1. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  2. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T. Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.

  3. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...

  4. Cortical projection patterns of magnocellular basal nucleus subdivisions as revealed by anterogradely transported Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Gaykema, R.P.A.; Traber, J.; Spencer Jr., D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The present paper deals with a detailed analysis of cortical projections from the magnocellular basal nucleus (MBN) and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the rat. The MBN and HDB were injected iontophoretically with the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

  5. Fractionation of gamma-emitting fission products absorbed by red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-emitting fission product nuclides 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce that accumulated in the edible pods of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown in nutrient culture were subjected to chemical fractionation. The results indicated that the largest fraction of 106 Ru, 125 Sb and 144 Ce was associated with ionic forms including salts of organic acids, phosphates, carbonates and some protein-bound forms extracted with dilute mineral acids (acid fraction). The association of these radionuclides with lipids including lipophyllic pigments, free amino acids and amino sugars (ethanol fraction) was next in significance. The association of 137 Cs was, however, greater with the ethanol fraction than with the acid fraction. Considerably reduced amounts of the fission products were present in the pectates, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids. (U.K.)

  6. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources.

  7. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... ... (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a culti- vated plant grown for fresh and dry consumption and a common raw material in the canned food industry.

  8. Effect of lead on imbibition, germination, and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Isaza Guzmán Isaza Guzmán

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is highly reactive and it can be consequently toxic to living cells to both plants and humans. This heavy metal is a source of contamination to the environment and it disrupts natural cycles. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of lead on the imbibition process, germination and growth in the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and maize (Zea mays L.. It was developed a system consisting of receptacles to expose flooded plants at different concentrations of the metal. Results showed that at concentrations of 5 g l-1 lead imbibition process was affected, but was more evident in bean. Germination percentage was not affected in maize seeds, while viability was affected in bean seeds. We observed statistically that there is an effect on organ growth of root, stem and leaf in both species in the presence of solution whose effect is most noticeable in bean plants. Key words: heavy metals,phytoremediation, stress, toxic substances

  9. Development of 12 Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers in Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae and Amplification in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Vigna unguiculata is an economically important legume, and the complexity of its variability and evolution needs to be further understood. Based on publicly available databases, we developed chloroplast microsatellite primers to investigate genetic diversity within V. unguiculata and its related species Phaseolus vulgaris. Methods and Results: Twelve polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in 62 V. unguiculata individuals. The number of alleles per locus varied between two and four, the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.123 to 0.497, and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.114 to 0.369. In cross-species amplifications, nine of these markers showed polymorphism in 29 P. vulgaris individuals. Conclusions: The newly developed chloroplast microsatellite markers exhibit variation in V. unguiculata as well as their transferability in P. vulgaris. These markers can be used to investigate genetic diversity and evolution in V. unguiculata and P. vulgaris.

  10. Phaseolus vulgaris Leuco-Agglutinin Tracing of Intrahypothalamic Connections of the Lateral, Ventromedial, Dorsomedial and Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nuclei in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; Luiten, P.G.M.

    Intrahypothalamic connections of the lateral (LHA), ventromedial (VMH), dorsomedial (DMH) and paraventricular (PVN) hypothalamic nuclei were studied with anterograde transport of iontophoretically injected Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin and the immunocytochemical detection of labeled

  11. Enzymatic changes in intact leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris following ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dass, H C; Weaver, G M

    1972-01-01

    Enzymatic changes in the intact leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Seaway 65 were studied following ozone fumigation. It was found that peroxidase enzyme increased significantly with the ozone treatment in the first 48 h. Similarly, cellulase enzyme showed significant increase 48 h. following ozone treatment. Lactic dehydrogenase activity was not markedly affected by ozone treatment. Disc electrophoretic studies of peroxidase isoenzymes showed that ozone treatment induced a new band of peroxidase. The role of peroxidase, cellulase and lactic dehydrogenase enzymes is discussed in relation to ozone damage and the bronzing disorder in white beans. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  12. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Yan-Ping.

    1993-01-01

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m -2 day -1 biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B BE ). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 μm paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40μm) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m -2 day -1 UV-B BE with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation

  13. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen Yan-Ping

    1993-12-31

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B{sub BE}). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 {mu}m paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40{mu}m) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE} with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation.

  14. Effect of bacterial distribution and activity on conjugal transfer on the phylloplane of the bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Molin, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had...

  15. Influence of insecticidal plant materials used during storage on sensory attributes and instrumental hardness of dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, F V; Serugendo, A; Breene, W M; Sriharan, S

    1995-07-01

    Three plant products with known insecticidal properties, a dry extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Trevir.) Vis. produced in Rwanda, an ethanol extract of seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, and crushed leaves of Tetradenia riparia Hochst Codd, a traditional Rwandan medicine, were mixed with beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., for storage protection. These plant-protected beans were compared with "off the shelf' beans that were being sold to consumers by the Rwandan National Agricultural Products Marketing Organization (OPROVIA). A trained sensory panel determined that beans treated with neem and C. cinerariaefolium were as acceptable after 8 months storage as those being sold throughout Rwanda by the marketing organization. Beans marketed by this organization were all treated with the standard insecticide application in Rwanda, 0.01% weight/weight pirimiphos methyl in a powder formulation. Instrumental hardness (% hard-to-cook/mean gram force) after 20 months of storage was acceptable for beans stored with neem or with C. cinerariaefolium or with the conventional government application of pirimiphos methyl. Use of either neem or C. cinerariaefolium for storage protection should not affect consumer acceptance of dry beans.

  16. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noora Nordenstedt

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa. Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool, and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina. Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively. Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

  17. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS INDUCED BY UV TREATMENT ON 5 ROMANIAN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. CULTIVARS, GROWN IN FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Bara

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on the influence of the UV-B irradiation, at the level of hidric balance, methabolic activity, and in the content of minerals, polyphenols, pigments, nucleic acids, proteins, of five romanian cultivars: Diva, Star, Vera, Ami, Avans of Phaseolus vulgaris, sawn after germination in enreached UV-B environment in natural field condition.

  18. Aplicação de óleo no controle de Zabrotes subfasciatus e na germinação de Phaseolus vulgaris Oil aplication in the control of Zabrotes subfasciatus and in the germination of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiene de F. C. de Queiroga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho, estudar a qualidade de sementes de feijão carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. tratadas com óleos vegetais de mamona, soja e oiticica, durante cinco meses de armazenamento. Mediante os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os óleos vegetais utilizados no tratamento das sementes de feijão Phaseolus foram eficientes na manutenção da viabilidade e no controle da infestação pelo inseto-praga de armazenamento Zabrotes subfasciatus, nos cinco meses de armazenamento, sendo o óleo de oiticica o que apresentou melhor média de germinação, frente às tratadas com óleo de mamona e soja. O óleo de oiticica também foi o mais eficiente no controle de Z. subfasciatus. Verificou-se, ainda, redução da eficiência dos óleos nas suas menores doses, sendo a dose de 4,5 mL para 500 g de sementes, a mais eficaz para todas as variáveis estudadas.The purpose of this work was to study the quality of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. treated with vegetable oils of castor, soybean and 'oiticica' during five months of storage. From the obtained results it was concluded that vegetable oils used in the treatment of seeds of Phaseolus beans were effective in maintaining the viability and control of storage insect pest infestation Zabrotes subfasciatus during the five months of storage, and the 'oiticica' oil presented the best mean germination, compared to those treated with castor oil and soybeans. 'Oiticica' oil was also the most efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Reduced efficiency of the oils was observed in the small doses and the dose of 4.5 mL for 500 g of seeds was the most effective for all variables.

  19. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay; Tan, Ollie; Molina, Jhanna

    2018-04-20

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects), and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects), as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval), −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001), and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02). This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.

  20. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Udani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects, and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects, as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval, −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001, and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02. This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.

  1. Nitrogen cycling in a 15N-fertilized bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, R.L.; Libardi, P.L.; Reichardt, K.; Cervellini, A.

    1982-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the fate of applied nitrogen in Phaseolus vulgaris crops grown under tropical conditions, 15 N-labelled urea was applied to bean crops and followed for three consecutive cropping periods. Each crop received 100 kg urea-N ha - 1 and 41 kg KCl-K ha - 1 . At the end of each period we estimated each crop's recovery of the added nitrogen, the residual effects of nitrogen from the previous cropping period, the distribution of nitrogen in the soil profile, and leaching losses of nitrogen. In addition, to evaluate potential effects of added phosphorus on nitrogen cycling in this crop, beans were treated at planting with either 35 kg rock-phosphate-P, 35 kg superphosphate-P, or 0 kg P ha - 1 . Results showed that 31.2% of the nitrogen in the first crop was derived from the applied urea, which represents a nitrogen utilization efficiency of 38.5%, 6.2% of the nitrogen in the second crop was derived from fertilizer applied to the first crop, and 1.4% of the nitrogen in the third crop. (orig./AJ)

  2. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar). PMID:29113066

  3. Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol ( phaseolus vulgaris l. en el valle de san juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cedano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el valle de San Juan. Se realizó un estudio para determinar el efecto del fraccionamiento de la fertilización nitrogenada y el momento adecuado para la aplicación de nitrógeno en el cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en cinco localidades del Valle de San Juan, R. D. Los experimentos fueron establecidos del 5 al 14 de noviembre (1997 , se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar y nueve tratamientos en cada localidad, encontrándose que en los terrenos con altos niveles de nitrógeno no hubo respuesta a la aplicación de nitrógeno ni al fraccionamiento de este nutrimento; mientras que en los suelos con deficiencia en nitrógeno si hubo respuesta a la fertilización nitrogenada encontrándose diferencia estadística significativa a la aplicación y al momento de aplicación del fertilizante. Entre las localidades hubo diferencia estadística significativa (P>0.05, mientras que no se encontró interacción entre los tratamientos y las localidades

  4. Collection, Characterization and Use of Genetic Bariation in Chilean Bean Germplasm (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bascur B., Gabriel; Tay U., Juan

    2005-01-01

    Recently performed studies on the type of seed protein present from several origins and their morphological traits have shown that the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is native to America, being a species without a specific center of origin and with two areas of domestication: Central America and South America. In this last center, three strains were determined, one of them is called "the Chilean strain", which as noted is a sub-center of genetic diversity for this species. With the purpo...

  5. Phenotypic diversity for seed mineral concentration in North American dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm of Middle American ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a major protein, carbohydrate, and mineral source for human diets in multiple regions of the world. Seed mineral biofortification is an going objective to improve this important food source. The objective of this research was to assess the seed mineral co...

  6. KARAKTERISASI ENAM VARIETAS BUNCIS (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BERDASARKAN PANDUAN PENGUJIAN INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina Eka Aristya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a plant that has the potential for mainstream consumers, have a large enough market opportunity and a source of vegetable protein. “Perancis” varieties are local Central Java bean varieties are widely grown in the Bandungan area. “Perancis” varieties not currently provide enough characters clear and complete. Test objectives were (1 to characterize the “Perancis” varieties in order to have a complete character information varieties and (2 to determine distinctness, uniformity and stability of the “Perancis” varieties compared with varieties Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072 using guidelines for the conduct of test for distinctness, uniformity and stability reference beans. Implemented on the Garden Seed Testing Bandungan Horticulture, Central Java with an altitude of 560-800 meters above sea level the place. Materials testing consists of six varieties of beans are “Perancis” varieties and the varieties used for comparison Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072. This research used a randomized block design six varieties of beans are planted side by side on three experimental plots as replications. Parameters observed include 49 characters corresponding guidelines bean plants are divided into the plant character, leaves character, flower character, pods character and seed character. Test results based guidelines, “Perancis” varieties showed eight unique characters compared to varieties of Gypsie, Spectacular, Balitsa 1, Balitsa 2 and PV 072 ie. plant height, leaf color, leaf rugosity, long (including beak pods, the degree of the pods curvature, the shape of distal part (excluding beak pods, length of beak pods and curvature of beak pods and “Perancis” varieties have uniformity and stability.

  7. Relationship between seed coat colors and patterns with phenolic content and antioxidant activity in a collection of 120 heirloom accessions of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) from the National Plant Germplasm System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are one of the most economically and nutritionally important crops world-wide. They are the most important legume for direct human consumption with more than 23 million metric tons produced in 2013; more than twice that of the next most important legume, chickpea (Cicer...

  8. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Leeuwen, P. van; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets

  9. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  10. The characterization of a new set of EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers as a resource for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borba Tereza CO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over recent years, a growing effort has been made to develop microsatellite markers for the genomic analysis of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to broaden the knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of this species. The availability of large sets of expressed sequence tags (ESTs in public databases has given rise to an expedient approach for the identification of SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats, specifically EST-derived SSRs. In the present work, a battery of new microsatellite markers was obtained from a search of the Phaseolus vulgaris EST database. The diversity, degree of transferability and polymorphism of these markers were tested. Results From 9,583 valid ESTs, 4,764 had microsatellite motifs, from which 377 were used to design primers, and 302 (80.11% showed good amplification quality. To analyze transferability, a group of 167 SSRs were tested, and the results showed that they were 82% transferable across at least one species. The highest amplification rates were observed between the species from the Phaseolus (63.7%, Vigna (25.9%, Glycine (19.8%, Medicago (10.2%, Dipterix (6% and Arachis (1.8% genera. The average PIC (Polymorphism Information Content varied from 0.53 for genomic SSRs to 0.47 for EST-SSRs, and the average number of alleles per locus was 4 and 3, respectively. Among the 315 newly tested SSRs in the BJ (BAT93 X Jalo EEP558 population, 24% (76 were polymorphic. The integration of these segregant loci into a framework map composed of 123 previously obtained SSR markers yielded a total of 199 segregant loci, of which 182 (91.5% were mapped to 14 linkage groups, resulting in a map length of 1,157 cM. Conclusions A total of 302 newly developed EST-SSR markers, showing good amplification quality, are available for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris. These markers showed satisfactory rates of transferability, especially between species that have great economic and genomic values. Their diversity

  11. Effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris L. extract and acarbose on postprandial glucose level after cooked rice intake in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Zulkarnain

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study was aimed to measure the effects of combination Phaseolus vulgaris extract and acarbose compared to acarbose alone on postprandial glucose concentration in healthy volunteers after cooked rice intake.Methods Blood sample were obtained at several time points up to three hours after cooked rice intake. The parameter for postprandial glucose concentration is the area under the curve (AUC of glucose concentration vs.time for three hours after cooked rice intake.Results After taking this combination, postprandial glucose concentration was reduced by 21.6%, while the reduction by acarbose alone was 22.9%.Conclusions The reduction of postprandial glucose concentration after administration of this combination was not significantly different compared to that after administration of acarbose alone. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 25-30Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris extract, acarbose, postprandial glucose concentration

  12. Canopy reflectance indices and its relationship with yield in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with phosphorus supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.G.; Escalante-Estrada, J.A.; Gonzalez, M.T.R.; Reynolds, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown under three phosphorous levels (0,100 & 200 kg ha-1) and under rain fed conditions with the objective to examine the association between vegetative indices (NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index; and GNDVI, green normalized difference vegetation index) and intercepted radiation, leaf area index, biomass and yield during the growing season. The maximum intercepted radiation, leaf area index (LAI) and biomass were reached during the pod filling stage {80 days after sowing (DAS)}, and the P treatment of 200 kg ha-1 showed the highest values. The high intercepted radiation was derived from an increase in LAI inducing a major biomass accumulation. Near to physiological maturity LAI decreased as a result of leaf abscission. NDVI and GNDVI were higher with P supply than without P at anthesis and pod filling stage (50 - 80 DAS). Near to physiological maturity, NDVI and GNDVI decreased in all the treatments . When the maximum intercepted radiation, LAI, and biomass production were reached during anthesis and pod filling stage, NDVI and GNDVI also had the highest values. The association between the vegetative indices and seed yield during the pod filling stage showed a linear relationship by the P supply. The relationship between GNDVI and seed yield was higher (r2 = 0.77) than the relationship between NDVI and seed yield (r2 = 0.61)

  13. Sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. `CIAP 7247F' plants to Glufosinate ammonium herbicide in greenhouse

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    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding in Phaseolus by genetic transformation requires an efficient selection system. The present investigation was aimed to determine the minimum lethal concentration of glufosinate-ammonium (Finale ® in beans plants cv. `CIAP 7247F' grown in greenhouse. Different concentrations of the herbicide were applied to the foliage of plants in acclimatization phase (20, 30 y 40 mg l-1 and the control. Results showed that the minimum lethal concentration in plants in acclimatization phase was 30 mg l-1. Results also demonstrated that is possible the use of the herbicide as a selective agent of beans transformants cv. `CIAP 7247F' carrying the bar gene. Keywords: genetic transformation, herbicide, selective agent, tissue culture

  14. Rapid evolutionary change of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L plastome, and the genomic diversification of legume chloroplasts

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    Dávila Guillermo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabaceae (legumes is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and some members are important crops. In contrast to what we know about their great diversity or economic importance, our knowledge at the genomic level of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs or plastomes for these crops is limited. Results We sequenced the complete genome of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa chloroplast. The plastome of P. vulgaris is a 150,285 bp circular molecule. It has gene content similar to that of other legume plastomes, but contains two pseudogenes, rpl33 and rps16. A distinct inversion occurred at the junction points of trnH-GUG/rpl14 and rps19/rps8, as in adzuki bean 1. These two pseudogenes and the inversion were confirmed in 10 varieties representing the two domestication centers of the bean. Genomic comparative analysis indicated that inversions generally occur in legume plastomes and the magnitude and localization of insertions/deletions (indels also vary. The analysis of repeat sequences demonstrated that patterns and sequences of tandem repeats had an important impact on sequence diversification between legume plastomes and tandem repeats did not belong to dispersed repeats. Interestingly, P. vulgaris plastome had higher evolutionary rates of change on both genomic and gene levels than G. max, which could be the consequence of pressure from both mutation and natural selection. Conclusion Legume chloroplast genomes are widely diversified in gene content, gene order, indel structure, abundance and localization of repetitive sequences, intracellular sequence exchange and evolutionary rates. The P. vulgaris plastome is a rapidly evolving genome.

  15. Localization of the Bacillus subtilis beta-propeller phytase transcripts in nodulated roots of Phaseolus vulgaris supplied with phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maougal, Rim Tinhinen; Bargaz, Adnane; Sahel, Charaf; Amenc, Laurie; Djekoun, Abdelhamid; Plassard, Claude; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-04-01

    Soil organic phosphorus (Po) such as phytate, which comprises up to 80 % of total Po, must be hydrolyzed by specific enzymes called phytases to be used by plants. In contrast to plants, bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, have the ability to use phytate as the sole source of P due to the excretion of a beta-propeller phytase (BPP). In order to assess whether the B. subtilis BPP could make P available from phytate for the benefit of a nodulated legume, the P-sensitive recombinant inbred line RIL147 of Phaseolus vulgaris was grown under hydroaeroponic conditions with either 12.5 μM phytate (C₆H₁₈O₂₄P₆) or 75 μmol Pi (K₂HPO₄), and inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 alone, or co-inoculated with both B. subtilis DSM 10 and CIAT899. The in situ RT-PCR of BPP genes displayed the most intense fluorescent BPP signal on root tips. Some BPP signal was found inside the root cortex and the endorhizosphere of the root tip, suggesting endophytic bacteria expressing BPP. However, the co-inoculation with B. subtilis was associated with a decrease in plant P content, nodulation and the subsequent plant growth. Such a competitive effect of B. subtilis on P acquisition from phytate in symbiotic nitrogen fixation might be circumvented if the rate of inoculation were reasoned in order to avoid the inhibition of nodulation by excess B. subtilis proliferation. It is concluded that B. subtilis BPP gene is expressed in P. vulgaris rhizosphere.

  16. Response of plants to high concentrations of uranium stress and the screening of remediation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yongjin; Luo Xuegang; Zeng Feng; Jiang Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the resistance and accumulation ability of different plant species to uranium (U) has important influence on the bioremediation of U contaminated soil. The resistance and enrichment ability of high concentrations of U (500 mg · kg"-"1 soil) in fourteen plant species were investigated and evaluated in this study in order to screen remediation plants for governance soil U contamination. The results showed that: (1) high concentrations of U stress had different effects on the emergence and survival of the different plants. The seed emergence of Hibiscus esculentus was reduced by 2/3, but the seed emergence of Gynura cusimbua (D. Don) S. Moore, Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not reduced. Under the contaminated soil, all the sesamum indicum died within a month after the emergence and the survival number of Amaranth and Iresine herbstii 'Aureo-reticulata' reduced by about 80%. But the survival number of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not influenced. (2) The biomass of the plants would be reduced by 8-99% in the uranium-contaminated soil. The anti-stress ability of Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef was the strongest in the fourteen plants, and Cucurbita pepo L., Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moench, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, Helianthus annuus, Chenopodium album L. and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. showed some the anti-stress ability. (3) Significant differences were found in the capacity of plants to absorb uranium between under high-uranium contaminated soil and under the non-uranium contaminated soil were. The plants with higher uranium content in thenon-contaminated soil were Gomphrena globosa, and Cucurbita pepo L., which were 2.249 mg · kg"-"1 DW and 1.620 mg · kg"-"1 DW, respectively. But the plants with higher uranium content in the high uranium contaminated soil were Cichorium intybus L., Amaranth and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, which

  17. Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae in Phaseolus vulgaris L Toxicidade e repelência de óleos essenciais a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L

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    Solange Maria de França

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tangerine (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, lemon (Citrus medica limonum Lush, pear orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, red copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., rosemary (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière and E. citriodora Hook, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. and citronella (Cimbopogon nardus Linnaeus oils at several concentrations on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman were studied. In toxicity tests, grains of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rajadinho were impregnated with oils and infested with adults of Z. subfasciatus up to 24 hours old. All tested oils were effective in reducing the viable egg-laying and adult emergence of this pest, in function of the concentrations used, highlighting E. citriodora and E. globulus oils which caused 100% effectiveness from 0.5 mL Kg-1 concentration. In repellency tests, two arenas consisting of plastic containers, connected symmetrically to a central box by two plastic tubes were used. In one of the boxes, untreated beans were placed and on the other ones beans treated with each oil concentration were used. In the central box, five couples of Z. subfasciatus were released. Grains of P. vulgaris treated with oils of E. citriodora, C. citratus and C. oleifera reduced the attraction percentage of Z. subfasciatus adults, while the E. globulus increased this percentage. The percentages of reduced viable eggs ranged from 17.9% (C. medica limonum to 93.3% (C. nardus, while the reduction on the number of emerged insects was 23.9% and 95.9%, respectively for these same oils.Estudaram-se os efeitos dos óleos de tangerina 'Cravo' (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, limão-siciliano (Citrus medica limonum Lush, laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeek, copaíba-vermelha (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., alecrim-do-campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus

  18. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Mantequilla to inoculation of Rhizobium native strains of the Ecuador in greenhouse native races of the Ecuador

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    Klever Iván Granda Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of biofertilizers based on Rhizobium strains for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. requires studies about bacterial interaction with target cultivars. For these reason, the aim of this paper was to determine the effect of the inoculation of Rhizobium native strains, isolated from southern Ecuador, on P. vulgaris cultivar Mantequilla. An assay was performed in greenhouse. It were evaluated the parameters of nodulation, biomass, nitrogen fixation and efficiency of the symbiosis. All inoculated strains were able to nodulate bean seedlings. The total number of nodules, nodular biomass and plant biomass, were favourably affected by inoculation of Rhizobium strains. The best results were obtained with R. mesoamericanum NAM1, R. leguminosarum COL 6 and R. etli PIN 1 strains. The experimental evidences shows the potential of native strains of Rhizobium for it use as biofertilizers because they are able to raise the rates of nitrogen fixation in common bean in southern Ecuador.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Paraburkholderia phymatum under Nitrogen Starvation and during Symbiosis with Phaseolus Vulgaris

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    Martina Lardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraburkholderia phymatum belongs to the β-subclass of proteobacteria. It has recently been shown to be able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in symbiosis with several mimosoid and papilionoid legumes. In contrast to the symbiosis of legumes with α-proteobacteria, very little is known about the molecular determinants underlying the successful establishment of this mutualistic relationship with β-proteobacteria. In this study, we performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq analysis of free-living P. phymatum growing under nitrogen-replete and -limited conditions, the latter partially mimicking the situation in nitrogen-deprived soils. Among the genes upregulated under nitrogen limitation, we found genes involved in exopolysaccharides production and in motility, two traits relevant for plant root infection. Next, RNA-seq data of P. phymatum grown under free-living conditions and from symbiotic root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean were generated and compared. Among the genes highly upregulated during symbiosis, we identified—besides the nif gene cluster—an operon encoding a potential cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase (Bphy_3646-49. Bean root nodules induced by a cyoB mutant strain showed reduced nitrogenase and nitrogen fixation abilities, suggesting an important role of the cytochrome for respiration inside the nodule. The analysis of mutant strains for the RNA polymerase transcription factor RpoN (σ54 and its activator NifA indicated that—similar to the situation in α-rhizobia—P. phymatum RpoN and NifA are key regulators during symbiosis with P. vulgaris.

  20. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris innate immune system against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infection.

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    Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to

  1. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  2. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for 60 Co and 137 Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of 90 Y was used for 90 Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for 60 Co and 137 Cs. For the 90 Sr, the translocation was below 2,5 mBq kg -1 /Bq

  3. Desempeño del Phaseolus vulgaris bajo riego parcial cultivado en un sistema de respuesta hidrogravitrópica

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    Emil Cristhian Vega Ponce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experimental area of the UNALM (Lima - Perú was evaluated on partial root - zone drying irrigation treatments (RPR300 and RPR500, ml and full irrigation (RC300 a nd RC500, ml control, the impact of xylem potential ( x and stomatal conductance (gs in common bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in systems (pots of hydrogravitropic response. A randomized complete block design with 12 plants/pots per trea tments was used in three replicates. To control the irrigation application and manage to maintain the x nonlethal conditions (< - 15 bars, a water - soil retention curve was generated. The values of gs before irrigation (between 217.18 and 268.67 mm m - 2 s - 1 showed that only RPR500 plants were maintained under optimal water conditions, despite low levels of x (between - 9.92 and - 7.33 bar; situation that could be attributed to the ability of the roots to balance those moments when half of these structures we re inside soil with low humidity, while the opposite half was favorable soil water level.

  4. Morpho-physiological analysis of adaptive responses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to drought stress /

    OpenAIRE

    Polania Perdomo, José A.,

    2016-01-01

    Bibliografia El frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es la leguminosa alimenticia más importante en los trópicos. Es cultivada por pequeños agricultores y por lo general expuesta a condiciones desfavorables con mínimo uso de insumos. La sequía y la baja fertilidad del suelo, especialmente deficiencias de nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P), son principales limitaciones para el rendimiento del frijol en los sistemas de pequeños productores. El frijol puede derivar parte de su requerimiento de N de ...

  5. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

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    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  6. Determinação do coeficiente cultural (Kc do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Determination of the crop coefficient (Kc for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

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    José C. Mendonça

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A evapotranspiração de uma cultura é uma das principais informações exigidas para o manejo de irrigação e para fins de planejamento do uso da água. Dentre as abordagens disponíveis para a estimativa do consumo de água pelas plantas, destaca-se o uso de coeficientes de cultura (Kc associados a estimativas da evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. Buscou-se determinar, aqui, os valores de Kc para as diferentes fases fenológicas do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar em lançamento UENF-47, através da utilização de um lisímetro de pesagem e compará-los com os valores propostos pela FAO 56. Concluiu-se que as equações de ajustamento propostas por Allen et al. (1998 se mostraram eficientes para a correção e ajustamento dos coeficientes culturais obtidos neste experimento e que os coeficientes culturais das fases 3 (Kc méd e 4 (Kc fim sugeridos também por Allen et al. (1998 se ajustaram bem ��s condições de cultivo do feijoeiro cultivado no período de outono/inverno, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.The evapotranspiration of a crop is one of the main information required for proper irrigation management and to develop an efficient water usage plan. Among the methods to estimate the amount of water that is consumed by plants, the use of crop coefficients (Kc, associated with estimates of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo, stands as one of the most promising. This work aimed to deterime the values of Kc for different phenological phases of common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of the cultivar UENF-47. Determination of Kc values was performed using a weighing lisimeter and results were compared with values obtained through the FAO 56 standard. Results showed that the adjustment equations proposed by Allen et al. (1998 were adequate for fitting the values of Kc obtained in this experiment. It has been shown that the crop coefficients for phenological phases 3 and 4 proposed by Allen et al. (1998 are adequate

  7. Carbon partitioning among leaves, fruits, and seeds during development of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, D.R.; Shieh, Wenjang; Saluke, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Development of vegetative and floral buds was found to be a key factor in establishing the way carbon is distributed among growing leaves and fruits in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. Leaves emerged principally during a period 14 to 32 days after planting while flowers were produced during a 10- to 12-day period near the end of leaf emergence. Timing of anthesis established the sigmoidal time course for dry weight accumulated by the composite of all fruits on the plant. During the first 12 days following anthesis, fruit growth mainly consisted of elongation and dry weight accumulation by the pod wall. Thereafter, seed dry weight increased for about 1 week, decreased markedly for several days, and then increased again over the next 2 weeks. Accumulation of imported carbon in individual seeds, measured by steady-state labeling, confirmed the time course for dry weight accumulation observed during seed development. Seed respiration rate initially increased rapidly along with dry weight and then remained nearly steady until seed maturation. A number of developmental events described in the literature coincided with the different phases of diauxic growth. The results demonstrated the feasibility of relating current rates of carbon import in individual seeds measured with tracer 14 C to the rates of conversion of imported sucrose and use of the products for specific developmental processes. The resulting data are useful for evaluating the roles of conversion and utilization of imported sucrose in regulating import by developing seeds

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jibao; Chen; Jing; Wu; Yunfeng; Lu; Yuannan; Cao; Hui; Zeng; Zhaoyuan; Zhang; Lanfen; Wang; Shumin; Wang

    2016-01-01

    As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter(Pro T) plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a c DNA sequence for Pro T from common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and designated the gene Pv Pro T. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pv Pro T showed high similarity to Bet/Pro T proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean(Vigna aconitifolia L.) Vu Pro T.Relative quantification of the m RNA level of Pv Pro T using real-time PCR analysis showed that the Pv Pro T transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20%(w/w) PEG-6000 treatment,drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of Pv Pro T transcripts than droughtsensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of Pv Pro T in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that Pv Pro T exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that Pv Pro T plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  9. The Class II trehalose 6-phosphate synthase gene PvTPS9 modulates trehalose metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

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    Aarón Barraza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1% of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant.

  10. Bayburt Koşullarında Organik Olarak Yetiştirilen Bazı Yerel Fasulye (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotiplerinin Bitkisel ve Tarımsal Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi Üzerine Bir Araştırma

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    ümit girgel

    2018-01-01

    study, plant height 32.1-44.3 cm, first pod height 6.7-11.1 cm, plant, stem diameter 5.6-8.4 cm, pod lenght 85.9-120.7 mm, pod width 12.5-15.4 mm, the number of seeds per plant varied between 10.0-24.1 number/plant, the number of seed per pod 3.5-5.5 number/beans, the weight of 1000 seed 393.7-545.5 g and the yield varied between 128.3-194.3 kg/da was found. The highest yield was obtained from the dermason bean variety. Also the yield and locality adaptation of the Önceler-98 variety and Aydintepe genotype have highest adaptation capacity. Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris L., Genotype, Yield, Yield Components, Organic Farming

  11. Papel del frijol negro Phaseolus vulgaris en el estado nutricional de la población guatemalteca

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    RESUMEN. En Guatemala existe un fenómeno de superposición epidemiológica, en el que coexisten problemas de salud propios de países desarrollados con otros característicos de poblaciones en vías de desarrollo. Se observan deficiencias marcadas en algunos macronutrientes tales como hierro y vitamina A. en simultaneidad con enfermedades crónicas como diabetes tipo II o enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se conoce muy bien la importancia del frijol negro (Phaseolus vulgaris) en la dieta habitual de G...

  12. Growth of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. cell suspension cultures with carbon sources Crescimento de cultura de células em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. em fontes de carbono

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    Marcia Ometto Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were used to test plant ability to utilize an alternative to sucrose as carbon source and energy for growth. Glycerol, sorbitol and galactose were the alternative carbon sources tested. Cell suspension cultures established on liquid medium containing sucrose were transferred to culture medium supplemented with sucrose or glycerol, or sorbitol, or galactose as the sole carbon source. Fresh and dry weight increasing and protein content showed marked differences among the different carbon sources used. Sucrose was the best carbon source for all the three plant species tested. Galactose and glycerol promoted slow or no growth of the three studied species. Sucrose in liquid medium promoted initiation of meristemoid formation. Sorbitol, which was ineffective on promoting significant growth, was the only alternative carbon source tested that also promoted this effect.Culturas de células em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. foram usadas para avaliar a eficiência de fontes alternativas de carbono e energia. Glicerol, sorbitol e galactose foram as fontes alternativas estudadas. As culturas de células estabelecidas em meio líquido contendo sacarose foram transferidas para meios de cultura suplementados com sacarose ou glicerol ou sorbitol ou galactose. A fonte de carbono afetou distintamente os ganhos de matéria fresca, matéria seca e o acúmulo de proteína. A sacarose foi a melhor fonte de carbono para as três espécies estudadas. Galactose e glicerol promoveram pequeno crescimento das três espécies estudadas. A sacarose utilizada como fonte de carbono no meio líquido, promoveu o início de organização celular conhecido como a formação de meristemóides. Sorbitol, que não promoveu crescimento significativo, foi a única fonte alternativa de carbono testada que também promoveu este

  13. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-07-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala.

  14. Chemical profile of beans cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) by 1H NMR - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS);Perfil quimico de cultivares de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris) pela tecnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Luciano Morais; Choze, Rafael; Cavalcante, Pedro Paulo Araujo; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: luciano@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ({sup 1}H HR-MAS) NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed and in development by EMBRAPA - Arroz e Feijao were analyzed by {sup 1}H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques. (author)

  15. Manganese toxicity effects on nodulation and nitrogen fixation of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ), in acid soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebereiner, J

    1966-02-01

    Three greenhouse experiments were conducted to study manganese toxicity effects on the nitrogen fixing symbiosis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Addition of 40 ppm of manganese to two acid soils affected nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Dependent on the Rhizobion strain either nodule numbers or efficiency in nitrogen fixation were reduced; the efficiency of one Rhizobium-host combination was more affected than another. Under less severe conditions of manganese toxicity, reduction of nodule numbers or of efficiency in nitrogen fixation could be compensated by an increase of nodule size. In the absence of manganese toxicity nodulation and nitrogen fixation of beans were abundant in a soil with pH 4.4. Naturally occurring manganese toxicity in a gray hydromorphic soil was eliminated by liming. The total nitrogen content of bean plants which were dependent on symbiotic nitrogen fixation decreased linearly with the logarithm of the manganese concentration in the plants. This did not happen when the plants were grown with mineral nitrogen. The role of manganese toxicity in the well known sensitivity to acid soil conditions of certain legumes and the importance of selection of manganese tolerant Rhizobium strains for the inoculation of beans in acid tropical soils, are discussed. 25 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  16. Improovement of statistical counting conditions for the determination of chloride in Beams leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    1975-04-01

    The use of two radiation peaks from the same gamma-emitting source in the calculation of the corresponding liquid counting rate in multi-element gamma spectrometry is discussed. It is shown that, in the determination of chlorine in Phaseolus vulgaris L. using neutronic activation analysis will result in an increase in accuracy of measurement of approximately 40%

  17. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  18. Improving adaptation to drought stress in white pea bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L): genotypic effects on grain yield, yield components and pod harvest index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume crop in Africa and Latin America where rainfall pattern is unpredictable. The objectives were to identify better yielding common bean lines with good canning quality under drought, and to identify traits that could be used as sele...

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L. VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  20. Anatomical alterations of Phaseolus vulgaris L. mature leaves irradiated with X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; Arena, C; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation of higher plants in Space involves not only the development of new agro-technologies for the design of ecologically closed Space greenhouses, but also understanding of the effects of Space factors on biological systems. Among Space factors, ionising radiation is one of the main constraints to the growth of organisms. In this paper, we analyse the effect of low-LET radiation on leaf histology and cytology in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants subjected to increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50, 100 Gy). Leaves irradiated at tissue maturity were compared with not-irradiated controls. Semi-thin sections of leaves were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis was applied to quantify anatomical parameters, with a specific focus on the occurrence of signs of structural damage as well as alterations at subcellular level, such as the accumulation of phenolic compounds and chloroplast size. Results showed that even at high levels of radiation, general anatomical structure was not severely perturbed. Slight changes in mesophyll density and cell enlargement were detected at the highest level of radiation. However, at 100 Gy, higher levels of phenolic compounds accumulated along chloroplast membranes: this accompanied an increase in number of chloroplasts. The reduced content of chlorophylls at high levels of radiation was associated with reduced size of the chloroplasts. All data are discussed in terms of the possible role of cellular modifications in the maintenance of high radioresistance and photosynthetic efficiency. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Patterns of Direct Projections from the Hippocampus to the Medial Septum-Diagonal Band Complex : Anterograde Tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin Combined with Immunohistochemistry of Choline Acetyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Kuil, J. van der; Hersh, L.B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The projections from the Ammon's horn to the cholinergic cell groups in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were investigated with anterograde tracing of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase, in the rat. Tracer injections

  2. Tolerância à salinidade em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L Salt tolerance in bean (Paseolus vulgaris cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Broetto

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações das técnicas da cultura de tecidos no melhoramento é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentam tolerância à salinidade. Vários autores obtiveram linhas de células tolerantes ao estresse salino; e estudo de mecanismos bioquímicos da tolerância a sais em plantas tem demonstrado altas correlações entre estes e o acúmulo de macromoléculas em tecido de plantas superiores. Para verificar essas correlações em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris cv IAC carioca, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários foram cultivados em meio sólido, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0 a 60 mM. Após 13 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto ao crescimento relativo, teor de proteínas, teor de prolina e atividade da peroxidase. Os parâmetros analisados mostraram decréscimo no crescimento relativo e no de proteínas em resposta ao NaCl. Paralelamente, observou-se aumento significativo no conteúdo de prolina e atividade da enzima peroxidase.One of the applications of the tissue culture technique in plant improvement is the identification of cell lines which show salinity tolerance. Several authors were able to obtain saline stress-tolerant cell lines and show that mechanisms of tolerance to salts have a strong correlation between this phenomenon and a high macromolecule concentration in plant tissues. Callus obtained from embrionic axis of Phaseolus vulgarís cv. IAC carioca in solid medium, supplemented with 0 to 60 mM NaCl, as the salt treatment, were used. Callus harvesting was done on the 13th day, when they were processed for relative growth, protein, proline content and peroxidase acivity. The results show both, a decrease of the relative growth and of protein content in response to the NaCl treatment, as compared to controls. However, there was a significant increase on the proline content and on the peroxidase activity.

  3. Effects of water stress on the photosynthetic assimilation and distribution of 14C-photosynthate in maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez y Huaman, C.A.; Cerri, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthesis and distribution of 14 C-photosinthate as affected by water stress was evaluated. Corn (Zea mays L.) during the grain filling period and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during flowering, representing a C-4 and a C-3 photosynthetic type, respectively, were studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Protoplast isolation, transient transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts and improved Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc infiltration of Phaseolus vulgaris: tools for rapid gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Blanco, Lourdes; Arellano, Elizabeth S; Lara, Miguel

    2016-06-24

    Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most extensively studied model legumes in the world. The P. vulgaris genome sequence is available; therefore, the need for an efficient and rapid transformation system is more imperative than ever. The functional characterization of P. vulgaris genes is impeded chiefly due to the non-amenable nature of Phaseolus sp. to stable genetic transformation. Transient transformation systems are convenient and versatile alternatives for rapid gene functional characterization studies. Hence, the present work focuses on standardizing methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple tissues and transient transformation protocols for rapid gene expression analysis in the recalcitrant grain legume P. vulgaris. Herein, we provide methodologies for the high-throughput isolation of leaf mesophyll-, flower petal-, hypocotyl-, root- and nodule-derived protoplasts from P. vulgaris. The highly efficient polyethylene glycol-mannitol magnesium (PEG-MMG)-mediated transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts was optimized using a GUS reporter gene. We used the P. vulgaris SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (PvSnRK1) gene as proof of concept to demonstrate rapid gene functional analysis. An RT-qPCR analysis of protoplasts that had been transformed with PvSnRK1-RNAi and PvSnRK1-OE vectors showed the significant downregulation and ectopic constitutive expression (overexpression), respectively, of the PvSnRK1 transcript. We also demonstrated an improved transient transformation approach, sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT), for the leaf disc infiltration of P. vulgaris. Interestingly, this method resulted in a 90 % transformation efficiency and transformed 60-85 % of the cells in a given area of the leaf surface. The constitutive expression of YFP further confirmed the amenability of the system to gene functional characterization studies. We present simple and efficient methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple P

  5. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  6. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  7. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  8. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  9. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  10. A Comparison of the Molecular Organization of Genomic Regions Associated with Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Two Phaseolus vulgaris Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E. Perry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to common bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, in Phaseolus vulgaris is conditioned by several loci on different chromosomes. Previous studies with OAC-Rex, a CBB-resistant, white bean variety of Mesoamerican origin, identified two resistance loci associated with the molecular markers Pv-CTT001 and SU91, on chromosome 4 and 8, respectively. Resistance to CBB is assumed to be derived from an interspecific cross with Phaseolus acutifolius in the pedigree of OAC-Rex. Our current whole genome sequencing effort with OAC-Rex provided the opportunity to compare its genome in the regions associated with CBB resistance with the v1.0 release of the P. vulgaris line G19833, which is a large seeded bean of Andean origin, and (assumed to be CBB susceptible.. In addition, the genomic regions containing SAP6, a marker associated with P. vulgaris-derived CBB-resistance on chromosome 10, were compared. These analyses indicated that gene content was highly conserved between G19833 and OAC-Rex across the regions examined (>80%. However, fifty-nine genes unique to OAC Rex were identified, with resistance gene homologues making up the largest category (10 genes identified. Two unique genes in OAC-Rex located within the SU91 resistance QTL have homology to P. acutifolius ESTs and may be potential sources of CBB resistance. As the genomic sequence assembly of OAC-Rex is completed, we expect that further comparisons between it and the G19833 genome will lead to a greater understanding of CBB resistance in bean.

  11. Qualidade da colheita mecanizada de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris em dois sistemas de preparo do solo Quality of the mechanical harvesting of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris under two tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouverson Pereira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as etapas de produção do feijoeiro a colheita é uma das mais importantes, porque pode interferir de maneira decisiva na qualidade e no custo de produção. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade da operação da colheita mecanizada de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, cultivado sob preparo convencional e plantio direto. As variáveis analisadas foram: o nível de ruído emitido, calculado através de um medidor de pressão sonora; o desempenho operacional, sendo monitorado o consumo de combustível, a patinagem dos rodados e a velocidade de deslocamento do conjunto coletados em uma central digital (datalogger; e a operação de colheita quanto à matéria seca e densidade de palhada, e as perdas na colheita. A velocidade e os consumos horário e operacional apresentaram distribuição normal dos dados, enquanto que o nível de ruído apresentou distribuição assimétrica. As perdas na colheita mecanizada de feijão e a densidade de palhada apresentaram baixa variabilidade e distribuição normal. Assim, apenas o consumo horário e a produção de matéria seca de palhada apresentaram comportamento instável em relação ao controle estatístico de processo, enquanto os demais indicadores mostraram condições de manter a qualidade da operação de colheita tanto no preparo convencional de solo quanto no plantio direto.Among the production stages of the bean plant, harvesting is one of the most important, because it can decisively affect both quality and production costs. Thus, the objective was to assess quality in the mechanized harvesting of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, grown under conventional tillage and no-tillage systems. The variables analysed were: the noise level emitted, calculated using a sound-pressure meter; the operational performance, by monitoring fuel consumption, wheel-slippage, and displacement velocity of the machine, all collected digitally (datalogger; and the harvesting operation with regard to the dry matter and

  12. Gamma radiation effects on some nutritional and physico-chemical characteristics of stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini Filho, J.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation effects on physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of three Brazilian varieties of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) - Catu, Rajado and Carioca -were studied. The analytical parameters were obtained by the determination of soaking and cooking times, biological value in rats, protein electrophoretic profile, reductors sugars, oligosaccharides, fiber and fatty acids content. Also, amyloglucosidase, phytohemagglutinins, α-amylase and tryptic inhibitors activities were analysed. It was observed the gamma radiation until determined doses promotes changes on those parameters subsequently reducing substantially the cooking time without modification of the biological value of the proteins. This alteration was particularly noticed in the hard-to-cook beans. (author)

  13. Correlation of protein content to flatulent galactooligosaccharides and exogenous amino acids in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the possible correlations among constituents of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds, the contents of protein, exogenous amino acids and flatulent galactooligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose were analyzed in 16 Polish bean cultivars for dry seeds. A negative correlation coefficient (r =-0.9490 was found between protein and methionine contents. High positive correlations among exogenous amino acids, such as lysine and isoleucine, valine and isoleucine, lysine and tyrosine, were observed indicating a chance of selecting far more than one at a time. The small-seeded bean cultivars contained higher contents of protein and galactooligosaccharides than the large-seeded ones.

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity in protein hydrolysates from normal and anthracnose disease-damaged Phaseolus vulgaris seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Álvarez, Alan Javier; Carrasco-Castilla, Janet; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque-Peña, Javier; Jacinto-Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2013-03-15

    Bean seeds are an inexpensive source of protein. Anthracnose disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum results in serious losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops worldwide, affecting any above-ground plant part, and protein dysfunction, inducing the synthesis of proteins that allow plants to improve their stress tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of beans damaged by anthracnose disease as a source of peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-inhibitory activity. Protein concentrates from beans spoiled by anthracnose disease and from regular beans as controls were prepared by alkaline extraction and precipitation at isolelectric pH and hydrolysed using Alcalase 2.4 L. The hydrolysates from spoiled beans had ACE-I-inhibitory activity (IC(50) 0.0191 mg protein mL(-1)) and were very similar to those from control beans in terms of ACE-I inhibition, peptide electrophoretic profile and kinetics of hydrolysis. Thus preparation of hydrolysates using beans affected by anthracnose disease would allow for revalorisation of this otherwise wasted product. The present results suggest the use of spoiled bean seeds, e.g. anthracnose-damaged beans, as an alternative for the isolation of ACE-I-inhibitory peptides to be further introduced as active ingredients in functional foods. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Diversity of Rhizobium-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis: Overview and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

    2001-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become a cosmopolitan crop, but was originally domesticated in the Americas and has been grown in Latin America for several thousand years. Consequently an enormous diversity of bean nodulating bacteria have developed and in the centers of origin the predominant species in bean nodules is R. etli. In some areas of Latin America, inoculation, which normally promotes nodulation and nitrogen fixation is hampered by the prevalence of native strains. Many other species in addition to R. etli have been found in bean nodules in regions where bean has been introduced. Some of these species such as R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. gallicum bv. phaseoli and R. giardinii bv. phaseoli might have arisen by acquiring the phaseoli plasmid from R. etli. Others, like R. trap id, are well adapted to acid soils and high temperatures and are good inoculants for bean under these conditions. The large number of rhizobia species capable of nodulating bean supports that bean is a promiscuous host and a diversity of bean-rhizobia interactions exists. Large ranges of dinitrogen fixing capabilities have been documented among bean cultivars and commercial beans have the lowest values among legume crops. Knowledge on bean symbiosis is still incipient but could help to improve bean biological nitrogen fixation. (author)

  16. Determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration of Ammonium glufosinate in organogenic calli of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. `CIAP 7247F'

    OpenAIRE

    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso; Raúl Collado; Lourdes R. García; Novisel Veitía; Amanda Martirena; Damaris Torres; Carlos Romero; Gert Angenon

    2012-01-01

    An efficient selection system is necessary for distinguishing transformed cells of the untransformed tissue. This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of the herbicide Ammonium glufosinate in organogenic calli of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. CIAP 7247F, to use it as a selective agent in the process of genetic transformation. Fragments (4-5 mm) of proliferated calli after second subculture were used as explant. Callus proliferation medium with different concentrations of Amm...

  17. Attempts to induce mutants resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic virus in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.; Costa, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The golden mosaic of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is present in the tropical parts of the American continent has become a major hindrance for the cultivation of this food legume of great importance to many Latin America countries. Good control measures are not known and bean germ plasm resistant or tolerant to this virus disease is not yet available. Attempts to induce bean mutants with this desirable characteristic were made using gamma radiation and chemical mutagen. Some M 2 plants from one progeny of the cultivar Carioca treated with 0.48% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), 6 hours of treatment at 20 0 C, showed milder symptoms than the control progenies, and at the same time they showed a tendency to recover. This mutant is being tested under field conditions and used in crosses with other bean types that show a certain degree of tolerance, aiming at adding the favourable characters of both parents. Seeds of the hybrids, as well as those of the parent types, are also being further submitted to mutagenic treatments in order to obtain still better mutants that will be satisfactory for direct or indirect control of bean golden mosaic. (author)

  18. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-01-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  19. Ferti-irrigational impact of sugar mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-11-01

    Ferti-irrigation response of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % concentrations of the sugar mill effluent (SME) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Annapurna) in the rainy and summer seasons was investigated. The fertigant concentrations produced significant (P potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), phosphate (PO4 (3-)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), ferrous (Fe(2+)), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), in both seasons. The contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd were found to be below the maximum levels permitted for soils in India. The agronomic performance of P. vulgaris was gradually increased at lower concentrations, i.e., from 5 to 25 %, and decreased at higher concentrations, i.e., from 50 to 100 %, of the SME in both seasons when compared to controls. The accumulations of heavy metals were increased in the soil and P. vulgaris from 5 to 100 % concentrations of the SME in both seasons. The contents of Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd and Cr were noted under the permissible limit of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Most contents of biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and total carbohydrates were found with 25 % concentration of the SME in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various metals was in the order of Cd > Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. vulgaris in both seasons after fertigation with SME. Therefore, the SME can be used to improve the soil fertility and yield of P. vulgaris after appropriate dilution.

  20. Projection from the prefrontal cortex to histaminergic cell groups in the posterior hypothalamic region of the rat. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemistry of histidine decarboxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterlood, F.G.; Steinbusch, H.W.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Bol, J.G.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the projection from the infralimbic division of the prefrontal cortex (area 25) to histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamic area. Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) was injected in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Frozen brain sections were subjected to combined

  1. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  2. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  3. Study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Dinh; Pham Le Ha; Nguyen Van Toan; Le Xuan Tham [Nuclear Research Institute, Radiobiology Department, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean Phaseolus vulgaris was carried out at Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Institute of Dalat. Dry seeds of variety No.1847 - Bonita - Cuba in set of 13 black bean varieties were irradiated with gamma ray from {sup 60}Co source at dose range from 150 Gy to 350 Gy and treated with DES at concentration from 0.1% to 0.3% in 2 hours for experiments in laboratory. The doses of 200, 250, 300 Gy and concentration of 0.2% DES in 2 hours were selected to treat dry seeds for experiments on the field. In populations of M{sub 1} generation, the height, number of branches and fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit were decreased with increasing of irradiation doses. In populations of M{sub 2} generation, individual variants in leaf shape, chlorophyll, short stem, dwarf, early maturity, flowering in very short time were obtained and selected in all treatment cases. Mutation frequency at dose of 300 Gy was higher than that in other treatment cases, but ratio of sterility is also largest. The mutant lines of early maturity and short stem with flowering in very short time are promised materials for further studies. (author)

  4. Interaction between cadmium and iron. Accumulation and distribution of metals and changes in growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siedlecka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals, and iron, an essential plant nutritional element, was investigated in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Słowianka seedlings. The interaction was externally induced by changing the content of both metals in the nutrient medium. Under iron deficiency conditions (0 and 0.5 of normal dose of this element, the toxic effects of cadmium on plant growth parameters, like fresh and dry weight accumulation, primary leaves area, etc., were generally much more pronounced than under normal iron supply. At normal and excess iron supply (1, 2 and 4 doses cadmium diminished iron accumulation in roots and primary leaves, but on the other hand excess iron decreased cadmium level, preventing plants from extreme toxicity of very high cadmium concentrations in the growth environment. It is to be noted that iron is classified also as a heavy metal, and its excess may become toxic, e.g. decreasing root dry weight or diminishing leaf area, especially at the highest dose. The detoxication role of iron against cadmium, and possibly other toxic metals is, however, limited to concentrations of this element in the nutrient solution which themselves are not toxic for the organism.

  5. IMPACT OF LIQUID NITROGEN EXPOSURE ON SELECTED BIOCHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF HYDRATED Phaseolus vulgaris L. SEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Inaudis; Rivas, Maribel; Nápoles, Lelurlys; Marrero, Pedro; Yabor, Lourdes; Aragón, Carlos; Pérez, Aurora; Engelmann, Florent; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Lorenzo, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cryopreserving seeds with high water content is detrimental to survival, but biochemical and structural parameters of cryostored hydrated common bean seeds have not been published. The objective of this work was to study the effect of liquid nitrogen exposure on selected biochemical and structural parameters of hydrated Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. We cryopreserved seeds at various moisture contents and evaluated: germination; electrolyte leakage; fresh seed weight; levels of chlorophyll pigments, malondialdehyde, other aldehydes, phenolics and proteins; thickness of cotyledon epidermis, parenchyma, and starch storage parenchyma; and radicle and plumule lengths. Germination was totally inhibited when seeds were immersed in water for 50 min (moisture content of 38%, FW basis) before cryopreservation. The combined effects of seed water imbibition and cryostorage decreased phenolics (free, cell wall-linked, total), chlorophyll a and protein content. By contrast, electrolyte leakage and levels of chlorophyll b and other aldehydes increased as a result of the combination of these two experimental factors. These were the most significant effects observed during exposure of humid seed to liquid nitrogen. Further studies are still required to clarify the molecular events taking place in plant cells during cryostorage.

  6. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  7. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  8. EFECTIVIDAD DE UN BIOFERTILIZANTE FOLIAR SOBRE EL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL COMÚN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, BLUEFIELDS, R.A.A.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yader Mejía Bermúdez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como propósito evaluar la efectividad de las diferentes dosis de un biofertilizante foliar sobre el rendimiento del cultivo de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris en época de postrera, en la comunidad El Cañal, Kukra River, Bluefields, en el ciclo productivo 2008-2009. Se utilizó un diseño completo al azar, cuatro tratamientos con dos repeticiones, cada repetición constó de 63 plantas de frijol (n=126. Los tratamientos fueron: T1 (testigo; T2: 0.25 litros de biofertilizante; T3: 0.37 lt. y T4: 0.5 lt. En todos los tratamientos, incluyendo al testigo, se hizo deshierbe y en todos, excepto el testigo, se aplicó el biofertilizante disuelto en 10 litros de agua. Se realizaron tres mediciones (21, 36 y 51 días después de la siembra.Los resultados indican que no existen diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos en la altura de las plantas, pero si en el porcentaje de afectación por herbívoros, así como en el número de vainas por planta y de granos por vaina. El tratamiento T4 registró el menor ataque por herbívoros, la mayor producción en función del número de vainas por planta, de granos por vaina y peso total de los granos de frijol, en cambio el testigo fue el que registró el menor rendimiento con respecto a todas estas variables. El uso del biofertilizante foliar aumentó el rendimiento del cultivo de frijol en todas las dosis.SummaryThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different doses of a foliar biofertilizer on crop production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris throughout season time in the community of El Cañal, Kukra River, Bluefields, during the production cycle 2008-2009. A random design was used, four treatments with two replications, each replication consisted of 63 bean plants (n=126. The treatments were: T1 (baton, T2: 0.25 liters of biofertilizer, T3: 0.37 lt. and T4: 0.5 lt.  In all the treatments, including the baton, weeding was done, and in all except the baton

  9. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmapuram Jyothi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt. These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724 including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and

  10. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2017-02-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise ABA and OPDA in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed sections. The mass spectra, peak values and chemical formulae obtained from the analysis of seed sections were consistent with those determined for ABA and OPDA standards, as were the precursor and major fragment ions observed in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging. Furthermore, the precursor and fragment ion images showed similar distribution patterns. In addition, the localisation of ABA and OPDA using DESI-IMS was confirmed using liquid chromatography-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The results indicated that ABA was mainly distributed in the radical and cotyledon of the embryo, whereas OPDA was distributed exclusively in external structures, such as the hilum and seed coat. The present study is the first to report the visualisation of plant hormones using IMS, and demonstrates that DESI-IMS is a promising technique for future plant hormone research.

  11. Efectos de la aplicación simultanea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación simultánea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con dos tratamientos y ocho réplicas. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación combinada de Fitomas E (2,0 l.ha-1 y Biobras 16 (0,12 l.ha-1 y una variante control. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de las plantas a los 25 y 40 días post siembra, vaina por planta, granos por vainas, granos por plantas, masa de 100 granos y rendimiento agrícola. Se observó en la altura de las plantas diferencias estadísticas significativas entre ambos tratamientos, superando la combinación de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 al tratamiento control, en un 19,43 % y un 17,73 % respectivamente. La variable vainas por planta también mostró diferencias significativas favorables al tratamiento con los bioestimulantes, no así el número de granos por vainas y la masa de 100 granos. El mayor rendimiento agrícola se obtuvo con la variante donde se aplicó Fitomas E y Biobras 16, el cual difirió significativamente del control. Se concluye que el comportamiento agroproductivo del cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. se favoreció con el tratamiento evaluado.

  12. Sauvetage d'embryons chez les légumineuses alimentaires en général et dans le genre Phaseolus en particulier (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikissou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of embryos rescue in food legumes in general and in the genus Phaseolus in particular. Genetic improvement of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by interspecific hybridization with Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm., used as female parents, often gives rise to embryo abortion at globular developmental stage. In vitro culture of embryos at cotyledonary and torpedo shaped stages, leads to hybrid plants, but with very low percentages of success. Several investigations of in vitro culture in selfed genotypes of Phaseolus and from embryos at globular or young heart shaped stages have allowed to regenerate some young plantlets. However, problems of rooting and stopping of growth restrict the number of developing plantlets. Analysis of the results achieved from interspecific embryo rescue in others food legumes of the genus Lupinus, Cajanus, Cicer, Lens and Trifolium, helped to identify some solutions to resolve incompatibility problems in Phaseolus.

  13. Ameliorating effects of industrial sugar residue on the Jales gold mine spoil (NE Portugal) using Holcus lanatus and Phaseolus vulgaris as indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, P.M.; Teiga, P.M.; Santos, M.H.; Koe, T. de; Verkleij, J.A.C

    2003-09-01

    A residue of the sugar industry can be used in revegetation programs on metal contaminated sites. - Phytostabilisation of bare heavily contaminated substrate, such as abandoned mine sites, is considered a very appropriate technology in order to diminish erosion and dispersion of contaminants into the surroundings. In this short-term pot study, application of industrial sugar residue (ISR), a waste product of the sugar industry, proved to ameliorate spoils conditions for plant performance by elevating pH and immobilising several metals. Although arsenate concentrations were positively correlated to spoil pH and spoil treatment with ISR mobilised As, growth of both Phaseolus vulgaris and Holcus lanatus improved significantly after applications of 3.75 g ISR kg{sup -1} dry spoil. Nutrient uptake from the substrate, with the exception of potassium, was elevated by ISR. As a remediation technique ISR application could be effective although in As-contaminated sites application might be restricted to areas where leaching to (ground) water does not form a risk.

  14. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  15. Functional specialization of one copy of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase in ureide production from symbiotically fixed nitrogen in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleto, Inmaculada; Trenas, Almudena T; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Pineda, Manuel; Alamillo, Josefa M

    2016-08-01

    Purines are essential molecules formed in a highly regulated pathway in all organisms. In tropical legumes, the nitrogen fixed in the nodules is used to generate ureides through the oxidation of de novo synthesized purines. Glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase (PRAT) catalyses the first committed step of de novo purine synthesis. In Phaseolus vulgaris there are three genes coding for PRAT. The three full-length sequences, which are intron-less genes, were cloned, and their expression levels were determined under conditions that affect the synthesis of purines. One of the three genes, PvPRAT3, is highly expressed in nodules and protein amount and enzymatic activity in these tissues correlate with nitrogen fixation activity. Inhibition of PvPRAT3 gene expression by RNAi-silencing and subsequent metabolomic analysis of the transformed roots shows that PvPRAT3 is essential for the synthesis of ureides in P. vulgaris nodules. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Yield and drougth tolerance of six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitza Meriño Hernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In two moisture conditions (drought and irrigation were evaluated six varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., with a factorial randomized complete blocks. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the effect caused by drought conditions crop varieties, identify high performance and features that enable them to adapt to varying conditions of soil moisture. With the data in yields between the two humidity conditions intensity indices of drought (IIS, susceptibility to drought (ISS, relative efficiency (IER, geometric mean (GM and percent yield losses were calculated . The results were statistically processed using the Statistica software version 8.0 for Windows, if significant differences Tukey test was applied to p<0.05. The selection based on levels ISS, MG, IER and PPR identified high yielding varieties adapted to drought and favorable moisture conditions.

  17. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  18. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueo us extract from white kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect...... for a mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus...... vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight....

  19. Response- Surface Analysis for Evaluation of Competition in Different Densities of Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Intercropping

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    A. Koocheki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface models predict crop yield based on crop density and this is an important tool for evaluation competition at different density and hence selection of optimum density based on yield. In order to study intra and inter specific competition in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and sesame (Sesamum indicum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2010. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 3 replications and 16 treatments based on different densities of sesame and bean intercropping was used. The model predicted the maximum yield of an isolated plant of bean and sesame approximately 33 and 17g per plant respectively. The area associated with the maximum yield per plant in bean and sesame were 0.6 and 0.1 m2, respectively. Bean was the dominant competitor with respect to both grain and biomass, and competition coefficient was 0.35 and 0.3 for bean grain yield and bean biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was more important than inter-specific competition for bean. Competition coefficient was 2.6 and 2.9 for sesame grain yield and biomass respectively. Intra-specific competition was much less important than Interspecific competition in sesame. The highest grain yield in bean (300 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 20 plants, and the highest sesame grain yield (195 g m-2 was obtained of sole crop with density of 40 plants, the highest land equivalent ratio (1.14 was obtained in intercropping of 20 plants of bean and 10 plants of sesame.

  20. Plantas invasoras da cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pedro Laca-Buendia

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 222 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 35 famílias botânias, representando 118 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae e Solanaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas no PAMG (Herbário da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - (MG..A survey in the cultivation area of bean in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, resulted in the determination of 222 weeds species, of 118 genera belonging to 35 families presenting a greater number of species areas: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Solanaceae, with 33, 30, 25, 21, 12, 10. 10, 10, 9. 8 species respectively.

  1. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  2. Purification and partial characterization of Phaseolus vulgaris seed aminopeptidase

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    Abdala A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aminopeptidase activity of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was measured using L-Leu-p-nitroanilide and the L-aminoacyl-ß-naphthylamides of Leu, Ala, Arg and Met. A single peak of aminopeptidase activity on Leu-ß-naphthylamide was eluted at 750 µS after gradient elution chromatography on DEAE-cellulose of the supernatant of a crude seed extract. The effluent containing enzyme activity was applied to a Superdex 200 column and only one peak of aminopeptidase activity was obtained. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10% presented only one protein band with molecular mass of 31 kDa under reducing and nonreducing conditions. The aminopeptidase has an optimum pH of 7.0 for activity on all substrates tested and the highest Vmax/KM ratio for L-Leu-ß-naphthylamide. The enzyme activity was increased 40% by 0.15 M NaCl, inhibited 94% by 2.0 mM Zn2+, inhibited 91% by sodium p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and inhibited 45% by 0.7 mM o-phenanthroline and 30 µM EDTA. Mercaptoethanol (3.3 mM, dithioerythritol (1.7 mM, Ala, Arg, Leu and Met (70 µM, p-nitroaniline (0.25 mM and ß-naphthylamine (0.53 mM had no effect on enzyme activity when assayed with 0.56 mM of substrate. Bestatin (20 µM inhibited 18% the enzyme activity. The aminopeptidase activity in the seeds decayed 50% after two months when stored at 4oC and room temperature. The enzyme is leucyl aminopeptidase metal- and thiol group-dependent.

  3. Studies on the distribution of 14C-malformin A in major fractions of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarlante, D.; Curtis, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution pattern of 14 C-malformin in major fractions of Phaseolus vulgaris L, seedlings shifted during water treatment in the absence of malformin. From these shifts, and by comparison of the 14 C distribution patterns at the base and top of the seedlings, it was concluded that some 14 C-malformin enters the cell and proceeds to the cell wall via intermediate compounds. As a working hypothesis it was suggested that in roots 14 C-malformin first appears in a soluble ''small molecules'' fraction, binds to a soluble protein fraction, and proceeds via the wall lipid fraction to the wall itself. Direct binding of some 14 C-malformin to the wall fraction was not precluded. In leaves, the pathway of 14 C-malformin to the cell wall was similar in some respects to that in roots. (auth.)

  4. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  5. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  6. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  7. Annotation, Phylogeny and Expression Analysis of the Nuclear Factor Y Gene Families in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Carolina eRípodas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, plant nuclear factor Y (NF-Y genes have gained major interest due to their roles in many biological processes in plant development or adaptation to environmental conditions, particularly in the root nodule symbiosis established between legume plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria. NF-Ys are heterotrimeric transcriptional complexes composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC, which bind with high affinity and specificity to the CCAAT box, a cis element present in many eukaryotic promoters. In plants, NF-Y subunits consist of gene families with about ten members each. In this study, we have identified and characterized the NF-Y gene families of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain legume of worldwide economical importance and the main source of dietary protein of developing countries. Expression analysis showed that some members of each family are up-regulated at early or late stages of the nitrogen fixing symbiotic interaction with its partner Rhizobium etli. We also showed that some genes are differentially accumulated in response to inoculation with high or less efficient R. etli strains, constituting excellent candidates to participate in the strain-specific response during symbiosis. Genes of the NF-YA family exhibit a highly structured intron-exon organization. Moreover, this family is characterized by the presence of upstream ORFs when introns in the 5' UTR are retained and miRNA target sites in their 3' UTR, suggesting that these genes might be subjected to a complex post-transcriptional regulation. Multiple protein alignments indicated the presence of highly conserved domains in each of the NF-Y families, presumably involved in subunit interactions and DNA binding. The analysis presented here constitutes a starting point to understand the regulation and biological function of individual members of the NF-Y families in different developmental processes in this grain legume.

  8. Pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae Causing Bacterial Brown Spot and Halo Blight in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Are Distinguishable by Ribotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana J.; Landeras, Elena; Mendoza, M. Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Ribotyping was evaluated as a method to differentiate between Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and pv. syringae strains causing bacterial brown spot and halo blight diseases in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Ribotyping, with restriction enzymes BglI and SalI and using the Escherichia coli rrnB operon as the probe, differentiated 11 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, and a combination of data from both procedures yielded 19 combined ribotypes. Cluster analysis of the combined ribotypes differentiated the pathovars phaseolicola and syringae, as well as different clonal lineages within these pathovars. The potential of ribotyping to screen for correlations between lineages and factors such as geographical region and/or bean varieties is also reported. PMID:10653764

  9. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

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    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  10. BOOKLET TO INSTITUTO PEDAGOGICO NACIONAL TEACHERS ABOUT SYMBIOSIS AND PROCESSES ON BIOTECHNOLOGY: THE BIOFERTILIZER Rhizobium sp IN Phaseolus vulgaris WITH ALTERNATIVE TO SYMBIOSIS FOR Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Quevedo Rubiano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the thesis carried out in the research group of Biotechnology Teaching in Colombia, with the aim of providing teachers of Biology of Instituto Pedagogico Nacional a booklet that can strengthen the teaching of biotechnology processes using Rhizobium sp reduction of chemical fertilizers and symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris.   The booklet contains a proposal of practical activities that enable teachers of this institution to use spaces like the farm, enabling to teach biotechnology related to agronomy. Therefore, for this project was considered two Biological and Pedagogical approaches, the first is within the analytical empirical paradigm in the process of microbiological characterization of Rhizobium and their Biofertilizing ability in beans; and the teaching approach within the design of a booklet that includes the findings of this study as a contribution to the reduction of chemical fertilizers school farm. In order to have a complete analysis of the work it was subjected to quantitative and qualitative methods.   This biotech practice is included in the booklet showing in bioassays that bacteria has biofertilizer without inhibiting potential symbiosis, and that research and teaching biological concepts from scientific expertise can be promoted in Biology class for students to understand its context in a significant way, to be used in different levels of education; also it is a teaching strategy.

  11. Adaptação do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. à seca Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. adaptation to drought

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    Cleber M. Guimarães

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho tendo em vista o propósito de se estudar a adaptação de genótipos de feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. à seca, como suporte a programas de melhoramento que visem à criação de cultivares para regiões sujeitas a deficiência hídrica, mediante a avaliação do potencial da água nas folhas e da resistência difusiva estomática. Adicionalmente avaliou-se a técnica de medição da temperatura do dossel pela termometria de infravermelho para inferir o estado hídrico da planta. Os genótipos Carioca e RAB 96 foram submetidos, dos 20 dias após a emergência até a colheita, a dois tratamentos hídricos: irrigação adequada e com deficiência hídrica. Em geral, a cultivar Carioca manteve potenciais de água na folha mais altos e também melhor capacidade de recuperação hídrica, além de apresentar resistência difusiva estomática e temperatura do dossel mais baixas que a linhagem RAB 96 sendo, portanto, melhor adaptada à seca. A temperatura do dossel correlacionou-se significativamente com o potencial da água nas folhas e, devido a sua medição ser rápida e não-destrutiva, mostrou tratar-se de uma técnica útil no processo de seleção de genótipos para regiões sujeitas a deficiência hídrica.The objective of this study was to investigate the common bean adaptation to drought, as support to breeding programs directed to regions with water deficiency, through the evaluation of leaf water potential and stomatal diffusive resistance. Furthermore, the canopy temperature was evaluated with the infrared thermometer technique to infer the plant water content. From twenty days after emergence until harvest, the genotypes Carioca and RAB 96 were submitted to two water treatments: adequate irrigation and water deficit. The 'Carioca' showed higher leaf water potentials and better water recovery capacity compared with 'RAB 96'. This cultivar also showed lower stomatal diffusive resistance and canopy

  12. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Del Pino,Victoria H.; Lajolo,Franco M.

    2003-01-01

    Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró e...

  13. Effect of 59Fe and 65Zn on plant weight and chemical composition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. carioca and on atmospheric nitrogen fixation in three soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhet, A.R.

    1976-09-01

    A study is made of the effects of iron and zinc on yield and chemical composition of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.) and on atmospheric nitrogen fixation in three soils, classified as Terra Roxa Estruturada (TRE), Latossol Vermelho Escuro (LVE) and Podzolico Vermelho Amarelo (PVA). The coefficient of utilization of these micronutrients by this crop and their distribution in the aerial part and in the roots were also assessed. There was no influence of treatments of iron and zinc on yield of aerial parts and also on the weight and number of modules. There was significative effect of treatments on nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc contents in aerial parts and on nitrogen, calcium and zinc contents in the root. (A.R.) [pt

  14. Utilisation de la PCR-RFLP sur de l'ADN chloro-plastique pour l'étude des relations phylogénétiques au sein du genre Phaseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin JP.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships among 74 accessions belonging to six species of Phaseolus are investigated using variation in chloroplast DNA assessed according to a PCR-RFLP protocol. Three fragments of chloroplast DNA are amplified using universal primers, and then digested with 10 restriction enzymes. Thirty-six haplotypes are identified on the basis of the polymorphism in fragment number and size. Three main phylogenetic groups, strongly supported through bootstrap analysis, are identified: (1 accessions from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus xolocotzii; (2 accessions from Phaseolus glabellus; (3 accessions from Phaseolus vulgaris, Phaseolus polyanthus and Phaseolus coccineus. Within the third group, accessions of Phaseolus coccineus are scattered along the phylogenetic tree, which provides some evidence that coccineus accessions are paraphyletic with respect to Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus polyanthus. An analysis of molecular variance applied on four species show that they are significantly differentiated with 79% of molecular variance among species and 21% within species. The results agree with previous investigations on chloroplast DNA variation in the genus Phaseolus, and suggest that PCRRFLP methods, which are technically less labour-intensive than previous methods, are of great value for phylogenetic investigations at the generic level.

  15. Fabenol® Max, a standardised aqueous extract from Phaseolus vulgaris L., and ‘reduces the absorption of carbohydrates’: evaluation of a health claim pursuant toArticle 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Fabenol® Max and ‘reduces the absorption of carbohydrates’. The Panel considers that Fabenol® Max, which is an aqueous extract from Phaseolus vulgaris L. standardised by its content of α-amylase inhibitor, is sufficiently characterised. According...

  16. Damaged-self recognition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris shows taxonomic specificity and triggers signalling via reactive oxygen species (ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia eDuran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants require reliable mechanisms to detect injury. Danger signals or 'damage-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs are released from stressed host cells and allow injury detection independently of enemy-derived molecules. We studied the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to the application of leaf homogenate as a source of DAMPs and measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS as an early response and the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN as a jasmonic acid (JA–dependent late response. We observed a strong taxonomic signal in the response to different leaf homogenates. ROS formation and EFN secretion were highly correlated and responded most strongly to leaf homogenates produced using the same cultivar or closely related accessions, less to a distantly related cultivar of common bean or each of the two congeneric species, P. lunatus and P. coccineus, and not at all to homogenates prepared from species in different genera, not even when using other Fabaceae. Interestingly, leaf homogenates also reduced the infection by the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, when they were applied directly before challenging, although the same homogenates exhibited no direct in vitro inhibitory effect in the bacterium. We conclude that ROS signaling is associated to the induction of EFN secretion and that the specific blend of DAMPs that are released from damaged cells allows the plant to distinguish the 'damaged self' from the damaged 'non-self'. The very early responses of plants to DAMPs can trigger resistance to both, herbivores and pathogens, which should be adaptive because injury facilitates infection, independently of its causal reason.

  17. Beans (Phaseolus ssp.) as a Model for Understanding Crop Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitocchi, Elena; Rau, Domenico; Bellucci, Elisa; Rodriguez, Monica; Murgia, Maria L.; Gioia, Tania; Santo, Debora; Nanni, Laura; Attene, Giovanna; Papa, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most significant outcomes in the literature regarding the origin of Phaseolus genus, the geographical distribution of the wild species, the domestication process, and the wide spread out of the centers of origin. Phaseolus can be considered as a unique model for the study of crop evolution, and in particular, for an understanding of the convergent phenotypic evolution that occurred under domestication. The almost unique situation that characterizes the Phaseolus genus is that five of its ∼70 species have been domesticated (i.e., Phaseolus vulgaris, P. coccineus, P. dumosus, P. acutifolius, and P. lunatus), and in addition, for P. vulgaris and P. lunatus, the wild forms are distributed in both Mesoamerica and South America, where at least two independent and isolated episodes of domestication occurred. Thus, at least seven independent domestication events occurred, which provides the possibility to unravel the genetic basis of the domestication process not only among species of the same genus, but also between gene pools within the same species. Along with this, other interesting features makes Phaseolus crops very useful in the study of evolution, including: (i) their recent divergence, and the high level of collinearity and synteny among their genomes; (ii) their different breeding systems and life history traits, from annual and autogamous, to perennial and allogamous; and (iii) their adaptation to different environments, not only in their centers of origin, but also out of the Americas, following their introduction and wide spread through different countries. In particular for P. vulgaris this resulted in the breaking of the spatial isolation of the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools, which allowed spontaneous hybridization, thus increasing of the possibility of novel genotypes and phenotypes. This knowledge that is associated to the genetic resources that have been conserved ex situ and in

  18. Ozone impact on vegetation: phenolic metabolism modification and oxidative alteration of Rubisco in Phaseolus vulgaris L; Impact de l'ozone sur le vegetal: modification du metabolisme phenolique et alteration de la Rubisco chez Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, M.

    2002-04-15

    In order to characterize and quantify, in semi-natural situation, the incidence of atmospheric pollution on some physiological and metabolic functions in plants, the aim of our work was to identify sub-cellular impact markers, in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), able to characterize a chronic and realistic ozone pollution climate. Two criteria were chosen: the foliar phenolic metabolism and the Rubisco, the key enzyme of photosynthesis. Using Open Top Chambers system, we demonstrated that, according to concentration, exposure kinetic and leaf type, ozone could induce amount variations of some constitutive soluble phenolic and the synthesis of new phenolic (iso-flavonoids). In some cases, these disturbances were observed jointly with foliar injuries and/or biomass reduction. Concurrently, this chronic and moderate ozone exposure could also induce carbonyl formation in amino acid residues constitutive of Rubisco small subunit (Rubisco-SSU) and a reduction in the amount of the native Rubisco. The amount of a constitutive kaempferol glucuronide and the ozone-induced oxidative alteration of Rubisco-SSU were selected and tested for the construction of dose-response relationships. Whatever the marker, the linear model was able to describe the relation. For the phenolic response, several exposure indexes were tested. According to their mode of calculation, these exposure forms emphasize more or less the contribution of high ozone concentrations. If, for Rubisco oxidation, the use of the exposure index AOT40 seems relevant, in the case of the phenolic marker, the choice of the right index is leaf type dependant. (author)

  19. Biologia e tabela de vida de Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae sobre folhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris Biology and life table of Tetranychus desertorum (Acari: Tetranychidae on leaves of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rivero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects and life table of the red spider mite, Tetranychus desertorum Banks, 1900, were studied on leaf discs of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus cultivar "Tacarigua" under laboratory conditions (28 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12:12h. Our results showed that total developmental time was 6.8 days for females, with partial duration of immature stages corresponding to 3.8, 1.4, 1.0 and 0.7 for egg, larva, protonymph and deutonymph, respectively. Preoviposition, oviposition and postoviposition periods were 1.1, 8.4 and 1.3 days, respectively; and the higher mean fecundity (6.93 eggs/female/day was observed on day 4. Female mean longevity was 10 days. The life table parameters recorded were: net reproduction rate (Ro = 41.10 individuals; generation time (T = 11.15 days; intrinsic natural growth (r m = 0.144 individuals/female/day, and finite natural increase rate (λ = 1.155 individuals/female. Our findings could be a basis for further studies devoted to determine damage and control strategies for T. desertorum on kidney bean crops.

  20. Mass spectrometry-based phytochemical screening for hypoglycemic activity of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Raffaella; Bianco, Giuliana; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Kopplin, Philippe-Schmitt; Bosco, Federica; Vignola, Lisiana; Uhl, Jenny; Lucio, Marianna; Milella, Luigi

    2018-03-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of antidiabetic activities of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), including 21 ecotypes protected by the European Union with the mark PGI (i.e., Protected Geographical Indication), and cultivated in Basilicata (southern Italy). For this purpose, α-glucosidase and α-amylase assays were assessed; among all bean ecotypes, the tight green seed colour of Verdolino extracts exhibited the highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC 50 =1.1±0.1μg/ml and IC 50 =19.3±1.1μg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical compound screening of all Fagioli di Sarconi beans performed by flow injection-electrospray ionization-ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (uHRMS) and based on the calculation of elemental formulas from accurate m/z values, was helpful to annotate specific compounds, such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids, which are most likely responsible for their biological activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Starch and sucrose synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris as affected by light, CO2, and abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.; Berry, J.A.; Raschke, K.

    1985-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. leaves were subjected to various light, CO 2 , and O 2 levels and abscisic acid, then given a 10 minute pulse of 14 CO 2 followed by a 5 minute chase with unlabeled CO 2 . After the chase period, very little label remained in the ionic fractions except at low CO 2 partial pressure. Most label was found in the neutral, alcohol soluble fraction or in the insoluble fraction digestable by amyloglucosidase. Sucrose formation was linearly related to assimilation rate. Starch formation increased linearly with assimilation rate, but did not occur if the assimilation rate was below 4 micromoles per square meter per second. Neither abscisic acid, nor high CO 2 in combination with low O 2 caused significant perturbations of the sucrose/starch formation ratio. These studies indicate that the pathways for starch and sucrose synthesis both are controlled by the rate of net CO 2 assimilation, with sucrose the preferred product at very low assimilation rates

  2. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris Have Characteristics in Common with Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates from Mainland Spain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote. PMID:19218416

  3. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote.

  4. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  5. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (palcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification, cDNA Cloning, and Developmental Expression of the Nodule-Specific Uricase from Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Federico; Campos, Francisco; Padilla, Jaime; Bonneville, Jean-Marc; Enríquez, Consuelo; Caput, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Nodule-specific uricase (uricase II) from Phaseolus vulgaris L. was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods. Purification data indicated that uricase II is approximately 2% of the total soluble protein from mature nodules. Specific antiserum was raised and used to determine the developmental expression and for immunoselection of polysomes. Uricase II was antigenically detected early in nodule development, 2 to 3 days before nitrogen fixation. Uricase-encoding cDNA clones were isolated by hybridizing a nodule-specific pUC9 cDNA library with labeled mRNA from immunoselected polysomes and a 35,000 molecular weight uricase II-encoding cDNA from soybean. An homologous clone (pNF-UR07) was used to assess the expression pattern of the specific transcript during development. Northern-blot analysis indicated that uricase II mRNA is exclusively expressed in nodule tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665575

  7. Les hybridations interspecifiques dans le genre Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La réussite de l'introgression de caractères utiles chez le haricot commun P. vulgaris à partir des deux espèces P. coccineus et P. polyanthus dépend en partie des génotypes utilisés. Ce travail vise à identifier des génotypes de Phaseolus compatibles lors des hybridations interspécifiques et à identifier les hybrides issus ...

  8. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  9. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-05-09

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed.

  10. CINÉTICA DE FEIJÃO PRETO (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, L. EM SECADOR DE BANDEJA

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    Deyzi Santos Gouveia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propôs estudar a cinética de feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris, l. em secador de bandeja a diferentes temperaturas do ar e posterior ajuste dos dados experimentais, obtidos com os diferentes modelos matemáticos ( Fick, Page e Cavalcante Mata. O teor de umidade inicial das sementes foi determinado pelo método padrão da estufa, 105 ± 3 °C, durante 72 h, com três repetições, de acordo com as regras do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (1985. Os tratamentos de secagem foram realizados em cinco níveis de temperaturas (40, 50, 60 ,70 e 80 ºC. Para cada tratamento de secagem foram utilizados em torno de 60 g de feijão por repetição. Para este fim utilizou-se um desidratador de frutas, Polidryer PD-25. O ar foi aquecido por meio de gás de cozinha, enquanto a temperatura foi controlada com o auxílio de um termopar, conectado ao secador. Os resultados mostraram que as equações propostas por Cavalcanti Mata e Page foram as que melhor representaram os dados experimentais, quando comparada com a equação de Fick utilizando um termo da série.

  11. Toxigenic fungi in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes black and color cultivated in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes preto e cores cultivado no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Luzia Freitas Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic fungi were studied in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of Classes black and color, cultivated in different regions of the State of Santa Catarina, south region of Brazil. The mean counts of filamentous fungi were 2.8 x 103 and 6.7 x 103 CFU/g for beans Classes black and color, respectively. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Phoma spp. were the most frequent genera isolated, followed by Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. and Dreschelera spp. Among beans Class black, 24.6% of the Aspergillus strains produced mycotoxins: 13.1% produced aflatoxins (AFs; 11.5% produced ochratoxin A (OTA and 28.9% of Penicillium produced citrinin (CTR. On the other hand, 22.1% of Aspergillus strains isolated from beans Class color produced mycotoxins (16.7% produced AFs and 5.4% produced OTA, while Penicillium genera had 35.4% of CTR producing strains. The toxigenic species were A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and P. citrinum Thom.Foram estudados fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., classes preto e cores, cultivados em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, região Sul do Brasil. A média total de fungos filamentosos foi de 2,8x10³ e 6,7x10³ UFC/g para feijão classe preto e cores, respectivamente. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Phoma spp. foram os gêneros mais frequentes isolados, seguidos por Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. e Dreschelera spp. No feijão classe preto, 24,6% das cepas de Aspergillus isolados eram toxigenicas: 13.1% eram produtoras de aflatoxinas (AFs e 11,5% de ocratoxina A (OTA; e 28,9% de Penicillium produziram citrinina (CTR. Por outro lado, 22,1% de cepas de Aspergillus isolados do feijão classe cores, produziram micotoxinas (16,7% produziram AF e 5,4% produziram OTA, já do g

  12. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes under Late Season Water Deficit Conditions

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    somayyeh soheili movahhed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought or water deficit stress is the most important environmental factor which has severe negative impacts on crop yields, especially when the water stress occurs in the flowering stage. Iran is located in arid and semi-arid areas, therefore, attention to the effects of water deficit stress in different stages of plants growth seems necessary. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important legumes that has a major contribution to human diet and provides an important part of the human protein. According to studies, cultivation areas of legumes in Iran are about 97300 hectares and its total production is about 208350 tons of grain. Bean is a fast-growing plant (Tran and Singh, 2002, thus soil water must be sufficiently available to ensure its desirable growth and yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of drought stress on yield and yield components of some pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in Zanjan province. Materials and methods An experiment was conducted as spilt plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications in Zanjan university research farm. Irrigation levels (control and drought stress and genotypes (Local khomein, Sadri, Ks21193 and Ks21189 were set in the main and subplot, respectively. Water deficit stress was applied during flowering stage (50% of the plants were at anthesis. Sampling was performed to measure yield and yield components at the end of the growth period and final maturity. In this experiment number of pod per Plant, numberof grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Results and Discussion In this experiment it was observed that drought stress, genotype and interact irrigation×genotyps were significantly for all traits except biological yield. Drought stress reduced number of pod perplant, number of grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and Harvest Index. Results

  13. Abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin sequence as a unique solution to control the leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A S A; Massoud, M A; Abdel-Megeed, A A M; Hamid, N A; Mourad, A K K; Barakat, A S T

    2007-01-01

    Field trails were conducted to determine the performance of three different sequences as a unique solution for the control of the leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during the two successive seasons of 2004 and 2005. Furthermore, during the evaluation period, the side effect against the ectoparasite Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was put into consideration. Meanwhile, the comparative evaluation of the pesticides alone showed that abamectin and azadirachtin were highly effective against Liriomyza trifolii, while carbosulfan, pymetrozine and thiamethoxam provided to be of a moderate effect. Moreover, carbosulfan showed harmful effect to the larvae of the ectoparasite Diglyphus isaea (Walker), while abamectin and azadirachtin gave a moderate effect. Thiamethoxam and the the detergent (Masrol 410) had slight effect in this respect. The highly effective sequence among the sequences was abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin, against Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), with slight harmful effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). However the sequence of azadirachtin, pymetrozine and abamectin had a moderate effect on Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and exhibited a slight toxic effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). In contrast, the sequence of carbosulfan, thiamethoxam and pymetrozine was the least effective and represented a slight effect on Diglyphus isaea (Walker). From this study, it was concluded that abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin sequence has proved to be a unique solution for the control of the leaf miner Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt.

  14. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagoez, Vahram; Han, Susan S.; Manning, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O 3 -sensitive)/'R123' (O 3 -tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O 3 -sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O 3 -tolerant) were used to study the effects of O 3 on stomatal conductance (g s ), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O 3 and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O 3 . Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O 3 sensitivity and g s : while 'S156' had higher g s rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G s rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O 3 -tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O 3 in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O 3 -sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O 3 concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O 3 concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O 3 eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O 3 and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This appeared to be more evident in O 3 -sensitive cultivars. - O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal development and the presence of different control mechanisms on each leaf surface is confirmed

  15. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  16. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris; Respostas fisiologicas, morfologicas e comportamentais de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) associadas ao consumo de diferentes variedades de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteleto, Patricia B. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Genetica e Bioquimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao], e-mail: patriciamarteleto@gmail.com; Lomonaco, Cecilia [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia], e-mail: lomonaco@ufu.br; Kerr, Warwick E. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: kerr@ufu.br

    2009-03-15

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  17. Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  18. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations.

  19. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto; Faoro, Franco; Iriti, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O 3 exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H 2 O 2 accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O 3 m -2 . Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, ΔF/F m ' ). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  20. Pathogenic variability of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Ecuadorian Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodríguez-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is one of the most economically important diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivation in Ecuador. The best control alternative is the use of resistant varieties. C. lindemuthianum presents great pathogenic variability, which hinders the development of varieties with a lasting resistance, therefore, the knowledge of the presence and distribution of the physiological races of the pathogen and the identification of resistance genes are key to developing varieties with broad and lasting resistance. The objective of this research was to determine the pathogenic variability of C. lindemuthianum and to evaluate the resistance of Ecuadorian bean germplasm. The research was carried out between 2013 and 2014. Seventeen isolates of C. lindemuthianum from northern central Ecuador were characterized by the inoculation of a group of twelve standard differential bean varieties. Among the analyzed samples, thirteen races were identified; five of those races had not been previously reported in the country. The differential G2333 (Co-42, Co-52 and Co-7 presented resistance to every characterized races in Ecuador. In addition, twenty - one improved varieties and elite bean lines were evaluated with sixteen of the seventeen isolates, three genotypes were identified (TB2, TB3 and INIAP 485 Urcuquí with resistance to the mentioned isolates, which can be used as sources of resistance to Anthracnose. The identified sources of resistance in this study will allow to plan the development of bean varieties with broad and durable resistance to C. lindemuthianum.

  1. Investigation of 35S NE-78241 mobility in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enisz, J.; Orsos, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mobility of 35 S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus 35 S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection. (author)

  2. Steady-state room temperature fluorescence and CO/sub 2/ assimilation rates in intact leaves. [Phaseolus vulgaris; Xanthium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, T D

    1985-01-01

    Steady-state room temperature variable fluorescence from leaves was measured as a function of CO/sub 2/ pressure in Xanthium strumarium L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Measurements were made in a range of light intensities, at normal and low O/sub 2/ partial pressure and over a range of temperatures. At low CO/sub 2/ pressure fluorescence increased with increasing CO/sub 2/. At higher CO/sub 2/ pressure fluorescence usually decreased with increasing CO/sub 2/ but occasionally increased slightly. The transition CO/sub 2/ pressure between the responses could be changed by changing light, O/sub 2/ pressure, or temperature. This breakpoint in the fluorescence-CO/sub 2/ curve was a reliable indicator of the transition between ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) saturated assimilation and RuBP regeneration limited assimilation. The fluorescence signal was not a reliable indicator of O/sub 2/-insensitive assimilation in these C/sub 3/ species. 21 references, 8 figures.

  3. Sonchus oleraceus Residue Improves Nutritive and Health-Promoting Value of Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.): A Metabolic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud O; Saleh, Ahmed M; AbdElgawad, Hamada

    2018-03-07

    This study was conducted to evaluate the use of the phenolic-rich Sonchus oleraceus residue as an environmentally safe approach to induce the nutritive and health-promoting values of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bronco). S. oleraceus shoot residue, at rates of 150 and 300 g m -2 , has improved soil fertility via accumulation of soil macronutrients, organic matter, organic carbon, and total phenolics. The growth and yield of bean were significantly increased. Moreover, chemical composition of the treated seeds was significantly altered, whereas higher levels of total antioxidant capacity, proteins, carbohydrates, and most of the individual phenolic acids, flavonoids, vitamins, essential amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids were recorded. Interestingly, a concentration dependent effect was also observed, for instance, a lower saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acid ratio was only observed in the case of the lower residue rate. These findings recommend the use of S. oleraceus in organic farming of bean to enhance the health benefits of the produced seeds.

  4. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P.

    2012-01-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg 2+ .

  5. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  6. Nodulation of leguminous plants as affected by root secretions and red light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, T.A.

    1964-01-01

    Nodulation of bean plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in water culture was poor during hot sunny weather in the greenhouse. It did not improve when indoleacetic acid, kinetin, gibberellic acid, purines and pyrimidines, yeast and soil extract were added. Nodulation was enhanced by adding used

  7. Control of ascorbic acid synthesis and accumulation and glutathione by the incident light red/far red ratio in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G; Tambussi, Eduardo A; Diego, Fanello; Foyer, Christine H

    2009-01-05

    The effects of red/far red (R/FR) ratios on leaf ascorbate (AA) and glutathione (GSH) accumulation were examined in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Growth under low R/FR ratios resulted in a "shade" phenotype and much lower leaf AA and GSH contents than high (R/FR) ratios. Photosynthesis rates were unaffected by changes in the R/FR ratio but leaf respiration rates, pyridine nucleotide pools and antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased under the low R/FR regime. The GSH pool changed slowly in response to altered R/FR ratios but leaf ascorbate acclimated over a single photoperiod. We conclude that light quality signals, particularly R/FR ratios, are important regulators of antioxidant synthesis and accumulation. These acclimatory changes are an early response to changing light environment.

  8. The plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocomo, O.J.; Sharp, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Progress in the field of plant tissue culture at the Plant Biochemistry Sector, Centro de Energia na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil, pertains to the simplification of development in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' by dividing the organism into its component organs, tissues, and cells and the maintenance of these components on defined culture media 'in vitro'. This achievement has set the stage for probing the basis for the stability of the differentiated states and/or the reentry of mature differentiated cells into the mitotic cell cycle and their subsequent redifferentiation. Data from such studies at the cytological and biochemical level have been invaluable in the elucidation of the control mechanisms responsible for expression of the cellular phenotype. Unlimited possibilities exist for the application of tissue culture in the vegetative propagation of 'Phaseolus' and other important cultivars in providing genocopies or a large scale and/or readily obtaining plantlets from haploid cell lines or from protoplast (wall-less cells) hybridization products following genetic manipulation. These tools are being applied in this laboratory for the development and selection of high protein synthesizing 'Phaseolus' cultivars

  9. Alleviation of adverse impact of salt in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allah, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance. (author)

  10. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  13. The fate of urea applied to tropical bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervellini, A.; Libardi, P.L.; Victoria, R.L.; Reichardt, K.

    The fate of nitrogen is studied when it is applied to three bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) crops variety 'carioca' grown on a site of 'Terra Roxa Estruturada' (Paleudalf) soil. Urea labeled with three different 15 N enrichment percentages was used in order to estimate crop recovery of N (and its utilization efficiency), residual effects of N from one crop to another, distribution of N in the soil profile after cropping and leaching losses of N. The superphosphate and the rockphosphate 'Araxa' were also used. Grain yield was not significantly different between the phosphorus treatments, indicating that both P sources behaved similarly. Differences in fertilizer 15 N enrichment did not affect calculated amounts of nitrogen derived from fertilizer and N utilization efficiency (NUE), as expected. The first crop recovered on the average 31,2% of the N from the applied urea. The second crop recovered 6,2% N from the fertilizer applied to the first crop. The third crop recovered only 1,4%. Taking in account the NUE for the three crops, they recovered 44,1% of the N applied to the first crop. The partition of nitrogen applied to the first crop in four components (crop N removal; soil mineral N (NO 3 + NH 4 ); soil organic N and leaching N) is analysed. Due to the low N utilization efficiency of the crop, much of N remains in the soil profile, being potentially available for leaching and so contributing for fertilizer pollution of ground water. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Effect of polyacetylenic acids from Prunella vulgaris on various plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, M-Y; Choi, G J; Choi, Y H; Jang, K S; Park, M S; Cha, B; Kim, J-C

    2010-11-01

    This study is aiming at characterizing antifungal substances from the methanol extract of Prunella vulgaris and at investigating those substances' antifungal and antioomycete activities against various plant pathogens. Two polyacetylenic acids were isolated from P. vulgaris as active principles and identified as octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid and trans-octadec-13-ene-9,11-diynoic acid. These two compounds inhibited the growth of Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora infestans, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani, and Phytophthora capsici. In addition, these two compounds and the wettable powder-type formulation of an n-hexane fraction of P. vulgaris significantly suppressed the development of rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, and red pepper anthracnose. These data show that the extract of P. vulgaris and two polyacetylenic acids possess antifungal and antioomycete activities against a broad spectrum of tested plant pathogens. This is the first report on the occurrence of octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid and trans-octadec-13-ene-9,11-diynoic acid in P. vulgaris and their efficacy against plant diseases. The crude extract containing the two polyacetylenic acids can be used as a natural fungicide for the control of various plant diseases. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marteleto, Patricia B.; Lomonaco, Cecilia; Kerr, Warwick E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  16. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Marzuoli, Riccardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Fondazione Lombardia per l' Ambiente, piazza Diaz 9, 20123 Milano (Italy); Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Lab., DISAT, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Faoro, Franco [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Iriti, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.iriti@unimi.i [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O{sub 3} exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O{sub 3} m{sup -2}. Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, DELTAF/F{sub m}{sup '}). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  17. Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jack H; Wan, Chung T; Ng, Tzi B

    2010-01-15

    A haemagglutinin was purified from Japanese Hokkaido red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean) with a procedure that included three chromatographic media. Haemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on DEAE cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The pure haemagglutinin was a homodimer and each subunit was around 30 kDa in molecular mass. The haemagglutinating activity of this agglutinin could not be inhibited by a variety of simple sugars at 200 mmol L(-1) concentration including alpha-L-fucose, D(+)-galactose, D(+)-glucose, D(+)-glucosamine, D(-)galactosamine, galacturonic acid, (+)-lactose, D(+)-melibose, L(-)-mannose, D(+)-mannose, D-mannosamine, D(+)-raffinose, L-rhamnose, (+)-xylose and galacturonic acid. The haemagglutinating activity was fully retained at pH 4-11 and at 0-80 degrees C, but was completely lost at extreme pH values (0-2 and 13-14) and at very high temperatures (90 degrees C and 100 degrees C). The haemagglutinin exhibited a weak mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, a stronger anti-proliferative activity than Con A toward HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells and inhibited >80% of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity at 3.3 micromol L(-1). It was devoid of anti-fungal activity. Hokkaido red bean haemagglutinin possesses a potent anti-proliferative effect on HepG2 cells. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Efeito da irrigação com água salina em um solo cultivado com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of irrigation water salinity in a soilcultivated with french beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sal, da água de irrigação, na salinização de um Latossolo Roxo distrófico, onde cultivou-se o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação no Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, em Lavras, MG, com o propósito de evitar a interferência das precipitações pluviométricas. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis de salinidade da água (condutividade elétrica de 0,1; 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 com seis repetições. A condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado do solo foi medida no início do experimento, no final da fase vegetativa e após a colheita. Constatou-se uma diminuição da salinidade do solo para o tratamento 0,1 dS m-1, nas diferentes datas de análise do extrato. Para os demais tratamentos, houve um aumento significativo na salinidade: 116,98%, 195,10%, 565,84% e 955,17% para os níveis 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1, respectivamente. Houve uma queda acentuada de produção com níveis crescentes de salinidade do solo. O aumento da salinidade da água promoveu um acréscimo linear na condutividade elétrica do solo e no potencial osmótico.The objective this study was to evaluate the different irrigation water salt concentrations effects in the salinization of a "Dystrophic Dusky Red Latossol", cultivated with (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the Engineering Department at Federal University of Lavras, of Lavras - MG to avoid the interference of the precipitations. The treatments consisted of five level of water salt concentration (electric conductivity of 0.10; 1.0; 2.5; 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1 with six replications. The electric conductivity of the soil saturation extract was measured at the beginning of the experiment, at the end of the vegetative phase and after the crop harvest. A decrease of soil

  19. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  20. Yields and quality of Phaseolus bean cultivars under farmers’ conditions in eastern and southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Høgh; Kamalongo, Donwell; Ngwira, Amos

    2014-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a dominant grain legume in eastern and southern Africa, where it constitutes a major source of protein and microminerals in peoples’ diet. The current studies aimed at determining how initially promising genotypes of bean responded in terms of yield and grain...

  1. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos Filho, Julio

    1971-01-01

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses ( 60 Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e

  2. Effect of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).; Efeitos de radiacoes gama do {sup 60}Co na conservacao da semente e na produtividade do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos Filho, Julio

    1971-07-01

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses ({sup 60}Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment

  3. Project Phaseolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out through the Phaseolus Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA) Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. It comprises the following subject s: plant breeding; nitrogen fixation; tissue cultures; proteins; photosynthetic efficiency; soil-plant interactions; electron microscopy of the golden mosaic virus; pest control; production of 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate, and determination of elements in the beans plant. (M.A.) [pt

  4. An Evaluation of the Environmental Fate and Behavior of Munitions Material (TNT, RDX) in Soil and Plant Systems. Environmental Fate and Behavior of RDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    2.2 2.2 SOIL CHARACTERIZATION AND SAMPLING ............................................. 2.7 2.3 PLANT CULTIVATION ...cycle. 2.3 Plant Cultivation and Samoling The chemical fate of RDX in plants was evaluated using bush beans K (Phaseolus vulgaris), wheat (Triticum...particularly in light of the high tissue concentrations observed, may be important from the standpoint of food-chain transfer and ecotoxicology

  5. Análise da associação e do secretoma da interação entre Trichoderma spp. de solo do Cerrado com feijoeiro comum, Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Francilene Lopes da

    2014-01-01

    Algumas espécies de Trichoderma quando em íntima associação com plantas hospedeiras podem desencadear sua resposta de defesa e, desta forma, induzir resistência contra subsequentes infecções fúngicas. No presente trabalho foi analisado a expressão dos genes codificadores de proteínas de defesa (Glu, Chit 1, LOX, PER e PAL) em feijoeiro comum, Phaseolus vulgaris, em resposta à asssociação com os isolados das espécies T. asperellum (468/02) e T. harzianum (475/2 e 303/2), após 24, 48 e 72 horas...

  6. Mise au point d'une technique de culture in vitro d'embryons immatures de Phaseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Schmit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vitro culture technique for immature Phaseolus embryos. In the interspecific crosses Phaseolus polyanthus (or P. coccineus (i? x P. vulgaris, the hybrid embryos abort very early. Therefore, it is essentiel to develop an in vitro culture technique that allows the rescue of beau embryos at globular or early heart-shaped stages. After several trials conceming the salts composition, the sugar rate and the amino acid concentration of différent in vitro culture media, a technique has been developed for heart-shaped Phaseolus embryos. This technique consists of two stages. In a first step, embryos are cultivated under darkness until their germination on a medium containing the salts of Gamborg et al. (1968, 400 mg . 1` (5mM - 1 -' NHNO,, 1 mg . 1-' thiamine HCI, 5 mg . l` nicotinic acid, 0.5 mg - l` pyridoxine, 1,000 mg . l` -glutamine, 1,000 mg . l` casein hydrolysate, 100 mg . l` myo-inositol, 0.028 mg . P N6-benzyladenine, 30 g . l` sucrase, and 8 g -1-' DIFCO agar. After germination, the embryos are cultivated under light on a second medium that does not contain any NHNO, complément and is poorer in amino acids (100 mg • 1-' L-glutamine. Developed with six deys old heart-shaped embryos of the P. vulgaris Bico de Ouro (NI 637 variety, this technique has proved its efficiency with other P. vulgaris and P. polyanthus génotypes. It allows an average régénération rate of 30% from the total number of cultivated embryos.

  7. Plant growth and laboratory atmosphere. [Phaseolus multiflorus Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, O

    1903-01-01

    The author observed that Phaseolus seedlings grown under glass bell jars which were closed off by water were two or three times as long as those seedlings which were grown under jars without the water closure. It was suspected that coal gas or other impurities were causing these results. Thus, experiments were performed to determine if indeed coal gas was affecting plant growth. Results indicated that coal gas has an inhibiting effect on the growth and length of the seedlings, but it also promotes the growth in thickness. Shortening and thickening was proportional to the concentration of the coal gas and the time of exposure. Mercury vapors were found to produce similar differences in height and thickness of seedlings as coal gas, but they are at the same time lethal to the plants.

  8. The Phytotoxicity of Designated Pollutants on Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Only seeds collected from those flowers exposed during pollin 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...acid exposure during pollination lowered the germination rate of mature seeds. Plant injury was chiefly a function of acid concentration, but amount...TESTS Species Name Variety Barley Hordeum vulgare L. CM67 Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pinto Citrus Citrus limon (L.) Lupe Lemon Lettuce Lactuca sativa

  9. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  10. Effects of putrescine, kinetin and IAA on protein synthesis in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' coleoptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocomo, O J; Lee, T S.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of etiolated 'Phaseolus vulgaris' coleoptiles shows a converse flux between soluble protein and reducing sugar. The rate of incorporation of radioactive arginine into protein was higher than that of radioactive leucine. Radioactive arginine incorporation into protein was linear up to 120 min and then started to decline. The rate of incorporation of radioactive leucine was increased by preincubation of the tissue in the incubation medium. Roots were found to contain more soluble protein and much less reducing sugar than the coleoptile. The optimum pH value for protein synthesis in coleoptile sections was found to be 6 for control tissues and 4 for those treated with 10-/sup 3/M IAA. This high concentration of IAA was also found to inhibit soluble protein synthesis, the incorporation rate of radioactive arginine and leucine into protein fraction, the secretion of hydrogen ion into the incubation medium and elongation of the bean segment. Kinetin at 2x10/sup -4/M and putrescine at 5mM both decreased the rate of /sup 14/C-arginine incorporation into soluble protein, but for /sup 14/C-leucine, this rate of incorporation was found to be increased after 90 min incubation with a preincubation of 30 min. In general, the change pattern of the soluble protein content, the reducing sugar level and the incorporation rate of radioactive arginine and leucine into protein in the kinetin and putrescine treated tissues were about the same although tissues that incubated with kinetin always contain more soluble protein and less reducing sugar than that of incubated with putrescine.

  11. Mechanistic insight into softening of Canadian wonder common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigwedere, Claire Maria; Olaoye, Taye Foyeke; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Pallares Pallares, Andrea; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-04-01

    The relative contributions of cotyledons and seed coats towards hardening of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were investigated and the rate-limiting process which controls bean softening during cooking was determined. Fresh or aged whole beans and cotyledons were soaked and cooked in demineralised water or 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution, and texture evolution, microstructure changes and thermal properties were studied. Fresh and aged whole beans cooked in demineralised water had significantly different softening rate constants and so did fresh and aged cotyledons. The comparable softening rate constants of aged whole beans and cotyledons indicated an insignificant role of the seed coat in hardening during storage. All samples cooked faster in 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution. Disintegration of cooked tissues followed by microscopic examination revealed a transition from cell breakage through a phase of cell breakage and separation to complete cell separation with increased cooking time wherefore texture decayed. Therefore, progressive solubilization of pectin in the middle lamella greatly promoted texture decay. While residual birefringence even after substantial cooking time suggested some molecular order of the starch, calorimetric analyses revealed complete starch gelatinisation before complete cell separation occurred. This implies an insignificant role of starch in texture decay during cooking but its hindered uncoiling into a viscous gel after gelatinisation due to the restricting cell wall could promote its retrogradation. Therefore, we suggest that the rate-determining process in bean softening relates to cell wall/middle lamella changes influencing pectin solubilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars to Foliar Applications of Magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiencies have been shown to be particularly dangerous to short cycled crops, both on sandy and clay soils. Such deficiencies may be corrected by foliar fertilisations, but in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no experimental data may be found to support this hypothesis. Therefore this paper was aimed at studying the effect of foliar Mg-applications (56, 112 and 224 g ha-1 in single application at flowering or splitted half dose at 4-leaf stage and half at flowering alone and with Zn (200 g ha-1 on yield and quality of two French bean genotypes (Bronco, Cadillac. Foliar Mg-applications significantly increased pod yield and, considering the highest rate with respect to the untreated, such an increase was 78% and 32% for Bronco and Cadillac, respectively. Split applications were also more effective, with yield increases of 109% and 50% for the two genotypes. Concerning quality, foliar Mg applications showed a significant effect particularly on sugars, calcium, phosphate, sulphate and Mg contents in pods. On the other hand, a significant effect on the accumulation of nitrates was noted, especially with split applications (144% increase vs. unfertilised and, in some cases, an antagonistic effect on K content (10-20% decrease on average. Foliar Mg fertilisation of French bean seemed to be a promising practice with reference to human health and nutrition, tough some care is needed to avoid the accumulation of nitrates in pods. Split applications seemed to be more effective, while the addition of Zn to the fertiliser mix did not give any relevant effect.

  13. Efecto de las condiciones de secado sobre el endurecimiento de los granos de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris pretratados con vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Mujica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El endurecimiento de los granos de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris generado por el almacenamiento en condiciones de alta temperatura y humedad relativa representa una limitante importante para su consumo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de un tratamiento con vapor y luego secado a los granos de P. vulgaris recién cosechados en la prevención de su endurecimiento. Inicialmente, se construyeron las curvas de secado a 40; 47,5 y 55 ºC. Seguidamente, los granos se trataron con vapor por 8 min 20 s y se sometieron a un proceso de secado, bajo un diseño central compuesto cuyos factores fueron la temperatura del aire (40 y 55 ºC y el tiempo de secado (4 y 8 h. La muestra secada de cada tratamiento se dividió en 3 lotes, el primero se analizó de inmediato y los otros se almacenaron por 5 semanas bajo 2 condiciones distintas 5 ºC/34 % HR y 37 ºC/75 % HR. Las determinaciones realizadas fueron humedad, capacidad de imbibición, tiempo de cocción y actividad de la peroxidasa soluble. El tiempo de secado fue de 6,5; 5 y 2,5 h a 40; 47,5 y 55 ºC, respectivamente, para alcanzar una humedad de 13 % (b.s.. El coeficiente de difusión resultó igual a 3,40x10-9; 3,52x10-9 y 3,87x10-9 m2/s, a 40, 47,5 y 55 ºC, respectivamente. El valor de la energía de activación fue de 7,33 kJ/mol. La aplicación de vapor y posterior secado de los granos no previno su endurecimiento, y este no dependió de la actividad de la peroxidasa soluble. Por lo que se puede inferir que los compuestos fenólicos y la enzima peroxidasa no son los únicos implicados en el mecanismo de endurecimiento de los granos de P. vulgaris.

  14. The Effects of Designated Pollutants on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    Persea americana Mill. Haas and Bacon Barley Hordeum vulgare L. CM 67 Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pinto, U.I. III Briza Briza maxima L. Ornamental...Tagetes patula L. French dwarf double goldie Marigold Tagetes erecta L. American ,Senator Dirksen Petunia Petunia hybrida Vilm. White cascade Radish...Probit analysis of five plant species: citrus seedlings, lemon, orange,, grape, French marigold, American marigold. Probit scale is the probability that a

  15. Iron and ferritin accumulate in separate cellular locations in Phaseolus seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    2010-01-01

    and will assist in the production of staples with increased bioavailable iron. Results Here we reveal the distribution of iron in seeds of three Phaseolus species including thirteen genotypes of P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, and P. lunatus. We showed that high concentrations of iron accumulate in cells surrounding...... the provascular tissue of P. vulgaris and P. coccineus seeds. Using the Perls' Prussian blue method, we were able to detect iron in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells, cells near the epidermis, and cells surrounding the provascular tissue. In contrast, the protein ferritin that has been suggested as the major iron...... to P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, we did not observe iron accumulation in the cells surrounding the provascular tissues of P. lunatus cotyledons. A novel iron-rich genotype, NUA35, with a high concentration of iron both in the seed coat and cotyledons was bred from a cross between an Andean...

  16. Effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and crop productivity--beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, S; Balamurugan, M; Parthasarathi, K; Gunasekaran, G; Ranganathan, L S

    2009-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers-NPK, on the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils--clay loam soil (CLS) and sandy loam soil (SLS) and on the growth, yield and nutrient content of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris. Results showed that the application of vermicompost @ 5 tonnes ha(-1) had enhanced significantly the pore space (1.09 and 1.02 times), water holding capacity (1.1 and 1.3 times), cation exchange capacity (1.2 and 1.2 times). It reduced particles (1.2 and 1.2 times), and bulk density (1.2 and 1.2 times), pH (1 and 1.02 times) and electrical conductivity (1.4 and 1.2 times) and increased organic carbon (37 and 47 times), micro (Ca 3.07 and 1.9 times, Mg 1.6 and 1.6 times, Na 2.4 and 3.8 times, Fe 7 and 7.6 times, Mn 8.2 and 10.6 times, Zn 50 and 52 times and Cu 14 and 22 times) and macro (N 1.6 and 1.7 times, P 1.5 and 1.7 times, K 1.5 and 1.4 times) nutrients and microbial activity (1.4 and 1.5 times) in both soil types, particularly more in CLS. The growth, yield (1.6 times) and quality (protein (1.05 times) and sugar (1.01 times) content in seed) of bean were enhanced in CLS than SLS. On the other hand, the application of inorganic fertilizers @ 20:80:40 kg ha(-1) has resulted in reduced porosity (1.03 and 1.01 times), organic carbon (1.04 and 9.5 times) and microbial activity (1.02 and 1.03 times) in both soil types.

  17. Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc. on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

  18. In silico comparison of genomic regions containing genes coding for enzymes and transcription factors for the phenylpropanoid pathway in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Glycine max L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmilla eReinprecht

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes contain a variety of phytochemicals derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway that have important effects on human health as well as seed coat color, plant disease resistance and nodulation. However, the information about the genes involved in this important pathway is fragmentary in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The objectives of this research were to isolate genes that function in and control the phenylpropanoid pathway in common bean, determine their genomic locations in silico in common bean and soybean, and analyze sequences of the 4CL gene family in two common bean genotypes. Sequences of phenylpropanoid pathway genes available for common bean or other plant species were aligned, and the conserved regions were used to design sequence-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the gene sequences along with common bean gene-based (g markers were BLASTed against the Glycine max v.1.0 genome and the P. vulgaris v.1.0 (Andean early release genome. In addition, gene sequences were BLASTed against the OAC Rex (Mesoamerican genome sequence assembly. In total, fragments of 46 structural and regulatory phenylpropanoid pathway genes were characterized in this way and placed in silico on common bean and soybean sequence maps. The maps contain over 250 common bean g and SSR (simple sequence repeat markers and identify the positions of more than 60 additional phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, plus the putative locations of seed coat color genes. The majority of cloned phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences were mapped to one location in the common bean genome but had two positions in soybean. The comparison of the genomic maps confirmed previous studies, which show that common bean and soybean share genomic regions, including those containing phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, with conserved synteny. Indels identified in the comparison of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean sequences might be used to develop

  19. myo-Inositol synthesis from [1-3H]glucose in Phaseolus vulgaris L. during early stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabeled D-[1- 3 H]glucose was fed by imbibition under sterile conditions to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. After 72 and 96 hours of feeding, the 3 H was located in uronic acid and pentose residues as well as hexose residues of cell wall polysaccharides in growing hypocotyl and root. Free myo-inositol present in cotyledons, hypocotyl, and root also contained 3 H, showing that de novo synthesis of myo-inositol from [1- 3 H]glucose did occur during the first 72 hours of germination. More than 90% of the labeled, free myo-inositol was present in the cotyledons. The 3 H percentage in trifluoroacetic acid-soluble arabinaose residues of cell wall polysaccharides from 72-hour-old bean hypocotyls was only half of their mole percentage. On the other hand, 3 H percentages in hexose residues were higher than their mole percentages. The results suggest that myo-inositol is synthesized from reserve sugars during the very early stages of germination, and that the newly synthesized myo-inositol, as well as that stored in cotyledons, can be used for the construction of new hypocotyl and root cell wall polysaccharides after conversion into uronic acids and pentoses via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway

  20. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Review of Recent Evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Hamid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Moradi Nafchi, Atefeh; Saberianpour, Shirin; Rafieian Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of teenagers and may continue to adulthood. There are about two million visits to physicians per year for teenagers and the direct cost of acne treatment in the US exceeds $1 billion per year. A wide variety of treatment regimens exist for acne vulgaris including benzoil peroxide, retinoids, isotretinoids, keratolytic soaps, alpha hydroxy acids, azelaic acid, salicilic acid as well as hormonal, anti-androgen or antiseborrheic treatments. However, none of these methods is free of side effects and their exact role in therapy is not clear. In this paper apart from presenting the possible causes of acne vulgaris and its available drugs, recently published papers about medicinal plants used in the treatment of acne vulgaris were reviewed. Consumption of alternative and complementary medicine, including medicinal plants, is increasing and is common amongst patients affected by acne and infectious skin diseases. Medicinal plants have a long history of use and have been shown to possess low side effects. These plants are a reliable source for preparation of new drugs. Many plants seem to have inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses in vitro. However, there are a few clinical evidences about the effectiveness and safety of these plants in the treatment of acne and other skin infections.

  1. Proanthocyanidin accumulation and transcriptional responses in the seed coat of cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with different susceptibility to postharvest darkening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixas Coutin, José A; Munholland, Seth; Silva, Anjali; Subedi, Sanjeena; Lukens, Lewis; Crosby, William L; Pauls, K Peter; Bozzo, Gale G

    2017-05-25

    Edible dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that darken during postharvest storage are graded lower and are less marketable than their non-darkened counterparts. Seed coat darkening in susceptible genotypes is dependent upon the availability of proanthocyanidins, and their subsequent oxidation to reactive quinones. Mature cranberry beans lacking this postharvest darkening trait tend to be proanthocyanidin-deficient, although the underlying molecular and biochemical determinants for this metabolic phenomenon are unknown. Seed coat proanthocyanidin levels increased with plant maturation in a darkening-susceptible cranberry bean recombinant inbred line (RIL), whereas these metabolites were absent in seeds of the non-darkening RIL plants. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to monitor changes in the seed coat transcriptome as a function of bean development, where transcript levels were measured as fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped. A total of 1336 genes were differentially expressed between darkening and non-darkening cranberry bean RILs. Structural and regulatory genes of the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated in seed coats of the darkening RIL. A principal component analysis determined that changes in transcript levels for two genes of unknown function and three proanthocyanidin biosynthesis genes, FLAVANONE 3-HYDROXYLASE 1, DIHYDROFLAVONOL 4-REDUCTASE 1 and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE 1 (PvANR1) were highly correlated with proanthocyanidin accumulation in seed coats of the darkening-susceptible cranberry bean RIL. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that in vitro activity of a recombinant PvANR1 was NADPH-dependent and assays containing cyanidin yielded epicatechin and catechin; high cyanidin substrate levels inhibited the formation of both of these products. Proanthocyanidin oxidation is a pre-requisite for postharvest-related seed coat darkening in dicotyledonous seeds. In model plant species, the accumulation of

  2. Morphological, proteomic and metabolomic insight into the effect of cerium dioxide nanoparticles to Phaseolus vulgaris L. under soil or foliar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hajar; Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Lucini, Luigi; Majd, Ahmad; Gholami, Mansour

    2018-03-01

    Chemically synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in industry and concern over their impact on the environment is rising. In this study, greenhouse grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were treated with CeO 2 NPs suspensions at 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000mgL -1 either aerially by spraying or via soil application. At 15days after treatment, plants were analyzed for Ce uptake, morphological and biochemical assays, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics and proteomics. The results from ICP-MS assays showed a dose dependent absorption, uptake and translocation of Ce through both roots and leaves; Ce content increased from 0.68 up to 1894mgkg -1 following spray application, while concentrations were three orders lower following soil application (0.59 to 2.19mgkg -1 ). Electrolyte leakage increased with NPs rate, from 25.2% to 70.3% and from 24.8% to 32.9% following spray and soil application, respectively. Spraying lowered stomatal density (from 337 to 113 per mm 2 ) and increased stomatal length (from 12.8 to 19.4μm), and altered photosynthesis and electron transport chain biochemical machinery. The increase in Ce content induced accumulation of osmolites (proline increased from 0.54 to 0.65mg/g under spray application), phytosiderophores (muconate and mugineate compounds showed increase fold-changes >16) and proteins involved in folding or turnover. NPs application induced membrane damage, as evidenced by the increase in membrane lipids degradates and by the increase in electrolyte leakage, and caused oxidative stress. Most of the responses were not linear but dose-dependent, whereas metabolic disruption is expected at the highest NPs dosage. Both proteomics and metabolomics highlighted a stronger effect of CeO 2 NPs spraying, as compared to soil application. High concentrations of NPs in the environment have been confirmed to pose toxicity concern towards plants, although important differences could be highlighted between

  3. Biological aspects of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) on Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), under laboratory conditions; Aspectos biologicos de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) em Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), sob condicoes de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Lisiane Taiatella; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare, E-mail: lisi@bio.ufpr.b, E-mail: stra@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva, E-mail: paulo@cpafrr.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Roraima, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Entomologia

    2003-12-15

    Zabrotes subfasciatus is a serious pest of common beans, P. vulgaris L.. In Brazil there are several studies dealing with resistance of bean genotypes to this insect, while other studies have emphasized the utilization of oils and powders from plants to repel their attack. In this paper, fecundity, fertility, pattern of oviposition, life cycle and longevity were evaluated for a Brazilian stock from the Goias State on P. vulgaris cv. Carioca, at 30 deg C and 70% R.H. The mean fecundity was 38 eggs per female and 73% of viability. Egg laying showed an aggregated pattern. Males and females lived an average of 13 and 9 days, respectively. The total life cycle lasted for about 28 days. (author)

  4. Effects of Fertilization on Uptake of 85Sr, 60Co and 54Mn by Tomato and Phaseolus Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.; Ezz El-Din, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of N-, P-, and K- fertilizers on availability of 85 Sr, 60 Co and 54 Mn added to the soil were measured in an open field experiment. The uptake of 85 Sr, 60 Co and 54 Mn by tomato and phaseolus was lower in fertilized treatments than in unfertilized ones. The radionuclide availability under fertilized condition depends on soil and element properties. Solubilization of Ca-ions following nitrification of nitrogen in ammonium salts and the presence of stable Strontium, Cobalt and Manganese in the acidifying fertilizers are the main factors giving rise to the reduced radioisotopes uptake by plants. The relative order of uptake of the investigated radionuclides by plants appeared to be as follow 54 Mn> 60 Co> 85 Sr. The distribution pattern of the total absorbed radionuclides in the two plants shows that the shoots contained the highest percent of these radionuclides. Transfer factors for phaseolus plants were higher than those of tomato plants

  5. Infestation of Phaseolus Vulgaris (L) by the beanfly Ophiomyia Spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Its Management by Cultural Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayitare, Joseph Sibomana

    1993-04-01

    Cultural practices as management strategy for bean fly control were examined over four cropping seasons in 1991 and 1992 under farmer’s developed field conditions at Oyugis, in Homa Bay District of Western Kenya. In many parts of East and Central Africa, the bean fly is a major constraint to the production of the bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris), its incidence causes yield losses averaging 47-87%, Control methods used against the pest are mostly insecticides based. Cultural control as a pest management strategy is a less considered area of research which needs to be studied, since it is the first line of defence against pest populations and results in little or no added cost. For this reason studies on five cultural practices (soil fertility, inter cropping, weeding regimes, plant spacing and planting time) on bean fly infestation were undertaken as possible control methods, Increase in nitrogen levels increased bean fly infestation by 12-66%. Phosphorus served as catalyst for nitrogen assimilation. The fertilized plants were more succulent, tender and had more nutrients and therefore offered better conditions for bean fly penetration into bean stems, fecundity and development. However, the infested plants in fertilized soils were able to compensate for the damage caused to them and grew quickly to pass the critical stages. Thus the bean fly infestation had little effect on grain yield. The effect of bean fly infestation on yield when no nitrogen and phosphorus were applied, was a 48% reduction in yield, Therefore, the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers reduced the effect of bean fly damage and increased grain yield. Inter cropping increased bean fly infestation compared to pure stands of beans. The micro climatic conditions (light intensity, temperature and relative humidity) created by inter cropping of beans with maize increased bean fly infestation compared to that in the bean mono crop. Weeding regimes had no effect on bean fly infestation, however

  6. Bioremediation model for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils using phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a locally adapted microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga-Navarrete, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Pastrana, Blanca Rosa; Villagómez-Ibarra, José Roberto; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio Arturo; Perry, Gregory; Islas-Pelcastre, Margarita

    2017-06-03

    The objective of the present study was to examine a biological model under greenhouse conditions for the bioremediation of atrazine contaminated soils. The model consisted in a combination of phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and rhizopheric bio-augmentation using native Trichoderma sp., and Rhizobium sp. microorganisms that showed no inhibitory growth at 10,000 mg L -1 of herbicide concentration. 33.3 mg of atrazine 50 g -1 of soil of initial concentration was used and an initial inoculation of 1 × 10 9 UFC mL -1 of Rhizobium sp. and 1 × 10 5 conidia mL -1 of Trichoderma sp. were set. Four treatments were arranged: Bean + Trichoderma sp. (B+T); Bean + Rhizobium sp. (BR); Bean + Rhizobium sp. + Trichoderma sp. (B+R+T) and Bean (B). 25.51 mg of atrazine 50 g -1 of soil (76.63%) was removed by the B+T treatment in 40 days (a = 0.050, Tukey). This last indicate that the proposed biological model and methodology developed is useful for atrazine contaminated bioremediation agricultural soils, which can contribute to reduce the effects of agrochemical abuse.

  7. Interrelationship among some yield characters and the productivity of mutants of three grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubaihayo, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of gamma-ray irradiation dosage and environmental conditions on yield component correlations was studied on food beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), white haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soy beans (Glycine max L.). It was found that in general radiation dosage had no significant effects on these factors. Differences in the relationships in different generations were attributed to the environmental conditions under which the plants were grown during different generations. (author)

  8. Consumer acceptance and aroma characterization of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powders prepared by extrusion and conventional processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygiel, Edward J; Harte, Janice B; Strasburg, Gale M; Cho, Sungeun

    2017-09-01

    Food products produced with bean ingredients are gaining in popularity among consumers due to the reported health benefits. Navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powder produced through extrusion can be considered as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional methods, which often involve high water inputs. Therefore, navy bean powders produced with extrusion and conventional methods were assessed for the impact of processing on consumer liking in end-use products and odor-active compounds. Consumer acceptance results reveal significant differences in flavor, texture and overall acceptance scores of several products produced with navy bean powder. Crackers produced with extruded navy bean powder received higher hedonic flavor ratings than those produced with commercial navy bean powder (P < 0.001). GC-O data showed that the commercial powder produced through conventional processing had much greater contents of several aliphatic aldehydes commonly formed via lipid oxidation, such as hexanal, octanal and nonanal with descriptors of 'grassy', 'nutty', 'fruity', 'dusty', and 'cleaner', compared to the extruded powder. Extrusion processed navy bean powders were preferred over commercial powders for certain navy bean powder applications. This is best explained by substantial differences in aroma profiles of the two powders that may have been caused by lipid oxidation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso Perseguini

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will

  10. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world's most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  11. Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris l. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Navarrete

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de México. Durante 1995 se evaluó la reacción de genotipos de frijol de diversos origenes a Xcp, bajo condiciones de invernadero en el Campo Experimental del Valle de México, del INIFAP. Se realizaron tres experimentos con a120, b44 y csiete genotipos de frijol. Las plantas se inocularon por corte con navajas en la etapa V3, a y b con una mezcla de nueve cepas de Xcp y el c, con cada una de siete cepas con diferente grado de patogenicidad. La severidad se evaluó 20 días después de la inoculación, por comparación con una escala visual de nueve grados. Los datos se analizaron bajo un diseño completamente al azar. En a, los genotipos que mostraron reacción de resistencia a Xcp fueron: A 36, A 475, G 5686, G 11867, Harowood, SEA 14, XAN 266, MCD 4012 y REN 27. En b los genotipos resistentes fueron: Sequía Durango, Taylor y XAN 30. En los experimentos anteriores la severidad de la enfermedad mostró una distribución normal, con el máximo número de genotipos en el grado de severidad cinco en a y seis en b. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de mezclas de cepas de bacterias con diferente patogenicidad es eficiente para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a Xcp. Los genotipos resistentes identificados en el último experimento, mostraron respuesta diferencial e interacciones genotipo por cepa. REN 27 y SEA 14 mostraron resistencia a las cepas utilizadas

  12. Genetic diversity study of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In PCoA, majority individuals of Metekel (L) tended to form separate group. The result of the study confirmed the presence of genetic diversity that can be exploited to improve the productivity. This calls for a conserted efforts in the collection, conservation and sustainable use of P. vulgaris. Keywords: Genetic diversity, ISSR, ...

  13. EVALUATION OF SWINE ORGANIC MATTER ON COMMON BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L YIELD AVALIAÇÃO DO EFEITO DE RESÍDUOS ORGÂNICOS DE SUÍNOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE FEIJÃO COMUM (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Rodrigues da Cunha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An experiment was carried out to test the effect of organic manure (swine slurry on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grain yield, CV. Carioca, on a red latossol, with low fertility, high acidity (pH = 4.8, medium aluminum toxicity (0.5 me/100 ml, medium contents of P (6.1 ppm and K+ (53 ppm and low contents of calcium plus magnesium (1.1 me/100ml at the Federal University of Goiás, School of Agronomy, Goiânia, Goiás. A randomized block design with four repetitions was used and the treatments: KPK dressing (T1; liming (T2; swine slurry (T3; NPK dressing + liming + swine slurry (T4 and NPK dressing + liming. The following average grain yield (kg/ha were obtained: T2 (liming = 400.7; T1 (NPK dressing = 537.8; T3 (swine slurry = 576.4; T5 (NPK dressing + liming = 577.1 and T4 (NPK dressing + liming + swine slurry = 616.4. The “complete” treatment (T4 showed the highest grain production, whilst the others showed no significant differences among them. However, the treatment with swine slurry gained a productivity of common beans equivalent to that obtained by conventional NPK dressings used in Brazil. Due to its easy obtention, swine slurry can be used as an alternative economic choice for little growers to fertilize their common beans crops.

    Conduziu-se um experimento para testar o efeito da adubação orgânica (Chorume de suíno na produção de grãos de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L., CV. Carioca, em um solo LE de baixa fertilidade, elevada acidez (pH = 4,8, toxidez média de A1+ + + (0,5 meq./100ml, com teores médios de P (6,1 ppm e de K+ (53 ppm nas dependências da Escola de Agronomia da UFG, Goiânia, Goiás. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, e os tratamentos: adubação NPK (T1, calagem (T2, chorume de suínos (T3, adubação NPK + chorume de su

  14. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  15. Can the critical temperature for photochemical damage in common bean plants be changed after a drought event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Low water availability and high temperatures occur under field conditions and we hypothesize that the critical temperature for photochemical damage (TC in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants is increased by the occurrence of previous water deficit in a genotype-dependent manner. Five common bean cultivars A320, A222, Carioca, BAT477 and Ouro Negro were evaluated. Thirty days after seedlings emergence, one group of plants was exposed to water deficit for ten days and rehydrated and another one was maintained well hydrated during the experimental period. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (FO was monitored in leaf discs exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 45 oC and the TC values estimated. The previous water deficit did not affect TC, which varied between 38.8 and 43.8 oC when considering all cultivars and water regimes. Under well-watered conditions, BAT477 (41.9 oC and Carioca (43.8 oC presented higher TCthan Ouro Negro (38.8 oC. Our findings indicate a significant genotypic variation in thermal tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris, an important crop trait to be considered in breeding programs.

  16. (Phaseolus vulgaris L) Genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accumulate biomass, remobilization of stored biomass to reproductive organs and ... In several plant species subjected to drought stress, leaf starch and .... Among the yield attributes, the number of pods per plant destined for final harvest to.

  17. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  18. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Paraburkholderia species isolated from nodules of Mimosa pudica (L.) and Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) grown in soils of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Bournaud, Caroline; de Faria, Sérgio Miana; Béna, Gilles; Moulin, Lionel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-04-01

    Some species of the genus Paraburkholderia that are able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes are called β-rhizobia and represent a group of ecological and biotechnological importance. We used Mimosa pudica and Phaseolus vulgaris to trap 427 rhizobial isolates from rhizospheric soil of Mimoseae trees in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Eighty-four representative strains were selected according to the 16S rRNA haplotypes and taxonomically characterized using a concatenated 16S rRNA-recA phylogeny. Most strains were assembled in the genus Paraburkholderia, including Paraburkholderia sabiae and Pa. nodosa. Mesorhizobium (α-rhizobia) and Cupriavidus (β-rhizobia) were also isolated, but in smaller proportions. Multilocus sequence analysis and BOX-PCR analyses indicated that six clusters of Paraburkholderia represent potential new species. In the phylogenetic analysis of the nodC gene, the majority of the strains were positioned in the same groups as in the 16S rRNA-recA tree, indicative of stability and vertical inheritance, but we also identified horizontal transfer of nodC in Pa. sabiae. All α- and β-rhizobial species were trapped by both legumes, although preferences of the host plants for specific rhizobial species have been observed. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos Inhibitory effect of carioca bean tannins on phaseolin digestibility assessed by two multi-enzymatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria H. Del Pino; Franco M. Lajolo

    2003-01-01

    Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró e...

  20. Antioxidant and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Raw Green Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Aged Male Rats Exposed to gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed EI-Gawad, E.I.; Aiad, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This Study was established to assess the effect of supplemental dietary raw green snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) for three months to overcome gamma-irradiation induced alterations on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , total iron, ferritin, transferrin and ceruloplasmin) and the hyper lipidemic state (triglycerides, cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL-c and LDL-c) in aged male rats. Raw green snap is an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India. The study also aimed to estimate the effect of dietary raw green snap on general health through the follow up of body weight and mortality during the course of supplementation. Thirty-two aged male rats (24 months, 370-375 g) were divided equally into four groups. 1- Control group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months. 2- Supplemented group, the animals balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g / kg body wt/ day) for 3 months. 3- Irradiated group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months were then exposed to whole body y-radiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. 4-Supplemented-irradiated group, the animals' balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g/ kg/ day) for three months and then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. The blood samples were taken from orbital venous plexuses after 48 h of stopping green snap supplementation (supplemented group) or after irradiation (irradiated and supplemented gamma-irradiated groups). The results obtained showed reduction in the body wt in green snap supplemented group which increased gradually concomitant with occurrence of animal mortality on week 7 reaching II) maximal values (-32.79 and 33.33 %) respectively, on week 12 of supplementation. Also, the supplemented group showed non significant changes in tested parameters although the level of total iron and triglycerides recorded noticeable changes as compared with controls

  1. Effect of plant species on the specific activity of 65Zn and 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Neptune, A.M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five plant species on the specific activity of 65 Zn and 54 Mn is studied. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.), rice (Oryza sativa, L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) and tomato (Lycopersium esculentum Mill) were grown in PV and TE soils labelled with 65 Zn and 54 Mn. The plants were harvested 30 days after seeding and specific activities of zinco and manganese were determined in the above ground part and in the roots. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  3. Biological aspects of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) on Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Lisiane Taiatella; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Zabrotes subfasciatus is a serious pest of common beans, P. vulgaris L.. In Brazil there are several studies dealing with resistance of bean genotypes to this insect, while other studies have emphasized the utilization of oils and powders from plants to repel their attack. In this paper, fecundity, fertility, pattern of oviposition, life cycle and longevity were evaluated for a Brazilian stock from the Goias State on P. vulgaris cv. Carioca, at 30 deg C and 70% R.H. The mean fecundity was 38 eggs per female and 73% of viability. Egg laying showed an aggregated pattern. Males and females lived an average of 13 and 9 days, respectively. The total life cycle lasted for about 28 days. (author)

  4. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al–drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviation of Al toxicity by osmotic stress (–0.60 MPa polyethylene glycol) in hydroponics. However, drought reduced the impact of Al on the root tip, as indicated by the reduction of Al-induced callose formation and MATE expression. Combined Al and drought stress enhanced up-regulation of ACCO expression and synthesis of zeatin riboside, reduced drought-enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of NCED involved in ABA biosynthesis and the transcription factors bZIP and MYB, thus affecting the regulation of ABA-dependent genes (SUS, PvLEA18, KS-DHN, and LTP) in root tips. The results provide circumstantial evidence that in soil, drought alleviates Al injury, but Al renders the root apex more drought-sensitive, particularly by impacting the gene regulatory network involved in ABA signal transduction and cross-talk with other phytohormones necessary for maintaining root growth under drought. PMID:22371077

  5. Biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of {sup 57}Fe-enriched Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppler, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Zurich (Switzerland); Meile, Leo [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Zurich (Switzerland); Walczyk, Thomas [National University of Singapore, Department of Chemistry and Department of Biochemistry, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-01-15

    Ferritin is the major iron storage protein in the biosphere. Iron stores of an organism are commonly assessed by measuring the concentration of the protein shell of the molecule in fluids and tissues. The amount of ferritin-bound iron, the more desirable information, still remains inaccessible owing to the lack of suitable techniques. Iron saturation of ferritin is highly variable, with a maximum capacity of 4,500 iron atoms per molecule. This study describes the direct isotopic labeling of a complex metalloprotein in vivo by biosynthesis, in order to measure ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin was produced by cloning and overexpressing the Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin gene pfe in Escherichia coli in the presence of {sup 57}FeCl{sub 2}. Recombinant ferritin was purified in a fully assembled form and contained approximately 1,000 iron atoms per molecule at an isotopic enrichment of more than 95% {sup 57}Fe. We did not find any evidence of species conversion of the isotopic label for at least 5 months of storage at -20 C. Transfer efficiency of enriched iron into [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin of 20% was sufficient to be economically feasible. Negligible amounts of non-ferritin-bound iron in the purified [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin solution allows for use of this spike for quantification of ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  6. CHARACTERISATION OF Phaseolus coccineus INTERSPECIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... habit) and agronomic attributes (plant vigour, days to physiological maturity; DPM and days to 50% flowering; ... Days to flowering and to DPM ranged from 31-39 and 81-86, ...... evolution, and classification in Phaseolus. pp.

  7. Gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from North-western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neeraj; Bawa, Vanya; Paliwal, Rajneesh; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Mohd Ashraf; Mir, Javid Iqbal; Gupta, Moni; Sofi, Parvaze A; Thudi, Mahendar; Varshney, Rajeev K; Mir, Reyazul Rouf

    2018-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important grain legume crops in the world. The beans grown in north-western Himalayas possess huge diversity for seed color, shape and size but are mostly susceptible to Anthracnose disease caused by seed born fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Dozens of QTLs/genes have been already identified for this disease in common bean world-wide. However, this is the first report of gene/QTL discovery for Anthracnose using bean germplasm from north-western Himalayas of state Jammu & Kashmir, India. A core set of 96 bean lines comprising 54 indigenous local landraces from 11 hot-spots and 42 exotic lines from 10 different countries were phenotyped at two locations (SKUAST-Jammu and Bhaderwah, Jammu) for Anthracnose resistance. The core set was also genotyped with genome-wide (91) random and trait linked SSR markers. The study of marker-trait associations (MTAs) led to the identification of 10 QTLs/genes for Anthracnose resistance. Among the 10 QTLs/genes identified, two MTAs are stable (BM45 & BM211), two MTAs (PVctt1 & BM211) are major explaining more than 20% phenotypic variation for Anthracnose and one MTA (BM211) is both stable and major. Six (06) genomic regions are reported for the first time, while as four (04) genomic regions validated the already known QTL/gene regions/clusters for Anthracnose. The major, stable and validated markers reported during the present study associated with Anthracnose resistance will prove useful in common bean molecular breeding programs aimed at enhancing Anthracnose resistance of local bean landraces grown in north-western Himalayas of state Jammu and Kashmir.

  8. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean.

  9. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  10. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and association with seed iron accumulation QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Knewtson, Sharon Jb; Astudillo, Carolina; Li, Chee-Ming; Fernandez, Andrea C; Grusak, Michael A

    2010-10-05

    Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 x G19833), to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III)-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient) were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe) on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe) on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO) homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity under iron limited conditions may be useful in

  11. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  12. Efeito da densidade e da distância de caruru-de-mancha e amendoim-bravo na cultura do feijoeiro Effect of the density and distance of slender amaranth and milkweed on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.M. Barroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência causada pelo caruru-demancha (Amaranthus viridis e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, em função das densidades e distâncias, no feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Pérola. Como recipientes, foram utilizadas caixas de cimento-amianto, com capacidade para 50 litros, preenchidas com LatossoloVermelho-Escuro. As mudas foram formadas em bandejas de 128 células preenchidas com substrato hortícola; quando as plântulas atingiram o estádio V2, foram transplantadas para as caixas, sendo as de feijoeiro numa linha central, reproduzindo a semeadura em campo, e as das plantas daninhas nas densidades de 8, 16 e 32 plantas m-2, distanciadas de 0, 12 e 24 cm das plantas de feijão e igualmente entre si. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3+2T, com quatro repetições, constituindo as parcelas experimentais. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento e de produtividade da cultura e das plantas daninhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as plantas daninhas obtiveram maior desenvolvimento quando em maior distância da cultura. O caruru-de-mancha causou reduções no número de vagens e na produtividade estimada do feijoeiro. Para o caruru-de-mancha, o aumento da densidade só causou redução na produtividade da cultura quando as plantas estavam distanciadas em pelo menos 12 cm. A 0 cm, o feijoeiro tornou-se mais competitivo e não sofreu interferência das plantas daninhas, independentemente da densidade destas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference caused by Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis and Milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla at different densities and distances in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pérola. The experiment was carried out using asbestos cement boxes

  13. Determination of soyasaponins in Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by LC-ESI-FTICR-MS and evaluation of their hypoglycemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Pascale, Raffaella; Carbone, Cecilia F; Acquavia, Maria A; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Russo, Daniela; Milella, Luigi

    2018-02-01

    Soyasaponins are oleanene-type triterpenoid saponins, naturally occurring in many edible plants that have attracted a great deal of attention for their role in preventing chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the distribution and the content of soyasaponins in 21 ecotypes of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Leguminosae). High-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry (MS) in conjunction with infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) was applied for the unambiguous identification of soyasaponins Ba (m/z 959.5213, [C 48 H 79 O 19 ] + ), Bb (m/z 943.5273, [C 48 H 79 O 18 ] + ), Bd (m/z 957.5122, [C 48 H 77 O 19 ] + ), and Be (m/z 941.5166, [C 48 H 77 O 18 ] + ), which are the only commercially available reference standards. In addition, the several diagnostic product ions generated by IRMPD in the ICR-MS cell allowed us the putative identification of soyasaponins Bb' (m/z 797.4680, [C 42 H 69 O 14 ] + ), αg (m/z 1085.5544, [C 54 H 85 O 22 ] + ), βg (m/z 1069.5600, [C 54 H 85 O 21 ] + ), and γg (m/z 923.5009, [C 48 H 75 O 17 ] + ), establishing thus their membership in the soyasaponin group. Quantitative and semiquantitative analysis of identified soyasaponins were also performed by RPLC-ESI(+) FTICR-MS; the total concentration levels were found ranging from 83.6 ± 9.3 to 767 ± 37 mg/kg. In vitro hypoglycemic outcomes of four soyasaponin standards were evaluated; significant inhibitory activities were obtained with IC 50 values ranging from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 2.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL and 12.0 ± 1.1 to 29.4 ± 1.4 μg/mL for α-glucosidase and α-amylase, respectively. This study represents the first detailed investigation on the antidiabetic activity of bioactive constituents found in Fagioli di Sarconi beans. Graphical abstract The first detailed RPLC-ESI(+) FTICR-MS investigation of

  14. Do French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in proximity to Mt Kenya forest- Kenya- experience pollination deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Masiga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yields of commercially important crops in Kenya are often far below their potential. Amongst the possible reasons for such low yields may be the ecosystem degradation that can be expected to have negative impacts on pollinator presence in cropland, and the consequent food security issue for smallholder farmers who depend on these crops for their livelihood. Our study was carried out to assess the potential pollination deficit of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major export vegetable crop in Kenya grown by small-scale farmers. Sufficient pollination of French beans likely results in high seed set and uniform heavier green pods. Such pods get the highest grade while malformed pods are unmarketable, reducing family income. We hypothesized that pollination success was linked to the abundance and diversity of large pollinators, itself associated with the proximity to natural habitats. Flower visitors to French beans were sampled in 2011 and 2012 in ten farmer-managed plots, five within 200 m from the edge of Mt. Kenya forest and five farther away, more than 1000 m. Each plot measured 760 m2 and was planted at the same time, with the “Julia” variety. Flowers were observed for 2 h in each plot once weekly for three weeks at peak flowering from 0900-1100 h in the morning and 1200 – 1400 h in the afternoon on alternate days. Honey bees (Apis mellifera were the most abundant visitors of French bean flowers followed by carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp. and leafcutter bees (Megachile spp.. Significantly higher numbers of leafcutter bees were recorded on farms far to the forest. There was no significant difference in honey bee abundance among the study sites, probably because apiaries and wild colonies are located across the landscape. French bean yield was significantly correlated with the mean abundance of carpenter bees in 2011. This suggests the possible occurrence of pollination deficit in French beans where the density of carpenter bees is

  15. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

  16. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the 15N isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da

    2009-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the 15 N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N 2 fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg -1 soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of 15 N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  17. Nucleotide sequence of Phaseolus vulgaris L. alcohol dehydrogenase encoding cDNA and three-dimensional structure prediction of the deduced protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Kassim; Khor, Chin Yin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J

    2015-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken. The objective of this study was to elucidate P. vulgaris L. AD (PvAD) gene cDNA sequence and to predict the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced protein. positive and negative strands of the PvAD cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and M13 reverse primers to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. Deduced PvAD cDNA and protein sequence was analyzed for their basic features using online bioinformatics tools. Sequence comparison was carried out using bl2seq program, and tree-view program was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The secondary structures and 3D structure of PvAD protein were predicted by using the PHYRE automatic fold recognition server. The sequencing results analysis showed that PvAD cDNA is 1294 bp in length. It's open reading frame encodes for a protein that contains 371 amino acids. Deduced protein sequence analysis showed the presence of putative substrate binding, catalytic Zn binding, and NAD binding sites. Results indicate that the predicted 3D structure of PvAD protein is analogous to the experimentally determined crystal structure of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from an Arabidopsis species. The 1294 bp long PvAD cDNA encodes for 371 amino acid long protein that contains conserved domains required for biological functions of AD. The predicted deduced PvAD protein's 3D structure reflects the analogy with the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana s-nitrosoglutathione reductase. Further study is required

  18. The Effects of SO2 on N2-Fixation, Carbon Partitioning, and Yield Components in Snapbean, Phaseolus Vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Stephen M.

    1983-01-01

    The primary air pollutant sulfur dioxide has been shown to affect plant biochemistry and physiology, although very little is known about its effects on N2-fixation in legumes. This study was designed to determine if N2-fixation, carbon partitioning , and productivity are affected under short term low level, so2 exposures. Greenhouse grown snapbeans (P has eo lus vulgaris L. cv. Ear l iwax), 29 days from planting, were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, and 0.8 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 4 hour...

  19. Determinación de la composición físico-química y de la digestibilidad in vitro de dos variedades de frijol común Phaseolus vulgaris L. estimación del contenido de pectina y celulosa en el residuo indigerible

    OpenAIRE

    Víquez Rodríguez, Floribeth; Bonilla Leiva, Ana Ruth

    2000-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio fue determinar, mediante un estudio de digestibilidad in vitro, la porción indigerible presente en dos variedades de frijol común Phaseolus vulgaris L. consumidas en Costa Rica y cuantificar en dicha porción, dos de los principales polisacáridos no almidonosos causantes de flatulencia: pectina y celulosa. Se determinaron además, las principales características físicas (tamaño y tasa de absorción de agua) y químicas (contenido de proteínas, grasa, cenizas y carbohi...

  20. Functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate: Effect of high-pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Li, Lin

    2008-10-15

    The effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment at 200-600MPa, prior to freeze-drying, on some functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of vicilin-rich red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) were investigated. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide bond (SS) contents were also evaluated. HP treatment resulted in gradual unfolding of protein structure, as evidenced by gradual increases in fluorescence strength and SS formation from SH groups, and decrease in denaturation enthalpy change. The protein solubility of KPI was significantly improved at pressures of 400MPa or higher, possibly due to formation of soluble aggregate from insoluble precipitate. HP treatment at 200 and 400MPa significantly increased emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI); however, EAI was significantly decreased at 600MPa (relative to untreated KPI). The thermal stability of the vicilin component was not affected by HP treatment. Additionally, in vitro trypsin digestibility of KPI was decreased only at a pressure above 200MPa and for long incubation time (e.g., 120min). The data suggest that some physiochemical and functional properties of vicilin-rich kidney proteins can be improved by means of high-pressure treatment. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Planting of Calluna Vulgaris for Stable Snow Accumulation in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, R.; Harada, K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent year climate of the winter season is changing and the period of snow accumulation is reduced compared with before. It affects the management of the ski resort. Snowfall had occurred in December 2016, but the snow accumulated after January 2017 at the ski resort located in the Pacific Ocean side of the Northeast region of Japan. This situation is thought to be originated from two reasons, one is snow thawing, another is to be blown away by the strong monsoon wind. We are considering utilizing planting to stabilize snow accumulation. Currently building rock gardens with shrubs, mainly Calluna Vulgaris in the ski resort for attracting customers in the summer. These are difficult to raise in the lowlands of Japan because they are too hot, but because of their good growth in relatively low-temperature highlands, it is rare for local residents to appreciate the value of these. In addition, it is excellent in low temperature resistance, and it will not die even under the snow. We investigated the pressure resistance performance due to snowfall and the appropriateness of growth under the weather conditions of the area. Regarding Calluna Vulgaris, Firefly, the plants were not damaged even under snow more than 1 m. In addition, three years have passed since planting, relatively good growth is shown, and the stock has been growing every year. Based on these results, we plan to stabilize the snow accumulation by carrying out planting of Calluna vulgaris inside the slope. The growth of the Calluna species is gentle and the tree height grows only about 50 cm even if 15 years have passed since planting. Therefore, it is considered that the plant body is hard to put out their head on the snow surface during the ski season. Next season will monitor the snow accumulation around the planting area through the snow season.

  2. Metabolism of 2-deoxyglyconic acid in plants and bakers yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakhokidze, R.A.; Beriashvili, L.T.; Chigvinadze, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    During photosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris haricot bean and Zea mays leaves, assimilated carbon 14 CO 2 is rapidly incorporated into aldonic acids including 2-deoxygluconic acid whose radioactivity was relatively high. In these plants, radioactive carbon of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid prepared from 1-6 14 C-D-glucose is actively involved in the formation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. In baking yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rate of respiration-dependent oxidation of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid differs versus the rate of D-glucose oxidation [ru

  3. Reflexos da interação genótipo X ambiente e suas implicações nos ganhos de seleção em genótipos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Reflexes of the interaction genotype X environment and their implications in the gains of selection in genotypes of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A importância das leguminosas de grãos na alimentação humana, principalmente do feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris, tem estimulado os melhoristas a selecionar genótipos com alto potencial de rendimento de grãos e com adaptabilidade às diferentes condições de cultivo do sul do Brasil. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os reflexos da interação genótipo x ambiente e suas implicações nos ganhos genéticos com diferentes critérios de seleção. Os resultados revelaram que o componente da interação genótipo x ambiente superestima a predição dos parâmetros genéticos, como por exemplo a variância genética e a herdabilidade. As diferenças observadas entre estas estimativas parecem ocorrer devido à alta percentagem da parte complexa da interação. Além disto, os ganhos genéticos obtidos com a seleção direta foram sempre superiores à resposta indireta. Comparativamente, o par de ambientes 1x3 revelou uma resposta correlacionada inferior e de sinal contrário às demais estimativas para os outros pares de ambientes estudados neste trabalho. O primeiro ambiente foi o que mais acumulou a interação genótipo x ambiente. Portanto, pode ser concluído que o componente da interação tem grande relevância nas estimativas dos ganhos genéticos, evidenciando que essa influência deva ser considerada na seleção e na recomendação de genótipos específicos nos programas de melhoramento genético da cultura do feijoeiro.The importance of grains of legume plants for human feeding, specially black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., has stimulated the breeders to select genotypes with high grains yield potential and wide adaptability to different conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil. The present work aimed at evaluating the reflexes of the genotype x environment interaction and its implications in the genetic gains of different selection approaches. The results revealed that the component of the

  4. Plants sensitivity on nickel under different conditions of iron or calcium concentration in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matraszek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of six vegetable plants on nickel at early stages of their growth was investigated by index of tolerance. Besides the possibility of nickel fitostabilization by additional application of iron or calcium was tested. The experiment was conducted on Petri dishes. Different concentrations of nickel (0; 0,03; 0,06mM Ni as nickel sulphate, iron (0,05; O,OlmM Fe as Fe2+ citrate and calcium (0,50; 0,75; lmM Ca as calcium carbonate were added. Taking into consideration the sensitivity, investigated vegetables can be ordered in the following way: Cucurbita pepo conv. giromontiina L.>Lactuca sativa L.>Sinapis alba L.>Spinacia oleracea L.=Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke.>Phaseolus vulgaris L. Positive, statistically significant effect ofnickel fitostabilization (0,03 or 0,06mM Ni on elongative growth by the iron application (0,10mM Fe was shown for Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke independently of Ni concentration in the nutrient medium as well as for Sinapis alba L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. in 0,06mM Ni. Addition as much as 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,03mM Ni had positive result on Sinapis alba L and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings as well as on Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke and Lactuca sativa L. roots and Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina L. shoots. Addition of 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,06mM Ni promoted elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke seedlings. Application lmM Ca resulted in the promotion of elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke. roots (0,03mM Ni as well as Spinacia oleracea L. roots (0,06mM Ni.

  5. Effects of sulfur nutrition on phytotoxicity and growth responses of bean plants to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N O; Hofstra, G; Ormrod, D P

    1972-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Blue Lake plants were grown in sand culture at three temperatures, and fed with nutrient solution containing 1.3 or 32 mg/liter sulfur (S). Plants were fumigated twice with ozone at 50 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 2 h. Intensity of phytotoxicity was markedly lower in plants grown at the high S rate. Ozone reduced chlorophyll content of plants grown in low S at 25/20 and 30/25/sup 0/. With the high S treatment, however, ozone had no significant effect on chlorophyll content particularly at the lower temperatures. Irrespective of S nutrition, ozone had no effect on total soluble carbohydrate content. Ozone effects on plant growth depended on plant part, growth temperature, and S nutrition.

  6. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira eMafi Moghaddam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6x to 5.1x coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2,687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate.

  7. Metabolic origin of the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2} in roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathellier, C.; Tcherkez, G.; Cornic, G.; Ghashghaie, J. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution - ESE, CNRS-UMR 8079 - IFR 87, Batiment 362, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Tcherkez, G. [Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome, IFR87 La Plante et son Environnement, Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Bligny, R.; Gout, E. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale CEA-Grenoble 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-01

    - Root respiration is a major contributor to soil CO{sub 2} efflux, and thus an important component of ecosystem respiration. But its metabolic origin, in relation to the carbon isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C), remains poorly understood. - Here, {sup 13}C analysis was conducted on CO{sub 2} and metabolites under typical conditions or under continuous darkness in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots. {sup 13}C contents were measured either under natural abundance or following pulse-chase labeling with {sup 13}C-enriched glucose or pyruvate, using isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. - In contrast to leaves, no relationship was found between the respiratory quotient and the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2}, which stayed constant at a low value (c. -27.5 per thousand) under continuous darkness. With labeling experiments, it is shown that such a pattern is explained by the {sup 13}C-depleting effect of the pentose phosphate pathway; and the involvement of the Krebs cycle fueled by either the glycolytic input or the lipid/protein recycling. The anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity sustained glutamic acid (Glu) synthesis, with no net effect on respired CO{sub 2}. - These results indicate that the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal does not depend on the availability of root respiratory substrates and it is thus plausible that, unless the {sup 13}C photosynthetic fractionation varies at the leaf level, the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal hardly changes under a range of natural environmental conditions. (authors)

  8. DETERMINATION OF DEFENSE MECHANISM IN Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Field studies were conducted to determine the role of defense mechanism in various parameters associated with plant protection subjected to UV-B radiation in Phaseolus trilobus Ait. commonly used as green manure and fodder. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that UV-B radiation decreases the chlorophyll content ...

  9. Characterization of Sugar Concentration Among Edible Podded Accessions in the USDA Phaseolus vulgaris Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. The results could be used to market product quality and offer unique opportunities to expand ma...

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas for chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with day-old broiler type chicks to study the effect of a cobalt-60 source of gamma irradiation and autoclaving on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas was also studied. Total protein (N x 6.25) was not changed appreciably by gamma irradiation (21 Mrad cobalt-60) and autoclaving but solubility in water was decreased. In vitro enzymic digestibility of irradiated bean protein was increased by pepsin alone and with a mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. The nutritional value of all varieties of beans, based on chick growth, was significantly improved by gamma irradiation. The irradiated treatment of beans increased nitrogen retention by chicks and decreased uric acid nitrogen excretion in relation to nitrogen intake

  11. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  12. The Effects of Foliar Application of Methanol on Morphological Characteristics of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Armand

    2016-02-01

    , each experimental unit was a pot of 1 kg and 5 seeds were planted in each pot and after emergence decreased to 3 seedlings per pot. They were placed in a growth chamber with day and night temperatures as 25 °C and 15°C, respectively. Drought stress treatment based on soil moisture percentage was adjusted by measuring the weight percent of soil moisture and adding water consumed daily by each pot. Foliar application was done 3 times during the growing season and at intervals of 10 days. The first foliar application was performed during the seedling stage within 4 weeks after planting and other foliar application, respectively in early flowering and early podding. The foliar application was performed in such a way that solution droplets were present at all parts of the bean. Trait measurement was carried out 35 days after planting. Results and Discussion Results showed that there was significant difference (P 0.01 between methanol and drought stress regarding the plant height, number of branches, leaf number per pod, root and shoot dry weight, tap root length, root area, root diameter, root volume, and number of pod (P 0.05. All of the morphological traits were mainly affected by severe drought stress. The results of the comparing mean data in the interactions of methanol and drought stress showed that 20% methanol level in non-drought stress significantly increased in plant height, number of branches, root dry weight, root diameter and number of pod compared with control. 20% methanol level in temperate drought stress condition significantly increased the number of pod compared with non-applied methanol foliar application. Severe drought conditions in other traits except plant height difference between the levels of methanol and the methanol was observed. Conclusions Present study showed that the use of methanol at 20% by volume of methanol without the stress could be effective but failed to reduce the negative effects of drought stress on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L

  13. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants.

  14. Novel Genomic and Evolutionary Insight of WRKY Transcription Factors in Plant Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Park, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-11-17

    The evolutionarily conserved WRKY transcription factor (TF) regulates different aspects of gene expression in plants, and modulates growth, development, as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. Therefore, understanding the details regarding WRKY TFs is very important. In this study, large-scale genomic analyses of the WRKY TF gene family from 43 plant species were conducted. The results of our study revealed that WRKY TFs could be grouped and specifically classified as those belonging to the monocot or dicot plant lineage. In this study, we identified several novel WRKY TFs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a revised grouping system of the WRKY TF gene family in plants. The different forms of novel chimeric forms of WRKY TFs in the plant genome might play a crucial role in their evolution. Tissue-specific gene expression analyses in Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris showed that WRKY11-1, WRKY11-2 and WRKY11-3 were ubiquitously expressed in all tissue types, and WRKY15-2 was highly expressed in the stem, root, nodule and pod tissues in G. max and P. vulgaris.

  15. 60Co, 63Ni and 94Nb soil-to-plant transfer in pot experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Mohamad, S.A.; Mueck, K.; Horak, O.

    1995-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors for 60 Co, 63 Ni and 94 Nb were obtained via pot experiments with a Dystric Cambisol and a Calcic Chernozem, both from Lower Austria. Investigated plants were greenrape (Brassica napus oleifera L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The soil-to-plant transfer factors decreased from 63 Ni to 60 Co and 94 Nb. Mean values from all experiments ranged from 1.12 ( 63 Ni) to 0.0045 ( 94 Nb). The transfer values obtained for 60 Co and 63 Ni are comparable to literature values, but 94 Nb-transfer seems to be lower than previous estimates. All radionuclides showed differences between plant species and plant organs. Transfer values were also dependent on the soil type. (author)

  16. Assimilation of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen by bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, R.J.; Chaillou, S.; Morot-Gaudry, J.F.; Mariotti, A.

    1989-01-01

    Enhanced growth is often observed in plants growing on combined ammonium and nitrate nutrition. The physiological basis for such enhancement was examined by exposing non-nodulated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to 15 N-labeled, 1.0 mM N solutions containing 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the N as ammonium, the balance being nitrate. Maximal total N uptake and biomass production were attained by plants receiving 33% ammonium. A higher proportion of incoming ammonium than nitrate was incorporated into root protein. This was accompanied by increased partitioning of plant biomass to roots. It was concluded that as a consequence of greater N metabolism in the root under mixed ammonium and nitrate nutrition, the root became a more active sink for photosynthate. Concurrently, the augmented supply of N to the shoot enhanced net photosynthesis as reflected in increased plant biomass

  17. The use of statistical methods for censored data to evaluate the activity concentration of Pb-210 in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingote, Raquel M; Nogueira, Regina A

    2016-10-01

    A survey of 210 Pb activity concentration, one of the major internal natural radiation sources to man, has been carried in the most common species of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown and consumed in Brazil. The representative bean types chosen, Carioca beans and black type sown in the Brazilian Midwestern and Southern regions, have been collected in this study and 210 Pb determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry after separation with chromatographic extraction using Sr-resin. Available values in data set of radioactivity in Brazil (GEORAD) on the 210 Pb activity concentration in black beans grown in Southeastern region have been added to the results of this study with the purpose of to amplify the population considered. Concerning the multiple detection limits and due to the high level of censored observations, a robust semi-parametric statistical method called regression on order statistics (ROS) has been employed to provide a reference value of the 210 Pb in Brazilian beans, which amounted to 41 mBq kg -1 fresh wt. The results suggest that the 210 Pb activity concentration in carioca beans is lower than in black beans. Also evaluated was the 210 Pb activity concentration in vegetable component of a typical diet, which displays lower values than those shown in the literature for food consumed in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Mulch and Water Stress on Some Physiological Traits, Yield Components and Grain Yield of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water use in agricultural production as one of the most important environmental factors affecting plant growth and development, especially in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions of Iran is of special importance (21. One of the ways of alleviating water scarcity is by enhancing its use efficiency or productivity. Improving water use efficiency in arid and semi-arid areas depends on effective conservation of moisture and efficient use of limited water. Mulching is one of the management practices for increasing water use efficiency (WUE . Straw mulch is commonly used as mulch. Straw mulching has potential for increasing soil water storage (16. Mulches modify the microclimate and growing conditions of crops (16, conserve more water and increase water use efficiency (34. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume (25 and is an important source of proteins and minerals (28. The majority of red kidney bean production is under drought conditions, and thus yield reductions due to drought are very common (29. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of wheat straw mulch and water stress on physiological traits, yield components and grain yield of red kidney bean cultivars. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran (latitude 38°05_N, longitude 46°17_E, altitude 1360 m above sea level. In order to investigate the effect of mulch on grain yield and yield components of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars at different water stress treatments, a factorial experiment was conducted based on RCB design with three replications. The factors were including water stress treatment (I1 and I2, irrigation after 60 and 120 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively; mulch application at two levels (M1: (no mulch and M2: 2 ton ha-1 wheat straw mulch and red kidney bean cultivars including Akhtar and

  19. Mejoramiento de la producción del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris, L con el uso de alternativas de fertilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Ramírez Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Argumenta la evaluación de algunas alternativas de nutrición en el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., variedad Velasco Largo, que se desarrolló en áreas de la subestación de Granos de la Unidad de Extensión, Investigación y Capacitación Agropecuaria de Holguín (UEICA-H, ubicada en Velasco, municipio de Gibara, provincia de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido entre diciembre de 2007 y marzo de 2008. Se aplicaron seis (6 variantes de fertilización, que comprendió el uso de fertilizantes químicos a dosis menores que las recomendadas, la utilización de abonos orgánicos: humus de lombriz tanto sólido como líquido y el biofertilizante Ecomic. Se tomaron mediciones de altura de las plantas, nodulación y rendimiento y sus componentes, así como, se realizó un análisis económico en base a los rendimientos obtenidos. Los resultados mostraron que la utilización de diferentes alternativas de fertilización provocó un efecto directo sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de frijol, sobre la nodulación natural y el rendimiento y sus componentes, los mismos sugieren la utilización de combinaciones de fertilizantes químicos, orgánicos y biofertilizantes para la obtención de altos rendimientos de forma sostenible en el cultivo del frijol.

  20. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  1. Afferent projections to the hamster intergeniculate leaflet demonstrated by retrograde and anterograde tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Niels; Mrosovsky, N.; Mikkelsen, Jens D.

    2003-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Cholera toxin B, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, Nonphotic......Circadian rhythms, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Cholera toxin B, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, Nonphotic...

  2. AVALIAÇÃO DE DESEMPENHO DE UMA SEMEADORA ADUBADORA À TRAÇÃO ANIMAL, COM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE SULCADORES, REGULAGENS DE DISCO DE CORTE E COBERTURAS MORTAS, NO PLANTIO DIRETO DO FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PERFOMANCE EVALUATION OF AN ANIMAL TRACTION PLANTER WITH DIFFERENT SOIL OPENER SYSTEMS, COULTER SETTINGS AND MULCHINGS FOR BLACK BEANS DIRECT DRILLING (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Araújo Almeida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Em um experimento realizado na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia (GO, no ano de 1997, fez-se a avaliação de desempenho de uma semeadora-adubadora a tração animal, no plantio direto do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. O ensaio foi conduzido em um latossolo vermelho-escuro distrófico, textura média, num delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, num fatorial 2 x 2 x 3 (dois tipos de cobertura morta, duas regulagens para o disco de corte e três sistemas de sulcador. A semeadora-adubadora avaliada não atendeu plenamente às exigências agronômicas para a semeadura direta do feijão. Massa e densidade de cobertura menores propiciaram melhor distribuição de sementes e maior população de plantas. O sistema de regulagem do disco de corte, com encaixe na roda limitadora de profundidade, propiciou maior profundidade de adubação e menor percentual de sementes descobertas. O sistema sulcador do tipo disco duplo defasado proporcionou menor profundidade de adubação, maior percentual de sementes descobertas e menor população de plantas que os sistemas providos de sulcador do tipo facão.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantio direto; semeadora; tração animal.

    In an essay, carried out in 1997, the performance of an animal traction planter for direct drilling of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. was evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a distrofic dark red oxisol in the experimental field of the Agronomy School of the Federal University of

  3. L-Asparaginase Isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds Exhibited Potent Anti-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Effects In-Vitro and Low Immunogenic Properties In-Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli-derived L-asparaginases have been used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, however, clinical hypersensitivity reactions and silent inactivation due to antibodies against E. coli-asparaginase, lead to inactivation of these preparations in most cases.Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antitumor effects ofa novel L-asparaginaseenzyme, isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds (P-Asp on the ALL cell line (Jurkat. The immunogenicity of the enzyme was also evaluated in-vivo and results were compared to commercially available enzymes of microbial sources. The data demonstrated that P-Asp has an enhanced anti-proliferative effect on ALL cells as detected by the WST-8 cell viability assay kit. Cells treated with P-Asp also exhibited a higher degree of early apoptosis compared with asparaginase from Escherichia coli (L-Asp or its pegylated form Pegasparagas (PEG-ASP that induced higher rates of late apoptosis and necrosis as detected by an Annexin V/Propidium iodide binding assay. In-vivo experiments indicated that mice treated with P-Asp had less distinct allergenic responses than other bacterial enzyme preparations as indicated by lower serum concentrations of IgG, IgE, IgM and mMCP-1 compared with other treated groups. In conclusion, P-Asp can be considered as a promising candidate for use in the treatment of ALL.

  4. Investigación de la biotransformación de Se en tejidos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. mediante espectroscopia de absorción de rayos X Investigación de la biotransformación de Se en tejidos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. mediante espectroscopia de absorción de rayos X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available   In this investigation, selenate toxicity was evaluated in three varieties of Phaseoulus vulgaris L.: Negro, Peruano, and Flor de Mayo, where this last was identified as the most resistant to selenate. In the Flor de Mayo variety, Se in plant tissues was quantified and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS analysis performed in order to determine the potential selenate biotransformation. Root and stem tissues accumulated up to 1 218 mg Se kg-1 and 101 mg Se kg-1, respectively. XAS results indicated that part of the selenate was biotransformed, as in plant tissues selenate as well as selanide forms were identified. According to these results, Flor de Mayo variety can be classified as a Se secondary accumulator. Also, selenate biotransformation was identified. To our knowledge, this is the first time selenate biotransformation using XAS in this plant species is reported.En este trabajo se evaluó la toxicidad del selenato en tres variedades de frijol (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.: Negro, Peruano y Flor de Mayo. La variedad Flor de Mayo se identificó como la más resistente por lo que en ella se cuantificó el selenio y se determinó la biotransformación del selenato mediante espectroscopia de absorción de rayos X (EAX. La raíz y tallo de esta variedad acumularon hasta 1 218 mg Se kg-1 y 101 mg Se kg-1, respectivamente. Los resultados de EAX indicaron que parte del selenato se biotransformó en los tejidos de la planta, en donde se identificaron las formas selenato y selenuro. De acuerdo a estos resultados, esta variedad de P. vulgaris puede ser clasificada como una acumuladora secundaria de selenio; por otro lado se comprobó la biotransformación del selenato usando EAX lo cual, hasta donde sabemos, no ha sido previamente reportada en la literatura.

  5. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  6. Uptake and translocation of Ti from nanoparticles in crops and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Donna L; Borchardt, Joshua D; Navaratnam, Leelaruban; Otte, Marinus L; Bezbaruah, Achintya N

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability of engineered metal nanoparticles affects uptake in plants, impacts on ecosystems, and phytoremediation. We studied uptake and translocation of Ti in plants when the main source of this metal was TiO2 nanoparticles. Two crops (Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) and Triticum aestivum (wheat)), a wetland species (Rumex crispus, curly dock), and the floating aquatic plant (Elodea canadensis, Canadian waterweed), were grown in nutrient solutions with TiO2 nanoparticles (0, 6, 18 mmol Ti L(-1) for P. vulgaris, T. aestivum, and R. crispus; and 0 and 12 mmol Ti L(-1) for E. canadensis). Also examined in E. canadensis was the influence of TiO2 nanoparticles upon the uptake of Fe, Mn, and Mg, and the influence of P on Ti uptake. For the rooted plants, exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles did not affect biomass production, but significantly increased root Ti sorption and uptake. R. crispus showed translocation of Ti into the shoots. E. canadensis also showed significant uptake of Ti, P in the nutrient solution significantly decreased Ti uptake, and the uptake patterns of Mn and Mg were altered. Ti from nano-Ti was bioavailable to plants, thus showing the potential for cycling in ecosystems and for phytoremediation, particularly where water is the main carrier.

  7. In vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically pre-treated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. flour using commercial protease and Bacillus sp. protease Digestibilidade protéica in vitro de farinhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pré-tratadas com protease comercial e protease de Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disney Ribeiro Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a staple food in the Brazilian diet and represents the major source of dietary protein and other micronutrients and minerals. Despite the considerable protein concentration in beans, the food is considered of low biological value when compared to animal proteins and other plant protein sources. To improve the availability of protein in beans, enzymatic treatments were performed in four cultivars (ON, OPNS, TAL and VC3. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. We used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments: treatment 1-addition of commercial protease (Trypsin 250, Difco, treatment 2-addition of protease from Bacillus sp., and treatment 3:-control without enzyme addition. The enzyme: substrate ratio was 5% w/w (amount of enzyme per total protein in bean flour. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. A 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments, the same as those mentioned above was used. The concentration of total protein (g.100 g-1 of dry matter in the samples ranged from 16.94 to 18.06%, while the concentration of total phenolics was between 0.78 and 1.12% (g Eq. tannic acid.100 g-1 dry matter. The in vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically untreated bean flour (control ranged from 47.30 to 56.17% based on the digestibility of casein. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn observed in the four cultivars tested were within the average values available in the literature. Treatment 2 with protease from Bacillus sp. induced decreases in the levels of Cu and Mn. The average Fe content increased in all bean flour samples when treated with proteases, reaching a maximum increase of 102% in the TAL flour treated with protease from Bacillus sp. The digestibility of all beans tested was significantly increased (p O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é um alimento básico na refeição do brasileiro

  8. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Conformational study of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) by tryptophan fluorescence and differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wen, Qi-Biao

    2011-01-12

    Fluorescence and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study changes in the conformation of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) under various environmental conditions. The possible relationship between fluorescence data and DSC characteristics was also discussed. Tryptophan fluorescence and fluorescence quenching analyses indicated that the tryptophan residues in KPI, exhibiting multiple fluorophores with different accessibilities to acrylamide, are largely buried in the hydrophobic core of the protein matrix, with positively charged side chains close to at least some of the tryptophan residues. GdnHCl was more effective than urea and SDS in denaturing KPI. SDS and urea caused variable red shifts, 2-5 nm, in the emission λ(max), suggesting the conformational compactness of KPI. The result was further supported by DSC characteristics that a discernible endothermic peak was still detected up to 8 M urea or 30 mM SDS, also evidenced by the absence of any shift in emission maximum (λ(max)) at different pH conditions. Marked decreases in T(d) and enthalpy (ΔH) were observed at extreme alkaline and/or acidic pH, whereas the presence of NaCl resulted in higher T(d) and ΔH, along with greater cooperativity of the transition. Decreases in T(d) and ΔH were observed in the presence of protein perturbants, for example, SDS and urea, indicating partial denaturation and decrease in thermal stability. Dithiothreitol and N-ethylmaleimide have a slight effect on the thermal properties of KPI. Interestingly, a close linear relationship between the T(d) (or ΔH) and the λ(max) was observed for KPI in the presence of 0-6 M urea.

  10. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  11. (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Rhizobia symbiosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... especially in acidic and basic soils, where it is greatly combined with Al, Fe and Ca ions hydroxide. In ... factors for plants (CIAT, 1992) including common bean .... estimated based on the Foline-Ciocalteu method adapted from.

  12. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  13. Effect of genotype, Cr(III and Cr(VI on plant growth and micronutrient status in Silene vulgaris (Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Pradas-del-Real

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium released into the environment from industrial activities has become an important environmental concern. Silene vulgaris has been proven to be tolerant to many heavy metals, so it is considered an interesting species in the revegetation and restoration of polluted soils, but no information is available about its response to Cr. The objective of this work was to study uptake and influence on plant growth of Cr(III and Cr(VI in six genotypes (four hermaphrodites and two females of S. vulgaris from different sites of Madrid (Spain. Plants were treated for 12 days with 60 µM of Cr(III or Cr(VI in semihydroponics. Dry weights, soil-plant analysis development values (SPAD reading with chlorophylls and micronutrient and total Cr concentrations were determined. Metal uptake was higher in presence of Cr(VI than of Cr(III and poorly translocated to the shoots. In both cases S. vulgaris did not show visual toxicity symptoms, biomass reduction, or differences among SPAD values as consequence of Cr additions. However genotypes SV36 and SV38 showed Fe and Mn imbalance. This is the first report on the relatively good performance of hermaphrodite and female S. vulgaris genotypes in Cr uptake and physiological traits, but further studies will be necessary to elucidate the mechanisms by which the gender may influence these variables. S. vulgaris presented high diversity at genotypic level; the treatment with hexavalent Cr increased the differences among genotypes so the use of cuttings from an homogeneous genotype seems to be an adequate method for the study of this species.

  14. Projections from the raphe nuclei to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)......Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)...

  15. Separation and Enrichment of Lectin from Zihua Snap-Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds by PEG 600–Ammonium Sulfate Aqueous Two-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A fast and efficient method based on a polyethylene glycol (PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system for extracting lectin from Zihua snap-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was established. According to a Box–Behnken design (BBD, involving four factors at three levels each subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and response surface analysis, the protein recovery and the purification factor of lectin in the top phase were used as the response values of the variance analysis to acquire the multivariate quadratic regression model. SDS–PAGE electrophoresis and the hemagglutination test were used to detect the distribution of lectin in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. The obtained data indicated that lectin was preferentially partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, and the ATPS, composed of 15% (NH42SO4 (w/w, 18% PEG 600 (w/w, 0.4 g/5 g NaCl and 1 mL crude extract, showed good selectivity for lectin when the pH value was 7.5. Under the optimal conditions, most of the lectin was assigned to the top phase in the ATPS, and the hemagglutination activity of the purified lectin in the top phase was 3.08 times that of the crude extract. Consequently, the PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system was an effective method for separating and enriching lectin directly from the crude extract of Zihua snap-bean seeds.

  16. Maize-common bean/lupine intercrop productivity and profitability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L.), narrow-leaf lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), and white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) with maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted under two intercrop planting arrangements (IPA), single row of legume in between maize rows and ...

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchi, Irineu; Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade; Rosa, Flavia A. Fernandes da; Maiochi, Riceli A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxy substituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I). The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro assays were performed in a germination chamber and were of two types: root growth in germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa, Cucumbis sativus and Raphanus sativus and peciole biotest using Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  18. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F; Ferreira, W P M

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO 2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO 2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  19. Cytokinin oxidase from Phaseolus vulgaris callus tissues. Enhanced in vitro activity of the enzyme in the presence of copper-imidazole complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatfield, J.M.; Armstrong, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of metal ions on cytokinin oxidase activity extracted from callus tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern have been examined using an assay based on the oxidation of N 6 -(Δ 2 -isopentenyl)-adenine-2,8- 3 H (i 6 Ade) to adenine (Ade). The addition of cupric ions to reaction mixtures containing imidazole buffer markedly enhanced cytokinin oxidase activity. In the presence of optimal concentrations of copper and imidazole, cytokinin oxidase activity was stimulated more than 20-fold. The effect was enzyme dependent, specific for copper, and observed only in the presence of imidazole. The substrate specificity of the copper-imidazole enhanced reaction, as judged by substrate competition tests, was the same as that observed in the absence of copper and imidazole. Similarly, in tests involving DEAE-cellulose chromatography, elution profiles of cytokinin oxidase activity determined using a copper-imidazole enhanced assay were identical to those obtained using an assay without copper and imidazole. On the basis of these results, the addition of copper and imidazole to reaction mixtures used to assay for cytokinin oxidase activity is judged to provide a reliable and specific assay of greatly enhanced sensitivity for the enzyme. The mechanism by which copper and imidazole enhance cytokinin oxidase activity is not certain, but the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme was not inhibited by anaerobic conditions when these reagents were present. This observation suggests that copper-imidazole complexes are substituting for oxygen in the reaction mechanism by which cytokinin oxidase effects cleavage of the N 6 -side chain of i 6 Ade

  20. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2011-03-17

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  1. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  2. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Chen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY. The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  3. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingli; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Mantri, Nitin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY). The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines.

  4. Farinha do subproduto de feijão Phaseolus vulgaris em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. P. Azevedo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A procura por fontes proteicas alternativas em dietas para peixes é necessária, pois alguns ingredientes proteicos tradicionais apresentam grande variação no preço e disponibilidade. Um experimento de 45 dias foi conduzido em um sistema de recirculação de água com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (peso inicial de 16,2 ± 0,1 g para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de farinha do subproduto de feijão Phaseolus vulgaris sobre os índices produtivos e composição corporal. Três dietas isonitrogenadas (35% de proteína bruta e isocalóricas (3.100 kcal/kg de energia digestível foram preparadas para incluir 0%; 6,2% e 12,4% de farinha do subproduto de feijão substituindo 0%; 10% e 20% da proteína bruta do farelo de soja, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado (n=4. O peso final, ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico, índice de consumo alimentar, taxa de eficiência proteica e sobrevivência foram similares (P>0,05 entre os peixes alimentados com as dietas experimentais. Nenhuma diferença (P>0,05 foi registrada no teor de proteína bruta, cinzas e extrato etéreo corporais dos peixes. O valor produtivo da proteína bruta e a matéria seca corporal diminuíram (P<0,05 nos peixes alimentados com 12,4% da farinha do subproduto de feijão. A inclusão de farinha do subproduto de feijão até 6,2% como substituto do farelo de soja não diminui o desempenho produtivo e a composição corporal dos peixes.

  5. Estrategia para el manejo de suelos ácidos en frijol (phaseolus vulgaris l. en el estado de Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Villar S\\u00E1nchez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrategia para el manejo de suelos ácidos en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el estado de Chiapas, México. Por su contribución en la dieta alimenticia y la generación de empleos, y por existir una ancestral cultura productiva y una superficie de siembra de más de 100 mil hectáreas, el cultivo de frijol es de fundamental importancia en el estado de Chiapas. Sin embargo, se ha determinado una brecha tecnológica de más de 700 kg/ha entre el potencial del cultivo y los rendimientos actuales. Esta es ocasionada por numerosos factores limitantes entre los que destaca la presencia de suelos de baja fertilidad y ácidos. La estrategia adoptada para el manejo de este problema incluye: 1.Aplicación de cal y fósforo; 2. Mejoramiento genético para resistencia; 3.Manejo de los ciclos de materia orgánica y nutrientes del suelo; y 4.Combinación de las tres alternativas. En este reporte se dan los avances obtenidos con relación a la primera alternativa considerada como el paso inicial para el logro de un manejo integral de suelos en Chiapas. Durante 1997 se estudiaron cinco dosis de cal y tres de fósforo en condiciones de invernadero y campo para suelos de diferentes localidades. Se utilizó un experimento factorial completo con cuatro repeticiones, los experimentos fueron evaluados en términos de la producción de grano y al efecto de la cal sobre las propiedades químicas del suelo. Hubo respuesta del frijol en rendimiento a la aplicación de cal y fósforo

  6. Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Cai, L.; Crous, P.W.; Damm, U.

    2013-01-01

    The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to

  7. Ethylene: a regulator of root architectural responses to soil phosphorus availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Lynch, J.P.; Brown, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in root architectural responses to phosphorus availability was investigated in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L,) plants grown with sufficient and deficient phosphorus. Although phosphorus deficiency reduced root mass and lateral root number, main root length was

  8. Efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y la producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y producción del cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se hicieron dos experimentos, uno in vitro con un diseño completamente aleatorizado y otro en campo con dos variantes y 8 réplicas (diseño de bloques al azar. El tratamiento en ambos ensayos fue inmersión de las semillas en una solución del promotor al 0,02% por 3 horas y otro grupo testigo con inmersión por igual tiempo en agua natural. Los resultados mostraron que la germinación y la altura de las plantas fueron mejores con la inmersión en el producto en ambos experimentos. En el ensayo de campo los vainas por planta no hubo diferencia entre los tratamientos. En los granos por vaina y granos por planta el grupo tratado fue superior al control en 16,70 y 15,22% respectivamente. La masa de 100 granos no mostró diferencia entre ambos tratamientos. El rendimiento agrícola fue superior en los tratados(1,22t.ha-1 vs. 1,02. Con ambos experimentos se determinó que el promotor del crecimiento influyó positivamente en la germinación, desarrollo y producción del cultivo del frijol.

  9. [sup 60]Co, [sup 63]Ni and [sup 94]Nb soil-to-plant transfer in pot experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Mohamad, S.A.; Mueck, K.; Horak, O. (Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences)

    1994-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors for [sup 60]Co, [sup 63]Ni and [sup 94]Nb were obtained via pot experiments with a Dystric Cambisol and a Calcic Chernozem, both from Lower Austria. Investigated plants were greenrape (Brassica napus oleifera L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The soil-to-plant transfer factors decreased from [sup 63]Ni to [sup 60]Co and [sup 94]Nb. Mean values from all experiments ranged from 1.12 ([sup 63]Ni) to 0.0045 ([sup 94]Nb). The transfer values obtained for [sup 60]Co and [sup 63]Ni are comparable to literature values, but [sup 94]Nb-transfer seems to be lower than previous estimates. All radionuclides showed differences between plant species and plant organs. Transfer values were also dependent on the soil type. (author).

  10. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Joaquín J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the β-1,2-cyclic glucan from R

  11. Diversidade genética em acessos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genetic diversity in common bean accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os recursos genéticos devem ser devidamente caracterizados para permitir ganhos genéticos mais promissores no melhoramento e para o uso destes recursos pelo próprio agricultor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de acessos de feijão comum do germoplasma existente na Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, através de inter-relações entre os descritores agronômicos. O experimento foi conduzido a partir de outubro de 2005, constituído por 20 acessos de feijão comum, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com 3 repetições. Foi utilizada a técnica de análise multivariada para medir a divergência genética representada pela distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Com base na matriz de dissimilaridade genética gerada, foi construído o dendrograma pelo método de agrupamento da distância média. Das 12 variáveis envolvidas no estudo, o peso de 100 sementes teve a maior contribuição na separação dos genótipos, seguido pela espessura do legume, pelo comprimento do legume e pelo rendimento de grãos. Os acessos BAF 42, BAF 46, BAF 47 e BAF 57 se destacaram quanto ao nível de produtividade (3.500 a 5.000kg ha-1 e devem ser mais bem caracterizados para serem incorporados nos programas de melhoramento da cultura e/ou indicado para os agricultores.The correct characterization of genetic resources allows to identify sources of variability, a genetic profit during the plant breeding and use of these resources in the crop science. This research was aimed at evaluating genetic divergence in bean accessions of a germplasm of Santa Catarina, through interrelation among the agronomic character descriptor. Twenty bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. accessions were evaluated carried out in October 2005, using the randomized block design with three replications. The genotypes were studied using multivariable techniques to measure genetic divergence represented by the generalized distance of

  12. Effect of the dietary level of cull pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and digestibility of hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Castillo Rangel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effect of three levels of cull pinto beans (CPB; Phaseolus vulgaris on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and nutrient digestibility in hair lambs. Six cannulated lambs averaging 56.6±3.8 kg were used and were randomly assigned to one of three treatments. Treatments were: 0.0 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (control; 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB25; and 0.40 kg kg−1 of CPB in the supplement (CB40. Dry matter intake, ruminal pH, NH3, and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, methane production, Kp (passage rate, MRT (mean retention time, and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were evaluated. Data were analyzed in a Latin square design, repeated in line, by MIXED procedure of SAS. Estimates used for Kp and MRT were obtained by a non-linear regression model (PROC NLIN. Dry matter intake was reduced by supplementation of CPB. No differences were found in ruminal pH or ruminal NH3. During the trial, differences were found for ruminal VFA concentration (mM, which were greater for the CB25 group. The propionate:acetate ratio was greater for the CB40 treatment. Methane production (mM/m differed among treatments, but it was the greatest for the CB40 group. Passage rate (kg kg−1/h and MRT (h were similar among treatments and the digestibility (kg kg−1 of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber was not different among treatments. The inclusion of 0.25 kg kg−1 of CPB in the diet of hair lambs allows for appropriate nutrient digestion without affecting Kp and MRT and increases the molar proportion of the ability of VFA to maintain acetate:propionate ratio without increasing methane production.

  13. Berberis vulgaris: specifications and traditional uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Lorigoini, Zahra; Zamani-gharaghoshi, Hajar; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The medicinal plants from genus Berberis are particularly important in traditional medicine and the food basket of Iranians. Given various plants from genus Berberis and their economic, nutritional, and medicinal status in Iran, this study seeks to investigate the findings of recent studies on the phytochemical characteristics, specifications, and uses of Berberis vulgaris. In this review article, 350 articles were initially retrieved from reliable scientific databases using relevant search terms. Then, 230 articles were selected and 120 were excluded after a primary analysis. Finally, 98 articles related to the subject under study were meticulously examined and the required data were extracted and classified according to the research purposes. The findings were divided into eight separate sections: Introducing Berberidaceae family, different species of Berberis, pharmaceutical organs, B. vulgaris nutrition facts and minerals, the antioxidants and alkaloids compounds in fruit and other organs, action mechanisms of preventing and treating diseases, traditional uses of B. vulgaris, and its properties reported by recent studies. The results briefly indicate that B. vulgaris contains a large number of phytochemical materials including ascorbic acid, vitamin K, several triterpenoids, more than 10 phenolic compounds and more than 30 alkaloids. Therefore B. vulgaris may have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, analgesic and anti-nociceptive and hepato-protective effects. Regarding the use of different organs of B. vulgaris in traditional medicine and their confirmed effects in the recent studies, it is possible to use different organs of B. vulgaris, especially fruit, to develop new drugs. PMID:28656092

  14. Berberis vulgaris: specifications and traditional uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi-Madiseh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants from genus Berberis are particularly important in traditional medicine and the food basket of Iranians. Given various plants from genus Berberis and their economic, nutritional, and medicinal status in Iran, this study seeks to investigate the findings of recent studies on the phytochemical characteristics, specifications, and uses of Berberis vulgaris. In this review article, 350 articles were initially retrieved from reliable scientific databases using relevant search terms. Then, 230 articles were selected and 120 were excluded after a primary analysis. Finally, 98 articles related to the subject under study were meticulously examined and the required data were extracted and classified according to the research purposes. The findings were divided into eight separate sections: Introducing Berberidaceae family, different species of Berberis, pharmaceutical organs, B. vulgaris nutrition facts and minerals, the antioxidants and alkaloids compounds in fruit and other organs, action mechanisms of preventing and treating diseases, traditional uses of B. vulgaris, and its properties reported by recent studies. The results briefly indicate that B. vulgaris contains a large number of phytochemical materials including ascorbic acid, vitamin K, several triterpenoids, more than 10 phenolic compounds and more than 30 alkaloids. Therefore B. vulgaris may have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, analgesic and anti-nociceptive and hepato-protective effects. Regarding the use of different organs of B. vulgaris in traditional medicine and their confirmed effects in the recent studies, it is possible to use different organs of B. vulgaris, especially fruit, to develop new drugs.

  15. Production of transgenetic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants resistant to phosphinothricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskii, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2005-01-01

    A method of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) with vacuum infiltration has been developed. Aseptic 3-weeks old etiolated seedlings of two diploid O-type sugarbeet lines (KS3 and KS7) have been used for genetic transformation. Transgenic sugarbeet plants carrying the reporter beta-glucuronidase gene have been selected for their resistance to glufosinate ammonium herbicide. Integration of transgenes into sugarbeet genome was confirmed with GUS assay and PCR using primers for bar and gusA genes.

  16. A re-sequencing based assessment of genomic heterogeneity and fast neutron-induced deletions in a common bean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A. O'Rourke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A small fast neutron mutant population has been established from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Hawk. We leveraged the available P. vulgaris genome sequence and high throughput next generation DNA sequencing to examine the genomic structure of five Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Hawk fast neutron mutants with striking visual phenotypes. Analysis of these genomes identified three classes of structural variation; between cultivar variation, natural variation within the fast neutron mutant population, and fast neutron induced mutagenesis. Our analyses focused on the latter two classes. We identified 23 large deletions (>40 bp common to multiple individuals, illustrating residual heterogeneity and regions of structural variation within the common bean cv. Red Hawk. An additional 18 large deletions were identified in individual mutant plants. These deletions, ranging in size from 40 bp to 43,000 bp, are potentially the result of fast neutron mutagenesis. Six of the 18 deletions lie near or within gene coding regions, identifying potential candidate genes causing the mutant phenotype.

  17. Construcción de una genoteca de cDNA de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. para mapeo genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca William M.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A small cDNA library from beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of about 1500 clones was constructed, to further saturate the bean RFLP linkage map. The primarily synthesized cDNAs were amplified by PCR using the adaptors as primers for amplification (Jepson et al., 1991. Inserts in the range of 500 bp were obtained. 93 clones were singled for further analysis. They showed a degree of repeatibility of around 61 %. Around 80% of the unique clones were single copy, and 20% were low copy sequences as expected from a cDNA library. Three pairs of parental bean lines were chosen for their agronomical traits, and evaluated for polymorphism, which was highest as revealed by digestion with EcoRV (77%, followed by DraI (73%, EcoRI (63% and HindIIl (60%. The highest polymorphism was observed between the pair DOR60 and APNI8, 71% for EcoRV and 57% for EcoRI, respectively. Two clones of the two groups with the most repeated clones were analyzed by slot blot hybridization against the other clones and ribosomal DNA, to understand the origin of the repetitions. Only one clone seemed to be of ribosomal origin, as confirmed by the patterns obtained by hybridization to bean genomic DNA digested with HaelIl, implying that the whole group to which it belonged was of ribosomal origin.  It can be explained by the combined utilization of the PCR amplification methodology and the multipleprimers for the synthesis of the first cDNA strand.

    Se construyó una pequeña librería de cDNA de fríjol (phaseolus vulgaris L. de alrededor de 1500 clones, con el fin de incrementar la saturación del mapa de ligamiento de fríjol con marcadores de RFLPs. Para la generación de la librería se utilizó la técnica de amplificación por PCR (Jepson et al., 1991. En ella se utilizan como iniciadores para la reacción los mismos adaptadores empleados para generar los terminales cohesivos del cDNA. Se obtuvieron insertos con un promedio de 500 pares de bases. Se aislaron 93 clones, los

  18. Biochars mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and bioaccumulation of potentially toxic elements and arsenic speciation in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Chi, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Yaoyang; Zhu, Yongguan

    2017-08-01

    Anthropogenic and natural activities can lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions and discharge of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into soil environment. Biochar amendment to soils is a cost-effective technology and sustainable approach used to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, improve phytoremediation, and minimize the health risks associated with consumption of PTE-contaminated vegetables. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of peanut shell biochar (PNB) and sewage sludge biochar (SSB) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, plant growth, PTE bioaccumulation, and arsenic (As) speciation in bean plants. Results indicated that amendments of PNB and SSB increased plant biomass production by increasing soil fertility and reducing bioavailability of PTEs. Addition of biochars also increased soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 -N) but decreased available concentrations of PTEs such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and As. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 - -N) was also decreased in biochar-amended soils. In addition, PNB and SSB amendments significantly (P Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions were significantly (P greenhouse gas emissions and PTE bioaccumulation as well as arsenic speciation in P. vulgaris L.

  19. MÓDULO DE ELASTICIDAD COMO CRITERIO DE REGULACIÓN HÍDRICA DEL FREJOL COMÚN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. BAJO REDUCCIONES CONTROLADAS DE RIEGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Vega Ponce

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación consistió en estudiar el efecto de reducciones controladas de riego sobre el módulo de elasticidad (Ev en plantas de frejol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivadas en maceteros de respuesta hidrogravitrópica. Las plantas fueron sometidas a riego completo de raíces (RCR y riego parcial de raíces (RPR, donde el agua asignada de acuerdo a la curva de retención agua-suelo permitió controlar y configurar cuatro tratamientos (RPR300, RPR500, RCR300 y RCR500 o control. Se monitoreó el potencial hídrico xilemático (Mx de las hojas, para luego construir la curva presión-volumen (P-V y determinar Ev. Los resultados mostraron que los diferentes volúmenes de agua aplicados generaron importantes variaciones en los niveles de Ev; sin embargo, en los tratamientos configurados para llevar el suelo a capacidad de campo (RPR500 y RCR500 fue donde se obtuvieron los mejores desempeños de Ev, efecto esperado principalmente antes de aplicar el riego a las plantas (15,63 y 15,34 MPA, respectivamente. Finalmente, aunque ambos tratamientos obtuvieron el mismo nivel de significancia de Ev, RPR500 se destacó sobre el tratamiento control, porque los volúmenes de agua reducidos, combinados con el mantenimiento de diferentes valores de humedad en el suelo explorado por las raíces, pudieron ser claves en el favorecimiento de un ajuste elástico.

  20. CLE peptide-encoding gene families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, compared with those of soybean, common bean and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastwell, April H; de Bang, Thomas Christian; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    these complete CLE peptide-encoding gene families with those of fellow legumes, Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris, in addition to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This approach provided insight into the evolution of CLE peptide families and enabled us to establish putative M. truncatula and L. japonicus...

  1. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  2. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of free phenolic compounds and oligosaccharides from corn (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chips during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and simulated colonic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo-Ocampo, I; Campos-Vega, R; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Preciado-Ortiz, R; Mendoza, S; Loarca-Piña, G

    2017-10-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are alternative suitable ingredients for snacks, because of their content of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds (PC) and oligosaccharides (OS). However, there is no information about the transformation of these compounds associated with food matrix during gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, the objective of this work was to simulate the whole digestion process (mouth to colon) to estimate bioaccessibility and small intestine permeability of free PC and OS, and the antioxidant capacity of free PC. Digested nixtamalized corn-cooked common bean chips exhibited significant different quantities of free PC and OS, and higher antioxidant activity compared to methanolic extract. The free PC showed high values of apparent permeability coefficients (0.023-0.729×10 -3 ), related with their absorption in the small intestine. Both free PC and OS were retained in the non-digestible fraction of chips (10.24-64.4%) and were able to reach the colon. Our results suggest the digestion potential to increase chip bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Additional studies are required to evaluate their in vivo effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, nodulation success by the inoculum was total in the clay but only dismal in the sandy soil. The unexpected discrepancy between inoculum success on the one hand and nodulation plus plant growth response on the other, is discussed. Keywords: Bean nodulation, ELISA typing of nodules, phaseolus vulgaris

  4. Genetic and sexual separation between insect resistant and susceptible Barbarea vulgaris plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toneatto, Fiorello; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Ørgaard, Marian

    2010-01-01

    of these interactions, we tested how genetically divergent resistant and susceptible plants are, using microsatellite markers. To test whether they are reproductively fully compatible, resistant and susceptible plants were grown intermixed in an outdoor experiment, and the paternity of open-pollinated offspring......Co-evolution between herbivores and plants is believed to be one of the processes creating Earth’s biodiversity. However, it is difficult to disentangle to what extent diversification is really driven by herbivores or by other historical-geographical processes like allopatric isolation....... In the cruciferous plant Barbarea vulgaris, some Danish individuals are resistant to herbivory by flea beetles (Phyllotreta nemorum), whereas others are not. The flea beetles are, in parallel, either resistant or susceptible to the plants defenses. To understand the historical-evolutionary framework...

  5. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalea Guerra-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1 provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2 examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3 identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20 and P. dumosus (35. Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated

  6. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, Azalea; Suárez-Atilano, Marco; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Piñero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1) provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2) examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3) identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs) from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20) and P. dumosus (35). Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated domestication

  7. Effect of nitrogen supply on some indices of plant-water relations of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimshi, D

    1970-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen supply on some indices of plant-water relations was studied on potted bean plants. When soil moisture was relatively high, the leaves of N-deficient plants transpired less than those of N-supplied plants, the transpiration rate being closely associated with the chlorophyll content of the leaves of various ages. In detached leaves which were saturated by floating over distilled water, stomatal width was markedly wider in N-supplied than in N-deficient plants. Throughout the available moisture range, the water saturation deficit was higher in N-supplied leaves. In the dry range of soil moisture, chlorotic leaves transpired more than normal green leaves; N-deficient plants failed to exhibit a sharp rise in the content of soluble metabolites in the sap, when approaching the wilting range. The content of cell wall materials was higher in N-deficient plants. The relationships between these indices is discussed; it is tentatively concluded that nitrogen deficiency impairs the ability of the plants to adjust their water status to changes in soil moisture by regulation of stomatal transpiration and of sap solute concentration. 21 references, 2 tables.

  8. Ácaros predadores (Acari em plantas nativas e cultivadas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Predators mites (Acari in native and cultivated plants of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in twenty counties of the following regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul: Plain, Central Depression, Plateau and Coast Plain to find out the diversity of mite predators in these places. Forty-six vegetable species were sampled, thirty species of miles of the families Anystidae, Ascidae, Cheyletidae, Cunaxidae, Phyloseiidae and Stigmaeidae were mel. The Phytoseiidae were the mite that presented the greatest diversity, being present in the majority of the sample plants. Most of the Phytoseiidae that were met belong to five species of the Euseius Wainstein, 1962 genus, the second genus of this family was Iphiseiodes DeLeon, 1966, with just one species. The Stigmaeidae come up as second family in number but fewer than Phytoseiidae. In this family, the most common mite belong to the Agistemus Sumers, 1960 genus. The biggest of the mites species (13 species, was met in Morus spp. (Moraceae and Tabebuia spp. (Bignoniaceae; Phaseolus vulgaris (Papilionaceae; only one species of the mite was met in Campomanesia spp. (Myrtaceae, Phaseolus vulgaris (Papilionaceae and Rosa spp. (Rosaceae. In Alamanda spp.(Apocinaceae, Ficus spp. (Moraceae, Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae and Solanum spp. (Solanaceae were met mites predators. A dichotomic key is presented to separate the families, genus and species of the mites.

  9. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  10. Failure of survival strategies in adaption of heavy metal environment in lens culinaris and phaseolus mungo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, S.; Azmat, R.

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb)-treated Lens culinaris and Phaseolus mungo seedlings leaves showed considerable reduction in the size with enhance proline and phenol contents while peroxidase and lignin activity was Pb/sup 2+/ dose dependent. The reduced leaves sizes of both seedlings were correlated with an increase in Pb/sup 2+/levels, and activities of peroxidase and lignin deposition in it. The intensification of activities of peroxidase and phenol in the Pb/sup 2+/ treated plants were accompanied by an increase in the biosynthesis of the lignin contents as their function is of scavenging ROS radical. A strong correlation (r/sup 2/=0.8570) was observed between Pb/sup 2+/ and lignin deposition in the Lens culinaris whereas it was non-significant in Phaseolus mungo (r/sup 2/=0.466). Increased in the lignin contents in the Lens culinaris as a chemical adaptation of the cell walls of various leaves tissues for endurance while decrease in the lignin contents in Phaseolus mungo at high dose of Pb/sup 2+/ may be attributed with the decline in the peroxidase activity. Investigations revealed that although plants adopt several biochemical strategies for their survival but toxicity of Pb/sup 2+/was significant due to which plant fails to continue in stay alive. (author)

  11. Identification and Characterization of Natural Sources of Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although this spinach that was extracted represents only one composite sample, these results combined with those of field bean and hydroponic studies...in hydroponically grown snap bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with those of the starting reference materials and growth solutions . Results for NO3...weighed and frozen until processed. 2.8.2.2 Sampling and Processing of Hydroponic Solutions The plant solute extraction method of Ellington

  12. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Comparisons of phaseolin type and α-amylase inhibitor in common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying Zhu; Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type and a-amylase(αAI) level in common bean(Phaseolus vidgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank.The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia,North America,South America,Europe,and Africa.No Inca(I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions.Only four accessions contained Tendergreen(T-) phaseolin and the remaining36 contained Sanilac(S-) phaseolin.aAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher a-amylase inhibitory activity than the control(Phase 2,IC50 = 0.65 μg).These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  14. Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)]. E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Sidahmed, I.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); El-Zayady, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Saadawy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    The effect of extracts of Chamomile (Chamaemelum mixtum L.), Halfabar (Cymbopogon proximus), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), and Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on the corrosion of steel in aqueous 1 M sulphuric acid were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process of steel occurs under activation control. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitors. The corrosion rates of steel and the inhibition efficiencies of the extracts were calculated. The results obtained show that the extract solution of the plant could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in sulphuric acid media. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the plant extract up to a critical concentration. The inhibitive actions of plant extracts are discussed on the basis of adsorption of stable complex at the steel surface. Theoretical fitting of different isotherms, Langmuir, Flory-Huggins, and the kinetic-thermodynamic model, were tested to clarify the nature of adsorption.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of the plant growth regulator property of indolic compounds derived from safrole; Sintese e avaliacao da propriedade reguladora de crescimento vegetal de compostos indolicos derivados do safrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, Irineu [Escola Agrotecnica Federal de Rio do Sul, Rio do Sul, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: marchi@softhouse.com.br; Rebelo, Ricardo Andrade; Rosa, Flavia A. Fernandes da; Maiochi, Riceli A. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-15

    The present work describes the use of piperonal, a derivative of the secondary metabolite safrole, for the synthesis of new 5,6-methylenedioxy substituted indole carboxylic acids structurally related to the indol-3-yl-acetic acid (AIA, I). The route comprises six steps beginning with piperonal with an overall yield of 19%. Compound IX was tested towards its plant growth regulator properties in bioassays specific for auxine activity. The in vitro assays were performed in a germination chamber and were of two types: root growth in germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa, Cucumbis sativus and Raphanus sativus and peciole biotest using Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  16. clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Blair, W.M., Porch, T., Cichy, K., Galeano, H. C,. Lariguet, P., Pankhurst, C. and Broughton, W. 2007a. Induced mutants in common bean. (Phaseolus vulgaris) and their potential use in nutrition quality, breeding and gene discovery. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 55:191 - 200. Blair, W.M., Fregene, A.M., ...

  17. Efecto inhibitorio de los taninos del frijol carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina por dos sistemas multienzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pino Victoria H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cantidades variables de dos sistemas multienzimáticos de tripsina-quimotripsina-peptidasa y pepsina-pancreatina, fueron utilizados para evaluar el efecto de los taninos provenientes de frijol Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, en las formas nativa y denaturalizada. Esta evaluación hecha por los métodos de caida de pH, de hidrólisis en medio tamponado con posterior medición del grado de hidrólisis con ninhidrina y por la técnica electroforética, demostró el efecto adverso de los taninos condensados sobre la digestibilidad de la faseolina, después de producirse una significativa inhibición en el grado de hidrólisis de esa proteína por los dos sistemas multienzimáticos. Se comprobó la dificultad de hidrólisis de la faseolina cuando esta unida al tanino en el punto de saturación (proporción 5/20 tanino/proteína p/p y mayores, después de detectarse en los perfiles electroforéticos, péptidos de 45.7 y 24KDa, resistentes a la hidrólisis hasta por prolongados períodos de incubación. Esto se debió a la existencia de un complejo de naturaleza refractária no digeríble, incluso en condiciones excesivas de enzima. Los resultados sugieren la unión simultánea del tanino con mas de un ligante a través de sus múltiples grupos hidróxilos libres, formando un complejo proteína-tanino-enzima (PTE* que correspondería a la fracción no digeríble de la faseolina.

  18. Efecto de la temperatura, el estrés hídrico y luminoso sobre la heterogeneidad del fotosistema II en cuatro variedades de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of temperature, water and light stress on PSII heterogeneity in four bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIERA GONZÁLEZ

    2001-12-01

    diferencias en la magnitud de los cambios observados en las diferentes variedades de poroto, en todos ellos se aprecia la tendencia a modificar la estructura de los centros PSII, de manera de favorecer una menor sobreexcitación de los centros de reacción de dichos complejos, en las situaciones de estrés estudiadasHigher plants have developed multiple mechanisms of photoprotection in order to efficiently use the absorbed energy, as well as protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against oxidative damage. Particularly, under environmental conditions, restrictive for the photochemical use of the absorbed energy, such as high light, water stress and high temperatures. PSII complexes are able to change their location and structure as in PSIIß and state transitions, but not exclusively upon light intensity. In the present study, the effect of different environmental stresses on PSII heterogeneity in four bean cultivar (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: Arroz Tuscola (AT, Orfeo INIA (OI, Bayos Titán (BT and Hallado Dorado (HD, has been assessed. In chamber grown plants, the proportion of the PSIIb centers increases up to a 100 % as the temperature rises. A stronger response was observed, upon water stress. Under field conditions, light stress induced by fixing leaves to horizontal position, further increased the water stress dependent effect on PSIIb centers, from 27 % in free leaves from watered plants up to a 63 % in horizontal leaves from water stressed plants. As for state transitions, an increase was observed in 20 ºC grown plants when exposed to 15 ºC. Also, temperatures from 25 to 35 ºC induced increases in state transitions. Such increases were lowered by water stress, in cultivars AT and OI, maintained in HD and further increased in BT. Even though differences were observed in the extent of the changes on PSIIß and state transitions among varieties, a clear trend to modify the PSII structure in order to decrease its excitation pressure under the stress conditions studied were

  19. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop, is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22, signal transduction (21, protein synthesis and processing (20, development and cytoskeletal organization (12, transport of proteins (7, gene expression and RNA metabolism (4, redox reactions (4, defense and stress responses (3, energy metabolism (3, and hormone responses (2. Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as

  20. 1444-IJBCS-Article-Pamphile Nguema+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    L'hybridation interspécifique est souvent utilisée pour faciliter l'échange génétique chez de nombreux végétaux. Ainsi, le croisement entre Phaseolus coccineus L. et. Phaseolus vulgaris L. est utile pour l'amélioration génétique du haricot commun. L'utilisation du cytoplasme de P. vulgaris lors de ces hybridations aboutit ...

  1. Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, both on International and European level a series of treaties and laws have been devised in order to save local varieties of crop plants. The most important methods of traditional seed conservation are on farm and ex situ (Maxim et al., 2010; Kontoleonet al., 2009. The identification of local Romanian varieties of bean, their morphological and agronomic description, seed production and its spreading in the purpose of genetic erosion reduction. Their have been taken into study 13 local varieties of bean. For the morphological description descriptors have been used accordingly to the IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. For the evaluation of the diseases attack, frequency (F%, intensity (I% and degree of attack (GA% have been calculated.The exchanges of seed between farmers were facilitated through the online catalog edited by the Eco Ruralis Association that promotes traditional seeds. Of the 13 local varieties of beean taken into study, two are with determined growth(15.3%, and 11 are with undetermined growth(84.7%. The most significant production of pods on the plant was documented on local variety MM 1039 (2.736kg, and the most significant production of beans on plant was documented on local variety HD 904 (1.156kg. The most resistant varieties against bacterian attack, anthracnose, aphids and rust were: SJ 890, CJ 909, CV 917 şi HD 1159. The growing phenomenon of genetic erosion implies the indentification and the conservation of crop plants. In the year 2015, 13 local varieties of bean have been taken into study that were used for conservation in seeds’ genbank and for the exchange of seeds between farmers.

  2. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormeño-Orrillo Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical

  3. Carbon allocation and decomposition of root-derived organic matter in a plant-soil system of Calluna vulgaris as affected by elevated CO2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.S.J.; Gorissenand, A.; Arp, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 on C allocation in plant and soil was assessed using soil cores planted with 1-y-old heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull). Plants were pulse-labeled with 14CO2 at ambient and elevated CO2 and two nitrogen regimes (low and high). After harvesting the plants, the soil was

  4. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M.; Arthur, Valter

    2011-01-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  5. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M., E-mail: adriana.souza@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  6. Growth dynamics of two bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. l. Growth analysis by fixed periods Dinámica de crecimiento de dos variedades de frijol (phaseolus vulgaris L. l. análisis de crecimiento por periodos fijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado Gustavo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Inthe vegetative phase of growth in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., the dry matter gain depends on the physiological behavior and growth habit of the bean plant. The Growth process in relation to growth type were evaluated in the present study. The purpose of the study was to establish growth type and growth index relations in ICA-Cerinza (growth type 1 and
    ICA -Tundama (growth type 11 wich are both bush bean varieties. The plants were sown in 40.5 m2 plots, in rows spaced 0.5 m. and 0.12 m. between plants in a randomized completely block design with 4 replications; samples of 3 plants per plotwere taken 7 days each starting 15 to 78 days after emergence. Total dryweight (TOW Stem dryweight (SOW, leaf dry weight (LOW and total leaf area (TLA were
    determined. Relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, leaf area ratio (LAR, leaf weight ratio (LWR, and specific leaf area (SLA, were determined by the classical aproach. Significant differences in TDW, SDW, LDW, and TLA between varieties were detected in the 15 and 78 days
    evaluations. Similar results were obtained for RGR, NAR, LAR, LWR, and SLA. The mean RGR was 0.0455 g. g-1 .day-1 in Cerinza and 0.0437 g.g-1.day -1 in Tundama but these were no statistically different. NAR and RGR had similar trends and were positive and significantly correlated. LAR decreced
    linearly in Cerinza, but it was cuadratic in Tundama with the highest values in the initial and the last evaluations. The LWR show that Tundama variety translocated more dry matter to assimilatory tissue formation. SLA was similar for the two varieties, but it was higher in the indeterminate (type 11, showing that Tundama had moretinny leaves. Growth analysis
    utilizing fixed time periods did not allow to detect differences between varieties. Apparently, these were similar in physiological behavior during the vegetative phase independently of growth type.
    La fase de crecimiento vegetativo de la planta de

  7. Differences in the availabilities of cesium-134,137 and ruthenium-106 from a Chernobyl-contaminated soil to a water plant, duckweed, and to the terrestrial plants, bean and lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polar, E.; Bayuelgen, N.

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous solubilities of some radionuclides present in a Chernobyl-contaminated soil and their subsequent availabilities to an aquatic plant, duckweed (Lemnaceae), were compared to those obtained for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). During this investigation carried out in laboratory conditions, it was observed that, although around 0.06% of 134 Cs or 137 Cs present in the soil was detected in the aqueous phase, duckweed concentrated 1000-5500 times this amount, depending on plant species. By contrast, 106 Ru in the soil was leached more effectively into solution than was cesium but its accumulation into duckweed was less. The effects on the availabilities of ruthenium and cesium of depletion of soil organic matter and of amendment of the aqueous phase with nutrients were also investigated. The transfer factors of 134,137 Cs into bean and lettuce cultivated in the same soil were 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, while that for 106 Ru was around 0.2. The difference between aquatic and terrestrial plants in cycling radionuclides is briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Differences in the availabilities of cesium-134,137 and ruthenium-106 from a Chernobyl-contaminated soil to a water plant, duckweed, and to the terrestrial plants, bean and lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polar, E.; Bayuelgen, N. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous solubilities of some radionuclides present in a Chernobyl-contaminated soil and their subsequent availabilities to an aquatic plant, duckweed (Lemnaceae), were compared to levels found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). During this investigation carried out in laboratory conditions, it was observed that, although around 0.06% of {sup 134}Cs or {sup 137}Cs present in the soil was detected in the aqueous phase, duckweed concentrated 1000-5500 times this amount, depending on plant species. By contrast, {sup 106}Ru in the soil was leached more effectively into solution than was cesium but its accumulation into duckweed was less. The effects on the availabilities of ruthenium and cesium of depletion of soil organic matter and of amendment of the aqueous phase with nutrients were also investigated. The transfer factors of {sup 134,137}Cs into bean and lettuce cultivated in the same soil were 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, while that for {sup 106}Ru was around 0.2. The difference between aquatic and terrestrial plants in cycling radionuclides is briefly discussed. (author).

  9. Dynamics of the weed infestation with Senecio vulgaris after a single entry from seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söchting, Hans-Peter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to a short generation time associated with a high seed production and a quick germination, which is possible throughout the year, Senecio vulgaris is especially in horticultural crops one of the most important weed species. Like all ragwort species, also Senecio vulgaris contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are converted in the liver to harmful substances. For this reason an accidental consumption of this species should be avoided completely. Belonging to the Compositae, chemical control of this weed species in vegetable crops, particularly in lettuce, is difficult. Based on a field-grown model experiment the emergence behavior and growth of Senecio vulgaris in leafy lettuce was studied. The first step was the contamination of the trial plots with Senecio seeds. For this purpose Senecio plants were planted at three different densities (1, 2 and 10 plants m2 in the designated plots. All plots were covered with fleece in order to prevent an unregulated dispersal of seeds. After seed maturity the fleece was removed, plants were cut into small pieces and the plant material including the seeds was incorporated into the soil. Then different leafy lettuces crops (rocket, asia green, spinach, lamb´s lettuce were cultivated in a six-crop sequence over two years (three crop sopecies per year. The development of Senecio vulgaris and the resulting possible contamination of the lettuces with Senecio leaves was recorded. From the date of removing the fleece on seed-production a shedding of Senecio plants was prevented to avoid further contamination. Also the entry from outside the plots was excluded. Depending on the initial plant density, the 71, 55 and 216 Senecio plants m2 which emerged after the first sowing of lettuce dropped to 7, 9 and 16 plants m2 after the sixth sowing. Thus, the density of S. vulgaris plants rapidly decreased but there was still a significant potential of emerging seedlings potentially contaminating the lettuce crops after

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid variation in Senecio vulgaris populations from native and invasive ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Ge, Jiwen; Mulder, Patrick P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasion is regarded as one of the greatest environmental problems facilitated by globalization. Some hypotheses about the invasive mechanisms of alien invasive plants consider the plant–herbivore interaction and the role of plant defense in this interaction. For example, the “Shift Defense Hypothesis” (SDH) argues that introduced plants evolve higher levels of qualitative defense chemicals and decreased levels of quantitative defense, as they are released of the selective pressures from specialist herbivores but still face attack from generalists. Common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), originating from Europe, is a cosmopolitan invasive plant in temperate regions. As in other Senecio species, S. vulgaris contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) as characteristic qualitative defense compounds. In this study, S. vulgaris plants originating from native and invasive ranges (Europe and China, respectively) were grown under identical conditions and harvested upon flowering. PA composition and concentration in shoot and root samples were determined using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We investigated the differences between native and invasive S. vulgaris populations with regard to quantitative and qualitative variation of PAs. We identified 20 PAs, among which senecionine, senecionine N-oxide, integerrimine N-oxide and seneciphylline N-oxide were dominant in the roots. In the shoots, in addition to the 4 PAs dominant in roots, retrorsine N-oxide, spartioidine N-oxide and 2 non-identified PAs were also prevalent. The roots possessed a lower PA diversity but a higher total PA concentration than the shoots. Most individual PAs as well as the total PA concentration were strongly positively correlated between the roots and shoots. Both native and invasive S. vulgaris populations shared the pattern described above. However, there was a slight trend indicating lower PA diversity and lower total PA concentration in invasive S. vulgaris

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid variation in Senecio vulgaris populations from native and invasive ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion is regarded as one of the greatest environmental problems facilitated by globalization. Some hypotheses about the invasive mechanisms of alien invasive plants consider the plant–herbivore interaction and the role of plant defense in this interaction. For example, the “Shift Defense Hypothesis” (SDH argues that introduced plants evolve higher levels of qualitative defense chemicals and decreased levels of quantitative defense, as they are released of the selective pressures from specialist herbivores but still face attack from generalists. Common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris, originating from Europe, is a cosmopolitan invasive plant in temperate regions. As in other Senecio species, S. vulgaris contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs as characteristic qualitative defense compounds. In this study, S. vulgaris plants originating from native and invasive ranges (Europe and China, respectively were grown under identical conditions and harvested upon flowering. PA composition and concentration in shoot and root samples were determined using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. We investigated the differences between native and invasive S. vulgaris populations with regard to quantitative and qualitative variation of PAs. We identified 20 PAs, among which senecionine, senecionine N-oxide, integerrimine N-oxide and seneciphylline N-oxide were dominant in the roots. In the shoots, in addition to the 4 PAs dominant in roots, retrorsine N-oxide, spartioidine N-oxide and 2 non-identified PAs were also prevalent. The roots possessed a lower PA diversity but a higher total PA concentration than the shoots. Most individual PAs as well as the total PA concentration were strongly positively correlated between the roots and shoots. Both native and invasive S. vulgaris populations shared the pattern described above. However, there was a slight trend indicating lower PA diversity and lower total PA concentration in

  12. Transcript profiling of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. using the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronwald John W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybean (Glycine max both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. Results To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common bean and soybean in triplicate to the soybean GeneChip. Initial data analysis showed a decreased sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression in common bean cross-species hybridization (CSH GeneChip data compared to that of soybean. We employed a method that masked putative probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions between common bean and soybean. A masking signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression. After masking for ISV regions, the number of differentially-expressed genes identified in common bean was increased by 2.8-fold reflecting increased sensitivity. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of 20 randomly selected genes and purine-ureide pathway genes demonstrated an increased accuracy of measuring differential gene expression after masking for ISV regions. We also evaluated masked probe frequency per probe set to gain insight into the sequence divergence pattern between common bean and soybean. The sequence divergence pattern analysis suggested that the genes for basic cellular functions and metabolism were highly conserved between soybean and common bean. Additionally, our results show that some classes of genes, particularly those associated with environmental adaptation, are highly divergent. Conclusions The soybean GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for transcript profiling in common bean when used in combination with the masking protocol described. In

  13. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2-20mm) on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris when compared to the ... The result from this preliminary study suggests that the plant contains active compounds that .... Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, Vom,. Jos.

  14. Influence of boron on the morphological and physiological growth parameters of bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.A. de

    1982-01-01

    Effect of boron on Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Cacahuate was studied in nutrient solutions containing 0.000; 0.005; 0.050 and 0.500 ppm of the element. The deficiency of boron affected root growth, leaf development and plant growth. Lower values of net assimilation rate (NAR) indicated reduced photosynthetic activity in the case of boron deficiency. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Berberis vulgaris for cardiovascular disorders: a scoping literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Abushouk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Berberis vulgaris (B. vulgaris is a commonly used plant in traditional medicine. In recent studies, B. vulgaris showed antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, anticholinergic, and cardioprotective effects. We reviewed the literature to explore the possible prophylactic and therapeutic roles of B. vulgaris in cardiovascular medicine. A computer literature search was conducted to identify all relevant studies that have investigated the role of B. vulgaris in prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases.We also searched the citations of the retrieved articles. Using a systematic approach, we conducted a scoping review that included a total of 37 articles. Twelve studies examined the antihypertensive effects of B. vulgaris, seven studies investigated its antiarrhythmic effects, while its inotropic and cardioprotective effects were evaluated in four and eight studies, respectively. B. vulgaris showed a beneficial effect in reducing blood pressure, enhancing cardiac contractility, and protection from reperfusion injury. However, the mechanisms of these effects are still under investigation. Moreover, it could modify major risk factors for cardiovascular disorders, such as oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia. Further studies are needed to translate these findings into effective cardiovascular medications.

  16. [Intoxications with plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  17. 1527-IJBCS-Article-Pamphile Nguema+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    1Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, Institut National Supérieur .... embryos of Phaseolus polyanthus and Phaseolus vulgaris. It allows a ..... Tests of pre- and postpollination barriers to hybridization between sympatric species.

  18. Studies concerning substantial and structural changes in plants under the influence of NO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, W D; Ullrich, H

    1975-05-01

    For determination of the influence of nitrogen dioxide on respiration and photosynthesis, the oxygen and carbon dioxide production in string beans (phaseolus vulgaris) was determined by the Warburg method. It was found that fumigation with NO/sub 2/ had a more deleterious effect on photosynthesis than to respiration, causing the chloroplasts and mitochondria to invaginate more frequently, and produced tubular protrusions on the outer layer of the invaginations. After treatment with NO/sub 2/, dense layers of filaments appeared in the stroma. Nitrogen dioxide treatment caused specific changes in the leaf pigments, thus offering a possibility for specific NO/sub 2/ diagnosis. The uptake of NO/sub 2/ was found to be proportional to the amount of water lost and hence dependent on the stomatal width. The pigment damage was not linearly proportional to the amount of NO/sub 2/ taken in by the plants. Plant substances such as ascorbic acid and dioxyphenylalanin influenced pigment damage. Ectodesmata could not be found. Stomatal reactions of various plants were influenced differently.

  19. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en habichuela Phaseolus vulgaris L., mediante descriptores morfológicos y bioquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificó la variabilidad genética de una muestra de 116 accesiones de habichuela P. vulgaris, cultivadas en centros primarios y secundarios de domesticación. Se evaluaron 18 descriptores morfo-agronómicos asociados con características de la planta, vaina y semilla. Mediante el análisis de las faseolinas utilizando SDS-PAGE se encontraron patrones de bandas de origen andino (T, C y H1 y mesoamericano [S, Sb, CH y H(S+I]. También se evaluaron ocho sistemas isoenzimáticos polimórficos. En el germoplasma de habichuela hay importante contribución del acervo mesoamericano y las accesiones en algunos centros secundarios de domesticación tuvieron origen y procesos de dispersión diferentes de los del fríjol común en tales zonas. La mayor variabilidad morfológica y el mayor número de accesiones con características deseables para el mercado fresco se encontró en el grupo mesoamericano. Se detectó mayor número de genotipos híbridos entre acervos cuando se utilizaron simultáneamente los tres descriptores, lo cual indica una estructura genética compleja que podría deberse al efecto de los factores ambientales propios de la zona templada sobre sus patrones reproductivos. La diversidad total medida con los tres descriptores fue similar a la registrada en fríjol común. Sin embargo, la estructura poblacional encontrada por otros autores en el fríjol común es diferente de la observada en este estudio. Palabras claves: Variabilidad, descriptores morfológicos, isoenzimas, proteínas de semilla, acervos genéticos. ABSTRACT Genetic variability of 116 accesions of Phaseolus vulgaris showing snap beans characteristics coming from primary and secondary centers of domestication, were studied using eighteen morphological descriptors to characterize pods and seeds, SDS-PAGE analysis of seed phaseolins and eight isozyme systems. Higher morphological diversity and best pod marketing characteristics were found at Andean accessions

  20. Plant uptake of bicarbonate as measured with the 11C isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Wood, R.A.; Soufi, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    11 C which is cyclotron produced by 14 N(P, α) 11 C(half-life 20.1 M) was used as a tracer of bicarbonate to determine its movements from a nutrient solution through roots to stems and leaves of bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Improved Tendergreen). The short time involved and the high solution pH minimized the need for use of the Henderson Hasselbach equation for activity correction. Quantities of 11 C did move into roots, stems and leaves with a sharp decreasing gradient (root/stem = 14.5, stems/leaves = 11.7) More 11 C moved into plants with KHCO 3 than with NaHCO 3 . The (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 enhanced 11 C uptake and KNO 3 decreased it. This enhancement and competition indicated possibility of some uptake of HCO 3 - . In an experiment with Galenia pubescens (Eckl. and Zeyh.) Druce, the 11 C was more readily moved to stems and leaves than in bush bean indicating substantial uptake of HCO 3 - . (Auth.)

  1. UTILIZATION OF MEMBRANE MICROFILTRATION IN PREPARATION OF HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN FROM FERMENTED RED BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. EXTRACT AS FORTIFICATION AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Moerniati

    2010-06-01

    : Microfiltration, membrane, Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP, fermented red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

  2. Combined effects of blue light and supplemental far-red light and effects of increasing red light with constant far-red light on growth of kidney bean [Phaseolus vulgaris] under mixtures of narrow-band light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, H.; Shoji, K.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing blue light and decreasing R: FR with supplementary far-red light affect morphogenesis, dry matter production and dry matter partitioning to leaves, stems and roots. In this study, the combined effects of the two spectral treatments were examined in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under the mixture of four different narrow-band light sources. In addition, because the leaf and stem growth are accelerated by increasing red light (600-700 nm) in proportion to far-red light (700-800 nm) while keeping R : FR constant, this study was conducted to determine whether red light or far-red light causes the acceleration of growth. Increasing blue light (400-500 nm) and decreasing R : FR only interacted on stem extension. The results illustrated with figures suggest that blue light amplifies or attenuates the acceleration of stem extension caused by decreasing R : FR. On the other hand, increasing red light with constant far-red light had no influence on leaf expansion or stem extension while R : FR increased. Because the acceleration of leaf and stem growth is caused by increasing either far-red light or both red and far-red light in our environmental conditions, the stimulative effects on leaves and stems seem to require increases in far-red light rather than red light

  3. Mucosal immunogenicity of plant lectins in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O’Hagan, D T

    2000-01-01

    The mucosal immunogenicity of a number of plant lectins with different sugar specificities was investigated in mice. Following intranasal (i.n.) or oral administration, the systemic and mucosal antibody responses elicited were compared with those induced by a potent mucosal immunogen (cholera toxin; CT) and a poorly immunogenic protein (ovalbumin; OVA). After three oral or i.n. doses of CT, high levels of specific serum antibodies were measured and specific IgA was detected in the serum, saliva, vaginal wash, nasal wash and gut wash of mice. Immunization with OVA elicited low titres of serum IgG but specific IgA was not detected in mucosal secretions. Both oral and i.n. delivery of all five plant lectins investigated [Viscum album (mistletoe lectin 1; ML‐1), Lycospersicum esculentum (tomato lectin; LEA), Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA), Triticum vulgaris (wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus I (UEA‐1)] stimulated the production of specific serum IgG and IgA antibody after three i.n. or oral doses. Immunization with ML‐1 induced high titres of serum IgG and IgA in addition to specific IgA in mucosal secretions. The response to orally delivered ML‐1 was comparable to that induced by CT, although a 10‐fold higher dose was administered. Immunization with LEA also induced high titres of serum IgG, particularly after i.n. delivery. Low specific IgA titres were also detected to LEA in mucosal secretions. Responses to PHA, WGA and UEA‐1 were measured at a relatively low level in the serum, and little or no specific mucosal IgA was detected. PMID:10651938

  4. EFEITO DE FATORES AMBIENTAIS DA FOSFATASE ÁCIDA NO FEIJOEIRO EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE ACTIVITY OF ACID PHOSPHATASE IN COMMON BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Plantas com 15 dias após a germinação foram colhidas em experimentos de campo com a finalidade de conhecer o pH, temperatura e tempo necessários para melhor expressar a atividade da fosfatase ácida em três variedades do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Carioca, EMP-84 e CNF-l0, na presença e na ausência de fósforo. Os maiores valores de atividade da fosfatase ácida foram observadas quando as plantas foram colocadas em solução em pH 5,5 durante 120 minutos à temperatura de 30°C. A utilização de substâncias tamponantes como PNPP + Triton X-100 expressaram melhor a atividade da fosfatase ácida. As condições de vácuo constituíram um fator positivo para a atividade da fosfatase ácida. As plantas desenvolvidas sob estresse hídrico apresentaram menor atividade da fosfatase ácida. A relação folha-raiz da atividade da fosfatase ácida atingiu 5,72 para a variedade Carioca, 4,91 para a variedade EMP-84 e 4,36 para a variedade CNF-10.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: pH; temperatura; solução tamponada; tempo de reação; Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Plants with 15 days after the germination were picked in field experiments with the purpose of knowing the best pH, temperature and the necessary time to express the activity of the phosphatase acid in three bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Carioca, EMP-84 and CNF-10, in the presence and in the phosphorus absence. The largest values of activity of the phosphatase acid were observed when the plants were tested in pH 5.5 solution during 120 minutes at the temperature of 30°C. The use of buffer substances as PNPP + Triton X-100 expressed better the activity of the phosphatase acid. The vacuum condition constituted a positive factor to express the activity of the phosphatase acid. The plants

  5. NON PREFERENTIAL OVIPOSITION OF Zabrotes subfasciatus IN COMMON BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L. APPLIED WITH SOME VEGETAL PRODUCTS NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVOPOSIÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833 EM FEIJÃO TRATADO COM DIFERENTES PRODUTOS DE ORIGEM VEGETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corival Cândido da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    It was studied the non-preferential oviposition of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833 in common beans (P. vulgaris L. cv. carioca applied with some vegetal products. The applied products were andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis, neem oil (Azadirachta indica, neem solution and the commercial product Azatin with rates 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg grain. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 4 x 4 with 5 replications. Data were transformed in (x + 1^1/2 and variance analysis while averages were evaluated by Tukey test 5%. All products differed in control. Neem solution and Azatin at 4 ml/kg grain, neem oil at 6 ml/kg grain and andiroba oil (2, 4 and 6 ml/kg grain showed better results than other treatments.

    KEY-WORDS: Zabrotes; Phaseolus; Carapa; Azadirachta; resistance.

    Foi estudada a não-preferência para a oviposição de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman,1833 em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar carioca, tratado com

  6. The course of paraventricular hypothalamic efferents to autonomic structures in medulla and spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Horst, G.J. ter; Karst, H.; Steffens, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    By application of the anterograde transport technique of Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin the descending autonomic projection of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus was investigated. The Phaseolus lectin technique allowed the detection of the cells of origin in the paraventricular PVN, the

  7. Ascending Projections from the Solitary Tract Nucleus to the Hypothalamus : A Phaseolus vulgaris Lectin Tracing Study in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, G.J. ter; de Boer, P.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Willigen, J.D. van

    1989-01-01

    The course of the ascending pathways originating from the anterior gustatory and posterior visceral sensory part of the solitary tract nucleus and the topographic organization of the projections to the hypothalamus in the rat were studied with anterogradely transported Phuseolus vulgaris lectin. In

  8. Investigations on the Effects of Five Different Plant Extracts on the Two-Spotted Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arac.: Tetranychidae, is an economic pest worldwide including Turkey, causing serious damage to vegetables, flowers, and fruit crops. In recent years, broad-spectrum insecticides/miticides have been used to control this pest in Turkey. Control is difficult mainly due to resistance to conventional pesticides. This study was conducted to determine efficacy of pesticides extracted from five different plants [i.e., Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae, Rhododendron luteum S. (Ericaceae, Helichrysum arenarium L. (Asteraceae, Veratrum album L. (Liliaceae, and Tanacetum parthenium L. (Asteraceae] against this mite. Bioassays were tested by two different methods to determine the effects of varying concentrations. Experiments were performed using 3 cm diameter leaf disk from unsprayed bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. In addition, the effects of the extracts on reproduction and oviposition were investigated. The extract yielded high mortality. In the lowest-concentration bioassays, the adult mites laid lower numbers of eggs compared to the untreated control. No ovicidal effect was observed.

  9. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, M.; Mazon, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20,30 and 40 %) was studied.The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO 2 exchange rate in light and darkness, 14 C O 2 assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthate and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (Author) 76 refs

  10. La collection de base des espèces sauvages de Phaseolus et Vigna : historique, gestion et conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Vanderborght

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The base collection of wild species of Phaseolus and Vigna: history, management and conservation.The National Botanic Garden of Belgium ensures the management of a base collection of botanical and wild forms in the tribe Phaseoleae and the sub-tribe Phaseolinae. The main objective is to conserve on a long terni basic the largest possible genetic diversity through seed semples stored at - 20°C. The collection provided the basic material for the investigations conducted at the University Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of Gembloux in fields as diverse as taxonomy, genome analysis, definition of genetic réservoirs, agronomie and chemical evaluations, interspecific hybridization and plant breeding. The results have allowed to becter understand the organization of genetic diversity in the studied plant material and to highlight the wealthy genetic potentiel of the collection. The latter should be preserved and valorized for the genetic improvement of food legumes, in particular within the two genera Phaseolus and Vigna.

  11. Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus conferred by the bc-1 and bc-2 genes in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects long distance movement of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Orellana, Gardenia; Myers, James; Karasev, Alexander V

    2018-04-12

    Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is governed by four genes that include one strain-nonspecific helper gene bc-u, and three strain-specific genes bc-1, bc-2, and bc-3. The bc-3 gene was identified as an eIF4E translation initiation factor gene mediating resistance through disruption of the interaction between this protein and the VPg protein of the virus. The mode of action of bc-1 and bc-2 in expression of BCMV resistance is unknown, although bc-1 gene was found to affect systemic spread of a related potyvirus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. To investigate the possible role of both bc-1 and bc-2 genes in replication, cell-to-cell, and long distance movement of BCMV in P. vulgaris, we tested virus spread of eight BCMV isolates representing pathogroups I, IV, VI, VII, and VIII, in a set of bean differentials expressing different combinations of six resistance alleles including bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, bc-2 2 , and bc-3. All studied BCMV isolates were able to replicate and spread in inoculated leaves of bean cultivars harboring bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles and their combinations, while no BCMV replication was found in inoculated leaves of 'IVT7214' carrying the bc-u, bc-2 and bc-3 genes, except for isolate 1755a capable of overcoming the resistance conferred by bc-2 and bc-3. In contrast, the systemic spread of all BCMV isolates from pathogroups I, IV,VI, VII, and VIII was impaired in common bean cultivars carrying bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles. The data suggest that bc-1 and bc-2 recessive resistance genes have no effect on the replication and cell-to-cell movement of BCMV, but affect systemic spread of BCMV in common bean. The BCMV resistance conferred by bc-1 and bc-2 and affecting systemic spread was found only partially effective when these two genes were expressed singly. The efficiency of the restriction of the systemic spread of the virus was greatly enhanced when

  12. Effects of zinc toxicity on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; López-Millán, A-F; Abadía, A; Abadía, J

    2009-05-01

    The effects of high Zn concentration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in a controlled environment in hydroponics. High concentrations of Zn sulphate in the nutrient solution (50, 100 and 300 microm) decreased root and shoot fresh and dry mass, and increased root/shoot ratios, when compared to control conditions (1.2 microm Zn). Plants grown with excess Zn had inward-rolled leaf edges and a damaged and brownish root system, with short lateral roots. High Zn decreased N, Mg, K and Mn concentrations in all plant parts, whereas P and Ca concentrations increased, but only in shoots. Leaves of plants treated with 50 and 100 microm Zn developed symptoms of Fe deficiency, including decreases in Fe, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, increases in carotenoid/chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b ratios and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin cycle pigments. Plants grown with 300 microm Zn had decreased photosystem II efficiency and further growth decreases but did not have leaf Fe deficiency symptoms. Leaf Zn concentrations of plants grown with excess Zn were high but fairly constant (230-260 microg.g(-1) dry weight), whereas total Zn uptake per plant decreased markedly with high Zn supply. These data indicate that sugar beet could be a good model to investigate Zn homeostasis mechanisms in plants, but is not an efficient species for Zn phytoremediation.

  13. phaseolus vulgaris l.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... After sown seed containers were incubated at temperature of 25 ºC, first and final .... and subsequent contact of seeds with ambient room air) [27]. ... pot which keep lower seed moisture content relative to the original were ...

  14. PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and other legumes is long cooking time. Ready-to-use ... Basic qualitative screening for common beans has shown that alkaloids, anthraquinone, .... consumption of red meat, refined grains, sweets, French fries, and high fat desserts had.

  15. PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    significant macronutrient in common beans and though the seed is limited in methionine (a sulphur ... The objective in this paper is to review the major biological activities of common beans .... against the development of obesity [32]. Research ...

  16. Study of artemisinin and sugar accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobot, Kateryna O; Matvieieva, Nadiia A; Ostapchuk, Andriy M; Kharkhota, Maxim A; Duplij, Volodymyr P

    2017-09-14

    We studied the effect of genetic transformation on biologically active compound (artemisinin and its co-products (ART) as well as sugars) accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and mannitol were accumulated in A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root lines. Genetic transformation has led in some cases to the sugar content increasing or appearing of nonrelevant for the control plant carbohydrates. Sucrose content was 1.6 times higher in A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines. Fructose content was found to be 3.4 times higher in A. dracunculus "hairy" root cultures than in the control roots. The accumulation of mannitol was a special feature of the leaves of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus control roots. A. vulgaris "hairy" root lines differed also in ART accumulation level. The increase of ART content up to 1.02 mg/g DW in comparison with the nontransformed roots (up to 0.687 mg/g DW) was observed. Thus, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation can be used for obtaining of A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root culture produced ART and sugars in a higher amount than mother plants.

  17. CHARACTERISATION OF Phaseolus coccineus INTERSPECIFIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... genetic base of this crop, especially for adaptation to extreme environments. The runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) in particular, has been shown to contribute to disease ...... Emerging disease problems: The case of.

  18. Resíduo proveniente do beneficiamento do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em rações para vacas em lactação: consumo, digestibilidade, produção e composição do leite e eficiência de alimentação Residue from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. processing in the rations for milking cows: intake, digestibility, milk production and composition and feeding efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja pelo resíduo de feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em rações para vacas em lactação sobre as seguintes variáveis: consumos e digestibilidades totais aparentes dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite e eficiência alimentar. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça holandesa, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 ´ 4, balanceados. Os animais receberam rações completas ofertadas ad libitum, contendo 0; 13; 26 e 39% de resíduo de feijão cru no concentrado, em substituição ao farelo de soja. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT diminuíram linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de feijão no concentrado. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (FDNi não foram afetados pelas dietas e os consumos de proteína bruta (PB e extrato etéreo (EE apresentaram comportamento cúbico. Os coeficientes de digestibilidades (CD de MS, MO, EE e FDN não foram afetados pelas dietas, enquanto os de PB e CNF apresentaram comportamento linear decrescente e crescente, respectivamente. A produção e a composição do leite (gordura, proteína, lactose, extratos secos desengordurado e total, quando expressas em kg/dia, apresentaram redução linear para os níveis crescentes de substituição. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para as eficiências de alimentação. A inclusão do resíduo de feijão às dietas ocasionou redução no desempenho dos animais.This work was carried out with the objective to evaluate the effect of replacement of soybean meal by common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. residue in rations for milking cows on the following variables: intakes and total apparent digestibilities of nutrients, milk production and composition and feeding efficiency. Twelve Holstein cows were

  19. High CO2 Primes Plant Biotic Stress Defences through Redox-Linked Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhamdi, Amna; Noctor, Graham

    2016-10-01

    Industrial activities have caused tropospheric CO 2 concentrations to increase over the last two centuries, a trend that is predicted to continue for at least the next several decades. Here, we report that growth of plants in a CO 2 -enriched environment activates responses that are central to defense against pathogenic attack. Salicylic acid accumulation was triggered by high-growth CO 2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and other plants such as bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). A detailed analysis in Arabidopsis revealed that elevated CO 2 primes multiple defense pathways, leading to increased resistance to bacterial and fungal challenge. Analysis of gene-specific mutants provided no evidence that activation of plant defense pathways by high CO 2 was caused by stomatal closure. Rather, the activation is partly linked to metabolic effects involving redox signaling. In support of this, genetic modification of redox components (glutathione contents and NADPH-generating enzymes) prevents full priming of the salicylic acid pathway and associated resistance by high CO 2 The data point to a particularly influential role for the nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a cytosolic enzyme whose role in plants remains unclear. Our observations add new information on relationships between high CO 2 and oxidative signaling and provide novel insight into plant stress responses in conditions of increased CO 2 . © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Degradation of aromatic compounds in plants grown under aseptic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mithaishvili, T.; Ugrekhelidze, D.; Tsereteli, B.; Sadunishvili, T.; Kvesitadze, G. [Durmishidze Inst. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Tbilisi (Georgia); Scalla, R. [Lab. des Xenobiotiques, INRA, Toulouse (France)

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the work is to investigate the ability of higher plants to absorb and detoxify environmental pollutants - aromatic compounds via aromatic ring cleavage. Transformation of {sup 14}C specifically labelled benzene derivatives, [1-6-{sup 14}C]-nitrobenzene, [1-6-{sup 14}C]-aniline, [1-{sup 14}C]- and [7-{sup 14}C]-benzoic acid, in axenic seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) were studied. After penetration in plants, the above xenobiotics are transformed by oxidative or reductive reactions, conjugation with cell endogenous compounds, and binding to biopolymers. The initial stage of oxidative degradation consists in hydroxylation reactions. The aromatic ring can then be cleaved and degraded into organic acids of the Krebs cycle. Ring cleavage is accompanied by {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution. Aromatic ring cleavage in plants has thus been demonstrated for different xenobiotics carrying different substitutions on their benzene ring. Conjugation with low molecular peptides is the main pathway of aromatic xenobiotics detoxification. Peptide conjugates are formed both by the initial xenobiotics (except nitrobenzene) and by intermediate transformation products. The chemical nature of the radioactive fragment and the amino acid composition of peptides participating in conjugation were identified. (orig.)

  1. Ozone exposure and stomatal sluggishness in different plant physiognomic classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.i [IPP-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grulke, Nancy E. [US Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Gas exchange responses to static and variable light were tested in three species: snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, two cultivars), California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), and blue oak (Q. douglasii). The effects of 1-month (snap beans) and 2-month (oaks) O{sub 3} (ozone) exposure (70 ppb over 8 h per day in open-top chambers) were investigated. A delay in stomatal responses (i.e., 'sluggish' responses) to variable light was found to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason for increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in snap bean cultivars, as it implied higher O{sub 3} uptake during times of disequilibrium. Sluggishness increased the time to open (thus limiting CO{sub 2} uptake) and close stomata (thus increasing transpirational water loss) after abrupt changes in light level. Similar responses were shown by snap beans and oaks, suggesting that O{sub 3}-induced stomatal sluggishness is a common trait among different plant physiognomic classes. - Sluggish stomatal responses are suggested to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason of increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in plants.

  2. Enhancement of yield, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of two common bean cultivars following the application of seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kocira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, application of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak SL – a water soluble concentrate was optimized and its impact on yield, nutraceutical and nutritional potential of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Aura and Toska was measured. The study was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in Poland. During the growing season, 0.2% and 0.4% solution of Kelpak SL was applied by single and double spraying of plants. These four treatments with Kelpak SL were compared with the control, where no biostimulator was applied. Kelpak SL treatments stimulated the yield of both cultivars studied. The application of E. maxima extract had no effect on the content of starch, free sugars or proteins in seeds of either of the tested cultivars. The highest level of phenolics was found for double sprayed Toska plants. All the tested variants of Kelpak SL application significantly increased the content of anthocyanins in the seeds. Also, both the reducing power and antiradical ability of Aura seeds were elevated in all the studied treatments. E. maxima extract is a natural, environmentally friendly and safe preparation increasing the yield and nutraceutical quality of beans without any negative effect on their nutritional quality. Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, Ecklonia maxima, Kelpak SL, Nutrients, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Yield

  3. Root uptake of uranium by a higher plant model (Phaseolus vulgaris) bioavailability from soil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroche, L.; Henner, P.; Camilleri, V.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium behaviour in soils is controlled by actions and interactions between physicochemical and biological processes that also determine its bioavailability. In soil solution, uranium(+VI) aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes mainly depending on pH, carbonates, phosphates and organic matter. In a first approach to identify bioavailable species of U to plants, cultures were performed using hydroponics, to allow an easy control of the composition of the exposure media. The latter, here an artificial soil solution, was designed to control the uranium species in solution. The geochemical speciation code JCHESS using a database compiled from the OECD/NEA thermochemical database project and verified was used to perform the solution speciation calculations. On this theoretical basis, three domains were defined for short-duration well-defined laboratory experiments in simplified conditions: pH 4.9, 5.8 and 7 where predicted dominant species are uranyl ions, hydroxyl complexes and carbonates respectively. For these domains, biokinetics and characterization of transmembrane transport according to a classical Michaelis Menten approach were investigated. The Free Ion Model (or its derived Biotic Ligand Model) was tested to determine if U uptake is governed by the free uranyl species or if other metal complexes can be assimilated. The effect of different variables on root assimilation efficiency and phyto-toxicity was explored: presence of ligands such as phosphates or carbonates and competitive ions such as Ca 2+ at the 3 pH. According to previous experiments, uranium was principally located in roots whatever the pH and no difference in uranium uptake was evidenced between the main growth stages of the plant. Within the 3 studied chemical domains, results from short-term kinetics evidenced a linear correlation between total uranium concentration in bean roots and that in exposure media, suggesting that total uranium in soil solution could be a good predictor for

  4. Root uptake of uranium by a higher plant model (Phaseolus vulgaris) bioavailability from soil solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, L.; Henner, P.; Camilleri, V.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    Uranium behaviour in soils is controlled by actions and interactions between physicochemical and biological processes that also determine its bioavailability. In soil solution, uranium(+VI) aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes mainly depending on pH, carbonates, phosphates and organic matter. In a first approach to identify bioavailable species of U to plants, cultures were performed using hydroponics, to allow an easy control of the composition of the exposure media. The latter, here an artificial soil solution, was designed to control the uranium species in solution. The geochemical speciation code JCHESS using a database compiled from the OECD/NEA thermochemical database project and verified was used to perform the solution speciation calculations. On this theoretical basis, three domains were defined for short-duration well-defined laboratory experiments in simplified conditions: pH 4.9, 5.8 and 7 where predicted dominant species are uranyl ions, hydroxyl complexes and carbonates respectively. For these domains, biokinetics and characterization of transmembrane transport according to a classical Michaelis Menten approach were investigated. The Free Ion Model (or its derived Biotic Ligand Model) was tested to determine if U uptake is governed by the free uranyl species or if other metal complexes can be assimilated. The effect of different variables on root assimilation efficiency and phyto-toxicity was explored: presence of ligands such as phosphates or carbonates and competitive ions such as Ca{sup 2+} at the 3 pH. According to previous experiments, uranium was principally located in roots whatever the pH and no difference in uranium uptake was evidenced between the main growth stages of the plant. Within the 3 studied chemical domains, results from short-term kinetics evidenced a linear correlation between total uranium concentration in bean roots and that in exposure media, suggesting that total uranium in soil solution could be a good predictor

  5. Influence of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta) on mice leukocytes increase

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Jony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beetroot is a flavonoid-containing Mediterranean plant used for food and medicinal purposes. Objectives: To determine the influence of Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract consumption in increasing albino mice leukocytes. Design: Experimental study. Setting: School N° 1182 bioterium. Biologic material: Twenty male Balb/c albino mice weighing 24 g average. Interventions: Two groups of ten mice each were formed; the experimental group received Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract at 250...

  6. Variation in the Breeding System of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Luping; Widrlechner, Mark P

    2011-05-01

    Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae), commonly known as selfheal, is a perennial herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine. Recent studies have found that P. vulgaris possesses anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial properties, and it is likely that this will lead to increased commercial demand for this species. To date, research publications on P. vulgaris cultivation and genetics are scarce. Using accessions originally collected from different geographical regions, we investigated the breeding system of this species by observing variation in floral morphology, time of pollen release, and selfed-seed set in bagged flowers and isolated plants. Two types of floral morphology, one with exerted styles, extending past open corollas when viewed from above, and the other with shorter, inserted styles, were found among 30 accessions. Two accessions originally collected from Asia uniformly displayed exerted styles, and 27 accessions had inserted styles. One accession from Oregon displayed variation in this trait among individual plants. Microscopic observation of seven accessions, including ones with both exerted and inserted styles, revealed that they all release pollen to some degree before the flowers open. Using bagged flowers, we found that selfed-seed set varied widely among eight accessions, ranging from 6% to 94%. However, bagging may underestimate seed set for some accessions. The two accessions with the lowest rates when using bagged flowers increased in seed set by 350% and 158%, respectively, when we evaluated single, unbagged plants in isolation cages. The accession with 6% selfed-seed set when bagged also had exerted styles. These findings suggest that mating systems in P. vulgaris may be in the process of evolutionary change and that understanding breeding-system variation should be useful in developing efficient seed-regeneration protocols and breeding and selection strategies for this species.

  7. [Effects of traditional cooking on antinutritional factors of the black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, A R; Calzada, C; Cooke, R

    1991-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors, alfa amylase inhibitors and hemagglutinins were determined in black beans (P. vulgaris) produced in Costa Rica. The effect of the traditional cooking on such antinutritional factors was also studied. The antinutritional factors were analyzed spectrophotometrically in the raw beans, as well as after several cooking periods of time. The results showed that alfa-amylase inhibitors were the most thermoresistant. After 30 min of cooking time there was a 33% of activity left from the initial activity of the raw beans. Approximately 80% of the antitryptic activity was destroyed at 9 min of cooking time. After 10 min of cooking time, only 1% of hemagglutinin activity was present.

  8. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Foliar Application of Some Micro nutrients on Growth and Yield Quality of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T. Sh.; Abo Elkhier, OH.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on common bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) cv Bronco under sandy-loam soil conditions in the farm of the Research Station of the Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Kalubia Governorate on October 15 th in the two successive growing seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. The aim of the experiments was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiated seeds at the doses of 0, 40 and 80 Gy and foliar spray with Zn, Mn and Fe micro nutrients at the concentrations of 0, 25 and 50 ppm on vegetative growth, yield and chemical responses of common bean plants at age of 21 days. Three levels of application namely 0.0 (control), 25 and 50 ppm were sprayed twice during the growing seasons after two and four weeks of planting. Data analysis showed that all sprayed concentrations improved plant growth i.e plant height, number of branches and helped in earliness of flowering. Pod yield as well as pod quality parameters were also improved with the increase of concentration of sprayed materials. The improvement in plant growth and production were positively correlated with the doses and concentrations. The highest response recorded with the concentration 50 ppm with irradiated dose of 40 Gy after which the response started to decline but still significantly higher than control treatment. Pod yield was positively correlated with the applied concentration of the two substances with the highest effect recorded with 50 ppm of micro nutrients. The treatments resulted in higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control. Also treatments significantly improved chemical compositions of pod quality particularly total nitrogen and total sugar contents which responded more positively to all applied treatments. Mineral contents of Zn, Mn and Fe in un cracked seeds also showed similar trend to the applied concentrations. While the best results were in treated plants at 40 Gy and 50 ppm micro nutrient.

  9. Gamma spectrometry analysis for simultaneous detection of 54Mn, 65Zn and 59Fe in aqueous solutions and plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanheiro, M.N.S.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology to detect the activities of 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 59 Fe in the same sample, with a single channel spectrometer coupled to a scintilation detector of NaI(tl), 3'' x 3'', well type has been developed. Initially a selection of the energy channel was made based on the criteria of maximizing the signal-background ratio and consequently, the minimization of the variation coefficient. In the channels, a study of minimal detectable activities was conducted for each radioisotopes. Secondly, samples containing diferent combinations of these radioisotopes were prepared and their activities were calculated using simultaneous equations. As a mean of demonstrating the pratical utility of this methodology, an experiment was developed in which the roots, isolated from beam plants (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were examined to determine levels of ionic absorption interference among micronutrients (Mn, Zn and Fe)

  10. Evaluation and Selection of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Genotypes for Root Traits Associated with Phosphorus (P) Acquisition Efficiency and the Use of {sup 32}P Isotope in Studies on P Uptake by Root Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, M. A.; Jochua, C. [Agricultural Research Institute of Mozambique (IIAM), Maputo (Mozambique); Lynch, J. P. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Low phosphorus (P) availability is one of the main edaphic constraints limiting crop production and productivity in most of the tropical agro-ecosystems. Several root traits are known to be associated with P acquisition efficiency in low P soils. These root traits include root hairs. Computer modeling, laboratory and field studies show the depletion of {sup 32}P-phosphate around roots and that the depletion zone is influenced by the length and density of root hairs. We conducted a study involving a series of experiments with the objective of evaluating the variability of root traits associated with P uptake efficiency among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, and to understand the mechanisms of long root hairs leading to the increase in P uptake in common bean. The study included (a) the screening of common bean genotypes in the laboratory and in the field for root traits, and (b) the use of radioactive phosphorus ({sup 32}P) in the experiments conducted in the greenhouse. For laboratory screening, seedlings were germinated in paper rolls in a growth media for 3 days before evaluation for basal root whorl number (BRWN), basal root number (BRN), basal root growth angle (BRGA) and root hair length (RHL). Common bean genotypes were planted in the field with low P for 45 days after planting (DAP) before evaluation. For the {sup 32}P study four contrasting genotypes for root hairs were grown for 28 DAP in the greenhouse using 15-20 liter pots filled with a mixture of sand and vermiculate as the growth media. The radioactive P was incorporated in the growth medium in the form of alumina-P fertilizer. Normal phosphorus (non-radioactive {sup 31}P) was included in the nutrient solution in the form of calcium phosphate, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, and supplied through irrigation. Screened genotypes exhibited different root traits associated with P uptake efficiency, and that a given genotype can have one or more root traits responsible for it P uptake efficiency

  11. Comportamento de linhagens e cultivares de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. no Vale do Paraíba, SP Behavior of dry bean lines and cultivars in the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Pompeu

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de determinar cultivares mais adequados para plantio nas condições do Vale do Paraíba, no Estado de São Paulo, foram instalados experimentos de competição de linhagens e cultivares em três locais no município de Pindamonhangaba. Durante o período de 1973 a 1976, notou-se a ocorrência de granizo em 1974, prejudicando um dos ensaios, e de geada em 1975, a qual destruiu dois dos três ensaios plantados. Entre as moléstias que ocorrem no feijoeiro, observaram-se a antracnose e a ferrugem. As melhores produções médias foram obtidas pelas linhagens H38C1727 (Mulatinho, H38C1723 (Bico-de-ouro, H40C1722 (Chumbinho e H40C1725 (Preto, e pelos cultivares piratã-2 e piratã-1, com 2.475, 2.308, 2.218, 2.195, 2.177 e 2.164 kg/ha respectivamente. Os cultivares carioca (Diversos e rosinha G-2 (Rosinha tiveram produções de 2.094 e 1.677 kg/ha. Levando-se em consideração a alta capacidade produtiva demonstrada nesses experimentos e em outras regiões do Estado, bem como a disponibilidade de sementes, os cultivares aroana (H40C1722, moruna (H40C1725, piratã-1 e carioca podem ser indicados para plantio em larga escala na região do Vale do Paraíba.With the objective of indicating the best dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars for the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo State, trials were planted in three localities in the country of Pindamonhangaba, from 1973 to 1976. From 1973 to 1976 were observed the occurrence of hail in 1974 causing damage in one of the trials, and frost in 1975 that destroyed two of the three experiments planted. Among the pathogens of dry beans, it was noticed the presence of those causing the anthracnose and rust diseases. The best mean yields were observed for H38C1727, H38C1723, H40C1722, H40C1725, 'Piratã-2', and 'Piratã-1' with 2,475, 2,308, 2,218, 2,195, 2,178 and 2,164 kg/ha, respectively. The cultivars Moruna (H4001725, Aroana (H40C1722, Piratã-1 and Carioca can be pointed out for cultivation in

  12. Aromatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its Response to Plutella xylostella Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Agerbirk, Niels; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Shen, Di; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P

  13. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  14. Leather Industry Solid Waste as Nitrogen Source for Growth of Common Bean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.Q.; Oliveira, L.C.A.; Bastos, A.R.R.; Carvalho, G.S.; Marques, J.G.S.M.; Carvalho, J.G.; De Souza, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The leather industry generates large amounts of a Cr-containing solid waste (wet blue leather). This material is classified by the Brazilian Environmental Council as a category-one waste, requiring a special disposal. The patented process Br n. PI 001538 is a technique to remove chromium from wet blue leather, with the recovery of a solid collagenic material (collagen), containing high nitrogen levels. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of soil application of collagen on the production of dry matter, content and accumulation of N in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), after the previous growth of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) cv. Napier, as well as to quantify the mineralization rate of N in the soil. The application of collagen, at rates equivalent to 16 and 32 tha-1, provided greater N contents in the common bean plants, indicating residual effect of these rates of application; the same was observed for the rates of 4 and 8tha-1, though in smaller proportions. Higher mineralization rates of N collagen occurred next to 16 days after soil incubation. During the 216 days of incubation, the treatments with collagen showed higher amounts of mineralized nitrogen.

  15. High CO2 Primes Plant Biotic Stress Defences through Redox-Linked Pathways1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Industrial activities have caused tropospheric CO2 concentrations to increase over the last two centuries, a trend that is predicted to continue for at least the next several decades. Here, we report that growth of plants in a CO2-enriched environment activates responses that are central to defense against pathogenic attack. Salicylic acid accumulation was triggered by high-growth CO2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and other plants such as bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). A detailed analysis in Arabidopsis revealed that elevated CO2 primes multiple defense pathways, leading to increased resistance to bacterial and fungal challenge. Analysis of gene-specific mutants provided no evidence that activation of plant defense pathways by high CO2 was caused by stomatal closure. Rather, the activation is partly linked to metabolic effects involving redox signaling. In support of this, genetic modification of redox components (glutathione contents and NADPH-generating enzymes) prevents full priming of the salicylic acid pathway and associated resistance by high CO2. The data point to a particularly influential role for the nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a cytosolic enzyme whose role in plants remains unclear. Our observations add new information on relationships between high CO2 and oxidative signaling and provide novel insight into plant stress responses in conditions of increased CO2. PMID:27578552

  16. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  17. Transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes correlate with mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in a natural population of Silene vulgaris

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    Olson Matthew S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although rapid changes in copy number and gene order are common within plant mitochondrial genomes, associated patterns of gene transcription are underinvestigated. Previous studies have shown that the gynodioecious plant species Silene vulgaris exhibits high mitochondrial diversity and occasional paternal inheritance of mitochondrial markers. Here we address whether variation in DNA molecular markers is correlated with variation in transcription of mitochondrial genes in S. vulgaris collected from natural populations. Results We analyzed RFLP variation in two mitochondrial genes, cox1 and atp1, in offspring of ten plants from a natural population of S. vulgaris in Central Europe. We also investigated transcription profiles of the atp1 and cox1 genes. Most DNA haplotypes and transcription profiles were maternally inherited; for these, transcription profiles were associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. One individual exhibited a pattern consistent with paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA; this individual exhibited a transcription profile suggestive of paternal but inconsistent with maternal inheritance. We found no associations between gender and transcript profiles. Conclusions Specific transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in a natural population of a gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Our findings suggest the potential for a causal association between rearrangements in the plant mt genome and transcription product variation.

  18. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laila Salim Al Hashmi; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Results: Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  19. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laila; Salim; Al; Hashmi; Mohammad; Amzad; Hossain; Afaf; Mohammed; Weli; Qasim; Al-Riyami; Jamal; Nasser; Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L(T.vulgaris)by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).Methods:The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor.Methanol crude extracts of T.vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane,chloroform,ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained.Results:Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T.vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds.Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important.Further,the T.vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation.The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T.vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis.Conclusions:All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T.vulgaris are biologically active molecules.Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T.vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  20. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae Crops and weeds as host plants Orius species (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

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    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.The aim of this research was to record the Orius species present on some crops and weeds in areas located in the southeast region in Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. The insect collections were made through the tapping method to dislodge the insects from the plant into a plastic bag. The identifications of the specimens was done in the laboratory. Orius insidiosus (Say was collected on the following crops: corn (Zea mays L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorghum (Sorghum spp., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. and carthamus

  1. Aromatic glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its response to Plutella xylostella infestation

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    Tongjin eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g. saponins in Barbara vulgaris was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominate glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway are unclear in this plant. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant and P-type (pest-susceptible B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR, while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in

  2. Effects of pre-treatments with abscisic acid and/or benzyladenine on gas exchange of French bean, sugar beet, and maize leaves during water stress and after rehydration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, Jana; Baťková, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 395-399 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Beta vulgaris * net photosynthetic rate * Phaseolus vulgaris Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2004

  3. Characterization of nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers for Falcaria vulgaris (Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbottam Piya; Madhav P. Nepal

    2013-01-01

    Falcaria vulgaris (sickleweed) is native to Eurasia and a potential invasive plant of the United States. No molecular markers have been developed so far for sickleweed. Characterization of molecular markers for this plant would allow investigation into its population structure and biogeography thereby yielding insights into risk analysis and effective management...

  4. Early planting and hand sorting effectively controls seed-borne fungi in farm-retained bean seed

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    Ernest Dube

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Home-saved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed can be hand-sorted to remove discoloured seed, thereby reducing the level of contamination by certain seed-borne fungi and improving seed germination. In this study, the effect of planting date on the infection and discolouration of bean seed by seed-borne fungi was investigated in order to improve the quality of hand-sorted, farm-retained bean seeds used by resource poor smallholder farmers. The germination quality and level of seed-borne fungi in hand-sorted first-generation bean seed harvested from an early-, mid- and late-summer season planted crop was therefore assessed. The highest percentage of discoloured seed (68% was obtained from the mid-summer season planting. Non-discoloured seed from early- and late-season plantings had significantly (p"less than"0.001 higher normal germination (82% and 77%, respectively than that from the mid-season planting date (58%. Irrespective of planting date, unsorted seed and discoloured seed had higher levels of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. than the non-discoloured seed. Removal of discoloured seed by hand sorting eliminated Rhizoctonia spp. from all seed lots. Farmers can eliminate this pathogen by simply removing discoloured seed. Non-discoloured seed from the early-planted crop had the lowest level of infection by Fusarium spp. and Phaeoisariopsis spp. The results indicate that planting date is an important consideration in improving the quality of hand-sorted farm-retained bean seed.

  5. The genome sequence of Barbarea vulgaris facilitates the study of ecological biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two ‘types’, G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density, and t...... deter larvae to the extent that they die. The B. vulgaris genome will promote the study of mechanisms in ecological biochemistry to benefit crop resistance breeding....

  6. Shrubs tracing sea surface temperature--Calluna vulgaris on the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Ilka; Buras, Allan; Hallinger, Martin; Smiljanić, Marko; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The climate of Central and Northern Europe is highly influenced by the North Atlantic Ocean due to heat transfer from lower latitudes. Detailed knowledge about spatio-temporal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in that region is thus of high interest for climate and environmental research. Because of the close relations between ocean and coastal climate and the climate sensitivity of plant growth, annual rings of woody plants in coastal regions might be used as a proxy for SST. We show here for the first time the proxy potential of the common and widespread evergreen dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris (heather), using the Faroe Islands as our case study. Despite its small and irregular ring structure, the species seems suitable for dendroecological investigations. Ring width showed high and significant correlations with summer and winter air temperatures and SST. The C. vulgaris chronology from the Faroe Islands, placed directly within the North Atlantic Current, clearly reflects variations in summer SSTs over an area between Iceland and Scotland. Utilising shrubs like C. vulgaris as easy accessible and annually resolved proxies offers an interesting possibility for reconstruction of the coupled climate-ocean system at high latitudes.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e−5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were

  8. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  9. Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos no Sertão Paraibano Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in the Sertão of Paraiba, Brazil

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    Tales S. Assis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das intoxicações por plantas em 20 municípios do Sertão Paraibano, onde foram entrevistados 50 produtores e 11 médicos veterinários. De acordo com o levantamento realizado, Ipomoea asarifolia e Mascagnia rigida são as intoxicações mais importantes. Indigofera suffruticosa, as plantas cianogênicas (Sorghum vulgare, Piptadenia macrocarpa e Manihot spp., Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium e Crotalaria retusa são plantas importantes como causa de intoxicações na região. Os entrevistados relataram casos esporádicos de intoxicação por Ricinus communis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Prosopis juliflorae Brachiaria decumbens. Ziziphus joazeiro, Passiflora sp., Caesalpina ferrea e Crescentia cujete foram mencionadas como causa de abortos em ruminantes. Frutos de Crescentia cujete foram administrados a duas cabras prenhes causando mortalidade perinatal e abortos. As cascas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e Vigna unguiculata e as folhas de Licania rigida (oiticica são associadas à sobrecarga ruminal em bovinos. As frutas de Mangifera indica (mangae Anacardium occidentale (cajú são responsabilizadas por causarem intoxicação etílica. Dalechampia sp. e Croton sp. foram citadas pelos entrevistados como possíveis plantas tóxicas, que ainda não tiveram sua toxicidade comprovada.A survey of plant poisoning in ruminants and equidae was conducted in 20 municipalities of the semiarid region of the Sertão Paraibano. Fifty farmers and 11 veterinary practitioners were interviewed. Ipomoea asarifolia and Mascagnia rigida are the most important poisonous plants in the region. Indigofera suffruticosa, the cianogenic plants (Sorghum vulgare, Piptadenia macrocarpa, and Manihot spp., Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Crotalaria retusa cause also important intoxications in the area. Sporadic outbreaks of poisonings by Ricinus communis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Prosopis juliflora and Brachiaria

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 888289 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0727 3803:10727 ... 3814:10727 ... 163735:2506 ... 3883:1736 ... 3885:1736 ... hypothetical protein PHAVU_009G116600g Phaseolus vulgaris MKKNRMMIM...ICSVGVVWMLLVGGSYGEQCGRQAGGALCPGGNCCSQFGWCGSTTDYCGKDCQSQC

  11. Molecular characterization of the U.S. Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray collection using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Targeted Region Amplification Polymorphism (TRAP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray), a truly Native American crop, is a short life-cycle annual desert legume indigenous to northwestern Mexico and the southwestern USA and is considered drought and heat tolerant. The Western Regional Plant Introduction Station currently maintains 211 acce...

  12. Altura de planta e componentes do rendimento do feijoeiro em função de população de plantas, adubação e calagem Common bean plant height and primary yield components affected by plant population, fertilization and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbara de Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos de populações de plantas e níveis de adubação e calagem sobre a altura e os componentes do rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em um solo Podizólico Vermelho Amarelo distrófico, de baixa fertilidade natural, foram conduzidos três experimentos de campo em Lavras - MG. Nos dois primeiros, utilizaram-se a cv. Pérola e delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no arranjo fatorial 4x4, envolvendo quatro populações: 120, 180, 240 e 300 mil plantas.ha-1 e quatro níveis de adubação e calagem: 0, 1/3, 2/3 e 3/3 das doses de fertilizantes e calcário recomendadas para o nível 2 de tecnologia pela Comissão de Fertilidade do Solo do Estado de Minas Gerais. No terceiro ensaio, o arranjo fatorial foi 2x4x4, envolvendo duas cultivares, Pérola e Carioca, quatro populações, 100, 200, 300 e 400 mil plantas.ha-1; e quatro níveis de adubação e calagem 0, 1/2, 2/2 e 3/2 das doses. O incremento da população de plantas reduziu a altura e o número de vagens por planta e o incremento dos níveis de adubação e calagem elevou a altura, o número de vagens por planta, o número de grãos por vagem e a massa média do grão.With a view to defining the plant density and level of fertilization and liming for the bean crop ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a natural low fertility soil (distrophic Red Yellow Podzolic, three field experiments were carried out in Lavras - MG. In the two first experiments the cultivar Pérola was utilized and the randomized block experimental design, with four replications and 4x4 factorial arrangement, involving four populations (120, 180, 240 and 300 thousand plants.ha-1 and four levels of fertilization and liming (0, 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 of the recommended doses of fertilizers and limistone for the level 2 of technology by the Comissão de Fertilidade do Solo do Estado de Minas Gerais was adopted. In the third trial, the factorial

  13. ISOENZYMATIC POLYMORPHISM AND ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASES OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. UNDER SALINE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BROETTO

    1997-09-01

    crude extract of the different bean cultivars analysed showed different reations to salt concentration in the cultivation procedures as well as a high increasing of peroxidase activity in cv. IAC and JALO.Uma das utilizações da técnica de cultura de tecidos para o melhoramento vegetal é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentem tolerância ao estresse salino. Para se estudar os mecanismos bioquímicos envolvidos na expressão genética da tolerância a salinidade, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários de quatro cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; cultivares IAC - carioca, IAPAR 14, JALO-EEP 558, BAT - 93, foram cultivados em meio sólido Murashige & Skoog (1962, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 mM. Após 14 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto aos padrões isoenzimáticos e de atividade das peroxidases. Os cultivares BAT e IAPAR apresentaram duas zonas de atividade em comum na região anódica e apenas uma zona enzimática específica a cada um deles (migração mais rápida.Possivelmente as duas zonas anódicas intermediárias sejam produtos do mesmo loco enzimático, porém com alelos diferentes, consequentemente diferentes mobilidades eletroforéticas. O cv. JALO apresentou duas zonas anódicas de atividade em comum com os cultivares IAC e IAPAR com uma zona anódica exclusiva de migração mais lenta, a qual apresentou atividade mais intensa de todos os cultivares analisados. Este cultivar revelou ainda uma zona catódica provavelmente dimérica e heterozigota nos indivíduos de todos os tratamentos aplicados. Provavelmente, esta é a mesma zona que ocorre em homozigose com fixação do alelo lento para os indivíduos de todos os tratamentos efetuados nos cultivares BAT e IAPAR. O cv. IAC apresentou duas bandas anódicas em comum com os cv. IAPAR e JALO. Apresentou também a banda anódica mais rápida em comum com o cv. IAPAR e uma banda anódica exclusiva de migração mais

  14. Hosting Capacity of Horticultural Plants for Insect Pests in Brazil Capacidad de Alojamiento de Plantas Hortícolas para Plagas de Insectos en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano L.D Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as fertilization, allelochemicals, trichomes, weather, and natural enemies can influence pest populations. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors that predispose vegetable species to pests and the role of polyculture, crop rotation, and neighboring plants. The objective of this research was to study the hosting capacity for pests of Abelmoschus esculentus (L., Brassica oleracea L. vars. acephala and capitata, Capsicum annuum L., Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne, Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucumis sativus L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum gilo Raddi and Solanum melongena L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L. The higher density of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. adults on C. sativus can be due to the higher amount of pentacosane and octacosane in this plant. The occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. only in Brassica spp. can be accounted for by the nonacosane of these plants. The low trichome density and greater palmitic acid level can explain the greatest damage by Aphis gossypii Glover in A. esculentum. Empoasca sp. was more frequent in P. vulgaris followed by A. esculentum, which are plants with lower K content. Solanum melongena was attacked more by Hydrangea similis (Walker and Epitrix sp. perhaps because of higher palmitic acid and 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic methyl ester concentrations in their leaves. Frankliniella sp. exhibited more damage in C. sativus probably owing to higher pentacosane and octacosane in its leaves. Sistena sp. was more frequent in C. maxima and had higher octadecane levels and trichome density. The presence of ¥-humulene and hexacosane can explain the damage by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick on L. esculentum.Factores tales como la fertilización, aleloquímicos, tricomas, el clima y los enemigos naturales pueden influir en las poblaciones de plagas. Por lo tanto, es necesario comprender los factores que predisponen a las especies vegetales a las plagas y el papel de policultivos, rotación de cultivos y las plantas

  15. Características morfo-fisiológicas de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. relacionadas con la adaptación a sequía

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    José A Polanía

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de variedades adaptadas es una de las estrategias que contribuye a garantizar la seguridad alimentaria en zonas productoras de frijol con estrés por sequía. En los invernaderos de cristal del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, se evaluaron las características morfológicas y fisiológicas de raíces de 21 líneas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en condiciones de estrés por sequía e irrigación, utilizando un sistema de tubos plásticos desarrollado por el CIAT. Las características evaluadas fueron profundización visual, longitud total de raíces y distribución de raíces a través del perfil del suelo. En campo, utilizando los mismos genotipos de frijol, se evaluaron características relacionadas con la eficiencia de uso de agua mediante la técnica de discriminación de isótopo de carbono y producción de grano. Los resultados en invernadero mostraron que la profundización visual y longitud de raíces entre 60 y 75 cm tienen una correlación significativa (r = 0.56 y 0.50 respectivamente, P < 0.001 con la biomasa aérea de la planta en condiciones de estrés por sequía. En campo, la discriminación del isótopo de carbono en grano se correlacionó (r = 0.32, P < 0.01 con la producción de grano en condiciones igualmente de estrés por sequía. Las líneas de frijol NCB 226, SER 16, SEN 56 y SEA 15 presentaron una mayor longitud de raíces bajo estrés por sequía (28, 24, 29 y 27 m/planta respectivamente en comparación con las demás líneas evaluadas, lo que les permite mayor transpiración y movilización de fotoasimilados, que favorecen una alta producción de granos. Se estima que la profundización visual, la longitud de raíces entre 60 y 75 cm y la discriminación de isótopo de carbono en grano, son características valiosas como criterios de selección en mejoramiento por tolerancia a estrés por sequía en frijol común.

  16. Effect of Processing on the In Vitro and In Vivo Protein Quality of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Nosworthy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the protein quality of different bean types after undergoing the preparatory methods of baking, cooking and extrusion was assayed. Protein quality was assessed using a rodent bioassay to evaluate growth and protein digestibility while amino acid composition was determined via HPLC. In vivo protein digestibility was compared to an in vitro assessment method. The average protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS for processed beans was higher than the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS (61% vs. 45%. Extrusion/cooking of Phaseolus varieties resulted in higher PDCAAS (66% on average and DIAAS values (61% on average than baked (52% and 48% while baked faba beans had higher PDCAAS (66% and DIAAS (61% values. A significant correlation was found between PDCAAS and in vitro PDCAAS (R2 = 0.7497. This demonstrates which bean processing method will generate the optimal protein quality, which has benefits for both industrial production and individual domestic preparation.

  17. Flavins secreted by roots of iron-deficient Beta vulgaris enable mining of ferric oxide via reductive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisó-Terraza, Patricia; Rios, Juan J; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Álvarez-Fernández, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is abundant in soils but generally poorly soluble. Plants, with the exception of Graminaceae, take up Fe using an Fe(III)-chelate reductase coupled to an Fe(II) transporter. Whether or not nongraminaceous species can convert scarcely soluble Fe(III) forms into soluble Fe forms has deserved little attention so far. We have used Beta vulgaris, one among the many species whose roots secrete flavins upon Fe deficiency, to study whether or not flavins are involved in Fe acquisition. Flavins secreted by Fe-deficient plants were removed from the nutrient solution, and plants were compared with Fe-sufficient plants and Fe-deficient plants without flavin removal. Solubilization of a scarcely soluble Fe(III)-oxide was assessed in the presence or absence of flavins, NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form) or plant roots, and an Fe(II) trapping agent. The removal of flavins from the nutrient solution aggravated the Fe deficiency-induced leaf chlorosis. Flavins were able to dissolve an Fe(III)-oxide in the presence of NADH. The addition of extracellular flavins enabled roots of Fe-deficient plants to reductively dissolve an Fe(III)-oxide. We concluded that root-secretion of flavins improves Fe nutrition in B. vulgaris. Flavins allow B. vulgaris roots to mine Fe from Fe(III)-oxides via reductive mechanisms. © 2015 CSIC New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

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    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  19. Dietary Plant Lectins Appear to Be Transported from the Gut to Gain Access to and Alter Dopaminergic Neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans, a Potential Etiology of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jolene; Wang, Mingming; Wei, Wenqian; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Adhikari, Binita; King, Jason F.; King, Michael L.; Peng, Nan; Laine, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins from dietary plants have been shown to enhance drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of rats, be transported trans-synaptically as shown by tracing of axonal and dendritic paths, and enhance gene delivery. Other carbohydrate-binding protein toxins are known to traverse the gut intact in dogs. Post-feeding rhodamine- or TRITC-tagged dietary lectins, the lectins were tracked from gut to dopaminergic neurons (DAergic-N) in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) [egIs1(Pdat-1:GFP)] where the mutant has the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to a dopamine transport protein gene labeling DAergic-N. The lectins were supplemented along with the food organism Escherichia coli (OP50). Among nine tested rhodamine/TRITC-tagged lectins, four, including Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA-E), Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA), appeared to be transported from gut to the GFP-DAergic-N. Griffonia Simplicifolia and PHA-E, reduced the number of GFP-DAergic-N, suggesting a toxic activity. PHA-E, BS-I, Pisum sativum (PSA), and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (Succinylated) reduced fluorescent intensity of GFP-DAergic-N. PHA-E, PSA, Concanavalin A, and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin decreased the size of GFP-DAergic-N, while BS-I increased neuron size. These observations suggest that dietary plant lectins are transported to and affect DAergic-N in C. elegans, which support Braak and Hawkes’ hypothesis, suggesting one alternate potential dietary etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A recent Danish study showed that vagotomy resulted in 40% lower incidence of PD over 20 years. Differences in inherited sugar structures of gut and neuronal cell surfaces may make some individuals more susceptible in this conceptual disease etiology model. PMID:27014695

  20. Dietary plant lectins appear to be transported from the gut to gain access to and alter dopaminergic neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans, a potential etiology of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene eZheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins from dietary plants have been shown to enhance drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of rats, be transported trans-synaptically as shown by tracing of axonal and dendritic paths, and enhance gene delivery. Other carbohydrate-binding protein toxins are known to traverse the gut intact in dogs. Post-feeding rhodamine- or TRITC-tagged dietary lectins, the lectins were tracked from gut to dopaminergic neurons (DAergic-N in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans (egIs1[Pdat-1::GFP] where the mutant has the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP gene fused to a dopamine transport protein gene labeling dopaminergic neurons, The lectins were supplemented along with the food organism Escherichia coli (OP50. Among nine tested rhodamine/TRITC-tagged lectins, four, including Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA-E, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA, and Arachis hypogaea (PNA, appeared to be transported from gut to the GFP-DAergic-N. Griffonia Simplicifolia (GSL-I and PHA-E, reduced the number of GFP-DAergic-N suggesting a toxic activity. PHA-E, BS-I, Pisum Sativum (PSA, and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (Succinylated reduced fluorescent intensity of GFP-DAergic-N. PHA-E, PSA, Concanavalin A, and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin decreased the size of GFP-DAergic-N, while BS-I increased neuron size. These observations suggest that dietary plant lectins are transported to and affect DAergic-N in C. elegans, which support Braak and Hawkes’ hypothesis, suggesting one alternate potential dietary etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. A recent Danish study showed that vagotomy resulted in 40% lower incidence of PD over 20 years. Differences in inherited sugar structures of gut and neuronal cell surfaces may make some individuals more susceptible in this conceptual disease etiology model.

  1. Novel vitamin E forms in leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Phaseolus coccineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Jerzy; Pisarski, Adam; Szymańska, Renata

    2011-11-15

    In the present study, we isolated novel tocochromanols from green leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and primary leaves of etiolated seedlings of Phaseolus coccineus that were identified as β-, γ-, and δ-tocomonoenols with unsaturation at the terminal isoprene unit of the side chain. The content of γ-tocomonoenol in leaves of etiolated bean increased gradually with the age of seedlings, reaching 50% of the γ-tocopherol level in 40-day-old plants. The content of this compound in leaves was increased by short illumination of etiolated plants and by addition of homogentisic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of tocopherols. These data indicated that γ-tocomonoenol is synthesized de novo from homogentisic acid and tetrahydro-geranylgeraniol diphosphate, a phytol precursor. Based on these results, a biosynthetic pathway of tocomonoenols is proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  3. Antracnosis de la faba ("Colletotrichum lindemuthianum" (Sacc. & Magn.) Scribner)

    OpenAIRE

    Landeras, Elena; Menéndez, Fermín; Braña, Máximo

    2010-01-01

    1 h. (2 p.) il. col. Este hongo produce graves daños a la judía común ("Phaseolus vulgaris"), y especialmente a la variedad "faba granja", pero también puede atacar a otras especies de "Phaseolus" y a otros cultivos de leguminosas de menor importancia. UNIÓN EUROPEA, Fondo Europeo de Orientación y Garantía Agrícola

  4. Analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris response to its association with Trichoderma harzianum (ALL-42) in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jackeline L; Queiroz, Rayner M L; Charneau, Sébastien O; Felix, Carlos R; Ricart, Carlos A O; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Ulhoa, Cirano J; Noronha, Eliane F

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma harzianum (ALL 42-isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil) to promote common bean growth and to modulate its metabolism and defense response in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani using a proteomic approach. T. harzianum was able to promote common bean plants growth as shown by the increase in root/foliar areas and by size in comparison to plants grown in its absence. The interaction was shown to modulate the expression of defense-related genes (Glu1, pod3 and lox1) in roots of P. vulgaris. Proteomic maps constructed using roots and leaves of plants challenged or unchallenged by T. harzianum and phytopathogenic fungi showed differences. Reference gels presented differences in spot distribution (absence/presence) and relative volumes of common spots (up or down-regulation). Differential spots were identified by peptide fingerprinting MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 48 identified spots (19 for leaves and 29 for roots) were grouped into protein functional classes. For leaves, 33%, 22% and 11% of the identified proteins were categorized as pertaining to the groups: metabolism, defense response and oxidative stress response, respectively. For roots, 17.2%, 24.1% and 10.3% of the identified proteins were categorized as pertaining to the groups: metabolism, defense response and oxidative stress response, respectively.

  5. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  6. Inhibitory effect of Distamycin-A and a pyrazino-pyrazine derivative on tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, G; Kudamatsu, M

    1983-08-01

    Distamycin-A hydrochloride, a synthetic antibiotic, and 2,3-dihydroxy-6-bromo-pyrazino (2,3-beta) pyrazine derivative, were used against tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tobacco plants. The drugs were applied to the leaves at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/l. The results showed that both drugs delayed virus spread within the plant, retarding the appearance of systemic symptoms. A virus recovery test, carried out on primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Manteiga, showed that TSWV replication was markedly inhibited by the pyrazino-pyrazine derivative at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/l and, to a lower extent, by Dystamycin-A at 400 mg/l.

  7. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  8. HERDABILIDADES E CORRELAÇÕES DA PRODUÇÃO DO FEIJÃO E DOS SEUS COMPONENTES PRIMÁRIOS, NAS ÉPOCAS DE CULTIVO DA PRIMAVERA-VERÃO E DO VERÃO-OUTONO HERITABILITIES AND CORRELATIONS OF COMMON BEAN YIELD AND ITS PRIMARY COMPONENTS, IN THE SPRING-SUMMER AND SUMMER-FALL CULTIVATION SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Daniel Fernandes Coelho

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar parâmetros genéticos em populações F2 do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivadas em duas épocas tradicionais no Estado de Minas Gerais. Foi realizado o cruzamento entre os cultivares 'Ouro 1919' e 'Milionário 1732', e as populações genitoras, F1 e F2 foram cultivadas na primavera-verão e no verão-outono. Nas duas épocas, as estimativas de herdabilidades foram baixas para todos os caracteres e o número de vagens por planta apresentou as maiores correlações fenotípicas e de ambiente com a produção de grãos.This work aimed to estimate genetic parameters in F2 populations of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivated in two traditional seasons in Minas Gerais State (Brazil. The cultivars 'Ouro 1919' and 'Milinário 1732' were crossed, and the parental, F1 and F2 populations were cultivated in the spring-summer and summer-fall. In the two cultivation seasons, the heritabilities were low for all characters, while the number of pods per plant showed the greatest phenotypic and environmental correlations with grain yield.

  9. Enzymatic Browning in Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne; Kiskini, Alexandra; Hilgers, Roelant; Marinea, Marina; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves of 8 month (8m) plants showed more enzymatic browning than those of 3 month (3m). Total phenolic content increased from 4.6 to 9.4 mg/g FW in 3m and 8m, respectively, quantitated by

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the common bean anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Pablo; Alzate, Juan; Yepes, Mauricio Salazar; Marín, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is the causal agent of anthracnose in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), one of the most limiting factors for this crop in South and Central America. In this work, the mitochondrial sequence of a Colombian isolate of C. lindemuthianum obtained from a common bean plant (var. Cargamanto) with anthracnose symptoms is presented. The mtDNA codes for 13 proteins of the respiratory chain, 1 ribosomal protein, 2 homing endonucleases, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 28 tRNAs. This is the first report of a complete mtDNA genome sequence from C. lindemuthianum.

  11. Improvement of protein and amino acid contents in seeds of food legumes. A case study in Phaseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes are considered as the major source of dietary proteins among the plant species. Protein and amino acid contents were evaluated in a wide sample of both wild and cultivated genotypes of Phaseolus species, with a view to investigate possibilities of genetic improvement in seed nutritional quality. Results indicate a variation in relation with taxa, biological status within species (such as in P. lunatus, ecological conditions, seed parts (testa, cotyledons and embryonic axis, and major protein groups. However, the sulphur containing amino acids remain a limiting factor, which could be better overcome by mixing food legumes with other plant species such as cereals.

  12. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...

  13. COMMON BEAN RESPONSE TO HEAT STRESS IN DIFFERENT PHENOLOGICAL STAGES RESPOSTA DO FEIJOEIRO COMUM AO ESTRESSE TÉRMICO APLICADO EM DIFERENTES ESTÁGIOS FENOLÓGICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Dirceu Didonet

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    High temperature reduces grain yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a consequence of the abortion of reproductive structures. Heat stress was applied in common bean cultivars BRS Pérola and BRS Valente, in different phenological stages to verify grain yield reduction. Plants were grown in pots at 22C/18C day/night, 12/12 hours, without water and nutrients limitations and with preventive insect and disease control. At stages V4, R5, R7, and R8 plants were submitted to temperatures of 37C/25C day/night, 12/12 hours for 72 hours, in growth chamber and then returned to the initial conditions. Pod abortion was evaluated, and, at R9 stage, accumulated dry weight and yield components were evaluated. Heat stress applied at R5, R7 and R8 stage increased the number of pods per plant; however, grains per pod and dry weight per seed decreased. From the data obtained it can be concluded that incidence of high temperatures from R5 until R7 stages reduced grain yield and commercial grain quality of common beans.

    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; pod abortion; biomass yield; temperature.

    Altas temperaturas podem reduzir o rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivado em regiões tropicais, em decorrência do abortamento de estruturas reprodutivas. Para determinar o período fenológico em que a incidência de altas temperaturas acarreta maior redução no rendimento, foram aplicados estresses térmicos em diferentes estágios fenológicos de plantas de feijoeiro, das cultivares BRS Pérola e BRS Valente. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos, sem limitação de água e nutrientes e com controle fitossanitário preventivo, em temperaturas de 22oC/18oC dia/noite, 12/12 horas. Nos estágios V4, R5, R7 e R8, as plantas foram submetidas a temperaturas de 37oC/25oC dia

  14. The antioxidant activity of Beta vulgaris leaf extract in improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory disorders in rats

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    Shadie Hajihosseini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medicinal plants have attracted global attention due to their safety as well as their considerable antioxidant content that helps to prevent or ameliorate various disorders including memory impairments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of beet root (Beta vulgaris leaf extract on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairments in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10: Control (C, scopolamine 1 mg/kg/day (S, scopolamine+50 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 50, scopolamine+100 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 100 and scopolamine+200 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 200. Morris water maze task was used to assess spatial memory. Serum antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde (MDA level were also measured. Results: Group S spent significantly less time in the target quadrant compared to the control group, and the administration of B. vulgaris leaf extract (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased this time (p

  15. Effects of abscisic acid or benzyladenine on pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chloroplast ultrastructure during water stress and after rehydration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haisel, Daniel; Pospíšilová, Jana; Synková, Helena; Schnablová, Renáta; Baťková, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2006), s. 606-614 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/04/0549 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Beta vulgaris * Nicotiana tabacum * Phaseolus vulgaris * starch content * Zea mays Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2006

  16. Evaluacion fisicoquimica, microbiologica y sensorial de una salsa y una bebida funcional a base de extracto de frijol rojo (Phaseolus vulgaris con pulpa de Guayaba en el municipio de Valledupar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J Fl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar de manera fisicoquímica, microbiológica y sensorial una salsa y una bebida funcional a base de extracto de fríjol rojo (phaseolus vulgaris con pulpa de guayaba. Metodología: el trabajo se desarrolló en una planta piloto, donde se tuvieron en cuenta la pulpa de la fruta y granos de frijoles rojos comercializados en los diferentes supermercados de la ciudad de Valledupar donde se tomaron muestras representativas de 5 kilos de guayaba y 5 kilos de fríjol para la obtención de la bebida y, con base en la NTC 659, se aplicó un diseño factorial de 22. Resultados: La consistencia de la salsa de extracto de fríjol rojo con mayor contenido de proteína (11,3 % fue el atributo de mayor aceptación por parte de los evaluadores no entrenados con 67,3 %, y el color fue el de menor aceptación con 53,3 %. Sin embargo, en forma general, el producto tuvo una preferencia de 61 %. El sabor de la bebida tipo néctar con mayor contenido de proteína (11% a base de extracto de fríjol rojo y extracto de guayaba fue el atributo que tuvo el mayor porcentaje de aceptación por parte de los evaluadores no entrenados, con 70,6%, y la consistencia fue el atributo con menor porcentaje de aceptación con 61,3. Sin embargo, otra vez en forma general, considerados todos los atributos, la bebida tuvo una preferencia de 64,5%. Conclusiones: la composición mineral (Fe, Na, K, Ca y Mg tanto de la salsa de extracto de fríjol como de la bebida a base de extracto de fríjol rojo y extracto de guayaba fueron aportes valiosos, sobre todo en el contenido del potasio y del calcio, que contribuyen a mantener la estabilidad muscular y gástrica del ser humano.

  17. SALINITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kaymakanova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salt stress оn the physiological reaction in young bean plants was studied. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were treated for 7 days with NaCl and Na2SO4 (concentration 100 mM, starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the equimolar concentrations of both salt types caused stress in the young bean plants, which found expression in the suppression of growth, photosynthesis activity and caused changes in stomata status (conductivity, number and size. The transpiration and the cell water potential in salt-treated plants were reduced. The MDA level in root and shoot, and the proline content was increased.

  18. AKTIVITAS ENZIM FITASE PADA PERKEMBANGAN KACANG HIJAU (Phaseolus radiatus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a study on the phytase enzyme activities on germination of Mung Beans (Phaseolus radiatus L. The activities and stability of phytase enzyme were observed under influence of various incubation temperature (27°C, 37°C and 55"C, and incubation time (1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours of the Mung Beans (Phaseolus radiatus L in germinating for 1 to 5 days. The results showed that activities of phytase enzyme at the same temperature and incubation time are the same in Mung Beans seed germinating for 1 to 5 days. Phytase enzyme is one of the termostabile enzymes with optimal activities at high temperature.

  19. Detection of new viruses in alfalfa, weeds and cultivated plants growing adjacent to alfalfa fields in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahwan, I M; Abdalla, O A; Al-Saleh, M A; Amer, M A

    2017-09-01

    A total of 1368 symptomatic plant samples showing different virus-like symptoms such as mottling, chlorosis, mosaic, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and stunting were collected from alfalfa, weed and cultivated plant species growing in vicinity of alfalfa fields in five principal regions of alfalfa production in Saudi Arabia. DAS-ELISA test indicated occurrence of 11 different viruses in these samples, 10 of which were detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Eighty percent of the alfalfa samples and 97.5% of the weed and cultivated plants samples were found to be infected with one or more of these viruses. Nine weed plant species were found to harbor these viruses namely, Sonchus oleraceus, Chenopodium spp., Hibiscus spp., Cichorium intybus , Convolvulus arvensis , Malva parviflora , Rubus fruticosus , Hippuris vulgaris , and Flaveria trinervia . These viruses were also detected in seven cultivated crop plants growing adjacent to the alfalfa fields including Vigna unguiculata , Solanum tuberosum , Solanum melongena , Phaseolus vulgaris , Cucurbita maxima , Capsicum annuum , and Vicia faba . The newly reported viruses together with their respective percent of detection in alfalfa, and in both weeds and cultivated crop plant species together were as follows: Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV) {12.5 and 4.5%}, Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) {2.9 and 3.5%}, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) {1.4 and 4.5%}, Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) {1.2 and 4.5%}, Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV) {1.2 and 4%}, White clover mosaic virus (WCIMV) {1.0 and 5%}, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) {0.8 and 3%}, Pea streak virus (PeSV) {0.4 and 4.5%} and Tobacco streak virus (TSV) {0.3 and 2.5%}. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), the previously reported virus in alfalfa, had the highest percentage of detection in alfalfa accounting for 58.4% and 62.8% in the weeds and cultivated plants. Peanut stunt virus (PSV) was also detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia with a 66.7% of infection in 90

  20. Detection of new viruses in alfalfa, weeds and cultivated plants growing adjacent to alfalfa fields in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Al-Shahwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1368 symptomatic plant samples showing different virus-like symptoms such as mottling, chlorosis, mosaic, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and stunting were collected from alfalfa, weed and cultivated plant species growing in vicinity of alfalfa fields in five principal regions of alfalfa production in Saudi Arabia. DAS-ELISA test indicated occurrence of 11 different viruses in these samples, 10 of which were detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Eighty percent of the alfalfa samples and 97.5% of the weed and cultivated plants samples were found to be infected with one or more of these viruses. Nine weed plant species were found to harbor these viruses namely, Sonchus oleraceus, Chenopodium spp., Hibiscus spp., Cichorium intybus, Convolvulus arvensis, Malva parviflora, Rubus fruticosus, Hippuris vulgaris, and Flaveria trinervia. These viruses were also detected in seven cultivated crop plants growing adjacent to the alfalfa fields including Vigna unguiculata, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cucurbita maxima, Capsicum annuum, and Vicia faba. The newly reported viruses together with their respective percent of detection in alfalfa, and in both weeds and cultivated crop plant species together were as follows: Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV {12.5 and 4.5%}, Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV {2.9 and 3.5%}, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV {1.4 and 4.5%}, Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV {1.2 and 4.5%}, Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV {1.2 and 4%}, White clover mosaic virus (WCIMV {1.0 and 5%}, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV {0.8 and 3%}, Pea streak virus (PeSV {0.4 and 4.5%} and Tobacco streak virus (TSV {0.3 and 2.5%}. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, the previously reported virus in alfalfa, had the highest percentage of detection in alfalfa accounting for 58.4% and 62.8% in the weeds and cultivated plants. Peanut stunt virus (PSV was also detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia with a 66.7% of infection in 90

  1. Effect of nitrogen supply on transpiration and stomatal behaviour of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimshi, D

    1970-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen supply on the transpiration rate and stomatal opening of potted bean plants was studied in a series of experiments. The transpiration rates of N-supplied plants were higher than those of N-deficient plants when soil moisture was relatively high; as soil moisture approached the wilting range, the transpiration rates of N-supplied plants dropped to below those of N-deficient plants. In spite of the marked differences in transpiration rates, as influenced by soil moisture and nitrogen supply, the stomata appeared closed. By coating the upper or lower surfaces of the leaves with a vapor-impervious compound it was shown that stomatal apertures below the limit of microscopic resolution control the rate of transpiration. Under conditions that encourage stomatal opening (covering the plants with transparent plastic bags), the stomata of the N-deficient plants opened to a lesser degree than those of N-supplied plants. There was some evidence that when stomata were visibly open, transpiration rates were regulated by the degree of plant hydration rather than by the degree of stomatal opening. It is concluded that N-deficient plants fail to open their stomata as widely and to close them as tightly as N-supplied plants. 8 references, 2 tables.

  2. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTITUMOR, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC CONSTITUENTS OF FIELD-GROWN AND IN VITRO-GROWN LYSIMACHIA VULGARIS L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Guner, Birgul; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2017-01-01

    Lysimachia vulgaris L. (Yellow loosestrife) is a medicinal plant in the family Myrsinaceae. It has been used in the treatment of fever, ulcer, diarrhea and wounds in folk medicine. It has also analgesic, expectorant, astringent and anti-inflammatory activities. Two different sources of the plant (field-grown and in vitro -grown) were used to evaluate the biological activities (antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant) of L. vulgaris. In vitro-grown plant materials were collected from L. vulgaris plants that were previously regenerated in our laboratory. Plant materials were extracted with water, ethanol and acetone. For antibacterial test, disc diffusion method and 10 different pathogenic bacteria were used. Antioxidant activity was indicated by using DPPH method. The total phenol amount by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu method and the total flavonoid amount by using aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) colorimetric method were determined. Generally, yellow loosestrife extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes) . Strong antitumor activity of yellow loosestrife was observed via potato disc diffusion bioassay. Nine different phenolics were also determined and compared by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Future investigations should be focused on fractionation of the extracts to identify active components for biological activity.

  3. Nectar robbing, forager efficiency and seed set: Bumblebees foraging on the self incompatible plant Linaria vulgaris (Scrophulariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jane C.; Allen, John A.; Goulson, Dave

    2000-07-01

    In southern England, Linaria vulgaris (common yellow toadflax) suffers from high rates of nectar robbery by bumblebees. In a wild population of L. vulgaris we found that 96 % of open flowers were robbed. Five species of bumblebee were observed foraging on these flowers, although short-tongued species ( Bombus lapidarius, B. lucorum and B. terrestris) robbed nectar whilst longer-tongued ones behaved as legitimate pollinators ( B. hortorum and B. pascuorum). Nectar rewards were highly variable; on average there was less nectar in robbed than in unrobbed flowers, but this difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of flowers containing no nectar was significantly higher for robbed flowers compared with unrobbed flowers. Secondary robbers and legitimate pollinators had similar handling times on flowers and, assuming they select flowers at random to forage on, received approximately the same nectar profit per minute, largely because most flowers had been robbed. There was no significant difference in the number of seeds in pods of robbed flowers and in pods of flowers that were artificially protected against robbing. However, more of the robbed flowers set at least some seed than the unrobbed flowers, possibly as a consequence of the experimental manipulation. We suggest that nectar robbing has little effect on plant fecundity because legitimate foragers are present in the population, and that seed predation and seed abortion after fertilization may be more important factors in limiting seed production in this species.

  4. Pemphigus Vulgaris with Solitary Toxic Thyroid Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alfishawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together?

  5. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Malmierca, Monica G.; Lorenzana, Alicia; Campelo, M. Piedad; Hermosa, Rosa; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen. PMID:26442006

  6. Soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type affect pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites like pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. We studied the effects of soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type on pyrrolizidine alkaloids in roots and shoots of Jacobaea vulgaris. We used clones of two genotypes from a dune area (Meijendel),

  7. Caleosin from Chlorella vulgaris TISTR 8580 is salt-induced and heme-containing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuchinda, Pairpilin; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Yamada, Daisuke; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and functional properties of lipid droplet-associated proteins in algae remain scarce. We report here the caleosin gene from Chlorella vulgaris encodes a protein of 279 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence alignment showed high similarity to the putative caleosins from fungi, but less to plant caleosins. When the C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 cells were treated with salt stress (0.3 M NaCl), the level of triacylglycerol increased significantly. The mRNA contents for caleosin in Chlorella cells significantly increased under salt stress condition. Caleosin gene was expressed in E. coli. Crude extract of E. coli cells exhibited the cumene hydroperoxide-dependent oxidation of aniline. Absorption spectroscopy showed a peak around 415 nm which was decreased upon addition of cumene hydroperoxide. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggests caleosin existed as the oligomer. These data indicate that a fresh water C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 contains a salt-induced heme-protein caleosin.

  8. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  9. Survey the Effect of Oil Pollution on Morphological Characteristics in Faba Vulgaris and Vicia Ervilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lorestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollution results when a change in the environment harmfully affects the quality of human life including effect on animals, microorganisms and plants. Among the broad range of organic pollutants contaminating soil-water environment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great environment concern. Oil contaminated soil will affect germination, plant height, leaf area and biomass production. The aim of this research was to elucidate effects of oil pollution on morphological characteristics in Fabaceae family. For this purpose species of Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia were planted in different concentrations of oil in soil. For morphological studies, studied species were removed from polluted and non polluted soils separately and some morphological characters were studied in these species, then these characters were compared in plants, collected from polluted and non polluted soil. Finally, the level of significance of these differences was elucidated by using of SPSS. Obtained results showed that oil pollution can cause some abnormalities in structure of vegetative parts in plants grown on polluted soils. Decreasing of plant length and stem diameter and changing the leaf shape was among the most important effects of oil on morphological characteristics in Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia.

  10. Severity of angular leaf spot and rust diseases on common beans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    5.3, respectively. Key words: Common beans, disease management, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pseudocercospora griseola, .... Pearson product- moment ..... SAS Institute. 1989. SAS/STAT User's. Guide (version 6, vol. 1, 4th ed.), Cary: SAS Institute ...

  11. Biological Nitrogen Fixation Efficiency in Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes as Measured by {sup 15}N Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, V. I.; Mendes, F. L. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, EMBRAPA-Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil); Muraoka, T.; Trevisam, A. R. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) represents the main source of protein for the Brazilian and other Latin-American populations. Unlike soybean, which is very efficient in fixing atmospheric N{sub 2} symbiotically, common bean does not dispense with the need for N fertilizer application, as the biologically fixed N (BNF) seems incapable to supplement the total N required by the crop. A experiment under controlled conditions was conducted in Piracicaba, Brazil, to assess N{sub 2} fixation of 25 genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). BNF was measured by {sup 15}N isotope dilution using a non-N{sub 2} fixing bean genotype as a reference crop. The common bean genotypes were grown in low (2.2 mg N kg{sup -1} soil) or high N content soil (200 mg N kg{sup -1} soil), through N fertilizer application, as urea-{sup 15}N (31.20 and 1.4 atom % {sup 15}N, respectively). The bean seeds were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 strain and the plants were harvested at grain maturity stage. The contribution of BNF was on average 75% of total plant N content, and there were differences in N fixing capacity among the bean genotypes. The most efficient genotypes were Horizonte, Roxo 90, Grafite, Apore and Vereda, when grown in high N soil. None of the genotypes grown in low N soil was efficient in producing grains compared to those grown in high N soil, and therefore the BNF was not able to supply the total N demand of the bean crop. (author)

  12. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  13. Microbial Inoculantes Effects on Growth Promotion of Mangrove and Citrullus vulgaris San Andrés Isla, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Galindo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the effect of two microbial inoculants (obtained from red and black mangrove roots on the growth and stability of mangrove and watermelon plants, four treatments were carried out in San Andres Island, Colombia. The treatments consisted in the application of the inoculants in: A. germinans propagules collected in a mangrove area, and then individually planted in gavels with sun-pasteurized soil (in order to decrease the microbial load, A. germinans and R. mangle plants collected in the proximity of nursery trees, A. germinans and R. mangle planted and maintained in nursery, and in Citrullus vulgaris seeds planted in a traditional cultivar without chemical fertilizers. The growth and vegetative development variables were: number of nodes, number of leaves and steam length. The inoculants (phosphate solubilizing microorganisms -PSM- and nitrogen fixing bacteria -NFB- were applied in the mentioned vegetable material, doing measures during three months. The results show a positive effect on growth measured by steam length in plants treated specifically with the inoculants in C. vulgaris and A. germinans seedlings maintained in nursery.

  14. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Phaseolus trilobus, Ait on bile duct ligation induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursule, R A; Patil, S D

    2010-06-16

    Phaseolus trilobus Ait (Fabaceae) is extensively used by tribal people of Nandurbar district (Maharashtra, India) in the treatment of Jaundice and other liver disorders. of the present study was to assess the medicinal claim of Phaseolus trilobus as hepatoprotective and antioxidant. The hepatoprotective activity of methanol and aqueous extract of Phaseolus trilobus was evaluated by bile duct ligation induced liver fibrosis and antioxidant activity was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo antioxidant models viz anti-lipid peroxidation assay, super oxide radical scavenging assay and glutathione estimation in liver. Liver function tests were carried out to detect hepatoprotective activity, which was further supported by histopathological examination. Methanol and aqueous extracts of Phaseolus trilobus reduced elevated level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bilirubin and hydroxyproline significantly (pWistar rats, proving hepatoprotective activity comparable with Silymarin. Both the extracts were found to reduce the elevated levels of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and elevate superoxide scavenging radical activity proving antioxidant activity comparable with ascorbic acid. The reduced level of glutathione was found to be elevated in liver proving antioxidant activity comparable with Silymarin. Phaseolus trilobus posses hepatoprotective property and is effective in oxidative stress induced cholestatic hepatic injury. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown in Elevated CO2 on Apatite Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. A.; Morra, B.

    2016-12-01

    We ran a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that release of plant nutrients contained in apatite will be accelerated by the growth of Langstrath Stringless green bean in the presence of atmospheric CO2 meant to simulate possible future atmospheric conditions due a higher demand of nutrients and growth rate caused by elevated CO2. We hypothesize that elevated atmospheric CO2 will lead to both increased root growth and organic acid exudation. These two traits will lead to improved acquisition of P derived from apatite. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Plants were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Mini-greenhouses were utilized to control CO2 levels. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution lacking in Ca and P. Calcium and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served as a proxy for apatite dissolution. Plants were harvested biweekly during the eight-week experiment and analyzed for Ca and P to calculate apatite dissolution kinetics. Preliminary results suggest that approximately four times more P and Ca are present in the leachate from experiments containing plants under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels than in abiotic experiments; however, the amounts of both P and Ca released in experiments conducted under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels are similar. Additionally, the amount of P in plant tissue grown under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions is similar. Plants grown in elevated CO2 had a greater root to shoot ratio. The planted microcosms were found to have a lower pH than abiotic controls most likely due to root respiration and exudation of organic acids.

  16. Effect of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil on Oxidative Stability of Virgin Olive Oil and Its Synergy with Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Keramat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since usage of synthetic antioxidants has been under question due to their toxicity and possible carcinogenicity, there is still interest in developing plant-derived natural antioxidants, especially from edible plants. This study investigated the effect of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil on virgin olive oil oxidation in comparison with tocopheryl acetate and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Furthermore, the synergistic activities of citric acid with natural and synthetic antioxidants were determined. Methods: T. vulgaris essential oil was added to the virgin olive oil at a concentration of 1000 ppm. The BHT and tocopheryl acetate were added to the virgin olive oil at 100 ppm concentration. Virgin olive oil samples were stored at 60°C for 16 days. The peroxide value, p-anisidine value, K232, and K268 values were measured every 4 days. Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of virgin olive oil samples were determined at the beginning and end of storage period. Results: T. vulgaris essential oil significantly reduced the peroxide value, p-anisidine value, K232, and K268 values of virgin olive oil. The effect of T.vulgaris essential oil on retarding virgin olive oil oxidation was similar to the effect of BHT. By comparison, tocopheryl acetate was less effective in reducing the oxidation of virgin olive oil. Furthermore, T. vulgaris essential oil could preserve chlorophyll and carotenoid of virgin olive oil during storage period. Conclusion: T. vulgaris essential oil can be applied to increase the oxidative stability of virgin olive oil, and can protect the chlorophyll and carotenoid of virgin olive oil.

  17. Irradiation Effect on the symbiotic fixation of nitrogen in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roveda Hoyos, Gabriel; Rozo Avila, Liliana; Sierra Daza, Soraya

    1997-01-01

    The efficiency of legume - Rhizobium association is determined by biological (plant and bacteria) and environmental factors (soil and climate); for that reason, the best cultivars -Rhizobium strains combinations for each specie of legume must be selected according to the specifics environmental conditions. One of the most important sun light qualities are the irradiance levels to which the plants are exposed, because these levels have a close relation with the photosynthetic process, and also affect the biological nitrogen fixation, which has a high energetic requirements for symbiosis. The propose of this work was to determine the effect of irradiance on the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in common bean seedlings, under two environments conditions 100 and 500 moles m - 2 seg - 1 (IA and IB respectively), an nutrition control. The experimental results suggest that in the case of common bean, the irradiance requirements change depending on the Rhizobium strain that has be used in the symbiotic association. Both inoculated and non-inoculated plants with Rhizobium showed different behavior according to the levels of irradiance under which the plants were exposed. Under the irradiance of 500 moles m 2 seg - 1 (IA) the highest values of weight, area of plants, number and weight of nodules, nitrogen and phosphors content in leaves were founded, however under the lowest irradiance 100 μ moles m 2 seg - 1 (IB), the plants showed the largest root and steam, as a result of increase of bud distance, this behavior is known etiolation. The irradiance levels under which the plants are exposed determine the efficiency of symbiosis. The experimental results showed that the irradiance levels, no only affect the plant growth, but also the strains behavior. These results were easily observed in the treatments where ICA P-12 and ICA P-19 strains were used, for the dry weight of leaves, root and leaves area, number and weight of nodules, and nitrogen content of leaves in the plant. The

  18. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  19. Comparative uptake of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, T J; Mistry, K B

    1970-01-01

    The entry and translocation of /sup 230/thorium, /sup 226/radium, /sup 210/lead, and /sup 210/polonium were examined in nutrient culture experiments. Strontium-89 was included for comparison. Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were treated for a period of 15 days. Results indicate that accumulation of /sup 230/thorium, /sup 210/lead and /sup 210/polonium occurs predominantly in roots and only very small amounts of these nuclides are translocated to shoots. Over comparable periods, the accumulation of /sup 226/radium in roots is 2-3 times lower than that of the other nuclides of uranium series. However, the most significant difference between /sup 226/radium and other nuclides is in the extent of their upward transport which for radium is 50-200 times greater. The amount of radium translocated to shoots is comparable to that of strontium. The present evidence of rapid transfer of /sup 226/radium to shoots suggests that among the nuclides examined, /sup 226/radium is likely to make the major contribution to radioactivity in aerial tissues of plants grown under conditions where root absorption is the principal route of entry of the nuclides.

  20. Evaluación por rendimiento de 12 genotipos promisorios de fríjol voluble (Phaseolus vulgaris L. tipo Bola roja y Reventón para las zonas frías de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Jesús Edgardo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. es un alimento básico en la región Andina por ser una fuente rica en proteína y de bajo costo. La investigación para incrementar rendimientos en esta leguminosa es una opción para mejorar la competitividad en el mercado mundial. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue evaluar por rendimiento los genotipos promisorios de fríjol voluble, tipos Bola roja y Reventón, para las zonas frías de Colombia mediante el análisis de sendero. Se realizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres réplicas para evaluar 10 genotipos promisorios de fríjol voluble. El análisis de sendero para el rendimiento por planta y las correlaciones entre el rendimiento y sus componentes mostraron que el carácter número de vainas por planta es el de mayor importancia sobre la determinación del rendimiento, en comparación con los caracteres peso de 100 semillas y número de semillas por vaina, tanto en los genotipos de fríjol voluble tipo Bola roja como tipo Reventón. 

  1. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 is associated with homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Larsen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    -3 and bc-u, have been proposed to control resistance to the potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. In order to identify molecular entities for these genes, we cloned and sequenced P. vulgaris homologues of genes encoding the eIF proteins eIF4E, eIF(iso)4E...

  2. Sonography of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, Ximena; Claveria, Pedro; Valenzuela, Fernando; Molina, Maria Teresa; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sonographic morphology of the clinical and subclinical pathology of facial acne vulgaris. We studied patients with facial acne vulgaris diagnosed by certified dermatologists, and using a standardized protocol for sonographic examinations, we sequentially described the sonographic pathomorphologic characteristics. Lesions of particular interest to the referring clinician were also analyzed separately. Additionally, acne involvement was staged clinically and sonographically (SOS-Acne) using morphologic definitions of the relevant lesions and predefined scoring systems for gradation of the severity of acne lesions. A total of 245 acne lesions in 20 consecutive patients were studied. Sonographic abnormalities consisted of pseudocysts, folliculitis, fistulas, and calcinosis. Most conditions were subclinical and mostly due to lesion extensions deep into the dermis and hypodermis (52% of pseudocysts and 68% of fistulas). The statistical concordance between acne severity scores assigned by two separate clinicians was strong (κ = 0.8020), but the corresponding sonographic scores generally showed more severe and clinically occult involvement. Facial acne vulgaris often involves deeper tissues, beyond the reach of the spatially restricted clinical examination; these subclinical conditions can be detected and defined with sonography. Additionally, acne vulgaris is amenable to sonographic scoring.

  3. Efeito de três manejos do lençol freático na adaptação fisiomorfológica do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. ao encharcamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Calheiros

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de três manejos do lençol freático na indução de adaptações fisiomorfológicas do cultivar Bat 477 de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. à hipoxia, com vistas em caracterizar a influência relativa dos principais fatores físicos, químicos e biológicos interferentes. O experimento foi realizado em campo, na ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba (SP, de março a junho de 1999, utilizando-se caixas de cimento amianto de 1.000 L como unidade experimental no delineamento de parcelas inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. As caixas receberam estrutura própria de manejo e controle do lençol freático. Simulou-se ao máximo um meio físico/condição natural de uma várzea. Após a indução no período vegetativo, a eficiência dos manejos foi testada pela inundação temporária do solo no fim do florescimento/formação de vagens. Houve um efetivo processo de nodulação das raízes, a despeito da condição de alta saturação do solo. As características biométricas de crescimento, embora acusando prejuízo da hipoxia, evidenciaram a utilização pela planta de mecanismos adaptativos morfológicos (raízes adventícias e lenticelas, biológicos (fixação de N e fisiomorfológicos (resistividade estomática e transpiração. Já as características biométricas de colheita evidenciaram que tanto o manejo do lençol mantido a 15 cm como o de elevação gradativa, embora com rendimento de grãos sem vantagem estatística sobre o manejo não-indutivo, foram efetivos, permitindo a planta completar seu ciclo, além de menor comprometimento na qualidade de grãos. A alternância de vantagens relativas biométricas entre os dois manejos não acarretou diferença estatística no rendimento de grãos, levando-se a inferir ser vantajoso o uso de cultivares de ciclo mais longo nesse tipo de condição.

  4. O2-insensitive photosynthesis in C3 plants: its occurrence and a possible explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Leaves of C 3 plants which exhibit a normal O 2 inhibition of CO 2 fixation at less than saturating light intensity were found to exhibit O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis at high light. This behavior was observed in Phaseolus