WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant pfp complex

  1. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  2. Plutonium contamination issues in Hanford soils and sediments: Discharges from the Z-Plant (PFP) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Conradson, Steven D.

    Beginning in 1945, weapons production activities at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation resulted in the discharge of large quantities of Pu and other transuranic elements to the subsurface. The vast majority of the transuranics was disposed in the Hanford central plateau (200 areas) predominately associated with activities at the Z-Plant (Plutonium Finishing Plant) complex. In the past Pu and Am migrated deep into the subsurface at certain locations, although Pu and other transuranics are not currently being detected in significant concentration in any associated groundwaters. Evaluation of the chemical form of the transuranics in the subsurface along with determining the mechanism(s) of the past subsurface migration is important in establishing strategies for long-term site management practices. Unfortunately, the chemical form of the transuranics in the deep subsurface sediments and the past mechanism of vertical migration remain largely unknown. However, initial studies performed as part of this research indicate that the chemical form of Pu can vary from disposal site to disposal site depending upon the waste type and the chemical form can also differ between surface sediments and deep subsurface sediments at the same site. This paper present a summary of the different waste types and locations where transuranics were disposed, the factors that could have lead to subsurface migration via different transport vectors, the information currently available on the chemical form of Pu in the subsurface, and a summary of current research needs.

  3. Plutonium Contamination Issues in Hanford Soils and Sediments: Discharges from the Z-Plant (PFP) Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Conradson, Steven D.

    2010-08-23

    Beginning in 1945, weapons production activities at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation resulted in the discharge of large quantities of Pu and other transuranic elements to the subsurface. The vast majority of the transuranics were disposed in the Hanford central plateau (200 areas) predominately associated with activities at the Z-Plant (Plutonium Finishing Plant) complex. In the past the Pu and Am migrated deep into the subsurface at certain locations, although the Pu and other transuranics are not currently being detected in significant concentration in any associated groundwaters. Evaluation of the chemical form of the transuranics in the subsurface along with determining the mechanism(s) of the past subsurface migration is important in establishing strategies for long-term site management practices. Unfortunately, the chemical form of the transuranics in the deep subsurface sediments and the past mechanism of vertical migration remain largely unknown. This paper present a summary of the different waste types and locations where transuranics were disposed, the factors that could have lead to subsurface migration via different transport vectors, the information currently available on the chemical form of Pu in the subsurface, and a summary of current research needs.

  4. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-12-03

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  5. Project Plan Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) from Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-09-14

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove SNM Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev.0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baseline to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviation to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process. The Remove SNM Materials project provides the necessary support and controls required for DOE-HQ, DOE-RL, BWHC, and other DOE Complex Contractors the path forward to negotiate shipped/receiver agreements, schedule shipments, and transfer material out of PFP to enable final deactivation.

  6. PFP deactivation project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, D.M.

    1997-07-28

    This document identifies the overall approach for deactivation of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex, excluding the vaults, and includes a draft set of End Point Criteria for all buildings being deactivated.

  7. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  8. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) FOR PLANNING FUTURE D&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-25

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed.

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) sets forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ESH) standards/requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This S/RID is applicable to the appropriate life cycle phases of design, construction, operation, and preparation for decommissioning. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment.

  10. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

  11. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

  12. Air Monitoring Modeling of Radioactive Releases During Proposed PFP Complex Demolition Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2011-01-24

    This report is part of the planning process for the demolition of the 234-5Z, 236-Z, 242-Z, and 291-Z-1 structures at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facilities on the Hanford Site. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) demolition planning effort by making engineering estimates of potential releases for various potential demolition alternatives. This report documents an analysis considering open-air demolition using standard techniques. It does not document any decisions about the decommissioning approaches; it is expected that this report will be revisited as demolition plans are finalized.

  13. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent

  14. Pretreatment of Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) sludge: Report for the period October 1990--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Swanson, J.L.

    1993-04-01

    The current mission of the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site is one of environmental restoration. A major task within this mission is the disposal of large volumes of high-level wastes (HLW) that are stored in underground tanks on the site. Under the current planning assumptions, all high-level tank waste will be vitrified as borosilicate glass and then disposed of in a geologic repository. The costs associated with this disposal scheme are very high. Thus, methods to reduce the volume of glass required to vitrify these wastes are currently being investigated. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) sludge is a unique transuranic waste that is stored in tank 241- SY-102 on the Hanford site. As the name implies, the bulk of this material consists of waste from operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant; but, other wastes have also been added (e.g., wastes from decontamination activities). Because the quantities of plutonium and americium in the PFP sludge are greater than 100 nCi/g, this sludge must be handled as a HLW. Approximately 6000 glass canisters would result from vitrifying this waste directly. Sludge washing would reduce the required number of canisters to {approximately}2500, with the volume of glass being driven by the low allowable concentration limit for Cr in the vitrification plant feed. The cost of production and subsequent geologic disposal of each canister of glass is expected to be $0.5 M to $1 M. Thus, an economic incentive exists to develop methods of pretreating the sludge to reduce the number of glass canisters needed to contain the final vitrified product.

  15. Pretreatment of Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) sludge: Report for the period October 1990--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Swanson, J.L.

    1993-04-01

    The current mission of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site is one of environmental restoration. A major task within this mission is the disposal of large volumes of high-level wastes (HLW) that are stored in underground tanks on the site. Under the current planning assumptions, all high-level tank waste will be vitrified as borosilicate glass and then disposed of in a geologic repository. The costs associated with this disposal scheme are very high. Thus, methods to reduce the volume of glass required to vitrify these wastes are currently being investigated. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) sludge is a unique transuranic waste that is stored in tank 241- SY-102 on the Hanford site. As the name implies, the bulk of this material consists of waste from operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant; but, other wastes have also been added (e.g., wastes from decontamination activities). Because the quantities of plutonium and americium in the PFP sludge are greater than 100 nCi/g, this sludge must be handled as a HLW. Approximately 6000 glass canisters would result from vitrifying this waste directly. Sludge washing would reduce the required number of canisters to [approximately]2500, with the volume of glass being driven by the low allowable concentration limit for Cr in the vitrification plant feed. The cost of production and subsequent geologic disposal of each canister of glass is expected to be $0.5 M to $1 M. Thus, an economic incentive exists to develop methods of pretreating the sludge to reduce the number of glass canisters needed to contain the final vitrified product.

  16. Air Dispersion Modeling of Radioactive Releases During Proposed PFP Complex Demolition Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2011-01-11

    This report is part of the planning process for the demolition of the 234-5Z, 236-Z, 242-Z, and 291-Z-1 structures at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) demolition planning effort by making engineering estimates of potential releases for various potential demolition alternatives. This report documents an analysis considering open-air demolition using standard techniques. It does not document any decisions about the decommissioning approaches; it is expected that this report will be revisited as the final details of the demolition are developed.

  17. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  18. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, L

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  19. Plan for the Startup of HA-21I Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS, H.T.

    2000-02-17

    Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given. The Startup Plan provides a phased approach that bridges the activities between the completion of the Activity Based Startup Review authorizing the use of the three additional furnaces and the unrestricted operation of the five thermal stabilization muffle furnaces. The four phases are: (1) the initiation of five furnace operations using three empty (simulated full) boat charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C; (2) three furnace operations (one full charge from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); (3) four furnace operations (two full charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); and (4) integrated five furnace operations and unrestricted operations. Phase 1 of the Plan will be considered as the cold runs. This Plan also provides management oversight and administrative controls that are to be implemented until unrestricted operations are authorized. It also provides a formal review process for ensuring that all preparations needed for full five furnace operations are completed and formally reviewed prior to proceeding to the increased activity levels associated with five furnace operations. Specific objectives include: (1) To ensure that activities are conducted in a safe manner. (2) To provide supplemental

  20. Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-12-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  1. PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1996-04-30

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  2. AN APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING & EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF SUB-GRADE STRUCTURES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    In 2002, the Richland Operations Office (RL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) developed milestones for transitioning the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facility to a clean slab-on-grade configuration. These milestones required developing an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EF/CA) for the facility's sub-grade structures and installations as part of a series of evaluations intended to provide for the transition of the facility to a clean slab-on-grade configuration. In addition to supporting decisions for interim actions, the analyses of sub-grade structures and installations performed through this EE/CA will contribute to the remedial investigation feasibility study(ies) and subsequently to the final records of decision for the relevant operable units responsible for site closure in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site.

  3. THE CREATIVE APPLICATION OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & WORK FORCE INNOVATIONS TO THE D&D OF PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material for fabrication into a nuclear device for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race. PFP has now completed its mission and is fully engaged in deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). At this time the PFP buildings are planned to be reduced to ground level (slab-on-grade) and the site remediated to satisfy national, Department of Energy (DOE) and Washington state requirements. The D&D of a highly contaminated plutonium processing facility presents a plethora of challenges. PFP personnel approached the D&D mission with a can-do attitude. They went into D&D knowing they were facing a lot of challenges and unknowns. There were concerns about the configuration control associated with drawings of these old process facilities. There were unknowns regarding the location of electrical lines and process piping containing chemical residues such as strong acids and caustics. The gloveboxes were highly contaminated with plutonium and chemical residues. Most of the glovebox windows were opaque with splashed process chemicals that coated the windows or etched them, reducing visibility to near zero. Visibility into the glovebox was a serious worker concern. Additionally, all the gloves in the gloveboxes were degraded and unusable. Replacing gloves in gloveboxes was necessary to even begin glovebox cleanout. The sheer volume of breathing air needed was also an issue. These and other challenges and PFP's approach to overcome these

  4. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Class and Safety Significant Commercial Grade Items (CGI) Critical Characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMAS, R.J.

    2000-04-24

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for use in the Plutonium Finishing Plant as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics of any one item.

  5. Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) [VOL 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-10

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy 450.4, Safety Management System Policy commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex as a means of accomplishing its missions safely. DOE Acquisition Regulation 970.5204-2 requires that contractors manage and perform work in accordance with a documented safety management system.

  6. System Design Description PFP Thermal Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the FSAR, the OSRs, and Safety Assessment Documents (SADs). This safety equipment documentation should satisfy guidelines for the SDD given in WHC-SD-CP-TI-18 1, Criteria for Identification and Control of Equipment Necessary for Preservation of the Safety Envelope and Safe Operation of PFP. The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP Thermal Stabilization project: Functional and design requirements; Design description; Safety Envelope Analysis; Safety Equipment Class; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures.

  7. Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for Criteria and Toxic Air Pollutant Emissions from Thermal Stabilization of Polycubes at the PFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RANADE, D.G.

    2000-11-01

    This is a notice of construction (NOC) application for thermal stabilization of plutonium in a polystyrene matrix (polycubes) in the muffle furnaces at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This NOC application is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-460-040. During the 1960's and 1970's, polycubes were thermally stabilized using a pyrolysis process at PFP. The proposed process of thermal stabilization of polycubes in muffle furnaces results in emissions of air contaminants not emitted since implementation of WAC 173-460 (effective 9/18/91). The new process and related air contaminants are the basis for this NOC application. The proposed activity would use the muffle furnaces in the 234-52 Building to stabilize polycubes. The resulting plutonium oxides would be packaged to meet storage requirements specified in Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials (DOE-STD-3013). The PFP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The PFP consists of several large and small buildings that are grouped to form the processing complex. The PFP activities are focused on the stabilization of plutonium-bearing materials to a form suitable for long-term storage; immobilization of residual plutonium-bearing materials; and removal of readily retrievable, plutonium-bearing materials left behind in process equipment and process areas.

  8. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  9. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  10. System design description PFP thermal stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LARKIN, K.A.

    1999-02-23

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The sources of material for this project are residues scraped from glovebox floors and materials already stored in vault storage that need further stabilizing. Stabilizing this material will promote long term storage and reduced worker exposure. This document addresses: functional design, equipment, and safety requirements for thermal stabilization of plutonium residues and oxides.

  11. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  12. Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, E V

    2000-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP.

  13. System Design Description PFP Thermal Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-01-27

    DOE has authorized in their letter of August 2, 1999, the operation of these three furnaces, quote ''Operation of the three uncompleted muffle furnaces (No.3, No.4, and No.5) located in Room 235B is authorized, using the same feed charge limits as the two existing furnaces (No.1, and No.2) located in Room 230C,''. The above statement incorrectly refers to Room 230C whereas the correct location is Room 230A. The current effort is directed to initiate the operation and to complete the design activities DOE authorized the operation of the furnaces based on their Safety Evaluation Report (SER). Based on analogy and the principle of similarity, the risks and consequences of accidents both onsite and offsite due to operation of three furnaces are not significantly larger than those already evaluated with the two operating furnaces. Thermal stabilization operations and the material of feed for furnaces in Glovebox HA-21 I are essentially the same as those currently being stabilized in furnaces in Glovebox HC-21 C. Therefore the accident analysis has utilized identical accident scenarios in evaluation and no additional failure modes are introduced by HA-21 I muffle furnace operation that would enhance the consequences of accidents. Authorization Basis documents as referenced below (PFP FSAR and DOE Letter authorizing the operation) appear to contradict each other, i.e. one allows and authorizes the operation and the other imposes the restriction on the operation. The purpose of the PFP FSAR restrictions was to review thoroughly the design and installation of three furnaces and perform acceptance testing before approving the startup for operation. With the experience of operating the two furnaces in Glovebox HC-21C, and the knowledge of risks and hazards the facility operation, the plant is adequately prepared to operate these additional furnaces. ECN 653595 has been prepared to incorporate operation of the muffle furnaces in Glovebox HA-21 I into the

  14. COLLABORATIVE NEGOTIATIONS A SUCCESSFUL APPROACH FOR NEGOTIATING COMPLIANCE MILESTONES FOR THE TRANSITION OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP), HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION, AND HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J.; Yerxa, J.; Romine, L.; Hopkins, AM; Piippo, R.; Cusack, L.; Bond, R.; Wang, Oliver; Willis, D.

    2003-02-27

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation is a former U. S. Department of Energy Defense Production Site. The site is currently listed on the National Priorities List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and is undergoing cleanup and environmental restoration. The PFP is a former Plutonium metal production facility. The operating mission of the PFP ended with a DOE Headquarters shutdown letter in October of 1996. Generally, the receipt of a shutdown letter initiates the start of Transition (as the first step of Decommissioning) of a facility. The Hanford site is subject to the Hanford Federal Facilities Compliance Act and Consent Order (HFFCCO), an order on consent signed by the DOE, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE). Under the HFFCCO, negotiations for transition milestones begin within six months after the issuance of a shutdown order. In the case of the PFP, the Nuclear Materials disposition and stabilization activities, a DOE responsibility, were necessary as precursor activities to Transition. This situation precipitated a crisis in the negotiations between the agencies, and formal negotiations initiated in 1997 ended in failure. The negotiations reached impasse on several key regulatory and operational issues. The 1997 negotiation was characterized by a strongly positional style. DOE and the regulatory personnel took hard lines early in the negotiations and were unable to move to resolution of key issues after a year and a half. This resulted in unhappy stakeholders, poor publicity and work delays as well as wounded relationships between DOE and the regulatory community. In the 2000-2001 PFP negotiations, a completely different approach was suggested and eventually initiated: Collaborative Negotiations. The collaborative negotiation style resulted in agreement between the agencies on all key issues within 6 months of initiation. All parties were very

  15. CSER 99-001: PFP LAB Dentirating calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILLER, E.M.; DOBBIN, K.D.

    1999-02-22

    A criticality safety evaluation report was prepared for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) laboratory denigrating calciner, located in Glovebox 188-1, that converts Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solutions to the high fired stable oxide PuO{sub 2}. Fissile mass limits and volume limits are set for the glovebox for testing operations and training operators using only nitric acid feed to a plutonium oxide bed in the calciner.

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  17. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

  18. CSER 97-004: PFP production denitration calciner system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesland, K.E.

    1997-09-11

    The plutonium stabilization program at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) includes conversion of acidic plutonium nitrate solution into plutonium oxide. Conversion is facilitated through use of a vertical calciner installed in Glovebox HC-23OC-2, which is located in RM 230C of this facility. This evaluation supports the Criticality Prevention Specification for the calcining process inside this glovebox. As the product of the calciner is a high density plutonium oxide, a number of limits are required to insure criticality safety. The containers allowed are product receiver vessels and 0.5 C slip lid cans and polyjars. The limits allow for two ``unit masses`` of 2 V total volume each, separated by a distance of at least 25.4 cm (10 in.). This evaluation allows for operation of the calciner for product densities not in excess of 5.5 g Pu/cm{sup 3}.

  19. System design description PFP thermal stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    1998-11-10

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing P1ant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The sources of material for this project are residues scraped from glovebox floors and materials already stored in vault storage that need further stabilizing to meet the 3013 storage requirements. Stabilizing this material will promote long term storage and reduced worker exposure. This document addresses: function design, equipment, and safety requirements for thermal stabilization of plutonium residues and oxides.

  20. PFP1, a gene encoding an Epc-N domain-containing protein, is essential for pathogenicity of the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siersleben, Sylvia; Penselin, Daniel; Wenzel, Claudia; Albert, Sylvie; Knogge, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune is an important foliar disease of barley. Insertion mutagenesis of R. commune generated a nonpathogenic fungal mutant which carries the inserted plasmid in the upstream region of a gene named PFP1. The characteristic feature of the gene product is an Epc-N domain. This motif is also found in homologous proteins shown to be components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes of fungi and animals. Therefore, PFP1 is suggested to be the subunit of a HAT complex in R. commune with an essential role in the epigenetic control of fungal pathogenicity. Targeted PFP1 disruption also yielded nonpathogenic mutants which showed wild-type-like growth ex planta, except for the occurrence of hyphal swellings. Complementation of the deletion mutants with the wild-type gene reestablished pathogenicity and suppressed the hyphal swellings. However, despite wild-type-level PFP1 expression, the complementation mutants did not reach wild-type-level virulence. This indicates that the function of the protein complex and, thus, fungal virulence are influenced by a position-affected long-range control of PFP1 expression. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Evolution of the land plant Exocyst complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima eCvrckova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Exocyst is an evolutionarily conserved vesicle tethering complex functioning especially in the last stage of exocytosis. Homologs of its eight canonical subunits -Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70 and Exo84 - were found also in higher plants and confirmed to form complexes in vivo, and to participate in cell growth including polarized expansion of pollen tubes and root hairs. Here we present results of a phylogenetic study of land plant exocyst subunits encoded by a selection of completely sequenced genomes representing a variety of plant, mostly angiosperm, lineages. According to their evolution histories, plant exocyst subunits can be divided into several groups. The core subunits Sec6, Sec8 and Sec10, together with Sec3 and Sec5, underwent few, if any fixed duplications in the tracheophytes (though they did amplify in the moss Physcomitrella patens, while others form larger families, with the number of paralogs ranging typically from two to eight per genome (Sec15, Exo84 to several dozens per genome (Exo70. Most of the diversity, which can be in some cases traced down to the origins of land plants, can be attributed to the peripheral subunits Exo84 and, in particular, Exo70. As predicted previously, early land plants (including possibly also the Rhyniophytes encoded three basal Exo70 paralogs which further diversified in the course of land plant evolution. Our results imply that plants do not have a single "Exocyst complex" – instead, they appear to possess a diversity of exocyst variants unparalleled among other organisms studied so far. This feature might perhaps be directly related to the demands of building and maintenance of the complicated and spatially diverse structures of the endomembranes and cell surfaces in multicellular land plants.

  2. PFP MICON maintenance manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, G.R.

    1995-01-25

    This manual covers the use of maintenance displays, maintenance procedures, system alarms and common system failures. This manual is intended to supplement the MICON maintenance training not replace it. It also assumes that the user is familiar with the normal operation of the MICON A/S system. The MICON system is a distributed control computer and, among other things, controls the HVAC system for the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  3. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  4. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) HVAC System Component Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIAZ, E.N.; DICK, J.D.

    2000-07-26

    This document lists safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) components for the Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI), as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item.

  5. Test plan for N2 HEPA filters assembly shop stock used on PFP E4 exhaust system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-09-01

    At Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) Self-contained HEPA filters, encased in wooden frames and boxes, are installed in the E4 Exhaust Ventilation System to provide confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. Recently during the routine testing in-leakage was discovered downstream of the Self-contained HEPA filters boxes. This Test Plan describes the approach to conduct investigation of the root causes for the in-leakage of HEPA filters.

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  7. Engineering of complex protein sialylation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallolimath, Somanath; Castilho, Alexandra; Strasser, Richard; Grünwald-Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Strubl, Sebastian; Galuska, Christina Elisabeth; Zlatina, Kristina; Galuska, Sebastian Peter; Werner, Stefan; Thiesler, Hauke; Werneburg, Sebastian; Hildebrandt, Herbert; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Steinkellner, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Sialic acids (Sias) are abundant terminal modifications of protein-linked glycans. A unique feature of Sia, compared with other monosaccharides, is the formation of linear homo-polymers, with its most complex form polysialic acid (polySia). Sia and polySia mediate diverse biological functions and have great potential for therapeutic use. However, technological hurdles in producing defined protein sialylation due to the enormous structural diversity render their precise investigation a challenge. Here, we describe a plant-based expression platform that enables the controlled in vivo synthesis of sialylated structures with different interlinkages and degree of polymerization (DP). The approach relies on a combination of stably transformed plants with transient expression modules. By the introduction of multigene vectors carrying the human sialylation pathway into glycosylation-destructed mutants, transgenic plants that sialylate glycoproteins in α2,6- or α2,3-linkage were generated. Moreover, by the transient coexpression of human α2,8-polysialyltransferases, polySia structures with a DP >40 were synthesized in these plants. Importantly, plant-derived polySia are functionally active, as demonstrated by a cell-based cytotoxicity assay and inhibition of microglia activation. This pathway engineering approach enables experimental investigations of defined sialylation and facilitates a rational design of glycan structures with optimized biotechnological functions. PMID:27444013

  8. Kernel methods for phenotyping complex plant architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Koji; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, Laurence; Foucher, Fabrice; Thouroude, Tatiana; Loustau, Sébastien

    2014-02-07

    The Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping of plant architecture is a critical step for understanding the genetic determinism of plant architecture. Previous studies adopted simple measurements, such as plant-height, stem-diameter and branching-intensity for QTL mapping of plant architecture. Many of these quantitative traits were generally correlated to each other, which give rise to statistical problem in the detection of QTL. We aim to test the applicability of kernel methods to phenotyping inflorescence architecture and its QTL mapping. We first test Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) over an artificial dataset of simulated inflorescences with different types of flower distribution, which is coded as a sequence of flower-number per node along a shoot. The ability of discriminating the different inflorescence types by SVM and KPCA is illustrated. We then apply the KPCA representation to the real dataset of rose inflorescence shoots (n=1460) obtained from a 98 F1 hybrid mapping population. We find kernel principal components with high heritability (>0.7), and the QTL analysis identifies a new QTL, which was not detected by a trait-by-trait analysis of simple architectural measurements. The main tools developed in this paper could be use to tackle the general problem of QTL mapping of complex (sequences, 3D structure, graphs) phenotypic traits.

  9. B Plant Complex preclosure work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADLER, J.G.

    1999-02-02

    This preclosure work plan describes the condition of the dangerous waste treatment storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit after completion of the B Plant Complex decommissioning Transition Phase preclosure activities. This description includes waste characteristics, waste types, locations, and associated hazards. The goal to be met by the Transition Phase preclosure activities is to place the TSD unit into a safe and environmentally secure condition for the long-term Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Phase of the facility decommissioning process. This preclosure work plan has been prepared in accordance with Section 8.0 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1996). The preclosure work plan is one of three critical Transition Phase documents, the other two being: B Plant End Points Document (WHC-SD-WM-TPP-054) and B Plant S&M plan. These documents are prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its contractors with the involvement of Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). The tanks and vessels addressed by this preclosure work plan are limited to those tanks end vessels included on the B Plant Complex Part A, Form 3, Permit Application (DOE/RL-88-21). The criteria for determining which tanks or vessels are in the Part A, Form 3, are discussed in the following. The closure plan for the TSD unit will not be prepared until the Disposition Phase of the facility decommissioning process is initiated, which follows the long-term S&M Phase. Final closure will occur during the Disposition Phase of the facility decommissioning process. The Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) is excluded from the scope of this preclosure work plan.

  10. A New Property of Conjugated Polymer PFP: Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new property of conjugated polymer poly(furancarbinol-co-phenol)(PFP) was studied.The target copolymer was used as a catalyst after proper heating treatment. And dye methylene blue (MB) could be fully degraded and largely mineralized on PFP, under natural light or even in dark, in a few minutes. Furthermore, the catalytic activity could be preserved after several runs and the catalyst was readily separated. The effect of calcination temperature was also observed.

  11. Plant Mediator complex and its critical functions in transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Ling; Qu, Li-Jia

    2016-02-01

    The Mediator complex is an important component of the eukaryotic transcriptional machinery. As an essential link between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II, the Mediator complex transduces diverse signals to genes involved in different pathways. The plant Mediator complex was recently purified and comprises conserved and specific subunits. It functions in concert with transcription factors to modulate various responses. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the plant Mediator complex and its diverse roles in plant growth, development, defense, non-coding RNA production, response to abiotic stresses, flowering, genomic stability and metabolic homeostasis. In addition, the transcription factors interacting with the Mediator complex are also highlighted.

  12. Plant mitochondrial Complex I composition and assembly: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanian, Nitya; Remacle, Claire; Hamel, Patrice Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the mitochondrial inner membrane, oxidative phosphorylation generates ATP via the operation of several multimeric enzymes. The proton-pumping Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and most complicated enzyme required in this process. Complex I is an L-shaped enzyme consisting of more than 40 subunits, one FMN molecule and eight Fe-S clusters. In recent years, genetic and proteomic analyses of Complex I mutants in various model systems, including plants, have provided valuable insights into the assembly of this multimeric enzyme. Assisted by a number of key players, referred to as "assembly factors", the assembly of Complex I takes place in a sequential and modular manner. Although a number of factors have been identified, their precise function in mediating Complex I assembly still remains to be elucidated. This review summarizes our current knowledge of plant Complex I composition and assembly derived from studies in plant model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Complex I is highly conserved and comprises a significant number of subunits also present in mammalian and fungal Complexes I. Plant Complex I also contains additional subunits absent from the mammalian and fungal counterpart, whose function in enzyme activity and assembly is not clearly understood. While 14 assembly factors have been identified for human Complex I, only two proteins, namely GLDH and INDH, have been established as bona fide assembly factors for plant Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  13. Definition and means of maintaining the supply ventilation system seismic shutdown portion of the PFP safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, R.D.

    1997-01-21

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements, WHC-SD-CP-OSR- 010, Rev. 0. Kay 1994, Section 3.2.3, `Supply Ventilation System Seismic Shutdown.` This document, with its appendices, provides the following: 1. The system functional requirements for determining system operability (Section 3). 2. Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4). 3. A list of annotated drawings which show the safety envelope boundaries (Appendix C). 4. A list of the safety envelope equipment (Appendix B). 5. Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment, including appropriate setpoints and process parameters (Section 4.1). 6. A list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Sections 5 and 6 and Appendix A).

  14. Maintenance implementation plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrom, C.A.

    1996-03-01

    This document outlines the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located at the Hanford site at Richland, Washington. This MIP describes the PFP maintenance program relative to DOE order 4330.4B. The MIP defines the key actions needed to meet the guidelines of the Order to produce a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program. A previous report identified the presence of significant quantities of Pu-bearing materials within PFP that pose risks to workers. PFP`s current mission is to develop, install and operate processes which will mitigate these risks. The PFP Maintenance strategy is to equip the facility with systems and equipment able to sustain scheduled PFP operations. The current operating run is scheduled to last seven years. Activities following the stabilization operation will involve an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine future plant activities. This strategy includes long-term maintenance of the facility for safe occupancy and material storage. The PFP maintenance staff used the graded approach to dictate the priorities of the improvement and upgrade actions identified in Chapter 2 of this document. The MIP documents PFP compliance to the DOE 4330.4B Order. Chapter 2 of the MIP follows the format of the Order in addressing the eighteen elements. As this revision is a total rewrite, no sidebars are included to highlight changes.

  15. Complex plant traits : time for polygenic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, mapping of genes for complex traits is an area of active theoretical research at the interface of genetics and statistics. Much progress has been made over the past few years in handling statistically complex but realistic multilocus models. Here, I describe the state of the art and discu

  16. Using complex plant pedigrees to map valuable genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, Jean-Luc; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2001-01-01

    Statistical methods pioneered by human and animal geneticists use marker and pedigree information to detect quantitative trait loci within complex pedigrees. These methods, adapted to plants, promise to expand the range of data useful for identifying the genetic factors influencing plant growth, dev

  17. Using Plants to Explore the Nature & Structural Complexity of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ava R.

    2014-01-01

    Use of real specimens brings the study of biology to life. This activity brings easily acquired plant specimens into the classroom to tackle common alternative conceptions regarding life, size, complexity, the nature of science, and plants as multicellular organisms. The activity occurs after a discussion of the characteristics of life and engages…

  18. Using Plants to Explore the Nature & Structural Complexity of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ava R.

    2014-01-01

    Use of real specimens brings the study of biology to life. This activity brings easily acquired plant specimens into the classroom to tackle common alternative conceptions regarding life, size, complexity, the nature of science, and plants as multicellular organisms. The activity occurs after a discussion of the characteristics of life and engages…

  19. Targeted Interactomics in Plants Through Protein Complex Isolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geert De Jaeger

    2012-01-01

    TAPtag technology is the most widely applied tool to pick up in situ protein interactions in a proteome wide setting.Our research team has developed a versatile TAP technology platform for protein complex isolation from plants.We isolated complexes for hundreds of proteins and extensively demonstrated the power of our technology for protein discovery,functional analysis of proteins and protein complexes,and the modelling of protein networks.Complexes are purified from Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures or seedlings and we are currently translating the technology towards crop plants to bring complex purification in a developmental context.Besides protein complexes,we are deriving protocol variations to isolate chromatin complexes.

  20. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  1. SORPTION PROPERTIES OF PLANT POLYSACCHARIDE COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information on the laws of the sorption of water to grow-negative polysaccharide complexes of the pumpkin and briar, deter-mined the rate constant of swelling as a function of temperature and pH, the maximum degree of swelling and limit the time to achieve it.

  2. Plant polyadenylation factors: conservation and variety in the polyadenylation complex in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Arthur G; Xing, Denghui; Li, Qingshun Q

    2012-11-20

    Polyadenylation, an essential step in eukaryotic gene expression, requires both cis-elements and a plethora of trans-acting polyadenylation factors. The polyadenylation factors are largely conserved across mammals and fungi. The conservation seems also extended to plants based on the analyses of Arabidopsis polyadenylation factors. To extend this observation, we systemically identified the orthologs of yeast and human polyadenylation factors from 10 plant species chosen based on both the availability of their genome sequences and their positions in the evolutionary tree, which render them representatives of different plant lineages. The evolutionary trajectories revealed several interesting features of plant polyadenylation factors. First, the number of genes encoding plant polyadenylation factors was clearly increased from "lower" to "higher" plants. Second, the gene expansion in higher plants was biased to some polyadenylation factors, particularly those involved in RNA binding. Finally, while there are clear commonalities, the differences in the polyadenylation apparatus were obvious across different species, suggesting an ongoing process of evolutionary change. These features lead to a model in which the plant polyadenylation complex consists of a conserved core, which is rather rigid in terms of evolutionary conservation, and a panoply of peripheral subunits, which are less conserved and associated with the core in various combinations, forming a collection of somewhat distinct complex assemblies. The multiple forms of plant polyadenylation complex, together with the diversified polyA signals may explain the intensive alternative polyadenylation (APA) and its regulatory role in biological functions of higher plants.

  3. [Protective properties of avermectine complex and plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamborko, N A; Pindrus, A A

    2009-01-01

    Antimutagen properties of avermectine complex of Avercom synthesized by Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2161, and growth regulators of plants (GRP) of bioagrostim-extra, ivin and emistim-C have been revealed in experiments with test-cultures of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100, TA 98. Avercom and plant growth regulators neutralize by toxication 27-48% and mutagen action of pesticides on soil microbial associations by 19.0-30.0%.

  4. Space, time and complexity in plant dispersal ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan J; Klein, Etienne K; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Santamaría, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal of pollen and seeds are essential functions of plant species, with far-reaching demographic, ecological and evolutionary consequences. Interest in plant dispersal has increased with concerns about the persistence of populations and species under global change. We argue here that advances in plant dispersal ecology research will be determined by our ability to surmount challenges of spatiotemporal scales and heterogeneities and ecosystem complexity. Based on this framework, we propose a selected set of research questions, for which we suggest some specific objectives and methodological approaches. Reviewed topics include multiple vector contributions to plant dispersal, landscape-dependent dispersal patterns, long-distance dispersal events, spatiotemporal variation in dispersal, and the consequences of dispersal for plant communities, populations under climate change, and anthropogenic landscapes.

  5. RNAseq and Proteomics for Analysing Complex Oomycete Plant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Dharani D; Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Resjö, Svante; Grenville-Briggs, Laura J; Andreasson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The oomycetes include some of the most devastating plant pathogens. In this review we discuss the latest results from oomycete and plant studies with emphasis on interaction studies. We focus on the outcomes of RNAseq and proteomics studies and some pitfalls of these approaches. Both pathogenic interactions and biological control are discussed. We underline the usefulness of studies at several levels of complexity from studies of one organism, up to two or more and within agricultural fields (managed settings) up to wild ecosystems. Finally we identify areas of future interest such as detailed interactome studies, dual RNAseq studies, peptide modification studies and population/meta omics with or without biological control agents.

  6. Deep Plant Phenomics: A Deep Learning Platform for Complex Plant Phenotyping Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbens, Jordan R; Stavness, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Plant phenomics has received increasing interest in recent years in an attempt to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap. There is a need for expanded high-throughput phenotyping capabilities to keep up with an increasing amount of data from high-dimensional imaging sensors and the desire to measure more complex phenotypic traits (Knecht et al., 2016). In this paper, we introduce an open-source deep learning tool called Deep Plant Phenomics. This tool provides pre-trained neural networks for several common plant phenotyping tasks, as well as an easy platform that can be used by plant scientists to train models for their own phenotyping applications. We report performance results on three plant phenotyping benchmarks from the literature, including state of the art performance on leaf counting, as well as the first published results for the mutant classification and age regression tasks for Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Deep Plant Phenomics: A Deep Learning Platform for Complex Plant Phenotyping Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan R. Ubbens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenomics has received increasing interest in recent years in an attempt to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap. There is a need for expanded high-throughput phenotyping capabilities to keep up with an increasing amount of data from high-dimensional imaging sensors and the desire to measure more complex phenotypic traits (Knecht et al., 2016. In this paper, we introduce an open-source deep learning tool called Deep Plant Phenomics. This tool provides pre-trained neural networks for several common plant phenotyping tasks, as well as an easy platform that can be used by plant scientists to train models for their own phenotyping applications. We report performance results on three plant phenotyping benchmarks from the literature, including state of the art performance on leaf counting, as well as the first published results for the mutant classification and age regression tasks for Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. The Polycomb Complex PRC1: Composition and Function in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Molitor; Wen-Hui Shen

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are crucial epigenetic regulators conferring transcriptional memory to cell lineages.They assemble into multi-protein complexes,e.g.,Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 and 2 (PRC1,PRC2),which are thought to act in a sequential manner to stably maintain gene repression.PRC2 induces histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation (H3K27me3),which is subsequently read by PRC1 that further catalyzes H2A monoubiquitination (H2Aubl),creating a transcriptional silent chromatin conformation.PRC2 components are conserved in plants and have been extensively characterized in Arabidopsis.In contrast,PRC1 composition and function are more diverged between animals and plants.Only more recently,PRC1 existence in plants has been documented.Here we review the aspects of plant specific and conserved PRC1 and highlight critical roles of PRC1 components in seed embryonic trait determinacy,shoot stem cell fate determinacy,and flower development in Arabidopsis.

  9. A proteomic strategy for global analysis of plant protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Uma K; Xiong, Yi; McBride, Zachary; Kihara, Daisuke; Xie, Jun; Hall, Mark C; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2014-10-01

    Global analyses of protein complex assembly, composition, and location are needed to fully understand how cells coordinate diverse metabolic, mechanical, and developmental activities. The most common methods for proteome-wide analysis of protein complexes rely on affinity purification-mass spectrometry or yeast two-hybrid approaches. These methods are time consuming and are not suitable for many plant species that are refractory to transformation or genome-wide cloning of open reading frames. Here, we describe the proof of concept for a method allowing simultaneous global analysis of endogenous protein complexes that begins with intact leaves and combines chromatographic separation of extracts from subcellular fractions with quantitative label-free protein abundance profiling by liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to the crude cytosolic fraction of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves using size exclusion chromatography, we identified hundreds of cytosolic proteins that appeared to exist as components of stable protein complexes. The reliability of the method was validated by protein immunoblot analysis and comparisons with published size exclusion chromatography data and the masses of known complexes. The method can be implemented with appropriate instrumentation, is applicable to any biological system, and has the potential to be further developed to characterize the composition of protein complexes and measure the dynamics of protein complex localization and assembly under different conditions.

  10. Biological significance of complex N-glycans in plants and their impact on plant physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStrasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asparagine (N-linked protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification which can alter the biological function of proteins and consequently affects the development, growth and physiology of organisms. Despite an increasing knowledge of N-glycan biosynthesis and processing, we still understand very little about the biological function of individual N-glycan structures in plants. In particular, the N-glycan processing steps mediated by Golgi-resident enzymes create a structurally diverse set of protein-linked carbohydrate structures. Some of these complex N-glycan modifications like the presence of beta1,2-xylose, core alpha1,3-fucose or the Lewis a-epitope are characteristic for plants and are evolutionary highly conserved. In mammals, complex N-glycans are involved in different cellular processes including molecular recognition and signalling events. By contrast, the complex N-glycan function is still largely unknown in plants. Here, in this short review I focus on important recent developments and discuss their implications for future research in plant glycobiology and plant biotechnology.

  11. Plasmodium Riboprotein PfP0 Induces a Deviant Humoral Immune Response in Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulabha Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunization with antibodies to recombinant Plasmodium falciparum P0 riboprotein (rPfP0, 61–316 amino acids provides protection against malaria. Carboxy-terminal 16 amino acids of the protein (PfP0C0 are conserved and show 69% identity to human and mouse P0. Antibodies to this domain are found in 10–15% of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We probed the nature of humoral response to PfP0C0 by repeatedly immunizing mice with rPfP0. We failed to raise stable anti-PfP0C0 hybridomas from any of the 21 mice. The average serum anti-PfP0C0 titer remained low (5.1±1.3×104. Pathological changes were observed in the mice after seven boosts. Adsorption with dinitrophenyl hapten revealed that the anti-PfP0C0 response was largely polyreactive. This polyreactivity was distributed across all isotypes. Similar polyreactive responses to PfP0 and PfP0C0 were observed in sera from malaria patients. Our data suggests that PfP0 induces a deviant humoral response, and this may contribute to immune evasion mechanisms of the parasite.

  12. Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Monika A; Asay, Amanda K; Pickles, Brian J; Simard, Suzanne W

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour of plants, including rapid changes in physiology, gene regulation and defence response, can be altered when linked to neighbouring plants by a mycorrhizal network (MN). Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. We have found that the behavioural changes in ectomycorrhizal plants depend on environmental cues, the identity of the plant neighbour and the characteristics of the MN. The hierarchical integration of this phenomenon with other biological networks at broader scales in forest ecosystems, and the consequences we have observed when it is interrupted, indicate that underground 'tree talk' is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems.

  13. A compact model for the complex plant circadian clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier eGonze

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock is an endogenous timekeeper that allows organisms to anticipate and adapt to the daily variations of their environment. The plant clock is an intricate network of interlocked feedback loops, in which transcription factors regulate each other to generate oscillations with expression peaks at specific times of the day. Over the last decade, mathematical modeling approaches have been used to understand the inner workings of the clock in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Those efforts have produced a number of models of ever increasing complexity. Here, we present an alternative model that combines a low number of equations and parameters, similar to the very earliest models, with the complex network structure found in more recent ones. This simple model describes the temporal evolution of the abundance of eight clock genes and captures key features of the clock on a qualitative level, namely the entrained and free-running behaviors of the wild type clock, as well as the defects found in knockout mutants (such as altered free-running periods, lack of entrainment, or changes in the expression of other clock genes. Additionally, our model produces complex responses to various light cues, such as extreme photoperiods and non-24h environmental cycles, and can describe the control of hypocotyl growth by the clock. Our model constitutes a useful tool to probe dynamical properties of the clock as well as model more clock-dependent processes.

  14. Exotic plant species around Jeongeup Research Complex and RFT industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cha, Min Kyoung; Ryu, Tae Ho; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Jin Hong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In Shinjeong-dong of Jeongeup, there are three government-supported research institutes and an RFT industrial complex which is currently being established. Increased human activities can affect flora and fauna as a man-made pressure onto the region. As a baseline study, status of exotic plants was investigated prior to a full operation of the RFT industrial complex. A total of 54 species and 1 variety of naturalized or introduced plants were found in the study area. Among them, three species (Ambrosia artemisifolia var. elatior, Rumex acetocella and Aster pilosus) belong to 'nuisance species', and four species (Phytolacca americana, Iopomoea hederacea, Ereechtites hieracifolia and Rudbeckia laciniata) to ‘monitor species’ designated by the ministry of Environment. Some of naturalized trees and plants were intentionally introduced in this area, while others naturally immigrated. Physalis angulata seems to immigrate in the study area in the form of mixture with animal feeds as its distribution coincided with the transportation route of the animal feeds. Liquidambar styraciflua is amenable to the ecological investigation on the possible expansion of the species to the nearby Naejang National Park as its leave shape and autumn color are very similar to those of maple trees. The number of naturalized plants around the RFT industrial complex will increase with an increase in floating population, in human activities in association with constructions of factories and operations of the complex. The result of this study provides baseline data for assessing the ecological change of the region according to the operation of the RFT industrial complex.

  15. Mechanics of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Living Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehfroosh, Nina; Liu, Derui; Ramos, Kieran P.; Yang, Xiaoli; Goldner, Lori S.; Baskin, Tobias I.

    The polymer cellulose is one of the major components of the world's biomass with unique and fascinating characteristics such as its high tensile strength, renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Because of these distinctive aspects, cellulose has been the subject of enormous scientific and industrial interest, yet there are still fundamental open questions about cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose is synthesized by a complex of transmembrane proteins called ``Cellulose Synthase A'' (CESA) in the plasma membrane. Studying the dynamics and kinematics of the CESA complex will help reveal the mechanism of cellulose synthesis and permit the development and validation of models of CESA motility. To understand what drives these complexes through the cell membrane, we used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) and variable angle epi-fluorescence microscopy to track individual, fluorescently-labeled CESA complexes as they move in the hypocotyl and root of living plants. A mean square displacement analysis will be applied to distinguish ballistic, diffusional, and other forms of motion. We report on the results of these tracking experiments. This work was funded by NSF/PHY-1205989.

  16. Dissecting a complex chemical stress: chemogenomic profiling of plant hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerker, Jeffrey M; Leon, Dacia; Price, Morgan N; Mar, Jordan S; Tarjan, Daniel R; Wetmore, Kelly M; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Baumohl, Jason K; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Mitchell, Valerie D; Wu, Cindy H; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam P

    2013-01-01

    The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance in both Zymomonas mobilis (44 genes) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (99 genes). Overexpression of a Z. mobilis tolerance gene of unknown function (ZMO1875) improved its specific ethanol productivity 2.4-fold in the presence of miscanthus hydrolysate. However, a mixture of 37 hydrolysate-derived inhibitors was not sufficient to explain the fitness profile of plant hydrolysate. To deconstruct the fitness profile of hydrolysate, we profiled the 37 inhibitors against a library of Z. mobilis mutants and we modeled fitness in hydrolysate as a mixture of fitness in its components. By examining outliers in this model, we identified methylglyoxal as a previously unknown component of hydrolysate. Our work provides a general strategy to dissect how microbes respond to a complex chemical stress and should enable further engineering of hydrolysate tolerance. PMID:23774757

  17. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  18. Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenmaier, Barbara; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-09-20

    Hyperaccumulators are being intensely investigated. They are not only interesting in scientific context due to their "strange" behavior in terms of dealing with high concentrations of metals, but also because of their use in phytoremediation and phytomining, for which understanding the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation is crucial. Hyperaccumulators naturally use metal accumulation as a defense against herbivores and pathogens, and therefore deal with accumulated metals in very specific ways of complexation and compartmentation, different from non-hyperaccumulator plants and also non-hyperaccumulated metals. For example, in contrast to non-hyperaccumulators, in hyperaccumulators even the classical phytochelatin-inducing metal, cadmium, is predominantly not bound by such sulfur ligands, but only by weak oxygen ligands. This applies to all hyperaccumulated metals investigated so far, as well as hyperaccumulation of the metalloid arsenic. Stronger ligands, as they have been shown to complex metals in non-hyperaccumulators, are in hyperaccumulators used for transient binding during transport to the storage sites (e.g., nicotianamine) and possibly for export of Cu in Cd/Zn hyperaccumulators [metallothioneins (MTs)]. This confirmed that enhanced active metal transport, and not metal complexation, is the key mechanism of hyperaccumulation. Hyperaccumulators tolerate the high amount of accumulated heavy metals by sequestering them into vacuoles, usually in large storage cells of the epidermis. This is mediated by strongly elevated expression of specific transport proteins in various tissues from metal uptake in the shoots up to the storage sites in the leaf epidermis. However, this mechanism seems to be very metal specific. Non-hyperaccumulated metals in hyperaccumulators seem to be dealt with like in non-hyperaccumulator plants, i.e., detoxified by binding to strong ligands such as MTs.

  19. Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLeitenmaier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulators are being intensely investigated. They are not only interesting in scientific context due to their strange behaviour in terms of dealing with high concentrations of metals, but also because of their use in phytoremediation and phytomining, for which understanding the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation is crucial. Hyperaccumulators naturally use metal accumulation as a defence against herbivores and pathogens, and therefore deal with accumulated metals in very specific ways of complexation and compartmentation, different from non-hyperaccumulator plants and also non-hyperaccumulated metals. For example, in contrast to non-hyperaccumulators, in hyperaccumulators even the classical phytochelatin-inducing metal, cadmium, is predominantly not bound by such sulfur ligands, but only by weak oxygen ligands. This applies to all hyperaccumulated metals investigated so far, as well as hyperaccumulation of the metalloid arsenic. Stronger ligands, as they have been shown to complex metals in non-hyperaccumulators, are in hyperaccumulators used for transient binding during transport to the storage sites. This confirmed that enhanced active metal transport, and not metal complexation, is the key mechanism of hyperaccumulation. Hyperaccumulators tolerate the high amount of accumulated heavy metals by sequestering them into vacuoles, usually in large storage cells of the epidermis. This is mediated by strongly elevated expression of specific transport proteins in various tissues from metal uptake in the shoots up to the storage sites in the leaf epidermis. However, this mechanism seems to be very metal specific. Non-hyperaccumulated metals in hyperaccumulators seem to be dealt with like in non-hyperaccumulator plants, i.e. detoxified by binding to strong ligands such as metallothioneins.

  20. The plant Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) existed in the ancestor of seed plants and has a complex duplication history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berke, Lidija; Snel, Berend

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is an essential protein complex for plant development. It catalyzes ubiquitination of histone H2A that is an important part of the transcription repression machinery. Absence of PRC1 subunits in Arabidopsis thaliana plants causes severe developmental

  1. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, F A O; Oliveira, E G

    2013-05-01

    Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna) area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences) of Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS), shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE) and woodlands (cerradão, CD). As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  2. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  3. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  4. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity in populations of plant-probiotic Pseudomonas spp. colonizing roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Christine; Bosco, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Several soil microorganisms colonizing roots are known to naturally promote the health of plants by controlling a range of plant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. The use of theses antagonistic microorganisms, recently named plant-probiotics, to control plant-pathogenic fungi is receiving increasing attention, as they may represent a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides. Many years of research on plant-probiotic microorganisms (PPM) have indicated that fluorescent pseudomonads producing antimicrobial compounds are largely involved in the suppression of the most widespread soilborne pathogens. Phenotype and genotype analysis of plant-probiotic fluorescent pseudomonads (PFP) have shown considerable genetic variation among these types of strains. Such variability plays an important role in the rhizosphere competence and the biocontrol ability of PFP strains. Understanding the mechanisms by which genotypic and phenotypic diversity occurs in natural populations of PFP could be exploited to choose those agricultural practices which best exploit the indigenous PFP populations, or to isolate new plant-probiotic strains for using them as inoculants. A number of different methods have been used to study diversity within PFP populations. Because different resolutions of the existing microbial diversity can be revealed depending on the approach used, this review first describes the most important methods used for the assessment of fluorescent Pseudomonas diversity. Then, we focus on recent data relating how differences in genotypic and phenotypic diversity within PFP communities can be attributed to geographic location, climate, soil type, soil management regime, and interactions with other soil microorganisms and host plants. It becomes evident that plant-related parameters exert the strongest influence on the genotypic and phenotypic variations in PFP populations.

  5. Peak pressures from hydrogen deflagrations in the PFP thermal stabilization glovebox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1998-08-11

    This document describes the calculations of the peak pressures due to hydrogen deflagrations in the glovebox used for thermal stabilization (glovebox HC-21A) in PFP. Two calculations were performed. The first considered the burning of hydrogen released from a 7 inch Pu can in the Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC) section of the glovebox. The peak pressure increase was 12400 Pa (1.8 psi). The second calculation considered burning of the hydrogen from 25 g of plutonium hydride in the airlock leading to the main portion of the glovebox. Since the glovebox door exposes most of the airlock when open, the deflagration was assumed to pressurize the entire glovebox. The peak pressure increase was 3860 Pa (0.56 psi).

  6. The Tiger Team Process in the Rebaselining of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAILEY, R.W.

    2000-02-01

    This paper will describe the integrated, teaming approach and planning process utilized by the Tiger Team in the development of the IPMP. This paper will also serve to document the benefits derived from this implementation process.

  7. Genomic evolution and complexity of the Anaphase-promoting Complex (APC in land plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerly Adriana S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orderly progression through mitosis is regulated by the Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC, a large multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets key cell-cycle regulators for destruction by the 26 S proteasome. The APC is composed of at least 11 subunits and associates with additional regulatory activators during mitosis and interphase cycles. Despite extensive research on APC and activator functions in the cell cycle, only a few components have been functionally characterized in plants. Results Here, we describe an in-depth search for APC subunits and activator genes in the Arabidopsis, rice and poplar genomes. Also, searches in other genomes that are not completely sequenced were performed. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that some APC subunits and activator genes have experienced gene duplication events in plants, in contrast to animals. Expression patterns of paralog subunits and activators in rice could indicate that this duplication, rather than complete redundancy, could reflect initial specialization steps. The absence of subunit APC7 from the genome of some green algae species and as well as from early metazoan lineages, could mean that APC7 is not required for APC function in unicellular organisms and it may be a result of duplication of another tetratricopeptide (TPR subunit. Analyses of TPR evolution suggest that duplications of subunits started from the central domains. Conclusions The increased complexity of the APC gene structure, tied to the diversification of expression paths, suggests that land plants developed sophisticated mechanisms of APC regulation to cope with the sedentary life style and its associated environmental exposures.

  8. Integrated project management plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant stabilization and deactivation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-05-03

    This document sets forth the plans, organization, and control systems for managing the PFP Stabilization and Deactivation Project, and includes the top level cost and schedule baselines. The project includes the stabilization of Pu-bearing materials, storage, packaging, and transport of these and other nuclear materials, surveillance and maintenance of facilities and systems relied upon for storage of the materials, and transition of the facilities in the PFP Complex.

  9. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Stefanaki

    Full Text Available The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk. Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species

  10. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanaki, Anastasia; Kantsa, Aphrodite; Tscheulin, Thomas; Charitonidou, Martha; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity) may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction) or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness) factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk). Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species particularly at

  11. Metaproteomics of complex microbial communities in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Robert; Kohrs, Fabian; Reichl, Udo; Benndorf, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Production of biogas from agricultural biomass or organic wastes is an important source of renewable energy. Although thousands of biogas plants (BGPs) are operating in Germany, there is still a significant potential to improve yields, e.g. from fibrous substrates. In addition, process stability should be optimized. Besides evaluating technical measures, improving our understanding of microbial communities involved into the biogas process is considered as key issue to achieve both goals. Microscopic and genetic approaches to analyse community composition provide valuable experimental data, but fail to detect presence of enzymes and overall metabolic activity of microbial communities. Therefore, metaproteomics can significantly contribute to elucidate critical steps in the conversion of biomass to methane as it delivers combined functional and phylogenetic data. Although metaproteomics analyses are challenged by sample impurities, sample complexity and redundant protein identification, and are still limited by the availability of genome sequences, recent studies have shown promising results. In the following, the workflow and potential pitfalls for metaproteomics of samples from full-scale BGP are discussed. In addition, the value of metaproteomics to contribute to the further advancement of microbial ecology is evaluated. Finally, synergistic effects expected when metaproteomics is combined with advanced imaging techniques, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metabolomics are addressed.

  12. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Mahdavi-Arab

    Full Text Available Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance

  13. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both

  14. Plant defence as a complex and changing phenotype throughout ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-López, Sofía; Villamil, Nora; Zedillo-Avelleyra, Paulina; Boege, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Ontogenetic changes in anti-herbivore defences are common and result from variation in resource availability and herbivore damage throughout plant development. However, little is known about the simultaneous changes of multiple defences across the entire development of plants, and how such changes affect plant damage in the field. The aim of this study was to assess if changes in the major types of plant resistance and tolerance can explain natural herbivore damage throughout plant ontogeny. Methods An assessment was made of how six defensive traits, including physical, chemical and biotic resistance, simultaneously change across the major transitions of plant development, from seedlings to reproductive stages of Turnera velutina growing in the greenhouse. In addition, an experiment was performed to assess how plant tolerance to artificial damage to leaves changed throughout ontogeny. Finally, leaf damage by herbivores was evaluated in a natural population. Key Results The observed ontogenetic trajectories of all defences were significantly different, sometimes showing opposite directions of change. Whereas trichome density, leaf toughness, extrafloral nectary abundance and nectar production increased, hydrogen cyanide and compensatory responses decreased throughout plant development, from seedlings to reproductive plants. Only water content was higher at the intermediate juvenile ontogenetic stages. Surveys in a natural population over 3 years showed that herbivores consumed more tissue from juvenile plants than from younger seedlings or older reproductive plants. This is consistent with the fact that juvenile plants were the least defended stage. Conclusions The results suggest that defensive trajectories are a mixed result of predictions by the Optimal Defence Theory and the Growth–Differentiation Balance Hypothesis. The study emphasizes the importance of incorporating multiple defences and plant ontogeny into further studies for a more

  15. Determination of free and bound phenolic compounds in soy isoflavone concentrate using a PFP fused core column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Vito; Riciputi, Ylenia; Garrido-Frenich, Antonia; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2015-10-15

    In the last years, the consumption of soy-based foods has increased due to the health benefits related to soy bioactives like phenolic compounds. Thus, in the present study, a new chromatographic method using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (RP-HPLC/DAD) was developed using a fused core pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column. The established method allowed the determination of twenty-one free phenolic compounds and eleven bound phenolics in a soy isoflavone concentrate. The method was validated in terms of precision and recovery. Intra and inter-day precision were less than 5% (% RSD) and the recovery was between 97.4% and 103.6%. Limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged between 0.093 and 0.443 μg/mL. Because of that, PFP stationary phase can be easily applied for routine determination of phenolic compounds in soy based foods.

  16. Plant immunity: unravelling the complexity of plant responses to biotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert Neil Gerard; Costa Alves, Gabriel Sergio; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne

    2017-03-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to evolving pathogens and pests, with crop losses representing a considerable threat to global food security. As pathogen evolution can overcome disease resistance that is conferred by individual plant resistance genes, an enhanced understanding of the plant immune system is necessary for the long-term development of effective disease management strategies. Current research is rapidly advancing our understanding of the plant innate immune system, with this multidisciplinary subject area reflected in the content of the 18 papers in this Special Issue. Advances in specific areas of plant innate immunity are highlighted in this issue, with focus on molecular interactions occurring between plant hosts and viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, oomycetes, fungi, nematodes and insect pests. We provide a focus on research across multiple areas related to pathogen sensing and plant immune response. Topics covered are categorized as follows: binding proteins in plant immunity; cytokinin phytohormones in plant growth and immunity; plant-virus interactions; plant-phytoplasma interactions; plant-fungus interactions; plant-nematode interactions; plant immunity in Citrus; plant peptides and volatiles; and assimilate dynamics in source/sink metabolism. Although knowledge of the plant immune system remains incomplete, the considerable ongoing scientific progress into pathogen sensing and plant immune response mechanisms suggests far reaching implications for the development of durable disease resistance against pathogens and pests.

  17. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); O' Neill, Malcolm A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); York, William S. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  18. Flow around an individual morphologically complex plant: investigating the role of plant aspect in the numerical prediction of complex river flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, R.; Hardy, R. J.; Warburton, J.; Marjoribanks, T.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic vegetation has a significant influence on the hydraulic functioning of river systems. Plant morphology has previously been shown to alter the mean and turbulent properties of flow, influenced by the spatial distribution of branches and foliage, and these effects can be further investigated through numerical models. We report on a novel method for the measurement and incorporation of complex plant morphologies into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The morphological complexity of Prunus laurocerasus is captured under foliated and defoliated states through terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Point clouds are characterised by a voxelised representation and incorporated into a CFD scheme using a mass flux scaling algorithm, allowing the numerical prediction of flows around individual plants. Here we examine the sensitivity of plant aspect, i.e. the positioning of the plant relative to the primary flow direction, by rotating the voxelised plant representation through 15° increments (24 rotations) about the vertical axis. This enables the impact of plant aspect to be quantified upon the velocity and pressure fields, and in particular how this effects species-specific drag forces and drag coefficients. Plant aspect is shown to considerably influence the flow field response, producing spatially heterogeneous downstream velocity fields with both symmetric and asymmetric wake shapes, and point of reattachments that extend up to seven plant lengths downstream. For the same plant, changes in aspect are shown to account for a maximum variation in drag force of 168%, which equates to a 65% difference in the drag coefficient. An explicit consideration of plant aspect is therefore important in studies concerning flow-vegetation interactions, especially when reducing the uncertainty in parameterising the effect of vegetation in numerical models.

  19. Emerging functions of multi-protein complex Mediator with special emphasis on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Naveen; Agarwal, Pinky; Tyagi, Akhilesh

    2017-10-01

    Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently. Mediator regulates various processes related to plant development and is also involved in biotic and abiotic stress response. Thus, plant Mediator, like yeast and mammalian Mediator complex, is indispensable for plant growth and survival. Interaction of its multiple subunits with other regulatory proteins and their ectopic expression or knockdown in model plant like Arabidopsis and certain crop plants are paving the way to biochemical analysis and unravel molecular mechanisms of action of Mediator in plants.

  20. The Complexity of Bioactive Natural Products in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Tina

    Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive natural products promoting their fitness. These specialized metabolites may serve as chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens and may inhibit the growth and development of competing species. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two...... classes of defence compounds, which have diverging properties, but also share common biosynthetic features. Hydroxynitrile glucosides are produced in species across the plant kingdom, whereas glucosinolates are found almost exclusively within the Brassicales, which generally does not contain...... these two plant species interesting gateways for addressing these questions of evolution. The presented research demonstrates that the biosynthetic pathway for the hydroxynitrile glucoside alliarinoside in A. petiolata does not follow the general scheme for hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis in other...

  1. Polyamines and abiotic stress in plants: A complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh eMinocha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological relationship between abiotic stress in plants and polyamines was reported more than 40 years ago. Ever since there has been a debate as to whether increased polyamines protect plants against abiotic stress (e.g. due to their ability to deal with oxidative radicals or cause damage to them (perhaps due to hydrogen peroxide produced by their catabolism. The observation that cellular polyamines are typically elevated in plants under both short-term as well as long-term abiotic stress conditions is consistent with the possibility of their dual effects, i.e. being a protector as well as a perpetrator of stress damage to the cells. The observed increase in tolerance of plants to abiotic stress when their cellular contents are elevated by either exogenous treatment with polyamines or through genetic engineering with genes encoding polyamine biosynthetic enzymes is indicative of a protective role for them. However, through their catabolic production of hydrogen peroxide and acrolein, both strong oxidizers, they can potentially be the cause of cellular harm during stress. In fact, somewhat enigmatic but strong positive relationship between abiotic stress and foliar polyamines has been proposed as a potential biochemical marker of persistent environmental stress in forest trees in which phenotypic symptoms of stress are not yet visible. Such markers may help forewarn forest managers to undertake amelioration strategies before the appearance of visual symptoms of stress and damage at which stage it is often too late for implementing strategies for stress remediation and reversal of damage. This review provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the published literature on interactions between abiotic stress and polyamines in plants, and examines the experimental strategies used to understand the functional significance of this relationship with the aim of improving plant productivity, especially under conditions of abiotic stress.

  2. Structure and function of complex I in animals and plants - a comparative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkler, Jennifer; Senkler, Michael; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2017-03-06

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) has a molecular mass of about 1000 kDa and includes 40-50 subunits in animals, fungi and plants. It is composed of a membrane arm and a peripheral arm and has a conserved L-like shape in all species investigated. However, in plants and possibly some protists it has a second peripheral domain which is attached to the membrane arm on its matrix exposed side at a central position. The extra domain includes proteins resembling prokaryotic gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. We here present a detailed comparison of complex I from mammals and flowering plants. Forty homologous subunits are present in complex I of both groups of species. In addition, five subunits are present in mammalian complex I, which are absent in plants, and eight to nine subunits are present in plant complex I which do not occur in mammals. Based on the atomic structure of mammalian complex I and biochemical insights into complex I architecture from plants we mapped the species-specific subunits. Interestingly, four of the five animal-specific and five of the eight to nine plant-specific subunits are localized at the inner surface of the membrane arm of complex I in close proximity. We propose that the inner surface of the membrane arm represents a workbench for attaching proteins to complex I not directly related to respiratory electron transport, like nucleoside kinases, acyl-carrier proteins or carbonic anhydrases. We speculate that further enzyme activities might be bound to this micro-location in other groups of organisms.

  3. Habitats as complex odour environments: how does plant diversity affect herbivore and parasitoid orientation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Wäschke

    Full Text Available Plant diversity is known to affect success of host location by pest insects, but its effect on olfactory orientation of non-pest insect species has hardly been addressed. First, we tested in laboratory experiments the hypothesis that non-host plants, which increase odour complexity in habitats, affect the host location ability of herbivores and parasitoids. Furthermore, we recorded field data of plant diversity in addition to herbivore and parasitoid abundance at 77 grassland sites in three different regions in Germany in order to elucidate whether our laboratory results reflect the field situation. As a model system we used the herb Plantago lanceolata, the herbivorous weevil Mecinus pascuorum, and its larval parasitoid Mesopolobus incultus. The laboratory bioassays revealed that both the herbivorous weevil and its larval parasitoid can locate their host plant and host via olfactory cues even in the presence of non-host odour. In a newly established two-circle olfactometer, the weeviĺs capability to detect host plant odour was not affected by odours from non-host plants. However, addition of non-host plant odours to host plant odour enhanced the weeviĺs foraging activity. The parasitoid was attracted by a combination of host plant and host volatiles in both the absence and presence of non-host plant volatiles in a Y-tube olfactometer. In dual choice tests the parasitoid preferred the blend of host plant and host volatiles over its combination with non-host plant volatiles. In the field, no indication was found that high plant diversity disturbs host (plant location by the weevil and its parasitoid. In contrast, plant diversity was positively correlated with weevil abundance, whereas parasitoid abundance was independent of plant diversity. Therefore, we conclude that weevils and parasitoids showed the sensory capacity to successfully cope with complex vegetation odours when searching for hosts.

  4. Comparative genomics of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex: biosynthetic pathways metabolite production and plant pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium is a huge genus of filamentous fungi causing plant diseases in a wide range of host plants that result in high economic losses to world agriculture every year. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Fusarium consists of different species complexes. One of them is the “Fusarium fujik...

  5. Trophic complexity and the adaptive value of damage-induced plant volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kaplan

    Full Text Available Indirect plant defenses are those facilitating the action of carnivores in ridding plants of their herbivorous consumers, as opposed to directly poisoning or repelling them. Of the numerous and diverse indirect defensive strategies employed by plants, inducible volatile production has garnered the most fascination among plant-insect ecologists. These volatile chemicals are emitted in response to feeding by herbivorous arthropods and serve to guide predators and parasitic wasps to their prey. Implicit in virtually all discussions of plant volatile-carnivore interactions is the premise that plants "call for help" to bodyguards that serve to boost plant fitness by limiting herbivore damage. This, by necessity, assumes a three-trophic level food chain where carnivores benefit plants, a theoretical framework that is conceptually tractable and convenient, but poorly depicts the complexity of food-web dynamics occurring in real communities. Recent work suggests that hyperparasitoids, top consumers acting from the fourth trophic level, exploit the same plant volatile cues used by third trophic level carnivores. Further, hyperparasitoids shift their foraging preferences, specifically cueing in to the odor profile of a plant being damaged by a parasitized herbivore that contains their host compared with damage from an unparasitized herbivore. If this outcome is broadly representative of plant-insect food webs at large, it suggests that damage-induced volatiles may not always be beneficial to plants with major implications for the evolution of anti-herbivore defense and manipulating plant traits to improve biological control in agricultural crops.

  6. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D R; Mayancsik, B A [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pottmeyer, J A; Vejvoda, E J; Reddick, J A; Sheldon, K M; Weyns, M I [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  7. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.; Mayancsik, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pottmeyer, J.A.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Reddick, J.A.; Sheldon, K.M.; Weyns, M.I. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  8. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry.

  9. Receptor-like kinase complexes in plant innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeff, Michael Christiaan; Roux, Milena Edna; Mundy, John

    2012-01-01

    , the aforementioned RLKs activate generic immune responses termed pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). RLKs can form complexes with other family members and engage a variety of intracellular signaling components and regulatory pathways upon stimulation. This review focuses on interesting new data about how...

  10. Complexes with mixed primary and secondary cellulose synthases are functional in Arabidopsis plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, A.; Mansoori Zangir, N.; Li, S.; Lei, L.; Vernhettes, S.; Visser, R.G.F.; Somerville, C.; Gu, Y.; Trindade, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by so-called rosette protein complexes with cellulose synthases (CESAs) as catalytic subunits of the complex. The CESAs are divided into two distinct families, three of which are thought to be specialized for the primary cell wall and three for the secondar

  11. Molecular and biochemical analysis of symbiotic plant receptor kinase complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Douglas R; Riely, Brendan K

    2010-09-01

    DE-FG02-01ER15200 was a 36-month project, initiated on Sept 1, 2005 and extended with a one-year no cost extension to August 31, 2009. During the project period we published seven manuscripts (2 in review). Including the prior project period (2002-2005) we published 12 manuscripts in journals that include Science, PNAS, The Plant Cell, Plant Journal, Plant Physiology, and MPMI. The primary focus of this work was to further elucidate the function of the Nod factor signaling pathway that is involved in initiation of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis and in particular to explore the relationship between receptor kinase-like proteins and downstream effectors of symbiotic development. During the project period we have map-base cloned two additional players in symbiotic development, including an ERF transcription factor and an ethylene pathway gene (EIN2) that negatively regulates symbiotic signaling; we have also further characterized the subcellular distribution and function of a nuclear-localized symbiosis-specific ion channel, DMI1. The major outcome of the work has been the development of systems for exploring and validating protein-protein interactions that connect symbiotic receptor-like proteins to downstream responses. In this regard, we have developed both homologous (i.e., in planta) and heterologous (i.e., in yeast) systems to test protein interactions. Using yeast 2-hybrid screens we isolated the only known interactor of the nuclear-localized calcium-responsive kinase DMI3. We have also used yeast 2-hybrid methodology to identify interactions between symbiotic signaling proteins and certain RopGTPase/RopGEF proteins that regulate root hair polar growth. More important to the long-term goals of our work, we have established a TAP tagging system that identifies in planta interactions based on co-immuno precipitation and mass spectrometry. The validity of this approach has been shown using known interactors that either co-iummnoprecipate (i.e., remorin) or co

  12. Receptor-like kinase complexes in plant innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeff, Michael Christiaan; Roux, Milena Edna; Mundy, John;

    2012-01-01

    , the aforementioned RLKs activate generic immune responses termed pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). RLKs can form complexes with other family members and engage a variety of intracellular signaling components and regulatory pathways upon stimulation. This review focuses on interesting new data about how......Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are surface localized, transmembrane receptors comprising a large family of well-studied kinases. RLKs signal through their transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains with the aid of various interacting partners and downstream components. The N-terminal extracellular...

  13. Receptor-like kinase complexes in plant innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan eGreeff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs are surface localized, transmembrane receptors comprising a large family of well-studied kinases. RLKs signal through their transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains with the aid of various interacting partners and downstream components. The N-terminal extracellular domain defines ligand specificity, and RLK families are sub-classed according to this domain. The most studied of these subfamilies include those with 1 leucine rich repeat (LRR domains, 2 LysM domains (LYM and 3 the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L domain. These proteins recognize distinct ligands of microbial origin or ligands derived from intracellular protein/carbohydrate signals. For example, the pattern recognition receptor (PRR AtFLS2 recognizes flg22 from flagellin, and the PRR AtEFR recognizes elf18 from elongation factor (EF-Tu. Upon binding of their cognate ligands, the aforementioned RLKs activate generic immune responses termed pattern triggered immunity (PTI. RLKs can form complexes with other family members and engage a variety of intracellular signaling components and regulatory pathways upon stimulation. This review focuses on interesting new data about how these receptors form protein complexes to exert their function.

  14. Ternary WD40 repeat-containing protein complexes: evolution, composition and roles in plant immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi C. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants, like mammals, rely on their innate immune system to perceive and discriminate among the majority of their microbial pathogens. Unlike mammals, plants respond to this molecular dialogue by unleashing a complex chemical arsenal of defense metabolites to resist or evade pathogen infection. In basal or non-host resistance, plants utilize signal transduction pathways to detect non-self, damaged-self and altered-self-associated molecular patterns and translate these danger signals into largely inducible chemical defenses. The WD40 repeat (WDR-containing proteins Gβ and TTG1 are constituents of two independent ternary protein complexes functioning at opposite ends of a plant immune signaling pathway. Gβ and TTG1 are also encoded by single-copy genes that are ubiquitous in higher plants, implying the limited diversity and functional conservation of their respective complexes. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the evolutionary history of these WDR-containing ternary complexes, their repertoire and combinatorial interactions, and their downstream effectors and pathways in plant defense.

  15. Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram eLamichhane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases are often thought to be caused by one species or even by a specific strain. Microbes in nature however mostly occur as part of complex communities and this has been noted since the time of van Leeuwenhoek. Interestingly, most laboratory studies focus on single microbial strains grown in pure culture; we were therefore unaware of possible interspecies and/or inter-kingdom interactions of pathogenic microbes in the wild. In human and animal infections, it is now being recognized that many diseases are the result of multispecies synergistic interactions. This increases the complexity of the disease and has to be taken into consideration in the development of more effective control measures. On the other hand, there are only a few reports of synergistic pathogen-pathogen interactions in plant diseases and the mechanisms of interactions are currently unknown. Here we review some of these reports of synergism between different plant pathogens and their possible implications in crop health. Finally, we briefly highlight the recent technological advances in diagnostics as these are beginning to provide important insights into the microbial communities associated with complex plant diseases. These examples of synergistic interactions of plant pathogens that lead to disease complexes might prove to be more common than expected and understanding the underlying mechanisms might have important implications in plant disease epidemiology and management.

  16. PlantID – DNA-based identification of multiple medicinal plants in complex mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao. Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants.

  17. Complex pollutions on plants caused by sulfur dioxide and pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komai, K.; Sato, S.

    1973-06-01

    In order to have some idea of the effects on plants of the coexistence of sulfur dioxide and pesticides, chloroplasts were studied. The Hill reaction and oxidative phosphorylation activities of spinach chloroplasts were measured against treatment with sulfur dioxide and pesticides under both conditions in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the influence of paedogenesis on chlorophyll biosynthesis and anthocyan in pigment biosynthesis was also examined. Spinach chloroplast fragments prepared after SO/sub 2/ treatment showed a marked decrease in activities in both the Hill reaction and oxidative phosphorylation conjugate with Hill reaction compared with chloroplast fragments with no treatment. These chloroplast fragments with treatment showed more decrease in activity with the addition of pesticides. The chloroplast fragments prepared after treatment with both SO/sub 2/ and pesticides showed a marked decrease in activities in both the Hill reaction and oxidative phosphorylation compared with those prepared after treatment with only SO/sub 2/ and those treated with only pesticides. They inhibited stronger reactions with organophosphates than with BHC. Moreover, those treated with both SO/sub 2/ and pesticides showed marked inhibition in reactions in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and anthocyan in pigment.

  18. Complexity of nutrient use efficiency in plants : Metabolic and environmental control at a whole plant perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, Martin

    2015-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for food of a fast growing world population, agriculture needs to be more productive. During last century the agricultural production was worldwide strongly improved by plant breeding and the use of pesticides and fertilizers. This has also resulted in negative environm

  19. Plant host and sugar alcohol induced exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the Burkholderia cepacia complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Brown, Alan R.; Mewburn, Ben R.; Clarke, David J.; Fry, Stephen C.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; John R W Govan

    2008-01-01

    The species that presently constitute the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have multiple roles; they include soil and water saprophytes, bioremediators, and plant, animal and human pathogens. Since the first description of pathogenicity in the Bcc was based on sour skin rot of onion bulbs, this study returned to this plant host to investigate the onion-associated phenotype of the Bcc. Many Bcc isolates, which were previously considered to be non-mucoid, produced copious amounts of exopolysa...

  20. Regulation of plant innate immunity by three proteins in a complex conserved across the plant and animal kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Kristoffer; Zhao, Qingguo; Cheng, Yu Ti; Bi, Dongling; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Yuelin; Li, Xin

    2007-06-15

    Innate immunity against pathogen infection is an evolutionarily conserved process among multicellular organisms. Arabidopsis SNC1 encodes a Resistance protein that combines attributes of multiple mammalian pattern recognition receptors. Utilizing snc1 as an autoimmune model, we identified a discrete protein complex containing at least three members--MOS4 (Modifier Of snc1, 4), AtCDC5, and PRL1 (Pleiotropic Regulatory Locus 1)--that are all essential for plant innate immunity. AtCDC5 has DNA-binding activity, suggesting that this complex probably regulates defense responses through transcriptional control. Since the complex components along with their interactions are highly conserved from fission yeast to Arabidopsis and human, they may also have a yet-to-be-identified function in mammalian innate immunity.

  1. The RTR complex as caretaker of genome stability and its unique meiotic function in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eKnoll

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The RTR complex consisting of a RecQ helicase, a type IA topoisomerase and the structural protein RMI1 is involved in the processing of DNA recombination intermediates in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana the complex partners RECQ4A, topoisomerase 3α and RMI1 have been shown to be involved in DNA repair and in the suppression of homologous recombination (HR in somatic cells. Interestingly, mutants of AtTOP3A and AtRMI1 are also sterile due to extensive chromosome breakage in meiosis I, a phenotype that seems to be specific for plants. Although both proteins are essential for meiotic recombination it is still elusive on what kind of intermediates they are acting on. Recent data indicate that the pattern of non-crossover (NCO-associated meiotic gene conversion (GC differs between plants and other eukaryotes, as less NCOs in comparison to crossovers (CO could be detected in Arabidopsis. This indicates that NCOs happen either more rarely in plants or that the conversion tract length is significantly shorter than in other organisms. As the TOP3α/RMI1-mediated dissolution of recombination intermediates results exclusively in NCOs, we suggest that the peculiar GC pattern found in plants is connected to the unique role, members of the RTR complex play in plant meiosis.

  2. On the enhancement of the efficiency of the energy complexes of crude hydrocarbon processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolotovskij, I. V.; Larin, E. A.; Dolotovskaja, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    A method for circuit-parametric analysis of the efficiency of the heat-and-power system of the energy complexes at gas and natural-gas condensate processing plants is proposed. An energy complex of an alternative structure with an independent source of thermal and electric energy integrated into the production line has been developed. The energy carriers are produced accompanied by recovery of the secondary energy resources, waste, and effluents. Using the developed information-analytical software, multicriterion assessment of the efficiency of the alternative energy complexes and its systems based on independent energy sources of the combined-cycle cogeneration plant type has been performed for the gas processing plant in Astrakhan and the most effective equipment composition variant has been determined. The effect of the basic technical and economic factors on the economic efficiency has been established. The investments in construction of the power- and water-supply system within the plant's energy complex pay off in 8-9 years.

  3. An Assessment of Wind Plant Complex Flows Using Advanced Doppler Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, W. S.; Schroeder, J.; Hirth, B.; Duncan, J.; Guynes, J.

    2015-12-01

    As installed wind energy capacity continues to steadily increase, the need for comprehensive measurements of wind plant complex flows to further reduce the cost of wind energy has been well advertised by the industry as a whole. Such measurements serve diverse perspectives including resource assessment, turbine inflow and power curve validation, wake and wind plant layout model verification, operations and maintenance, and the development of future advanced wind plant control schemes. While various measurement devices have been matured for wind energy applications (e.g. meteorological towers, LIDAR, SODAR), this presentation will focus on the use of advanced Doppler radar systems to observe the complex wind flows within and surrounding wind plants. Advanced Doppler radars can provide the combined advantage of a large analysis footprint (tens of square kilometers) with rapid data analysis updates (a few seconds to one minute) using both single- and dual-Doppler data collection methods. This presentation demonstrates the utility of measurements collected by the Texas Tech University Ka-band (TTUKa) radars to identify complex wind flows occurring within and nearby operational wind plants, and provide reliable forecasts of wind speeds and directions at given locations (i.e. turbine or instrumented tower sites) 45+ seconds in advance. Radar-derived wind maps reveal commonly observed features such as turbine wakes and turbine-to-turbine interaction, high momentum wind speed channels between turbine wakes, turbine array edge effects, transient boundary layer flow structures (such as wind streaks, frontal boundaries, etc.), and the impact of local terrain. Operational turbine or instrumented tower data are merged with the radar analysis to link the observed complex flow features to turbine and wind plant performance.

  4. The spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits and the genetics of fitness in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, K Christin; Glander, Shirin; He, Fei; Hu, Jinyong; de Meaux, Juliette; Schmitz, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis of natural variation in complex traits is the key for their effective management in crops or natural systems. This review focuses on plant variation. It will first, show that genetic modifications causing major alterations in polygenic phenotypes often hit targets within an array of 'candidate genes', second, present new methods that include mutations of all effect sizes, and help exhaustively describe the molecular systems underlying complex traits, and third, discuss recent findings regarding the role of epigenetic variants, which in plants are often maintained through both mitosis and meiosis. Exploring the whole spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits is made possible by the combination of genetic, genomic and epigenomic approaches.

  5. ORNL review of TRUEX flowsheet proposed for deployment at the Rockwell Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, W.D.; Bell, J.T.; Campbell, D.O.; Collins, E.D.

    1987-03-01

    The Transuranium Extraction (TRUEX) process will be installed at the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The purposes are to process the PFP waste to recover the plutonium, to isolate the americium, and to have the remaining waste converted to a non-TRU waste. Rockwell requested that ORNL provide an outside review of the process and its implementation. This review addresses the generation of the TRUEX feed, the chemical flowsheet, and the products and raffinates. It suggests that present PFP operations be modified to reduce the amount of transuranium elements that will be in the TRUEX process feed. This review also includes an assessment of the TRUEX solvent extraction flowsheet on the bases of material balance, adequate extraction and stripping stages, and solvent cleanup. The final part of the review includes results of three-party discussions (RHO, ORNL, and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)) of some major issues.

  6. [Ecological control effects of Litchi chinensis-Desmodium intortum complex plant ecosystem on litchi pests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Gecheng; Yang, Yueping; Liu, Deguang; Xiong, Jinjun; Huang, Mingdu

    2006-01-01

    An investigation on the community structure and dynamics of litchi pests and their natural enemies in constructed Litchi chinensis-Desmodium intortum complex plant ecosystem and single L. chinensis ecosystem showed that the total amount of litchi pests in the complex plant ecosystem was 61.27% of that in the single ecosystem in whole year, and only 50.45% in May, the key time for fruit development, which suggested that there was an interaction between D. intortum and L. chinensis. D. intortum and L. chinensis had a few common pests, but many common natural enemies. D. intortum florescence in winter provided shelter and substitutive food for the natural enemies of pests to survive in the extreme environmental conditions in winter. L. chinensis florescence was on the heel of D. intortum florescence, which provided better conditions for the natural enemies to survive and multiply. During florescence and fruit development stages of L. chinensis (from March to June), the predator/prey ratio in complex plant system was 4.22, 2.34, 2.2 and 20.63 times of that in single plant system in March, April, May and June, respectively, indicating the good control effect on pests of L. chinensis.

  7. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  8. Knowledge-driven approaches for engineering complex metabolic pathways in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Gemma; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu

    2015-04-01

    Plant metabolic pathways are complex and often feature multiple levels of regulation. Until recently, metabolic engineering in plants relied on the laborious testing of ad hoc modifications to achieve desirable changes in the metabolic profile. However, technological advances in data mining, modeling, multigene engineering and genome editing are now taking away much of the guesswork by allowing the impact of modifications to be predicted more accurately. In this review we discuss recent developments in knowledge-based metabolic engineering strategies, that is the gathering and mining of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data to generate models of metabolic pathways that help to define and refine optimal intervention strategies.

  9. Plant root exudates mediate neighbour recognition and trigger complex behavioural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchenko, Marina; Saar, Sirgi; Lepik, Anu

    2014-11-01

    Some plant species are able to distinguish between neighbours of different genetic identity and attempt to pre-empt resources through root proliferation in the presence of unrelated competitors, but avoid competition with kin. However, studies on neighbour recognition have met with some scepticism because the mechanisms by which plants identify their neighbours have remained unclear. In order to test whether root exudates could mediate neighbour recognition in plants, we performed a glasshouse experiment in which plants of Deschampsia caespitosa were subjected to root exudates collected from potential neighbours of different genetic identities, including siblings and individuals belonging to the same or a different population or species. Our results show that root exudates can carry specific information about the genetic relatedness, population origin and species identity of neighbours, and trigger different responses at the whole root system level and at the level of individual roots in direct contact with locally applied exudates. Increased root density was mainly achieved through changes in morphology rather than biomass allocation, suggesting that plants are able to limit the energetic cost of selfish behaviour. This study reveals a new level of complexity in the ability of plants to interpret and react to their surroundings.

  10. B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria.

  11. EXOTIC USEFUL PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE GREENHOUSE COMPLEX OF THE BOTANICAL GARDEN FROM IASI (NOTE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIA TANASESCU VIOLETA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents fifty-eight different exotic species of medical interest cultivated within the Greenhouse Complex of the Botanical Garden from Iasi.The classification of the species has been made according to the family, the origin, the lifetime, the type of greenhouse and the harvested part of the plant.The medicinal properties of the species known only as decorative are presented too.

  12. Thermal Conductivity Prediction of Soil in Complex Plant Soil System using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardani, A. K.; Purqon, A.

    2016-08-01

    Thermal conductivity is one of thermal properties of soil in seed germination and plants growth. Different soil types have different thermal conductivity. One of soft-computing promising method to predict thermal conductivity of soil types is Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In this study, we estimate the thermal conductivity of soil prediction in a soil-plant complex systems using ANN. With a feed-forward multilayer trained with back-propagation with 4, 10 and 1 on the input, hidden and output layers respectively. Our input are heating time, temperature and thermal resistance with thermal conductivity of soil as a target. ANN prediction demonstrates a good agreement with Mean Squared Error-testing (MSEte) of 9.56 x 10-7 for soils with green beans and those of bare soils is 7.00 × 10-7 respectively Green beans grow only on black-clay soil with a thermal conductivity of 0.7 W/m K with a sufficient water content. Our results demonstrate that temperature, moisture content, colour, texture and structure of soil are greatly affect to the thermal conductivity of soil in seed germination and plant growth. In future, it is potentially applied to estimate more complex compositions of plant-soil systems.

  13. MYB3Rs, plant homologs of Myb oncoproteins, control cell cycle-regulated transcription and form DREAM-like complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László; Ito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Plant MYB3R transcription factors, homologous to Myb oncoproteins, regulate the genes expressed at G2 and M phases in the cell cycle. Recent studies showed that MYB3Rs constitute multiprotein complexes that may correspond to animal complexes known as DREAM or dREAM. Discovery of the putative homologous complex in plants uncovered their significant varieties in structure, function, dynamics, and heterogeneity, providing insight into conserved and diversified aspects of cell cycle-regulated gene transcription.

  14. MYB3Rs, plant homologs of Myb oncoproteins, control cell cycle-regulated transcription and form DREAM-like complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László; Ito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Plant MYB3R transcription factors, homologous to Myb oncoproteins, regulate the genes expressed at G2 and M phases in the cell cycle. Recent studies showed that MYB3Rs constitute multiprotein complexes that may correspond to animal complexes known as DREAM or dREAM. Discovery of the putative homologous complex in plants uncovered their significant varieties in structure, function, dynamics, and heterogeneity, providing insight into conserved and diversified aspects of cell cycle-regulated gen...

  15. PGSB/MIPS Plant Genome Information Resources and Concepts for the Analysis of Complex Grass Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagl, Manuel; Bader, Kai; Pfeifer, Matthias; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology; formerly MIPS-Munich Institute for Protein Sequences) has been involved in developing, implementing and maintaining plant genome databases for more than a decade. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable datasets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, e.g., from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and analyzed. In addition, genomes from both model and crop plants form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny) between related species on macro- and micro-levels.The genomes of many economically important Triticeae plants such as wheat, barley, and rye present a great challenge for sequence assembly and bioinformatic analysis due to their enormous complexity and large genome size. Novel concepts and strategies have been developed to deal with these difficulties and have been applied to the genomes of wheat, barley, rye, and other cereals. This includes the GenomeZipper concept, reference-guided exome assembly, and "chromosome genomics" based on flow cytometry sorted chromosomes.

  16. Reciprocal diversification in a complex plant-herbivore-parasitoid food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokma Folmer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants, plant-feeding insects, and insect parasitoids form some of the most complex and species-rich food webs. According to the classic escape-and-radiate (EAR hypothesis, these hyperdiverse communities result from coevolutionary arms races consisting of successive cycles of enemy escape, radiation, and colonization by new enemy lineages. It has also been suggested that "enemy-free space" provided by novel host plants could promote host shifts by herbivores, and that parasitoids could similarly drive diversification of gall form in insects that induce galls on plants. Because these central coevolutionary hypotheses have never been tested in a phylogenetic framework, we combined phylogenetic information on willow-galling sawflies with data on their host plants, gall types, and enemy communities. Results We found that evolutionary shifts in host plant use and habitat have led to dramatic prunings of parasitoid communities, and that changes in gall phenotype can provide "enemy-free morphospace" for millions of years even in the absence of host plant shifts. Some parasites have nevertheless managed to colonize recently-evolved gall types, and this has apparently led to adaptive speciation in several enemy groups. However, having fewer enemies does not in itself increase speciation probabilities in individual sawfly lineages, partly because the high diversity of the enemy community facilitates compensatory attack by remaining parasite taxa. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that niche-dependent parasitism is a major force promoting ecological divergence in herbivorous insects, and that prey divergence can cause speciation in parasite lineages. However, the results also show that the EAR hypothesis is too simplistic for species-rich food webs: instead, diversification seems to be spurred by a continuous stepwise process, in which ecological and phenotypic shifts in prey lineages are followed by a lagged evolutionary

  17. Genetic and ecotypic differentiation in a Californian plant polyploid complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail J Moore

    Full Text Available Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae. We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.

  18. Genetic and ecotypic differentiation in a Californian plant polyploid complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Abigail J; Moore, William L; Baldwin, Bruce G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.

  19. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System Portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, W.F.

    2000-04-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the safety envelope (SE) for the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System (ENES). Together with the appendices, it provides: (1) The system requirements for determining system operability (Section 3.0); (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4.0); (3) List of system drawings that are annotated to show the SE boundaries (Appendix A); (4) Identification of the SE equipment by reference to systems and drawings (Appendix B); (5) Requirements for the individual SE equipment (Section 4.0); and (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the SE (Sections 5.0 and 6.0). The Private Automatic Exchange (PAX) phones and PAX switchers are outside the safety envelope defined in WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Section 5.4.10, ''Safety Communication and Alarm Systems,'' Section 5.4.1 0.1, ''Major Components and Operating Characteristics,'' and Section 5.4.10.1.12, ''PAX System.'' The PAX override microphone system maintains the safety envelope, and functions as a backup to the evacuation sirens during an emergency.

  20. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction for (NOC) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-03-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 IO) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. An operations support trailer will be installed in the proximity of the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process. Figures provided are based on preliminary design.

  1. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process. Figures provided are based on preliminary design. For the activities covered under this NOC, the unabated and abated TEDE to the hypothetical MEI is 1.67 E-03 and 8.34 E-01 millirem per year, respectively.

  2. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alice Kujur; Maneesha S Saxena; Deepak Bajaj; Laxmi; Swarup K Parida

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world’s food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of high-yielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern –omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  3. Definition and means of maintaining the ventilation system confinement portion of the PFP safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, J.D.; Grover, G.A.; O`Brien, P.M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-05

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant Heating Ventilation and Cooling system provides for the confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and provides for the confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. This document identifies the components and procedures necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. Appendices E through J provide a snapshot of non-safety class HVAC equipment and need not be updated when the remainder of the document and Appendices A through D are updated.

  4. Complexes with mixed primary and secondary cellulose synthases are functional in Arabidopsis thaliana plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Andrew; Mansoori, N; Li, Shundai; Lei, Lei; Vernhettes, Samantha; Visser, Richard G. F.; Somerville, Chris R; Gu, Ying; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2012-10-01

    In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by so-called rosette protein complexes with cellulose synthases (CESAs) as catalytic subunits of the complex. The CESAs are divided into two distinct families, three of which are thought to be specialized for the primary cell wall and three for the secondary cell wall. In this article, the potential of primary and secondary CESAs forming a functional rosette complex has been investigated. The membrane-based yeast two-hybrid and biomolecular fluorescence systems were used to assess the interactions between three primary (CESA1, CESA3, CESA6), and three secondary (CESA4, CESA7, CESA8) Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CESAs. The results showed that all primary CESAs can physically interact both in vitro and in planta with all secondary CESAs. Although CESAs are broadly capable of interacting in pairwise combinations, they are not all able to form functional complexes in planta. Analysis of transgenic lines showed that CESA7 can partially rescue defects in the primary cell wall biosynthesis in a weak cesa3 mutant. Green fluorescent protein-CESA protein fusions revealed that when CESA3 was replaced by CESA7 in the primary rosette, the velocity of the mixed complexes was slightly faster than the native primary complexes. CESA1 in turn can partly rescue defects in secondary cell wall biosynthesis in a cesa8ko mutant, resulting in an increase of cellulose content relative to cesa8ko. These results demonstrate that sufficient parallels exist between the primary and secondary complexes for cross-functionality and open the possibility that mixed complexes of primary and secondary CESAs may occur at particular times.

  5. The plant cell cycle: Pre-Replication complex formation and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Juliana Nogueira; Costa, Carinne N Monteiro; Cabral, Luiz Mors; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Hemerly, Adriana S

    2017-01-01

    The multiplication of cells in all living organisms requires a tight regulation of DNA replication. Several mechanisms take place to ensure that the DNA is replicated faithfully and just once per cell cycle in order to originate through mitoses two new daughter cells that contain exactly the same information from the previous one. A key control mechanism that occurs before cells enter S phase is the formation of a pre-replication complex (pre-RC) that is assembled at replication origins by the sequential association of the origin recognition complex, followed by Cdt1, Cdc6 and finally MCMs, licensing DNA to start replication. The identification of pre-RC members in all animal and plant species shows that this complex is conserved in eukaryotes and, more importantly, the differences between kingdoms might reflect their divergence in strategies on cell cycle regulation, as it must be integrated and adapted to the niche, ecosystem, and the organism peculiarities. Here, we provide an overview of the knowledge generated so far on the formation and the developmental controls of the pre-RC mechanism in plants, analyzing some particular aspects in comparison to other eukaryotes.

  6. Ecological significance and complexity of N-source preference in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Dev T; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-10-01

    Plants can utilize two major forms of inorganic N: NO3(-) (nitrate) and NH4(+) (ammonium). In some cases, the preference of one form over another (denoted as β) can appear to be quite pronounced for a plant species, and can be an important determinant and predictor of its distribution and interactions with other species. In many other cases, however, assignment of preference is not so straightforward and must take into account a wide array of complex physiological and environmental features, which interact in ways that are still not well understood. This Viewpoint presents a discussion of the key, and often co-occurring, factors that join to produce the complex phenotypic composite referred to by the deceptively simple term 'N-source preference'. N-source preference is much more complex a biological phenomenon than is often assumed, and general models predicting how it will influence ecological processes will need to be much more sophisticated than those that have been so far developed.

  7. Aeolian sediment fluxes measured over various plant/soil complexes in the Chihuahuan desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergametti, G.; Gillette, D. A.

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of horizontal flux of sediment were performed over the period 1998-2005 at different vegetated areas within the Jornada Long Term Ecological Research site. Sediment trap samples were collected during successive nominal 3-month periods at 15 sites: three independent sites at each of the five dominant plant/soil complexes encountered in this part of the Chihuahuan desert (mesquite, creosote, tarbush, grama grass, and playa grass). Mesquite vegetated areas have significantly higher sediment fluxes than the four other plant/soil complexes. The other types of vegetation complexes yield sediment fluxes that cannot be statistically distinguished from each other. An analysis of the temporal variability of the sediment fluxes indicates that only the annual sediment fluxes from mesquite sites are correlated with the annual occurrence of high wind speeds. Examination of the vertical profile of the fluxes of sediment and the fast response Sensit measurements confirms that a local saltation mechanism is responsible for sediment fluxes measured at mesquite sites. However, the local saltation mechanism cannot explain sediment fluxes measured on nonmesquite sites. Sediment fluxes at nonmesquite sites are only rarely carried in from upwind sources. Additionally, our data for sediment flux showed that off-site (drifting in) flux of sediment cannot explain the differences of mesquite and nonmesquite sediment fluxes. We suggest dust devils to be the mechanism that causes sediment emissions at both nonmesquite and mesquite lands, but their effect is trivial compared to the fluxes caused by mesoscale meteorological winds at the mesquite sites.

  8. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  9. [Microbial complexes from apogeotropic roots and from rhizosphere of cycad plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobakova, E S; Orazova, M Kh; Dobrovol'skaia, T G

    2003-01-01

    The microbial complexes of soil, the rhizosphere, and the rhizoplane of the apogeotropic (coralloid) roots of cycad plants were comparatively studied. The aseptically prepared homogenates of the surface-sterilized coralloid roots did not contain bacterial microsymbiont, indicating that it was absent in the root tissues. At the same time, associated bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups were detected in increasing amounts in the cycad rhizoplane, rhizosphere, and the surrounding soil. The bacterial communities found in the cycad rhizoplane and the surrounding soil were dominated by bacteria from the genus Bacillus. The saprotrophic bacteria and fungi colonizing the cycad rhizosphere and rhizoplane were dominated by microorganisms capable of degrading the plant cell walls. The local degradation of the cell wall was actually observed on the micrographs of the thin sections of cycad roots in the form of channels, through which symbiotic cyanobacterial filaments can penetrate into the cortical parenchyma.

  10. Understanding Periodic Dislocations in 2D Supramolecular Crystals: The PFP/Ag(111) Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goiri, E.; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Corso, M.;

    2012-01-01

    In-plane dislocation networks arise in both inorganic and organic films as a way of relieving the elastic strain that builds up at the substrate interface. In molecule/surface systems, supramolecular interactions are weak and more complex (compared to the atomic bonds in inorganic films), and the...

  11. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  12. CSER 00-001 Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for Cementation Operations at the PFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-04-18

    Glovebox HA-20MB is located in Room 235B of the 234-5Z Building at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. This enclosure contains mixers, mixer bowls, a crusher unit, an isolated inoperable conveyor unit, plutonium residue feed cans, cemented cans, and a feedwater container. Plutonium residue, not conducive to other forms of stabilization, is prepared for storage and ultimate disposal by cementation. The feed residue material cans can have plutonium contents of only a few grams or up to 200 grams. This evaluation accommodates this wide range of container fissile concentrations.

  13. 77 FR 485 - Wind Plant Performance-Public Meeting on Modeling and Testing Needs for Complex Air Flow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind Plant Performance--Public Meeting on Modeling and... validation techniques for complex flow phenomena in and around off- shore and on-shore utility-scale wind power plants. DOE is requesting this information to support the development of cost-effective wind power...

  14. Recent Advances in the Role of the Elongator Complex in Plant Physiology and tRNA Modiifcation:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xu; JIN Xiao-huan; WANG You-mei; ZHENG Bo; CHEN Peng

    2014-01-01

    The Elongator complex is a multifunction protein complex which has been shown to be involved in transcriptional elongation, DNA replication and repair, tubulin and histone acetylation, gene silencing and tranfer RNA uridine modiifcation. The composition of the Elongator complex is found to be highly conserved in eukaryotes, protein homologs of various subunits have been identiifed in fungi, plant, animal, and human. Remarkably, mutation in genes encoding the Elongator complex structural components all results in defects of transfer RNA wobble uridine modiifcation, and this function of the Elongator complex is also conserved in eukaryotes. The Elongator complex mutants in higher plants have pleiotropic phenotypes including defects in vegetative growth, abiscisic acid hypersensitivity, elevated tolerance to drought and oxidative stress. What is the relationship between the Elongator complex’s function in nucleoside modiifcation and its activity in other cellular pathways? This review summarizes the recent advances in study of function of the Elongator complex, in the aspects of cell physiology and molecular biology.

  15. Rare earth elements and titanium in plants, soils and groundwaters in the alkaline-ultramafic complex of Salitre, MG Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccantini, G. [Instituto de Biociencias, Sao Paulo, (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radioquimica; Sondag, F.; Soubies, F. [ORSTOM, 93 - Bondy (France); Soubies, F. [Universite Paul Sabatier, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1997-12-31

    The contents of rare earth elements (REE) and titanium in various plant species, in groundwaters and in soils from the alkaline-ultramafic complex of Salitre, have been determined. Due to the the particular mineralogy of the bedrock, REE and Ti exhibit high concentrations in the soils. Despite this, plants generally present REE concentrations within the ranges usually found in plants, and the transfer factor from soil to plant is at least ten times below the range reported in the literature, confirming that the concentrations of REE in the plants are widely independent of the soil content. All species present normalized patterns similar to those of the soils, characterized by an enrichment in light REE. Several plants show Ti concentrations about three times higher than the reference values. It is suggested that in the studied ecosystem, the plant metabolism affect the REE distribution in the groundwaters, leading to an enrichment of the superficial waters in heavy REE

  16. Excitation-energy transfer dynamics of higher plant photosystem I light-harvesting complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjes, Emilie; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2011-03-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) plays a major role in the light reactions of photosynthesis. In higher plants, PSI is composed of a core complex and four outer antennas that are assembled as two dimers, Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements on the isolated dimers show very similar kinetics. The intermonomer transfer processes are resolved using target analysis. They occur at rates similar to those observed in transfer to the PSI core, suggesting competition between the two transfer pathways. It appears that each dimer is adopting various conformations that correspond to different lifetimes and emission spectra. A special feature of the Lhca complexes is the presence of an absorption band at low energy, originating from an excitonic state of a chlorophyll dimer, mixed with a charge-transfer state. These low-energy bands have high oscillator strengths and they are superradiant in both Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3. This challenges the view that the low-energy charge-transfer state always functions as a quencher in plant Lhc's and it also challenges previous interpretations of PSI kinetics. The very similar properties of the low-energy states of both dimers indicate that the organization of the involved chlorophylls should also be similar, in disagreement with the available structural data.

  17. The plant-specific CDKB1-CYCB1 complex mediates homologous recombination repair in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Annika K; Biedermann, Sascha; Harashima, Hirofumi; Roodbarkelari, Farshad; Takahashi, Naoki; Foreman, Julia; Guan, Yonsheng; Pochon, Gaëtan; Heese, Maren; Van Damme, Daniël; Sugimoto, Keiko; Koncz, Csaba; Doerner, Peter; Umeda, Masaaki; Schnittger, Arp

    2016-10-04

    Upon DNA damage, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are typically inhibited to block cell division. In many organisms, however, it has been found that CDK activity is required for DNA repair, especially for homology-dependent repair (HR), resulting in the conundrum how mitotic arrest and repair can be reconciled. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana solves this dilemma by a division of labor strategy. We identify the plant-specific B1-type CDKs (CDKB1s) and the class of B1-type cyclins (CYCB1s) as major regulators of HR in plants. We find that RADIATION SENSITIVE 51 (RAD51), a core mediator of HR, is a substrate of CDKB1-CYCB1 complexes. Conversely, mutants in CDKB1 and CYCB1 fail to recruit RAD51 to damaged DNA CYCB1;1 is specifically activated after DNA damage and we show that this activation is directly controlled by SUPPRESSOR OF GAMMA RESPONSE 1 (SOG1), a transcription factor that acts similarly to p53 in animals. Thus, while the major mitotic cell-cycle activity is blocked after DNA damage, CDKB1-CYCB1 complexes are specifically activated to mediate HR. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  18. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome in Control of Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jefri Heyman; Lieven De Veylder

    2012-01-01

    Temporal controlled degradation of key cell division proteins ensures a correct onset of the different cell cycle phases and exit from the cell division program.In light of the cell cycle,the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is an important conserved multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase,marking targets for degradation by the 26S proteasome.However,whereas the APC/C has been studied extensively in yeast and mammals,only in the last decade has the plant APC/C started to unveil its secrets.Research results have shown the importance of the APC/C core complex and its activators during gametogenesis,growth,hormone signaling,symbiotic interactions,and endoreduplication onset.In addition,recently,the first plant APC/C inhibitors have been reported,allowing a fine-tuning of APC/C activity during the cell cycle.Together with the identification of the first APC/C targets,a picture emerges of APC/C activity being essential for many different developmental processes.

  19. Overview of the ITER Tokamak complex building and integration of plant systems toward construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: jean-jacques.cordier@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bak, Joo-Shik [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Baudry, Alain [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Benchikhoune, Magali [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Carafa, Leontin; Chiocchio, Stefano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Darbour, Romaric [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Elbez, Joelle; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Jeannoutot, Thomas; Kotamaki, Miikka; Kuehn, Ingo; Lee, Andreas; Levesy, Bruno; Orlandi, Sergio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Packer, Rachel [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Patisson, Laurent; Reich, Jens; Rigoni, Giuliano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Tokamak complex consists of Tokamak, diagnostic and tritium buildings. The Tokamak machine is located in the bioshield pit of the Tokamak building. Plant systems are implemented in the three buildings and are strongly interfacing with the Tokamak. The reference baseline (3D) configuration is a set of over 1000 models that today defines in an exhaustive way the overall layout of Tokamak and plant systems, needed for fixing the interfaces and to complete the construction design of the buildings. During the last two years, one of the main ITER challenges was to improve the maturity of the plant systems layout in order to confirm their integration in the building final design and freeze the interface definitions in-between the systems and to the buildings. The propagation of safety requirements in the design of the nuclear building like confinement, fire zoning and radiation shielding is of first priority. A major effort was placed by ITER Organization together with the European Domestic Agency (F4E) and the Architect Engineer as a joint team to fix the interfaces and the loading conditions to buildings. The most demanding systems in terms of interface definition are water cooling, cryogenic, detritiation, vacuum, cable trays and building services. All penetrations through the walls for piping, cables and other equipment have been defined, as well as all temporary openings needed for the installation phase. Project change requests (PCR) impacting the Tokamak complex buildings have been implemented in a tight allocated time schedule. The most demanding change was to implement a new design of the Tokamak basic machine supporting system. The 18 supporting columns of the cryostat (2001 baseline) were replaced at the end of 2012 by a concrete crown and radial concrete ribs linked to the basemat and to the bioshield surrounding the Tokamak. The change was implemented successfully in the building construction design to allow basemat construction phase being performed

  20. Synthesis of inositol phosphate ligands of plant hormone-receptor complexes: pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, David E; Parmar, Paroo N; Caddick, Samuel E K; Green, Porntip; Brearley, Charles A

    2012-06-15

    Reduction of phytate is a major goal of plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional quality of crops. Remarkably, except for the storage organs of crops such as barley, maize and soybean, we know little of the stereoisomeric composition of inositol phosphates in plant tissues. To investigate the metabolic origins of higher inositol phosphates in photosynthetic tissues, we have radiolabelled leaf tissue of Solanum tuberosum with myo-[2-3H]inositol, undertaken a detailed analysis of inositol phosphate stereoisomerism and permeabilized mesophyll protoplasts in media containing inositol phosphates. We describe the inositol phosphate composition of leaf tissue and identify pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism that we reveal to be common to other kingdoms. Our results identify the metabolic origins of a number of higher inositol phosphates including ones that are precursors of cofactors, or cofactors of plant hormone-receptor complexes. The present study affords alternative explanations of the effects of disruption of inositol phosphate metabolism reported in other species, and identifies different inositol phosphates from that described in photosynthetic tissue of the monocot Spirodela polyrhiza. We define the pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover and shed light on the occurrence of a number of inositol phosphates identified in animals, for which metabolic origins have not been defined.

  1. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  2. RNA-Directed DNA Methylation: The Evolution of a Complex Epigenetic Pathway in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Marjori A; Kanno, Tatsuo; Matzke, Antonius J M

    2015-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an epigenetic process in plants that involves both short and long noncoding RNAs. The generation of these RNAs and the induction of RdDM rely on complex transcriptional machineries comprising two plant-specific, RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-related RNA polymerases known as Pol IV and Pol V, as well as a host of auxiliary factors that include both novel and refashioned proteins. We present current views on the mechanism of RdDM with a focus on evolutionary innovations that occurred during the transition from a Pol II transcriptional pathway, which produces mRNA precursors and numerous noncoding RNAs, to the Pol IV and Pol V pathways, which are specialized for RdDM and gene silencing. We describe recently recognized deviations from the canonical RdDM pathway, discuss unresolved issues, and speculate on the biological significance of RdDM for flowering plants, which have a highly developed Pol V pathway.

  3. Big Roles of Small Kinases:The Complex Functions of Receptor-Like Cytoplasmic Kinases in Plant Immunity and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenwei Lin; Xiyu Ma; Libo Shan; Ping He

    2013-01-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) that often functionally and physically associate with receptor-like kinases (RLKs) to modulate plant growth, development and immune responses. Without any apparent extracellular domain, RLCKs relay intracellular signaling often via RLK complex-mediated transphosphorylation events. Recent advances have suggested essential roles of diverse RLCKs in concert with RLKs in regulating various cellular and physiological responses. We summarize here the complex roles of RLCKs in mediating plant immune responses and growth regulation, and discuss specific and overlapping functions of RLCKs in transducing diverse signaling pathways.

  4. Mechanisms of energy transfer and conversion in plant Light-Harvesting Complex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Tiago Ferreira de

    2009-09-24

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is the major antenna complex in plant photosynthesis. It accounts for roughly 30% of the total protein in plant chloroplasts, which makes it arguably the most abundant membrane protein on Earth, and binds about half of plant chlorophyll (Chl). The complex assembles as a trimer in the thylakoid membrane and binds a total of 54 pigment molecules, including 24 Chl a, 18 Chl b, 6 lutein (Lut), 3 neoxanthin (Neo) and 3 violaxanthin (Vio). LHC-II has five key roles in plant photosynthesis. It: (1) harvests sunlight and transmits excitation energy to the reaction centres of photosystems II and I, (2) regulates the amount of excitation energy reaching each of the two photosystems, (3) has a structural role in the architecture of the photosynthetic supercomplexes, (4) contributes to the tight appression of thylakoid membranes in chloroplast grana, and (5) protects the photosynthetic apparatus from photo damage by non photochemical quenching (NPQ). A major fraction of NPQ is accounted for its energy-dependent component qE. Despite being critical for plant survival and having been studied for decades, the exact details of how excess absorbed light energy is dissipated under qE conditions remain enigmatic. Today it is accepted that qE is regulated by the magnitude of the pH gradient ({delta}pH) across the thylakoid membrane. It is also well documented that the drop in pH in the thylakoid lumen during high-light conditions activates the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which converts the carotenoid Vio into zeaxanthin (Zea) as part of the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, studies with Arabidopsis mutants revealed that the photosystem II subunit PsbS is necessary for qE. How these physiological responses switch LHC-II from the active, energy transmitting to the quenched, energy-dissipating state, in which the solar energy is not transmitted to the photosystems but instead dissipated as heat, remains unclear and is the

  5. Study on complexity of plant communities at different altitudes on the Northern Slope of Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By the method of gradient pattern analysis, twenty plots were set at altitudes of 700-2600 m with an interval of 100 m on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain. The dissimilarity of respective sub-plots in the same community was measured and the complexity of plant communities at different altitudes was analyzed. The result from binary data of tree species in canopy tree indicated that the sub-plots in the communities, except subalpine Betula ermanii forest, showed comparatively high dissimilarity in species composition. Especially, the dissimilarity index (0.7) of broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was obviously higher than other communities. The differences are not obvious between communities referring to dark coniferous forest. Comparatively, the dissimilarity in sub-plots of the communities at altitude of 1400 m was slightly higher than that of other communities, which reflected the complexity of tree species compositions of transitory-type communities. For subalpine Betula ermanii forest, tree species composition was simple and showed a high similarity between sub-plots. The results derived from binary data of shrub showed that the dissimilarity index of shrub species in broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was higher than that in other communities, but the divergence tendency wasn't so obvious as that of arbor species. The dissimilarity derived from binary data of herb and all plant species at different altitudes showed greatly close tendency, and the differences in herb and all plant species between sub-plots were the greatest for the communities of broad-leaved-Korean pine forest and alpine tundra zone.

  6. Energy Transfer Pathways in the CP24 and CP26 Antenna Complexes of Higher Plant Photosystem II : A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Alessandro; Passarini, Francesca; Croce, Roberta; van Grondelle, Rienk; Brown, Leonid S.

    2010-01-01

    Antenna complexes are key components of plant photosynthesis, the process that converts sunlight, CO(2), and water into oxygen and sugars. We report the first (to our knowledge) femtosecond transient absorption study on the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes CP26 (Lhcb5) and CP24 (Lhcb6) of

  7. Complex Outcomes from Insect and Weed Control with Transgenic Plants: Ecological Surprises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bøhn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is fundamental for human survival through food production and is performed in ecosystems that, while simplified, still operate along ecological principles and retain complexity. Agricultural plants are thus part of ecological systems, and interact in complex ways with the surrounding terrestrial, soil, and aquatic habitats. We discuss three case studies that demonstrate how agricultural solutions to pest and weed control, if they overlook important ecological and evolutionary factors, cause “surprises”: (i the fast emergence of resistance against the crop-inserted Bt-toxin in South Africa, (ii the ecological changes generated by Bt-cotton landscapes in China, and (iii the decline of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, in North America. The recognition that we work with complex systems is in itself important, as it should limit the belief in reductionist solutions. Agricultural practices lacking eco-evolutionary understanding result in “surprises” like resistance evolution both in weeds and pest insects, risking the reappearance of the “pesticide treadmill”—with increased use of toxic pesticides as the follow-up. We recommend prioritization of research that counteracts the tendencies of reductionist approaches. These may be beneficial on a short term, but with trade-off costs on a medium- to long-term. Such costs include loss of biodiversity, ecosystem services, long-term soil productivity, pollution, and reduced food quality.

  8. 植物exocyst复合体的功能%Functions of the exocyst complex in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雅君; 高志勇

    2016-01-01

    Exocyst是广泛存在于酵母及动植物中的一种八蛋白复合体,它最先是在酵母中被发现的,之后人们在植物中也发现了该复合体,并探究了它在植物细胞的功能。由于exocyst中的EXO70亚基在植物中数量很多,所以很有可能不同的EXO70亚基会组成不同的exocyst复合体,各exocyst在植物体内有着不同的功能。本文主要介绍exocyst各亚基间的相互作用、各亚基与其他因子间的相互作用,并详细阐述迄今为止发现的exocyst的各种功能:即其在非常规蛋白分泌、病原体防御、植物细胞壁的形成、细胞极化以及内膜运输中的作用。%Eight proteins consist of the exocyst complex. In general, this complex exists in yeast, animals and plants. People ifrstly discovered the complex in yeast. A few years later, the exocyst was also found in land plants and known to have several functions. Considering the great number of the EXO70 subunit gene family, we think that each EXO70 subunit can compose different exocyst complexes, and there are specialized func-tions of different exocysts with different EXO70s. In this review, we introduce the interactions between the exocyst subunits and elaborate the functions of exocyst which researchers have discovered till now. These func-tions include their roles in unconventional protein secretion, pathogen resistance, cell wall formation, cell polar-ization and autophagy-related transporting.

  9. Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.

  10. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyle Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, S.; Fomin, V. V.

    2002-02-26

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3).

  11. Crystal structures of multidrug binding protein TtgR in complex with antibiotics and plant antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguel, Yilmaz; Meng, Cuixiang; Terán, Wilson; Krell, Tino; Ramos, Juan L; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2007-06-08

    Antibiotic resistance is a widely spread phenomenon. One major mechanism that underlies antibiotic resistance in bacteria is the active extrusion of toxic compounds through the membrane-bound efflux pumps that are often regulated at the transcriptional level. TtgR represses the transcription of TtgABC, a key efflux pump in Pseudomonas putida, which is highly resistant to antibiotics, solvents and toxic plant secondary products. Previously we showed that TtgR is the only reported repressor that binds to different classes of natural antimicrobial compounds, which are also extruded by the efflux pump. We report here five high-resolution crystal structures of TtgR from the solvent-tolerant strain DOT-T1E, including TtgR in complex with common antibiotics and plant secondary metabolites. We provide structural basis for the unique ligand binding properties of TtgR. We identify two distinct and overlapping ligand binding sites; the first one is broader and consists of mainly hydrophobic residues, whereas the second one is deeper and contains more polar residues including Arg176, a unique residue present in the DOT-T1E strain but not in other Pseudomonas strains. Phloretin, a plant antimicrobial, can bind to both binding sites with distinct binding affinities and stoichiometries. Results on ligand binding properties of native and mutant TtgR proteins using isothermal titration calorimetry confirm the binding affinities and stoichiometries, and suggest a potential positive cooperativity between the two binding sites. The importance of Arg176 in phloretin binding was further confirmed by the reduced ability of phloretin in releasing the mutant TtgR from bound DNA compared to the native protein. The results presented here highlight the importance and versatility of regulatory systems in bacterial antibiotic resistance and open up new avenues for novel antimicrobial development.

  12. The effect of humic acids and their complexes with iron on the functional status of plants grown under iron deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abros'kin, D. P.; Fuentes, M.; Garcia-Mina, J. M.; Klyain, O. I.; Senik, S. V.; Volkov, D. S.; Perminova, I. V.; Kulikova, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of humic acids (HAs) and their iron complexes (Fe-HAs) on the input of the main mineral elements into wheat seedlings, as well as on the efficiency of photosynthesis and the lipid profile of plants, under iron deficiency has been studied. The input of iron from Fe-HA complexes and its predominant accumulation in roots are demonstrated. It is found that HAs increase the efficiency of photosynthesis due to enhanced electron transport in photosystem II. It is shown that the application of HAs and Fe-HAs is accompanied by an enhanced input of Zn into plants, which could increase the antioxidant status of plants under iron deficiency conditions. In addition, a pronounced increase in the content of lipids in plants is revealed, which is indicative of the effect of HAs on plant metabolism. The obtained results suggest that the positive effect of Fe-HAs and HAs on plants under iron deficiency conditions is due to a combination of factors, among which the effect of HAs on the antioxidant status of plants and the plant lipid metabolism predominates.

  13. Dynamics of zoomicrobial complexes upon decomposition of plant litter in spruce forests of the southern taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhleeva, A. A.; Semenova, T. A.; Striganova, B. R.; Terekhova, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies of the composition and abundance of soil-dwelling invertebrates (microarthropods, nematodes, and testate amoebas) and micromycetes in the course of leaf and needle litter decomposition were conducted in two types of spruce forests on white-podzolic and brown forest soils in a field experiment. The analysis of the destruction dynamics has revealed a correlation between the rate of the litter mass loss and the abundance of microarthropods and testate amoebas in the decomposing plant residues. The highest amplitude of the seasonal fluctuations in the number of invertebrates was found for the micromycetes and nematodes as compared to that for the testate amoebas and microarthropods. In the complexes of micromycetes and invertebrates, changes in the dominants were revealed at the different stages of the decomposition. The litter's composition was found to be the main factor affecting the composition and abundance of the zoomicrobial complex of the destroyers. The type of biogeocenosis less influenced the abundance of pedobionts, but it determined their taxonomic composition to a greater extent. A significant inverse correlation was revealed between the number of micromycetes and that of small soil invertebrates.

  14. Morphological characterisation of complex powder used for protective coatings for geothermal plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaki, I.; Karlsdottir, S. N.; Buzaianu, A.; Serghiuta, S.; Popescu, G.; Motoiu, V. A.; Ragnarstottir, K. R.; Guðlaugsson, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to review the morphological characteristics, microstructures, physical and chemical properties of two complex composite powders: Ni18Cr5Si2B and Ni21Cr11Al2.5Y. These powders will be used as an option for coating geothermal turbine blades to prevent corrosion. The corrosion process in the steam turbine results in damages being recognized as the leading cause of reduced availability in geothermal power plants and is depends on temperature, mechanical and vaporous carryover of impurities and water treatment. Thermal spraying is a suitable technique for coating layers with wear and corrosion resistance. Therefore this technique could be successfully used in geothermal applications for obtaining coatings layers from new complex composite powders protecting the turbine blades from corrosions and good control of steam chemistry. The composite powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction and electronic microscopy to provide detailed information about composites morphological modifications. The results obtained after morphological evaluation are encouraging for using these composite powders as an option for coating geothermal components using thermal spraying technique.

  15. Complexation of Hg with phytochelatins is important for plant Hg tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Millán, Rocío; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Leduc, Danika L; Andrews, Joy C; Abadía, Javier; Hernández, Luís E

    2011-05-01

    Three-week-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and maize (Zea mays) were exposed for 7 d to 30 µm of mercury (HgCl(2) ) to characterize the Hg speciation in root, with no symptoms of being poisoned. The largest pool (99%) was associated with the particulate fraction, whereas the soluble fraction (SF) accounted for a minor proportion (phytochelatins (PCs) in root SF, which was particularly varied in alfalfa (eight ligands and five stoichiometries), a species that also accumulated homophytochelatins. Spatial localization of Hg in alfalfa roots by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy showed that most of the Hg co-localized with sulphur in the vascular cylinder. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fingerprint fitting revealed that Hg was bound in vivo to organic-S compounds, i.e. biomolecules containing cysteine. Albeit a minor proportion of total Hg, Hg-PCs complexes in the SF might be important for tolerance to Hg, as was found with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants cad2-1 (with low glutathione content) and cad1-3 (unable to synthesize PCs) in comparison with wild type plants. Interestingly, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight analysis showed that none of these mutants accumulated Hg-biothiol complexes.

  16. Evaluation of Coal Gasification/Combined Cycle Power Plant Feasibility at the Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of installing a coal gasification /combined cycle cogeneration plant at Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk...fired cogeneration cycles. The utility interface, site considerations and economic analyses are also presented. The study includes that a coal ... gasification /combined cycle cogeneration plant supplying 50 MW of electric power and 290,000 lb/hr of steam is technically feasible. (Author)

  17. Evaluation of Coal Gasification/Combined Cycle Power Plant Feasibility at the Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk, Virginia. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of installing a coal gasification /combined cycle cogeneration plant at Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk...fired cogeneration cycles. The utility interface, site considerations and economic analyses are also presented. The study concludes that a coal ... gasification /combined cycle cogeneration plant supplying 50 MW of electric power and 290,000 lb/hr of steam is technically feasible. (Author)

  18. Plant structural complexity and mechanical defenses mediate predator-prey interactions in an odonate-bird system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grof-Tisza, Patrick; LoPresti, Eric; Heath, Sacha K; Karban, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Habitat-forming species provide refuges for a variety of associating species; these refuges may mediate interactions between species differently depending on the functional traits of the habitat-forming species. We investigated refuge provisioning by plants with different functional traits for dragonfly and damselfly (Odonata: Anisoptera and Zygoptera) nymphs emerging from water bodies to molt into their adult stage. During this period, nymphs experience high levels of predation by birds. On the shores of a small pond, plants with mechanical defenses (e.g., thorns and prickles) and high structural complexity had higher abundances of odonate exuviae than nearby plants which lacked mechanical defenses and exhibited low structural complexity. To disentangle the relative effects of these two potentially important functional traits on nymph emergence-site preference and survival, we conducted two fully crossed factorial field experiments using artificial plants. Nymphs showed a strong preference for artificial plants with high structural complexity and to a lesser extent, mechanical defenses. Both functional traits increased nymph survival but through different mechanisms. We suggest that future investigations attempt to experimentally separate the elements contributing to structural complexity to elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of refuge provisioning.

  19. Advances in biotechnology and linking outputs to variation in complex traits: Plant and Animal Genome meeting January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, R; Barrero, R; Bellgard, M

    2012-03-01

    The Plant and Animal Genome (PAG, held annually) meeting in January 2012 provided insights into the advances in plant, animal, and microbe genome studies particularly as they impact on our understanding of complex biological systems. The diverse areas of biology covered included the advances in technologies, variation in complex traits, genome change in evolution, and targeting phenotypic changes, across the broad spectrum of life forms. This overview aims to summarize the major advances in research areas presented in the plenary lectures and does not attempt to summarize the diverse research activities covered throughout the PAG in workshops, posters, presentations, and displays by suppliers of cutting-edge technologies.

  20. Composition of the SAGA complex in plants and its role in controlling gene expression in response to abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eMoraga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein complexes involved in epigenetic regulation of transcription have evolved as molecular strategies to face environmental stress in plants. SAGA (Spt–Ada–Gcn5 Acetyltransferase is a transcriptional co-activator complex that regulates numerous cellular processes through the coordination of multiple post-translational histone modifications, including acetylation, deubiquitination, and chromatin recognition. The diverse functions of the SAGA complex involve distinct modules that are highly conserved between yeast, flies, and mammals. In this review, the composition of the SAGA complex in plants is described and its role in gene expression regulation under stress conditions summarized. Some of these proteins are likely involved in the regulation of the inducible expression of genes under light, cold, drought, salt, and iron stress, although the functions of several of its components remain unknown.

  1. Plant host and sugar alcohol induced exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, S Josefin; Brown, Alan R; Mewburn, Ben R; Clarke, David J; Fry, Stephen C; Campopiano, Dominic J; Govan, John R W

    2008-08-01

    The species that presently constitute the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have multiple roles; they include soil and water saprophytes, bioremediators, and plant, animal and human pathogens. Since the first description of pathogenicity in the Bcc was based on sour skin rot of onion bulbs, this study returned to this plant host to investigate the onion-associated phenotype of the Bcc. Many Bcc isolates, which were previously considered to be non-mucoid, produced copious amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) when onion tissue was provided as the sole nutrient. EPS production was not species-specific, was observed in isolates from both clinical and environmental sources, and did not correlate with the ability to cause maceration of onion tissue. Chemical analysis suggested that the onion components responsible for EPS induction were primarily the carbohydrates sucrose, fructose and fructans. Additional sugars were investigated, and all alcohol sugars tested were able to induce EPS production, in particular mannitol and glucitol. To investigate the molecular basis for EPS biosynthesis, we focused on the highly conserved bce gene cluster thought to be involved in cepacian biosynthesis. We demonstrated induction of the bce gene cluster by mannitol, and found a clear correlation between the inability of representatives of the Burkholderia cenocepacia ET12 lineage to produce EPS and the presence of an 11 bp deletion within the bceB gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase. Insertional inactivation of bceB in Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD results in loss of EPS production on sugar alcohol media. These novel and surprising insights into EPS biosynthesis highlight the metabolic potential of the Bcc and show that a potential virulence factor may not be detected by routine laboratory culture. Our results also highlight a potential hazard in the use of inhaled mannitol as an osmolyte to improve mucociliary clearance in individuals with cystic fibrosis.

  2. Dynamics of the active site architecture in plant-type ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductases catalytic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Azqueta, Ana; Catalano-Dupuy, Daniela L; López-Rivero, Arleth; Tondo, María Laura; Orellano, Elena G; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Medina, Milagros

    2014-10-01

    Kinetic isotope effects in reactions involving hydride transfer and their temperature dependence are powerful tools to explore dynamics of enzyme catalytic sites. In plant-type ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductases the FAD cofactor exchanges a hydride with the NADP(H) coenzyme. Rates for these processes are considerably faster for the plastidic members (FNR) of the family than for those belonging to the bacterial class (FPR). Hydride transfer (HT) and deuteride transfer (DT) rates for the NADP(+) coenzyme reduction of four plant-type FNRs (two representatives of the plastidic type FNRs and the other two from the bacterial class), and their temperature dependences are here examined applying a full tunnelling model with coupled environmental fluctuations. Parameters for the two plastidic FNRs confirm a tunnelling reaction with active dynamics contributions, but isotope effects on Arrhenius factors indicate a larger contribution for donor-acceptor distance (DAD) dynamics in the Pisum sativum FNR reaction than in the Anabaena FNR reaction. On the other hand, parameters for bacterial FPRs are consistent with passive environmental reorganisation movements dominating the HT coordinate and no contribution of DAD sampling or gating fluctuations. This indicates that active sites of FPRs are more organised and rigid than those of FNRs. These differences must be due to adaptation of the active sites and catalytic mechanisms to fulfil their particular metabolic roles, establishing a compromise between protein flexibility and functional optimisation. Analysis of site-directed mutants in plastidic enzymes additionally indicates the requirement of a minimal optimal architecture in the catalytic complex to provide a favourable gating contribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Host plant secondary metabolite profiling shows a complex, strain-dependent response of maize to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vincent; Bertrand, Cédric; Bellvert, Floriant; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Bally, René; Comte, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Most Azospirillum plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) benefit plant growth through source effects related to free nitrogen fixation and/or phytohormone production, but little is known about their potential effects on plant physiology. These effects were assessed by comparing the early impacts of three Azospirillum inoculant strains on secondary metabolite profiles of two different maize (Zea mays) cultivars. After 10d of growth in nonsterile soil, maize methanolic extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and secondary metabolites identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Seed inoculation resulted in increased shoot biomass (and also root biomass with one strain) of hybrid PR37Y15 but had no stimulatory effect on hybrid DK315. In parallel, Azospirillum inoculation led to major qualitative and quantitative modifications of the contents of secondary metabolites, especially benzoxazinoids, in the maize plants. These modifications depended on the PGPR strain×plant cultivar combination. Thus, Azospirillum inoculation resulted in early, strain-dependent modifications in the biosynthetic pathways of benzoxazine derivatives in maize in compatible interactions. This is the first study documenting a PGPR effect on plant secondary metabolite profiles, and suggests the establishment of complex interactions between Azospirillum PGPR and maize. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  4. Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA) Complex in Plants: Genome Wide Identification, Evolutionary Conservation and Functional Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rakesh; Rai, Krishan Mohan; Pandey, Bindu; Singh, Sudhir P.; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of RNA polymerase II on a promoter is assisted by the assembly of basal transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes. The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex plays an important role in transcription regulation in eukaryotes. However, even in the advent of genome sequencing of various plants, SAGA complex has been poorly defined for their components and roles in plant development and physiological functions. Computational analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa genomes for SAGA complex resulted in the identification of 17 to 18 potential candidates for SAGA subunits. We have further classified the SAGA complex based on the conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SAGA complex proteins are evolutionary conserved between plants, yeast and mammals. Functional annotation showed that they participate not only in chromatin remodeling and gene regulation, but also in different biological processes, which could be indirect and possibly mediated via the regulation of gene expression. The in silico expression analysis of the SAGA components in Arabidopsis and O. sativa clearly indicates that its components have a distinct expression profile at different developmental stages. The co-expression analysis of the SAGA components suggests that many of these subunits co-express at different developmental stages, during hormonal interaction and in response to stress conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of SAGA component genes further confirmed their expression in different plant tissues and stresses. The expression of representative salt, heat and light inducible genes were affected in mutant lines of SAGA subunits in Arabidopsis. Altogether, the present study reveals expedient evidences of involvement of the SAGA complex in plant gene regulation and stress responses. PMID:26263547

  5. Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA Complex in Plants: Genome Wide Identification, Evolutionary Conservation and Functional Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Srivastava

    Full Text Available The recruitment of RNA polymerase II on a promoter is assisted by the assembly of basal transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes. The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex plays an important role in transcription regulation in eukaryotes. However, even in the advent of genome sequencing of various plants, SAGA complex has been poorly defined for their components and roles in plant development and physiological functions. Computational analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa genomes for SAGA complex resulted in the identification of 17 to 18 potential candidates for SAGA subunits. We have further classified the SAGA complex based on the conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SAGA complex proteins are evolutionary conserved between plants, yeast and mammals. Functional annotation showed that they participate not only in chromatin remodeling and gene regulation, but also in different biological processes, which could be indirect and possibly mediated via the regulation of gene expression. The in silico expression analysis of the SAGA components in Arabidopsis and O. sativa clearly indicates that its components have a distinct expression profile at different developmental stages. The co-expression analysis of the SAGA components suggests that many of these subunits co-express at different developmental stages, during hormonal interaction and in response to stress conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of SAGA component genes further confirmed their expression in different plant tissues and stresses. The expression of representative salt, heat and light inducible genes were affected in mutant lines of SAGA subunits in Arabidopsis. Altogether, the present study reveals expedient evidences of involvement of the SAGA complex in plant gene regulation and stress responses.

  6. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-23

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  7. Genome size as a key to evolutionary complex aquatic plants: polyploidy and hybridization in Callitriche (Plantaginaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Prančl

    Full Text Available Despite their complex evolutionary histories, aquatic plants are highly underrepresented in contemporary biosystematic studies. Of them, the genus Callitriche is particularly interesting because of such evolutionary features as wide variation in chromosome numbers and pollination systems. However, taxonomic difficulties have prevented broader investigation of this genus. In this study we applied flow cytometry to Callitriche for the first time in order to gain an insight into evolutionary processes and genome size differentiation in the genus. Flow cytometry complemented by confirmation of chromosome counts was applied to an extensive dataset of 1077 Callitriche individuals from 495 localities in 11 European countries and the USA. Genome size was determined for 12 taxa. The results suggest that many important processes have interacted in the evolution of the genus, including polyploidization and hybridization. Incongruence between genome size and ploidy level, intraspecific variation in genome size, formation of autotriploid and hybridization between species with different pollination systems were also detected. Hybridization takes place particularly in the diploid-tetraploid complex C. cophocarpa-C. platycarpa, for which the triploid hybrids were frequently recorded in the area of co-occurrence of its parents. A hitherto unknown hybrid (probably C. hamulata × C. cophocarpa with a unique chromosome number was discovered in the Czech Republic. However, hybridization occurs very rarely among most of the studied species. The main ecological preferences were also compared among the taxa collected. Although Callitriche taxa often grow in mixed populations, the ecological preferences of individual species are distinctly different in some cases. Anyway, flow cytometry is a very efficient method for taxonomic delimitation, determination and investigation of Callitriche species, and is even able to distinguish homoploid taxa and identify introduced

  8. Structural studies of complex carbohydrates of plant cell walls. Progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains the abstracts of fourteen papers published, in press, or in preparation reporting on research activities to investigate the structure, as well as the function of cell walls in plants. This document also contains research on methods to determine the structure of complex carbohydrates of the cell walls.

  9. Comparison of zinc complexation properties of dissolved organic matter from surface waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Tao

    2005-01-01

    Unlike natural organic matter(NOM), wastewater organic matter(WWOM) from wastewater treatment plant effluents has not been extensively studied with respect to complexation reactions with heavy metals such as copper or zinc. In this study, organic matter from surface waters and a wastewater treatment plant effluent were concentrated by reverse osmosis(RO) method. The samples were treated in the laboratory to remove trace metals and major cations. The zinc complexing properties of both NOM and the WWOM were studied by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry(SWASV). Experimental data were compared to predictions using the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model(WHAM) Version VI. We found that the zinc binding of WWOM was much stronger than that of NOM and not well predicted by WHAM. This suggests that in natural water bodies that receive wastewater treatment plant effluents the ratio of WWOM to NOM must be taken into account in order to accurately predict free zinc activities.

  10. How to solve complex problems in foundry plants - future of casting simulation -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnaka, I.

    2015-06-01

    Although the computer simulation of casting has progressed dramatically over the last decades, there are still many challenges and problems. This paper discusses how to solve complex engineering problems in foundry plants and what we should do in the future, in particular, for casting simulation. First, problem solving procedures including application of computer simulation are demonstrated and various difficulties are pointed-out exemplifying mainly porosity defects in sand castings of spheroidal graphite cast irons. Next, looking back conventional scientific and engineering research to understand casting phenomena, challenges and problems are discussed from problem solving view point, followed by discussion on the issues we should challenge such as how to integrate huge amount of dispersed knowledge in various disciplines, differentiation of science-oriented and engineering-oriented models, professional ethics, how to handle fluctuating materials, initial and boundary conditions, error accumulation, simulation codes as black-box, etc. Finally some suggestions are made on how to challenge the issues such as promotion of research on the simulation based on the science- oriented model and publication of reliable data of casting phenomena in complicated-shaped castings including reconsideration of the evaluation system.

  11. Heavy metal (Zn and Cu) complexation and molecular size distribution in wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminda, G G T; Nakajima, F; Furumai, H

    2008-01-01

    The size distributions of zinc and copper species in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant were determined by a combination of ultrafiltration and chelating disk cartridge fractionation. The results showed that 75-87% of total Zn and 84-86% of total Cu were strongly complexed or particle-bound in the final effluents. It was also found that the major part of Cu was bound to ligands in the < 500 Da fraction while the trend for Zn was not so clear and exhibited significant seasonal variability. Labile Cu and Zn were detected not only in the smallest fraction (< 500 Da) but also in the larger fractions. It meant that the labile species in the effluent were not equivalent to free metal ions. Conditional stability constants and ligand concentrations were also determined from the measured metal concentrations by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. Existence of two types of ligand for each metal was inferred from the experimental data. Conditional stability constant obtained for the stronger type Ligand of Zn was higher than that of Cu, although the estimated Ligand concentrations were almost similar.

  12. Multiple glacial refugia and complex postglacial range shifts of the obligatory woodland plant Polygonatum verticillatum (Convallariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, K; Huck, S; Niketić, M; Tomović, G; Schmitt, T

    2009-05-01

    The phylogeography of typical alpine plant species is well understood in Europe. However, the genetic patterns of boreo-montane species are mostly unstudied. Therefore, we analysed the AFLPs of 198 individuals of Polygonatum verticillatum over a major part of its European distribution. We obtained a total of 402 reproducible fragments, of which 96.8% were polymorphic. The average Phi(ST) over all samples was high (73.0%). The highest number of private fragments was observed in the Cantabrian Mountains; the highest genetic diversities of the populations were detected in populations from the Alps. BAPS, Principal Coordinates and Cluster analyses revealed a deep split between the Cantabrian population and all other samples. The latter further distinguished two major groups in western and eastern Europe. These results suggest a complex biogeographical history of P. verticillatum. The Cantabrian population was most probably isolated for the longest time. Furthermore, putative glacial survival centres might have existed in the western group around the glaciated Alps and in the eastern group in the foothills of the Carpathian and Balkan mountain systems. The origin of the Scandinavian populations is still unresolved, but an origin from the southeastern Alps or the western Balkans appears the most likely scenario.

  13. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Snyder, R.P. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Metabolic flux analysis in complex isotopolog space. Recycling of glucose in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenhuber, Christian; Radykewicz, Tanja; Kofer, Waltraud; Koop, Hans-Ulrich; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Tobacco plants grown in vitro were supplied with a mixture of [U-13C6]glucose and unlabelled sucrose via the root system. After 20 days, leaves were harvested and extracted with water. Glucose was isolated from the extract and was analysed by 13C NMR spectroscopy. All 13C signals appeared as complex multiplets due to 13C-13C coupling. The abundance of 21 isotopologous glucose species was determined from the 13C NMR signal integrals by numerical deconvolution using a genetic algorithm. The relative fractions of specific isotopologs in the overall excess of 13C-labelled specimens establish flux contributions via glycolysis/glucogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle and Calvin cycle including 13CO2 refixation. The fluxes were modelled and reconstructed in silico by a novel rule-based approach yielding the contributions of circular pathways and the degree of multiple cycling events. The data indicate that the vast majority of the proffered [U-13C6]glucose molecules had been modified by catabolism and subsequent glucogenesis from catabolic fragments, predominantly via passage through the citric acid cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway.

  15. Functional genomics tools applied to plant metabolism: a survey on plant respiration, its connections and the annotation of complex gene functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner L. Araújo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of post-genomic techniques in plant respiration studies has greatly improved our ability to assign functions to gene products. In addition it has also revealed previously unappreciated interactions between distal elements of metabolism. Such results have reinforced the need to consider plant respiratory metabolism as part of a complex network and making sense of such interactions will ultimately require the construction of predictive and mechanistic models. Transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and the quantification of metabolic flux will be of great value in creating such models both by facilitating the annotation of complex gene function, determining their structure and by furnishing the quantitative data required to test them. In this review we highlight how these experimental approaches have contributed to our current understanding of plant respiratory metabolism and its interplay with associated process (e.g. photosynthesis, photorespiration and nitrogen metabolism. We also discuss how data from these techniques may be integrated, with the ultimate aim of identifying mechanisms that control and regulate plant respiration and discovering novel gene functions with potential biotechnological implications.

  16. Rapid and sensitive hormonal profiling of complex plant samples by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Maren

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant hormones play a pivotal role in several physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence, and the determination of endogenous concentrations of hormones is essential to elucidate the role of a particular hormone in any physiological process. Availability of a sensitive and rapid method to quantify multiple classes of hormones simultaneously will greatly facilitate the investigation of signaling networks in controlling specific developmental pathways and physiological responses. Due to the presence of hormones at very low concentrations in plant tissues (10-9 M to 10-6 M and their different chemistries, the development of a high-throughput and comprehensive method for the determination of hormones is challenging. Results The present work reports a rapid, specific and sensitive method using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS to analyze quantitatively the major hormones found in plant tissues within six minutes, including auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxyic acid (the ethylene precursor, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Sample preparation, extraction procedures and UPLC-MS/MS conditions were optimized for the determination of all plant hormones and are summarized in a schematic extraction diagram for the analysis of small amounts of plant material without time-consuming additional steps such as purification, sample drying or re-suspension. Conclusions This new method is applicable to the analysis of dynamic changes in endogenous concentrations of hormones to study plant developmental processes or plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in complex tissues. An example is shown in which a hormone profiling is obtained from leaves of plants exposed to salt stress in the aromatic plant, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  17. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-01-12

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source.

  18. Distribution of lignin-carbohydrate complex in plant kingdom and its functionality as alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kushida, Tatsuya; Oizumi, Takaaki; Nakashima, Hideki; Makino, Toru

    2010-10-01

    Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) are major cell wall components formed by the dehydrogenation of three monolignols, p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. Diverse pharmacological activities of LCCs distributed into various plants were summarized. LCCs showed one order higher anti-HIV activity than tannins and flavonoids. Mechanism of anti-HIV activity induction includes the inhibition of HIV adsorption to and penetration into the cells, and inhibition of reverse transcriptase and protease. Limited digestion experiments demonstrated that a phenylpropenoid polymer, but not a sugar moiety, is important for anti-HIV activity. Dehydrogenation polymers of phenylpropenoids without carbohydrate showed higher anti-HIV activity, whereas phenylpropenoid monomers were inactive, suggesting the importance of highly polymerized structure. LCCs inhibited the plaque formation and RNA polymerase activity of influenza virus, and reduced the lethality of virus infection in mice. LCCs inhibited the plaque formation of HSV-1, and oral intake of LCC-vitamin C tablet reduced the symptoms in HSV-1-infected patients. LCCs stimulated the iodination of myeloperoxidase-positive human monocytes, neutrophiles and promyelocytic leukemia that may be involved in the bacterial killing mechanism. LCCs stimulated splenocyte proliferation, and showed both pro- and anti-inflammatory activity in activated macrophage. Preliminary DNA array analysis demonstrated the activation of the signal pathway of chemokine expression via TLR2. The molecular weight, solubility, sterilization method and association with other components during extraction step may produce diverse biological activity of LCCs. Broad and potent anti-viral activity and synergism with vitamin C suggest functionality of LCC as alternative medicine. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elucidation of structure-function relationships in plant major light-harvesting complex (LHC II) by nonlinear spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokstein, Heiko; Betke, Alexander; Krikunova, Maria; Teuchner, Klaus; Voigt, Bernd

    2012-03-01

    Conventional linear and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques are often not appropriate to elucidate specific pigment-pigment interactions in light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes (LHCs). Nonlinear (laser-) spectroscopic techniques, including nonlinear polarization spectroscopy in the frequency domain (NLPF) as well as step-wise (resonant) and simultaneous (non-resonant) two-photon excitation spectroscopies may be advantageous in this regard. Nonlinear spectroscopies have been used to elucidate substructure(s) of very complex spectra, including analyses of strong excitonic couplings between chlorophylls and of interactions between (bacterio)chlorophylls and "optically dark" states of carotenoids in LHCs, including the major antenna complex of higher plants, LHC II. This article shortly reviews our previous study and outlines perspectives regarding the application of selected nonlinear laser-spectroscopic techniques to disentangle structure-function relationships in LHCs and other pigment-protein complexes.

  20. Distributed Low-Complexity Controller for Wind Power Plant in Derated Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Madjidian, Daria; Spudic, Vedrana;

    2013-01-01

    We consider a wind power plant of megawatt wind turbines operating in derated mode. When operating in this mode, the wind power plant controller is free to distribute power set-points to the individual turbines, as long as the total power demand is met. In this work, we design a controller...

  1. Involvement of lipid-protein complexes in plant-microorganism interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blein Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about the environmental impact of modern agricultural have prompted research for alternate practices to pesticide treatments, notably using plant defense mechanisms. Thus, isolation and characterization of plant defense elicitors have been the main step of studies in many groups. Moreover, in the global concept of interactions between organisms and their environment, a major concern is to discriminate recognition between exogenous and endogenous signals, notably during pathogenic or allergenic interactions involving small proteins, such as elicitins or lipid transfer proteins (LTPs. Elicitins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP are both able to load and transfer lipidic molecules and share some structural and functional properties. While elicitins are known as elicitors of plant defense mechanisms, the biological function of LTPs is still an enigma. They are ubiquitous plant proteins able to load and transfer hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids or phospholipids. Among them, LTPs1 (type 1 lipid transfer proteins constitute a multigenic family of secreted plant lipid binding proteins that are constitutively expressed in specific tissues and/or induced in response to biotic and abiotic stress (for reviews [1-4]. Their biological function is still unknown, even if some data provide arguments for a role of these proteins in the assembly of extracellular hydrophobic polymers (i.e., cutin and suberin [2, 4] and/or in plant defense against fungal pathogens [1, 3]. Beside their involvement in plant defense, LTPs1 are also known to be pan-allergens of plant-derived foods [5]. Finally, the discovery of the sterol carrier-properties of elicitins has opened new perspectives dealing with the relationship between this function and the elicitor activity of these small cystein-rich proteins. Nevertheless, this elicitor activity is restrained to few plant species, and thus does not appear in accordance with a universal lipid transfer

  2. Sludge stabilization at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to operate two laboratory-size muffle furnaces in glovebox HC-21C, located in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The muffle furnaces would be used to stabilize chemically reactive sludges that contain approximately 25 kilograms (55 pounds) of plutonium by heating to approximately 500 to 1000{degrees}C (900 to 1800{degrees}F). The resulting stable powder, mostly plutonium oxide with impurities, would be stored in the PFP vaults. The presence of chemically reactive plutonium-bearing sludges in the process gloveboxes poses a risk to workers from radiation exposure and limits the availability of storage space for future plant cleanup. Therefore, there is a need to stabilize the material into a form suitable for long-term storage. This proposed action would be an interim action, which would take place prior to completion of an Environmental Impact Statement for the PFP which would evaluate stabilization of all plutonium-bearing materials and cleanout of the facility. However, only 10 percent of the total quantity of plutonium in reactive materials is in the sludges, so this action will not limit the choice of reasonable alternatives or prejudice the Record of Decision of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Environmental Impact Statement.

  3. Analysis of Complex Carbohydrate Composition in Plant Cell Wall Using Fourier Transformed Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim A

    2017-01-01

    Fourier transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a powerful tool for compositional analysis of plant cell walls (Acebes et al., Front Plant Sci 5:303, 2014; Badhan et al., Biotechnol Biofuels 7:1-15, 2014; Badhan et al., BioMed Res Int 2015: 562952, 2015; Roach et al., Plant Physiol 156:1351-1363, 2011). The infrared spectrum generates a fingerprint of a sample with absorption peaks corresponding to the frequency of vibrations between the bonds of the atoms making up the material. Here, we describe a method focused on the use of FTIR in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the composition of the plant cell wall. This method has been successfully used to study complex enzyme saccharification processes like rumen digestion to identify recalcitrant moieties in low-quality forage which resist rumen digestion (Badhan et al., BioMed Res Int 2015: 562952, 2015), as well as to characterize cell wall mutant lines or transgenic lines expressing exogenous hydrolases (Badhan et al., Biotechnol Biofuels 7:1-15, 2014; Roach et al., Plant Physiol 156:1351-1363, 2011). The FTIR method described here facilitates high-throughput identification of the major compositional differences across a large set of samples in a low cost and nondestructive manner.

  4. MODELING OF OPERATION MODES OF SHIP POWER PLANT OF COMBINED PROPULSION COMPLEX WITH CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Yushkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Designing of diagrams to optimize mathematic model of the ship power plant (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC for decreasing operational loss and increasing fuel efficiency with simultaneous load limiting on medium revolutions diesel generator (MRDG by criterion reducing of wear and increasing operation time between repairs. Methodology. After analyzing of ship power plant modes of CPC proposed diagrams to optimize mathematic model of the above mentioned complex. The model based on using of electronic controllers in automatic regulation and control systems for diesel and thruster which allow to actualize more complicated control algorithm with viewpoint of increasing working efficiency of ship power plant at normal and emergency modes. Results. Determined suitability of comparative computer modeling in MatLab Simulink for building of imitation model objects based on it block diagrams and mathematic descriptions. Actualized diagrams to optimize mathematic model of the ship’s power plant (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC with Azipod system in MatLab Simulink software package Ships_CPC for decreasing operational loss and increasing fuel efficiency with simultaneous load limiting on medium revolutions diesel generator (MRDG by criterion reducing of wear and increasing operation time between repairs. The function blocks of proposed complex are the main structural units which allow to investigate it normal and emergency modes. Originality. This model represents a set of functional blocks of the components SPP CPC, built on the principle of «input-output». For example, the function boxes outputs of PID-regulators of MRDG depends from set excitation voltage and rotating frequency that in turn depends from power-station load and respond that is a ship moving or dynamically positioning, and come on input (inputs of thruster rotating frequency PID-regulator models. Practical value. The results of researches planned to use in

  5. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  6. Advances in Multi-Sensor Scanning and Visualization of Complex Plants: the Utmost Case of a Reactor Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullo, J.-F.; Thibault, G.; Boucheny, C.

    2015-02-01

    In a context of increased maintenance operations and workers generational renewal, a nuclear owner and operator like Electricité de France (EDF) is interested in the scaling up of tools and methods of "as-built virtual reality" for larger buildings and wider audiences. However, acquisition and sharing of as-built data on a large scale (large and complex multi-floored buildings) challenge current scientific and technical capacities. In this paper, we first present a state of the art of scanning tools and methods for industrial plants with very complex architecture. Then, we introduce the inner characteristics of the multi-sensor scanning and visualization of the interior of the most complex building of a power plant: a nuclear reactor building. We introduce several developments that made possible a first complete survey of such a large building, from acquisition, processing and fusion of multiple data sources (3D laser scans, total-station survey, RGB panoramic, 2D floor plans, 3D CAD as-built models). In addition, we present the concepts of a smart application developed for the painless exploration of the whole dataset. The goal of this application is to help professionals, unfamiliar with the manipulation of such datasets, to take into account spatial constraints induced by the building complexity while preparing maintenance operations. Finally, we discuss the main feedbacks of this large experiment, the remaining issues for the generalization of such large scale surveys and the future technical and scientific challenges in the field of industrial "virtual reality".

  7. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  8. Designer labels for plant metabolism: statistical design of isotope labeling experiments for improved quantification of flux in complex plant metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargund, Shilpa; Sriram, Ganesh

    2013-01-27

    Metabolic fluxes are powerful indicators of cell physiology and can be estimated by isotope-assisted metabolic flux analysis (MFA). The complexity of the compartmented metabolic networks of plants has constrained the application of isotope-assisted MFA to them, principally because of poor identifiability of fluxes from the measured isotope labeling patterns. However, flux identifiability can be significantly improved by a priori design of isotope labeling experiments (ILEs). This computational design involves evaluating the effect of different isotope label and isotopomer measurement combinations on flux identifiability, and thereby identifying optimal labels and measurements toward evaluating the fluxes of interest with the highest confidence. This article reports ILE designs for two major, compartmented plant metabolic pathways - the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt. Together, these pathways represent common motifs in plant metabolism including duplication of pathways in different subcellular compartments, reversible reactions and cyclic carbon flow. To compare various ILE designs, we employed statistical A- and D-optimality criteria. Our computations showed that 1,2-(13)C Glc is a powerful and robust label for the plant PPPs, given currently popular isotopomer measurement techniques (single quadrupole mass spectrometry [MS] and 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR]). Further analysis revealed that this label can estimate several PPP fluxes better than the popular label 1-(13)C Glc. Furthermore, the concurrent measurement of the isotopomers of hexose and pentose moieties synthesized exclusively in the cytosol or the plastid compartments (measurable through intracellular glucose or sucrose, starch, RNA ribose and histidine) considerably improves the identifiability of PPP fluxes in the individual compartments. Additionally, MS-derived isotopomer measurements outperform NMR-derived measurements in identifying PPP fluxes. The

  9. alpha-mannosidase involved in turnover of plant complex type N-glycans in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Anowar; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we purified and characterized an alpha-mannosidase to homogeneity from mature red tomato fruits. Purified alpha-mannosidase (alpha-Man LE-1) gave two separate bands, of molecular masses of 70 kDa (L-subunit) and 47 kDa (S-subunit), on SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions. On the other hand, the molecular weight was estimated to be 230 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that alpha-Man LE-1 functions in a tetrameric structure in plant cells. The N-terminal sequence of the L-subunit and the S-subunit were determined to be L-Y-M-V-Y-M-T-K-Q-G- and X-X-L-E-Q/K-S-F-S-Y-Y respectively. When pyridylaminated N-glycans were used as substrates, alpha-Man LE-1 showed optimum activity at about pH 6 and at 40 degrees C, and the activity was completely inhibited by both swainsonine and 1-deoxy-mannojirimycin. alpha-Man LE-1 hydrolyzed the alpha-mannosidic linkages from both high-mannose type and plant complex type N-glycan, but preferred a truncated plant complex type structure to high-mannose type N-glycans bearing alpha1-2 mannosyl residues.

  10. Foraging decisions of bison for rapid energy gains can explain the relative risk to neighboring plants in complex swards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Sabrina; Fortin, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Herbivores commonly base their foraging decisions not only on the intrinsic characteristics of plants, but also on the attributes of neighboring species. Although herbivores commonly orient their food choices toward the maximization of energy intake, the impact of such choices on neighboring plants remains largely unexplored. We evaluated whether foraging decisions by herbivores aiming at a rapid intake of digestible energy could explain multiple neighboring effects in complex swards. Specifically, we assessed how spatial patterns of occurrence of Carex atherodes, a highly profitable sedge species, could control the risk of bison (Bison bison) herbivory for seven other plant species. The foraging behavior of 70 free-ranging bison was evaluated in their natural environment during summer, and then related to plant characteristics. We used this information to estimate the instantaneous intake rate of digestible energy at individual feeding stations. We found that neighbor contrast defense and associational susceptibility can both be explained by simple foraging rules of energy maximization. Energy gains were higher when C. atherodes was consumed while avoiding the species for which we detected neighbor contrast defense. The lower intake rate associated with their consumption was due to an increase in handling time caused by their small size relative to C. atherodes. Bison also had higher energy gains by consuming instead of avoiding the plant species that experienced associational susceptibility. Because most of these plants were at least as tall as C. atherodes, their presence increased the heterogeneity of the grazed stratum. Avoiding their consumption increased handling time thereby reducing the instantaneous rate of energy intake. Overall, we found that bison adjust their fine-scale foraging decisions to vertical and horizontal sward structures in a way that maximizes their energy intake rate. Energy maximization principles thus provide a valuable framework to

  11. Large capacity, multi-fuel, and high temperature working fluid heaters to optimize CSP plant cost, complexity and annual generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, J. H.; Viscuso, L.; Hellwig, U.; McIntyre, P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the potential to optimize high temperature fluid back-up systems for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants by investigating the cost impact of component capacity and the impact of using multiple fuels on annual generation. Until now back-up heaters have been limited to 20MWth capacity but larger units have been realised in other industries. Installing larger units yields economy-of-scale benefits through improved manufacturing, optimised transport, and minimized on-site installation work. Halving the number of back-up boilers can yield cost reduction of 23% while minimizing plant complexity and on-site construction risk. However, to achieve these benefits it is important to adapt the back-up heaters to the plant's requirements (load change, capacity, minimum load, etc.) and design for manufacture, transport and assembly. Despite the fact that biomass availability is decreasing with increasing direct normal irradiance (DNI), some biomass is available in areas suitable for CSP plants. The use of these biomass resources is beneficial to maximise annual renewable energy generation, substitute natural gas, and use locally/seasonally available biomass resources that may not be used otherwise. Even small biomass quantities of only 50,000 t/a can increase the capacity factor of a 50MWe parabolic trough plant with 7h thermal energy storage from 40 to 49%. This is a valuable increase and such a concept is suitable for new plants and retrofit applications. However, similar to the capacity optimisation of back-up heaters, various design criteria have to be considered to ensure a successful project.

  12. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  13. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF ECOSSE ENRICHED BIOHUMATES ON THE WORK OF A PHOTOSYNTHETIC COMPLEX OF RADISH PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisenko V. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we show the results of studying the influence of Ecoss enriched biogumat on the photosynthetic complex of radish plants. Seed treatment with humate allows plants to form more powerful root system and develop resistance to various diseases, they are less affected root and basal rot. Plants form a large leaf surface. In leaves we have increased chlorophyll content, they remain longer green, more intense and will accumulate in vegetation greater number of assimilant (carbohydrates, and ultimately increase the yield. More intensive work of the leaves apparatus also contributes to the reduction of nitrates in the production, which is especially important when growing vegetables, melons and potatoes. Humates have a positive impact on yields on soils of different fertility and the different value of the yield. This not only increases the yield of 3 - 5 kg/ha, but also increases the gluten content in grain of winter wheat by 3 - 4%. The application of humates has a high adaptability. Their use can be combined with seed treatment pesticides, spraying crops with pesticides, mineral fertilizers. Therefore, humates are widely spread not only in Russia but all over the world. We have studied the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids at leaf apparatus of radish plants, depending on the methods and doses of the processing with humic preparation

  14. RNase MRP RNA and RNase P activity in plants are associated with a Pop1p containing complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehan, Mario; Heubeck, Christian; Menzel, Nicolas; Seibel, Peter; Schön, Astrid

    2012-09-01

    RNase P processes the 5'-end of tRNAs. An essential catalytic RNA has been demonstrated in Bacteria, Archaea and the nuclei of most eukaryotes; an organism-specific number of proteins complement the holoenzyme. Nuclear RNase P from yeast and humans is well understood and contains an RNA, similar to the sister enzyme RNase MRP. In contrast, no protein subunits have yet been identified in the plant enzymes, and the presence of a nucleic acid in RNase P is still enigmatic. We have thus set out to identify and characterize the subunits of these enzymes in two plant model systems. Expression of the two known Arabidopsis MRP RNA genes in vivo was verified. The first wheat MRP RNA sequences are presented, leading to improved structure models for plant MRP RNAs. A novel mRNA encoding the central RNase P/MRP protein Pop1p was identified in Arabidopsis, suggesting the expression of distinct protein variants from this gene in vivo. Pop1p-specific antibodies precipitate RNase P activity and MRP RNAs from wheat extracts. Our results provide evidence that in plants, Pop1p is associated with MRP RNAs and with the catalytic subunit of RNase P, either separately or in a single large complex.

  15. Lipids and pigment-protein complexes of photosynthetic apparatus of Deschampsia antarctica Desv. plants under UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svietlova N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate structural and functional modifications of major components of photosynthetic membranes of endemic antarctic species D. antarctica under UV-B radiation. Methods. For quantitative determination of photosynthetic membrane components we used Arnon’s method (for chlorophylls and carotenoids; separation of carotenoids was carried out by Merzlyak’s method; polar lipids were isolated by Zill and Harmon method in modification of Yakovenko and Mihno; glycolipids separation and identification we carried out by Yamamoto method; and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol content was determined by Kean method. The separation, disintegration and determination of pigment-protein complexes of chloroplasts were carried out by Anderson method. Authenticity of differences between the mean arithmetic values of indices was set after the Student criterion. Differences were considered as reliable at p 0.05. Results. We determined structural and functional changes in lipids, carotenoids and pigment-protein complexes at the photosyntetic apparatus level in D. antarctica plants under UV-B radiation. Conclusions. Adaptation of D. antarctica plants to UV-B radiation is accompanied by a cascade of physiological and biochemical rearrangements at the level of photosynthetic apparatus, manifested as the changes in pigment, lipid and pigment-protein complexes content

  16. Methylated-antibody affinity purification to improve proteomic identification of plant RNA polymerase Pol V complex and the interacting proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guochen; Ma, Jun; Chen, Xiaomei; Chu, Zhaoqing; She, Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Affinity purification followed by enzymatic digestion and mass spectrometry has been widely utilized for the sensitive detection of interacting proteins and protein complexes in various organisms. In plants, the method is technically challenging due to the low abundance proteins, non-specific binding and difficulties of eluting interacting proteins from antibody beads. In this report, we describe a strategy to modify antibodies by reductive methylation of lysines without affecting their binding properties, followed by on-bead digestion of bound proteins with endoproteinase Lys-C. By this method, the antibody remains intact and does not interfere with the downstream identification of interacting proteins. Non-specific binding proteins were excluded using 14N/15N-metabolic labeling of wild-type and the transgenic plant counterparts. The method was employed to identify 12 co-immunoprecipitated protein subunits in Pol V complex and to discover 17 potential interacting protein targets in Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrated that the modification of antibodies by reductive dimethylation can improve the reliability and sensitivity of identifying low-abundance proteins through on-bead digestion and mass spectrometry. We also show that coupling this technique with chemical crosslinking enables in-depth characterization of endogenous protein complexes and the protein-protein interaction networks including mapping the surface topology and post-translational modifications of interacting proteins. PMID:28224978

  17. Photoprotection in higher plants: the putative quenching site is conserved in all outer light-harvesting complexes of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzo, Milena; Passarini, Francesca; Bassi, Roberto; van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2008-10-01

    In bright sunlight, the amount of energy harvested by plants exceeds the electron transport capacity of Photosystem II in the chloroplasts. The excess energy can lead to severe damage of the photosynthetic apparatus and to avoid this, part of the energy is thermally dissipated via a mechanism called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). It has been found that LHCII, the major antenna complex of Photosystem II, is involved in this mechanism and it was proposed that its quenching site is formed by the cluster of strongly interacting pigments: chlorophylls 611 and 612 and lutein 620 [A.V. Ruban, R. Berera, C. Ilioaia, I.H.M. van Stokkum, J.T.M. Kennis, A.A. Pascal, H. van Amerongen, B. Robert, P. Horton and R. van Grondelle, Identification of a mechanism of photoprotective energy dissipation in higher plants, Nature 450 (2007) 575-578.]. In the present work we have investigated the interactions between the pigments in this cluster not only for LHCII, but also for the homologous minor antenna complexes CP24, CP26 and CP29. Use was made of wild-type and mutated reconstituted complexes that were analyzed with (low-temperature) absorption and circular-dichroism spectroscopy as well as by biochemical methods. The pigments show strong interactions that lead to highly specific spectroscopic properties that appear to be identical for LHCII, CP26 and CP29. The interactions are similar but not identical for CP24. It is concluded that if the 611/612/620 domain is responsible for the quenching in LHCII, then all these antenna complexes are prepared to act as a quencher. This can explain the finding that none of the Lhcb complexes seems to be strictly required for NPQ while, in the absence of all of them, NPQ is abolished.

  18. Subcellular distribution of the V-ATPase complex in plant cells, and in vivo localisation of the 100 kDa subunit VHA-a within the complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluge Christoph

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vacuolar H+-ATPases are large protein complexes of more than 700 kDa that acidify endomembrane compartments and are part of the secretory system of eukaryotic cells. They are built from 14 different (VHA-subunits. The paper addresses the question of sub-cellular localisation and subunit composition of plant V-ATPase in vivo and in vitro mainly by using colocalization and fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques (FRET. Focus is placed on the examination and function of the 95 kDa membrane spanning subunit VHA-a. Showing similarities to the already described Vph1 and Stv1 vacuolar ATPase subunits from yeast, VHA-a revealed a bipartite structure with (i a less conserved cytoplasmically orientated N-terminus and (ii a membrane-spanning C-terminus with a higher extent of conservation including all amino acids shown to be essential for proton translocation in the yeast. On the basis of sequence data VHA-a appears to be an essential structural and functional element of V-ATPase, although previously a sole function in assembly has been proposed. Results To elucidate the presence and function of VHA-a in the plant complex, three approaches were undertaken: (i co-immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed to epitopes in the N- and C-terminal part of VHA-a, respectively, (ii immunocytochemistry approach including co-localisation studies with known plant endomembrane markers, and (iii in vivo-FRET between subunits fused to variants of green fluorescence protein (CFP, YFP in transfected cells. Conclusions All three sets of results show that V-ATPase contains VHA-a protein that interacts in a specific manner with other subunits. The genomes of plants encode three genes of the 95 kDa subunit (VHA-a of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase. Immuno-localisation of VHA-a shows that the recognized subunit is exclusively located on the endoplasmic reticulum. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis that the different isoforms of VHA

  19. The TPLATE Adaptor Complex Drives Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadeyne, A.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, C.; Rubbo, Di S.; Ketelaar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major mechanism for eukaryotic plasma membrane-based proteome turn-over. In plants, clathrin-mediated endocytosis is essential for physiology and development, but the identification and organization of the machinery operating this process remains largely obscure.

  20. Complex inheritance of larval adaptation in Plutella xylostella to a novel host plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Henniges-Janssen; A. Reineke; D.G. Heckel; A.T. Groot

    2011-01-01

    Studying the genetics of host shifts and range expansions in phytophagous insects contributes to our understanding of the evolution of host plant adaptation. We investigated the recent host range expansion to pea, in the pea-adapted strain (P-strain) of the crucifer-specialist diamondback moth, Plut

  1. Exocytosis and polarity in plant cells: insights by studying cellulose synthase complexes and the exocyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ying Zhang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis covers aspects of exocytosis, plant cell growth and cell wall formation. These processes are strongly linked as cell growth and cell wall formation occur simultaneously and exocytosis is the process that delivers cell wall components to the existing cell wall and in

  2. Comparative repellent activities of some plant extracts against Simulium damnosum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Wobo, Sammy O; Adeleke, Monsuru A; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Surakat, Olabanji H

    2011-08-01

    The root and leaf extracts of four plants, Occimum gratissimum, Azadirachta indica, Pterocarpus santalinoides, and Pistia hyptis, were studied for repellent activities against the adults of Simulium damnosum sensu lato. The leaves and roots were extracted with 95% ethanol and the stocks were diluted with paraffin. The repellent activities of the extracts were investigated using human baits along the banks of River Oyan and River Ogun in southwestern Nigeria. The results showed that the root extract of O. grattissium and leaf extract of P. hyptis had highest repellent potentials with 78% and 78.1% protection against S. damnosum sensu lato, respectively, whereas the root and leaf of P. santalinoides recorded the least. Although there were significant differences in the percentage of protection of the extracts of the plants (p 0.05). The study concludes that there exist some repellent efficacies in the extracts of the plants, most importantly O. grattissimum and P. hyptis. The plant extracts can further be developed in the prevention of man-vector contact in onchocerciasis endemic communities.

  3. [The antiradical activity of plant extracts and healthful preventive combinations of these exrtacts with the phospholipid complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, V S; Rusina, I F; Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Ipatova, O M; Kasaikina, O T

    2012-01-01

    Using the chemiluminescence method, the effective concentration of antioxidants (AO) and its reactivity toward peroxyl radicals (ARA, the k7 constant) have been measured for 13 plant extracts. In fact all extracts demonstrated ARA higher than ionol. Larix dahurica, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla fruticosa, Aronia melanocarpa and Rhaponticum carthamoides extracts showed the highest values of ARA. The combinations Aronia + Raponticum extracts; Larix + Hibiscus extracts; Schizandra +Aronia extracts were synergistic (the synergism effect beta of 38%, 33% and 22%). Apparently this phenomenon is the result of the synergistic interaction between compounds present in plant extracts. The Phospholipid complex--Lipoid S40, lacting any antioxidant effect alone, showed a potent synergistic effect with Aronia extract (beta3 = 60%), Silybum extract (beta3 = 41%). Clinical trials demonstrated, that combinations "Lipoid + Aronia extract", "Lipoid + Larix extract + Hibiscus extract", "Lipoid + Silybum extract", "Lipoid + Q10 + Rosa majalis extract" may be used as an additional component in the medicinal treatment, or as an individual prophylactic agent.

  4. The complexity of vesicle transport factors in plants examined by orthology search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Paul

    Full Text Available Vesicle transport is a central process to ensure protein and lipid distribution in eukaryotic cells. The current knowledge on the molecular components and mechanisms of this process is majorly based on studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, which revealed 240 different proteinaceous factors either experimentally proven or predicted to be involved in vesicle transport. In here, we performed an orthologue search using two different algorithms to identify the components of the secretory pathway in yeast and 14 plant genomes by using the 'core-set' of 240 factors as bait. We identified 4021 orthologues and (co-orthologues in the discussed plant species accounting for components of COP-II, COP-I, Clathrin Coated Vesicles, Retromers and ESCRTs, Rab GTPases, Tethering factors and SNAREs. In plants, we observed a significantly higher number of (co-orthologues than yeast, while only 8 tethering factors from yeast seem to be absent in the analyzed plant genomes. To link the identified (co-orthologues to vesicle transport, the domain architecture of the proteins from yeast, genetic model plant A. thaliana and agriculturally relevant crop Solanum lycopersicum has been inspected. For the orthologous groups containing (co-orthologues from yeast, A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum, we observed the same domain architecture for 79% (416/527 of the (co-orthologues, which documents a very high conservation of this process. Further, publically available tissue-specific expression profiles for a subset of (co-orthologues found in A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum suggest that some (co-orthologues are involved in tissue-specific functions. Inspection of localization of the (co-orthologues based on available proteome data or localization predictions lead to the assignment of plastid- as well as mitochondrial localized (co-orthologues of vesicle transport factors and the relevance of this is discussed.

  5. Density of phonon states in the light-harvesting complex II of green plants

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Irrgang, K D; Renger, G

    2002-01-01

    In photosynthetic antenna complexes, the coupling of electronic transitions to low-frequency vibrations of the protein matrix (phonons) plays an essential role in light absorption and ultra-fast excitation energy transfer (EET). The model calculations presented here indicate that inelastic neutron scattering experiments provide invaluable information on the phonon density of states for light-harvesting complex II, which may permit a consistent interpretation of contradictory results from high-resolution optical spectroscopy. (orig.)

  6. Supercomplexes of plant photosystem I with cytochrome b6f, light-harvesting complex II and NDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, K N Sathish; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Nosek, Lukáš; Kouřil, Roman; Fucile, Geoffrey; Boekema, Egbert J; Eichacker, Lutz A

    2017-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is a pigment-protein complex required for the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and participates in light-harvesting and redox-driven chloroplast metabolism. Assembly of PSI into supercomplexes with light harvesting complex (LHC) II, cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) or NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex (NDH) has been proposed as a means for regulating photosynthesis. However, structural details about the binding positions in plant PSI are lacking. We analyzed large data sets of electron microscopy single particle projections of supercomplexes obtained from the stroma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana. By single particle analysis, we established the binding position of Cytb6f at the antenna side of PSI. The rectangular-shaped Cytb6f dimer binds at the side where Lhca1 is located. The complex binds with its short side rather than its long side to PSI, which may explain why these supercomplexes are difficult to purify and easily disrupted. Refined analysis of the interaction between PSI and the NDH complex indicates that in total up to 6 copies of PSI can arrange with one NDH complex. Most PSI-NDH supercomplexes appeared to have 1-3 PSI copies associated. Finally, the PSI-LHCII supercomplex was found to bind an additional LHCII trimer at two positions on the LHCI side in Arabidopsis. The organization of PSI, either in a complex with NDH or with Cytb6f, may improve regulation of electron transport by the control of binding partners and distances in small domains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The control and automation of a complex experimental plant: The Sesta test facility; L`automazione di un impiuanto sperimentale complesso: La stazione di Sesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maini, Michele; Prandoni, Walter [ENEL Spa, Cologno Monzese (Italy). Polo Elettrico e Automazione. Unita` Robotica

    1997-05-01

    The running of complex experimental plants in the field of energetic sources involves a strong component of automation. Since they are unique and innovative plants there are not well defined ways to run them. So it is necessary to design the automation each time and then to select the proper resources for the implementation. The plant for the testing of gas turbine components of Sesta is an important example of this type of approach.

  8. Universal plant DNA barcode loci may not work in complex groups: a case study with Indian berberis species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribash Roy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The concept of DNA barcoding for species identification has gained considerable momentum in animals because of fairly successful species identification using cytochrome oxidase I (COI. In plants, matK and rbcL have been proposed as standard barcodes. However, barcoding in complex genera is a challenging task. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the species discriminatory power of four reportedly most promising plant DNA barcoding loci (one from nuclear genome--ITS, and three from plastid genome--trnH-psbA, rbcL and matK in species of Indian Berberis L. (Berberidaceae and two other genera, Ficus L. (Moraceae and Gossypium L. (Malvaceae. Berberis species were delineated using morphological characters. These characters resulted in a well resolved species tree. Applying both nucleotide distance and nucleotide character-based approaches, we found that none of the loci, either singly or in combinations, could discriminate the species of Berberis. ITS resolved all the tested species of Ficus and Gossypium and trnH-psbA resolved 82% of the tested species in Ficus. The highly regarded matK and rbcL could not resolve all the species. Finally, we employed amplified fragment length polymorphism test in species of Berberis to determine their relationships. Using ten primer pair combinations in AFLP, the data demonstrated incomplete species resolution. Further, AFLP analysis showed that there was a tendency of the Berberis accessions to cluster according to their geographic origin rather than species affiliation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We reconfirm the earlier reports that the concept of universal barcode in plants may not work in a number of genera. Our results also suggest that the matK and rbcL, recommended as universal barcode loci for plants, may not work in all the genera of land plants. Morphological, geographical and molecular data analyses of Indian species of Berberis suggest probable reticulate evolution and thus

  9. Genetic and Ecotypic Differentiation in a Californian Plant Polyploid Complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail J Moore; Moore, William L.; Baldwin, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations...

  10. On analgesic and narcotic plants: Pliny and his Greek sources, the history of a complex graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Grafting is an important concept in the study of Pliny the Elder, who is a compiler of written sources. We intend to examine how this grafting works in Pliny's discussion of analgesic and narcotic plants, especially the most famous: opium poppy, henbane, mandrake, and hound's berry. We will study Pliny's use of Greek sources and ask how he took up his predecessors' works while integrating the changes that took place during the centuries in the diagnosis and treatment of pain. This cultural graft remains elusive because we do not have access to all of Pliny's Greek sources. When Pliny speaks about these plants, he sometimes copies out information, adding or removing details, and occasionally makes significant mistakes. The graft was particularly difficult in this case because these analgesic plants were considered so special and poisonous that they were sometimes rejected or even condemned. Nevertheless, we can say that this cultural graft succeeded, despite some obstacles, because Pliny assimilated and adapted these old Greek materials to his own time, society, and project.

  11. Simulation modeling and analysis of a complex system of a thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorabh Gupta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the opportunities for the modeling of flue gas and air system of a thermal power plant by making the performance evaluation using probabilistic approach. The present system of thermal plant under study consists of four subsystems with three possible states: full working, reduced capacity working and failed. Failure and repair rates for all the subsystems are assumed to be constant. Formulation of the problem is carried out using Markov Birth-Death process using probabilistic approach and a transition diagram represents the operational behavior of the system. Interrelationship among the full working and reduced working has been developed. A probabilistic model has been developed, considering some assumptions. Data in feasible range are selected from a survey of thermal plant and the effect of each subsystem on the system availability is tabulated in the form of availability matrices, which provides various performance/availability levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates of all subsystems. Based upon various availability values obtained in availability matrices and graphs of failure/repair rates of different subsystems, performance and optimum values of failure/repair rates for maximum availability, of each subsystem is analyzed and then maintenance priorities are decided for all subsystems.

  12. Permeability of Plant Young Root Endodermis to Cu Ions and Cu-Citrate Complexes in Corn and Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanzhao; Lei, Wenrui; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    The non-selective apoplastic passage of Cu and Cu-citrate complexes into the root stele of monocotyledonous corn and dicotyledonous soybean was investigated using an inorganic-salt-precipitation technique. Either Cu ions or Cu-citrate complexes were drawn into root through the apoplast from the root growth medium, and K4[Fe(CN)6] was subsequently perfused through xylem vessels or the entire root cross section. Based on microscopic identification of the reddish-brown precipitates of copper ferrocyanide in the cell walls of the xylem of corn and soybean roots, Cu(2+) passed through the endodermal barrier into the xylem of both species. When the solution containing 200 μM CuSO4 and 400 μM sodium citrate (containing 199.98 μM Cu-citrate, 0.02 μM Cu(2+)) was drawn via differential pressure gradients into the root xylem while being perfused with K4[Fe(CN)6] through the entire root cross-section, reddish-brown precipitates were observed in the walls of the stele of soybean, but not corn root. However, when a CuSO4 solution containing 0.02 or 0.2 μM free Cu(2+) was used, no reddish-brown precipitates were detected in the stele of either of the two plants. Results indicated that endodermis was permeable to Cu-citrate complexes in primary roots of soybean, but not corn. The permeability of the endodermal barrier to the Cu-citrate complex may vary between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which has considerable implications for chelant-enhanced phytoextraction.

  13. MOBILE MORTAR CONCRETE PLANTS FOR BUILDING COMPLEX OF BELARUS: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main advantages and disadvantages of mobile mortar concrete plants in comparison with stationary concrete mixing units. The main idea of the mobility is to provide quick movement. In its turn, this approach imposes some restrictions on dimensions and weights of concrete mixing equipment. However in the context of the concrete mixing equipment and construction site as whole the mobility concept is considered in the form of three components: minimum expenses on site preparation for assembly of a mortar concrete plant, transportability, reduction in installation and startand-adjustment periods. In this regard processing chain for production of concrete and mortar mixes is divided in separate complete operations. Then it is necessary to develop modules which are performing the required operations. Every module is developed in accordance with the size of a shipping container in order to make transportation convenient. Detachable connections are stipulated in the place of module linkages, electrical wiring, pipelines for supply water and chemical admixtures, pneumatics. Henceforth, these connections make it possible to reduce time for on-site assembly and disassembly of the equipment.The paper presents a mobile mortar concrete unit of block-module arrangement which has been developed within the framework of the State Scientific Research Programme at the BNTU. The unit has been manufactured using production capacities of JSC “Viprotekh” and it has been successfully introduced in production process. One of the promising directions is to use the mobile mortar concrete plants which are located and which are operating directly on construction sites. Their economic efficiency becomes higher with an increase of distance to the nearest stationary mortar concrete unit and scope of concreting works. Mobile mortar concrete plants are mainly intended for construction organizations which are realizing construction projects away from urban

  14. Structural features of N-glycans linked to glycoproteins expressed in three kinds of water plants: Predominant occurrence of the plant complex type N-glycans bearing Lewis a epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Megumi; Tani, Misato; Yoshiie, Takeo; Vavricka, Christopher J; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2016-11-29

    The Japanese cedar pollen allergen (Cry j1) and the mountain cedar pollen allergen (Jun a1) are glycosylated with plant complex type N-glycans bearing Lewis a epitope(s) (Galβ1-3[Fucα1-4]GlcNAc-). The biological significance of Lewis a type plant N-glycans and their effects on the human immune system remain to be elucidated. Since a substantial amount of such plant specific N-glycans are required to evaluate immunological activity, we have searched for good plant-glycan sources to characterize Lewis a epitope-containing plant N-glycans. In this study, we have found that three water plants, Elodea nuttallii, Egeria densa, and Ceratophyllum demersum, produce glycoproteins bearing Lewis a units. Structural analysis of the N-glycans revealed that almost all glycoproteins expressed in these three water plants predominantly carry plant complex type N-glycans including the Lewis a type, suggesting that these water plants are good sources for preparation of Lewis a type plant N-glycans in substantial amounts.

  15. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  16. Definition and means of maintaining the supply ventilation system seismic shutdown portion of the PFP safety envelope. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, R.D.

    1995-06-27

    This report describes the modifications to the ventilation system for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Topics discussed in this report include; system functional requirements, evaluations of equipment, a list of drawings showing the safety envelope boundaries; list of safety envelope equipment, functional requirements for individual safety envelope equipment, and a list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment.

  17. Excitation Energy Transfer and Trapping in Higher Plant Photosystem II Complexes with Different Antenna Sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Broess, Koen; Croce, Roberta; van Amerongen, Herbert; Brown, Leonid S.

    2011-01-01

    We performed picosecond fluorescence measurements on well-defined Photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes from Arabidopsis with largely varying antenna sizes. The average excited-state lifetime ranged from 109 ps for PSII core to 158 ps for the largest C(2)S(2)M(2) complex in 0.01% alpha-DM. Excitation

  18. Excitation energy transfer and trapping in higher plant photosystem II complexes with different antenna sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, S.; Broess, K.; Croce, R.; Amerongen, van H.

    2011-01-01

    We performed picosecond fluorescence measurements on well-defined Photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes from Arabidopsis with largely varying antenna sizes. The average excited-state lifetime ranged from 109 ps for PSII core to 158 ps for the largest C2S2M2 complex in 0.01% a-DM. Excitation energy

  19. Excitation Energy Transfer and Trapping in Higher Plant Photosystem II Complexes with Different Antenna Sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, S.; Broess, K.; Croce, R.; Amerongen, van H.

    2011-01-01

    700 cm(-1)) and a slow relaxation of the radical pair to an irreversible state (similar to 150 ps). Somewhat unexpectedly, we had to reduce the energy-transfer and charge-separation rates in complexes with decreasing size to obtain optimal fits. This strongly suggests that the antenna system is

  20. Zeaxanthin Radical Cation Formation in Minor Light-Harvesting Complexes of Higher Plant Antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenson, Thomas H.; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Zigmantas, Donatas; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Li, Zhirong; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-01-31

    Previous work on intact thylakoid membranes showed that transient formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation was correlated with regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting via energy-dependent quenching. A molecular mechanism for such quenching was proposed to involve charge transfer within a chlorophyll-zeaxanthin heterodimer. Using near infrared (880-1100 nm) transient absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrate that carotenoid (mainly zeaxanthin) radical cation generation occurs solely in isolated minor light-harvesting complexes that bind zeaxanthin, consistent with the engagement of charge transfer quenching therein. We estimated that less than 0.5percent of the isolated minor complexes undergo charge transfer quenching in vitro, whereas the fraction of minor complexes estimated to be engaged in charge transfer quenching in isolated thylakoids was more than 80 times higher. We conclude that minor complexes which bind zeaxanthin are sites of charge transfer quenching in vivo and that they can assume Non-quenching and Quenching conformations, the equilibrium LHC(N)<--> LHC(Q) of which is modulated by the transthylakoid pH gradient, the PsbS protein, and protein-protein interactions.

  1. Characterization of Iron Oxide Generated in Ruthner Plant of Pickling Unit in Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.C.Amiri

    2003-01-01

    Reducing the chloride content in regenerated iron oxides (RIO) from steel-pickling acid waste economically treated by Ruthner process is the most critical issue for the development of RIO as a useful raw material resource. In this paper, the results of a new method for characterization and modification of RIO produced in Mobarakeh Steel Complex were reported.

  2. Arabidopsis SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 stabilizes and signals within an ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 complex in plant innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Bart J; Wiermer, Marcel; Bhat, Riyaz A; Moisan, Lisa J; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Neu, Christina; Cabral, Adriana; Parker, Jane E

    2005-09-01

    Plant innate immunity against invasive biotrophic pathogens depends on the intracellular defense regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). We show here that Arabidopsis thaliana EDS1 interacts in vivo with another protein, SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 (SAG101), discovered through a proteomic approach to identify new EDS1 pathway components. Together with PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), a known EDS1 interactor, SAG101 contributes intrinsic and indispensable signaling activity to EDS1-dependent resistance. The combined activities of SAG101 and PAD4 are necessary for programmed cell death triggered by the Toll-Interleukin-1 Receptor type of nucleotide binding/leucine-rich repeat immune receptor in response to avirulent pathogen isolates and in restricting the growth of normally virulent pathogens. We further demonstrate by a combination of cell fractionation, coimmunoprecipitation, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments the existence of an EDS1-SAG101 complex inside the nucleus that is molecularly and spatially distinct from EDS1-PAD4 associations in the nucleus and cytoplasm. By contrast, EDS1 homomeric interactions were detected in the cytoplasm but not inside the nucleus. These data, combined with evidence for coregulation between individual EDS1 complexes, suggest that dynamic interactions of EDS1 and its signaling partners in multiple cell compartments are important for plant defense signal relay.

  3. The Beauty of Being a Variant:H2A.Z and the SWR1 Complex in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosana March-D(ī)az; Jose C.Reyes

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the nucleosome is a dynamic structure that strongly influences gene expression.Dynamism concerns different nucleosomal characteristics,including position,posttranslational modifications,and histone composition.Thus,within the nucleosome,canonical histones can be exchanged by histone variant proteins with specific functions-a process known as 'histone replacement'.The histone variant H2A.Z has an important function in transcription and,during the last few years,its role in plant development and immune response has become evident.Compiling genetic and biochemical studies from several laboratories has revealed that plants contain a multiprotein complex,similar to the SWR1/SRCAP complex from yeast and animals,involved in H2A.Z deposition.Despite intense research in different organisms,the mechanism by which H2A.Z influences transcription is still unknown.However,recent results from Arabidopsis have shown a strong inverse correlation between H2A.Z and DNA methylation,suggesting that H2A.Z might protect genes from silencing.

  4. Genetic variation in a tropical tree species influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytynska, Sharon E; Fay, Michael F; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F

    2011-05-12

    Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals.

  5. Temporal dynamics of stomatal conductance of plants under water deficit: can homeostasis be improved by more complex dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Maia Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we hypothesized that chaotic or complex behavior of stomatal conductance could improve plant homeostasis after water deficit. Stomatal conductance of sunflower and sugar beet leaves was measured in plants grown either daily irrigation or under water deficit using an infrared gas analyzer. All measurements were performed under controlled environmental conditions. In order to measure a consistent time series, data were scored with time intervals of 20s during 6h. Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimensions, KS entropy and relative LZ complexity were calculated. Stomatal conductance in both irrigated and non-irrigated plants was chaotic-like. Plants under water deficit showed a trend to a more complex behaviour, mainly in sunflower that showed better homeostasis than in sugar beet. Some biological implications are discussed.Este estudo testou a hipótese de que a condutância estomática de uma população de estômatos em uma folha poderia apresentar um comportamento caótico ou complexo sob diferentes condições hídricas, o que poderia favorecer a capacidade homeostática das plantas. A condutância estomática em folhas de girassol e de beterraba cultivadas com irrigação diária e sob deficiência hídrica foi medida com um analisador de gás por infra-vermelho em condições controladas. Os dados foram registrados a cada 20s durante 6h. As séries temporais obtidas foram analisadas por meio dos coeficientes de Lyapunov, dimensão fractal, entropia KS e complexidade LZ relativa. A condutância estomática nas plantas cultivadas com e sem deficiência hídrica exibiu um comportamento provavelmente caótico. As plantas sob estresse hídrico mostraram uma tendência para um comportamento mais complexo, principalmente as plantas de girassol cuja capacidade homeostática foi superior. Algumas implicações biológicas destes comportamentos são discutidas no texto.

  6. Cellulose synthase complexes act in a concerted fashion to synthesize highly aggregated cellulose in secondary cell walls of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Zheng, Yunzhen; Xin, Xiaoran; Huang, Shixin; Kong, Zhaosheng; Kim, Seong H; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Gu, Ying

    2016-10-04

    Cellulose, often touted as the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, is a critical component of the plant cell wall and is synthesized by plasma membrane-spanning cellulose synthase (CESA) enzymes, which in plants are organized into rosette-like CESA complexes (CSCs). Plants construct two types of cell walls, primary cell walls (PCWs) and secondary cell walls (SCWs), which differ in composition, structure, and purpose. Cellulose in PCWs and SCWs is chemically identical but has different physical characteristics. During PCW synthesis, multiple dispersed CSCs move along a shared linear track in opposing directions while synthesizing cellulose microfibrils with low aggregation. In contrast, during SCW synthesis, we observed swaths of densely arranged CSCs that moved in the same direction along tracks while synthesizing cellulose microfibrils that became highly aggregated. Our data support a model in which distinct spatiotemporal features of active CSCs during PCW and SCW synthesis contribute to the formation of cellulose with distinct structure and organization in PCWs and SCWs of Arabidopsis thaliana This study provides a foundation for understanding differences in the formation, structure, and organization of cellulose in PCWs and SCWs.

  7. The PRR family of transcriptional regulators reflects the complexity and evolution of plant circadian clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Eva M; Liu, Tiffany

    2013-10-01

    Circadian clocks are internal time-keeping mechanisms that provide an adaptive advantage by enabling organisms to anticipate daily changes and orchestrate biological processes accordingly. Circadian regulated pseudo-response regulators are key components of transcription/translation circadian networks in green alga and plants. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that most of them act as transcriptional repressors and directly regulate output pathways suggesting a close relationship between the central oscillator and circadian regulated processes. Moreover, phylogenetic studies on this small gene family have shed light on the evolution of circadian clocks in the green lineage.

  8. The light-harvesting complexes of higher-plant Photosystem I : Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3 form two red-emitting heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, Emilie; Croce, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The outer antenna of higher-plant PSI (Photosystem I) is composed of four complexes [Lhc (light-harvesting complex) al-Lhca4] belonging to the light-harvesting protein family. Difficulties in their purification have so far prevented the determination of their properties and most of the knowledge abo

  9. Causes and consequences of complex population dynamics in an annual plant, Cardamine pensylvanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, E.E.

    1995-11-08

    The relative importance of density-dependent and density-independent factors in determining the population dynamics of plants has been widely debated with little resolution. In this thesis, the author explores the effects of density-dependent population regulation on population dynamics in Cardamine pensylvanica, an annual plant. In the first chapter, she shows that experimental populations of C. pensylvanica cycled from high to low density in controlled constant-environment conditions. These cycles could not be explained by external environmental changes or simple models of direct density dependence (N{sub t+1} = f[N{sub t}]), but they could be explained by delayed density dependence (N{sub t+1} = f[N{sub t}, N{sub t+1}]). In the second chapter, she shows that the difference in the stability properties of population growth models with and without delayed density dependence is due to the presence of Hopf as well as slip bifurcations from stable to chaotic population dynamics. She also measures delayed density dependence due to effects of parental density on offspring quality in C. pensylvanica and shows that this is large enough to be the cause of the population dynamics observed in C. pensylvanica. In the third chapter, the author extends her analyses of density-dependent population growth models to include interactions between competing species. In the final chapter, she compares the effects of fixed spatial environmental variation and variation in population size on the evolutionary response of C. pensylvanica populations.

  10. MODULAR AUTOMATED COMPLEX OF THE SOLAR WATER HEATING PLANT FOR AGRICULTURAL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazalov V. S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the system, providing automatic control of the solar water heating system with the abilities to store in internal memory and to transmit by the cellular network the information about the conditions of the plant and the occurring failure conditions. The common principles of the building the automatic system with the modular principles are shown. The article solves the issue about the quality of the water supply through the quality parameters which provided by the considered system. The methods of the active and passive loss minimizing of the heat of the water in the tank are shown. The usage of the active loss minimizing system was considered. The block-scheme of the implementation of the automatic system with described abilities are shown. The compulsory and auxiliary blocks of the automatic system are shown. The algorithm of the checking of the water supply quality parameters was presented. The study considers methods of the storing of the parameters of the working conditions of the plant and the occurring failure modes as well as the remote information of the attending personnel by the cellular networks. The advantages of the conducting of the system log are shown. The preliminary calculation of the memory capacity for storing the system log was completed. The advantages of the described automatic system with relation to the constructing, controlling, service and research of the described solar water heating systems are shown

  11. Insights into the composition and assembly of the membrane arm of plant complex I through analysis of subcomplexes in Arabidopsis mutant lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Etienne H; Solheim, Cory; Tanz, Sandra K; Bonnard, Géraldine; Millar, A Harvey

    2011-07-22

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I, EC 1.6.5.3) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In eukaryotes, it is composed of more than 40 subunits that are encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Plant Complex I differs from the enzyme described in other eukaryotes, most notably due to the large number of plant-specific subunits in the membrane arm of the complex. The elucidation of the assembly pathway of Complex I has been a long-standing research aim in cellular biochemistry. We report the study of Arabidopsis mutants in Complex I subunits using a combination of Blue-Native PAGE and immunodetection to identify stable subcomplexes containing Complex I components, along with mass spectrometry analysis of Complex I components in membrane fractions and two-dimensional diagonal Tricine SDS-PAGE to study the composition of the largest subcomplex. Four subcomplexes of the membrane arm of Complex I with apparent molecular masses of 200, 400, 450, and 650 kDa were observed. We propose a working model for the assembly of the membrane arm of Complex I in plants and assign putative roles during the assembly process for two of the subunits studied.

  12. Activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in plants is stimulated in the presence of malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igamberdiev, Abir U; Lernmark, Ulrikа; Gardeström, Per

    2014-11-01

    The effect of malate on the steady-state activity of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaf pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) has been studied in isolated mitochondria. The addition of malate was found to be stimulatory for the mitochondrial PDC, however there was no stimulation of chloroplast PDC. The stimulation was saturated below 1mM malate and was apparently related to а partially activated complex, which activity increased in the presence of malate by about twofold. Malate also reversed the reduction of PDC activity in the presence of glycine. Based on the obtained kinetic data, we suggest that the effect of malate is rather not a direct activation of PDC but involves the establishment of NAD-malate dehydrogenase equilibrium, decreasing concentration of NADH and relieving its inhibitory effect of PDC.

  13. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  14. Hardware and Software Complexes for Automatic Position Pipe Welding at Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Makhlin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Achievements of the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute in development of domestic samples of equipment with elements of adaptive control for automatic position pipe welding during assembly and repair of power units of nuclear and heat power electric stations, in shipbuilding and chemical engineering, at enterprises of oil-and-gas complex and in other branches of industry are presented.

  15. AtMic60 Is Involved in Plant Mitochondria Lipid Trafficking and Is Part of a Large Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Morgane; Gros, Valérie; Tardif, Marianne; Brugière, Sabine; Ferro, Myriam; Prinz, William A; Toulmay, Alexandre; Mathur, Jaideep; Wozny, Michael; Falconet, Denis; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2016-03-07

    The mitochondrion is an organelle originating from an endosymbiotic event and playing a role in several fundamental processes such as energy production, metabolite syntheses, and programmed cell death. This organelle is delineated by two membranes whose synthesis requires an extensive exchange of phospholipids with other cellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar membranes in yeast. These transfers of phospholipids are thought to occur by a non-vesicular pathway at contact sites between two closely apposed membranes. In plants, little is known about the biogenesis of mitochondrial membranes. Contact sites between ER and mitochondria are suspected to play a similar role in phospholipid trafficking as in yeast, but this has never been demonstrated. In contrast, it has been shown that plastids are able to transfer lipids to mitochondria during phosphate starvation. However, the proteins involved in such transfer are still unknown. Here, we identified in Arabidopsis thaliana a large lipid-enriched complex called the mitochondrial transmembrane lipoprotein (MTL) complex. The MTL complex contains proteins located in the two mitochondrial membranes and conserved in all eukaryotic cells, such as the TOM complex and AtMic60, a component of the MICOS complex. We demonstrate that AtMic60 contributes to the export of phosphatidylethanolamine from mitochondria and the import of galactoglycerolipids from plastids during phosphate starvation. Furthermore, AtMic60 promotes lipid desorption from membranes, likely as an initial step for lipid transfer, and binds to Tom40, suggesting that AtMic60 could regulate the tethering between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria.

  16. Creating Order from Chaos: Epigenome Dynamics in Plants with Complex Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathan M; Lisch, Damon; Li, Qing

    2016-02-01

    Flowering plants have strikingly distinct genomes, although they contain a similar suite of expressed genes. The diversity of genome structures and organization is largely due to variation in transposable elements (TEs) and whole-genome duplication (WGD) events. We review evidence that chromatin modifications and epigenetic regulation are intimately associated with TEs and likely play a role in mediating the effects of WGDs. We hypothesize that the current structure of a genome is the result of various TE bursts and WGDs and it is likely that the silencing mechanisms and the chromatin structure of a genome have been shaped by these events. This suggests that the specific mechanisms targeting chromatin modifications and epigenomic patterns may vary among different species. Many crop species have likely evolved chromatin-based mechanisms to tolerate silenced TEs near actively expressed genes. These interactions of heterochromatin and euchromatin are likely to have important roles in modulating gene expression and variability within species.

  17. Structure-function relationship of the plant photosynthetic pigment-protein complex LHCII studied with molecular spectroscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2013-01-01

    LHCII, the largest plant photosynthetic pigment-protein complex of photosystem II, is a most abundant membrane protein in living organisms and comprises approximately half of the pool of chlorophyll molecules in the biosphere. The principal role of this pigment-protein complex is to collect sunlight quanta and transfer electronic excitations toward the reaction centers, where the primary photosynthetic electric charge separation reactions take place. The LHCII protein, as a major protein component of the photosynthetic membranes, modulates also the structural and dynamic properties of the lipid phase of the membranes. According to the recent concepts, one of the physiological roles of LHCII is also a protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against oxidative damage caused by illumination with high intensity light. Detailed examination of all those physiological functions of LHCII, in relation to the complex structure, was possible owing to the application of several molecular spectroscopy techniques. Some examples of such studies are presented in this chapter. The examples of application of steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Google Earth Surface Metrics to Predict Plant Species Richness in a Complex Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Block

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Google Earth provides a freely available, global mosaic of high-resolution imagery from different sensors that has become popular in environmental and ecological studies. However, such imagery lacks the near-infrared band often used in studying vegetation, thus its potential for estimating vegetation properties remains unclear. In this study, we assess the potential of Google Earth imagery to describe and predict vegetation attributes. Further, we compare it to the potential of SPOT imagery, which has additional spectral information. We measured basal area, vegetation height, crown cover, density of individuals, and species richness in 60 plots in the oak forests of a complex volcanic landscape in central Mexico. We modelled each vegetation attribute as a function of surface metrics derived from Google Earth and SPOT images, and selected the best-supported linear models from each source. Total species richness was the best-described and predicted variable: the best Google Earth-based model explained nearly as much variation in species richness as its SPOT counterpart (R2 = 0.44 and 0.51, respectively. However, Google Earth metrics emerged as poor predictors of all remaining vegetation attributes, whilst SPOT metrics showed potential for predicting vegetation height. We conclude that Google Earth imagery can be used to estimate species richness in complex landscapes. As it is freely available, Google Earth can broaden the use of remote sensing by researchers and managers in low-income tropical countries where most biodiversity hotspots are found.

  19. The plant mitochondrial mat-r gene/nad1 gene complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolstenhome, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    We have completed sequencing segments of the maize mitochondrial (mt) DNA that contains all five of the exons (A-E) of the gene (nad1) for subunit I of the respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase. Analysis of these sequences indicates that exons B and C are joined by a continuous group II intron, but the remaining exons are associated with partial group II introns and are encoded at widely separated locations in the maize mtDNA molecule. We have shown that mature transcripts of the maize nad1 gene contain 23 edited nucleotides, and that transcripts of maize and soybean mat-r genes contain 15 and 14 edits, respectively. The majority of edits in nad1 transcripts result in amino acid replacements that increase similarity between the maize NAD1 protein and NAD1 proteins of other plant species and of animal species. We found that the intron between exons b and c is not edited. From data obtained using PCR and sequencing we have shown that transcripts containing all possible exon combinations exist in maize mitochondria.

  20. LC-MS based screening and targeted profiling methods for complex plant: coffee a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Jeane Santos; Freitas-Silva, Otniel; Pacheco, Sidney; de Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz; de Rezende, Claudia Moraes

    2012-11-01

    In the recent years the way of thinking about human health necessarily passes by human food. Recent discoveries are not only concerned about valuable biomolecules but also contaminants. Thus, the screening of substances in animal and vegetable matrices by analytical techniques is focused on the presence and absence of target substance. In both cases, the majority of these substances are present as traces or in very low levels. Contaminants could be naturally present in the food, inserted on it or even developed on it as a consequence of food processing or cooking. Pesticides, mycotoxins, dioxins, acrylamide, Sudan red, melamine and now 4(5)-methylimidazole can be, at present, be listed as some of the world big problems related to food contaminants and adulterants. With the development of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS), in the last few decades, analysis of some food contaminants in trace levels trace become less laborious, more accurate and precise. The multiple approach of those techniques make possible to obtain many results in one single run. On the other hand, European Union (2002/657/EC) established regulations for analytical methods regarding mass spectrometry as detection tool, showing the importance of this technique in food quality control. The EU criteria uses identification points (IPs) that could be achieved basically with four product ions (including molecular ion) or reduced with the use of high resolution equipments. This kind of mass spectrometers made the IPs criteria more accessible, as the exact mass information is a differential tool. In view of this the aim of this review is to present the actual scenario for mass spectrometry analysis in a complex vegetable food matrix such as roasted coffee, with emphasis on needs and challenges regarding the LC-MS technique in order to meet and contribute to food safety standards in this complex matrix.

  1. Optimal operation of complex maritime and stationary power plants. Proceedings; Optimaler Betrieb komplexer maritimer und stationaerer Energieanlagen. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    An expert colloquium was held on problems concerning the optimal operation of maritime and stationary power plants. The present report contains the full text of the four lectures held: Novel methods of process analysis and modelling of complex energy systems; methods for assessing regional energy systems; creation of a model for optimising the operation of the system of engine-propeller-ship; diagnosis system for large diesel engines. Each of the four lectures has been abstracted individually. (HW) [Deutsch] In einem Fachkolloquim wird ueber Probleme eines optimalen Betriebes maritimer und stationaerer Energieanlagen diskutiert. Im vorliegenden Bericht sind die Fassungen der 4 Referate abgedruckt: 1. Neuartige Methoden der Prozessanalyse und -Modellierung komplexer energetischer Systeme 2. Methode zur Bewertung regionaler Energiesysteme 3. Modellbildung und Betriebsoptimierung des Systems Motor-Propeller-Schiff 4. Diagnosesystem fuer Grossdieselmotoren. Fuer alle 4 Referate wurde eine gesonderte inhaltliche Erschliessung erstellt. (HW)

  2. Expert (Peer) Reviews at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Making Complex Information and Decision Making Transparent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    On the 18th of May 1998, based on the information provided by the United Sates Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the 1996 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency certified the proposed deep geological repository for disposal of long-lived, defense-generated, transuranic radioactive waste at the WIPP site in New Mexico, United States of America, was compliant with all applicable radioactive waste disposal regulations. Seven domestic and one joint international peer reviews commissioned by the DOE were instrumental in making complex scientific and engineering information, as well as the related WIPP decision-making process, both credible and transparent to the majority of affected and interested parties and, ultimately, to the regulator.

  3. Perspectives for a better understanding of the metabolic integration of photorespiration within a complex plant primary metabolism network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Michael; Dellero, Younès; Keech, Olivier; Betti, Marco; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Sage, Rowan; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Allen, Doug K; Weber, Andreas P M

    2016-05-01

    Photorespiration is an essential high flux metabolic pathway that is found in all oxygen-producing photosynthetic organisms. It is often viewed as a closed metabolic repair pathway that serves to detoxify 2-phosphoglycolic acid and to recycle carbon to fuel the Calvin-Benson cycle. However, this view is too simplistic since the photorespiratory cycle is known to interact with several primary metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, nitrate assimilation, amino acid metabolism, C1 metabolism and the Krebs (TCA) cycle. Here we will review recent advances in photorespiration research and discuss future priorities to better understand (i) the metabolic integration of the photorespiratory cycle within the complex network of plant primary metabolism and (ii) the importance of photorespiration in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  4. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes in Plant Cell Walls and Their Migration During Biomass Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Johnson, David K.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi-You

    2015-04-27

    In lignocellulosic biomass, lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer. In plant cell walls, lignin is associated with polysaccharides to form lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC). LCC have been considered to be a major factor that negatively affects the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by cellulosic enzymes. Here, we report a micro-spectroscopic approach that combines fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy to probe in situ lignin concentration and conformation at each cell wall layer. This technique does not require extensive sample preparation or any external labels. Using poplar as a feedstock, for example, we observe variation of LCC in untreated tracheid poplar cell walls. The redistribution of LCC at tracheid poplar cell wall layers is also investigated when the chemical linkages between lignin and hemicellulose are cleaved during pretreatment. Our study would provide new insights into further improvement of the biomass pretreatment process.

  5. Disentangling the low-energy states of the major light-harvesting complex of plants and their role in photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Tjaart P J; Ilioaia, Cristian; Johnson, Matthew P; Ruban, Alexander V; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2014-07-01

    The ability to dissipate large fractions of their absorbed light energy as heat is a vital photoprotective function of the peripheral light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes in photosystem II of plants. The major component of this process, known as qE, is characterised by the appearance of low-energy (red-shifted) absorption and fluorescence bands. Although the appearance of these red states has been established, the molecular mechanism, their site and particularly their involvement in qE are strongly debated. Here, room-temperature single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the red emission states of the major plant light-harvesting complex (LHCII) in different environments, in particular conditions mimicking qE. It was found that most states correspond to peak emission at around 700nm and are unrelated to energy dissipative states, though their frequency of occurrence increased under conditions that mimicked qE. Longer-wavelength emission appeared to be directly related to energy dissipative states, in particular emission beyond 770nm. The ensemble average of the red emission bands shares many properties with those obtained from previous bulk in vitro and in vivo studies. We propose the existence of at least three excitation energy dissipating mechanisms in LHCII, each of which is associated with a different spectral signature and whose contribution to qE is determined by environmental control of protein conformational disorder. Emission at 700nm is attributed to a conformational change in the Lut 2 domain, which is facilitated by the conformational change associated with the primary quenching mechanism involving Lut 1.

  6. Tail-anchored membrane proteins: exploring the complex diversity of tail-anchored-protein targeting in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Ben M; Mullen, Robert T

    2011-02-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are special class of integral membrane proteins that in recent years have received a considerable amount of attention due to their diverse cellular functions and unique targeting and insertion mechanisms. Defined by the presence of a single, hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain at or near their C terminus, TA proteins must be inserted into membranes post-translationally and are orientated such that their larger N-terminal domain (most often the functional domain) faces the cytosol, while their shorter C-terminal domain faces the interior of the organelle. The C-terminal domain of TA proteins also usually contains the information responsible for their selective targeting to the proper subcellular membrane, a process that, based primarily on studies with yeasts and mammals, appears to be highly complex due to the presence of multiple pathways. Within this context, we discuss here the biogenesis of plant TA proteins and the potential for hundreds of new TA proteins identified via bioinformatics screens to contribute to the already remarkable number of roles that this class of membrane proteins participates in throughout plant growth and development.

  7. Comparative Structural and Computational Analysis Supports Eighteen Cellulose Synthases in the Plant Cellulose Synthesis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, B Tracy; Mansouri, Katayoun; Singh, Abhishek; Du, Juan; Davis, Jonathan K; Lee, Jung-Goo; Slabaugh, Erin; Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; O'Neill, Hugh; Roberts, Eric M; Roberts, Alison W; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Haigler, Candace H

    2016-06-27

    A six-lobed membrane spanning cellulose synthesis complex (CSC) containing multiple cellulose synthase (CESA) glycosyltransferases mediates cellulose microfibril formation. The number of CESAs in the CSC has been debated for decades in light of changing estimates of the diameter of the smallest microfibril formed from the β-1,4 glucan chains synthesized by one CSC. We obtained more direct evidence through generating improved transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and image averages of the rosette-type CSC, revealing the frequent triangularity and average cross-sectional area in the plasma membrane of its individual lobes. Trimeric oligomers of two alternative CESA computational models corresponded well with individual lobe geometry. A six-fold assembly of the trimeric computational oligomer had the lowest potential energy per monomer and was consistent with rosette CSC morphology. Negative stain TEM and image averaging showed the triangularity of a recombinant CESA cytosolic domain, consistent with previous modeling of its trimeric nature from small angle scattering (SAXS) data. Six trimeric SAXS models nearly filled the space below an average FF-TEM image of the rosette CSC. In summary, the multifaceted data support a rosette CSC with 18 CESAs that mediates the synthesis of a fundamental microfibril composed of 18 glucan chains.

  8. Definition of Plant-Pathogenic Pseudomonas Genomospecies of the Pseudomonas syringae Complex Through Multiple Comparative Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2014-12-01

    A total of 34 phytopathogenic strain genomes belonging to the Pseudomonas syringae species complex and related species, including many pathotype strains, were assessed using average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis. Their taxonomic relationships were consistently confirmed by the tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficient (TETRA) values, multilocus sequence typing analysis (MLSA) performed with seven housekeeping genes, using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and split consensus network analyses. The ANI, MLSA, and split consensus analyses provided consistent and identical results. We confirmed the occurrence of the well-demarcated genomospecies inferred sensu Gardan et al. using DNA-DNA hybridization and ribotyping analyses. However, some P. syringae strains of the pathovars morsprunorum and lachrymans were placed in different genomospecies in our analyses. Genomospecies 1, 2, 4, 6, and 9 resulted well demarcated, whereas strains of genomospecies 3 and 8 had ANI values between 95 and 96% in some cases, confirming that this threshold reveals very closely related species that might represent cases of splitting entities or the convergence of different species to the same ecological niche. This study confirms the robustness of the combination of genomic and phylogenetic approaches in revealing taxonomic relationships among closely related bacterial strains and provides the basis for a further reliable demarcation of the phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species. Within each species, the pathovars might represent distinct ecological units. The possibility of performing extensive and standardized host range and phenotypic tests with many strains of different pathovars can assist phytobacteriologists for better determining the boundaries of these ecological units.

  9. The effects of black-tailed prairie dogs on plant communities within a complex urban landscape: an ecological surprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Stower C; Hartley, Laurel M; Prevéy, Janet S; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2014-05-01

    Historically, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been considered essential keystone species of western United States grassland ecosystems because they provide unique services and increase vegetation community richness, evenness, and diversity. However, the effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on lands adjacent to or surrounded by urban areas may not result in the same ecosystem benefits historically associated with their presence. An urban landscape presents prairie dogs with movement challenges unparalleled in natural landscapes, as well as suites of nonnative plant species that are more common in disturbed areas. This study examined a complex ecosystem where vegetation communities are being influenced by directional environmental change, and quantified the synergistic effects resulting from the protective management of a native keystone species. The data set for this analysis was comprised of 71 paired (occupied by prairie dogs vs. unoccupied) vegetation surveys and 156 additional unpaired surveys collected from around the city of Boulder, Colorado, USA for 14 yr. Linear mixed models were used to compare data from transects occupied and unoccupied by prairie dogs, as well as to evaluate the effect of prairie dog occupation duration. In the absence of prairie dogs, vegetation in this region exhibited declines in native grasses, no changes in introduced grasses, and increases in native and nonnative forbs and bare soil over the study interval. In the presence of prairie dogs, these observed directional changes were nearly all amplified at rates four to 10 times greater than when prairie dogs were absent. Areas in Boulder occupied by prairie dogs also had significantly lower richness, evenness, and diversity of plant species, compared to unoccupied areas. Analysis of plant functional groups revealed the significant reduction of perennial native grasses, as well as a significantly higher cover of introduced forbs in occupied areas. Prairie dogs

  10. Study of the antimicrobial activity of metal complexes and their ligands through bioassays applied to plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of resistant bacteria was found to reduce the efficiency of antimicrobial therapies with the current antibiotics, thereby increasing the need for more efficient drugs for the treatment of infections. Several studies have demonstrated an increase in antimicrobial activity following the interaction of several compounds with metal ions. The present study used a methodology adapted for antimicrobial bioassays using plant extracts, in compliance with the standards of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results obtained were considered appropriate for determining MIC, MBC as for performing antimicrobial sensitivity testing with good efficiency and reproducibility. The bacteriaPseudomonas fluorescens exhibited high sensitivity to the tested compounds, being efficient to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The bioassays with the metal complexes of flavonoid quercetin and Ga(III ions, and synthetic ligand H2bbppd and Cu(II ions showed a greater inhibitory effect than their individual ligands, thus, the addition indicated an increase in the antimicrobial activity after the coordination. Both metal complexes exhibit good antimicrobial performances, such as low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ≤ 250 µg/ml, bactericidal effect and a broad activity spectrum, which qualify these compounds as suitable candidates to the next step of drugs fabrication. Nevertheless, further studies on the mechanism of growth inhibition and toxicity are needed, in order to evaluate the potential of therapeutic application.

  11. Development of antibiotic resistance and up-regulation of the antimutator gene pfpI in mutator Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to inactivation of two DNA oxidative repair genes (mutY, mutM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandsberg, Lotte Frigaard; Macia, Maria D.; Bergmann, Kirsten R.

    2011-01-01

    showed only a fivefold increase, whereas the single mutant PAOMMgm (mutM) showed a nonsignificant increase in MR compared with PAO1 and the single mutants. Mutations in the regulator nfxB leading to hyperexpression of MexCD-OprJ efflux pump were found as the mechanism of resistance to ciprofloxacin...... in the double mutant. A better fitness of the mutator compared with PAO1 was found in growth competition experiments in the presence of ciprofloxacin at concentrations just below minimal inhibitory concentration. Up-regulation of the antimutator gene pfpI, that has been shown to provide protection to oxidative...

  12. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Five-year report, September 15, 1987--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, Peter; Darvill, Alan

    1992-05-01

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) is the home of ten independent but complementary interdisciplinary research groups led by nine regular faculty and one adjunct faculty. The research of these groups represents a broad spectrum of interests, and they are involved in about 90 collaborations with their CCRC and UGA colleagues and with scientists at other institutions and companies in the US, Canada, Europe, Israel, and Japan. The hallmark of the CCRC is the collaborative, interactive environment encouraged by its directors, faculty and tong-term staff. Newcomers to the CCRC or short-term members soon learn that everyone benefits from this process. The team-oriented approach in carbohydrate science translates into the day-today generous giving of one's time and expertise to the work of others, whether it be in sharing specialized instrumentation, participating in the design of experiments and interpretalon of data, providing service to scientists outside the CCRC, or joining collaborative projects. The CCRC is founded on the principle that the cross-fertilization of ideas and know-how leads to the synergistic advancement of science. This report contains a series of appendices that document the extent and breadth of the Plant and Microbial Carbohydrate Center's contributions to collaborative research and education. Several collaborative research projects that have received postdoctoral research associate support from the Grant are highlighted, as these projects are particularly illustrative of the wide-ranging collaborations that have evolved as a result of this Grant and the quality of the science that the Grant enables.

  13. Transcriptome, carbohydrate and phytohormone analysis of Petunia hybrida reveals a complex disturbance of plant functional integrity under mild chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andreas Bauerfeind

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of chilling-tolerant ornamental crops at lower temperature could reduce the energy demands of heated greenhouses. To provide a better understanding of how sub-optimal temperatures (12°C vs. 16°C affect growth of the sensitive Petunia hybrida cultivar `SweetSunshine Williams´, the transcriptome, carbohydrate metabolism and phytohormone homeostasis were monitored in aerial plant parts over four weeks by use of a microarray, enzymatic assays and GC-MS/MS. The data revealed three consecutive phases of chilling response. The first days were marked by a strong accumulation of sugars, particularly in source leaves, preferential up-regulation of genes in the same tissue and down-regulation of several genes in the shoot apex, especially those involved in the abiotic stress response. The midterm phase featured a partial normalization of carbohydrate levels and gene expression. After three weeks of chilling exposure, a new stabilized balance was established. Reduced hexose levels in the shoot apex, reduced ratios of sugar levels between the apex and source leaves and a higher apical sucrose/hexose ratio, associated with decreased activity and expression of cell wall invertase, indicate that prolonged chilling induced sugar accumulation in source leaves at the expense of reduced sugar transport to and reduced sucrose utilization in the shoot. This was associated with reduced levels of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the apex and high numbers of differentially, particularly up-regulated genes, especially in the source leaves, including those regulating histones, ethylene action, transcription factors and a jasmonate-ZIM-domain protein. Transcripts of one Jumonji C domain containing protein and one expansin accumulated in source leaves throughout the chilling period. The results reveal a dynamic and complex disturbance of plant function in response to mild chilling, opening new perspectives for the comparative analysis of differently

  14. Study of phytochelatins and other related thiols as complexing biomolecules of As and Cd in wild type and genetically modified Brassica juncea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaza, Ana Pereira; Montes-Bayón, Maria; LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-03-01

    The accumulation of As and Cd in Brassica juncea plants and the formation of complexes of these elements with bioligands such as glutathione and/or phytochelatins (PCs) is studied. The genetic manipulation of these plants to induce higher As and Cd accumulation has been achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding for gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). These two enzymes are responsible for glutathione (GSH) formation in plants, which is the first step in the production of PCs. The biomass produced in both the wild type and the genetically modified plants, has been evaluated. Additionally, the total Cd and As concentration accumulated in the plant tissues was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction. Speciation studies on the extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled online with ICP-MS to monitor As, Cd and S. For further purification of the As fractions, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Structural elucidation of the PCs and other thiols, as well as their complexes with As and Cd, was performed by electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF). In both the Cd and As exposed plants it was possible to observe the presence of oxidized PC2 ([M + H]+, m/z 538), GS-PC2(-Glu) ([M + H]+, m/z 716) as well as reduced GSH ([M + H]+, m/z 308) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ([M + H]+, m/z 613). However, only the GS plants exhibited the presence of As(GS)3 complex ([M + H]+, m/z 994) that was further confirmed by MS/MS. This species is reported for the first time in B. juncea plant tissues.

  15. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL`s Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI`s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?`` and ``How are you approaching similar challenges?`` will be questions for a dialog with the audience.

  16. Plant Fibre: Molecular Structure and Biomechanical Properties, of a Complex Living Material, Influencing Its Deconstruction towards a Biobased Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Sorieul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls form an organic complex composite material that fulfils various functions. The hierarchical structure of this material is generated from the integration of its elementary components. This review provides an overview of wood as a composite material followed by its deconstruction into fibres that can then be incorporated into biobased composites. Firstly, the fibres are defined, and their various origins are discussed. Then, the organisation of cell walls and their components are described. The emphasis is on the molecular interactions of the cellulose microfibrils, lignin and hemicelluloses in planta. Hemicelluloses of diverse species and cell walls are described. Details of their organisation in the primary cell wall are provided, as understanding of the role of hemicellulose has recently evolved and is likely to affect our perception and future study of their secondary cell wall homologs. The importance of the presence of water on wood mechanical properties is also discussed. These sections provide the basis for understanding the molecular arrangements and interactions of the components and how they influence changes in fibre properties once isolated. A range of pulping processes can be used to individualise wood fibres, but these can cause damage to the fibres. Therefore, issues relating to fibre production are discussed along with the dispersion of wood fibres during extrusion. The final section explores various ways to improve fibres obtained from wood.

  17. A combination of biochar-mineral complexes and compost improves soil bacterial processes, soil quality and plant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUN eYE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar-mineral complex (BMC carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e. a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming.

  18. CUE: counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based authentication via oculomotor plant characteristics and complex eye movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Karpov, Alexey; Holland, Corey D.

    2012-06-01

    The widespread use of computers throughout modern society introduces the necessity for usable and counterfeit-resistant authentication methods to ensure secure access to personal resources such as bank accounts, e-mail, and social media. Current authentication methods require tedious memorization of lengthy pass phrases, are often prone to shouldersurfing, and may be easily replicated (either by counterfeiting parts of the human body or by guessing an authentication token based on readily available information). This paper describes preliminary work toward a counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based (CUE) authentication method. CUE does not require any passwords (improving the memorability aspect of the authentication system), and aims to provide high resistance to spoofing and shoulder-surfing by employing the combined biometric capabilities of two behavioral biometric traits: 1) oculomotor plant characteristics (OPC) which represent the internal, non-visible, anatomical structure of the eye; 2) complex eye movement patterns (CEM) which represent the strategies employed by the brain to guide visual attention. Both OPC and CEM are extracted from the eye movement signal provided by an eye tracking system. Preliminary results indicate that the fusion of OPC and CEM traits is capable of providing a 30% reduction in authentication error when compared to the authentication accuracy of individual traits.

  19. UV-vis spectroscopy and colorimetric models for detecting anthocyanin-metal complexes in plants: An overview of in vitro and in vivo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedenko, Volodymyr S; Shemet, Sergiy A; Landi, Marco

    2017-02-10

    Although anthocyanin (ACN) biosynthesis is one of the best studied pathways of secondary metabolism in plants, the possible physiological and ecological role(s) of these pigments continue to intrigue scientists. Like other dihydroxy B-ring substituted flavonoids, ACNs have an ability to bind metal and metalloid ions, a property that has been exploited for a variety of purposes. For example, the metal binding ability may be used to stabilize ACNs from plant food sources, or to modify their colors for using them as food colorants. The complexation of metals with cyanidin derivatives can also be used as a simple, sensitive, cheap, and rapid method for determination concentrations of several metals in biological and environmental samples using UV-vis spectroscopy. Far less information is available on the ecological significance of ACN-metal complexes in plant-environment interactions. Metalloanthocyanins (protocyanin, nemophilin, commelinin, protodelphin, cyanosalvianin) are involved in the copigmentation phenomenon that leads to blue-pigmented petals, which may facilitate specific plant-pollinator interactions. ACN-metal formation and compartmentation into the vacuole has also been proposed to be part of an orchestrated detoxification mechanism in plants which experience metal/metalloid excess. However, investigations into ACN-metal interactions in plant biology may be limited because of the complexity of the analytical techniques required. To address this concern, here we describe simple methods for the detection of ACN-metal both in vitro and in vivo using UV-vis spectroscopy and colorimetric models. In particular, the use of UV-vis spectra, difference absorption spectra, and colorimetry techniques will be described for in vitro determination of ACN-metal features, whereas reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetric parameters related to CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) and CIE XYZ systems will be detailed for in vivo analyses. In this way, we hope to make this high-informative tool

  20. Interplay between insects and plants: dynamic and complex interactions that have coevolved over millions of years but act in milliseconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Toby J A

    2015-02-01

    In an environment with changing availability and quality of host plants, phytophagous insects are under selection pressure to find quality hosts. They need to maximize their fitness by locating suitable plants and avoiding unsuitable ones. Thus, they have evolved a finely tuned sensory system, for detection of host cues, and a nervous system, capable of integrating inputs from sensory neurons with a high level of spatio-temporal resolution. Insect responses to cues are not fixed but depend on the context in which they are perceived, the physiological state of the insect, and prior learning experiences. However, there are examples of insects making 'mistakes' and being attracted to poor quality hosts. While insects have evolved ways of finding hosts, plants have been under selection pressure to do precisely the opposite and evade detection or defend themselves when attacked. Once on the plant, insect-associated molecules may trigger or suppress defence depending on whether the plant or the insect is ahead in evolutionary terms. Plant volatile emission is influenced by defence responses induced by insect feeding or oviposition which can attract natural enemies but repel herbivores. Conversely, plant reproductive fitness is increased by attraction of pollinators. Interactions can be altered by other organisms associated with the plant such as other insects, plant pathogens, or mycorrhizal fungi. Plant phenotype is plastic and can be changed by epigenetic factors in adaptation to periods of biotic stress. Space and time play crucial roles in influencing the outcome of interactions between insects and plants.

  1. Plant nonsense-mediated mRNA decay is controlled by different autoregulatory circuits and can be induced by an EJC-like complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyikó, Tünde; Kerényi, Farkas; Szabadkai, Levente; Benkovics, Anna H.; Major, Péter; Sonkoly, Boglárka; Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Barta, Endre; Niemiec, Emilia; Kufel, Joanna; Silhavy, Dániel

    2013-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic quality control system that recognizes and degrades transcripts containing NMD cis elements in their 3′untranslated region (UTR). In yeasts, unusually long 3′UTRs act as NMD cis elements, whereas in vertebrates, NMD is induced by introns located >50 nt downstream from the stop codon. In vertebrates, splicing leads to deposition of exon junction complex (EJC) onto the mRNA, and then 3′UTR-bound EJCs trigger NMD. It is proposed that this intron-based NMD is vertebrate specific, and it evolved to eliminate the misproducts of alternative splicing. Here, we provide evidence that similar EJC-mediated intron-based NMD functions in plants, suggesting that this type of NMD is evolutionary conserved. We demonstrate that in plants, like in vertebrates, introns located >50 nt from the stop induces NMD. We show that orthologs of all core EJC components are essential for intron-based plant NMD and that plant Partner of Y14 and mago (PYM) also acts as EJC disassembly factor. Moreover, we found that complex autoregulatory circuits control the activity of plant NMD. We demonstrate that expression of suppressor with morphogenic effect on genitalia (SMG)7, which is essential for long 3′UTR- and intron-based NMD, is regulated by both types of NMD, whereas expression of Barentsz EJC component is downregulated by intron-based NMD. PMID:23666629

  2. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  3. One-step non-chromatography purification of a low abundant fucosylated protein from complex plant crude extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Arnold

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective methods for isolation and purification of glycoproteins and other glycoconjugates are important to biopharmaceutical industry and diagnostic industry. They are also critical to an emerging field of glycoproteomics. In this work, we applied the newly-developed affinity ligand, a fusion protein of elastic like polymer (ELP and a bacterial lectin, in an affinity precipitation process to purify soybean peroxidase (SBP based on the presence of fucoseon the protein surface. We addressed, in particular, the challenge of purifying a low abundant protein from a complex dilute crude plant extract. The novel affinity precipitation developed in this work was very promising. One step binding and precipitation resulted in >95% recovery yield directly from crude extract and a 22.7 fold purification, giving a specific activity of 420 U/mg. The SBP isolated using this affinity precipitation meets or exceeds the quality specifications of reagent grade products by Sigma. We showed that the recovery yield had a strong dependence on the molar ratio of ligand to target fucosylated protein, with a ratio of three giving nearly full recovery, which could be predicted based on the total fucose content per protein molecule and the number of binding site per ligand molecule. We additionally developed a method of ligand regeneration and investigated its reuse. A simple wash with pH buffer was shown to be effective to regenerate the binding capacity for the ligand, and the ligand could be used for 10 times, giving an averaged 80% isolation yield based on initial input of soybean peroxidase. Taken together, an effective method of affinity precipitation was developed, which could be used to enrich a low abundant target glycoprotein from a complex mixture with a high recovery yield. The high selectivity for fucosylated protein and its ease of operation make this method particularly useful for purification of low abundant glycoprotein from natural sources. This work

  4. DESIGN OF THE THREE-LEVEL MULTICRITERIAL STRATEGY OF HYBRID MARINE POWER PLANT CONTROL FOR A COMBINED PROPULSION COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Budashko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficiency of hybrid ships power plants (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC by various criteria for energy management systems strategies. Methodology. Based on the classification system topologies SPP CPC for mechanical, electrical and hybrid types of motors schematic diagrams of management strategies for the criterion of minimum power consumption are defined. Changing the technical component of the traditional approach to building hybrid ships electric power systems (SEPS SPP CPC the principle of modifying the structure of SEPS is applied with the integration of additional static alternative power source as dynamic reserve, which allowed to meet modern requirements for energy efficiency, levels of vibration, noise and degradation effects produced to SPP CPC, in all areas of the energy for the transfer of power from energy to propellers. Modeling of power transmission of energy to propellers in MatLab/Simulink is conducted, using blocks of optimization library and definition of identity markers. Results. Major advantages and disadvantages SPP CPC depending on the topology of energy distribution systems are determined. According to the chosen structure system electricity characteristics were obtained in the process of power transmission SPP CPC and power systems and their control strategies in terms of increased efficiency and eliminate these drawbacks. And finally, mathematical apparatus for research in terms of the development of methods for designing and managing SPP hybrid CPC to reduced fuel consumption, emissions into the environment and improving maintainability, flexibility and comfort level are improved. Originality. The methodology for improving SPP CPC implementation by developing methods of identification markers mutually influencing processes in SPP CPC and the development of implementing these methods of settlement and information systems. Practical value. The method enables iterative optimization parameters SPP CPC, it

  5. An antibiotic complex from Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3: antimicrobial activity and role in plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Jochum, C C; Yu, F; Zaleta-Rivera, K; Du, L; Harris, S D; Yuen, G Y

    2008-06-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes C3 is a bacterial biological control agent that exhibits antagonism against multiple fungal pathogens. Its antifungal activity was attributed in part to lytic enzymes. In this study, a heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF), an antibiotic complex consisting of dihydromaltophilin and structurally related macrocyclic lactams, was found to be responsible for antagonism by C3 against fungi and oomycetes in culture. HSAF in purified form exhibited inhibitory activity against a wide range of fungal and oomycetes species in vitro, inhibiting spore germination, and disrupting hyphal polarity in sensitive fungi. When applied to tall fescue leaves as a partially-purified extract, HSAF at 25 mug/ml and higher inhibited germination of conidia of Bipolaris sorokiniana compared with the control. Although application of HSAF at 12.5 mug/ml did not reduce the incidence of conidial germination, it inhibited appressorium formation and suppressed Bipolaris leaf spot development. Two mutant strains of C3 (K19 and DeltaNRPS) that were disrupted in different domains in the hybrid polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene for HSAF biosynthesis and had lost the ability to produce HSAF were compared with the wild-type strain for biological control efficacy against Bipolaris leaf spot on tall fescue and Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, on wheat. Both mutant strains exhibited decreased capacity to reduce the incidence and severity of Bipolaris leaf spot compared with C3. In contrast, the mutant strains were as efficacious as the wild-type strain in reducing the severity of Fusarium head blight. Thus, HSAF appears to be a mechanism for biological control by strain C3 against some, but not all, plant pathogenic fungi.

  6. ITS polymorphisms shed light on hybrid evolution in apomictic plants: a case study on the Ranunculus auricomus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodač, Ladislav; Scheben, Armin Patrick; Hojsgaard, Diego; Paun, Ovidiu; Hörandl, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of reticulate evolutionary histories in plants is still a major methodological challenge. Sequences of the ITS nrDNA are a popular marker to analyze hybrid relationships, but variation of this multicopy spacer region is affected by concerted evolution, high intraindividual polymorphism, and shifts in mode of reproduction. The relevance of changes in secondary structure is still under dispute. We aim to shed light on the extent of polymorphism within and between sexual species and their putative natural as well as synthetic hybrid derivatives in the Ranunculus auricomus complex to test morphology-based hypotheses of hybrid origin and parentage of taxa. We employed direct sequencing of ITS nrDNA from 68 individuals representing three sexuals, their synthetic hybrids and one sympatric natural apomict, as well as cloning of ITS copies in four representative individuals, RNA secondary structure analysis, and landmark geometric morphometric analysis on leaves. Phylogenetic network analyses indicate additivity of parental ITS variants in both synthetic and natural hybrids. The triploid synthetic hybrids are genetically much closer to their maternal progenitors, probably due to ploidy dosage effects, although exhibiting a paternal-like leaf morphology. The natural hybrids are genetically and morphologically closer to the putative paternal progenitor species. Secondary structures of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 were rather conserved in all taxa. The observed similarities in ITS polymorphisms suggest that the natural apomict R. variabilis is an ancient hybrid of the diploid sexual species R. notabilis and the sexual species R. cassubicifolius. The additivity pattern shared by R. variabilis and the synthetic hybrids supports an evolutionary and biogeographical scenario that R. variabilis originated from ancient hybridization. Concerted evolution of ITS copies in R. variabilis is incomplete, probably due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Under the condition of

  7. ITS polymorphisms shed light on hybrid evolution in apomictic plants: a case study on the Ranunculus auricomus complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Hodač

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of reticulate evolutionary histories in plants is still a major methodological challenge. Sequences of the ITS nrDNA are a popular marker to analyze hybrid relationships, but variation of this multicopy spacer region is affected by concerted evolution, high intraindividual polymorphism, and shifts in mode of reproduction. The relevance of changes in secondary structure is still under dispute. We aim to shed light on the extent of polymorphism within and between sexual species and their putative natural as well as synthetic hybrid derivatives in the Ranunculus auricomus complex to test morphology-based hypotheses of hybrid origin and parentage of taxa. We employed direct sequencing of ITS nrDNA from 68 individuals representing three sexuals, their synthetic hybrids and one sympatric natural apomict, as well as cloning of ITS copies in four representative individuals, RNA secondary structure analysis, and landmark geometric morphometric analysis on leaves. Phylogenetic network analyses indicate additivity of parental ITS variants in both synthetic and natural hybrids. The triploid synthetic hybrids are genetically much closer to their maternal progenitors, probably due to ploidy dosage effects, although exhibiting a paternal-like leaf morphology. The natural hybrids are genetically and morphologically closer to the putative paternal progenitor species. Secondary structures of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 were rather conserved in all taxa. The observed similarities in ITS polymorphisms suggest that the natural apomict R. variabilis is an ancient hybrid of the diploid sexual species R. notabilis and the sexual species R. cassubicifolius. The additivity pattern shared by R. variabilis and the synthetic hybrids supports an evolutionary and biogeographical scenario that R. variabilis originated from ancient hybridization. Concerted evolution of ITS copies in R. variabilis is incomplete, probably due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Under the

  8. Genome-Wide Binding Analysis of the Transcription Activator IDEAL PLANT ARCHITECTURE1 Reveals a Complex Network Regulating Rice Plant Architecture[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zefu; Yu, Hong; Xiong, Guosheng; Wang, Jing; Jiao, Yongqing; Liu, Guifu; Jing, Yanhui; Meng, Xiangbing; Hu, Xingming; Qian, Qian; Fu, Xiangdong; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang

    2013-01-01

    IDEAL PLANT ARCHITECTURE1 (IPA1) is critical in regulating rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture and substantially enhances grain yield. To elucidate its molecular basis, we first confirmed IPA1 as a functional transcription activator and then identified 1067 and 2185 genes associated with IPA1 binding sites in shoot apices and young panicles, respectively, through chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing assays. The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-box direct binding core motif GTAC was highly enriched in IPA1 binding peaks; interestingly, a previously uncharacterized indirect binding motif TGGGCC/T was found to be significantly enriched through the interaction of IPA1 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen PROMOTER BINDING FACTOR1 or PROMOTER BINDING FACTOR2. Genome-wide expression profiling by RNA sequencing revealed IPA1 roles in diverse pathways. Moreover, our results demonstrated that IPA1 could directly bind to the promoter of rice TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, a negative regulator of tiller bud outgrowth, to suppress rice tillering, and directly and positively regulate DENSE AND ERECT PANICLE1, an important gene regulating panicle architecture, to influence plant height and panicle length. The elucidation of target genes of IPA1 genome-wide will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying plant architecture and to facilitating the breeding of elite varieties with ideal plant architecture. PMID:24170127

  9. Genome-wide binding analysis of the transcription activator ideal plant architecture1 reveals a complex network regulating rice plant architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zefu; Yu, Hong; Xiong, Guosheng; Wang, Jing; Jiao, Yongqing; Liu, Guifu; Jing, Yanhui; Meng, Xiangbing; Hu, Xingming; Qian, Qian; Fu, Xiangdong; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang

    2013-10-01

    Ideal plant architecture1 (IPA1) is critical in regulating rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture and substantially enhances grain yield. To elucidate its molecular basis, we first confirmed IPA1 as a functional transcription activator and then identified 1067 and 2185 genes associated with IPA1 binding sites in shoot apices and young panicles, respectively, through chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing assays. The Squamosa promoter binding protein-box direct binding core motif GTAC was highly enriched in IPA1 binding peaks; interestingly, a previously uncharacterized indirect binding motif TGGGCC/T was found to be significantly enriched through the interaction of IPA1 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter binding factor1 or promoter binding factor2. Genome-wide expression profiling by RNA sequencing revealed IPA1 roles in diverse pathways. Moreover, our results demonstrated that IPA1 could directly bind to the promoter of rice teosinte branched1, a negative regulator of tiller bud outgrowth, to suppress rice tillering, and directly and positively regulate dense and erect panicle1, an important gene regulating panicle architecture, to influence plant height and panicle length. The elucidation of target genes of IPA1 genome-wide will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying plant architecture and to facilitating the breeding of elite varieties with ideal plant architecture.

  10. CRYSTAL-STRUCTURES OF HEVAMINE, A PLANT DEFENSE PROTEIN WITH CHITINASE AND LYSOZYME ACTIVITY, AND ITS COMPLEX WITH AN INHIBITOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSCHELTINGA, ACT; KALK, KH; BEINTEMA, JJ; DIJKSTRA, BW

    1994-01-01

    Background: Hevamine is a member of one of several families of plant chitinases and lysozymes that are important for plant defence against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The enzyme can hydrolyze the linear polysaccharide chains of chitin and peptidoglycan. A full understanding of the structure/funct

  11. Nitric oxide production by necrotrophic pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the host plant in charcoal rot disease of jute: complexity of the interplay between necrotroph-host plant interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Subhra Sarkar

    Full Text Available M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction.

  12. Nitric oxide production by necrotrophic pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the host plant in charcoal rot disease of jute: complexity of the interplay between necrotroph-host plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction.

  13. Nitric Oxide Production by Necrotrophic Pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the Host Plant in Charcoal Rot Disease of Jute: Complexity of the Interplay between Necrotroph–Host Plant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2′,7′-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. PMID:25208092

  14. Effect evaluation of carbendazim-β-ciclodextrin complex for controling filamentous contaminants of plant in vitro cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileidy Cruz-Martín

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of in vitro contaminant microorganisms affecting plant in vitro culture are bacterias and fungus. These are commonly observed in vivo on plants, but they could cause harmful effect on plant propagated in vitro. The search of new alternatives for their prevention and control is a priority. Carbendazim is the active ingredient of some systemic fungicides, it´s application for fungus contamination on in vitro propagation of plant it has been constrained for their lowsolubilityonwater.Thisproblemcouldbesolvedbycombiningthisproductwitha β-ciclodextrina.Thispaperwas focusedtodeterminetheeffectofcarbendazim-β-ciclodextrinaversusthecontaminantfungiofplantinvitroculture. It was determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC by the agar dilution method. Thirty four strains were analysed.Thecarbendazim-β-ciclodextrinacomplexshowedanacceptableantifungalactivityversuscontaminant. This result could be an useful alternative to control the fungi contamination on plant propagated in vitro. Key words: fungal contamination, antifungal compounds, minimum inhibitory concentration

  15. A procedure for tuning automatic controllers with determining a second-order plant model with time delay from two points of a complex frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Petrov, S. V.

    2012-10-01

    The problem of obtaining the mathematical model of a plant in the course of adaptively tuning the operating automatic closed-loop control systems is considered. A new method is proposed for calculating the parameters of a model with four free coefficients represented by two inertial sections with a time delay. The model parameters are calculated from the data of experiments on determining two points of a plant's complex frequency response. The results from checking the performance of the method in combination with obtaining information on the plant dynamics by applying the Fourier transform to the impulse transient response of the system are presented. The PID controller is tuned using a parameter scanning algorithm with directly checking the amplitude-frequency response of the closed-loop system, using which the stability margin can be calculated and different quality criteria can be applied.

  16. The boron content in soils of solonetzic complexes in the Irtysh Region of Omsk oblast and the boron resistance of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarenko, Yu. A.

    2007-05-01

    Data on the boron content in the main soil types of solonetzic complexes in the Irtysh Region of Omsk oblast are given. They attest to the boron salinization of the soils. It is shown that there is a risk of excessive boron accumulation in natural plants and crops. The boron resistance of crops cultivated on the boronsaline soils has been examined in the field and in pot experiments. Approximate normal and toxic levels of the boron content in soils and in plants and the corresponding Ca-to-B ratios in the aboveground phytomass are suggested. Amelioration of solonetzes with application of gypsum and phosphogypsum reduces the degree of their boron salinization and the boron uptake by plants.

  17. 菠萝焦磷酸:果糖-6-磷酸1-磷酸转移酶的分离纯化及性质研究%Studies on purification and enzymatic property of PFP from pineapple leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平生

    2006-01-01

    应用硫酸铵分级分离、DEAE-纤维素、Sephadex G-200、磷酸纤维素柱层析分离纯化了菠萝叶片焦磷酸:果糖-6-磷酸1-磷酸转移酶(PFP).凝胶过滤和非变性聚丙烯酰胺梯度电泳测定酶的分子量为132kD和140kD,SDS-聚丙烯酰胺电泳分析得到一条分子量为66kD的蛋白主带,表明该酶可能是由同种亚基组成的二聚体.此外,还对该酶的部分酶学性质进行了初步研究.

  18. Complexities of Nitrogen Isotope Biogeochemistry in Plant-Soil Systems: Implications for the Study of Ancient Agricultural and Animal Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSzpak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen isotopic studies have potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1 agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage and (2 animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens. The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts.

  19. Proposal - At-Risk Plant Occurrences on National Wildlife Refuges within the South Carolina Lowcountry and Savannah Complexes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal involves the population detection and estimation of 11 at-risk plant species on 7 national wildlife refuges at the Lowcountry and Savannah National Wildlife...

  20. Symbiotic lifestyle expression by fungal endophytes and the adaptation of plants to stress: unraveling the complexities of intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Henson, Joan M.; Rodriguez, Russell J.

    2005-01-01

    The fossil record indicates that fungal symbionts have been associated with plants since the Ordovician period (approximately 400 million years ago), when plants first became established on land (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975; Redecker et al., 2000; Remy et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1993). Transitioning from aquatic to terrestrial habitats likely presented plants with new stresses, including periods of desiccation. Since symbiotic fungi are known to confer drought tolerance to plants (Bacon, 1993; Read and Camp, 1986), it has been suggested that fungal symbiosis was involved with or responsible for the establishment of land plants (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975). Symbiosis was first defined by De Bary in 1879, and since that time, all plants in natural ecosystems have been found to be colonized with fungal and bacterial symbionts. It is clear that individual plants represent symbiotic communities with microorganisms associated in or on tissues below- and aboveground.There are two major classes of fungal symbionts associated with internal plant tissues: fungal endophytes that reside entirely within plants and may be associated with roots, stems leaves, or flowers; and mycorrhizal fungi that reside only in roots but extend out into the rhizosphere. In addition, fungal endophytes may be divided into two classes: (1) a relatively small number of fastidious species that are limited to a few monocot hosts (Clay and Schardl, 2002), and (2) a large number of tractable species with broad host ranges, including both monocots and eudicots (Stone et al., 2000). While significant resources and research have been invested in mycorrhizae and class 1 endophytes, comparatively little is known about class 2 endophytes, which may represent the largest group of fungal symbionts. This is partially because the symbiotic functionalities of class 2 endophytes have only recently been elucidated and shown to be responsible for the adaptation of some plants to high-stress environments (Redman

  1. Two Prp19-like U-box proteins in the MOS4-associated complex play redundant roles in plant innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Monaghan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant Resistance (R proteins play an integral role in defense against pathogen infection. A unique gain-of-function mutation in the R gene SNC1, snc1, results in constitutive activation of plant immune pathways and enhanced resistance against pathogen infection. We previously found that mutations in MOS4 suppress the autoimmune phenotypes of snc1, and that MOS4 is part of a nuclear complex called the MOS4-Associated Complex (MAC along with the transcription factor AtCDC5 and the WD-40 protein PRL1. Here we report the immuno-affinity purification of the MAC using HA-tagged MOS4 followed by protein sequence analysis by mass spectrometry. A total of 24 MAC proteins were identified, 19 of which have predicted roles in RNA processing based on their homology to proteins in the Prp19-Complex, an evolutionarily conserved spliceosome-associated complex containing homologs of MOS4, AtCDC5, and PRL1. Among these were two highly similar U-box proteins with homology to the yeast and human E3 ubiquitin ligase Prp19, which we named MAC3A and MAC3B. MAC3B was recently shown to exhibit E3 ligase activity in vitro. Through reverse genetics analysis we show that MAC3A and MAC3B are functionally redundant and are required for basal and R protein-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis. Like mos4-1 and Atcdc5-1, mac3a mac3b suppresses snc1-mediated autoimmunity. MAC3 localizes to the nucleus and interacts with AtCDC5 in planta. Our results suggest that MAC3A and MAC3B are members of the MAC that function redundantly in the regulation of plant innate immunity.

  2. Supercomplexes of plant photosystem I with cytochrome b6f, light-harvesting complex II and NDH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, K N Sathish; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Nosek, Lukáš; Kouřil, Roman; Fucile, Geoffrey; Boekema, Egbert J; Eichacker, Lutz A

    Photosystem I (PSI) is a pigment-protein complex required for the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and participates in light-harvesting and redox-driven chloroplast metabolism. Assembly of PSI into supercomplexes with light harvesting complex (LHC) II, cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) or NAD(P)H

  3. Evaluation of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and histochemical tests for aluminium detection in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Naiara V; Pereira, Tiago A R; Machado, Mariana F; Guerra, Marcelo B B; Tolentino, Gláucia S; Araújo, Josiane S; Rezende, Maíra Q; Silva, Maria Carolina N A da; Schaefer, Carlos E G R

    2014-03-01

    The soils developed under High Altitude Rocky Complexes in Brazil are generally of very low chemical fertility, with low base saturation and high exchangeable aluminium concentration. This stressful condition imposes evolutionary pressures that lead to ecological success of plant species that are able to tolerate or accumulate high amounts of aluminium. Several analytical methods are currently available for elemental mapping of biological structures, such as micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDX) and histochemical tests. The aim of this study was to combine μ-EDX analysis and histochemical tests to quantify aluminium in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, identifying the main sites for Al-accumulation. Among the studied species, five showed total Al concentration higher than 1000 mg kg-1. The main Al-hyperaccumulator plants, Lavoisiera pectinata, Lycopodium clavatum and Trembleya parviflora presented positive reactions in the histochemical tests using Chrome Azurol and Aluminon. Strong positive correlations were observed between the total Al concentrations and data obtained by μ-EDX analysis. The μ-EDX analysis is a potential tool to map and quantify Al in hyperaccumulator species, and a valuable technique due to its non-destructive capacity. Histochemical tests can be helpful to indicate the accumulation pattern of samples before they are submitted for further μ-EDX scrutiny.

  4. Terminal-repeat retrotransposons with GAG domain in plant genomes: a new testimony on the complex world of transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Cristian; Gayraud, Thomas; de Souza, Rogerio Fernandes; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Akaffou, Sélastique; Laforga Vanzela, Andre Luis; Kochko, Alexandre de; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Guyot, Romain

    2015-01-07

    A novel structure of nonautonomous long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons called terminal repeat with GAG domain (TR-GAG) has been described in plants, both in monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous and basal angiosperm genomes. TR-GAGs are relatively short elements in length (element into the virus-like particle. GAG precursors show similarities with both Copia and Gypsy GAG proteins, suggesting evolutionary relationships of TR-GAG elements with both families. Despite the lack of the enzymatic machinery required for their mobility, strong evidences suggest that TR-GAGs are still active. TR-GAGs represent ubiquitous nonautonomous structures that could be involved in the molecular diversities of plant genomes.

  5. Fate of hazardous elements in agricultural soils surrounding a coal power plant complex from Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Arana, Gorka; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2015-03-01

    Hazard element contamination coming from coal power plants is something obvious, but when this contamination is accompanied by other contamination sources, such as, urban, coal mining and farming activities the study gets complicated. This is the case of an area comprised in the southern part of Santa Catarina state (Brazil) with the largest private power plant generator. After the elemental analysis of 41 agricultural soils collected in an extensive area around the thermoelectric (from 0 to 47 km), the high presence of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V and Zn was found in some specific areas around the power plant. Nevertheless, as the NWAC (Normalized-and-Weighted Average Concentration) confirmed, only soils from one site were classified as of very high concern due to the presence of potential toxic elements. This site was located within the sedimentation basin of the power plant. The spatial distribution obtained by kriging in combination with the analysis of the data by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed three important hotspots in the area according to soil uses and geographic localization: the thermoelectric, its area of influence due to volatile compound deposition, and the area comprised between two urban areas. Farming practice turn out to be an important factor too for the quantity of hazard element stored in soils.

  6. Advanced monitoring and supervision of biological treatment of complex dairy effluents in a full-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Eugenio F; Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a wastewater treatment plant treating effluents from a dairy laboratory was monitored by an advanced system. This plant comprises a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR) coupled in series and is equipped with the following on-line measurement devices: biogas flow meter, feed and recycling flow meters, temperature sensor, dissolved oxygen analyzer, and redox meter. Other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), etc. were determined off-line. The plant has been in operation for 634 days, the influent flow rate being 6-8 m(3)/d. COD concentration of the influent ranged between 8 and 12 kg COD/m(3), resulting in COD values in the effluent around 50-200 mg/L. The behavior of the system was studied using the set of measurements collected by the data acquisition program especially developed for this purpose. Monitoring of variables such as anaerobic reactor temperature permitted the detection and prevention of several failures such as temperature shocks in the AF reactor. Besides, off-line measurements such as the alkalinity or the VFA content, together with the on-line measurements, provided immediate information about the state of the plant and the detection of several anomalies, such as organic overloads in the SBR, allowing the implementation of several fast control actions.

  7. Photoprotection in higher plants : The putative quenching site is conserved in all outer light-harvesting complexes of Photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozzo, Milena; Passarini, Francesca; Bassi, Roberto; van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    In bright sunlight, the amount of energy harvested by plants exceeds the electron transport capacity of Photosystem II in the chloroplasts. The excess energy can lead to severe damage of the photosynthetic apparatus and to avoid this, part of the energy is thermally dissipated via a mechanism called

  8. Autoluminescent plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krichevsky

    Full Text Available Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  9. Transcriptomic responses of a simplified soil microcosm to a plant pathogen and its biocontrol agent reveal a complex reaction to harsh habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolli, Michele; Herrero, Noemí; Sterck, Lieven; Lenzi, Luisa; Pellegrini, Alberto; Puopolo, Gerardo; Van de Peer, Yves; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-10-27

    Soil microorganisms are key determinants of soil fertility and plant health. Soil phytopathogenic fungi are one of the most important causes of crop losses worldwide. Microbial biocontrol agents have been extensively studied as alternatives for controlling phytopathogenic soil microorganisms, but molecular interactions between them have mainly been characterised in dual cultures, without taking into account the soil microbial community. We used an RNA sequencing approach to elucidate the molecular interplay of a soil microbial community in response to a plant pathogen and its biocontrol agent, in order to examine the molecular patterns activated by the microorganisms. A simplified soil microcosm containing 11 soil microorganisms was incubated with a plant root pathogen (Armillaria mellea) and its biocontrol agent (Trichoderma atroviride) for 24 h under controlled conditions. More than 46 million paired-end reads were obtained for each replicate and 28,309 differentially expressed genes were identified in total. Pathway analysis revealed complex adaptations of soil microorganisms to the harsh conditions of the soil matrix and to reciprocal microbial competition/cooperation relationships. Both the phytopathogen and its biocontrol agent were specifically recognised by the simplified soil microcosm: defence reaction mechanisms and neutral adaptation processes were activated in response to competitive (T. atroviride) or non-competitive (A. mellea) microorganisms, respectively. Moreover, activation of resistance mechanisms dominated in the simplified soil microcosm in the presence of both A. mellea and T. atroviride. Biocontrol processes of T. atroviride were already activated during incubation in the simplified soil microcosm, possibly to occupy niches in a competitive ecosystem, and they were not further enhanced by the introduction of A. mellea. This work represents an additional step towards understanding molecular interactions between plant pathogens and biocontrol

  10. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni-Bin CHANG; Yu-Chi WENG

    2013-01-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed,especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan.An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention.These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human,software,or mechanical failures,or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices.Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release.To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems,previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term,dispersion,and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support.Therefore,the Gaussian plume and puff models,which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations,are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources.In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions,the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality.This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term,dispersion,and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants.Through a series model screening procedures,we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns.However,most of the

  11. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Weng, Yu-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed, especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan. An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention. These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human, software, or mechanical failures, or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices. Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release. To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems, previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support. Therefore, the Gaussian plume and puff models, which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations, are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources. In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions, the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality. This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants. Through a series model screening procedures, we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns

  12. The tritrophic system hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae - agromyzid leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae - parasitoids (Hymenoptera: effects of herbivore density, host plant patch size, and habitat complexity on parasitism rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Marcal de Queiroz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study a tritrophic system was evaluated to measure the contributions of the insect host density and its host plant concentration in simple and diversified habitat on the rate of parasitism. The system was composed of the plant Hyptis suaveolens, two species of agromyzid leafminers, and three morphospecies of parasitoids. The parasitism rate, patch size, and habitat complexity were found to be interdependent. If only the habitat complexity or patch size was take into account the differences in parasitism rate are not significant, although habitat diversity seemed to contribute more than the host plant concentration to increase the parasitism rate. The leaves or plants with different number of mines were equally attacked by the parasitoids. The results were representative of what happened to the leafminers at different host plant densities under the homogeneous and heterogeneous habitat condition. This work could help to reinforce the idea of the importance of the plant diversity for enhancing the biological control of the pests by the parasitoids in the managed ecosystems.Foi avaliado um sistema tritrófico para medir os efeitos da densidade de insetos minadores e a concentração da planta hospedeira em habitats simples e diversificados sobre a taxa de parasitismo. O sistema era composto pela planta Hyptis suaveolens, duas espécies de agromizídeos minadores de folhas e três morfoespécies de parasitóides. A taxa de parasitismo, tamanho da mancha e a complexidade do habitat foram interdependentes. Se levarmos em consideração apenas a complexidade ou tamanho de mancha, as diferenças na taxa de parasitismo não foram significativas, embora a diversidade de habitat pareça ter contribuido mais do que a concentração da planta hospedeira para aumentar a taxa de parasitismo. Folhas ou plantas com diferentes números de minas foram igualmente parasitadas. Nossos resultados são representativos do que acontece com insetos minadores em

  13. Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposons with GAG Domain in Plant Genomes: A New Testimony on the Complex World of Transposable Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Cristian; Gayraud, Thomas; de Souza, Rogerio Fernandes; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Akaffou, Sélastique; Laforga Vanzela, Andre Luis; de Kochko, Alexandre; Rigoreau, Michel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; Guyot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    A novel structure of nonautonomous long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons called terminal repeat with GAG domain (TR-GAG) has been described in plants, both in monocotyledonous, dicotyledonous and basal angiosperm genomes. TR-GAGs are relatively short elements in length (<4 kb) showing the typical features of LTR-retrotransposons. However, they carry only one open reading frame coding for the GAG precursor protein involved for instance in transposition, the assembly, and the packaging of the element into the virus-like particle. GAG precursors show similarities with both Copia and Gypsy GAG proteins, suggesting evolutionary relationships of TR-GAG elements with both families. Despite the lack of the enzymatic machinery required for their mobility, strong evidences suggest that TR-GAGs are still active. TR-GAGs represent ubiquitous nonautonomous structures that could be involved in the molecular diversities of plant genomes. PMID:25573958

  14. A polycomb repressive complex 2 gene regulates apogamy and gives evolutionary insights into early land plant evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Okano, Yosuke; Aono, Naoki; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Murata, Takashi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Ishikawa, Takaaki; Kubo, Minoru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2009-01-01

    Land plants have distinct developmental programs in haploid (gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte) generations. Although usually the two programs strictly alternate at fertilization and meiosis, one program can be induced during the other program. In a process called apogamy, cells of the gametophyte other than the egg cell initiate sporophyte development. Here, we report for the moss Physcomitrella patens that apogamy resulted from deletion of the gene orthologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana...

  15. Performance evaluation of a full-scale ABS resin manufacturing wastewater treatment plant: a case study in Tabriz Petrochemical Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi; Mohammad Mosaferi; Khaled Zorufchi Benis; Zahra Akbari

    2016-01-01

    Background: The measurement data regarding the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) provides a general overview, demonstrating an overall performance of WWTP. Nevertheless, these data do not provide the suitable operational information for the optimization of individual units involved in a WWTP. A full-scale evolution of WWTP was carried out in this study via a reconciled data. Methods: A full-scale evolution of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene (ABS) r...

  16. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana EDS1, a key component of plant immunity, in complex with its signalling partner SAG101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephan; Rietz, Steffen; Parker, Jane E; Niefind, Karsten

    2011-02-01

    In plants, the nucleocytoplasmic protein EDS1 (Enhanced disease susceptibility1) is an important regulator of innate immunity, coordinating host-cell defence and cell-death programs in response to pathogen attack. Arabidopsis thaliana EDS1 stabilizes and signals together with its partners PAD4 (Phytoalexin deficient4) and SAG101 (Senescence-associated gene101). Characterization of EDS1 molecular configurations in vitro and in vivo points to the formation of structurally and spatially distinct EDS1 homomeric dimers and EDS1 heteromeric complexes with either PAD4 or SAG101 as necessary components of the immune response. EDS1, PAD4 and SAG101 constitute a plant-specific protein family with a unique `EP' (EDS1-PAD4-specific) domain at their C-termini and an N-terminal domain resembling enzymes with an α/β-hydrolase fold. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of a functional EDS1 complex formed by EDS1 and SAG101 from Arabidopsis thaliana are reported. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 101.8, b = 115.9, c = 122.8 Å, and diffracted to 3.5 Å resolution.

  18. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  19. Distribution of Natural (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226) and Technogenic (Sr-90, Cs-137) Radionuclides in Soil-Plants Complex Near Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, L.; Kaldybaev, B.; Djenbaev, B.; Tilenbaev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Researches on radionuclides distribution in the soil-plants complex provide essential information in understanding human exposure to natural and technogenic sources of radiation. It is necessary in establishing regulation relating to radiation protection. The aim of this study was the radiochemical analysis of the content natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th,226Ra and technogenic radionuclides content (90Sr, 137Cs) in soils near Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan). Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that the concentrations of thorium-232 are fluctuating in the limits (11.7-84.1)-10-4% in the soils. The greatest concentration of thorium-232 has been found in the light chestnut soils. The content of uranium-238 in the soils near Issyk-Kul lake is fluctuating from 2.8 up to 12.7-10-4%. Radium-226 has more migration ability in comparison with other heavy natural radionuclides. According to our research the concentrations of radium-226 are fluctuating in the limits (9.4-43.0)-10-11%. The greatest concentration of radium-226 (43,0±2,8)-10-11% has been determined in the light chestnut soil. In connection with global migration of contaminating substances, including radioactive, the special attention is given long-lived radionuclides strontium-90 and caesium-137 in food-chains, and agroecosystems. Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that specific activity of strontium-90 is fluctuating in the range of 2.9 up to 11.1 Bq/kg, and caesium-137 from 3.7 up to 14,3 Bq/kg in the soil of agroecosystems in the region of Issyk-Kul. In soil samples down to 1 meter we have observed vertical migration of these radionuclides, they were found to accumulate on the surface of soil horizon (0-5 cm) and their specific activity sharply decreases with depth. In addition in high-mountain pastures characterized by horizontal migration of cattle in profiles of soil, it was discovered that specific activity of radionuclides are lower on the slope than at the foot of the mountain. The

  20. Structural basis for signaling by exclusive EDS1 heteromeric complexes with SAG101 or PAD4 in plant innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephan; Stuttmann, Johannes; Rietz, Steffen; Guerois, Raphael; Brunstein, Elena; Bautor, Jaqueline; Niefind, Karsten; Parker, Jane E

    2013-12-11

    Biotrophic plant pathogens encounter a postinfection basal resistance layer controlled by the lipase-like protein enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) and its sequence-related interaction partners, senescence-associated gene 101 (SAG101) and phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4). Maintainance of separate EDS1 family member clades through angiosperm evolution suggests distinct functional attributes. We report the Arabidopsis EDS1-SAG101 heterodimer crystal structure with juxtaposed N-terminal α/β hydrolase and C-terminal α-helical EP domains aligned via a large conserved interface. Mutational analysis of the EDS1-SAG101 heterodimer and a derived EDS1-PAD4 structural model shows that EDS1 signals within mutually exclusive heterocomplexes. Although there is evolutionary conservation of α/β hydrolase topology in all three proteins, a noncatalytic resistance mechanism is indicated. Instead, the respective N-terminal domains appear to facilitate binding of the essential EP domains to create novel interaction surfaces on the heterodimer. Transitions between distinct functional EDS1 heterodimers might explain the central importance and versatility of this regulatory node in plant immunity.

  1. Performance evaluation of a full-scale ABS resin manufacturing wastewater treatment plant: a case study in Tabriz Petrochemical Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The measurement data regarding the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP provides a general overview, demonstrating an overall performance of WWTP. Nevertheless, these data do not provide the suitable operational information for the optimization of individual units involved in a WWTP. A full-scale evolution of WWTP was carried out in this study via a reconciled data. Methods: A full-scale evolution of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene (ABS resin manufacturing WWTP was carried out. Data reconciliation technique was employed to fulfil the mass conservation law and also enhance the accuracy of the flow measurements. Daily average values from long-term measurements by the WWTP library along with the results of four sampling runs, were utilized for data reconciliation with further performance evaluation and characterization of WWTP. Results: The full-scale evaluation, based on balanced data showed that removal efficiency based on chemical oxygen demand (COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 through the WWTP were 80% and 90%, respectively, from which only 28% of COD and 20% of BOD5 removal had occurred in biological reactor. In addition, the removal efficiency of styrene and acrylonitrile, throughout the plant, was approximately 90%. Estimation results employing Toxchem model showed that 43% of acrylonitrile and 85% of styrene were emitted into the atmosphere above water surfaces. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volatilization of styrene and acrylonitrile is the main mechanism for their removal along with corresponded COD elimination from the WWTP.

  2. The assembly of the plant urease activation complex and the essential role of the urease accessory protein G (UreG) in delivery of nickel to urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrach, Till; Zhu, Anting; Witte, Claus-Peter

    2017-09-01

    Urease is a ubiquitous nickel metalloenzyme. In plants, its activation requires three urease accessory proteins (UAPs), UreD, UreF, and UreG. In bacteria, the UAPs interact with urease and facilitate activation, which involves the channeling of two nickel ions into the active site. So far this process has not been investigated in eukaryotes. Using affinity pulldowns of Strep-tagged UAPs from Arabidopsis and rice transiently expressed in planta, we demonstrate that a urease-UreD-UreF-UreG complex exists in plants and show its stepwise assembly. UreG is crucial for nickel delivery because UreG-dependent urease activation in vitro was observed only with UreG obtained from nickel-sufficient plants. This activation competence could not be generated in vitro by incubation of UreG with nickel, bicarbonate, and GTP. Compared with their bacterial orthologs, plant UreGs possess an N-terminal extension containing a His- and Asp/Glu-rich hypervariable region followed by a highly conserved sequence comprising two potential HXH metal-binding sites. Complementing the ureG-1 mutant of Arabidopsis with N-terminal deletion variants of UreG demonstrated that the hypervariable region has a minor impact on activation efficiency, whereas the conserved region up to the first HXH motif is highly beneficial and up to the second HXH motif strictly required for activation. We also show that urease reaches its full activity several days after nickel becomes available in the leaves, indicating that urease activation is limited by nickel accessibility in vivo Our data uncover the crucial role of UreG for nickel delivery during eukaryotic urease activation, inciting further investigations of the details of this process. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Complex plant-disperser-pest interactions in NW Amazonia : beetle larvae and companions travelling inside Attalea maripa palm nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Guix, Juan Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The dispersal and predation, by vertebrates, of bruchid beetle larvae living inside Attalea maripa palm nuts are described in the region of the Middle Negro river (state of Amazonas, Brazil). The complexity of the ecological relationships between palm trees, seed dispersers, beetle seed predators and parasitic or commensal organisms is discussed and their importance to the biological diversity of the Amazonian ecosystems is argued. Se describe la dispersión y depredación por vertebrados de...

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of a higher plant heme oxygenase isoform-1 from Glycine max (soybean)--coordination structure of the heme complex and catabolism of heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohya, Tomohiko; Zhang, Xuhong; Yoshida, Tadashi; Migita, Catharina T

    2006-12-01

    Heme oxygenase converts heme into biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In plants, as well as in cyanobacteria, heme oxygenase plays a particular role in the biosynthesis of photoreceptive pigments, such as phytochromobilins and phycobilins, supplying biliverdin IX(alpha) as a direct synthetic resource. In this study, a higher plant heme oxygenase, GmHO-1, of Glycine max (soybean), was prepared to evaluate the molecular features of its heme complex, the enzymatic activity, and the mechanism of heme conversion. The similarity in the amino acid sequence between GmHO-1 and heme oxygenases from other biological species is low, and GmHO-1 binds heme with 1 : 1 stoichiometry at His30; this position does not correspond to the proximal histidine of other heme oxygenases in their sequence alignments. The heme bound to GmHO-1, in the ferric high-spin state, exhibits an acid-base transition and is converted to biliverdin IX(alpha) in the presence of NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin, or ascorbate. During the heme conversion, an intermediate with an absorption maximum different from that of typical verdoheme-heme oxygenase or CO-verdoheme-heme oxygenase complexes was observed and was extracted as a bis-imidazole complex; it was identified as verdoheme. A myoglobin mutant, H64L, with high CO affinity trapped CO produced during the heme degradation. Thus, the mechanism of heme degradation by GmHO-1 appears to be similar to that of known heme oxygenases, despite the low sequence homology. The heme conversion by GmHO-1 is as fast as that by SynHO-1 in the presence of NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin, thereby suggesting that the latter is the physiologic electron-donating system.

  5. Fingerprinting the macro-organisation of pigment-protein complexes in plant thylakoid membranes in vivo by circular-dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Tünde N; Rai, Neha; Solymosi, Katalin; Zsiros, Ottó; Schröder, Wolfgang P; Garab, Győző; van Amerongen, Herbert; Horton, Peter; Kovács, László

    2016-09-01

    Macro-organisation of the protein complexes in plant thylakoid membranes plays important roles in the regulation and fine-tuning of photosynthetic activity. These delicate structures might, however, undergo substantial changes during isolating the thylakoid membranes or during sample preparations, e.g., for electron microscopy. Circular-dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique which can thus be used on intact samples. Via excitonic and psi-type CD bands, respectively, it carries information on short-range excitonic pigment-pigment interactions and the macro-organisation (chiral macrodomains) of pigment-protein complexes (psi, polymer or salt-induced). In order to obtain more specific information on the origin of the major psi-type CD bands, at around (+)506, (-)674 and (+)690nm, we fingerprinted detached leaves and isolated thylakoid membranes of wild-type and mutant plants and also tested the effects of different environmental conditions in vivo. We show that (i) the chiral macrodomains disassemble upon mild detergent treatments, but not after crosslinking the protein complexes; (ii) in different wild-type leaves of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous angiosperms the CD features are quite robust, displaying very similar excitonic and psi-type bands, suggesting similar protein composition and (macro-) organisation of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes in the grana; (iii) the main positive psi-type bands depend on light-harvesting protein II contents of the membranes; (iv) the (+)506nm band appears only in the presence of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes and does not depend on the xanthophyll composition of the membranes. Hence, CD spectroscopy can be used to detect different macro-domains in the thylakoid membranes with different outer antenna compositions in vivo.

  6. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  7. Insight to structural subsite recognition in plant thiol protease-inhibitor complexes : Understanding the basis of differential inhibition and the role of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhayay Bishnu P

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work represents an extensive MD simulation / water-dynamics studies on a series of complexes of inhibitors (leupeptin, E-64, E-64-C, ZPACK and plant cysteine proteases (actinidin, caricain, chymopapain, calotropin DI of papain family to understand the various interactions, water binding mode, factors influencing it and the structural basis of differential inhibition. Results The tertiary structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes were built by visual interactive modeling and energy minimization followed by dynamic simulation of 120 ps in water environment. DASA study with and without the inhibitor revealed the potential subsite residues involved in inhibition. Though the interaction involving main chain atoms are similar, critical inspection of the complexes reveal significant differences in the side chain interactions in S2-P2 and S3-P3 pairs due to sequence differences in the equivalent positions of respective subsites leading to differential inhibition. Conclusion The key finding of the study is a conserved site of a water molecule near oxyanion hole of the enzyme active site, which is found in all the modeled complexes and in most crystal structures of papain family either native or complexed. Conserved water molecules at the ligand binding sites of these homologous proteins suggest the structural importance of the water, which changes the conventional definition of chemical geometry of inhibitor binding domain, its shape and complimentarity. The water mediated recognition of inhibitor to enzyme subsites (Pn...H2O....Sn of leupeptin acetyl oxygen to caricain, chymopapain and calotropinDI is an additional information and offer valuable insight to potent inhibitor design.

  8. Arabidopsis COMPASS-like complexes mediate histone H3 lysine-4 trimethylation to control floral transition and plant development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhua Jiang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4 methylation is associated with transcribed genes in eukaryotes. In Drosophila and mammals, both di- and tri-methylation of H3K4 are associated with gene activation. In contrast to animals, in Arabidopsis H3K4 trimethylation, but not mono- or di-methylation of H3K4, has been implicated in transcriptional activation. H3K4 methylation is catalyzed by the H3K4 methyltransferase complexes known as COMPASS or COMPASS-like in yeast and mammals. Here, we report that Arabidopsis homologs of the COMPASS and COMPASS-like complex core components known as Ash2, RbBP5, and WDR5 in humans form a nuclear subcomplex during vegetative and reproductive development, which can associate with multiple putative H3K4 methyltransferases. Loss of function of ARABIDOPSIS Ash2 RELATIVE (ASH2R causes a great decrease in genome-wide H3K4 trimethylation, but not in di- or mono-methylation. Knockdown of ASH2R or the RbBP5 homolog suppresses the expression of a crucial Arabidopsis floral repressor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC, and FLC homologs resulting in accelerated floral transition. ASH2R binds to the chromatin of FLC and FLC homologs in vivo and is required for H3K4 trimethylation, but not for H3K4 dimethylation in these loci; overexpression of ASH2R causes elevated H3K4 trimethylation, but not H3K4 dimethylation, in its target genes FLC and FLC homologs, resulting in activation of these gene expression and consequent late flowering. These results strongly suggest that H3K4 trimethylation in FLC and its homologs can activate their expression, providing concrete evidence that H3K4 trimethylation accumulation can activate eukaryotic gene expression. Furthermore, our findings suggest that there are multiple COMPASS-like complexes in Arabidopsis and that these complexes deposit trimethyl but not di- or mono-methyl H3K4 in target genes to promote their expression, providing a molecular explanation for the observed coupling of H3K4 trimethylation (but not H3

  9. Genetic and chemical diversity of high mucilaginous plants of Sida complex by ISSR markers and chemical fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Sanjog T; Srivastava, Ankit K; Singh, Subhash C; Shanker, Karuna

    2011-09-01

    A method was developed based on multiple approaches wherein DNA and chemical analysis was carried out toward differentiation of important species of Sida complex that is being used for commercial preparation. Isolated DNA samples were successfully performed through PCR amplification using ISSR markers and degree of genetic diversity among the different species of Sida is compared with that of chemical diversity. For genetic fingerprint investigation, selected 10 ISSR primers generating reproducible banding patterns were used. Among the total of 63 amplicons, 62 were recorded as polymorphic, genetic similarity index deduced from ISSR profiles ranged from 12 to 51%. Based on similarity index, S. acuta and S. rhombifolia found to be most similar (51%). High number of species-specific bands played pivotal role to delineate species at genetic level. Investigation based on HPTLC fingerprints analysis revealed 23 bands representing to characteristic chemicals and similarity index ranged from 73 to 91%. Prominent distinguishable bands were observed only in S. acuta, while S. cordifolia and S. rhombifolia shared most bands making them difficult to identify on chemical fingerprint basis. This report summarizes the genotypic and chemotypic diversity and the use of profiles for authentication of species of Sida complex.

  10. Structural study of the zinc and cadmium complexes of a type 2 plant (Quercus suber) metallothionein: insights by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Jordi; Tinti, Anna; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Silvia; Torreggiani, Armida

    2007-06-15

    Zn- and Cd-complexes of Quercus suber metallothionein (QsMT) were obtained by in vivo-synthesis, in order to obtain physiologically representative aggregates, and characterized by spectrometric and spectroscopic methods. The secondary structure elements and the coordination environments of the metal binding sites of the two aggregates were determined, as well as the main metal-containing species formed. The results obtained from the analysis of the Raman and IR spectra reveal that these metal-MT complexes predominantly contain beta-sheet elements (about 60%), whereas they lack alpha-helices. These structural features slightly depend on the divalent metal bound. In particular, Cd(II) binding to QsMT induces a slight increase of the beta-sheet percentage, as well as a decrease in beta-turn elements with respect to Zn(II) binding. Conversely, the in vivo capability of QsMT to inglobe metal and sulfide ions is metal-depending. Spectroscopic vibrational data also confirm the presence of sulfide ligands in the metal clusters of both Zn- and Cd-QsMT, while the participation of the spacer His residue in metal coordination was only found in Cd-QsMT, in agreement with the CD results. Overall data suggest different coordination environments for Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions in QsMT.

  11. Can simulations of flux exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere be improved by a more complex description of soil and plant processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Can simulations of flux exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere be improved by a more complex description of soil and plant processes? Christian Klein, Christian Biernath, Peter Hoffmann and Eckart Priesack Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Oberschleissheim, Germany christian.klein@helmholtz-muenchen.de, ++ 49 89 3187 3015 Recent studies show, that uncertainties in regional and global climate simulations are partly caused by inadequate descriptions of soil-plant-atmosphere. Therefore, we coupled the soil-plant model system Expert-N to the regional climate and weather forecast model WRF. Key features of the Expert-N model system are the simulation of water flow, heat transfer and solute transport in soils and the transpiration of grassland and forest stands. Particularly relevant for the improvement of regional weather forecast are simulations of the feedback between the land surface and atmosphere, which influences surface temperature, surface pressure and precipitation. The WRF model was modified to optionally select either the land surface model Expert-N or NOAH to simulate the exchange of water and energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere for every single grid cell within the simulation domain. Where the standard land surface model NOAH interpolates monthly LAI input values to simulate interactions between plant and atmosphere Expert-N simulates a dynamic plant growth with respect to water and nutrient availability in the soil. In this way Expert-N can be applied to study the effect of dynamic vegetation growth simulation on regional climate simulation results. For model testing Expert-N was used with two different soil parameterizations. The first parametrization used the USGS soil texture classification and simplifies the soil profile to one horizon (similar to the NOAH model). The second parameterization is based on the German soil texture classification

  12. Changes in the contents of metabolites and enzyme activities in rice plants responding to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn infection: activation of glycolysis and connection to phenylpropanoid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuku, J Musembi; Nose, Akihiro

    2012-06-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn causes sheath blight disease in rice, and genetic resistance against it is the most desirable characteristic. Current improvement efforts are based on analysis of polygenic quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but interpretation is limited by the lack of information on the changes in metabolic pathways. Our previous studies linked activation of the glycolytic pathway to enhanced generation of lignin in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The current studies investigated the regulation of glycolysis by examining the time course of changes in enzymatic activities and metabolite contents. The results showed that the activities of all glycolytic enzymes as well as fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P(2)), dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP), 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate contents increased. These results combined with our previous findings that the expression of phosphoglucomutase (PGM), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), enolase and pyruvate kinase (PK) increased after infection suggested that the additional establishment of glycolysis in the cytosol compartment occurred after infection. Further evidence for this was our recent findings that the increase in expression of the 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) plastid isozyme Os06g05860 was accompanied by an increase in expression of three cytosolic PFK isozymes, i.e. Os01g09570, Os01g53680 and Os04g39420, as well as pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofrucokinase (PFP) isozymes Os08g25720 (α-subunit) and Os06g13810 (β-subunit) in infected rice plants of the resistant line. The results also showed that the reactions catalysed by PFK/PFP, aldolase, GAPDH + phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and PK in leaf sheaths of R. solani-infected rice plants were non-equilibrium reactions in vivo. This study showed that PGM, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), TPI and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGmu

  13. The Chloroplast Genome of Utricularia reniformis Sheds Light on the Evolution of the ndh Gene Complex of Terrestrial Carnivorous Plants from the Lentibulariaceae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Saura R.; Diaz, Yani C. A.; Penha, Helen Alves; Pinheiro, Daniel G.; Fernandes, Camila C.; Miranda, Vitor F. O.; Michael, Todd P.

    2016-01-01

    Lentibulariaceae is the richest family of carnivorous plants spanning three genera including Pinguicula, Genlisea, and Utricularia. Utricularia is globally distributed, and, unlike Pinguicula and Genlisea, has both aquatic and terrestrial forms. In this study we present the analysis of the chloroplast (cp) genome of the terrestrial Utricularia reniformis. U. reniformis has a standard cp genome of 139,725bp, encoding a gene repertoire similar to essentially all photosynthetic organisms. However, an exclusive combination of losses and pseudogenization of the plastid NAD(P)H-dehydrogenase (ndh) gene complex were observed. Comparisons among aquatic and terrestrial forms of Pinguicula, Genlisea, and Utricularia indicate that, whereas the aquatic forms retained functional copies of the eleven ndh genes, these have been lost or truncated in terrestrial forms, suggesting that the ndh function may be dispensable in terrestrial Lentibulariaceae. Phylogenetic scenarios of the ndh gene loss and recovery among Pinguicula, Genlisea, and Utricularia to the ancestral Lentibulariaceae cladeare proposed. Interestingly, RNAseq analysis evidenced that U. reniformis cp genes are transcribed, including the truncated ndh genes, suggesting that these are not completely inactivated. In addition, potential novel RNA-editing sites were identified in at least six U. reniformis cp genes, while none were identified in the truncated ndh genes. Moreover, phylogenomic analyses support that Lentibulariaceae is monophyletic, belonging to the higher core Lamiales clade, corroborating the hypothesis that the first Utricularia lineage emerged in terrestrial habitats and then evolved to epiphytic and aquatic forms. Furthermore, several truncated cp genes were found interspersed with U. reniformis mitochondrial and nuclear genome scaffolds, indicating that as observed in other smaller plant genomes, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, and the related and carnivorous Genlisea nigrocaulis and G. hispidula, the

  14. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes of essential oils extracted from three spontaneous plants of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolé, I H N; Guelbeogo, W M; Nébié, R; Costantini, C; Sagnon, N; Kabore, Z I; Traoré, S A

    2003-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from dried leaves of three spontaneous plants naturally growing in Burkina Faso, i.e. Cymbopogon proximus, Lippia multiflora and Ocimum canum, exhibited larvicidal activity by the WHO standard protocol against 3rd and 4th instar F1-larvae of field-collected mosquitoes vectors of human disease, namely Aedes aegypti and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, An. arabiensis and An. gambiae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae s.l. larvae ranged between 53.5-258.5 ppm and 61.9-301.6 ppm, respectively. The LC90 estimates ranged 74.8-334.8 ppm for Ae. aegypti, and 121.6-582.9 ppm for An. gambiae s.l. Ovicidal activity against eggs of An. gambiae s.l. was also demonstrated. The LC50 values for An. gambiae s.l. eggs ranged between 17.1-188.7 ppm, while LC90 values ranged between 33.5-488 ppm. Lippia multiflora showed the highest activity against An. gambiae s.l. eggs and Ae. aegypti larvae, whereas no difference was found among C. proximus and L. multiflora in their activity against An. gambiae s.l. larvae. Of the three plants, essential oils from O. canum had the lowest activity against both eggs and larvae. Eggs were more susceptible than larvae. Ae. aegypti larvae were more susceptible than larvae of An. gambiae s.l.

  15. Analysis of a plant complex resistance gene locus underlying immune-related hybrid incompatibility and its occurrence in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alcázar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying speciation in plants include detrimental (incompatible genetic interactions between parental alleles that incur a fitness cost in hybrids. We reported on recessive hybrid incompatibility between an Arabidopsis thaliana strain from Poland, Landsberg erecta (Ler, and many Central Asian A. thaliana strains. The incompatible interaction is determined by a polymorphic cluster of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (TNL RPP1 (Recognition of Peronospora parasitica1-like genes in Ler and alleles of the receptor-like kinase Strubbelig Receptor Family 3 (SRF3 in Central Asian strains Kas-2 or Kond, causing temperature-dependent autoimmunity and loss of growth and reproductive fitness. Here, we genetically dissected the RPP1-like Ler locus to determine contributions of individual RPP1-like Ler (R1-R8 genes to the incompatibility. In a neutral background, expression of most RPP1-like Ler genes, except R3, has no effect on growth or pathogen resistance. Incompatibility involves increased R3 expression and engineered R3 overexpression in a neutral background induces dwarfism and sterility. However, no individual RPP1-like Ler gene is sufficient for incompatibility between Ler and Kas-2 or Kond, suggesting that co-action of at least two RPP1-like members underlies this epistatic interaction. We find that the RPP1-like Ler haplotype is frequent and occurs with other Ler RPP1-like alleles in a local population in Gorzów Wielkopolski (Poland. Only Gorzów individuals carrying the RPP1-like Ler haplotype are incompatible with Kas-2 and Kond, whereas other RPP1-like alleles in the population are compatible. Therefore, the RPP1-like Ler haplotype has been maintained in genetically different individuals at a single site, allowing exploration of forces shaping the evolution of RPP1-like genes at local and regional population scales.

  16. Why Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing Makes Sense for the Plants and Laboratories of the Nuclear Weapon Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, K W; Howell, L N; Lewis, D G; Neugebauer, C A; O' Brien, D W; Schilling, S A

    2001-05-15

    The purpose of this White Paper is to outline the benefits we expect to receive from Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing (MBE/M) for the design, analysis, fabrication, and assembly of nuclear weapons for upcoming Life Extension Programs (LEPs). Industry experiences with model-based approaches and the NNSA/DP investments and experiences, discussed in this paper, indicate that model-based methods can achieve reliable refurbished weapons for the stockpile with less cost and time. In this the paper, we list both general and specific benefits of MBE/M for the upcoming LEPs and the metrics for determining the success of model-based approaches. We also present some outstanding issues and challenges to deploying and achieving long-term benefit from the MBE/M. In conclusion, we argue that successful completion of the upcoming LEPs--with very aggressive schedule and funding restrictions--will depend on electronic model-based methods. We ask for a strong commitment from LEP managers throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex to support deployment and use of MBE/M systems to meet their program needs.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of five bacterial and plant toxins from complex matrices using a multiplexed fluorescent magnetic suspension assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Diana; Kirchner, Sebastian; Stoermann, Britta; Schreiber, Tanja; Kaulfuss, Stefan; Schade, Rüdiger; Zbinden, Reto; Avondet, Marc-André; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2009-10-01

    Proteotoxins such as ricin, abrin, botulinum neurotoxins type A and B (BoNT/A, BoNT/B) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are regarded as potential biological warfare agents which could be used for bioterrorism attacks on the food chain. In this study we used a novel immunisation strategy to generate high-affinity monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against native ricin, BoNT/A, and BoNT/B. The antibodies were used along with antibodies against SEB and abrin to establish a highly sensitive magnetic and fluorescent multiplex bead array with excellent sensitivities between 2 ng/L and 546 ng/L from a minimal sample volume of 50 microL. The assay was validated using 20 different related analytes and the assay precision was determined. Advancing the existing bead array technology, the novel magnetic and fluorescent microbeads proved amenable to enrichment procedures, by further increasing sensitivity to 0.3-85 ng/L, starting from a sample volume of 500 microL. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied for the simultaneous identification of the target toxins spiked into complex food matrices like milk, baby food and yoghurt. On the basis of our results, the assay appears to be a good tool for large-scale screening of samples from the food supply chain.

  18. Density of vibrational States of the light-harvesting complex II of green plants studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Renger, G; Lechner, R E

    2004-01-01

    Results of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments are reported for the solubilized trimeric light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC II) in the temperature range from 5 to 100 K. Two incident neutron wavelengths of 2.0 ( similar to 20 meV) and 5.1 A ( similar to 3.2 meV) corresponding to elastic energy resolutions of DeltaE = 0.920 meV and DeltaE = 0.093 meV, respectively, are employed to study INS spectra of LHC II for both neutron energy loss and gain. Solubilized LHC II and D//2O-containing buffer solution are investigated separately in order to properly subtract the contribution of the solvent. The inelastic part of the scattering function S(Q, omega) derived for the LHC II protein resembles the well-known "Boson-peak" and is characterized by a maximum at about 2.5 meV and a strongly asymmetric line shape with a slight tailing toward higher energy transfers. Analysis of the momentum transfer dependence of S(Q, omega) reveals that both the elastic and inelastic contributions to S(Q, omega) e...

  19. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  20. Assessing the effects of light on differentiation and virulence of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea: characterization of the White Collar Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Canessa

    Full Text Available Organisms are exposed to a tough environment, where acute daily challenges, like light, can strongly affect several aspects of an individual's physiology, including pathogenesis. While several fungal models have been widely employed to understand the physiological and molecular events associated with light perception, various other agricultural-relevant fungi still remain, in terms of their responsiveness to light, in the dark. The fungus Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive pathogen able to cause disease on a wide range of plant species. Natural B. cinerea isolates exhibit a high degree of diversity in their predominant mode of reproduction. Thus, the majority of naturally occurring strains are known to reproduce asexually via conidia and sclerotia, and sexually via apothecia. Studies from the 1970's reported on specific developmental responses to treatments with near-UV, blue, red and far-red light. To unravel the signaling machinery triggering development--and possibly also connected with virulence--we initiated the functional characterization of the transcription factor/photoreceptor BcWCL1 and its partner BcWCL2, that form the White Collar Complex (WCC in B. cinerea. Using mutants either abolished in or exhibiting enhanced WCC signaling (overexpression of both bcwcl1 and bcwcl2, we demonstrate that the WCC is an integral part of the mentioned machinery by mediating transcriptional responses to white light and the inhibition of conidiation in response to this stimulus. Furthermore, the WCC is required for coping with excessive light, oxidative stress and also to achieve full virulence. Although several transcriptional responses are abolished in the absence of bcwcl1, the expression of some genes is still light induced and a distinct conidiation pattern in response to daily light oscillations is enhanced, revealing a complex underlying photobiology. Though overlaps with well-studied fungal systems exist, the light-associated machinery of B

  1. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen eNietzsche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1 responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic alpha subunit associates with a regulatory beta subunit and an activating gamma subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1 alpha subunit (AKIN10/11 of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins can share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation.

  2. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation.

  3. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation. PMID:24600465

  4. Networking in the Plant Microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Marcel G A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/240923901; Hartmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Almost all higher organisms, including plants, insects, and mammals, are colonized by complex microbial communities and harbor a microbiome. Emerging studies with plants reveal that these microbiomes are structured and form complex, interconnected microbial networks. Within these networks, different

  5. Networking in the Plant Microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Hartmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Almost all higher organisms, including plants, insects, and mammals, are colonized by complex microbial communities and harbor a microbiome. Emerging studies with plants reveal that these microbiomes are structured and form complex, interconnected microbial networks. Within these networks, different

  6. GAPDH--a recruits a plant virus movement protein to cortical virus replication complexes to facilitate viral cell-to-cell movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kaido

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of virus movement protein (MP-containing punctate structures on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum is required for efficient intercellular movement of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV, a bipartite positive-strand RNA plant virus. We found that these cortical punctate structures constitute a viral replication complex (VRC in addition to the previously reported aggregate structures that formed adjacent to the nucleus. We identified host proteins that interacted with RCNMV MP in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using a tandem affinity purification method followed by mass spectrometry. One of these host proteins was glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-A (NbGAPDH-A, which is a component of the Calvin-Benson cycle in chloroplasts. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A reduced RCNMV multiplication in the inoculated leaves, but not in the single cells, thereby suggesting that GAPDH-A plays a positive role in cell-to-cell movement of RCNMV. The fusion protein of NbGAPDH-A and green fluorescent protein localized exclusively to the chloroplasts. In the presence of RCNMV RNA1, however, the protein localized to the cortical VRC as well as the chloroplasts. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay and GST pulldown assay confirmed in vivo and in vitro interactions, respectively, between the MP and NbGAPDH-A. Furthermore, gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A inhibited MP localization to the cortical VRC. We discuss the possible roles of NbGAPDH-A in the RCNMV movement process.

  7. Healthy and adverse effects of plant-derived functional metabolites: the need of revealing their content and bioactivity in a complex food matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse - unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods.

  8. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  9. Cyclic electron flow around photosystem I via chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex performs a significant physiological role during photosynthesis and plant growth at low temperature in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Sakata, Naoki; Suzuki, Yuji; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Makino, Amane

    2011-12-01

    The role of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH)-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in photosynthetic regulation and plant growth at several temperatures was examined in rice (Oryza sativa) that is defective in CHLORORESPIRATORY REDUCTION 6 (CRR6), which is required for accumulation of sub-complex A of the chloroplast NDH complex (crr6). NdhK was not detected by Western blot analysis in crr6 mutants, resulting in lack of a transient post-illumination increase in chlorophyll fluorescence, and confirming that crr6 mutants lack NDH activity. When plants were grown at 28 or 35°C, all examined photosynthetic parameters, including the CO(2) assimilation rate and the electron transport rate around photosystems I and II, at each growth temperature at light intensities above growth light (i.e. 800 μmol photons m(-2) sec(-1)), were similar between crr6 mutants and control plants. However, when plants were grown at 20°C, all the examined photosynthetic parameters were significantly lower in crr6 mutants than control plants, and this effect on photosynthesis caused a corresponding reduction in plant biomass. The F(v)/F(m) ratio was only slightly lower in crr6 mutants than in control plants after short-term strong light treatment at 20°C. However, after long-term acclimation to the low temperature, impairment of cyclic electron flow suppressed non-photochemical quenching and promoted reduction of the plastoquinone pool in crr6 mutants. Taken together, our experiments show that NDH-dependent cyclic electron flow plays a significant physiological role in rice during photosynthesis and plant growth at low temperature.

  10. Tomato yellow leaf curl viruses: ménage à trois between the virus complex, the plant and the whitefly vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pendón, Juan Antonio; Cañizares, M Carmen; Moriones, Enrique; Bejarano, Eduardo R; Czosnek, Henryk; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2010-07-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is one of the most devastating viral diseases affecting tomato crops in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Here, we focus on the interactions through recombination between the different begomovirus species causing TYLCD, provide an overview of the interactions with the cellular genes involved in viral replication, and highlight recent progress on the relationships between these viruses and their vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The tomato yellow leaf curl virus-like viruses (TYLCVs) are a complex of begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus) including 10 accepted species: Tomato yellow leaf curl Axarquia virus (TYLCAxV), Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Guangdong virus (TYLCGuV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus (TYLCIDV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLVKaV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Malaga virus (TYLCMalV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Mali virus (TYLCMLV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Vietnam virus (TYLCVNV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus(TYLCV). We follow the species demarcation criteria of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the most important of which is an 89% nucleotide identity threshold between full-length DNA-A component nucleotide sequences for begomovirus species. Strains of a species are defined by a 93% nucleotide identity threshold. The primary host of TYLCVs is tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), but they can also naturally infect other crops [common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum), chilli pepper (C. chinense) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)], a number of ornamentals [petunia (Petuniaxhybrida) and lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflora)], as well as common weeds (Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium). TYLCVs also infect the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana. Infected tomato

  11. A review on the complexity of insect-plant interactions under varying levels of resources and host resistance: the case of Myzus persicae-Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdugo, JA.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insect-plant interactions are affected directly or indirectly by stress factors. The effect of environmental resource availability on insect-plant interactions is here reviewed. Subsequently, the analysis focuses on aphid-host plant interactions, particularly in the system composed by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and its primary host plant Prunus persica. Literature. Plant defenses arise in two ways: resistance and tolerance, both are affected by abiotic factors. The information gathered from studies (n = 29 on plant-aphid interactions addressing the reduction in water availability on plant resistance, showed that in 41,4% of the studies, drought stress elicits lower resistance, while 34.5%, 20.1% and 3.4%, showed higher, no change and conditional effects on plant resistance, respectively. Conclusions. Water stress elicits mixed effects on plant resistance to aphids. However, the literature review also suggests that cultural practices play a role in the fate of the peach-aphid interactions, whereas the development of predictive models aimed to assist crop-pest management systems still requires more basic information. Aphid responses to plant defenses under stressed conditions are still largely unexplored.

  12. Light-harvesting antenna complexes in the moss Physcomitrella patens: implications for the evolutionary transition from green algae to land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Masakazu; Yokono, Makio

    2017-06-01

    Plants have successfully adapted to a vast range of terrestrial environments during their evolution. To elucidate the evolutionary transition of light-harvesting antenna proteins from green algae to land plants, the moss Physcomitrella patens is ideally placed basally among land plants. Compared to the genomes of green algae and land plants, the P. patens genome codes for more diverse and redundant light-harvesting antenna proteins. It also encodes Lhcb9, which has characteristics not found in other light-harvesting antenna proteins. The unique complement of light-harvesting antenna proteins in P. patens appears to facilitate protein interactions that include those lost in both green algae and land plants with regard to stromal electron transport pathways and photoprotection mechanisms. This review will highlight unique characteristics of the P. patens light-harvesting antenna system and the resulting implications about the evolutionary transition during plant terrestrialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A mineralogical and geochemical investigation of street sediment near a coal-fired power plant in Hamilton, Ohio: an example of complex pollution and cause for community health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGalley, Erin; Krekeler, Mark P S

    2013-05-01

    The Hamilton Municipal Electric Plant is a 125 MW coal-fired power plant, owned and operated by the City of Hamilton in Butler County, Ohio. The plant is located within 110 m of 50 homes. Bulk chemical investigation of street sediment near these homes indicates average concentrations of 25 ppm Cr, 40 ppm Cu, 15 ppm Ni, 215 ppm Pb, and 500 ppm Zn. Lead and Zn have maximum concentrations of 1207 ppm and 1512 ppm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicates coal ash spherules are present in the street sediment as well as a variety of Pb, Ni, Cr, W, and BaSO4 particulates. Transmission electron microscopy indicates heavy metals are sorbed onto clay particles with some preference for illite over chlorite. This investigation shows bulk chemistry and electron microscopy approaches are very effective tools to investigate particulate pollutants and identify contexts in complex urban settings involving coal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An antagonist of lipid A action in mammals has complex effects on lipid A induction of defence responses in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbs, Gitte; Jensen, Tina Tandrup; Silipo, Alba;

    2008-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides, the ubiquitous part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and their derivatives are recognised by plants to trigger or potentiate particular defence responses such as induction of genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. The molecular mechanisms of LPS...... perception that underpin these effects in plants are, however, unknown. Here, lipid A from Halomonas magadiensis, which is an antagonist of lipid A action in human cells, was used to investigate lipid A action in plants. Our findings offer an insight into the different structural requirements for direct...

  15. Wastewater treatment plant of the new OP/SM and derivative plants of Repsol YPF in the industrial complex of Tarragona; Planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales de las nuevas plantas de OP/SM y derivados de Repsol YPF en el complejo industrial de Tarragona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives us a general view of the wastewater treatment plant(TAR) over the following aspects: technology selection development of the project, description of the process and analysis of the results obtained after the first year of operation at the new complex of OP/SM AND DERIVATES of Repsol YPF in Tarragona. This wastewater treatment plant applies the combination of wet air oxidation (WAO) with powdered activated carbon biological treatment (PACT), licensed by US Filter, Zimpro Products group, a Vivendi Water Company. (Author)

  16. Complexity in Climatic Controls on Plant Species Distribution: Satellite Data Reveal Unique Climate for Giant Sequoia in the California Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Eric Kindseth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTComplexity in Climatic Controls on Plant Species Distribution: Satellite Data Reveal Unique Climate for Giant Sequoia in the California Sierra NevadabyEric Kindseth WallerDoctor of Philosophy in Environmental Science, Policy, and ManagementUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Dennis D. Baldocchi, ChairA better understanding of the environmental controls on current plant species distribution is essential if the impacts of such diverse challenges as invasive species, changing fir...

  17. Evolution of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development: implications for the expansion of developmental complexity of stomata in land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Ran

    Full Text Available Stomata play significant roles in plant evolution. A trio of closely related basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH subgroup Ia genes, SPCH, MUTE and FAMA, mediate sequential steps of stomatal development, and their functions may be conserved in land plants. However, the evolutionary history of the putative SPCH/MUTE/FAMA genes is still greatly controversial, especially the phylogenetic positions of the bHLH Ia members from basal land plants. To better understand the evolutionary pattern and functional diversity of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development, we made a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the homologous genes from 54 species representing the major lineages of green plants. The phylogenetic analysis indicated: (1 All bHLH Ia genes from the two basal land plants Physcomitrella and Selaginella were closely related to the FAMA genes of seed plants; and (2 the gymnosperm 'SPCH' genes were sister to a clade comprising the angiosperm SPCH and MUTE genes, while the FAMA genes of gymnosperms and angiosperms had a sister relationship. The revealed phylogenetic relationships are also supported by the distribution of gene structures and previous functional studies. Therefore, we deduce that the function of FAMA might be ancestral in the bHLH Ia subgroup. In addition, the gymnosperm "SPCH" genes may represent an ancestral state and have a dual function of SPCH and MUTE, two genes that could have originated from a duplication event in the common ancestor of angiosperms. Moreover, in angiosperms, SPCHs have experienced more duplications and harbor more copies than MUTEs and FAMAs, which, together with variation of the stomatal development in the entry division, implies that SPCH might have contributed greatly to the diversity of stomatal development. Based on the above, we proposed a model for the correlation between the evolution of stomatal development and the genes involved in this developmental process in land plants.

  18. Increment of the operational stability of the NGL I plant located in the Tablazo Petrochemical Complex, working with a low feed gas flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Alejandro

    2004-07-01

    The function of the plant NGL I is to extract the ethane and the liquids of the current of natural gas coming from Maracaibo Lake, emphatically in the ethane and propane for being a raw material for the olefins synthesis. The needed temperature for the condensation takes place cooling the dehydrated feed gas, by means of the heat exchange with two currents, cooling propane and the other cold methane gas. In 1998 some improvements to the plant were made, which are known as (MERE) (Ethane Recovery Improvements Project), these modifications were made in order to enhance the ethane recovery during the process, however, when it started to work under this modifications high instability in the performance of the compressor located in the refrigeration system was observed, which produced the shutdown of the ethane recovery process when working with feed gas stream flow rates (under 130 MMSCFD). Moreover, during the last years a decrease in the feed gas flow has been observed, in a mean of 120 MMSCFD, which has had a negative effect on the plant, because it has worked in a non-continuous state. Thanks to several improvements implemented in the actuality, we have achieved to diminish the minimal flow of operation of the plant to 95 MMPCSD, allowing the ethane production at this flow of feeding and increased the operational stability of the plant of LNG I. (author)

  19. Methodology of complexity analysis of Emergency Operating Procedures for Nuclear Power Plants; Metodologia de analisis de complejidad de Procedimientos de Operacion de Emergencia de Centrales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorell, P.; Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Pelayo, F.; Mendizabal, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Emergency Operating Procedures (SOPs) set out the stages and contain actions to be executed by an operator to respond to an emergency situation. Methodologies are being developed to assess aspects such as complexity, completeness and vulnerability of these procedures. A methodology is presented in this paper to develop a network topology POE and analysis focused on the same complexity as a fundamental attribute.

  20. Complexity in Climatic Controls on Plant Species Distribution: Satellite Data Reveal Unique Climate for Giant Sequoia in the California Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Eric Kindseth

    A better understanding of the environmental controls on current plant species distribution is essential if the impacts of such diverse challenges as invasive species, changing fire regimes, and global climate change are to be predicted and important diversity conserved. Climate, soil, hydrology, various biotic factors fire, history, and chance can all play a role, but disentangling these factors is a daunting task. Increasingly sophisticated statistical models relying on existing distributions and mapped climatic variables, among others, have been developed to try to answer these questions. Any failure to explain pattern with existing mapped climatic variables is often taken as a referendum on climate as a whole, rather than on the limitations of the particular maps or models. Every location has a unique and constantly changing climate so that any distribution could be explained by some aspect of climate. Chapter 1 of this dissertation reviews some of the major flaws in species distribution modeling and addresses concerns that climate may therefore not be predictive of, or even relevant to, species distributions. Despite problems with climate-based models, climate and climate-derived variables still have substantial merit for explaining species distribution patterns. Additional generation of relevant climate variables and improvements in other climate and climate-derived variables are still needed to demonstrate this more effectively. Satellite data have a long history of being used for vegetation mapping and even species distribution mapping. They have great potential for being used for additional climatic information, and for improved mapping of other climate and climate-derived variables. Improving the characterization of cloud cover frequency with satellite data is one way in which the mapping of important climate and climate-derived variables can be improved. An important input to water balance models, solar radiation maps could be vastly improved with a

  1. Structure of the HopA1(21-102)-ShcA chaperone-effector complex of Pseudomonas syringae reveals conservation of a virulence factor binding motif from animal to plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjusevic, Radmila; Quezada, Cindy M; Small, Jennifer; Stebbins, C Erec

    2013-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae injects numerous bacterial proteins into host plant cells through a type 3 secretion system (T3SS). One of the first such bacterial effectors discovered, HopA1, is a protein that has unknown functions in the host cell but possesses close homologs that trigger the plant hypersensitive response in resistant strains. Like the virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens of animals, HopA1 depends upon a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively translocated by the P. syringae T3SS. Herein, we report the crystal structure of a complex of HopA1(21-102) with its chaperone, ShcA, determined to 1.56-Å resolution. The structure reveals that three key features of the chaperone-effector interactions found in animal pathogens are preserved in the Gram-negative pathogens of plants, namely, (i) the interaction of the chaperone with a nonglobular polypeptide of the effector, (ii) an interaction centered on the so-called β-motif, and (iii) the presence of a conserved hydrophobic patch in the chaperone that recognizes the β-motif. Structure-based mutagenesis and biochemical studies have established that the β-motif is critical for the stability of this complex. Overall, these results show that the β-motif interactions are broadly conserved in bacterial pathogens utilizing T3SSs, spanning an interkingdom host range.

  2. Development of a triple hyphenated HPLC-radical scavenging detection-DAD-SPE-NMR system for the rapid identification of antioxidants in complex plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.

    2005-01-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of radical scavenging compounds in plant extracts was developed by combining an HPLC with on-line radical scavenging using DPPH as a model radical and an HPLC¿DAD¿SPE¿NMR system. Using this method a commercial rosemary extract was inve

  3. Linking above- and below-ground biodiversity: abundance and trophic complexity in soil as a response to experimental plant communities on abandoned arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, G.W.; Smilauer, P.; Van Dijk, C.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    1. This study investigates the effects of experimental plant communities on different trophic levels in the soil food web of abandoned arable land. 2. In April 1996, a biodiversity experiment commenced using a continuation of agricultural crop rotation (CCR), spontaneous succession with naturally co

  4. An extensive microarray analysis of AAL-toxin-induced cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana brings new insights into the complexity of programmed cell death in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T.S.; Gadjev, I.Z.; Hille, J.

    2004-01-01

    A T-DNA knockout of the Arabidopsis homologue of the tomato disease resistance gene Asc was obtained. The asc gene renders plants sensitive to programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by the fungal AAL toxin. To obtain more insights into the nature of AAL-toxin-induced cell death and to identify genes

  5. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  6. Metal concentrations in the soils and native plants surrounding the old flotation tailings pond of the copper mining and smelting complex Bor (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijević, M M; Dimitrijević, M D; Milić, S M; Nujkić, M M

    2012-03-01

    In this study concentrations of metals in the native plants and soils surrounding the old flotation tailings pond of the copper mine were determined. It has been established that the soil is heavily contaminated with copper, iron and arsenic, the mean concentrations being 1585.6, 29,462.5 and 171.7 mg kg(-1) respectively. All the plants, except manganese, accumulated metallic elements in concentrations which were either in the range of critical and phytotoxic values (Pb and As) or higher (Zn), and even much higher (Cu and Fe) than these values. Otherwise, the accumulation of Mn, Pb and As was considerably lower than that of Cu, Fe and Zn. In most plants the accumulation of target metals was highest in the root. Several plant species showed high bioaccumulation and translocation factor values, which classify them into species for potential use in phytoextraction. The BCF and TF values determined in Prunus persica were 1.20 and 3.95 for Cu, 1.5 and 6.0 for Zn and 1.96 and 5.44 for Pb. In Saponaria officinalis these values were 2.53 and 1.27 for Zn, and in Juglans regia L. they were 8.76 and 17.75 for Zn. The translocation factor in most plants, for most metals, was higher than one, whereas the highest value was determined in Populus nigra for Zn, amounting to 17.8. Among several tolerant species, the most suitable ones for phytostabilization proved to be Robinia pseudoacacia L. for Zn and Verbascum phlomoides L., Saponaria officinalis and Centaurea jacea L. for Mn, Pb and As. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  7. From leaf to whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE in complex canopies: Limitations of leaf WUE as a selection target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Medrano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant water use efficiency (WUE is becoming a key issue in semiarid areas, where crop production relies on the use of large volumes of water. Improving WUE is necessary for securing environmental sustainability of food production in these areas. Given that climate change predictions include increases in temperature and drought in semiarid regions, improving crop WUE is mandatory for global food production. WUE is commonly measured at the leaf level, because portable equipment for measuring leaf gas exchange rates facilitates the simultaneous measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration. However, when those measurements are compared with daily integrals or whole-plant estimates of WUE, the two sometimes do not agree. Scaling up from single-leaf to whole-plant WUE was tested in grapevines in different experiments by comparison of daily integrals of instantaneous water use efficiency [ratio between CO2 assimilation (AN and transpiration (E; AN/E] with midday AN/E measurements, showing a low correlation, being worse with increasing water stress. We sought to evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal variation in carbon and water balances at the leaf and plant levels. The leaf position (governing average light interception in the canopy showed a marked effect on instantaneous and daily integrals of leaf WUE. Night transpiration and respiration rates were also evaluated, as well as respiration contributions to total carbon balance. Two main components were identified as filling the gap between leaf and whole plant WUE: the large effect of leaf position on daily carbon gain and water loss and the large flux of carbon losses by dark respiration. These results show that WUE evaluation among genotypes or treatments needs to be revised.

  8. From leaf to whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE) in complex canopies:Limitations of leaf WUE as a selection target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiplito Medrano; Magdalena Toms; Sebasti Martorell; Jaume Flexas; Esther Hernndez; Joan Rossell; Alicia Pou; Jos-Mariano Escalona; Josefina Bota

    2015-01-01

    Plant water use efficiency (WUE) is becoming a key issue in semiarid areas, where crop production relies on the use of large volumes of water. Improving WUE is necessary for securing environmental sustainability of food production in these areas. Given that climate change predictions include increases in temperature and drought in semiarid regions, improving crop WUE is mandatory for global food production. WUE is commonly measured at the leaf level, because portable equipment for measuring leaf gas exchange rates facilitates the simultaneous measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration. However, when those measurements are compared with daily integrals or whole-plant estimates of WUE, the two sometimes do not agree. Scaling up from single-leaf to whole-plant WUE was tested in grapevines in different experiments by comparison of daily integrals of instantaneous water use efficiency [ratio between CO2 assimilation (AN) and transpiration (E); AN/E] with midday AN/E measurements, showing a low correlation, being worse with increasing water stress. We sought to evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal variation in carbon and water balances at the leaf and plant levels. The leaf position (governing average light interception) in the canopy showed a marked effect on instantaneous and daily integrals of leaf WUE. Night transpiration and respiration rates were also evaluated, as well as respiration contributions to total carbon balance. Two main components were identified as filling the gap between leaf and whole plant WUE:the large effect of leaf position on daily carbon gain and water loss and the large flux of carbon losses by dark respiration. These results show that WUE evaluation among genotypes or treatments needs to be revised.

  9. From leaf to whole-plant water use efficiency(WUE)in complex canopies:Limitations of leaf WUE as a selection target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hipólito; Medrano; Magdalena; Tomás; Sebastià; Martorell; aume; Flexas; Esther; Hernández; Joan; Rosselló; Alicia; Pou; José-Mariano; Escalona; Josefina; Bota

    2015-01-01

    Plant water use efficiency(WUE) is becoming a key issue in semiarid areas, where crop production relies on the use of large volumes of water. Improving WUE is necessary for securing environmental sustainability of food production in these areas. Given that climate change predictions include increases in temperature and drought in semiarid regions,improving crop WUE is mandatory for global food production. WUE is commonly measured at the leaf level, because portable equipment for measuring leaf gas exchange rates facilitates the simultaneous measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration. However,when those measurements are compared with daily integrals or whole-plant estimates of WUE, the two sometimes do not agree. Scaling up from single-leaf to whole-plant WUE was tested in grapevines in different experiments by comparison of daily integrals of instantaneous water use efficiency [ratio between CO2assimilation(AN) and transpiration(E); AN/E] with midday AN/E measurements, showing a low correlation, being worse with increasing water stress. We sought to evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal variation in carbon and water balances at the leaf and plant levels. The leaf position(governing average light interception) in the canopy showed a marked effect on instantaneous and daily integrals of leaf WUE. Night transpiration and respiration rates were also evaluated, as well as respiration contributions to total carbon balance. Two main components were identified as filling the gap between leaf and whole plant WUE: the large effect of leaf position on daily carbon gain and water loss and the large flux of carbon losses by dark respiration. These results show that WUE evaluation among genotypes or treatments needs to be revised.

  10. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...... analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight...

  11. Design of computer monitoring and control system for the complex thermal power plants%复杂热动力装置计算机监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永葆; 龚建政; 李鹏

    2001-01-01

    给出了一般复杂热动力装置计算机监控系统的结构方案,讨论了系统硬件结构及配置,分析了系统软件结构及特点,阐述了复杂系统状态参数采集处理的方法以及串行数据通信的实现,展望了系统的应用前景和发展趋势.%The general structure scheme of computer monitoring and control system for complex thermal power plants is presented. The structure and its features of the software and the hardware are analyzed. The acquisition and processing method of the parameters in complex system are described. The implementation of the serial communication is discussed. The application and the development trends are prospected.

  12. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. I. Characterization of Copper Accumulation, Speciation, and Toxicity in Crassula helmsii as a New Copper Accumulator1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Götz, Birgit; Mijovilovich, Ana; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    The amphibious water plant Crassula helmsii is an invasive copper (Cu)-tolerant neophyte in Europe. It now turned out to accumulate Cu up to more than 9,000 ppm in its shoots at 10 μm (=0.6 ppm) Cu2+ in the nutrient solution, indicating that it is a Cu hyperaccumulator. We investigated uptake, binding environment, and toxicity of Cu in this plant under emerged and submerged conditions. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements on frozen-hydrated samples revealed that Cu was bound almost exclusively by oxygen ligands, likely organic acids, and not any sulfur ligands. Despite significant differences in photosynthesis biochemistry and biophysics between emerged and submerged plants, no differences in Cu ligands were found. While measurements of tissue pH confirmed the diurnal acid cycle typical for Crassulacean acid metabolism, Δ13C measurements showed values typical for regular C3 photosynthesis. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis mainly affected the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center, but with some unusual features. Most obviously, the degree of light saturation of electron transport increased during Cu stress, while maximal dark-adapted PSII quantum yield did not change and light-adapted quantum yield of PSII photochemistry decreased particularly in the first 50 s after onset of actinic irradiance. This combination of changes, which were strongest in submerged cultures, shows a decreasing number of functional reaction centers relative to the antenna in a system with high antenna connectivity. Nonphotochemical quenching, in contrast, was modified by Cu mainly in emerged cultures. Pigment concentrations in stressed plants strongly decreased, but no changes in their ratios occurred, indicating that cells either survived intact or died and bleached quickly. PMID:19641032

  13. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it faile...

  14. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. I. Characterization of copper accumulation, speciation, and toxicity in Crassula helmsii as a new copper accumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Götz, Birgit; Mijovilovich, Ana; Küpper, Frithjof C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram

    2009-10-01

    The amphibious water plant Crassula helmsii is an invasive copper (Cu)-tolerant neophyte in Europe. It now turned out to accumulate Cu up to more than 9,000 ppm in its shoots at 10 microm (=0.6 ppm) Cu(2+) in the nutrient solution, indicating that it is a Cu hyperaccumulator. We investigated uptake, binding environment, and toxicity of Cu in this plant under emerged and submerged conditions. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements on frozen-hydrated samples revealed that Cu was bound almost exclusively by oxygen ligands, likely organic acids, and not any sulfur ligands. Despite significant differences in photosynthesis biochemistry and biophysics between emerged and submerged plants, no differences in Cu ligands were found. While measurements of tissue pH confirmed the diurnal acid cycle typical for Crassulacean acid metabolism, Delta(13)C measurements showed values typical for regular C3 photosynthesis. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis mainly affected the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center, but with some unusual features. Most obviously, the degree of light saturation of electron transport increased during Cu stress, while maximal dark-adapted PSII quantum yield did not change and light-adapted quantum yield of PSII photochemistry decreased particularly in the first 50 s after onset of actinic irradiance. This combination of changes, which were strongest in submerged cultures, shows a decreasing number of functional reaction centers relative to the antenna in a system with high antenna connectivity. Nonphotochemical quenching, in contrast, was modified by Cu mainly in emerged cultures. Pigment concentrations in stressed plants strongly decreased, but no changes in their ratios occurred, indicating that cells either survived intact or died and bleached quickly.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Bemisia tabaci and the viruses it transmits, including an evaluation of risk reduction options and an assessment of the effectiveness of the special requirements linked to B. tabaci and the viruses listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. B. tabaci and a large number of viruses transmitted by this polyphagous insect occur in subtropical and tropical climates around the world. Five entry pathways for B. tabaci and associated viruses were identified, with the plants for planting pathway being most significant and rated for entry of insects and viruses as likely and moderately likely, respectively. The most invasive B. tabaci species and several of its associated viruses responsible for severe diseases in major European food crops are established outdoors in coastal Mediterranean regions. Because of similar climate requirements and host plant preferences, B. tabaci and associated viruses currently not present in Europe are likely to establish within the temperature limits set for B. tabaci. Trade between European Member States allows B. tabaci to reach greenhouses in northern Europe, including those in areas with protected zone status. Because of the cool climate, establishment and spread outdoors of B. tabaci is rated unlikely for northern Europe. This situation is likely to continue even under a climatic scenario with an increase in temperature of +2 °C. B. tabaci -transmitted viruses cause severe diseases with major negative impact on crop production when risk reduction measures are not used. Risk reduction options will also apply to B. tabaci and viruses new to Europe. Risk reductions options are evaluated in terms of reducing B. tabaci populations, crop infestations, virus incidence and the impact of diseases. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013

  16. The development of a quantitative measure for the complexity of emergency tasks stipulated in emergency operating procedures of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2006-11-15

    Previous studies have continuously pointed out that human performance is a decisive factor affecting the safety of complicated process systems. Subsequently, as the result of extensive efforts, it has been revealed that the provision of procedures is one of the most effective countermeasures, especially if human operators have to carry out their tasks under a very stressful environment. That is, since good procedures are helpful to not only enhance the performance of human operators but also the reduction of the possibility of a human error through stipulating detailed tasks to be done by human operators. Ironically, it has been emphasized that the performance of human operators could be impaired due to complicated procedures, because procedures directly govern the physical as well as cognitive behavior of human operators by institutionalizing detailed actions. Therefore, it is a prerequisite to develop a systematic framework that properly evaluate the complexity of tasks described in procedures. For this reason, a measure called TACOM (Task Complexity) that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of NPPs has been developed. In this report, a technical background as well as practical steps to quantify the complexity of tasks were presented with a series of studies that were conducted to ensure the validity of the TACOM measure. As a result of validation studies, since it is shown that the TACOM measure seem to properly quantify the complexity of emergency tasks, it is desirable that the TACOM measure plays an important role in improving the performance of human operators.

  17. Analysing diet of small herbivores: the efficiency of DNA barcoding coupled with high-throughput pyrosequencing for deciphering the composition of complex plant mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sønstebø Jørn H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand the role of herbivores in trophic webs, it is essential to know what they feed on. Diet analysis is, however, a challenge in many small herbivores with a secretive life style. In this paper, we compare novel (high-throughput pyrosequencing DNA barcoding technology for plant mixture with traditional microhistological method. We analysed stomach contents of two ecologically important subarctic vole species, Microtus oeconomus and Myodes rufocanus, with the two methods. DNA barcoding was conducted using the P6-loop of the chloroplast trnL (UAA intron. Results Although the identified plant taxa in the diets matched relatively well between the two methods, DNA barcoding gave by far taxonomically more detailed results. Quantitative comparison of results was difficult, mainly due to low taxonomic resolution of the microhistological method, which also in part explained discrepancies between the methods. Other discrepancies were likely due to biases mostly in the microhistological analysis. Conclusion We conclude that DNA barcoding opens up for new possibilities in the study of plant-herbivore interactions, giving a detailed and relatively unbiased picture of food utilization of herbivores.

  18. Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 are core components of a very-long-chain alkane synthesis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Jetter, Reinhard; Renne, Charlotte; Faure, Jean-Denis; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

    2012-07-01

    In land plants, very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of cuticular waxes that cover aerial organs, mainly acting as a waterproof barrier to prevent nonstomatal water loss. Although thoroughly investigated, plant alkane synthesis remains largely undiscovered. The Arabidopsis thaliana ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) protein has been recognized as an essential element of wax alkane synthesis; nevertheless, its function remains elusive. In this study, a screen for CER1 physical interaction partners was performed. The screen revealed that CER1 interacts with the wax-associated protein ECERIFERUM3 (CER3) and endoplasmic reticulum-localized cytochrome b5 isoforms (CYTB5s). The functional relevance of these interactions was assayed through an iterative approach using yeast as a heterologous expression system. In a yeast strain manipulated to produce VLC acyl-CoAs, a strict CER1 and CER3 coexpression resulted in VLC alkane synthesis. The additional presence of CYTB5s was found to enhance CER1/CER3 alkane production. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that CER1 His clusters are essential for alkane synthesis, whereas those of CER3 are not, suggesting that CYTB5s are specific CER1 cofactors. Collectively, our study reports the identification of plant alkane synthesis enzymatic components and supports a new model for alkane production in which CER1 interacts with both CER3 and CYTB5 to catalyze the redox-dependent synthesis of VLC alkanes from VLC acyl-CoAs.

  19. HybHyp--hybridizing the host: the long reach of parasite genes. A new hypothesis to explain host-parasite interrelationships in plant hybrid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissemann, Volker

    2010-12-01

    Ever since existence of sexuality in plants was accepted in around 1700, questions centred about the role and maintenance of sexual reproduction in general, leading to a number of hypotheses like the Vicar of Bray, the Ratchet or the Hitch-hiker theory. Bell (The masterpiece of nature. The evolution and genetics of sexuality. University of California Press, Berkeley, LA, 1982) formulated the Red Queen Hypothesis (RQH) which explains the persistence of sexual reproduction as an outcome of a coevolutionary arms race between hosts and parasites. By sexual recombination and genetic diversification hosts minimize the risk of pathogen infection. Since virulence of pathogens is genetically determined and often species specific, parasites are mostly adapted to common host genotypes, whereas rare and divergent genotypes are less infected and therefore have a selective advantage. Employing Dawkins (The extended phenotype. The long reach of the gene, 1999) central theorem of the extended phenotype to the RQH, mating systems in hosts might be a result of the long reach of the parasites genes. Here now the hypothesis is proposed, that evolution by hybridisation and polyploidy in host plants is an extended phenotype of parasites, a response of hosts triggered by the parasites genes to slow down the effects of the Red Queen strategy of plants. Thus, hybridisation and polyploidy might have evolved by parasite pressure and not by host strategy. This hypothesis is called the "hybridisation-of-the-host-hypothesis".

  20. Protein/CaCO3/Chitin Nanofiber Complex Prepared from Crab Shells by Simple Mechanical Treatment and Its Effect on Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihun Fantahun Aklog

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A protein/CaCO3/chitin nanofiber complex was prepared from crab shells by a simple mechanical treatment with a high-pressure water-jet (HPWJ system. The preparation process did not involve chemical treatments, such as removal of protein and calcium carbonate with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid, respectively. Thus, it was economically and environmentally friendly. The nanofibers obtained had uniform width and dispersed homogeneously in water. Nanofibers were characterized in morphology, transparency, and viscosity. Results indicated that the shell was mostly disintegrated into nanofibers at above five cycles of the HPWJ system. The chemical structure of the nanofiber was maintained even after extensive mechanical treatments. Subsequently, the nanofiber complex was found to improve the growth of tomatoes in a hydroponics system, suggesting the mechanical treatments efficiently released minerals into the system. The homogeneous dispersion of the nanofiber complex enabled easier application as a fertilizer compared to the crab shell flakes.

  1. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Sara; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian Buhl

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous...

  2. Radiation hybrid maps of D-genome of Aegilops tauschii and their application in sequence assembly of large and complex plant genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The large and complex genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., ~17 Gb) requires high-resolution genome maps saturated with ordered markers to assist in anchoring and orienting BAC contigs/ sequence scaffolds for whole genome sequence assembly. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping has proven to be an e...

  3. A complex small RNA repertoire is generated by a plant/fungal-like machinery and effected by a metazoan-like Argonaute in the single-cell human parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Laurence; Cannella, Dominique; Ortet, Philippe; Barakat, Mohamed; Sautel, Céline F; Kieffer, Sylvie; Garin, Jérôme; Bastien, Olivier; Voinnet, Olivier; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2010-05-27

    In RNA silencing, small RNAs produced by the RNase-III Dicer guide Argonaute-like proteins as part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) to regulate gene expression transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally. Here, we have characterized the RNA silencing machinery and exhaustive small RNAome of Toxoplasma gondii, member of the Apicomplexa, a phylum of animal- and human-infecting parasites that cause extensive health and economic damages to human populations worldwide. Remarkably, the small RNA-generating machinery of Toxoplasma is phylogenetically and functionally related to that of plants and fungi, and accounts for an exceptionally diverse array of small RNAs. This array includes conspicuous populations of repeat-associated small interfering RNA (siRNA), which, as in plants, likely generate and maintain heterochromatin at DNA repeats and satellites. Toxoplasma small RNAs also include many microRNAs with clear metazoan-like features whose accumulation is sometimes extremely high and dynamic, an unexpected finding given that Toxoplasma is a unicellular protist. Both plant-like heterochromatic small RNAs and metazoan-like microRNAs bind to a single Argonaute protein, Tg-AGO. Toxoplasma miRNAs co-sediment with polyribosomes, and thus, are likely to act as translational regulators, consistent with the lack of catalytic residues in Tg-AGO. Mass spectrometric analyses of the Tg-AGO protein complex revealed a common set of virtually all known RISC components so far characterized in human and Drosophila, as well as novel proteins involved in RNA metabolism. In agreement with its loading with heterochromatic small RNAs, Tg-AGO also associates substoichiometrically with components of known chromatin-repressing complexes. Thus, a puzzling patchwork of silencing processor and effector proteins from plant, fungal and metazoan origin accounts for the production and action of an unsuspected variety of small RNAs in the single-cell parasite Toxoplasma and possibly in other

  4. A reappraisal of the Pleurotus eryngii complex - new species and taxonomic combinations based on the application of a polyphasic approach, and an identification key to Pleurotus taxa associated with Apiaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, Georgios I; Ntougias, Spyridon; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Besi, Maria I; Polemis, Elias; Typas, Milton A; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The Pleurotus eryngii species-complex comprises choice edible mushrooms growing on roots and lower stem residues of Apiaceae (umbellifers) plants. Material deriving from extensive sampling was studied by mating compatibility, morphological and ecological criteria, and through analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and IGS1 rRNA sequences. Results revealed that P. eryngii sensu stricto forms a diverse and widely distributed aggregate composed of varieties elaeoselini, eryngii, ferulae, thapsiae, and tingitanus. Pleurotuseryngii subsp. tuoliensis comb. nov. is a phylogenetically sister group to the former growing only on various Ferula species in Asia. The existence of Pleurotusnebrodensis outside of Sicily (i.e., in Greece) is reported for the first time on the basis of molecular data, while P. nebrodensis subsp. fossulatus comb. nov. is a related Asiatic taxon associated with the same plant (Prangos ferulacea). Last, Pleurotusferulaginis sp. nov. grows on Ferulago campestris in northeast Italy, Slovenia and Hungary; it occupies a distinct phylogenetic position accompanied with significant differences in spore size and mating incompatibility versus other Pleurotus populations. Coevolution with umbellifers and host/substrate specificity seem to play key roles in speciation processes within this fungal group. An identification key to the nine Pleurotus taxa growing in association with Apiaceae plants is provided.

  5. Induced Resistance in Tomato Plants against Verticillium Wilt by the Binuclear Nickel Coordination Complex of the Ligand 2,5-Bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine, Hanane; Rifai, Lalla Aicha; Faize, Mohamed; Bentiss, Fouad; Guesmi, Salaheddine; Laachir, Abdelhakim; Smaili, Amal; Makroum, Kacem; Sahibed-Dine, Abdelaziz; Koussa, Tayeb

    2016-04-06

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a major limiting factor for tomato production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ligand 2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (L) and its complex bis[μ-2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-κ(4)N(2),N(3):N(4),N(5)]bis[dihydrato-κO)nickel(II)] as activators of plant defenses in controlling Verticillium wilt. In the greenhouse, they protected tomato plants against V. dahliae when they were applied twice as foliar sprays at 100 μg mL(-1). A synergistic effect was observed between the ligand L and the transition metal Ni, with disease incidence reduced by 38% with L and 57% with Ni2L2. Verticillium wilt foliar symptoms and vascular browning index were reduced by 82% for L and 95% for Ni2L2. This protection ability was associated with the induction of an oxidative burst and the activation of the total phenolic content as well as potentiation of the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. These results demonstrated that L and Ni2L2 can be considered as new activators of plant defense responses.

  6. The plant exocyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    exocyst is an octameric vesicle tethering complex that functions upstream of SNARE mediated exocytotic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All proteins in the complex have been conserved during evolution, and genes that encode the exocyst subunits are present in the genomes of all plants invest

  7. The plant exocyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    exocyst is an octameric vesicle tethering complex that functions upstream of SNARE mediated exocytotic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All proteins in the complex have been conserved during evolution, and genes that encode the exocyst subunits are present in the genomes of all plants invest

  8. Estimating above-ground biomass by fusion of LiDAR and multispectral data in subtropical woody plant communities in topographically complex terrain in North-eastern Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sisira Ediriweera; Sumith Pathirana; Tim Danaher; Doland Nichols

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a strategy to improve predicting capacity of plot-scale above-ground biomass (AGB) by fusion of LiDAR and Land-sat5 TM derived biophysical variables for subtropical rainforest and eucalypts dominated forest in topographically complex landscapes in North-eastern Australia. Investigation was carried out in two study areas separately and in combination. From each plot of both study areas, LiDAR derived structural parameters of vegetation and reflectance of all Landsat bands, vegetation indices were employed. The regression analysis was carried out separately for LiDAR and Landsat derived variables indi-vidually and in combination. Strong relationships were found with LiDAR alone for eucalypts dominated forest and combined sites compared to the accuracy of AGB estimates by Landsat data. Fusing LiDAR with Landsat5 TM derived variables increased overall performance for the eucalypt forest and combined sites data by describing extra variation (3% for eucalypt forest and 2% combined sites) of field estimated plot-scale above-ground biomass. In contrast, separate LiDAR and imagery data, and fusion of LiDAR and Landsat data performed poorly across structurally complex closed canopy subtropical rainforest. These findings reinforced that obtaining accurate estimates of above ground biomass using remotely sensed data is a function of the complexity of horizontal and vertical structural diversity of vegetation.

  9. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  10. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  11. Are there consistent grazing indicators in Drylands? Testing plant functional types of various complexity in South Africa's Grassland and Savanna Biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Linstädter

    Full Text Available Despite our growing knowledge on plants' functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa's grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs. Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may

  12. Are there consistent grazing indicators in Drylands? Testing plant functional types of various complexity in South Africa's Grassland and Savanna Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linstädter, Anja; Schellberg, Jürgen; Brüser, Katharina; Moreno García, Cristian A; Oomen, Roelof J; du Preez, Chris C; Ruppert, Jan C; Ewert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Despite our growing knowledge on plants' functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs) with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa's grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs). Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses) and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses) performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold) had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may also be useful

  13. Dynamic Plant-Plant-Herbivore Interactions Govern Plant Growth-Defence Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Jorad; Evers, Jochem B.; Poelman, Erik H.

    2017-01-01

    Plants downregulate their defences against insect herbivores upon impending competition for light. This has long been considered a resource trade-off, but recent advances in plant physiology and ecology suggest this mechanism is more complex. Here we propose that to understand why plants regulate an

  14. Development of a life time assessment method for power plant components subjected to complex multiaxial fatigue loadings; Entwicklung einer Methode zur Lebensdauerbewertung von Kraftwerkskomponenten bei komplexer mehrachsiger Schwingbeanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesich, Thomas M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialpruefung, Werkstoffkunde und Festigkeitslehre

    2012-11-01

    Technical components are loaded by forces and moments that can be constant or dynamic. Therefore multi-axial loadings can develop dependent on load and/or geometry of the component. The evaluation of multi-axial loadings is still not solved, mainly because the time dependent stresses can cause in complex loading states. Since in contrary to static failures no significant changes of material characteristics are observable in case of fatigue failures a sufficiently accurate lifetime assessment is of main importance. In nuclear engineering the components are mostly individual constructions that need the demonstration of fatigue resistance in the frame of a local fatigue analysis. For the materials side the Woehler curve is sufficient since representative component test would not be economic. The national standards include guidelines for the determination of reference values for complex fatigue loadings that are very conservative or only applicable for definite tasks. The presented of an advanced integrated multi-axial fatigue life concept is an experimentally verified technique that allows a realistic evaluation of the multi-axial loading of components and lifetime assessment based on the so called fatigue damage parameter.

  15. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered.

  16. Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterov A.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

  17. A Receptor-Like Kinase, Related to Cell Wall Sensor of Higher Plants, is Required for Sexual Reproduction in the Unicellular Charophycean Alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Naoko; Marukawa, Yuka; Abe, Jun; Hashiba, Sayuri; Ichikawa, Machiko; Tanabe, Yoichi; Ito, Motomi; Nishii, Ichiro; Tsuchikane, Yuki; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Here, we cloned the CpRLK1 gene, which encodes a receptor-like protein kinase expressed during sexual reproduction, from the heterothallic Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, one of the closest unicellular alga to land plants. Mating-type plus (mt(+)) cells with knockdown of CpRLK1 showed reduced competence for sexual reproduction and formed an abnormally enlarged conjugation papilla after pairing with mt(-) cells. The knockdown cells were unable to release a naked gamete, which is indispensable for zygote formation. We suggest that the CpRLK1 protein is an ancient cell wall sensor that now functions to regulate osmotic pressure in the cell to allow proper gamete release.

  18. Evaluation of Organic Complex Fertilizer Made of Excess Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant%剩余污泥好氧堆肥生产有机复混肥的肥分及效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宁宁; 王凯军; 柯建明

    2001-01-01

    There are a lot of organic mass and N and P nutrition in the excess sludge of municipal wastewater treat-ment plant, which can be used as fertilizer for the agriculture. To make the organic complex fertilizer of sludge could increase the crop yield, improve soil structure and improve the fertility of soil.%城市污水处理厂剩余污泥含有大量有机质和氮、磷等营养元素,是农业生产宝贵的肥源。将污泥制成有机复混肥可以使作物增产,并改善土壤结构、提高土壤肥力。

  19. Are There Consistent Grazing Indicators in Drylands? Testing Plant Functional Types of Various Complexity in South Africa’s Grassland and Savanna Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linstädter, Anja; Schellberg, Jürgen; Brüser, Katharina; Moreno García, Cristian A.; Oomen, Roelof J.; du Preez, Chris C.; Ruppert, Jan C.; Ewert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Despite our growing knowledge on plants’ functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs) with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa’s grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs). Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses) and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses) performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold) had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may also be

  20. The negative feedback molecular mechanism which regulates excitation level in the plant photosynthetic complex LHCII: towards identification of the energy dissipative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubik, Monika; Luchowski, Rafal; Puzio, Michal; Janik, Ewa; Bednarska, Joanna; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2013-03-01

    Overexcitation of the photosynthetic apparatus is potentially dangerous because it can cause oxidative damage. Photoprotection realized via the feedback de-excitation in the pigment-protein light-harvesting complex LHCII, embedded in the chloroplast lipid environment, was studied with use of the steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. Illumination of LHCII results in the pronounced singlet excitation quenching, demonstrated by decreased quantum yield of the chlorophyll a fluorescence and shortening of the fluorescence lifetimes. Analysis of the 77K chlorophyll a fluorescence emission spectra reveals that the light-driven excitation quenching in LHCII is associated with the intensity increase of the spectral band in the region of 700nm, relative to the principal band at 680nm. The average chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime at 700nm changes drastically upon temperature decrease: from 1.04ns at 300K to 3.63ns at 77K. The results of the experiments lead us to conclude that: (i) the 700nm band is associated with the inter-trimer interactions which result in the formation of the chlorophyll low-energy states acting as energy traps and non-radiative dissipation centers; (ii) the Arrhenius analysis, supported by the results of the FTIR measurements, suggests that the photo-reaction can be associated with breaking of hydrogen bonds. Possible involvement of photo-isomerization of neoxanthin, reported previously (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1807 (2011) 1237-1243) in generation of the low-energy traps in LHCII is discussed.

  1. Electron-phonon coupling in solubilized LHC II complexes of green plants investigated by line-narrowing and temperature-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Renger, G; Schödel, R; Voigt, J

    2001-01-01

    Line-narrowed and temperature-dependent fluorescence spectra are reported for the solubilized trimeric light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II (LHC II). Special attention has been paid to eliminate effects owing to reabsorption and to ensure that the line-narrowed fluorescence spectra are virtually unaffected by hole burning or scattering artifacts. Analysis of line-narrowed fluorescence spectra at 4.2 K indicates that the lowest Q//y-state of LHC II is characterized by weak electron-phonon coupling with a Huang-Rhys factor of similar to 0.9 and a broad and strongly asymmetric one- phonon profile with a peak frequency omega//m of 15 cm**-**1 and a width of Gamma = 105 cm**-**1. The 4.2 K fluorescence data are further consistent with the assignment of the lowest Q//y-state at similar to 680.0 nm and an inhomogeneous width of similar to 80 cm**- **1 gathered from a recent hole-burning study (Pieper et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 1999, 103, 2412). The temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectra of LHC II is s...

  2. Plant protein glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an essential co- and post-translational modification of secretory and membrane proteins in all eukaryotes. The initial steps of N-glycosylation and N-glycan processing are highly conserved between plants, mammals and yeast. In contrast, late N-glycan maturation steps in the Golgi differ significantly in plants giving rise to complex N-glycans with β1,2-linked xylose, core α1,3-linked fucose and Lewis A-type structures. While the essential role of N-glycan modifications on distinct mammalian glycoproteins is already well documented, we have only begun to decipher the biological function of this ubiquitous protein modification in different plant species. In this review, I focus on the biosynthesis and function of different protein N-linked glycans in plants. Special emphasis is given on glycan-mediated quality control processes in the ER and on the biological role of characteristic complex N-glycan structures. PMID:26911286

  3. The rhizosphere microbiome and plant health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, R.L.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of microbes associated with plant roots is enormous, in the order of tens of thousands of species. This complex plant-associated microbial community, also referred to as the second genome of the plant, is crucial for plant health. Recent advances in plant–microbe interactions research

  4. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Carney Complex Request Permissions Carney Complex Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is Carney complex? Carney complex is a hereditary condition associated with: ...

  5. plant diversity, vegetation structure and relationship between plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    analyses of five Afromontane forests altogether revealed 118 families and 653 vascular plant species; ... structure in the moist evergreen Afromontane forest ..... gradient of complex environmental factors. The .... other tropical montane forests.

  6. The Colletotrichum acutatum complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously

  7. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  8. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...

  9. Ridgefield Complex - Invasive Plant EDRR Search 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Much of this search will be conducted in woodland and forest habitat on foot. Some areas will be searched comprehensively for the first time, especially oak,...

  10. How plants LINC the SUN to KASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Linkers of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are conserved eukaryotic protein complexes that bridge the nuclear envelope (NE) via protein-protein interactions in the NE lumen. Revealed by opisthokont studies, LINC complexes are key players in multiple cellular processes, such as nuclear and chromosomal positioning and nuclear shape determination, which in turn influence the generation of gametes and several aspects of development. Although comparable processes have long been known in plants, the first plant nuclear envelope bridging complexes were only recently identified. WPP domain-interacting proteins at the outer NE have little homology to known opisthokont KASH proteins, but form complexes with SUN proteins at the inner NE that have plant-specific properties and functions. In this review, we will address the importance of LINC complex-regulated processes, describe the plant NE bridging complexes and compare them to opisthokont LINC complexes.

  11. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  12. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  13. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  14. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sunshine, air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axi-omatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory, scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent, such as deserts,islands, water surfaces, South and North poles and space, as well as in human habi-tats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  15. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China starts to produce vegetables and fruits in a factory sunshine,air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axiomatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory,scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent,such as deserts, islands,water surfaces,South and North poles and space,as well as in human habitats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  16. Plant biotic interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    occurring after infestation by olive fly larvae. The last research article by Niu et al.(2016) describes a growth-promoting rhizobacterium that primes induced systemic resistance by suppressing a host R gene-targeting micro RNA pairs and activating host immune responses. This finding further supports the important roles of plant endogenous small RNAs in plant-pathogen interactions. Hailing Jin, Professor Special Issue Editor UC President’s Chair Director of Genetics, Genomics and Bioinformatics Graduate Program, Center for Plant Cell Biology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, USA doi:10.1111/jipb.12476 ©2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences REFERENCES Alagna F, Kal enbach M, Pompa A, De Marchis F, Rao R, Baldwin IT, Bonaventure G, Baldoni L (2016) Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles. J Integr Plant Biol 58:413–425 Castiblanco LF, Sundin GW (2016) New insights on molecular regulation of biofilm formation in plant-associated bacteria. J Integr Plant Biol 58:362–372 da GraSca JV, Douhan GW, Halbert SE, Keremane ML, Lee RF, Vidalakis G, Zhao H (2016) Huanglongbing: An overview of a complex pathosystem ravaging the world’s citrus. J Integr Plant Biol 58:373–387 Giovino A, Martinel i F, Saia S (2016) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus attack affects a group of compounds rather than rearranging Phoenix canariensis metabolic pathways. J Integr Plant Biol 58:388–396 Huang J, Yang M, Zhang X (2016) The function of smal RNAs in plant biotic stress response. J Integr Plant Biol 58:312–327 Kaloshian I, Wal ing LL (2016) Hemipteran and dipteran pests: Effectors and plant host immune regulators. J Integr Plant Biol 58:350–361 Mermigka G, Verret F, Kalantidis K (2016) RNA silencing movement in plants. J Integr Plant Biol 58:328–342 Niu D, Xia J, Jiang C, Qi B, Ling X, Lin S, Zhang W, Guo J, Jin H, Zhao H (2016) Bacil us cereus AR156

  17. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  18. Shaping plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eTeichmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models.Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture

  19. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    nuclear reservation. Workers had to pass through metal detectors when they arrived at the plant and materials leaving the plant had to be scanned for security reasons. Whereas other high-security nuclear materials were shipped from the PFP to Savannah River, S.C. as part ofa Department of Energy (DOE) program to consolidate weapons-grade plutonium, it was determined that the SIF should remain onsite pending disposition to a national repository. Nevertheless, the SIF still requires a high level of security that the PFP complex has always provided. With the 60-year PFP mission of producing and storing plutonium concluded, the environmental cleanup plans for Hanford call for the demolition of the 63-building PFP complex. Consequently, if the SIF remained at PFP it not only would have interfered with the environmental cleanup plans, but would have required $100 million in facility upgrades to meet increased national security requirements imposed after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. A new smaller and more cost-effective area was needed to store this material, which led to the SIF Project. Once the SIF project was successfully completed and the SIF was safely removed from PFP, the existing Protected Area at PFP could be removed, and demolition could proceed more quickly without being encumbered by restrictive security requirements that an active Protected Area requires. The lightened PFP security level brought by safely removing and storing the SIF would also yield lowered costs for deactivation and demolition, as well as reduce overall life-cycle costs.

  20. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...... for the Japanese fast breeder reactor plant MONJU....

  1. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  2. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  3. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  4. Update on the Department of Energy's 1994 plutonium vulnerability assessment for the plutonium finishing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERZOG, K.R.

    1999-09-01

    A review of the environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the continued storage of PFP's inventory of plutonium bearing materials and other SNM. This report re-evaluates the five vulnerabilities identified in 1994 at the PFP that are associated with SNM storage. This new evaluation took a more detailed look and applied a risk ranking process to help focus remediation efforts.

  5. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  6. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  7. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  8. Coping with complexity: past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, a technical report was published with the somewhat enigmatic title 'Coping with complexity.' Its purpose was to discuss how computers could be used to assist process plant operators in coping with complex situations during plant disturbances. Today, coping with complexity is a problem...... not only for process plant operators but for everyone. And while computers in 1981 were looked upon as the solution, they are now seen as the source of the problem. This paper discusses why and how the meaning of 'coping with complexity' has changed over the years and speculate on what may lie ahead....

  9. Power plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.V.; Conner, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Just to keep up with expected demand, the US will need over 500 new power generation units by 1985. Where these power plants will be located is the subject of heated debate among utility officials, government leaders, conservationists, concerned citizens and a multitude of special interest groups. This book offers a balanced review of all of the salient factors that must be taken into consideration in selecting power plant locations. To deal with this enormously complex subject, the authors (1) offer a general overview of the history and reasoning behind present legislation on the state and national levels; (2) describe the many different agencies that have jurisdiction in power plant location, from local water authorities and city councils to state conservation boards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and (3) include a state-by-state breakdown of siting laws, regulations and present licensing procedures. Architects, engineers, contractors, and others involved in plant construction and site evaluation will learn of the trade-offs that must be made in balancing the engineering, economic, and environmental impacts of plant location. The book covers such areas as availability of water supplies for generation or cooling; geology, typography, and demography of the proposed site; and even the selection of the fuel best suited for the area. Finally, the authors examine the numerous environmental aspects of power plant siting.

  10. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  11. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  12. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  13. Engineering of plant chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Michael Florian; Houben, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Engineered minimal chromosomes with sufficient mitotic and meiotic stability have an enormous potential as vectors for stacking multiple genes required for complex traits in plant biotechnology. Proof of principle for essential steps in chromosome engineering such as truncation of chromosomes by T-DNA-mediated telomere seeding and de novo formation of centromeres by cenH3 fusion protein tethering has been recently obtained. In order to generate robust protocols for application in plant biotechnology, these steps need to be combined and supplemented with additional methods such as site-specific recombination for the directed transfer of multiple genes of interest on the minichromosomes. At the same time, the development of these methods allows new insight into basic aspects of plant chromosome functions such as how centromeres assure proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells or how telomeres serve to cap the chromosome ends to prevent shortening of ends over DNA replication cycles and chromosome end fusion.

  14. Tethering complexes in the Arabidopsis endomembrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja eVukasinovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTargeting of endomembrane transport containers is of the utmost importance for proper land plant growth and development. Given the immobility of plant cells, localized membrane vesicle secretion and recycling are amongst the main processes guiding proper cell, tissue and whole plant morphogenesis. Cell wall biogenesis and modification are dependent on vectorial membrane traffic, not only during normal development, but also in stress responses and in plant defence against pathogens and/or symbiosis. It is surprising how little we know about these processes in plants, from small GTPase regulation to the tethering complexes that act as their effectors. Tethering factors are single proteins or protein complexes mediating first contact between the target membrane and arriving membrane vesicles. In this review we focus on the tethering complexes of the best-studied plant model – Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-based predictions indicate the presence of all major tethering complexes in plants that are known from a hypothetical last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA. The evolutionary multiplication of paralogs of plant tethering complex subunits has produced the massively expanded EXO70 family, indicating a subfunctionalization of the terminal exocytosis machinery in land plants. Interpretation of loss of function (LOF mutant phenotypes has to consider that related, yet clearly functionally-specific complexes often share some common core subunits. It is therefore impossible to conclude with clarity which version of the complex is responsible for the phenotypic deviations observed. Experimental interest in the analysis of plant tethering complexes is growing and we hope to contribute with this review by attracting even more attention to this fascinating field of plant cell biology.

  15. Plant minichromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchler, James A; Graham, Nathaniel D; Swyers, Nathan C; Cody, Jon P; McCaw, Morgan E

    2016-02-01

    Plant minichromosomes have the potential for stacking multiple traits on a separate entity from the remainder of the genome. Transgenes carried on an independent chromosome would facilitate conferring many new properties to plants and using minichromosomes as genetic tools. The favored method for producing plant minichromosomes is telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation because the epigenetic nature of centromere function prevents using centromere sequences to confer the ability to organize a kinetochore when reintroduced into plant cells. Because haploid induction procedures are not always complete in eliminating one parental genome, chromosomes from the inducer lines are often present in plants that are otherwise haploid. This fact suggests that minichromosomes could be combined with doubled haploid breeding to transfer stacked traits more easily to multiple lines and to use minichromosomes for massive scale genome editing.

  16. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Stephen A.; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E.; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew; Kubach, Adam; Narro, Martha; Hopkins, Nicole; Micklos, David; Hilgert, Uwe; Gonzales, Michael; Jordan, Chris; Skidmore, Edwin; Dooley, Rion; Cazes, John; McLay, Robert; Lu, Zhenyuan; Pasternak, Shiran; Koesterke, Lars; Piel, William H.; Grene, Ruth; Noutsos, Christos; Gendler, Karla; Feng, Xin; Tang, Chunlao; Lent, Monica; Kim, Seung-Jin; Kvilekval, Kristian; Manjunath, B. S.; Tannen, Val; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Sanderson, Michael; Welch, Stephen M.; Cranston, Karen A.; Soltis, Pamela; Soltis, Doug; O'Meara, Brian; Ane, Cecile; Brutnell, Tom; Kleibenstein, Daniel J.; White, Jeffery W.; Leebens-Mack, James; Donoghue, Michael J.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Vision, Todd J.; Myers, Christopher R.; Lowenthal, David; Enquist, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Akoglu, Ali; Andrews, Greg; Ram, Sudha; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; Stanzione, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services. PMID:22645531

  17. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Goff

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006. iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services.

  18. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  19. Plants, diet, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Chronic disease is a major social challenge of the twenty-first century. In this review, we examine the evidence for discordance between modern diets and those on which humankind evolved as the cause of the increasing incidence of chronic diseases, and the evidence supporting consumption of plant foods as a way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. We also examine the evidence for avoiding certain components of plant-based foods that are enriched in Western diets, and review the mechanisms by which different phytonutrients are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This body of evidence strongly suggests that consuming more fruits and vegetables could contribute both to medical nutrition therapies, as part of a package of treatments for conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity, and to the prevention of these diseases. Plant science should be directed toward improving the quality of plant-based foods by building on our improved understanding of the complex relationships between plants, our diet, and our health.

  20. Dynamic modelling as an element of the availibility and process oriented behaviour investigation of complex power plants; Dynamische Modellbildung als Element von verfuegbarkeits- und prozessorientierten Untersuchungen komplexer kraftwerkstechnischer Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klatt, M.

    2007-12-20

    A software-tool was developed, which, with its specially built component library, allows the modelling of availability and dynamic behaviour of large scale power plant units. The requested graphic representation near to the process flow schema required a search for new ways of data and information flow modelling. The large quantity of components of a power plant unit with its most important components thereby requires a block oriented modelling approach based on lumped and distributed lumped parameters. (orig.)

  1. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  3. Seed planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  4. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  5. TRANSGENIC PLANTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PEST RESISTANCE WHILE USING ... Stratégies to delay the development of résistance while using Bt engineered plants are many and would need to be ..... training, pesticide use patterns change, and the.

  6. The rhizosphere microbiome and plant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Roeland L; Pieterse, Corné M J; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2012-08-01

    The diversity of microbes associated with plant roots is enormous, in the order of tens of thousands of species. This complex plant-associated microbial community, also referred to as the second genome of the plant, is crucial for plant health. Recent advances in plant-microbe interactions research revealed that plants are able to shape their rhizosphere microbiome, as evidenced by the fact that different plant species host specific microbial communities when grown on the same soil. In this review, we discuss evidence that upon pathogen or insect attack, plants are able to recruit protective microorganisms, and enhance microbial activity to suppress pathogens in the rhizosphere. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that govern selection and activity of microbial communities by plant roots will provide new opportunities to increase crop production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PFP up-right lift UL-20/26 manlifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, J.M.

    1994-11-09

    This Technical Evaluation of Equipment Maintenance (TEEM) is provided principally to document vendor suggested maintenance requirements and deviations from vendor suggested requirements, and provide documentation to support PM procedures. As additional maintenance activities are identified, they will be documented in later revisions. This TEEM is applicable to four single-person manlifts. The report documents preventive maintenance evaluations, semi-annual checks, safety rules before the use of the manlifts, and routine service checks.

  8. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...

  9. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  10. MRI of plants and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  11. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  12. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives, puz

  13. Complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  14. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  15. Largest US plant gets larger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-04-01

    CONSOL Energy's Bailey complex consists of two extremely large underground mining operations, the Bailey and Enlow Fork mines, and the largest US preparation plant, the Bailey central plant. The original plant was designed with a raw feed capacity of 900 tph and was expanded to a total capacity of 2,200 tph. The recent upgrade, referred to as No. 1B, was completed in early 1999. Two new silos were added and raw feed conveyors were upgraded. The article gives details on the recent upgrade. 2 photos.

  16. Modeling golden section in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanling Zeng; Guozhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Plants are complex structures, changing their shapes in response to environmental factors such as sunlight, water and neighboring plants. However, some mathematical rules can be found in their growth patterns, one of which is the golden section. The golden section can be observed in branching systems, phyllotaxis, flowers and seeds, and often the spiral arrangement of plant organs. In this study, tree, flower and fruit models have been generated by using the corresponding golden section characteristics, resulting in more natural patterns. Furthermore, the golden section can be found in the bifurcate angles of trees and lobed leaves, extending the golden section theory.

  17. Electronic Information Management for PfP Nations (La gestion electronique des informations pour les pays du PfP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    archival of printed sources consumes additional expenses, immediate access to archival copies of electronic books and journals through the publishers’ Web...include access to bibliographic and fulltext databases, to online journals, and to electronic books . • There are a number of electronic databases that

  18. Evaluation of selected wetland plants for removal of chromium from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Wastewater from leather processing industries is very complex and leads to water pollution if discharged ... phytoremediation efficiency of selected wetland plant species in subsurface flow (SSF) constructed ... plants and aquatic organisms.

  19. Chromatin Remodeling and Plant Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Zhu, Q; Liu, Y; Zhang, Q

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling, an important facet of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, is performed by two major types of multisubunit complexes, covalent histone- or DNA-modifying complexes, and ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes. Snf2 family DNA-dependent ATPases constitute the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes, which accounts for energy supply during chromatin remodeling. Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of chromatin remodeling in the establishment of long-lasting, even transgenerational immune memory in plants, which is supported by the findings that DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and histone methylation can prime the promoters of immune-related genes required for disease defense. So what are the links between Snf2-mediated ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling and plant immunity, and what mechanisms might support its involvement in disease resistance?

  20. Unravelling of the health effects of polyphenols is a complex puzzle complicated by metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant metabolism creates complex mixtures of polyphenols in plant foods. Epidemiology and human trials reduced this complexity, by studying specific foods; subclasses of polyphenols; individual polyphenols, or total antioxidant capacity (TAC). This implies the following assumptions: (1) a limited nu

  1. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  2. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dut...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....

  3. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yellow power was collected as polydatin-lecithin complex. ... performed on an Agilent 1260 HPLC system. The injection volume .... rabbits. Biomed. Pharmacother 2009; 63: 457-462. 4. Liu B, Du J, Zeng J, Chen C, Niu S. Characterization and.

  4. Detecting Site-Specific Physicochemical Selective Pressures: Applications to the Class I HLA of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex and the SRK of the Plant Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainudiin, Raazesh; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Yogeeswaran, Krithika

    2005-01-01

    plants (Brassicaceae), whose structure is unknown. Through likelihood ratio tests we demonstrate that at some sites, the positively selected MHC and SRK proteins are under physicochemical selective pressures to alter polarity, volume, polarity and/or volume, and charge to various extents. An empirical...... Bayes approach is used to identify sites that may be important for ligand recognition in these proteins....

  5. Application of complex engineering solutions through advanced composite innovation (for repair of degraded buried pipe at Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant); Reparacion de tuberias de un sistema de servicios no esenciales con recubrimiento interno de fibra de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, J. M.; Raji, B. B.

    2011-07-01

    This technical presentation is focused on introducing an engineering solution approach and identification of sensitivity of applications of advanced carbon fiber in a pressurized wet environment: Engineering design, quality assurance of installation, inspection, and a comprehensive testing program to validate and bench mark the design data and compliance with code requirements in nuclear power plants.

  6. Plant cellulose synthesis: CESA proteins crossing kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Turner, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Cellulose is a biopolymer of considerable economic importance. It is synthesised by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) in species ranging from bacteria to higher plants. Enormous progress in our understanding of bacterial cellulose synthesis has come with the recent publication of both the crystal structure and biochemical characterisation of a purified complex able to synthesis cellulose in vitro. A model structure of a plant CESA protein suggests considerable similarity between the bacterial and plant cellulose synthesis. In this review article we will cover current knowledge of how plant CESA proteins synthesise cellulose. In particular the focus will be on the lessons learned from the recent work on the catalytic mechanism and the implications that new data on cellulose structure has for the assembly of CESA proteins into the large complex that synthesis plant cellulose microfibrils.

  7. Metal hyperaccumulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Ute

    2010-01-01

    During the history of life on Earth, tectonic and climatic change repeatedly generated large territories that were virtually devoid of life and exhibited harsh environmental conditions. The ability of a few specialist pioneer plants to colonize such hostile environments was thus of paramount ecological importance for the continuous maintenance of primary production over time. Yet, we know very little about how extreme traits evolve and function in plants. Recent breakthroughs have given first insights into the molecular basis underlying the complex extreme model trait of metal hyperaccumulation and associated metal hypertolerance. This review gives an introduction into the hyperaccumulator research field and its history; provides an overview of hyperaccumulator germplasm; describes the state of the art of our understanding of the physiological, molecular, and genetic basis underlying metal hyperaccumulation and its evolution; and highlights future research needs and opportunities.

  8. Modeling plants with sensor data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wei; XIANG Bo; ZHA HongBin; LIU Jia; ZHANG XiaoPeng

    2009-01-01

    Sensor data,typically images and laser data,are essential to modeling real plants.However,due to the complex geometry of the plants,the measurement data are generally limited,thereby bringing great difficulties in classifying and constructing plant organs,comprising leaves and branches.The paper presents an approach to modeling plants with the sensor data by detecting reliable sharp features,i.e.the leaf apexes of the plants with leaves and the branch tips of the plants without leaves,on volumes recovered from the raw data.The extracted features provide good estimations of correct positions of the organs.Thereafter,the leaves are reconstructed separately by simply fitting and optimizing a generic leaf model.One advantage of the method is that it involves limited manual intervention.For plants without leaves,we develop an efficient strategy for decomposition-based skeletonization by using the tip features to reconstruct the 3D models from noisy laser data.Experiments show that the sharp feature detection algorithm is effective,and the proposed plant modeling approach is competent in constructing realistic models with sensor data.

  9. Toxic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is the single most important economic animal trait to the livestock industry and is reported to be 5 and 10 times more significant than carcass quality and growth traits respectively. Poisonous plants impact livestock reproductive function in a major way and have been shown...

  10. Microorganism and filamentous fungi drive evolution of plant synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In the course of plant evolution, there is an obvious trend toward an increased complexity of plant bodies, as well as an increased sophistication of plant behavior and communication. Phenotypic plasticity of plants is based on the polar auxin transport machinery that is directly linked with plant sensory systems impinging on plant behavior and adaptive responses. Similar to the emergence and evolution of eukaryotic cells, evolution of land plants was also shaped and driven by infective and symbiotic microorganisms. These microorganisms are the driving force behind the evolution of plant synapses and other neuronal aspects of higher plants; this is especially pronounced in the root apices. Plant synapses allow synaptic cell-cell communication and coordination in plants, as well as sensory-motor integration in root apices searching for water and mineral nutrition. These neuronal aspects of higher plants are closely linked with their unique ability to adapt to environmental changes.

  11. Mass Customization of process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes how F.L.Smidth A/S, a manufacturer of large processing plants for cement production, has applied the principles of mass customisation in the area of highly complex, custom engineered products. The company has based its sales process on a configuration system to achieve...

  12. Using a plant health system framework to assess plant clinic performance in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Systems thinking is commonly applied to understand the complexities of human healthcare delivery. In contrast, plant health systems as an organising principle have evolved more recently from work with plant clinics as providers of plant healthcare services to farmers. As plant health systems evolve...... and expand, new analytical frameworks and tools are needed to identify factors influencing performance of services and systems in specific contexts, and to guide interventions. In this paper we apply a plant health system framework to assess plant clinic performance, using Uganda as a case study....... A comparative study of plant clinics was carried out between July 2010 and September 2011 in the 12 districts where plant clinics were operating at that time. The framework enabled us to organise multiple issues and identify key features that affected the plant clinics. Clinic performance was, among other...

  13. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna;

    2015-01-01

    The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf Fescues. Plants belonging to this complex exhibit significant phenotypic plasticity for agriculturally important traits, such as annuality/perenniality, establishment potential, growth speed, nutritional val...

  14. Air pollution impedes plant-to-plant communication by volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blande, James D; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Li, Tao

    2010-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by damaged plants convey information to undamaged neighbouring plants, and previous research has shown that these signals are effective over short distances in nature. Many herbivore-induced VOCs react with ozone, which is the most important tropospheric air pollutant in rural areas. We used extrafloral nectar (EFN) secretion as a phenotypic indicator of between-plant communication in Phaseolus lunatus L. (Lima bean) and show that an ozone-rich (80 ppb) atmosphere reduces the distance over which signalling occurs. We found that ozone degrades several herbivore-induced VOCs, a likely mechanism reducing communication distances. Direct exposure to 80-ppb ozone did not affect the VOC emissions from P. lunatus. In addition, we demonstrated that high ozone concentrations, 120 and 160 ppb, induced EFN secretion in exposed plants, whereas more moderate concentrations, 80 and 100 ppb, did not. This suggests that ozone can play a complex role in the indirect defence of P. lunatus.

  15. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  16. The Galatia preparation plant expands throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.R.; Campbell, J.A.L.; Riffey, R.L. [Kerr-McGee Coal, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Profiles the Kerr-McGee`s Galatia coal preparation plant, located on the Galatia Mine complex near Marian (Illinois). The plant, first opened in 1984, originally consisted of a coarse heavy-media vessel circuit, dual heavy-media cyclone circuits, and split fine-coal flotation. In 1994 the plant was expanded adding new technology whilst retaining the original design concepts. New technology installed included new spirals and fiberglass replacement components to overcome corrosion. 3 figs.

  17. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as

  18. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as fragran

  19. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  20. The plant mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...... chromatography linked on-line with tandem mass spectrometry, have identified >400 mitochondrial proteins, including subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes, supercomplexes, phosphorylated proteins and oxidized proteins. The results also highlight a range of new mitochondrial proteins, new mitochondrial...... functions and possible new mechanisms for regulating mitochondrial metabolism. More than 70 identified proteins in Arabidopsis mitochondrial samples lack similarity to any protein of known function. In some cases, unknown proteins were found to form part of protein complexes, which allows a functional...

  1. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  2. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahed Hossain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress.

  3. PLANT TRANSFORMATION: ADVANCES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Adriana Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation is a powerful tool for plant breeding and genetical, physiological or biochemical research, consequently it is an extremely dynamic field. Transgenic plants are commonly used to complete or substitute mutants in basic research, helping the studies of complex biological situations such as pathogenesis process, genome organization, light reception and signal transduction. In this review, recent approaches for foreign gene introduction (e.g. Agrobiolistics, whole tissue electroporation, in planta Agrobacterium transformation, screening (reporter gene possibilities and performance and transformant selection (ipt selective marker are discussed. Transgene expression and mechanisms underlying (transgene inactivation are presented. Practical applications of genetically modified plants, field tests and commercial transgenic crops worldwide and in Brazil are listed, as well as the main traits and species modified. Potential uses of transgenic plants for animal compound production, biological remediation and synthetic polymer assembly are also shown.

  4. Plant adaptogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Nörr, H; Winterhoff, H

    1994-06-01

    The term adaptogen has not yet been accepted in medicine. This is probably due to the difficulties in discriminating adaptogenic drugs from immunostimulators, anabolic drugs, nootropic drugs, and tonics. There can be not doubt, however, that, at least in animal experiments, there are plant drugs capable of modulating distinct phases of the adaptation syndrome as defined by Seyle. These drugs either reduce stress reactions in the alarm phase or retard / prevent the exhaustion phase and thus provide a certain degree of protection against long-term stress. The small number of drugs the antistress activity of which has been proven or reported includes, among others, the plant drugs Ginseng, Eleutherococcus, Withania, Ocimum, Rhodiola, and Codonopsis. This review summarizes the major findings of pharmacological tests and human studies carried out with these drugs. Currently used assay systems allowing detection of antistress activities are also reported. At present the most likely candidates responsible for the putative antistress activity of plant drugs are special steroids, phenylprogane compounds and lignanes, respectively. Apart from influencing activities of the pituitary-adrenal axis and inducing stress proteins, many adaptogens also possess immunomodulatory and / or anabolic activities. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

  6. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  7. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  8. Diffuse symbioses: roles of plant-plant, plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions in structuring the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Matthew G; Schlatter, Daniel C; Otto-Hanson, Lindsey; Kinkel, Linda L

    2014-03-01

    A conceptual model emphasizing direct host-microbe interactions has dominated work on host-associated microbiomes. To understand plant-microbiome associations, however, broader influences on microbiome composition and functioning must be incorporated, such as those arising from plant-plant and microbe-microbe interactions. We sampled soil microbiomes associated with target plant species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Lespedeza capitata, Lupinus perennis) grown in communities varying in plant richness (1-, 4-, 8- or 16-species). We assessed Streptomyces antagonistic activity and analysed bacterial and Streptomyces populations via 454 pyrosequencing. Host plant species and plant richness treatments altered networks of coassociation among bacterial taxa, suggesting the potential for host plant effects on the soil microbiome to include changes in microbial interaction dynamics and, consequently, co-evolution. Taxa that were coassociated in the rhizosphere of a given host plant species often showed consistent correlations between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) relative abundance and Streptomyces antagonistic activity, in the rhizosphere of that host. However, in the rhizosphere of a different host plant species, the same OTUs showed no consistency, or a different pattern of responsiveness to such biotic habitat characteristics. The diversity and richness of bacterial and Streptomyces communities exhibited distinct relationships with biotic and abiotic soil characteristics. The rhizosphere soil microbiome is influenced by a complex and nested array of factors at varying spatial scales, including plant community, plant host, soil edaphics and microbial taxon and community characteristics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Plant reproduction in spaceflight environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.

  10. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  11. Contrasting effect of dark-chilling on chloroplast structure and arrangement of chlorophyll-protein complexes in pea and tomato : Plants with a different susceptibility to non-freezing temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garstka, Maciej; Venema, Jan Henk; Rumak, Izabela; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Rosiak, Malgorzata; Koziol-Lipinska, Joanna; Kierdaszuk, Borys; Vredenberg, Wim J.; Mostowska, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    The effect of dark-chilling and subsequent photoactivation on chloroplast structure and arrangements of chlorophyll-protein complexes in thylakoid membranes was studied in chilling-tolerant (CT) pea and in chilling-sensitive (CS) tomato. Dark-chilling did not influence chlorophyll content and Chl a/

  12. Activity of the promoter of the Lhca3.St.1 gene, encoding the potato apoprotein 2 of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem I, in transgenic potato and tobacco plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Jan; VANSPANJE, M; Dirkse, W.G.; BAARDA, G; Mlynarova, L; Loonen, A.; GRONDHUIS, P; STIEKEMA, WJ

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA and genomic clones for the potato (Solanum tuberosum) apoprotein 2 of the light harvesting complex of Photosystem 1, designated Lhca3.St.l. The protein shows all characteristics of the family of chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins. Potato Lhca3.1 gene expression occurs predominant

  13. Recent advances of metabolomics in plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yozo; Saito, Kazuki

    2012-01-01

    Biotechnology, including genetic modification, is a very important approach to regulate the production of particular metabolites in plants to improve their adaptation to environmental stress, to improve food quality, and to increase crop yield. Unfortunately, these approaches do not necessarily lead to the expected results due to the highly complex mechanisms underlying metabolic regulation in plants. In this context, metabolomics plays a key role in plant molecular biotechnology, where plant cells are modified by the expression of engineered genes, because we can obtain information on the metabolic status of cells via a snapshot of their metabolome. Although metabolome analysis could be used to evaluate the effect of foreign genes and understand the metabolic state of cells, there is no single analytical method for metabolomics because of the wide range of chemicals synthesized in plants. Here, we describe the basic analytical advancements in plant metabolomics and bioinformatics and the application of metabolomics to the biological study of plants.

  14. Integrating plant carbon dynamics with mutualism ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2016-04-01

    Plants reward microbial and animal mutualists with carbohydrates to obtain nutrients, defense, pollination, and dispersal. Under a fixed carbon budget, plants must allocate carbon to their mutualists at the expense of allocation to growth, reproduction, or storage. Such carbon trade-offs are indirectly expressed when a plant exhibits reduced growth or fecundity in the presence of its mutualist. Because carbon regulates the costs of all plant mutualisms, carbon dynamics are a common platform for integrating these costs in the face of ecological complexity and context dependence. The ecophysiology of whole-plant carbon allocation could thus elucidate the ecology and evolution of plant mutualisms. If mutualisms are costly to plants, then they must be important but frequently underestimated sinks in the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  15. Structural basis of plant homeodomain finger 6 (PHF6) recognition by the retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Fudong; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Sai; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2015-03-06

    The NuRD complex is a conserved transcriptional coregulator that contains both chromatin-remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. Mutations of PHF6 are found in patients with Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or acute myeloid leukemia. Recently, PHF6 was identified to interact with the NuRD complex, and this interaction is mediated by the RBBP4 component. However, little is known about the molecular basis for the interaction. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complex of the NuRD subunit RBBP4 bound to the PHF6 peptide (residues 162-170). The PHF6 peptide binds to the top surface of the RBBP4 β-propeller. A pair of positively charged residues of the PHF6 peptide insert into the negatively charged pocket of RBBP4, which is critical for the interaction between PHF6 and RBBP4. Corresponding PHF6 mutants impair this interaction in vitro and in vivo. Structural comparison shows that the PHF6-binding pocket overlaps with FOG1 and histone H3 on RBBP4/Nurf55, but it is distinct from the pocket recognizing histone H4, Su(z)12, and MTA1. We further show that the middle disordered region (residues 145-207, containing the RBBP4-binding motif) is sufficient for the transcriptional repression mediated by PHF6 on the GAL4 reporter, and knockdown of RBBP4 diminished the PHF6-mediated repression. Our RBBP4-PHF6 complex structure provides insights into the molecular basis of PHF6-NuRD complex interaction and implicates a role for PHF6 in chromatin structure modulation and gene regulation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Level of detail technique for plant models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng ZHANG; Qingqiong DENG; Marc JAEGER

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modelling and interactive rendering of forestry and landscape is a challenge in computer graphics and virtual reality. Recent new developments in plant growth modelling and simulation lead to plant models faithful to botanical structure and development, not only representing the complex architecture of a real plant but also its functioning in interaction with its environment. Complex geometry and material of a large group of plants is a big burden even for high performances computers, and they often overwhelm the numerical calculation power and graphic rendering power. Thus, in order to accelerate the rendering speed of a group of plants, software techniques are often developed. In this paper, we focus on plant organs, i.e. leaves, flowers, fruits and inter-nodes. Our approach is a simplification process of all sparse organs at the same time, i. e. , Level of Detail (LOD) , and multi-resolution models for plants. We do explain here the principle and construction of plant simplification. They are used to construct LOD and multi-resolution models of sparse organs and branches of big trees. These approaches take benefit from basic knowledge of plant architecture, clustering tree organs according to biological structures. We illustrate the potential of our approach on several big virtual plants for geometrical compression or LOD model definition. Finally we prove the efficiency of the proposed LOD models for realistic rendering with a virtual scene composed by 184 mature trees.

  17. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  18. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  19. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  20. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...