WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant part ii

  1. Electrodialytic soil remediation in a small pilot plant (Part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    difference in the degree of pollution and the way copper is bound within the soil.The speciation of copper in the soil from a small pilot plant did not show any measurable change during the first seven months of operation. It seems that the number of particles with very a high concentration of copper......Observations were made of copper-polluted soil to see, if any changes in the bonding type of copper in the soil were made during electrodialytic soil remediation. Three different fractions of the copper-polluted soil were used for investigation with infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction...... (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), the last two combined with an EDX analysis unit. The three soil fractions were extracted with am-monia for observa-tion of the copper removal when copper forms copper-tetra-ammine complexes with am...

  2. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  3. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2017-09-27

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (effects of static EF on other biological functions in invertebrates and plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to

  4. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  5. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems. (DLC)

  7. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex-Plant part II: Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knief, R.A. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly describes criticality investigations for nuclear weapon dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. The investigations performed were for pit staging, and build on previous criticality calculations for single pits. The KENO and MCNP computer models were used for pit and container combinations. Scenarios were based on administrative limits and actual or potential physical conditions in the facilities. Essentially all of the pit configurations modeled were subcritical by a substantial amount. It was concluded that a critical configuration involving pit/container combinations is not credible.

  8. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part II: Reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathways are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have only been recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss in detail the recent strategies and achievements used in the reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes in an effort to be able to attain higher amounts of the desired flavonoids and stilbenoids exploiting their beneficial properties as analyzed extensively in Part I of this review.

  9. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  10. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush.

  11. Plant-Derived Antimalarial Agents: New Leads and Efficient Phytomedicines. Part II. Non-Alkaloidal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaíde Braga de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still the most destructive and dangerous parasitic infection in many tropical and subtropical countries. The burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against the widely available antimalarial drugs. There is an urgent need for new, more affordable and accessible antimalarial agents possessing original modes of action. Natural products have played a dominant role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs to treat human diseases, and this fact anticipates that new antimalarial leads may certainly emerge from tropical plant sources. This present review covers most of the recently-published non-alkaloidal natural compounds from plants with antiplasmodial and antimalarial properties, belonging to the classes of terpenes, limonoids, flavonoids, chromones, xanthones, anthraquinones, miscellaneous and related compounds, besides the majority of papers describing antiplasmodial crude extracts published in the last five years not reviewed before. In addition, some perspectives and remarks on the development of new drugs and phytomedicines for malaria are succinctly discussed.

  12. Is a Wood Waste Gasification Project at Norbord South Carolina, Inc. a Fuel Conversion Plant, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  14. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part II: One-cycle PLE in determining total amount of analyte in plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is recognised as one of the most effective sample preparation methods. Despite the enhanced extraction power of PLE, the full recovery of an analyte from plant material may require multiple extractions of the same sample. The presented investigations show the possibility of estimating the true concentration value of an analyte in plant material employing one-cycle PLE in which plant samples of different weight are used. The performed experiments show a linear dependence between the reciprocal value of the analyte amount (E*), extracted in single-step PLE from a plant matrix, and the ratio of plant material mass to extrahent volume (m(p)/V(s)). Hence, time-consuming multi-step PLE can be replaced by a few single-step PLEs performed at different (m(p)/V(s)) ratios. The concentrations of rutin in Sambucus nigra L. and caffeine in tea and coffee estimated by means of the tested procedure are almost the same as their concentrations estimated by multiple PLE.

  15. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  16. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  17. Expertise revisited, Part II: Contributory expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert; Weinel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we tried to elicit the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by looking at its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  18. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  19. Revenue cycle management, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The proper management of your revenue cycle requires the application of "best practices" and the continual monitoring and measuring of the entire cycle. The correct technology will enable you to gain the insight and efficiencies needed in the ever-changing healthcare economy. The revenue cycle is a process that begins when you negotiate payor contracts, set fees, and schedule appointments and continues until claims are paid in full. Every single step in the cycle carries equal importance. Monitoring all phases and a commitment to continually communicating the results will allow you to achieve unparalleled success. In part I of this article, we explored the importance of contracting, scheduling, and case management as well as coding and clinical documentation. We will now take a closer look at the benefits charge capture, claim submission, payment posting, accounts receivable follow-up, and reporting can mean to your practice.

  20. Organic Rankine Cycle for Residual Heat to Power Conversion in Natural Gas Compressor Station. Part II: Plant Simulation and Optimisation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaczykowski, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    After having described the models for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) equipment in the first part of this paper, this second part provides an example that demonstrates the performance of different ORC systems in the energy recovery application in a gas compressor station. The application shows certain specific characteristics, i.e. relatively large scale of the system, high exhaust gas temperature, low ambient temperature operation, and incorporation of an air-cooled condenser, as an effect of the localization in a compressor station plant. Screening of 17 organic fluids, mostly alkanes, was carried out and resulted in a selection of best performing fluids for each cycle configuration, among which benzene, acetone and heptane showed highest energy recovery potential in supercritical cycles, while benzene, toluene and cyclohexane in subcritical cycles. Calculation results indicate that a maximum of 10.4 MW of shaft power can be obtained from the exhaust gases of a 25 MW compressor driver by the use of benzene as a working fluid in the supercritical cycle with heat recuperation. In relation to the particular transmission system analysed in the study, it appears that the regenerative subcritical cycle with toluene as a working fluid presents the best thermodynamic characteristics, however, require some attention insofar as operational conditions are concerned.

  1. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  2. On-field study of anaerobic digestion full-scale plants (Part II): new approaches in monitoring and evaluating process efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Orzi, Valentina; Adani, Fabrizio

    2011-10-01

    Biogas plants need easy and practical tools for monitoring and evaluating their biological process efficiency. As soon as, in many cases, biomass supply present considerable costs, full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) processes must approach, as much as possible, the potential biogas yield of the organic mixture fed to the biodigesters. In this paper, a new indicator is proposed (the bio-methane yield, BMY), for measuring the efficiency in full-scale AD processes, based on a balance between the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of the input biomass and the residual BMP of the output materials (digestate). For this purpose, a one-year survey was performed on three different full-scale biogas plants, in the Italian agro-industrial context, and the bio-chemical processes were fully described in order to calculate their efficiencies (BMY = 87-93%) and to validate the new indicator proposed, as useful and easily applicable tool for full-scale AD plants operators.

  3. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of a biomonitoring study conducted in twelve urban agglomerations in eight European countries, the ozone-sensitive bioindicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 was employed in order to assess the occurrence of phytotoxic ozone effects at urban, suburban, rural and traffic....... This is because the actual ozone flux into the leaf, which is modified by various environmental factors, rather than ambient ozone concentration determines the effects on plants. The advantage of sensitive bioindicators like tobacco Bel-W3 is that the impact of the effectively absorbed ozone dose can directly...

  4. Inaccessibility and subinaccessibility. In two parts. Part II (in Russian)

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This work represents a translation from English into Russian of the second part of the monograph by Alexander Kiselev under the same title. It contains the proof (in ZF) of inaccessible cardinals nonexistence. The first edition of this work was published in 2000. This part II contains applications of the subinaccessible cardinals apparatus and its basic tools - theories of reduced formula spectra and matrices, disseminators and others, which are used here in this proof and are set forth now in their more transparent and refined form. Much attention is devoted to the more explicit and substantial development and cultivation of basic ideas, serving as grounds for all main constructions and reasonings. The proof of the theorem about inaccessible cardinals nonexistence is presented in its detailed exposition. Several easy consequences of this theorem and some well-known results are presented. Appropriated for specialists in Set Theory and Mathematical Logic, and also for teachers and students of faculties of the ...

  5. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part II: experimental studies withAspidosperma ramiflorum in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna CC Aguiar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Aspidospermaplants are used to treat diseases in the tropics, including Aspidosperma ramiflorum, which acts against leishmaniasis, an activity that is experimentally confirmed. The species, known as guatambu-yellow, yellowperoba, coffee-peroba andmatiambu, grows in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil in the South to the Southeast regions. Through a guided biofractionation of A. ramiflorumextracts, the plant activity against Plasmodium falciparumwas evaluated in vitro for toxicity towards human hepatoma G2 cells, normal monkey kidney cells and nonimmortalised human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood. Six of the seven extracts tested were active at low doses (half-maximal drug inhibitory concentration < 3.8 µg/mL; the aqueous extract was inactive. Overall, the plant extracts and the purified compounds displayed low toxicity in vitro. A nonsoluble extract fraction and one purified alkaloid isositsirikine (compound 5 displayed high selectivity indexes (SI (= 56 and 113, respectively, whereas compounds 2 and 3 were toxic (SI < 10. The structure, activity and low toxicity of isositsirikine in vitro are described here for the first time in A. ramiflorum, but only the neutral and precipitate plant fractions were tested for activity, which caused up to 53% parasitaemia inhibition of Plasmodium bergheiin mice with blood-induced malaria. This plant species is likely to be useful in the further development of an antimalarial drug, but its pharmacological evaluation is still required.

  6. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part II. Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), apple allergenicity governed by Mal d 1 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-03-01

    Of the plant allergens listed in the Official Allergen Database of the International Union of Immunological Societies, approximately 25% belong to the group of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). They have been classified into 17 PR families based on similarities in their amino acid sequence, enzymatic activities, or other functional properties. Plant-derived allergens have been identified with sequence similarities to PR families 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 14. The main birch allergen in northern Europe is a class 10 (PR-10) protein from the European white birch (Betula pendula) termed Bet v 1. Pollen of other Fagales species contains PR-10 homologues that share epitopes with Bet v 1, as do several fruits, nuts and vegetables. Among the plant food fruits of the Rosaceae family are the most frequently responsible for allergenic reactions. It is documented, that approximately 2% of European population is allergic to apples. The article presents molecular characterization of PR-10 proteins with regard to their structure and function as well as apple Mal d 1 gene-determined allergenicity.

  7. Analysis of the climate change in Slovenia: Changes in plant development under the influence of meteorological parameters in the period 1961-2011 - part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper spring and autumn temperature thresholds of 5°C and 10°C, active air temperature sums and lengths of growing seasons with temperature threshold of 5°C and 10°C were analyzed. The analysis were made for 10 meteorological stations for the period 1961-2011. The dates of occurrence of phenological phases of selected plants (oxeye daisy, beech, apple, winter wheat and maize has been investigated. It was observed a tendency of earlier appearance of spring phenological phases and later appearance of autumn phenological phases. As a result extension of vegetation periods in the Republic of Slovenia is present. Dates with occurrence of phenological phases of selected plants from 8 phenological stations were connected with the results of the analysis of meteorological parameters from 8 meteorological stations. The highest correlation coefficients were obtained for the temperature parameters (0.8, while the average precipitation quantities, number of days with frost, potential evapotranspiration and water balance showed a low correlation coefficient values with the appearance of phenological phases.

  8. A Physicist for All Seasons: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The second part of this interview covers Frank Oppenheimer's move to the University of California at Berkeley and wartime work at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the electromagnetic-separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and at Los Alamos, New Mexico (1941-1945); his postwar research at Berkeley (1945-1947); his appointment at the University of Minnesota in 1947 and firing two years later after being required to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee; his decade as a rancher in Colorado (1949-1959) and high-school science teacher toward the end of this period; his research at the University of Colorado in Boulder after 1959; his year as a Guggenheim Fellow at University College London in 1965; and his founding of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. California, in 1969. He also discusses his wartime relations with his older brother Robert and postwar events in Robert's life, including his Hearings before the Personnel Security Board of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1954.

  9. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume II. Commercial plant design (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume II presents the commercial plant design and various design bases and design analyses. The discussion of design bases includes definition of plant external and internal considerations. The basis is described for process configuration selection of both process units and support facilities. Overall plant characteristics presented include a summary of utilities/chemicals/catalysts, a plant block flow diagram, and a key plot plan. Each process unit and support facility is described. Several different types of process analyses are presented. A synopsis of environmental impact is presented. Engineering requirements, including design considerations and materials of construction, are summarized. Important features such as safety, startup, control, and maintenance are highlighted. The last section of the report includes plant implementation considerations that would have to be considered by potential owners including siting, coal and water supply, product and by-product characteristics and uses, overall schedule, procurement, construction, and spare parts and maintenance philosophy.

  10. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  11. Reclaiming Kindergarten: Part II--Questions about Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…

  12. The Search for Another Earth - Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-01

    In the first part, we discussed the various methods for thedetection of planets outside the solar system known as theexoplanets. In this part, we will describe various kinds ofexoplanets. The habitable planets discovered so far and thepresent status of our search for a habitable planet similar tothe Earth will also be discussed.

  13. Reproduce and die! Why aging? Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    2005-01-01

    Whilst in part I of this diptych on aging the question why aging exists at all is discussed; this part deals with the question which mechanisms underly aging and, ultimately, dying. It appears that aging is not just an active process as such - although all kinds of internal (e.g., oxigen-free radica

  14. Mineral scale management. Part II, Fundamental chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The mineral scale that deposits in digesters and bleach plants is formed by a chemical precipitation process.As such, it is accurately modeled using the solubility product equilibrium constant. Although solubility product identifies the primary conditions that must be met for a scale problem to exist, the acid-base equilibria of the scaling anions often control where...

  15. Manganese ferrite thin films Part II: Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, W.S.

    1972-01-01

    Some properties of evaporated manganese ferrite thin films are investigated, e.g. resistivity, magnetization reversal, Curie temperature, Faraday rotation and optical absorption. The properties are partly related to the partial oxygen pressure present during a preceding annealing process.

  16. Biochemical Engineering. Part II: Process Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes types of industrial techniques involving biochemical products, specifying the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes, and contrasting biochemical and chemical engineering. See SE 506 318 for Part I. (AL)

  17. Inaccessibility and Subinaccessibility. In two parts. Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, A

    2010-01-01

    The work presents the second part of the second edition of its previous one published in 2000 under the same title, containing the proof (in $ZF$) of the inaccessible cardinals nonexistence, which is enriched and improved now. This part contains applications of the subinaccessible cardinals apparatus and its basic tools -- theories of reduced formula spectra and matrices, disseminators and others, which are used here in this proof and are set forth now in their more transparent and simplified form. Much attention is devoted to the explicit and substantial development and cultivation of basic ideas, serving as grounds for all main constructions and reasonings. The proof of the theorem about inaccessible cardinals nonexistence is presented in its detailed exposition. Several easy consequences of this theorem and some well-known results are presented.

  18. Shalom Sefarad: Una "erensya" envenenada (Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA VARGAS GÓMEZ-URRUTIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus the regulation established in the Law 12/2015, June 24 for granting the Spanish nationality to the Sephardic originating from Spain. The second part analyzes the amendments made to the bill during the parliamentary process and critically examines the most important aspects of the final text of the law. En este trabajo se da cuenta de la regulación establecida en la Ley 12/2015, de 24 de junio para la concesión de la nacionalidad española a los sefardíes originarios de España. Esta segunda parte analiza las enmiendas introducidas al Proyecto de Ley durante el proceso parlamentario y examina críticamente los aspectos más relevantes del texto final de la ley.

  19. Plasma Astrophysics, part II Reconnection and Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  20. Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes.

  1. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  2. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  3. Management Plan : Parts I & II : Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Parts I and II of the Management Plan for Tamarac NWR summarize the location, history, environment, resources, administration, land status, and current management...

  4. La urdimbre del tejido social II Parte

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Cáceres, Jesús

    1985-01-01

    El artículo corresponde a al segunda parte del trabajo titulado "La urdimbre dle tejido social" que apareciera en el número 6 de nuestra Revista. Después de iniciar una reflexión alrededor del análisis de la composiciónsocial y su relación con elementos tales como el Estado y el poder, el autor pasa a considerar elementos como comunicación y hegemonía presentes al interior de la organización social.

  5. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  6. New particle searches in ALEPH (part II)

    CERN Document Server

    Roussarie, A

    1991-01-01

    This report is the second part of the ALEPH search report . I t covers the search for super - symmetric particles (Higgs , chargino s an d neutralinos ) withi n th e framewor k o f th e Minima l Supersymmmetri c Standar d Mode l an d th e searc h fo r composi t charge d lepton s an d neutrinos . Lowe r limit s o f masse s o f suc h ne w particle s ar e given . Mos t o f the m ar e ver y clos e t o th e LE P I kenematica l limit .

  7. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  8. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets.

  9. Simulation in Wood Industry. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Varga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this simulation is to introduce and realize a part of material flow of an international furniture manufacturing company. This simulation was made with a special process-simulation software, called SIMUL8. With SIMUL8 we could simulate the whole process under real circumstances, and obtain the actual values of specific parameters relevant for the company. This opportunity helped the company to develop its strategy - to maximize the production efficiency and to find out the possibble bottle-necks without making any investment, and to rearrange the workcenters effectively.

  10. Curriculum Redesign in Veterinary Medicine: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macik, Maria L; Chaney, Kristin P; Turner, Jacqueline S; Rogers, Kenita S; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Korich, Jodi A; Fowler, Debra; Keefe, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. On a larger scale, a comprehensive redesign effort involves forming a dedicated faculty redesign team, developing program learning outcomes, mapping the existing curriculum, and reviewing the curriculum in light of collected stakeholder data. The faculty of the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU) recently embarked on a comprehensive curriculum redesign effort through partnership with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence. Using a previously developed evidence-based model of program redesign, TAMU created a process for use in veterinary medical education, which is described in detail in the first part of this article series. An additional component of the redesign process that is understated, yet vital for success, is faculty buy-in and support. Without faculty engagement, implementation of data-driven curricular changes stemming from program evaluation may be challenging. This second part of the article series describes the methodology for encouraging faculty engagement through the final steps of the redesign initiative and the lessons learned by TAMU through the redesign process.

  11. Anomalous transport from holography: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Yanyan; Sharon, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This is a second study of chiral anomaly induced transport within a holographic model consisting of anomalous $U(1)_V\\times U(1)_A$ Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-$AdS_5$ spacetime. In the first part, chiral magnetic/separation effects (CME/CSE) are considered in presence of a static spatially-inhomogeneous external magnetic field. Gradient corrections to CME/CSE are analytically evaluated up to third order in the derivative expansion. Some of the third order gradient corrections lead to an anomaly-induced negative $B^2$-correction to the diffusion constant. We also find non-linear modifications to the chiral magnetic wave (CMW). In the second part, we focus on the experimentally interesting case of the axial chemical potential being induced dynamically by a constant magnetic and time-dependent electric fields. Constitutive relations for the vector/axial currents are computed employing two different approximations: (a) derivative expansion (up to third order) but fully nonlinear in the external fields, and (...

  12. Process chemistry of neptunium. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, N.; Ramaniah, M.V.; Patil, S.K.; Ramakrishna, V.V.; Swarup, R.; Chadha, A.; Avadhany, G.V.N.

    1974-07-01

    The oxidation state analysis of neptunium in the aqueous feed solution from the Plutonium Plant at Trombay was carried out and it was found that neptunium existed mainly as Np(V) in the feed solution. Batch extraction data for Np(IV) and Np(VI) into 30% TBP/Shell Sol T at different aqueous nitric acid concentration and uranium saturation of the organic phase were obtained at 45 deg C and 60 deg C and the results are summarized. The distribution coefficients of Np(IV) and Np(VI) were obtained as a function of TBP concentration and the data are reported. The effect of nitrous acid on the extraction of neptunium, present in the aqueous phase as Np(IV) and Np(V), by 30% TBP was studied and the data obtained are given. The data on the rate of reduction of NP(VI) and Np(V) to Np(IV) by U(IV) were obtained for different U(IV) and nitric acid concentrations. Some redox reactions involving Np(IV), Pu(IV) and V(V) were investigated and their possible application in the purex process for neptunium recovery were explored. (auth)

  13. Generic drugs in dermatology: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    In part I, we discussed new drug development, reviewed the history of the generic drug industry, described how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and defined the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. Herein, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use across the different parties involved: the prescriber, the pharmacist, the patient, and the payer. We also include original cost analysis of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs and show the potential cost savings that can be achieved through generic substitution. We conclude with a review of the data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States.

  14. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  15. Submodeling Simulations in Fusion Welds: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    In part I, three-dimensional transient non-linear sub modeling heat transfer simulations were performed to study the thermal histories and thermal cycles that occur during the welding process at the macro, meso and micro scales. In the present work, the corresponding non-uniform temperature changes were imposed as load conditions on structural calculations to study the evolution of localized plastic strains and residual stresses at these sub-level scales. To reach the goal, a three-dimensional finite element elastic-plastic model (ABAQUS code) was developed. The sub-modeling technique proposed to be used in coupling phase-field (and/or digital microstructures) codes with finite element codes, was used to mesh a local part of the model with a refined mesh based on interpolation of the solution from an initial, relatively coarse, macro global model. The meso-sub-model is the global model for the subsequent micro sub-model. The strategy used to calculate temperatures, strains and residual stresses at the macro, meso and micro scale level, is very flexible to be used to any number of levels. The objective of this research was to initiate the development of microstructural models to identify fusion welding process parameters for preserving the single crystal nature of gas turbine blades during repair procedures. The multi-scale submodeling approach can be used to capture weld pool features at the macro-meso scale level, and micro residual stress and secondary dendrite arm spacing features at the micro scale level.

  16. TEXTILE STRUCTURES FOR AERONAUTICS (PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLER Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D textile structures with better delamination resistance and damage impact tolerance to be applied in composites for structural components is one of the main goals of the aeronautical industry. Textile Research Centre in Canet de Mar has been working since 2008 in this field. Our staff has been designing, developing and producing different textile structures using different production methods and machinery to improve three-dimensional textile structures as fiber reinforcement for composites. This paper describes different tests done in our textile labs from unidirectional structures to woven, knitted or braided 3 D textile structures. Advantages and disadvantages of each textile structure are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with our know-how in the manufacturing and assessing of three-dimensional textile structures during this last five years in the field of textile structures for composites but also in the development of structures for other applications. In the field of composites for aeronautic sector we have developed textile structures using the main methods of textile production, that is to say, weaving, warp knitting, weft knitting and braiding. Comparing the advantages and disadvantages it could be said that braided fabrics, with a structure in the three space axes are the most suitable for fittings and frames.

  17. [Conceptual Development in Cognitive Science. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive science has become the most influential paradigm on mental health in the late 20(th) and the early 21(st) centuries. In few years, the concepts, problem approaches and solutions proper to this science have significantly changed. Introduction and discussion of the fundamental concepts of cognitive science divided in four stages: Start, Classic Cognitivism, Connectionism, and Embodying / Enacting. The 2(nd) Part of the paper discusses the above mentioned fourth stage and explores the clinical setting, especially in terms of cognitive psychotherapy. The embodying/enacting stage highlights the role of the body including a set of determined evolutionary movements which provide a way of thinking and exploring the world. The performance of cognitive tasks is considered as a process that uses environmental resources that enhances mental skills and deploys them beyond the domestic sphere of the brain. On the other hand, body and mind are embedded in the world, thus giving rise to cognition when interacting, a process known as enacting. There is a close connection between perception and action, hence the interest in real-time interactions with the world rather than abstract reasoning. Regarding clinics, specifically the cognitive therapy, there is little conceptual discussion maybe due to good results from practice that may led us to consider that theoretical foundations are firm and not problem-raising. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect the cutwater area with the discharge diffuser. Experiments were performed to simulate both the cutwater conditions used in the predictions. Surface pressures along the outer wall and near the inlet of the volute were surveyed for comparisons with the predictions. Good agreements between the predicted results and the measurements validate the calculations. Total pressure distributions and flow stream traces from the prediction results support the loss distribution through the volute. A modified volute configuration is examined numerically for further loss comparison.

  19. Adhesive-composite incompatibility, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ricardo M; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina P; e Silva, Safira M A; Castro, Fabrício L A

    2005-01-01

    Apart from some questions related to the repairability of resin composite restorations, dentists have always assumed that methacrylate-based resins are compatible with each other. For example, there is no clinically relevant problem in using a microfilled composite to laminate a Class IV restoration made with a hybrid composite, even if they are not of the same brand or manufacturer. In the context of adhesive systems, we have always believed that resin composites, regardless of their type or composition, bond well to all types of bonding agents. However, unexpected debonding of self-cured, core buildup composites that had been bonded with single-bottle adhesive systems was reported about 5 years ago. Subsequent studies demonstrated that there were, indeed, compatibility problems between simplified adhesive systems and self- or dual-cured resin composites. Apparently, when such combinations are used, reduced bond strengths and subsequent failures at the resin-adhesive interface can occur because of adverse reactions between the acidic resin monomers, an integral part of the simplified adhesive systems, and the chemicals involved in the polymerization mechanism of the self- or dual-cured composites, particularly the basic tertiary amines.

  20. Society. Part II: moderate to severe psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Szepietowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting about 1–3% of the general population. Recent years have seen great development in the treatment of this dermatosis, especially regarding moderate to severe psoriasis. More numerous and more widely available systemic therapies raise new challenges for all physicians treating patients with psoriasis. New questions arise about patients’ follow-up and long-term safety of such therapies. To meet the expectations of Polish dermatologists, we have prepared a second part of guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis, particularly concentrated on the therapy of severe forms of this disease. We hope that our suggestions will be valuable for physicians in their daily clinical practice. However, we would like to underline that every guideline is characterized by some vagueness, and the final decision about diagnosis and therapy should always be made individually for every patient based on the patient’s current clinical status and the most up-to-date scientific literature data.

  1. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…

  3. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This teacher's guide is for Part II of the course. It is designed to follow Part I of the text. The guide contains background information, suggested instructional…

  4. Correctional Training. Institution Familiarization. Part II: The Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist training coordinators in the initial institution familiarization training for new employees in correctional institutions, this manual consists of two documents: a training coordinator's guide (Part I - CE 017 285) and this document, the training program (Part II). Four training areas are treated: (1) an introduction consisting…

  5. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  6. EMC of Electrical Systems - Electromagnetic Coupling ( Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOVACOVA, I.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the general analysis of one part of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC problem - the electromagnetic coupling applied in the field of power electrical systems. The verification simulation analyses and practical measurements of the electromagnetic coupling, which are confirming the correctness of results obtained from theoretical analyses (part I., are presented in part II. So they can be used for predictive stating of EMC quality of individual new electrotechnical products.

  7. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences...... an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  8. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  9. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  10. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part II. Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY /VIDEO FLUOROMETRY. PART...REP«T_N&:-ŗ/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video Fluorometry» Part II. Applications« by | Dennis C./Shelly* Michael P./Vogarty and...Data EnlirtdJ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE t. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. T1TI.F (and Submit) lP-^fffsyva High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  11. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  12. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  13. Periodontal Disease Part II: Overview of Treatment Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Deporter, Douglas A.

    1988-01-01

    In Part II of this article, the author looks at treatment modalities, emphasizing that the key to periodontal health is the removal of plaque and calculus from subgingival sites by means of a combination of effective home care, regular professional cleaning, and surgical treatment where necessary.

  14. Spare parts inventory risk for decision making in plant maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Kamal Imran; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Equipment breakdown due to unavailability of spare parts is really disastrous in plant maintenance. The failure increase the cost of repair and production downtime. Therefore, it is important to understand the maintenance and inventory function in order to ensure the plant operate accordingly. Moreover, it is necessary for the plant maintenance to balance the issue of shortage and excess of inventory in plant maintenance. In view of this situation, the spare parts become a critical matters and it is good starting point to tackle the issues from looking at the perspective of spare parts inventory risk. This paper describes the development of risk technique for plant maintenance decision making purposes using the Shortage and Excess Impact Table. It also used the Breakdown Probability Table to quantify the risk for the spare part failure.

  15. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobile forms what depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil and portion of clay parts.

  16. High gradient magnetic filtration and separation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, D.

    The paper contains the second part of a two part paper in which the developing role of high grade magnetic filtration and separation (HGMF/S) is reviewed. Part I discussed the increasing potential for the technique and outlined the basic theory behind it. Part II describes the practical application of the technique with particular reference to the beneficiation of fine coal. Aspects considered are: a simple laboratory HGMF/S device; the matrix and its efficency; processing rates in HGMF/S; coal desulphurization and deashing - a potential application of HGMS. The paper concludes that HGMF/S is a process of high potential application as natural particles have a wide variation of magnetic character. Add to this the space saving nature of very powerful superconducting systems and their low energy consumption and it can be safely predicted that HGMF/S will, over time, gain many more applications as whole or part of whole filtration and separation processes. 19 references.

  17. Cicatrização: conceitos atuais e recursos auxiliares - Parte II Cicatrization: current concepts and auxiliary resources - Part II

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Na Parte I deste artigo, publicada na edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, foram revisados os conceitos de cicatrização e foi ressaltada a importância da atuação multidisciplinar na abordagem das feridas, compreendendo-se o paciente como um todo. Nesta Parte II são apresentados os recursos que podem auxiliar o processo de cicatrização, bem como os diversos tipos de curativos disponíveis e a sua respectiva indicação.In Part I of this article, published in the previous edition...

  18. The Nature of Reinforcement: Part I. (Volume I), Part II. (Volume II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Robert, Ed.

    Part One of this report describes the first half of a conference, designed to examine the nature of reinforcement, which was held at the University of Pittsburgh in June 1969. The topics discussed include: "Reward in Human Learning: Theoretical Issues and Strategic Choice Points"; "Are Reinforcement Concepts Able to Provide Reinforcement for…

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of toxic plants and plant parts in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediwura A Fred-Jaiyesimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several plants considered toxic are sometimes identified in traditional medicinal recipes. This study identified and inventoried the plants and plant parts identified as toxic in targeted local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: By administering tested questionnaires, information on the poisonous or toxic plants, poisonous parts, poisonous effects, modes of poisoning, and antidotes was obtained. Results and Conclusion: Ninety-two species belonging to 43 families were identified as toxic plants and these were mainly members of the Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae families. The botanical names, poisonous parts, common names, vernacular names, modes of poisoning, antidotes, and poisonous effects are presented in a table.

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in...

  1. Treatment of cellulite: Part II. Advances and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Misbah H; Victor, Frank; Rao, Babar; Sadick, Neil S

    2010-03-01

    Treatments for localized adiposities range from topical creams to liposuction. Most treatments lack a substantial proof of efficacy. The unpredictable treatment outcome can be related to the fact that cellulite adipose tissue is physiologically and biochemically different from subcutaneous tissue found elsewhere in the body. Part II of this two-part series on cellulite reviews the various treatment options that are currently available for human adipose tissue including, but not limited to, cellulite. It also focuses on newer techniques that can be potentially useful in the future for the treatment of cellulite. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent Achievements in Simulated Moving Bed (SMB Technology. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roje, M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the method of simulated moving bed (SMB technology and some important achievements in separation of specific classes of racemic compounds of therapeutic interest are reported in the Part I of this review. Part II describes novel methods of SMB technology. Complex technologies,such as the combination of SMB and biocatalytic reactions, and SMB with crystallization process, are presented. VariCol variant of SMB, and its application in the separation of the racemic mixtures of commercial and academic interest are discussed. In the conclusive section, comments are given concerning the economic dimension and the market of enantiomerically pure compounds.

  3. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  4. Recognition of plant parts with problem-specific algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, Joerg; Brendel, Thorsten; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1994-06-01

    Automatic micropropagation is necessary to produce cost-effective high amounts of biomass. Juvenile plants are dissected in clean- room environment on particular points on the stem or the leaves. A vision-system detects possible cutting points and controls a specialized robot. This contribution is directed to the pattern- recognition algorithms to detect structural parts of the plant.

  5. Dermatoses neutrofílicas: parte II Neutrophilic dermatoses: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Razera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são abordadas as dermatoses neutrofílicas, complementando o artigo anterior (parte I. São apresentadas e comentadas as seguintes dermatoses: pustulose subcórnea de Sneddon-Wilkinson, dermatite crural pustulosa e atrófica, pustulose exantemática generalizada aguda, acroder matite contínua de Hallopeau, pustulose palmoplantar, acropustulose infantil, bacteride pustular de Andrews e foliculite pustulosa eosinofílica. Uma breve revisão das dermatoses neutrofílicas em pacientes pediátricos também é realizada.This article addresses neutrophilic dermatoses, thus complementing the previous article (part I. The following dermatoses are introduced and discussed: subcorneal pustular dermatosis (Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, dermatitis cruris pustulosa et atrophicans, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, continuous Hallopeau acrodermatitis, palmoplantar pustulosis, infantile acropustulosis, Andrews' pustular bacteride and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. A brief review of neutrophilic dermatoses in pediatric patients is also conducted.

  6. Action of mercury in plant mitosis II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente, R.

    1972-01-01

    The cytological abnormalities induced by mercurochrome on mitosis and meiosis of Allium cepa are studied and the capacity of the chemical agent to induce c-mitosis is shown. Inhibition of the cytokinetic process as well as alterations of the nucleoli and pollen-mother cells (from pachytene to division II) have also been observed. These cytological effects may be ascribed to the affinity of the mercurial compounds for the thyolic groups existing in the nucleoproteins and protoplasmic proteins, with the subsequent inhibitory effect on the enzymatic mechanisms.

  7. Structural and functional characteristics of plant proteinase inhibitor-II (PI-II) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shazia; Aziz, Ejaz; Akhtar, Wasim; Ilyas, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq

    2017-02-09

    Plant proteinase inhibitor-II (PI-II) proteins are one of the promising defensive proteins that helped the plants to resist against different kinds of unfavorable conditions. Different roles for PI-II have been suggested such as regulation of endogenous proteases, modulation of plant growth and developmental processes and mediating stress responses. The basic knowledge on genetic and molecular diversity of these proteins has provided significant insight into their gene structure and evolutionary relationships in various members of this family. Phylogenetic comparisons of these family genes in different plants suggested that the high rate of retention of gene duplication and inhibitory domain multiplication may have resulted in the expansion and functional diversification of these proteins. Currently, a large number of transgenic plants expressing PI-II genes are being developed for enhancing the defensive capabilities against insects, bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Much emphasis is yet to be given to exploit this ever expanding repertoire of genes for improving abiotic stress resistance in transgenic crops. This review presents an overview about the current knowledge on PI-II family genes, their multifunctional role in plant defense and physiology with their potential applications in biotechnology.

  8. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Árvay; Ján Tomáš; Tomáš Tóth

    2012-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobil...

  9. Cicatrização: conceitos atuais e recursos auxiliares - Parte II Cicatrization: current concepts and auxiliary resources - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Henrique Mandelbaum

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Na Parte I deste artigo, publicada na edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, foram revisados os conceitos de cicatrização e foi ressaltada a importância da atuação multidisciplinar na abordagem das feridas, compreendendo-se o paciente como um todo. Nesta Parte II são apresentados os recursos que podem auxiliar o processo de cicatrização, bem como os diversos tipos de curativos disponíveis e a sua respectiva indicação.In Part I of this article, published in the previous edition of the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology, the cicatrization concepts were revised and the importance of the multidisciplinary approach was emphasized in the management of wounds as well as considering the global aspects of the patient. In Part II, we present the resources that can aid the cicatrization process, as well as the various types of curatives available and their respective indication.

  10. Structure and membrane organization of photosystem II in green plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankamer, B; Barber, J; Boekema, EJ

    1997-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is the pigment protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria that uses solar energy to drive the photosynthetic water-splitting reaction. This chapter reviews the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of PSII as

  11. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence.

  12. Plant adaptogens. II. Bryonia as an adaptogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, A; Gabrielian, E; Wagner, H

    1997-03-01

    Bryonia, a well-known medicinal plant used mainly in homeopathy as an antiinflammatory, has never been considered an adaptogen. However, much evidence has been accumulated during the last decade indicating that Bryonia roots have adaptogenic properties. This review summarizes the reports (published mainly in Russian) on the chemical composition, the pharmacological and biochemical investigations of the active principles of Bryonia alba roots. It also summarizes reports on clinical trials of a Bryonia extract (tablets prepared from a standardized powder of Bryonia alba root, called "Loshtak" in Armenia) that indicates it is an adaptogenic and restorative drug with immunomodulatory, stress-protective and tonic properties that increase the nonspecific resistance of an organism toward harmful stimuli. The major active components of the Bryonia extract are cucurbitacin glucosides and trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (THODA). The biological activities of these compounds are associated with biosynthesis of eicosanoids and corticosteroids, which are important mediators in the immune, endocrine and nervous systems. Clinical trials show that the Bryonia extract was effective in treating workers at the Chernobyl Nuclear reactor who suffered from vegetovessel dystonia and other accompanying illnesses as a result of that facility's well-known accident. It was also effective in preventing radiation-induced disorders and cytostatic side effects in cancer therapy. The use of Bryonia extract in healthy athletes increases their endurance, working capacity and heart rate restoration after physical loading. No side effects caused by Bryonia extract intake were recorded during these trials. Copyright © 1997 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  14. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  17. The "Pseudocommando" mass murderer: part II, the language of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James L

    2010-01-01

    In Part I of this article, research on pseudocommandos was reviewed, and the important role that revenge fantasies play in motivating such persons to commit mass murder-suicide was discussed. Before carrying out their mass shootings, pseudocommandos may communicate some final message to the public or news media. These communications are rich sources of data about their motives and psychopathology. In Part II of this article, forensic psycholinguistic analysis is applied to clarify the primary motivations, detect the presence of mental illness, and discern important individual differences in the final communications of two recent pseudocommandos: Seung-Hui Cho (Virginia Tech) and Jiverly Wong (Binghamton, NY). Although both men committed offenses that qualify them as pseudocommandos, their final communications reveal striking differences in their psychopathology.

  18. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  19. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  20. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  1. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  3. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance-source......-network-based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...... topology at a certain power level, switching frequency and demanded dynamic response....

  4. Activation of phenylpropanoid pathway in legume plants exposed to heavy metals. Part II. Profiling of isoflavonoids and their glycoconjugates induced in roots of lupine (Lupinus luteus) seedlings treated with cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Sprada, Sylwia; Stobiecki, Maciej; Deckert, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    We examined changes in profiles of isoflavonoids in roots of lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) seedlings in response to treatment with two heavy metals: cadmium (at 10 mg/l) and lead (at 150 mg/l). Overall, 21 flavonoid conjugates were identified in root extracts, some of them with up to six positional isomers. The total amount of all isoflavonoids increased by about 15 % in cadmium-treated plants and by 46 % in lead-treated ones. Heavy metals markedly increased the content of two compounds: 2'-hydroxygenistein glucoside and 2'-hydroxygenistein 7-O-glucoside malonylated. Possible functions of the identified isoflavonoids in yellow lupine exposed to heavy metal stress are discussed.

  5. (Parte II: análisis resistivo de la estructura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Calzadilla Dubras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo (Parte II es comprobar la resistencia de los elementos de unión de las barras que conforman la estructura metálica de la casa de cultivo EMBA-MSC, bajo las condiciones climáticas extremas de nuestro país para el caso del azote de vientos huracanados de hasta 180 km/h, así como realizar el análisis dinámico para comprobar la ocurrencia del efecto de resonancia en la misma. El cálculo será realizado con técnicas modernas de análisis y simulación, aplicando el Método de los Elementos Finitos (MEF. En esta parte se obtienen las tensiones máximas que se producen en los diferentes elementos de las uniones, a partir del cálculo de las cargas producidas por el viento en diferentes direcciones, los cuatro primeros valores y los respectivos modos de las frecuencias propias de la estructura, así como el valor de la velocidad crítica del viento, para la cual pudiera aparecer el fenómeno de la resonancia.

  6. Primer of statistics in dental research: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Ayumi

    2014-04-01

    The Part I of Primer of Statistics in Dental Research covered five topics that are often mentioned in statistical check list of many peer-review journals including (1) statistical graph, (2) how to deal with outliers, (3) p-value and confidence interval, (4) testing equivalence, and (5) multiplicity Adjustment. The Part II of the series covers another set of important topics in dental statistics including (1) selecting the proper statistical tests, (2) repeated measures analysis, (3) epidemiological consideration for causal association, and (4) analysis of agreement. First, a guide in selecting the proper statistical tests based on the research question will be laid out in text and with a table so that researchers choose the univariable statistical test by answering five simple questions. Second, the importance of utilizing repeated measures analysis will be illustrated. This is a key component of data analysis as in many dental studies, observations are considered repeated in a single patient (several teeth are measured in a single patient). Third, concepts of confounding and the use of regression analysis are explained by going over a famous observational cohort study. Lastly, the use of proper agreement analysis vs. correlation for study of agreement will be discussed to avoid a common pitfall in dental research.

  7. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues: Part II: In-Plane Biaxial Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D; Einstein, Daniel R; Sacks, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue.

  8. Bedside ultrasonography-Applications in critical care: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Chacko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Point of care ultrasonography, performed by acute care physicians, has developed into an invaluable bedside tool providing important clinical information with a major impact on patient care. In Part II of this narrative review, we describe ultrasound guided central venous cannulation, which has become standard of care with internal jugular vein cannulation. Besides improving success rates, real-time guidance also significantly reduces the incidence of complications. We also discuss compression ultrasonography - a quick and effective bedside screening tool for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Abdominal ultrasound offers vital clues in the emergency setting; in the unstable trauma victim, a focused examination may provide immediate answers and has largely superseded diagnostic peritoneal lavage in diagnosing intraperitoneal bleed. From estimation of intracranial pressure to transcranial Doppler studies, ultrasound is becoming increasingly relevant to neurocritical care. Ultrasound may also help with airway management in several situations, including percutaneous tracheostomy. Clearly, bedside ultrasonography has become an indispensable part of intensive care practice - in the rapid assessment of critically ill-patients as well as in enhancing the safety of invasive procedures.

  9. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  10. Diagnosis of occlusal caries: Part II. Recent diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, L E; McComb, D

    2001-09-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of disease is a fundamental requirement in health care. The diagnosis of non-overt occlusal decay is challenging and can be highly subjective, and its inherent uncertainties can lead to widely differing treatment decisions. The purpose of this 2-part paper is to review current knowledge concerning conventional and new diagnostic methods for occlusal caries. Part I looked at established methods for diagnosing occlusal decay. These methods have several limitations, particularly in their ability to diagnose early carious lesions. Part II examines new and emerging technologies that are being developed for the diagnosis of occlusal decay. Electrical conductance measurements and quantitative laser- or light-induced fluorescence represent significant improvements over conventional diagnostic methods, especially for in vitro applications and particularly with regard to sensitivity and reproducibility. Proponents of the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence system claim that it evaluates the fluorescence that develops when laser light is incident on areas of demineralization. This noninvasive device is simple to use and provides quantitative data. Studies supporting its validity are limited but do suggest good sensitivity and excellent reproducibility. However, the DIAGNOdent system requires more scientific scrutiny. Although it offers a high rate of disease detection, it has little ability to indicate the extent of decay. In all treatment decisions, clinicians must be aware of the limitations of the diagnostic methods that have been used. Clinical judgment based on the patient s case history, visual cues, review of radiographs and probability of disease is still the most important aspect of optimum patient care. New technologies may provide supplemental information, but they cannot yet replace established methods for the diagnosis of occlusal caries.

  11. Atmospheric discharge and dispersion of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Part II: verification of the source term and analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Hiroaki; Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-10-01

    Regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations were carried out to verify the source term of (131)I and (137)Cs estimated in our previous studies, and to analyze the atmospheric dispersion and surface deposition during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The accuracy of the source term was evaluated by comparing the simulation results with measurements of daily and monthly surface depositions (fallout) over land in eastern Japan from March 12 to April 30, 2011. The source term was refined using observed air concentrations of radionuclides for periods when there were significant discrepancies between the calculated and measured daily surface deposition, and when environmental monitoring data, which had not been used in our previous studies, were now available. The daily surface deposition using the refined source term was predicted mostly to within a factor of 10, and without any apparent bias. Considering the errors in the model prediction, the estimated source term is reasonably accurate during the period when the plume flowed over land in Japan. The analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition suggests that the present distribution of a large amount of (137)Cs deposition in eastern Japan was produced primarily by four events that occurred on March 12, 15-16, 20, and 21-23. The ratio of wet deposition to the total varied widely depending on the influence by the particular event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inventory Management of a Plant Spare Parts Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; ZHOU Zu-de; CHEN You-ping; NI Long-yu

    2007-01-01

    In spare parts industries, firms are dealing with a situation which is more and more uncertain due to the supply chain structure and variable demands. This paper presents a Bayesian approach to forecast demand and subsequently determine the appropriate parameter S of an (S - 1; S) inventory system for controlling plant spare parts. We apply the Bayesian approach in an innovative way to specify the initial prior distributions of the failure rates, using the initial estimates and the failure history of similar items. According to the proposed method, a lower base stock than the one currently used is sufficient to achieve the desired service level.

  13. Repeated-sprint ability - part II: recommendations for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David; Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    Short-duration sprints, interspersed with brief recoveries, are common during most team sports. The ability to produce the best possible average sprint performance over a series of sprints (≤10 seconds), separated by short (≤60 seconds) recovery periods has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). RSA is therefore an important fitness requirement of team-sport athletes, and it is important to better understand training strategies that can improve this fitness component. Surprisingly, however, there has been little research about the best training methods to improve RSA. In the absence of strong scientific evidence, two principal training theories have emerged. One is based on the concept of training specificity and maintains that the best way to train RSA is to perform repeated sprints. The second proposes that training interventions that target the main factors limiting RSA may be a more effective approach. The aim of this review (Part II) is to critically analyse training strategies to improve both RSA and the underlying factors responsible for fatigue during repeated sprints (see Part I of the preceding companion article). This review has highlighted that there is not one type of training that can be recommended to best improve RSA and all of the factors believed to be responsible for performance decrements during repeated-sprint tasks. This is not surprising, as RSA is a complex fitness component that depends on both metabolic (e.g. oxidative capacity, phosphocreatine recovery and H+ buffering) and neural factors (e.g. muscle activation and recruitment strategies) among others. While different training strategies can be used in order to improve each of these potential limiting factors, and in turn RSA, two key recommendations emerge from this review; it is important to include (i) some training to improve single-sprint performance (e.g. 'traditional' sprint training and strength/power training); and (ii) some high-intensity (80-90% maximal oxygen

  14. Part 3: Pharmacogenetic Variability in Phase II Anticancer Drug Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenen, Maarten J.; Cats, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent drug doses may lead to wide interpatient variability in drug response to anticancer therapy. Known determinants that may affect the pharmacological response to a drug are, among others, nongenetic factors, including age, gender, use of comedication, and liver and renal function. Nonetheless, these covariates do not explain all the observed interpatient variability. Differences in genetic constitution among patients have been identified to be important factors that contribute to differences in drug response. Because genetic polymorphism may affect the expression and activity of proteins encoded, it is a key covariate that is responsible for variability in drug metabolism, drug transport, and pharmacodynamic drug effects. We present a series of four reviews about pharmacogenetic variability. This third part in the series of reviews is focused on genetic variability in phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (glutathione S-transferases, uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferases, methyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and N-acetyltransferases) and discusses the effects of genetic polymorphism within the genes encoding these enzymes on anticancer drug therapy outcome. Based on the literature reviewed, opportunities for patient-tailored anticancer therapy are proposed. PMID:21659608

  15. Stem cells in dentistry--Part II: Clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-10-01

    New technologies that facilitate solid alveolar ridge augmentation are receiving considerable attention in the field of prosthodontics because of the growing requirement for esthetic and functional reconstruction by dental implant treatments. Recently, several studies have demonstrated potential advantages for stem-cell-based therapies in regenerative treatments. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are now an excellent candidate for tissue replacement therapies, and tissue engineering approaches and chair-side cellular grafting approaches using autologous MSCs represent the clinical state of the art for stem-cell-based alveolar bone regeneration. Basic studies have revealed that crosstalk between implanted donor cells and recipient immune cells plays a key role in determining clinical success that may involve the recently observed immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. Part II of this review first overviews progress in regenerative dentistry to consider the implications of the stem cell technology in dentistry and then highlights cutting-edge stem-cell-based alveolar bone regenerative therapies. Factors that affect stem-cell-based bone regeneration as related to the local immune response are then discussed. Additionally, pre-clinical stem cell studies for the regeneration of teeth and other oral organs as well as possible applications of MSC-based immunotherapy in dentistry are outlined. Finally, the marketing of stem cell technology in dental stem cell banks with a view toward future regenerative therapies is introduced. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 5 CFR Appendix II to Part 1201 - Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Pt. 1201, App. II Appendix II to Part 1201—Appropriate...-5109, (Arizona; Colorado; Kansas—except Kansas City; Montana; Nebraska; New Mexico; North Dakota; South...

  17. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  18. Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

    1987-01-01

    Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus.

  19. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  20. IPCC Working Group II: Impacts and Adaptation Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    The IPCC (as opposed to the UN Framework Convention) defines climate change as" any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity". The IPCC Working Group II (Impacts, Adaptation, Vulnerability) was charged with assessing the scientific, technical, environmental, economic, and social aspects of vulnerability to climate change, and, the negative and positive consequences for ecological systems, socio-economic sectors, and human health. The Working Group II report focused on the following issues for different sectors and regions (e.g. water, agriculture, biodiversity) and communities (coastal, island, etc.): · The role of adaptation in reducing vulnerability and impacts, · Assessment of adaptation capacity, options and constraints, and · Enhancing adaptation practice and operations. This presentation will address the following questions in the context of the results of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report WG II: · What are the barriers, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for impacts assessments? · How are decisions about adaptation being made, and what types of adaptation strategies are being undertaken? · What are good adaptation practices and how are they learned over time? Examples will be drawn from the freshwater resources, small islands and adaptation chapters to which the presenter contributed. Many lessons have been identified but few have been implemented or evaluated over time. Adaptation occurs in the context of multiple stresses. Adaptation will be important in coping with early impacts in the near-term and continue to be important as our climate changes, regardless of how that change is derived. It is important to note that unmitigated climate change could, in the long term, exceed the capacity of different natural, managed and human systems to adapt. The assessment leads to the following conclusions: · Adaptation to climate change is already taking place, but on a limited basis · Adaptation measures

  1. Photoprotection in higher plants : The putative quenching site is conserved in all outer light-harvesting complexes of Photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozzo, Milena; Passarini, Francesca; Bassi, Roberto; van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    In bright sunlight, the amount of energy harvested by plants exceeds the electron transport capacity of Photosystem II in the chloroplasts. The excess energy can lead to severe damage of the photosynthetic apparatus and to avoid this, part of the energy is thermally dissipated via a mechanism called

  2. Mechanisms of energy transfer and conversion in plant Light-Harvesting Complex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Tiago Ferreira de

    2009-09-24

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is the major antenna complex in plant photosynthesis. It accounts for roughly 30% of the total protein in plant chloroplasts, which makes it arguably the most abundant membrane protein on Earth, and binds about half of plant chlorophyll (Chl). The complex assembles as a trimer in the thylakoid membrane and binds a total of 54 pigment molecules, including 24 Chl a, 18 Chl b, 6 lutein (Lut), 3 neoxanthin (Neo) and 3 violaxanthin (Vio). LHC-II has five key roles in plant photosynthesis. It: (1) harvests sunlight and transmits excitation energy to the reaction centres of photosystems II and I, (2) regulates the amount of excitation energy reaching each of the two photosystems, (3) has a structural role in the architecture of the photosynthetic supercomplexes, (4) contributes to the tight appression of thylakoid membranes in chloroplast grana, and (5) protects the photosynthetic apparatus from photo damage by non photochemical quenching (NPQ). A major fraction of NPQ is accounted for its energy-dependent component qE. Despite being critical for plant survival and having been studied for decades, the exact details of how excess absorbed light energy is dissipated under qE conditions remain enigmatic. Today it is accepted that qE is regulated by the magnitude of the pH gradient ({delta}pH) across the thylakoid membrane. It is also well documented that the drop in pH in the thylakoid lumen during high-light conditions activates the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which converts the carotenoid Vio into zeaxanthin (Zea) as part of the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, studies with Arabidopsis mutants revealed that the photosystem II subunit PsbS is necessary for qE. How these physiological responses switch LHC-II from the active, energy transmitting to the quenched, energy-dissipating state, in which the solar energy is not transmitted to the photosystems but instead dissipated as heat, remains unclear and is the

  3. Electrodialytic soil remediation in a small pilot plant (Part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), the last two combined with an EDX analysis unit. The three soil fractions were extracted with am-monia for observa-tion of the copper removal when copper forms copper-tetra-ammine complexes with am......-monia. Ammonia was chosen because it forms strong complexes with copper and to keep the soil basic, so that the carbonates were not dissolved. The bulk soil was treated by electrodialytic reme-dia-tion, and soil treated for seven months was investigated with XRD, TEM and SEM.Malachite was found by use of XRD...... measurements in one of the untreated soil samples. These measurements were supported by EDX measurements (combined with either SEM or TEM), where almost pure copper particles were found. The EDX measurements do not include hydrogen, carbon and oxygen, which make the figures of all other elements higher than...

  4. Prosopis laevigata a potential chromium (VI) and cadmium (II) hyperaccumulator desert plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía-González, L; Orozco-Villafuerte, J; Cruz-Sosa, F; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2010-08-01

    The bioaccumulation of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) in Prosopis laevigata and the effect of these heavy metals on plant growth were assessed. P. laevigata seeds were cultured during 50 days on modified Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with four different concentrations of Cr(VI) (0-3.4mM) and Cd(II) (0-2.2mM), respectively. Heavy metals did not stop germination, but smaller plants with fewer leaves and secondary roots were produced. Seedlings showed an accumulation of 8176 and 21,437 mg Cd kg(-1) and of 5461 and 8090 mg Cr kg(-1) dry weight, in shoot and root, when cultured with 0.65 mM Cd(II) and 3.4mM Cr(VI), respectively. These results indicated that significant translocation from the roots unto aerial parts took place. A bioaccumulation factor greater than 100 for Cd and 24 for Cr was exhibited by the seedlings. P. laevigata can be considered as a potential hyperaccumulator of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) species and considered as a promising candidate for phytoremediation purposes.

  5. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority J Appendix J to Part 110.... 110, App. J Appendix J to Part 110—Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment...

  7. Modernization of computer of plant Vandellos-II; Modernizacion del ordenador de planta de Vandello-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente Arias, E. de la

    2014-07-01

    The Plant computer from the nuclear de Vandellos II, whose modernization process will carry out Westinghouse, is a centralized system which performs monitoring and supervision in real time of plant processes and which performs the calculations necessary for an efficient assessment of plant operation, without performing any action on it. Its main function is to provide current and historical information on the status of the plant, both in normal operation and emergency conditions. (Author)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications II Appendix II to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App. II Appendix...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  10. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad GHOFRANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghofrani M. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART II. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:1-5.Abstract The approach to a child who has experienced a first unprovoked generalized tonic-clonic seizure is challenging and at the same time controversial.How to establish the diagnosis, ways and means of investigation and whether treatment is appropriate, are different aspects of this subject. In this writing the above mentioned matters are discussed. References31.Berg AT, Testa FM., Levy SR, Shinnar S. Neuroimaging in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. A community based study. Pediatrics 2000;106:527-532.32.Shinnar S, Odell C. Treating childhood seizure; when and for how long. In: Shinnar S, Amir N, Branski D (Eds. Childhood seizure. S Karger Basel. 1995. P.100-110.33.Shinnar S, Berg AT, Moshe Sl, et al. Risk of Seizure recurrence following a first unprovoked seizure in childhood; A prospective study. Pediatrics 1990;85:1076-2085.34.Shinnar S, Berg At, Moshe SL, et al. The risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked febrile seizure in childhood: An extended follow up. Pediatrics 1996:98:216-225.35.Hauser WA, Rich SS, Annegers JF, Anderson VE. Seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure: An extended follow up. Neurology 1990;40:1163-1170.36.Stroink H, Brouwer O F, Arts WF, Greets AT, Peter AC, Van Donselaar CA. The First unprovoked, untreated seizure in childhood: A hospital based study of the accuracy of diagnosis, rate of recurrence, and long term outcome after recurrence. Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64:595-600. 37.Shinnar S, Berg AT, O’Dell C. Newstein D, et al. Predictors of multiple seizure in a cohort of children prospectively followed from the time of their first unprovoked seizure, Ann Neurol 2000; 48:140-147.38.Martinovie Z, Jovic N. Seizure recurrence after a first generalized tonic-clonic seizure in children

  11. Mechanisms of light harvesting by photosystem II in plants

    CERN Document Server

    Amarnath, Kapil; Schneider, Anna R; Fleming, Graham R

    2015-01-01

    Light harvesting by photosystem II (PSII) in plants is highly efficient and acclimates to rapid changes in the intensity of sunlight. However, the mechanisms of PSII light harvesting have remained experimentally inaccessible. Using a structure-based model of excitation energy flow in 200 nanometer (nm) x 200 nm patches of the grana membrane, where PSII is located, we accurately simulated chlorophyll fluorescence decay data with no free parameters. Excitation movement through the light harvesting antenna is diffusive, but becomes subdiffusive in the presence of charge separation at reaction centers. The influence of membrane morphology on light harvesting efficiency is determined by the excitation diffusion length of 50 nm in the antenna. Our model provides the basis for understanding how nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms affect PSII light harvesting in grana membranes.

  12. Complexometric determination, Part II: Complexometric determination of Cu2+-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A copper-selective electrode of the coated wire type based on sulphidized copper wire was applied successfully for determining Cu(II ions by complexometric titration with the disodium salt of EDTA (complexon III. By the formation of internal complex compounds with the Cu(II ion, the copper concentration in the solution decreases, and all this is followed by a change of potential of the indicator system Cu-DWISE (or Cu-EDWISE/SCE. At the terminal point of titration, when all the Cu(II ions are already utilized for the formation of the complex with EDTA, there occurs a steep rise of potential, thus enabling us, through the first or second derivative to note the quantity of copper that is present in the solution. Copper-selective electrode showed a responsivity towards titration with EDTA as a complexing agent, with the absence of "fatigue" due to a great number of repeated measurings. Errors occurring during quantitative measurements were more a characteristic of the overall procedure which involve, because of the impossibility of the complete absence of subjectivity, a constant error, and the reproducibility of the results confirmed this fact. The disodium salt of EDTA appeared as a very efficient titrant in all titrations and with various concentrations ot Cu(II ions in the solution, with somewhat weaker response at lower concentrations in the solution.

  13. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología: II Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Algunos comentarios sobre la primera parte me han inducido a ampliar las bases de este trabajo mediante la presentación de aspectos comunes y conceptos disímiles sobre la hipotética relación entre inteligencia artificial (lA e inteligencia humana(IH. El tema es tan complejo que un intento por resumirlo de por sí ya es atrayente además de necesario.

    Microhistoria de la lA. Ciñéndome a una cruda realidad la lA nació en la Conferencia de Darmouth, año 1956, cuando John McCarthy, profesor de ciencia de computador en Stanford Un. acuñó el término de lA. Sin embargo, especulando un poco podemos decir que cierta inquietud existió desde la antigüedad, mucho antes de los computadores y aún de la electrónica (1 cuando el ser humano irresistiblemente mostraba inquietud por crear I fuera del cerebro humano. Se encuentran algunos ejemplos en la Mitología griega: Hefestos. dios del fuego y de los metales, confeccionaba creaciones semihumanas en su forja. Pigmalión desencantado de las mujeres modeló su propia ninfa en mármol y para poder casarse con ella imploró suplicante hasta conseguir que Afrodita le diera vida.

    En la Europa medioeval al papa Silvestre II (apodado el hechicero por su sabiduría, año 909 D.C. se le atribuye que construía cabezas parlantes. En el siglo XVI Para celso clamó haber inventado un homúnculo. Y el rabino checo Jundo ben Loew esculpió un hombre en arcilla, José Golem, y lo constituyó espía en Praga. En 1854 el matemático británico George Boole propuso un sistema para describir lógica (2 -las leyes del pensamiento en términos matemáticos: “álgebra booliana”, “mathematical logics” que representa procesos lógicos con dos dígitos, 9 y 1.

    En 1937 Alan Turing demostró que una máquina binaria podía ser programada para realizar cualquier tarea algorítmica. Esta máquina de Turing sólo podía ejecutar dos acciones: dibujar y borrar. En el mismo año Claude

  14. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols; part II. Simurgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-05-01

    In part one of this article I reviewed the history of Asclepius and the Caduceus of Hermes as medical symbols and made a tentative suggestion of using the mythical bird Simurgh as an Iranian symbol of medicine. In this, the second part, I shall describe the evolution of the myth of the Simurgh and discuss the medical relevance of this bird in Iranian history.

  15. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include real numbers, similar triangles, variation, non-metric…

  16. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include number line and coordinates, equations, scientific notation,…

  17. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  18. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity from Different Plant Parts of Senduduk Herb: Extraction Conditions Optimization of Selected Plant Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaludin Nor Helya Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study on evaluation of antioxidant properties from flower of Senduduk herb. Natural occurring antioxidant was mostly preferred due to their little or no toxicity compared to the synthetic antioxidants which posses carcinogenic effects. Extraction was done on selected plant parts of Sendududk herb including leaves, stem, flower and berry parts to evaluate their antioxidant potentiality. Flower part of Sendudk herb extracted using acetonic solvent promotes highest antioxidant activity which is 93.97 ± 1.38 % as compared to leaves (92.20 ± 0.20 %, stem (47.94 ± 1.42% and berry (92.88 ± 0.63% using the same extracting solvent. Thus, Senduduk flower was chosen to be continued with screening and optimization process. Single factor experiment using the one factor at a time (OFAT method was done to study the effect of each extraction parameter that was solid to solvent ratio, temperature and solvent concentration. The extraction condition in each parametric study which results in highest antioxidant activity was used as the middle level of optimization process using Response Surface Methodology (RSM coupled with Central Composite Design (CCD. The optimum condition was at 1:20 solid to solvent ratio, 64.61°C temperature and 80.24% acetone concentration which result in antioxidant activity of 96.53%. The verification of RSM showed that the model used to predict the antioxidant activity was valid and adequate with the experimental parameters.

  19. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  20. Communication and surrounding of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants; La comunicacion y el entorno de las centrales de Asco y Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Asco and Vandellos-II power plants have always been integrated into the regions where they are located, and they take an active part in the development of surrounding towns through quality employment provided by our facilities, social and cultural support and aid to development promoted by regional councils. Communication to media is a corporate priority defined in our strategic plant, to ensure openness, rigour and punctuality. We also attend to the visitors who want to learn more about our facilities in the visitor center, and we have agreements with agrarian institutions in the area so that students can de practical training in the farms we own for agricultural production. (Author)

  1. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  2. Management Plan : Parts I and II : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Part I of this plan outlines the history, background, environment, administration, land status, current management direction, and agreements/permits of Shiawassee...

  3. Management Plan : Parts I and II : Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Part I of this management plan for Seney NWR includes background information on the Refuge’s history, location, resources, administration, land status, current...

  4. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  5. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  6. EL español andino. II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Arboleda Toro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 13 de esta revista (nov. del 2000 se publicó una primera parte del estudio sobre el español andino. Presentamos ahora una segunda parte que comprende aspectos histórico-geográficos de Nariño y Putumayo andinos, región de Colombia donde se habla esa variedad, y una descripción general de su realidad lingüística. Esperamos que sean objeto de otra publicación la descripción de los rasgos dialectales del español andino, parte nuclear del trabajo, y la presentación de la metodología y el corpus. En esto nos encontramos trabajando. Incluimos no obstante un inventario de rasgos más amplio que el presentado en la primera parte. Pero por ahora se trata de eso, de un inventario ilustrativo, no del análisis en el que estamos empeñados, en el marco del contacto de lenguas, el cambio lingüístico y la relación entre la norma y las posibilidades del sistema. Para contextualizar esta segunda parte, incluimos, a manera de introducción, un resumen de la primera.

  7. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Although several biological agents have been recognized as presenting a significant threat to public health if used in a bioterrorist attack, those that are of greatest importance are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); ribonucleic acid viruses (hemorrhagic fevers); and Clostridium botulinum (botulism toxin). In the previous issue, Part I of this review focused on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. In this second part of this 2-part review of these agents, the focus is on the clinical presentation and treatment of smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and botulism toxin. The utilization of mass prophylaxis to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with all these agents is also discussed along with the role emergency care personnel play in its implementation.

  8. An appraisal of the literature on centric relation. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvad, A; Winstanley, R B

    2000-12-01

    The literature directly and indirectly related to centric relation (CR) has been reviewed chronologically. More than 300 papers and quoted sections of books have been divided into three sections. The first two parts of the paper are related to CR. Studies in this group mainly compared either the position of the mandibular condyle or the mandible itself in different CR recordings. Various tools were discussed for this purpose. The third part deals with CR-centric occlusion (CO) discrepancy. CR remains one of the controversial issues in prosthodontics and orthodontics. Debates relating to mounting casts on the articulator by reproducible records for orthodontic treatment planning and end results, and whether or not orthodontic treatment based on CO causes temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction, remain unsolved. The references are listed at the end of Part III.

  9. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  10. Optimization Model for Refinery Hydrogen Networks Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Tarifa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, a model of optimization was presented that minimizes the consumption of the hydrogen of a refinery. In this second part, the model will be augmented to take into account the length of the pipelines, the addition of purification units and the installation of new compressors, all features of industrial real networks. The model developed was implemented in the LINGO software environment. For data input and results output, an Excel spreadsheet was developed that interfaces with LINGO. The model is currently being used in YPFLuján de Cuyo refinery (Mendoza, Argentina

  11. Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Gutierrez, Francisco; Audra, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    In January 2015, the first part of the special issue on karst, entitled "Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions" was published (Geomorphology, Vol. 229). This second part of the special issue comprises seven research papers covering a broad geographical canvas including Japan, Slovenia, France, Spain, Croatia, and Poland-Ukraine. Both issues mainly emanate from the contributions presented in the Karst session of the 8th International Conference of Geomorphology (International Association of Geomorphologists), held in Paris in August 2013, enriched with some invited papers.

  12. Conformational behavior of insect pheromones and analogues. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koča, Jaroslav; Carlsen, Per H. J.

    1992-04-01

    The conformational potential energy surface paths of the sex pheromone, Ipsenol, to the Bark Beetle, Ips typographus, and of a series of analogues have been elucidated using the program DAISY. The following structures were calculated: 2-methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-4-ol (Ipsenol, ( II)), 2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadiene-4-ol acetate ( III), 2-methyl-6-methylene-3,7-octadien-2-ol ( IV), 2-methyl-6-methylene-1,7-octadien-3-ol ( V), 5-(3-furanyl)-2-methyl-1-penten-3-ol ( VI) and 1-(3-furanyl)-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol ( VII). As a measure of the conformational flexibility of the molecules the flexibility coefficients, f, were determined. The f values for the molecules were determined to be: II, 0.145; III, 0.144; IV, 1.240; V, 0.133; VI, 0.825; and VII, 0.451. The molecular mechanics method was used for energy calculations in conjunction with DAISY. Low-energy conformations (conformational channels) together with energy barriers for conformational changes are presented.

  13. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    OpenAIRE

    Luchakivska Yu. S.; Komarnytskii I. K.; Kurchenko I. M.; Yurieva O. M.; Zhytkevich N. V.; Kuchuk M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the sali...

  14. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shona E; Darling, Gail E

    2011-05-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of a thoracic surgeon's armamentarium to assist with the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic pathology. As reviewed in this article, the surface landmarks of the lungs, heart, great vessels, and mediastinum are critical for appropriate patient care and should be learned in conjunction with classic anatomy.

  15. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  16. Curriculum Guide for Hospitality Education. Part II. Exemplary Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Henry

    This second of a two-part study designed to develop a hospitality education program model for Hawaii's community colleges is based on the primary data gathered in a survey of the hospitality industry characteristics, manpower requirements, and employment demands. (Survey data is reported in volume 1 of the study.) The introductory section of this…

  17. Kids in Mental Institutions. Part II. Program 131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    The second of a two-part radio program on children in mental institutions presents transcripts of interviews with psychiatrists and emotionally disturbed adolescents. Subjects addressed include use of drugs, behavior modification, music, and theatre therapy in institutions. The transcript concludes with a narrated tour of Sheppard-Pratt, an…

  18. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  19. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports B Appendix B to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports 1. Location and...

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    This article will discuss the evidence for and against the therapeutic efficacy of early removal of potentially affected lymph nodes, morbidity associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymphadenectomy, current guidelines regarding patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the remaining questions that ongoing clinical trials are attempting to answer. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial and the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trials I and II will be discussed in detail. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the data regarding early surgical removal of lymph nodes and its effect on the overall survival of melanoma patients, be able to discuss the potential benefits and morbidity associated with complete lymph node dissection, and to summarize the ongoing trials aimed at addressing the question of therapeutic value of early surgical treatment of regional lymph nodes that may contain micrometastases. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lagrangian intersection Floer theory anomaly and obstruction, part II

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    This is a two-volume series research monograph on the general Lagrangian Floer theory and on the accompanying homological algebra of filtered A_\\infty-algebras. This book provides the most important step towards a rigorous foundation of the Fukaya category in general context. In Volume I, general deformation theory of the Floer cohomology is developed in both algebraic and geometric contexts. An essentially self-contained homotopy theory of filtered A_\\infty algebras and A_\\infty bimodules and applications of their obstruction-deformation theory to the Lagrangian Floer theory are presented. Volume II contains detailed studies of two of the main points of the foundation of the theory: transversality and orientation. The study of transversality is based on the virtual fundamental chain techniques (the theory of Kuranishi structures and their multisections) and chain level intersection theories. A detailed analysis comparing the orientations of the moduli spaces and their fiber products is carried out. A self-co...

  2. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie B Glick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined.

  3. DOBD Algorithm for Training Neural Network:Part II. Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建昱; 何小荣

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of the article, a new algorithm for pruning network?Dynamic Optimal Brain Damage(DOBD) is introduced. In this part, two cases and an industrial application are worked out to test the new algorithm. It is verified that the algorithm can obtain good generalization through deleting weight parameters with low sensitivities dynamically and get better result than the Marquardt algorithm or the cross-validation method. Although the initial construction of network may be different, the finial number of free weights pruned by the DOBD algorithm is similar and the number is just close to the optimal number of free weights. The algorithm is also helpful to design the optimal structure of network.

  4. Neutron detection with imaging plates Part II. Detector characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Thoms, M

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the physical processes described in Neutron detection with imaging plates - part I: image storage and readout [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 424 (1999) 26-33] detector characteristics, such as quantum efficiency, detective quantum efficiency, sensitivity to neutron- and gamma-radiation, readout time and dynamic range are predicted. It is estimated that quantum efficiencies and detective quantum efficiencies close to 100% can be reached making these kind of detectors interesting for a wide range of applications.

  5. A tutorial survey of topics in wireless networking: Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anurag Kumar; D Manjunath

    2007-12-01

    This is the second part of the survey of recent and emerging topics in wireless networking. We provide an overview of the area of wireless networking as that of dealing with problems of resource allocation so that the various connections that utilise the network achieve their desired performance objectives. In Part I we provided a taxonomy of wireless networks as they have been deployed. We then provided a quick survey of the main issues in the wireless 'physical' layer. We then discussed some resource allocation formulations in CDMA (code division multiple access) cellular networks and OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access) networks. In this part we begin with a discussion of random access wireless networks. We first provide an overview of the evolution of random access networks from Aloha to the currently popular 802·11 (Wi-Fi) networks. We then analyse the performance of the 802·11 random access protocol. We briefly discuss the problem of optimal association of nodes to Wi-Fi access points. Next, we consider topics in ad hoc multihop wireless networks. We first discuss topology and cross layer control. For the latter, we describe the important maximum weight link scheduling algorithm. The connectivity and capacity of randomly deployed networks are then analysed. Finally, we provide an overview of the technical issues in the emerging area of wireless sensor networks.

  6. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  7. Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-world background of the Special Theory of Relativity started in part one of this article is continued in this second part. Four-dimensional inversion is shown to be a special Lorentz transformation that transforms the positive spacetime coordinates of a frame of reference in the positive universe into the negative spacetime coordinates of the symmetry-partner frame of reference in the negative universe in the two-world picture, contrary to the conclusion that four-dimensional inversion is impossible as actual trans- formation of the coordinates of a frame of reference in the existing one-world picture. By starting with the negative spacetime dimensions in the negative universe derived in part one, the signs of mass and other physical parameters and physical constants in the negative universe are derived by application of the symmetry of laws between the pos- itive and negative universes. The invariance of natural laws in the negative universe is demonstrated. The derived negative sign of mass in the negative universe is a conclu- sion of over a century-old effort towards the development of the concept of negative mass in physics.

  8. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  9. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Zazo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference, radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power, hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  10. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Javier; Macua, Sergio Valcarcel; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-12-17

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  11. Hermeneutics as an approach to science: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Martin

    1993-12-01

    This paper continues the hermeneutic-phenomenological investigation of natural science, in which understanding plays a role comparable to creative construction (see ‘Hermeneutics as an Approach to Science: Part I’ in Science & Education 2(1)). The first issue treated is that of language: Is the language of science part of the equipment of the scientist, the subject, or part of the object itself — nature already linguistically encased? This issue, arising from the so-called argument of ‘the double hermeneutic’, relates the general question of the role of the subject in natural science to the role of interpretation. Examples of major interpretative developments in physics are discussed. The inquiry suggests that the role of interpretation and hermeneutics is tied to the educative or ‘study-mode’ of science; and that this mode can, apparently, be found at all levels and stages of science. The nature of this interpretive mode, and its relation to the creative mode, is then analyzed on the model of Gadamer's description of the interpretation of art.

  12. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Javier; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallow waters. In the second part, we analyze the application requirements for an underwater wireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios. PMID:27999309

  13. Premios nobel de quimica y filatelia. Parte II: Quimica analitica, quimica organica, productos naturales y bioquimica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Reina, Marlon; Amado-Gonzalez, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    En Premios Nobel de Quimica y Filatelia, Parte II, se hace una revision de los sellos postales emitidos en diferentes paises para conmemorar los Premios Nobel en quimica analitica, quimica organica...

  14. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. II Appendix II to Part 266—Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban (g...

  16. Managing purchasing and inventory with bar codes. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, J

    1986-04-01

    Automated identification systems (bar coding) have proven their worth in a number of diverse manufacturing and materials handling environments. Whether this technology can be broadly applied with equal effectiveness in the health care setting still remains largely unproven. One thing is certain, however. Before bar code technology can be effectively applied in any setting, the materials manager must understand several basic concepts: How materials flow through his physical plant; How, where and in what amounts they are used; and How and when they are expensed. With this information, it is possible to create a systematized approach to materials cost containment, of which bar coding is one element. In the following article, the author illustrates how purchasing and inventory control can be made more time and labor efficient through the use of bar code technology.

  17. Criticality safety at Zircatec - past present and future - part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, R.; Longinov, M.; Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element CANFLEX bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37 element fuel over 20 years ago. This move to LVRF fuel manufacture has prompted the change to a plant wide implementation of criticality safety methods. The major aspects of this change will be discussed from the viewpoint of the end user of the facility. Some of the methods used in the design of the unit processes and in the conducting of the criticality safety evaluations will be elaborated. (author)

  18. User's manual for the BNW-II optimization code for dry/wet-cooled power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.J.; Bamberger, J.A.; Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.; Wiles, L.E.

    1978-05-01

    The User's Manual describes how to operate BNW-II, a computer code developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as a part of its activities under the Department of Energy (DOE) Dry Cooling Enhancement Program. The computer program offers a comprehensive method of evaluating the cost savings potential of dry/wet-cooled heat rejection systems. Going beyond simple ''figure-of-merit'' cooling tower optimization, this method includes such items as the cost of annual replacement capacity, and the optimum split between plant scale-up and replacement capacity, as well as the purchase and operating costs of all major heat rejection components. Hence the BNW-II code is a useful tool for determining potential cost savings of new dry/wet surfaces, new piping, or other components as part of an optimized system for a dry/wet-cooled plant.

  19. Manganese Loading and Photosystem II Stability are Key Components of Manganese Efficiency in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency constitutes a major plant nutritional problem in commercial crop production of winter cereals. In plants, Mn has an indispensable role in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Hence, the consequences of Mn deficiency are reduced plant growth...

  20. The Symmetric Group Defies Strong Fourier Sampling: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Part I of this paper showed that the hidden subgroup problem over the symmetric group--including the special case relevant to Graph Isomorphism--cannot be efficiently solved by strong Fourier sampling, even if one may perform an arbitrary POVM on the coset state. In this paper, we extend these results to entangled measurements. Specifically, we show that the hidden subgroup problem on the symmetric group cannot be solved by any POVM applied to pairs of cosets states. In particular, these hidden subgroups cannot be determined by any polynomial number of one- or two-register experiments on coset states.

  1. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología: II Parte

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1986-01-01

    Algunos comentarios sobre la primera parte me han inducido a ampliar las bases de este trabajo mediante la presentación de aspectos comunes y conceptos disímiles sobre la hipotética relación entre inteligencia artificial (lA) e inteligencia humana(IH). El tema es tan complejo que un intento por resumirlo de por sí ya es atrayente además de necesario.

    Microhistoria de la lA. Ciñéndome a una cruda realidad la lA nació en la Conferencia de Darmouth,...

  2. Heavy lon Reactions The Elementary Processes, Parts I and II

    CERN Document Server

    Broglia, Ricardo A

    2004-01-01

    Combining elastic and inelastic processes with transfer reactions, this two-part volume explores how these events affect heavy ion collisions. Special attention is given to processes involving the transfer of two nucleons, which are specific for probing pairing correlations in nuclei. This novel treatment provides, together with the description of surface vibration and rotations, a unified picture of heavy ion reactions in terms of the elementary modes of nuclear excitation. Heavy Ion Reactions is essential reading for beginning graduate students as well as experienced researchers.

  3. Tourette's syndrome, Part II: Contemporary approaches to assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, L; Ort, S I; Hardin, M T

    1993-08-01

    Clinical assessment of a child with Tourette's syndrome (TS) includes a careful review of motor and phonic tics. In addition, commonly associated problems of such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity) should also be evaluated. Treatment almost always includes education of the child, family, and school personnel concerning the natural history and behavioral boundaries of the disorder. Other treatment interventions depend to a great extent on the primary source of impairment. This article, the second of two parts, presents three illustrative cases and reviews current treatment interventions for children and adolescents with TS.

  4. The museum maze in oral pathology demystifed: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, Bs

    2013-09-01

    Museum technology is perpetually changing due to current requirements and added inventions for our comfort and furbished display of specimens. Hence numerous methods of specimen preservation have been put on trial by diverse people in the medical feld as are the inventions. But only few have caught people's interest and are popularized today. This part provides unique insights into specialized custom-made techniques, evolution of recent advances like plastination and virtual museum that have popularized as visual delights. Plastination gives handy, perennial life-like acrylic specimens, whereas virtual museum takes museum feld to the electronic era making use of computers and virtual environment.

  5. Design of multiphysics actuators using topology optimization - Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    -material structures. The application in mind is the design of thermally and electro thermally driven micro actuators for use in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). MEMS are microscopic mechanical systems coupled with electrical circuits. MEMS are fabricated using techniques known from the semi-conductor industry...... of the topology optimization method in this part include design descriptions for two-material structures, constitutive modelling of elements with mixtures of two materials, formulation of optimization problems with multiple constraints and multiple materials and a mesh-independency scheme for two...

  6. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  7. Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part II: Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the simulation and initial experimental results for robust part handling by radially symmetric cylindrical electromagnetic gripper heads, that are used in foundry manufacturing assembly operation. Knowledge of the direct holding force is essential to determine if a given electromagnet is capable of preventing part slipping during pick and place operation. Energy based model and the magnetic circuit model have been described. The latter is developed further and compared with results from a FEA software. It was found that the magnetic circuit model, although simple in form, was limited in its ability to accurately predict the holding force over the entire range of conditions investigated. The shortcomings in the model were attributed to its inability to accurately model the leakage flux and non-uniform distribution of the magnetic flux. A finite element allowed for the ability to couple the mechanical and magnetic models. The finite element model was used to predict the magnetic field based off the solutions to the mechanical (sigma and the magnetic model (B.

  8. Active flow control for a NACA-0012 Profile: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oualli, H.; Makadem, M.; Ouchene, H.; Ferfouri, A.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2016-11-01

    Active flow control is applied to a NACA-0012 profile. The experiments are conducted in a wind tunnel. Using a high-resolution visible-light camera and tomography, flow visualizations are carried out. LES finite-volume 3D code is used to complement the physical experiments. The symmetric wing is clipped into two parts, and those parts extend and retract along the chord according to the same sinusoidal law we optimized last year for the same profile but clipped at an angle of 60 deg, instead of the original 90 deg. The Reynolds number range is extended to 500,000, thus covering the flying regimes of micro-UAVs, UAVs, as well as small aircraft. When the nascent cavity is open and the attack angle is 30 deg, the drag coefficient is increased by 1,300%, as compared to the uncontrolled case. However, when the cavity is covered and Re <=105 , a relatively small frequency, f <= 30 Hz, is required for the drag coefficient to drop to negative values. At the maximum Reynolds number, thrust is generated but only at much higher frequencies, 12 <= f <= 16 kHz.

  9. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions.

  10. Collagenolytic (necrobiotic) granulomas: part II--the 'red' granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jane M; Barrett, Terry L

    2004-07-01

    A collagenolytic or necrobiotic non-infectious granuloma is one in which a granulomatous infiltrate develops around a central area of altered collagen and elastic fibers. The altered fibers lose their distinct boundaries and exhibit new staining patterns, becoming either more basophilic or eosinophilic. Within the area of altered collagen, there may be deposition of acellular substances such as mucin (blue) or fibrin (red), or there may be neutrophils with nuclear dust (blue), eosinophils (red), or flame figures (red). These color distinctions can be used as a simple algorithm for the diagnosis of collagenolytic granulomas, i.e. 'blue' granulomas vs. 'red' granulomas. Eight diagnoses are included within these two groupings, which are discussed in this two-part article. In the previously published first part, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and histologic features of the 'blue' collagenolytic granulomas were discussed. These are the lesions of granuloma annulare, Wegener's granulomatosis, and rheumatoid vasculitis. In this second half of the series, the 'red' collagenolytic granulomas are discussed; these are the lesions of necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, rheumatoid nodules, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and eosinophilic cellulitis (Well's Syndrome).

  11. Dynamic spreading of nanofluids on solids part II: modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Kondiparty, Kirtiprakash; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh

    2012-11-27

    Recent studies on the spreading phenomena of liquid dispersions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) have revealed that the self-layering and two-dimensional structuring of nanoparticles in the three-phase contact region exert structural disjoining pressure, which drives the spreading of nanofluids by forming a continuous wedge film between the liquid (e.g., oil) and solid surface. Motivated by the practical applications of the phenomenon and experimental results reported in Part I of this two-part series, we thoroughly investigated the spreading dynamics of nanofluids against an oil drop on a solid surface. With the Laplace equation as a starting point, the spreading process is modeled by Navier-Stokes equations through the lubrication approach, which considers the structural disjoining pressure, gravity, and van der Waals force. The temporal interface profile and advancing inner contact line velocity of nanofluidic films are analyzed through varying the effective nanoparticle concentration, the outer contact angle, the effective nanoparticle size, and capillary pressure. It is found that a fast and spontaneous advance of the inner contact line movement can be obtained by increasing the nanoparticle concentration, decreasing the nanoparticle size, and/or decreasing the interfacial tension. Once the nanofluidic film is formed, the advancing inner contact line movement reaches a constant velocity, which is independent of the outer contact angle if the interfacial tension is held constant.

  12. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  14. Fibonacci or quasi-symmetric phyllotaxis. Part II: botanical observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Douady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the study of phyllotaxis was greatly helped by the simple description of botanical patterns by only two integer numbers, namely the number of helices (parastichies in each direction tiling the plant stem. The use of parastichy numbers reduced the complexity of the study and created a proliferation of generalizations, among others the simple geometric model of lattices. Unfortunately, these simple descriptive method runs into difficulties when dealing with patterns presenting transitions or irregularities. Here, we propose several ways of addressing the imperfections of botanical reality. Using ontogenetic analysis, which follows the step-by-step genesis of the pattern, and crystallographic analysis, which reveal irregularity in its details, we show how to derive more information from a real botanical sample, in particular, about its irregularities and transitions. We present several examples, from the first explicit visualization of a normal Fibonacci parastichy number increase, to more exotic ones, including the quasi-symmetric patterns detected in simulations. We compare these observations qualitatively with the result of the disk-packing model, presenting evidence for the relevance of the model.

  15. Complex dynamics in diatomic molecules. Part II: Quantum trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.-D. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Weng, H.-J. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: principlex@yahoo.com.tw

    2008-10-15

    The second part of this paper deals with quantum trajectories in diatomic molecules, which has not been considered before in the literature. Morse potential serves as a more accurate function than a simple harmonic oscillator for illustrating a realistic picture about the vibration of diatomic molecules. However, if we determine molecular dynamics by integrating the classical force equations derived from a Morse potential, we will find that the resulting trajectories do not consist with the probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, the quantum trajectory determined by Bohmian mechanics [Bohm D. A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variable. Phys. Rev. 1952;85:166-179] leads to the conclusion that a diatomic molecule is motionless in all its vibrational eigen-states, which also contradicts probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we point out that the quantum trajectory of a diatomic molecule completely consistent with quantum mechanics does exist and can be solved from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived in Part I, which is based on a complex-space formulation of fractal spacetime [El Naschie MS. A review of E-Infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19:209-36; El Naschie MS. E-Infinity theory - some recent results and new interpretations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:845-853; El Naschie MS. The concepts of E-infinity. An elementary introduction to the cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:495-511; El Naschie MS. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:370-374; Nottale L. Fractal space-time and microphysics: towards a theory of scale relativity. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993; Ord G. Fractal space time and the statistical mechanics of random works. Chaos, Soiltons and Fractals 1996;7:821-843] approach to quantum

  16. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Abel, David (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD)

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  17. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against......-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels...

  18. Theory of edge radiation. Part II: Advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we exploit a formalism to describe edge radiation, which relies on Fourier optics techniques [G. Geloni, V. Kocharyan, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, Theory of edge radiation. Part I: foundations and basic applications, submitted for publication]. First, we apply our method to develop an analytical model to describe edge radiation in the presence of a vacuum chamber. Such model is based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Second, we consider the use of edge radiation as a tool for electron-beam diagnostics. We discuss coherent edge radiation, extraction of edge radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of edge radiation on X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) setups and we discuss recent results.

  19. The Mechanism of Graviton Exchange between Bodies, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational Law by space-time curvature. Quantum gravity is a part of quantum mechanics which is expected to combine these two theories, and it describes gravity force according to the principles of quantum mechanics which has not got the desired result, yet. In CPH theory, after reconsidering and analyzing......Further to Special Relativity, modern physics includes two great theories which describe universe in a new different way. One of them is Quantum Mechanics which describes elementary particles, atoms and molecules and the other one is General Relativity which has been replaced the Newtonian...... the behavior of photon in the gravitational field, a new definition of graviton based on carrying the gravity force is given. By using this definition, graviton exchange mechanism between bodies/objects is described. As the purpose of quantum gravity is describing the force of gravity by using the principles...

  20. Gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, V. F.; Klinkov, S. V.; Zaikovskii, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents the radial distributions of the pressure measured with a Pitot tube for the case of a radial jet with/without swirling of the input flow in the pre-chamber; the length of the supersonic part of the jet, dependency of the jet thickness as a function of the distance from the nozzle outlet, and approximating analytical formula for the jet thickness that generalizes the experimental data. Experimental data demonstrated that at the deposition distances lower than 4-6 gauges from the nozzle outlet, the solid particle velocity and temperature are almost uniform over the jet cross section. This means that the target surface can be allocated here without loss in coating quality and deposition coefficient. The maximal recommended distance where the deposition is still possible is the length of l s0 ~ 16 gauges.

  1. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  2. Indoor Air Quality: part II--what it does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike-Paris, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Newton, MA. A recent report indicated air quality samples taken from several rooms in the town's North High School had elevated CO2 levels of 2,000 parts per million (ppm) (Viser, 2004). State standards set 800 ppm as the optimum reading. Although not an immediate health issue, high CO2 levels are indicative of poor air circulation--clean air comes in but stale air is not vented out. Safety issues arise in the school setting when chemicals or toxic substances are in use and cannot be vented, therefore posing the health risk (Viser, 2004). Poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in schools can result in decreased academic performance and days lost due to illness in the school age population (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2003). As the school nurse at North High School, what would you do?

  3. Sequencing of contents and learning objects - part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zapata Ros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta es la segunda parte del artículo del mismo nombre publicado en el número anterior de RED. En él planteamos una visión de la selección y de la secuenciación de contenidos de enseñanza, en el contexto de la planificación curricular, desde la perspectiva de las corrientes del pensamiento constructivista. Señalamos la importancia de contar, en el campo de la formación apoyada en redes, con herramientas y criterios autónomos que guíen este proceso desde unas bases propias, externas y con preeminencia sobre las que derivan de la configuración de las herramientas tecnológicas, y desde la necesidad de contar con estándares de formato de intercambio de datos Si en general este planteamiento es importante adquiere especial relevancia en el contexto del e-learning de propósito general, tanto en el de formación como en el e-learning empresarial o en el universitario. Y por supuesto en el contexto de la formación reglada y de formación informal, o de la no reglada. También señalamos las necesidades que plantea la industria del e-learning en la actualidad en relación con el diseño instruccional de objetos de aprendizaje, necesidades que constituyen una prioridad y un desafío. En la primera parte desarrollamos la perspectiva constructivista y la conceptualización de servicios y herramientas tecnológicas como recursos educativos, así como una revisión de los conceptos vinculados con el e-learning, objetos de aprendizaje, OAR y reusabilidad. En esta parte abordaremos la fundamentación de las teorías que rigen los procedimientos de selección de contenidos, los presupuestos básicos y la descripción de las técnicas de secuenciación. En particular nos centraremos en tres de ellas: La técnica de análisis de contenidos, la técnica de análisis de la tarea y la Teoría de la Elaboración. Por último como conclusión, en la tercera parte, intentaremos abordar, no en su resolución sino solo en su propuesta como enunciado

  4. Microgrids in Active Network Management-Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palizban, Omid; Kauhaniemi, Kimmo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    , following planned or unplanned transitions to island mode, microgrids may develop instability. For this reason, the paper addresses the principles behind island-detection methods, black-start operation, fault management, and protection systems, along with a comprehensive review of power quality. Finally......The development of distribution networks for participation in active network management (ANM) and smart grids is introduced using the microgrid concept. In recent years, this issue has been researched and implemented by many experts. The second part of this paper describes those developed...... operational concepts of microgrids that have an impact on their participation in ANM and in the requirements for achieving targets. Power quality is the most challenging task in microgrids, especially when the system switches from normal parallel operation (grid-connection mode) to island operation. Indeed...

  5. FSW Numerical Simulation of Aluminium Plates by SYSWELD - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jančo Roland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is one of the most effective solid state joining processes and has numerous potential applications in many industries. The simulation process can provide the evolution of physicals quantities such as temperature, metallurgical phase proportions, stress and strain which can be easily measured during welding. The numerical modelling requires the modelling of the complex interaction between thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. The aim of this paper is to describe the thermal-fluid simulation of FSW using the finite element method. In the theoretical part of paper heating is provided by the material flow and contact condition between the tool and the welded material. Thermal-mechanical results from the numerical simulation using SYSWELD are also presented for aluminium alloy.

  6. Fundamental Limits of Wideband Localization - Part II: Cooperative Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yuan; Win, Moe Z

    2010-01-01

    The availability of positional information is of great importance in many commercial, governmental, and military applications. Localization is commonly accomplished through the use of radio communication between mobile devices (agents) and fixed infrastructure (anchors). However, precise determination of agent positions is a challenging task, especially in harsh environments due to radio blockage or limited anchor deployment. In these situations, cooperation among agents can significantly improve localization accuracy and reduce localization outage probabilities. A general framework of analyzing the fundamental limits of wideband localization has been developed in Part I of the paper. Here, we build on this framework and establish the fundamental limits of wideband cooperative location-aware networks. Our analysis is based on the waveforms received at the nodes, in conjunction with Fisher information inequality. We provide a geometrical interpretation of equivalent Fisher information for cooperative networks....

  7. Nonlinear Scaling Laws for Parametric Receiving Arrays. Part II. Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-30

    8217" " .’Ml’.1 ’.■■’: ■ ’ ^ t- Nonlinear Scaling Laws for Parametric Receiving Arrays Part II Numerical Analysis » - m • o prepared ...8217 ’ ■ — Nonlinear Scaling Laws for Parametric Receiving Arrays » z Part II. Numerical Analysis prepared under: A ——^ N0ÖJ339- 7 5 - C -J02 59, //V-ARPA Order...IF ’IP ,6T, 10 .HNO. IR .I_E. £0> riELTI = LiELTrJ IF ’IP .GT. 3 0 .HMD. IP .LE. 3 0;. [ IELT I = IiELT3 IF

  8. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  9. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology--part II: vascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in the medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in the medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the science of medicine. In this second part of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to the pulmonary vasculature, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Medicine at the crossroads. Part II. Summary of completed project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Medicine at the crossroads (a.k.a. The Future of Medicine) is an 8-part series of one-hour documentaries which examines the scientific and social forces that have shaped the practice of medicine around the world. The series was developed and produced over a five-year period and in eleven countries. Among the major issues examined in the series are the education of medical practitioners and the communication of medical issues. The series also considers the dilemmas of modern medicine, including the treatment of the elderly and the dying, the myth of the quick fix in the face of chronic and incurable diseases such as HIV, and the far-reaching implications of genetic treatments. Finally, the series examines the global progress made in medical research and application, as well as the questions remaining to be answered. These include not only scientific treatment, but accessibility and other critical topics affecting the overall success of medical advances. Medicine at the crossroads is a co-production of Thirteen/WNET and BBC-TV in association with Television Espafiola SA (RTVE) and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Stefan Moore of Thirteen/WNET and Martin Freeth of BBC-TV are series producers. George Page is executive in charge of medicine at the crossroads. A list of scholarly advisors and a program synopses is attached.

  11. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region. This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted.

  12. A platform for quality management in research institutes (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klembalska Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been a particularly strong pressure on changing old structures and management models in research institutes. Contemporary research institutes are scientific units which are commercial in character – almost 80% of funds come from companies and contractual research activity and services. They are the basic sector of science aiming at cooperation with the economy, applied and innovative research. In order to maintain the current and start new cooperation it is necessary to pay particular attention to maintaining, improving and exposing high level of quality of conducted activity. Taking into consideration the necessity of carrying out ever more complex research projects, conducting activity requiring fast reaction to change, risk analysis, which is assessed every year by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education – it seems that it is necessary to apply tools supporting the assessment of quality. In the proposed three-aspect perspective the following scopes of activity are emphasized: implemented quality management systems, area of scientific information and the sphere of cooperation with the client. This article constitutes the continuation of the subjects discussed in the first part – an extension of issues associated with the scope of responsibilities of particular Sections of the proposed Quality Management Platform in research institutes.

  13. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El

    2017-06-12

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  14. Oral health in Brazil - Part II: Dental Specialty Centers (CEOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.

  15. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.

  16. Stochastic dynamics of Arctic sea ice Part II: Multiplicative noise

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Woosok

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the numerical solutions of a stochastic Arctic sea ice model with multiplicative noise over a wide range of external heat-fluxes, $\\Delta F_0$, which correspond to greenhouse gas forcing. When the noise is multiplicative, the noise-magnitude depends on the state-variable, and this will influence the statistical moments in a manner that differs from the additive case, which we analyzed in Part I of this study. The state variable describing the deterministic backbone of our model is the energy, $E(t)$, contained in the ice or the ocean and for a thorough comparison and contrast we choose the simplest form of multiplicative noise $\\sigma E(t) \\xi(t)$, where $\\sigma$ is the noise amplitude and $\\xi(t)$ is the noise process. The case of constant additive noise (CA) we write as $\\sigma\\overline{E_S}\\xi(t)$, in which $\\overline{E_S}$ is the seasonally averaged value of the periodic deterministic steady-state solution $E_S(t)$, or the deterministic seasonal cycle. We then treat the case of seasonally-varyi...

  17. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  18. Recent applications of nuclear medicine in diagnostics: II part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Treglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Positron-emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT are effective diagnostic imaging tools in several clinical settings. The aim of this article (the second of a 2-part series is to examine some of the more recent applications of nuclear medicine imaging techniques, particularly in the fields of neurology, cardiology, and infection/inflammation. Discussion: A review of the literature reveals that in the field of neurology nuclear medicine techniques are most widely used to investigate cognitive deficits and dementia (particularly those associated with Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In cardiology, SPECT and PET also play important roles in the work-up of patients with coronary artery disease, providing accurate information on the state of the myocardium (perfusion, metabolism, and innervation. White blood cell scintigraphy and FDG-PET are widely used to investigate many infectious/inflammatory processes. In each of these areas, the review discusses the use of recently developed radiopharmaceuticals, the growth of tomographic nuclear medicine techniques, and the ways in which these advances are improving molecular imaging of biologic processes at the cellular level.

  19. Cosmology In Terms Of The Deceleration Parameter. Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Bolotin, Yu L; Lemets, O A; Yerokhin, D A; Zazunov, L G

    2015-01-01

    In the early seventies, Alan Sandage defined cosmology as the search for two numbers: Hubble parameter ${{H}_{0}}$ and deceleration parameter ${{q}_{0}}$. The first of the two basic cosmological parameters (the Hubble parameter) describes the linear part of the time dependence of the scale factor. Treating the Universe as a dynamical system it is natural to assume that it is non-linear: indeed, linearity is nothing more than approximation, while non-linearity represents the generic case. It is evident that future models of the Universe must take into account different aspects of its evolution. As soon as the scale factor is the only dynamical variable, the quantities which determine its time dependence must be essentially present in all aspects of the Universe' evolution. Basic characteristics of the cosmological evolution, both static and dynamical, can be expressed in terms of the parameters ${{H}_{0}}$ and ${{q}_{0}}$. The very parameters (and higher time derivatives of the scale factor) enable us to const...

  20. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Pepper, S.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1990-02-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Program which was initiated in FY 1985, three additional equipment classes have been evaluated. This report contains the fragility results and discussions on these equipment classes which are switchgear, I and C panels and relays. Both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been considered and a separate fragility estimate for each type is provided. Test data on cabinets from the nuclear instrumentation/neutron monitoring system, plant/process protection system, solid state protective system and engineered safeguards test system comprise the BNL data base for I and C panels (NSSS). Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of switchgear and I C panels, and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been evaluated for estimating the respective probabilistic fragility levels which are expressed in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient, a randomness coefficient and an HCLPF value. Due to a wide variation of relay design and the fragility level, a generic fragility level cannot be established for relays. 7 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Medical Education: Barefoot Doctors, Health Care, Health Education, Nursing Education, Pharmacy Education, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1913 to 1982. Most of the references are from the 1960's and 1970's. (RH)

  2. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M; Tyrode, Eric

    2014-07-29

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels with respect to pH changes was probed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and TIRR. Highly cross-linked gels show a small and fully reversible behavior when the solution pH is switched between pH 2.7 and 5.7. In contrast, low cross-linked gels are more responsive to pH changes, but the response is fully reversible only after the first exposure to the acidic solution, once an internal restructuring of the gel has taken place. Two distinct pKa's for both chitosan and poly(acrylic acid), were determined for the cross-linked structure using TIRR. They are associated with populations of chargeable groups displaying either a bulk like dissociation behavior or forming ionic complexes inside the hydrogel film.

  3. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Truzzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder.

  4. Renewable energy for passive house heating - Part II. Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, V. [Candida Oancea Institute of Solar Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Sicre, B. [Computational Physics, Technical University of Chemnitz, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The evaluation of renewable energy used to increase the environmental friendliness of passive houses (PH) is the topic of this paper. A time-dependent model of passive house thermal behavior is developed. The heat transfer through the high thermal inertia elements is analyzed by using a one-dimensional time-dependent conduction heat-transfer equation that is solved numerically by using a standard Netlib solver (PDECHEB). Appropriate models for the conduction through the low thermal inertia elements are used, as well as a simple approach of the solar radiation transmission through the windows. The model takes into account in a detailed fashion the internal heat sources. Also, the operation of ventilation/heating system is described and common-practice control strategies are implemented. Three renewable energy sources are considered. First, there is the passive solar heating due to the large window on the facade oriented south. Second, the active solar collector system provides thermal energy for space heating or domestic hot water preparation. Third, a ground heat exchanger (GHE) increases the fresh air temperature during the cold season. The model was applied to the Pirmasens Passive House (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany). The passive solar heating system provides most part of the heating energy during November, December, February and March while in January the ground heat exchanger is the most important renewable energy source. January and February require use of additional conventional energy sources. A clever use of the active solar heating system could avoid consuming classical fuels during November, December and March. The ground heat exchanger is a reliable renewable source of energy. It provides heat during all the day and its (rather small) heat flux is increasing when the weather becomes colder. The air temperature at heater exit is normally lower than 46 {sup o}C. This is a good reason for the use of renewable energy to replace the classical fuel or the

  5. Is extreme learning machine feasible? A theoretical assessment (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaobo; Liu, Xia; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

    2015-01-01

    An extreme learning machine (ELM) can be regarded as a two-stage feed-forward neural network (FNN) learning system that randomly assigns the connections with and within hidden neurons in the first stage and tunes the connections with output neurons in the second stage. Therefore, ELM training is essentially a linear learning problem, which significantly reduces the computational burden. Numerous applications show that such a computation burden reduction does not degrade the generalization capability. It has, however, been open that whether this is true in theory. The aim of this paper is to study the theoretical feasibility of ELM by analyzing the pros and cons of ELM. In the previous part of this topic, we pointed out that via appropriately selected activation functions, ELM does not degrade the generalization capability in the sense of expectation. In this paper, we launch the study in a different direction and show that the randomness of ELM also leads to certain negative consequences. On one hand, we find that the randomness causes an additional uncertainty problem of ELM, both in approximation and learning. On the other hand, we theoretically justify that there also exist activation functions such that the corresponding ELM degrades the generalization capability. In particular, we prove that the generalization capability of ELM with Gaussian kernel is essentially worse than that of FNN with Gaussian kernel. To facilitate the use of ELM, we also provide a remedy to such a degradation. We find that the well-developed coefficient regularization technique can essentially improve the generalization capability. The obtained results reveal the essential characteristic of ELM in a certain sense and give theoretical guidance concerning how to use ELM.

  6. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  7. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Minos Niu, Chuanxin; Chakravarthi Raja, Suraj; Sohn, Won Joon; Loeb, Gerald E.; Sanger, Terence D.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. Approach. As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties). The motor commands were transformed into tendon forces by a Hill-type muscle model (with activation-contraction dynamics) via brushless DC motors. Two independent afferented muscles emulated the forces of flexor digitorum profundus and the extensor indicis proprius muscles, forming an antagonist pair at the metacarpophalangeal joint of a cadaveric index finger. We measured the physical response to repetitions of bi-directional ramp-and-hold rotational perturbations for 81 combinations of static and dynamic fusimotor drives, across four ramp velocities, and three levels of constant cortical drive to the α-motor neuron pool. Main results. We found that this system produced responses compatible with the physiological literature. Fusimotor and cortical drives had nonlinear effects on the reflex forces. In particular, only cortical drive affected the sensitivity of reflex forces to static fusimotor drive. In contrast, both static fusimotor and cortical drives reduced the sensitivity to dynamic fusimotor drive. Interestingly, realistic signal-dependent motor noise emerged naturally in our system without having been explicitly modeled. Significance. We demonstrate that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function. As such, our Neuro-mechano-morphic system is a viable platform to study the spinal mechanisms for healthy muscle function—and its

  8. Ethnobotanical evaluation of some plant resources in Northern part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... herbal products to maximize the benefits are recommended. Key words: Malam Jabba ...... plants, petioles and even pebbles (personal observa- tion). When the ... who reported few plants species of varied health care from Rawalpindi. ... retailers or pharmaceutical companies or exporters. In this chain the ...

  9. Master plan Modoc National Wildlife Refuge [ Part I and Part II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Master Plan, consisting of three parts, is designed to accomplish sound and orderly development of Modoc Refuge and provides for a continuing program of wildlife...

  10. Eponyms related to genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement; part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mohammed Al-Aboud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement. In our part I, we reviewed the eponyms linked to Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (HGF [1]. Historical Article How to cite this article: Al Aboud A, Al-Aboud NM, Barnawi H, Al Hakami A. Eponyms related to genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement: Part II. Our Dermatol Online. 2015;6(1:114-117. Submission: 27.05.2013; Acceptance: 21.09.2014 DOI: 10.7241/ourd.20151.32 In this part II of this review, we are going to shed some light on eponyms linked to groups of genetic disorders which may feature gingival enlargement.

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglands, John D; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Ridgway, John P

    2012-09-20

    This is the second of two reviews that is intended to cover the essential aspects of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. Starting with the basic pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms described in part I, it briefly discusses further approaches to accelerate image acquisition. It then continues by showing in detail how the contrast behaviour of black blood fast spin echo and bright blood cine gradient echo techniques can be modified by adding rf preparation pulses to derive a number of more specialised pulse sequences. The simplest examples described include T2-weighted oedema imaging, fat suppression and myocardial tagging cine pulse sequences. Two further important derivatives of the gradient echo pulse sequence, obtained by adding preparation pulses, are used in combination with the administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent for myocardial perfusion imaging and the assessment of myocardial tissue viability using a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. These two imaging techniques are discussed in more detail, outlining the basic principles of each pulse sequence, the practical steps required to achieve the best results in a clinical setting and, in the case of perfusion, explaining some of the factors that influence current approaches to perfusion image analysis. The key principles of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) are also explained in detail, especially focusing on timing of the acquisition following contrast agent bolus administration, and current approaches to achieving time resolved MRA. Alternative MRA techniques that do not require the use of an endogenous contrast agent are summarised, and the specialised pulse sequence used to image the coronary arteries, using respiratory navigator gating, is described in detail. The article concludes by explaining the principle behind phase contrast imaging techniques

  12. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health

  13. Nurse staffing in a decentralized organization: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, J N; Hardyck, N M; Pierce, P B; Rodgers, M S

    1982-04-01

    It must be emphasized that none of the steps described in this planning process emerged overnight. Rather, they were achieved through a process of evolution, sometimes through trial and error, and always with consultation and participation by many members of the hospital nursing staff. Participation by many in the process of planning for a workable staffing system has been essential to its success. Indeed, creative scheduling by the head nurse is possible because of the way in which the system has been organized. The fact that head nurses are responsible for staffing their own units makes it infinitely easier for them to see what they need to make their units operate effectively and efficiently. Creative scheduling includes the possibility of arranging nurses' hours outside the rigid three-shift schedule used by so many hospitals. Many El Camino nurses now report for work at different hours. In addition, the use of flexible work weeks has proven valuable. Some head nurses now allow for a ten-hour, four-day work week; in emergency staffing situations there have, on occasion, been twelve-hour days. Even as this system evolves, it faces change. Just as the requirements for staff cannot be rigid, so must problem solving be flexible and constantly under review. The fact that El Camino believes in constant monitoring of its system is essential to its success. A key philosophical foundation of decentralization is that it must be subject to change. This is no less true in staffing than in other parts of the decentralization structure. By agreeing that change is constant and necessary and that participation is required at all levels of the staffing planning process, we have constructed the outlines of a system that will work in the future as well as it does in the present. Our system centers around the head nurses. It involves their planning; thus it also involves the support of those members of the nursing staff who can provide essential information. But the decisions

  14. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglands John D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the second of two reviews that is intended to cover the essential aspects of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. Starting with the basic pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms described in part I, it briefly discusses further approaches to accelerate image acquisition. It then continues by showing in detail how the contrast behaviour of black blood fast spin echo and bright blood cine gradient echo techniques can be modified by adding rf preparation pulses to derive a number of more specialised pulse sequences. The simplest examples described include T2-weighted oedema imaging, fat suppression and myocardial tagging cine pulse sequences. Two further important derivatives of the gradient echo pulse sequence, obtained by adding preparation pulses, are used in combination with the administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent for myocardial perfusion imaging and the assessment of myocardial tissue viability using a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE technique. These two imaging techniques are discussed in more detail, outlining the basic principles of each pulse sequence, the practical steps required to achieve the best results in a clinical setting and, in the case of perfusion, explaining some of the factors that influence current approaches to perfusion image analysis. The key principles of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA are also explained in detail, especially focusing on timing of the acquisition following contrast agent bolus administration, and current approaches to achieving time resolved MRA. Alternative MRA techniques that do not require the use of an endogenous contrast agent are summarised, and the specialised pulse sequence used to image the coronary arteries, using respiratory navigator gating, is described in detail. The article concludes by explaining the principle behind phase

  15. Carcinogenicity of residual fuel oils by nonbiological laboratory methods: annotated bibliography. Part I. Laboratory methods of analysis. Part II. Analysis results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichorz, R. S.

    1976-04-09

    Recent emphases have been directed by Federal government regulatory agencies and other research groups on the carcinogenic effects of certain aromatic hydrocarbon components in naturally occurring petroleum products. These are used in plant operations, and underline the importance of evaluating environments. Since Rocky Flats Plant uses large quantities of fuel oil, the author was prompted to undertake a search of the chemical literature. Articles and accounts of studies were reviewed on nonbiological laboratory methods for determining the carcinogenicity of residual fuel oils and related high-boiling petroleum fractions. The physical and chemical methods involve the separation or measurement (or both) of polynuclear aromatic constituents which generally are responsible for the carcinogenic effects. Thus, the author suggests that the total carcinogenic activity of any petroleum product may not be due to a specific potent carcinogen, but rather to the cumulative effect of several individually weak carcinogens. The literature search is presented as an annotated bibliography, current as of January 1, 1975, and includes significant parts of the studies along with the total number of other references found when the citation was examined in its entirety. Part I deals with laboratory chemical and physical methods of determining carcinogenicity or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (or both) in residual fuel oils and contains ten entries. Part II includes the results of testing specific fuel oils for carcinogenic constituents and contains eleven entries. An author index and subject categories are included.

  16. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  17. Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants II; Korkean tuhkapitoisuuden omaavan polttoaineen kaeyttoe dieselvoimaloissa II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergren, R.; Normen, E.; Hellen, G. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Heavy fuel oils containing a large amount of ash are used in some geographically restricted areas. The ash components can cause problems with deposit formation and hot corrosion, leading to burned exhaust gas valves in some diesel engines. The LIEKKI 2 programs Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants, Part I and II, have been initiated to clarify the mechanisms of deposit formation, and start and propagation of hot corrosion. The aim is to get enough knowledge to enable the development of the Waertsilae diesel engines to be able to handle heavy fuels with a very high ash content. The chemistry during combustion has been studied. The chemical and physical properties of the particles in the exhaust gas, of the deposits, and of exhaust valves have been investigated. Exhaust gas particle measurements have been performed when running on high ash fuel, both with and without deposit modifying fuel additive. Theories for the mechanisms mentioned above have been developed. On the practical side two long time field tests are going on, one with an ash/deposit modifying fuel additive (vanadium chemistry alteration), one with fuel water washing (sodium removal). Seven different reports have been written. (orig.)

  18. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchakivska Yu. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the salinity and osmotic stress tolerance by plant survival test in presence of NaCl and PEG in different concentrations. Results. Transgenic plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II gene (transcription proved for 60–100 % were obtained by agrobacterial transformation. The transgenic carrot plant extracts inhibited the growth of the studied phytopathogenic bacteria strains but exhibited no antifungal activity. Survival level of transgenic plants under the salinity and osmotic stress effect was definitely higher comparing to the untransgenic ones. The analysis of the photosynthetic pigment content in the transgenic carrot plants showed no significant difference of this parameter under salinity stress that may indicate a possible protective activity of the recombinant protein. Conclusions. The obtained in our study transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express the recombinant thaumatin II gene were characterized by antibacterial activity and increased tolerance to salinity and osmotic stress factors.

  19. Helping Children Cope with Fears and Stress. Part I: Discussion and Activities. Part II: Facilitator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…

  20. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part 273—Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority Section 104 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, approved...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants..., as specified in § 50.54(ff), nuclear power plants that have implemented the earthquake...

  2. B-Plant fission product flowsheets: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G.

    1961-09-29

    The technical bases for Phase I of the Fission Product Program have previously been presented for Phase I design. This report represents its sequel for Phase II of the program. Phase I provides the means of segregating, concentrating, and aging crude fission product fractions with market value. Phase II is to provide the means for single-line purification and packaging of megacurie quantities of fission products (principally strontium-90). The technical bases for Phase II project scoping studies are presented herein in the form of process flowsheets and tabulated data. Equipment needs are also described. Conceptual processes and flow diagrams for Phase III are presented for the Waste Management Program and the Fission Product Program.

  3. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this... This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies..., but is not limited to, fermentation vessels (fermenters). The collection of equipment used in...

  4. Modeling of optical spectra of the light-harvesting CP29 antenna complex of photosystem II--part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ximao; Kell, Adam; Pieper, Jörg; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, it was believed that the CP29 protein from higher plant photosystem II (PSII) contains 8 chlorophylls (Chl's) per complex (Ahn et al. Science 2008, 320, 794-797; Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999, 96, 10056-10061) in contrast to the 13 Chl's revealed by the recent X-ray structure (Pan et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2011, 18, 309-315). This disagreement presents a constraint on the interpretation of the underlying electronic structure of this complex. To shed more light on the interpretation of various experimental optical spectra discussed in the accompanying paper (part I, DOI 10.1021/jp4004328 ), we report here calculated low-temperature (5 K) absorption, fluorescence, hole-burned (HB), and 300 K circular dichroism (CD) spectra for CP29 complexes with a different number of pigments. We focus on excitonic structure and the nature of the low-energy state using modeling based on the X-ray structure of CP29 and Redfield theory. We show that the lowest energy state is mostly contributed to by a612, a611, and a615 Chl's. We suggest that in the previously studied CP29 complexes from spinach (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol.2000, 71, 574-589) two Chl's could have been lost during the preparation/purification procedure, but it is unlikely that the spinach CP29 protein contains only eight Chl's, as suggested by the sequence homology-based study (Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.1999, 96, 10056-10061). The likely Chl's missing in wild-type (WT) CP29 complexes studied previously (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol. 2000, 71, 574-589) include a615 and b607. This is why the nonresonant HB spectra shown in that reference were ~1 nm blue-shifted with the low-energy state mostly localized on about one Chl a (i.e., a612) molecule. Pigment composition of CP29 is discussed in the context of light-harvesting and excitation energy transfer.

  5. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I. [comps.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  6. Effective Medicinal Plant in Cancer Treatment, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooti, Wesam; Servatyari, Karo; Behzadifar, Masoud; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Bijan; Zare Marzouni, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. With due attention to rapid progress in the phytochemical study of plants, they are becoming popular because of their anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effective medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer and study their mechanism of action. In order to gather information the keywords "traditional medicine," "plant compounds," "medicinal plant," "medicinal herb," "toxicity," "anticancer effect," "cell line," and "treatment" were searched in international databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus and national databases such as Magiran, Sid, and Iranmedex, and a total of 228 articles were collected. In this phase, 49 nonrelevant articles were excluded. Enhancement P53 protein expression, reducing the expression of proteins P27, P21, NFκB expression and induction of apoptosis, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and reduction of the level of acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation are the most effective mechanisms of herbal plants that can inhibit cell cycle and proliferation. Common treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy can cause some complications. According to results of this study, herbal extracts have antioxidant compounds that can induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation by the investigated mechanisms.

  7. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Part 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Typical layout drawing of a machine. 2 Sample bill of material (to accompany layout drawing shown on figure 1) 3 Material to be included with the operating... wires shall not be used for grounding except in conjunction with diode(s) or equivalent. The operating...

  8. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Hansen, Young Bae Lee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intravenous infusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) provokes migraine attacks in 65-70% of migraine without aura (MO) patients. We investigated whether PACAP38 infusion causes changes in the endogenous production of PACAP38, vasoactive intestinal...... polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), neuron-specific enolase and pituitary hormones in migraine patients. METHODS: We allocated 32 previously genotyped MO patients to receive intravenous infusion PACAP38 (10...... pmol/kg/minute) for 20 minutes and recorded migraine-like attacks. Sixteen of the patients were carriers of the risk allele rs2274316 (MEF2D), which confers increased risk of MO and may regulate PACAP38 expression, and 16 were non-carriers. We collected blood samples at baseline and 20, 30, 40, 60...

  9. Screening of Iranian plants for antifungal activity: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Amin Gh.R

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 278 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains. Initially, the crude extracts in concentration of 100 μg/ml were tested. Among 278 plant extracts, 201(71.27% of them showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. A wide range of total extracts of different species were shown to have potentially noticeable antifungal effects. The outstanding species were: Mentha longifolia, Saliva multicaulis, Thymus transcaspicus, Zataria multiflora, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hulthemia persica, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum, Pragnos ferulacea, Pragnos uloptera, and Viola odorata.

  10. Command and Control Related Computer Technology. Part I. Packet Radio. Part II. Speech Compression and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Radio group has now assimilated the history and context of the project and has become an active and important member of the group. Resolution of...vii ^ i N - i .-.■ Si • ■ - %■ ’■:■ .". <- * ■ ’ . ■ ■ - v. .■’. parts, one for consonants and one for vowels . It is a nonsense...position, and the response set for each item is a minimal pair of English monosyllables. The Phoneme-Specific Intelligibi1ity test covers vowels

  11. Manganese Loading and Photosystem II Stability are Key Components of Manganese Efficiency in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency constitutes a major plant nutritional problem in commercial crop production of winter cereals. In plants, Mn has an indispensable role in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Hence, the consequences of Mn deficiency are reduced plant growth......, and eventually substantial yield losses. It is well known, that genotypes within plant species differ considerably in tolerance to growth under Mn limiting conditions, a phenomenon designated as Mn efficiency. However, the physiological responses reflecting the underlying mechanisms of Mn efficiency are still...... is related to Mn efficiency in plants....

  12. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  13. Identification of hazards in non-nuclear power plants. Volume II. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, R.W.

    1979-08-01

    This study extends the Phase I study to also include a hazards evaluation for two new emerging coal power plant technologies: coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed and pressurized fluidized bed power generating systems. The study also considers the sensitivity of the hazards ranking for all the non-nuclear power plants to the effects of population density, mode of plant operation, technical changes, location and environmental (temperature) effects. Information is provided under the following section headings: background; environmental and public health concerns associated with fluidized-bed combustion power plants; description of a conceptual atmospheric fluidized-bed power plant; pressurized fluidized-bed combustion combined cycle (PFBCC) power plant; hazard ranking and risk assessment for non-nuclear power plants; and, hazards sensitivity analysis.

  14. Starting a hospital-based home health agency: Part II--Key success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P

    1993-09-01

    In Part II of a three-part series, the financial, technological and legislative issues of a hospital-based home health-agency are discussed. Beginning a home healthcare service requires intensive research to answer key environmental and operational questions--need, competition, financial projections, initial start-up costs and the impact of delayed depreciation. Assessments involving technology, staffing, legislative and regulatory issues can help project service volume, productivity and cost-control.

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  16. STATE-OF-THE-ART HUMAN GENE THERAPY: PART II. GENE THERAPY STRATEGIES AND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In Part I of this Review, we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene...

  17. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  18. Title II, Part A: Don't Scrap It, Don't Dilute It, Fix It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggshall, Jane G.

    2015-01-01

    The Issue: Washington is taking a close look at Title II, Part A (Title IIA) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as Congress debates reauthorization. The program sends roughly $2.5 billion a year to all states and nearly all districts to "(1) increase student academic achievement through strategies such as improving teacher…

  19. Managing the care of health and the cure of disease--Part II: Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glouberman, S; Mintzberg, H

    2001-01-01

    The development of appropriate levels of integration in the system of health care and disease cure will require stronger collective cultures and enhanced communication among the key actors. Part II of this paper uses this line of argument to reframe four major issues in this system: coordination of acute cure and of community care, and collaboration in institutions and in the system at large.

  20. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  1. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following duty cycles apply for variable-speed engines with maximum engine power below 19 kW: (1) The... variable-speed engines with maximum engine power at or above 19 kW: (1) The following duty cycle applies... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed...

  3. HTGR plant availability and reliability evaluations. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, G.J.; Hannaman, G.W.; Jacobsen, F.K.; Stokely, R.J.

    1976-12-01

    Information is presented in the following areas: methodology of identifying components and systems important for availability studies, failure modes and effects analyses, quantitative evaluations, comparison with experience, estimated cost of plant unavailability, and probabilistic use of interest formulas for rare events. (DG)

  4. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr.; Rad, P.F.

    1977-12-14

    The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity.

  5. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II allows controlled mobilisation of retrotransposons for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Michael; Lanciano, Sophie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Daccord, Nicolas; Mirouze, Marie; Bucher, Etienne

    2017-07-07

    Retrotransposons play a central role in plant evolution and could be a powerful endogenous source of genetic and epigenetic variability for crop breeding. To ensure genome integrity several silencing mechanisms have evolved to repress retrotransposon mobility. Even though retrotransposons fully depend on transcriptional activity of the host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) for their mobility, it was so far unclear whether Pol II is directly involved in repressing their activity. Here we show that plants defective in Pol II activity lose DNA methylation at repeat sequences and produce more extrachromosomal retrotransposon DNA upon stress in Arabidopsis and rice. We demonstrate that combined inhibition of both DNA methylation and Pol II activity leads to a strong stress-dependent mobilization of the heat responsive ONSEN retrotransposon in Arabidopsis seedlings. The progenies of these treated plants contain up to 75 new ONSEN insertions in their genome which are stably inherited over three generations of selfing. Repeated application of heat stress in progeny plants containing increased numbers of ONSEN copies does not result in increased activation of this transposon compared to control lines. Progenies with additional ONSEN copies show a broad panel of environment-dependent phenotypic diversity. We demonstrate that Pol II acts at the root of transposon silencing. This is important because it suggests that Pol II can regulate the speed of plant evolution by fine-tuning the amplitude of transposon mobility. Our findings show that it is now possible to study induced transposon bursts in plants and unlock their use to induce epigenetic and genetic diversity for crop breeding.

  6. Cicatrização: conceitos atuais e recursos auxiliares - Parte II

    OpenAIRE

    Mandelbaum Samuel Henrique; Di Santis Érico Pampado; Mandelbaum Maria Helena Sant'Ana

    2003-01-01

    Na Parte I deste artigo, publicada na edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, foram revisados os conceitos de cicatrização e foi ressaltada a importância da atuação multidisciplinar na abordagem das feridas, compreendendo-se o paciente como um todo. Nesta Parte II são apresentados os recursos que podem auxiliar o processo de cicatrização, bem como os diversos tipos de curativos disponíveis e a sua respectiva indicação.In Part I of this article, published in the previous edition...

  7. Improved Management of Part Safety Classification System for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Young; Park, Youn Won; Park, Heung Gyu; Park, Hyo Chan [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As, in recent years, many quality assurance (QA) related incidents, such as falsely-certified parts and forged documentation, etc., were reported in association with the supply of structures, systems, components and parts to nuclear power plants, a need for a better management of safety classification system was addressed so that it would be based more on the level of parts . Presently, the Korean nuclear power plants do not develop and apply relevant procedures for safety classifications, but rather the safety classes of parts are determined solely based on the experience of equipment designers. So proposed in this paper is a better management plan for safety equipment classification system with an aim to strengthen the quality management for parts. The plan was developed through the analysis of newly introduced technical criteria to be applied to parts of nuclear power plant.

  8. Plant growth with new fluorescent lamps : II. Growth and reproduction of mature bean plants and dwarf marigold plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A S; Dunn, S

    1966-06-01

    Bean and marigold plants were grown to maturity under several kinds of fluorescent lamps to evaluate the effects of spectral differences on development and reproduction. Six kinds of lamps were tested including five lamps that were used in closely related experiments on tomato seedling growth (THOMAS and DUNN, 1967). Evaluation was by fresh- and dry-weight yields of immature and mature pods, and of vegetative tops of plants for bean; and by flowering and fresh-and dry-weight yields for marigold.Bean plants grown under two experimental lamps, Com I and IR III produced significantly higher fresh- and dry-weight yields of both mature and total pods than under Warm-white lamps. This effect could be attributed largely to the considerable energy emitted by the experimental lamps in the red and far-red, as compared to a larger emission in the green and blue for the Warm-white lamps. The differences in the yields for immature pods and vegetative portions of the mature tops were not significant.In a comparison of the effects of three experimental lamps with those of three commercial lamps on growth response of bean plants, the yields were in general higher for the experimental lamps, except for immature pods. The yields of vegetative tops were significantly greater for the 78/22 lamp over the yields for all other lamps. The larger proportion of red and far-red light emitted by the experimental lamps is again the probable cause of the higher yields with these lamps.Two sets of experiments on growth and flowering of marigold under various experimental and commercial lamps were largely inconclusive although there was some indication of beneficial effects by the experimental lamps.In general, the results with bean agree with those for tomato (THOMAS and DUNN, 1967), in that best growth was obtained with a lamp high in red light emission, a moderate amount in the far-red, and very little in the blue part of the spectrum.

  9. Acquisition and statistical analysis of reliability data for I and C parts in plant protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. J.; Byun, S. S.; Han, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Lim, J. S.; Oh, S. J.; Park, K. Y.; Song, H. S. [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This project has been performed in order to construct I and C part reliability databases for detailed analysis of plant protection system and to develop a methodology for analysing trip set point drifts. Reliability database for the I and C parts of plant protection system is required to perform the detailed analysis. First, we have developed an electronic part reliability prediction code based on MIL-HDBK-217F. Then we have collected generic reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system. Statistical analysis procedure has been developed to process the data. Then the generic reliability database has been constructed. We have also collected plant specific reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3,4 units. Plant specific reliability database for I and C parts has been developed by the Bayesian procedure. We have also developed an statistical analysis procedure for set point drift, and performed analysis of drift effects for trip set point. The basis for the detailed analysis can be provided from the reliability database for the PPS I and C parts. The safety of the KSNP and succeeding NPPs can be proved by reducing the uncertainty of PSA. Economic and efficient operation of NPP can be possible by optimizing the test period to reduce utility's burden. 14 refs., 215 figs., 137 tabs. (Author)

  10. Anti-Hypertensive Herbs and their Mechanisms of Action: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtar eAnwar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has a history extending back to thousands of years, and during the intervening time, man has identified the healing properties of a very broad range of plants. Globally, the use of herbal therapies to treat and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD is on the rise. This is the second part of our comprehensive review where we discuss the mechanisms of plants and herbs used for the treatment and management of high blood pressure. Similar to the first part, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were utilized, and the following keywords and phrases were used as inclusion criteria: hypertension, high blood pressure, herbal medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, endothelial cells, nitric oxide, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation, hydrogen sulfide, nuclear factor kappa-B, oxidative stress and epigenetics/epigenomics. Each of the aforementioned keywords was co-joined with plant or herb in question, and where possible with its constituent molecule(s. This part deals in particular with plants that are used, albeit less frequently, for the treatment and management of hypertension. We then discuss the interplay between herbs/prescription drugs and herbs/epigenetics in the context of this disease. The review then concludes with a recommendation for more rigorous, well-developed clinical trials to concretely determine the beneficial impact of herbs and plants on hypertension and a disease-free living.

  11. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  12. Plants and parts of plants used in food supplements: an approach to their safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Carratù

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy most herbal products are sold as food supplements and are subject only to food law. A list of about 1200 plants authorised for use in food supplements has been compiled by the Italian ministry of Health. In order to review and possibly improve the ministry's list an ad hoc working group of Istituto Superiore di Sanità was requested to provide a technical and scientific opinion on plant safety. The listed plants were evaluated on the basis of their use in food, therapeutic activity, human toxicity and in no-alimentary fields. Toxicity was also assessed and plant limitations to use in food supplements were defined.

  13. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  14. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  15. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vučković; Ljubodrag Vujisić; Marina Todosijević; Danijela Stešević; Slobodan Milosavljević; Sne žana Trifunović

    2014-01-01

    The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds fou...

  16. Analysis of antioxidant prenylflavonoids in different parts of Macaranga tanarius, the plant origin of Okinawan propolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigenori Kumazawa; Masayo Murase; Noboru Momose; Syuichi Fukumoto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the antioxidant prenylflavonoids in different parts of Macaranga tanarius (M. tanarius) (Euphorbiaceae) including the leaf, petiole, stem, leaflet, flower and fruit (only in female plant), and to evaluate their antioxidant properties. Methods: Methanol extracts of each part of M. tanarius were prepared and five prenylflavonoids in them were quantitatively analyzed using HPLC. The fruits from female plant were further separated into seed, pericarp, and glandular trichome. After the quantitative analyses of prenylflavonoids in each part of M. tanarius, antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Results: The leaf of M. tanarius contained two prenylflavonoids as main components in both male and female plants. Both flowers (male and female) contained five kinds of prenylflavonoids. In the petiole, stem and leaflet of both male and female plants, the prenylflavonoids were not detected or their amounts were very low. Five kinds of prenylflavonoids were detected in the seed, pericarp and glandular trichome of female M. tanarius. In particular, the glandular trichome had the highest level of total prenylflavonoids (235 mg/g of fresh plant). DPPH radical scavenging activity of all parts was more than 30%. Conclusions: We found that different parts of M. tanarius contained antioxidant prenylflavonoids. In particular, not only the glandular trichome but also the leaf contained prenylflavonoids, which indicated that M. tanarius may be developed as a functional plant, because the leaves of this plant can be easily collected.

  17. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, J [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  18. Bloqueio do nervo supraescapular: procedimento importante na prática clínica. Parte II Suprascapular nerve block: important procedure in clinical practice. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um método de tratamento reprodutível, confiável e extremamente efetivo no controle da dor no ombro. Esse método tem sido amplamente utilizado por profissionais na prática clínica, como reumatologistas, ortopedistas, neurologistas e especialistas em dor, na terapêutica de enfermidades crônicas, como lesão irreparável do manguito rotador, artrite reumatoide, sequelas de AVC e capsulite adesiva, o que justifica a presente revisão (Parte II. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as técnicas do procedimento e suas complicações descritas na literatura, já que a primeira parte reportou as indicações clínicas, drogas e volumes utilizados em aplicação única ou múltipla. Apresentamse, detalhadamente, os acessos para a realização do procedimento tanto direto como indireto, anterior e posterior, lateral e medial, e superior e inferior. Diversas são as opções para se realizar o bloqueio do nervo supraescapular. Apesar de raras, as complicações podem ocorrer. Quando bem indicado, este método deve ser considerado.The suprascapular nerve block is a reproducible, reliable, and extremely effective treatment method in shoulder pain control. This method has been widely used by professionals in clinical practice such as rheumatologists, orthopedists, neurologists, and pain specialists in the treatment of chronic diseases such as irreparable rotator cuff injury, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke sequelae, and adhesive capsulitis, which justifies the present review (Part II. The objective of this study was to describe the techniques and complications of the procedure described in the literature, as the first part reported the clinical indications, drugs, and volumes used in single or multiple procedures. We present in details the accesses used in the procedure: direct and indirect, anterior and posterior, lateral and medial, upper and lower. There are several options to perform suprascapular nerve block

  19. Partial covering of a circle by equal circles. Part II: The case of 5 circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gáspár

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How must n equal circles of given radius r be placed so that they cover as great a part of the area of the unit circle as possible? In this Part II of a two-part paper, a conjectured solution of this problem for n = 5 is given for r varying from the maximum packing radius to the minimum covering radius. Results are obtained by applying a mechanical model described in Part I. A generalized tensegrity structure is associated with a maximum area configuration of the 5 circles, and by using catastrophe theory, it is pointed out that the ''equilibrium paths'' have bifurcations, that is, at certain values of r, the type of the tensegrity structure and so the type of the circle configuration changes.

  20. Error Performance of Multidimensional Lattice Constellations-Part II: Evaluation over Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pappi, Koralia N; Chronis, Theodore N; Karagiannidis, George K

    2012-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part series of papers, where the error performance of multidimensional lattice constellations with signal space diversity (SSD) is investigated. In Part I, following a novel combinatorial geometrical approach which is based on parallelotope geometry, we have presented an exact analytical expression and two closed-form bounds for the symbol error probability (SEP) in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). In the present Part II, we extend the analysis and present a novel analytical expression for the Frame Error Probability (FEP) of multidimensional lattice constellations over Nakagami-m fading channels. As the FEP of infinite lattices is lower bounded by the Sphere Lower Bound (SLB), we propose the Sphere Upper Bound (SUB) for block fading channels. Furthermore, two novel bounds for the FEP of multidimensional lattice constellations over block fading channels, named Multiple Sphere Lower Bound (MSLB) and Multiple Sphere Upper Bound (MSUB), are presented. The expressions for the...

  1. Pseudoelasticity and thermoelasticity of nickel-titanium alloys: a clinically oriented review. Part II: Deactivation forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Nicolay, O F; Cangialosi, T J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to organize a systematic reference to help orthodontists evaluate commonly used orthodontic nickel-titanium alloys. Part I of the article reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the temperature transitional ranges of the alloys. The thermomechanical behavior of these compounds is, in fact, strictly dependent upon the correlation between the temperature transitional range and the oral temperature range. Part II focuses on the mechanical characteristics of the alloys, such as the magnitude of the forces delivered and correlations with the temperature transitional range and oral temperature.

  2. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation and Topological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive numerical model has been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details of the model and results from the analysis of General Motors' prototype TEG were described in part I of the study. In part II of this study, parametric evaluations are considered to assess the influence of heat exchanger, geometry, and thermoelectric module configurations to achieve optimization of the baseline model. The computational tool is also adapted to model other topologies such as transverse and circular configurations (hexagonal and cylindrical) maintaining the same volume as the baseline TEG. Performance analysis of these different topologies and parameters is presented and compared with the baseline design.

  3. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  4. Can focusing on UPDRS Part II make assessments of Parkinson disease progression more efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Harrison et al. have attempted to validate Part II of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II) as a medication-independent measure of disease progression. The authors collected cross-sectional data from a cohort of 888 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, and they found a robust association between UPDRS II scores and disease duration. Other variables considered were the patients' levodopa status, age at disease onset, and scores on UPDRS I, II and III. The results suggest that a single UPDRS II measurement might be a good indicator of progression at a given time point, irrespective of the current disease-related circumstances. This concept is attractive in its simplicity and patient-centeredness. However, this evidence came from a single-center, retrospective study, the statistical model was constructed using a nonvalidated surrogate as an independent variable, and no external replication was conducted. Until further confirmation, therefore, Harrison et al.'s proposal can only be considered to be a working hypothesis.

  5. FITOHORMONII – MODULATORI AI ACTIVITĂŢII ENZIMELOR ANTIOXIDANTE LA PLANTE ÎN CONDIŢII DE SECETĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia ŞTEFÎRŢĂ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available În experienţe realizate în diferite condiţii de umiditate s-a demonstrat că deshidratarea plantelor de Ph.vulgaris L., cauzată de secetă, este asociată cu intensificarea formării speciilor reactive de oxigen (SRO şi a destrucţiei oxidative a structurilor celulare. Utilizarea exogenă a fitohormonilor (AIA, CK, GA3 minimizează producerea SRO şi reduce oxi­darea peroxidică a lipidelor din membranele celulare. Optimizarea capacităţii de protecţie de la stresul oxidativ sub in­fluenţa fitohormonilor este o consecinţă a ameliorării statusului apei şi a intensificării activităţii enzimelor antioxidante. THE PHYTOHORMONES – MODULATORS OF PLANTS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY IN DROUGHT CONDITIONSIn experiments conducted under different conditions of moisture has been demonstrated, that dehydration plant Ph. vulgaris L. caused by drought, is associated with intensification of reactive oxygen species formation (ROS and oxidative cell destruction. The use of exogenous phytohormones (IAA, CK, GA3 minimizes the production of ROS and of peroxide oxidation lipids. The optimization of antioxidant protection by the exogenous phytohormones is a consequence of improving the water status and enhancing of the antioxidant enzymes activity. 

  6. A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error. Part II: Working Memory Load and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error, Part II: Working Memory Load and Capacity Franklin P. Tamborello, II...00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error, Part II: Working Memory Load and...07370024.2011.601692 Tamborello, F. P., & Trafton, J. G. (2013). A long-term competitive process model of a common procedural error. In Proceedings of the 35th

  7. Validity of NBME Parts I and II for the Selection of Residents: The Case of Orthopaedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Susan M.

    The predictive validity of scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I and Part II examinations for the selection of residents in orthopaedic surgery was investigated. Use of NBME scores has been criticized because of the time lag between taking Part I and entering residency and because Part I content is not directly linked to…

  8. Plants used to manage type II diabetes mellitus in selected districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In this ethnobotanical survey, names, of plants used to manage diabetes mellitus type II ... tive medicine plays a significant role in Uganda, since it ..... Leaves may be reduced in size, the jelly drained and left to dry under sun's heat.

  9. Photosystem II Supercomplexes Of Higher Plants : Isolation And Determination Of The Structural And Functional Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Broess, Koen L.; Kereiche, Sami; Trinkunas, Gediminas; Boekema, Egbert J.; Amerongen, Herbert van; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II is a supercomplex composed of 27-28 different subunits and it represents the most important machinery of the plants photosynthetic appara- tus, having the ability to split water into oxygen, protons and electrons. In the last few years the structures of most of the photosynthetic

  10. The PsbW protein stabilizes the supramolecular organization of photosystem II in higher plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Cerdan, Jose G.; Kovacs, Laszlo; Toth, Tuende; Kereiche, Sami; Aseeva, Elena; Boekema, Egbert J.; Mamedov, Fikret; Funk, Christiane; Schroder, Wolfgang P.; Tóth, Tünde; Kereïche, Sami; Schröder, Wolfgang P.

    2011-01-01

    P>PsbW, a 6.1-kDa low-molecular-weight protein, is exclusive to photosynthetic eukaryotes, and associates with the photosystem II (PSII) protein complex. In vivo and in vitro comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type plants with T-DNA insertion knock-out mutants completely lacking the PsbW protei

  11. Pretreatment of plant and soil samples: a problem in boron analysis. Part I. Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikner, B.

    1986-01-01

    Possible sources of errors in the determination of boron in plant samples were examined. During drying and grinding neither loss nor contamination of boron was observed. It was found that boron was slightly lost when muffling at temperatures higher than 550/sup 0/C. The addition of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ prevented the loss but gave rise to incomplete ashing in many cases. Nitrate salts added in order to enhance oxidation gave rise to boron loss. Wet ashing should be done preferably in a concentrated sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid medium at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the shape of the digestion flask is important - long neck flasks are usually safe enough due to their condensating effects. Very high temperatures with foaming demand additional cooling condensors. Borosilicate glass can not be used. Extraction of plant samples with hydrochloric acid is a convenient alternative but no more than 75-94% of the total boron concentration in plants could be extracted.

  12. Exergetic performance analysis of a Dora II geothermal power plant in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganjehsarabi, Hadi; Gungor, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the energy sector there is an urgent need to produce energy from renewable energy sources due to the rising demand, the depletion of fossil fuels and their effects on the environment. Geothermal power is a well-established energy resource and the aim of this research was to examine the energetic performance of a geothermal power plant. The studied power plant, Dora II, has a 9.5 MW power output and is situated in Aydin, Turkey. An evaluation of the plant's performance was carried out using an exergy analysis method on each of the plant's components. Results showed that the highest exergy destruction occurs in brine re-injection while the preheater had the best exergy efficiency; the plant had an overall exergetic efficiency of 29.6%. This study highlighted the components where significant exergy destructions take place so actions could be taken to improve the overall efficiency.

  13. Transgenic tobacco plants harboring tomato proteinase inhibitor II gene and their insect resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The plant expression vectors pBCT2 and pBT2 were constructed with the cDNA sequence (tin2) and genomic DNA sequence (tin2i) of tomato proteinase inhibitor II gene respectively. Then the two expression vectors were transferred into tobacco via the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404, and transgenic tobacco plants were generated. Molecular analysis and trypsin activity assay showed that both cDNA and genomic DNA were expressed properly in the transgenic plants. Insecticidal activities in these transgenic plants indicated that transgenic tobacco plants carrying tin2i sequence were more resistant to 2-instar larvae of Heliothis armigera Hubner than those carrying tin2 sequence. Therefore the intron of tin2i sequence might be a contributor to insecticidal activity of the transgenic tobacco.

  14. Research Papers Sponsored by the Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs. Volume II: Philanthropic Fields of Interest, Part II-Additional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    Twelve papers discuss future changes and trends in philanthropic giving and activities. The report is Volume II, Part II of a five volume series examining the relationship between nonprofit institutions and their donors. The opening paper reviews the needs for better definition of the government's role in contracting and grant making, and for…

  15. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  16. A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields. Part II: Advanced control approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, E.F.; Rubio, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion, Area de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Carretera Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Canada, Almeria (Spain); Valenzuela, L. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, Carretera Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents a survey of the different advanced automatic control techniques that have been applied to control the outlet temperature of solar plants with distributed collectors during the last 25 years. A classification of the modeling and control approaches described in the first part of this survey is used to explain the main features of each strategy. The treated strategies range from classical advanced control strategies to those with few industrial applications. (author)

  17. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors: modulating plant physiology and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, David; Lorito, Matteo

    2011-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) are a large and complex group of plant proteins. Members of the potato type I (Pin1) and II (Pin2) proteinase inhibitor families are among the first and most extensively characterized plant PIs. Many insects and phytopathogenic microorganisms use intracellular and extracellular serine proteases playing important roles in pathogenesis. Plants, however, are able to fight these pathogens through the activation of an intricate defence system that leads to the accumulation of various PIs, including Pin1 and Pin2. Several transgenic plants over-expressing members of the Pin1 and Pin2 families have been obtained in the last twenty years and their enhanced defensive capabilities demonstrated against insects, fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, Pin1 and Pin2 genetically engineered plants showed altered regulation of different plant physiological processes (e.g., dehydratation response, programmed cell death, plant growth, trichome density and branching), supporting an endogenous role in various plant species in addition to the well established defensive one. This review summarizes the current knowledge about Pin1 and Pin2 structure, the role of these proteins in plant defence and physiology, and their potential exploitation in biotechnology.

  19. A hybrid phenomenological model for ferroelectroelastic ceramics. Part II: Morphotropic PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, S.; Neumeister, P.; Balke, H.

    2016-10-01

    In this part II of a two part series, the rate-independent hybrid phenomenological constitutive model introduced in part I is modified to account for the material behavior of morphotropic lead zirconate titanate ceramics (PZT ceramics). The modifications are based on a discussion of the available literature results regarding the micro-structure of these materials. In particular, a monoclinic phase and a highly simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of micro-domains and nano-domains observed experimentally are incorporated into the model. It is shown that experimental data for the commercially available morphotropic PZT material PIC151 (PI Ceramic GmbH, Lederhose, Germany) can be reproduced and predicted based on the modified hybrid model.

  20. A Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Part II: Continuum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Part I of this paper introduced a Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems. This variational formulation extends Hamilton's principle to allow the inclusion of irreversible processes in the dynamics. The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear nonholonomic constraint given by the expression of entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. In Part II, we develop this formulation for the case of continuum systems by extending the setting of Part I to infinite dimensional nonholonomic Lagrangian systems. The variational formulation is naturally expressed in the material representation, while its spatial version is obtained via a nonholonomic Lagrangian reduction by symmetry. The theory is illustrated with the examples of a viscous heat conducting fluid and its multicomponent extension including chemical reactions and mass transfer.

  1. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  2. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  3. Activated aluminum oxide selectively retaining long chain n-alkanes: Part II. Integration into an on-line high performance liquid chromatography-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection method to remove plant paraffins for the determination of mineral paraffins in foods and environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiselier, Katell [Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich, P.O. Box, CH-8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Fiorini, Dennis [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Camerino, V.S. Agostino 1, I-62032, Camerino (Italy); Grob, Koni [Official Food Control Authority of the Canton of Zurich, P.O. Box, CH-8032 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: koni@grob.org

    2009-02-16

    Aluminum oxide activated by heating to 300-400 deg. C retains n-alkanes with more than about 20 carbon atoms, whereas iso-alkanes largely pass non-retained (with characteristics described in more detail in Part I). This property is useful for the analysis of mineral oil contamination of foods and other matrices: it enables the removal of plant n-alkanes, typically ranging from C{sub 23} to C{sub 33}, when they disturb the analysis of mineral paraffins (usually almost exclusively consisting of iso-alkanes). An on-line HPLC-LC-GC-FID method is proposed in which a first silica gel HPLC column isolates the paraffins from the bulk of edible oils or extracts and is backflushed with dichloromethane. In a second separation step, a 10 cm x 2 mm i.d. column packed with activated aluminum oxide separates the long chain n-alkanes from the fraction of the iso-alkanes which is transferred to GC-FID by the on-column interface and the retention gap technique. The retained n-alkanes are removed by flushing with iso-octane.

  4. PREFACE: Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kes, Peter; Jochemsen, Reyer

    2009-03-01

    This Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series forms Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. Part II contains the papers of short oral and poster presentations. In addition, it provides general information about the LT25 conference, such as a Report from the Organizers, an Activity Report to the IUPAP of the C5 Chairs, an overview of Committees, Sponsors and Exhibitors, and some Conference Statistics. Part I of the Proceedings of LT25 is a special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. It contains the majority of the special invited lectures, such as the London Prize Lectures, the IUPAP Young Scientist Award Lectures, the Plenary and Half Plenary and Public Lectures, and the Historical Lectures presented at the conference excursion to Leiden. The JPCM LT25 special issue is available for free for a period of one year from publication (Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter). To ensure the high publication standard mandated by Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and Journal of Physics: Conference Series, every paper was reviewed by at least one referee before it was accepted for publication. The Editors are indebted to many colleagues for invaluable assistance in the preparation and with the reviewing of the 900 papers appearing in Parts I and II of these Proceedings. In particular, we like to thank Carlo Beenakker, Jeroen van den Brink, Hans Brom, Jos de Jongh, Horst Rogalla, and Fons de Waele. Guest Editors Peter Kes and Reijer Jochemsen Leiden University, The Netherlands Conference logo

  5. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T. [School of Engineering of Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  6. TLC of alkaloids on cyanopropyl bonded stationary phases. Part II. Connection with RP18 and silica plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Plech, Tomasz; Tuzimski, Tomasz; Hajnos, Michał Ł; Jóźwiak, Grzegorz; Gadzikowska, Maria; Rompała, Anna

    2008-04-01

    Some standards of the alkaloids and synthetic or natural mixtures are separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on different adsorbent layers. Normal- and reversed-phase systems are used to obtain significant differences in the separation selectivity. Optimization of the one-dimensional TLC separation of the alkaloids' standards is performed on cyanopropyl-silica, RP18W, and silica layers in various eluents containing (besides diluent and modifier) silanol blockers, such as diethyl amine or ammonia. The most selective systems are used for the separation of the alkaloids' mixtures by two-dimensional TLC with an adsorbent gradient method. The mixtures of alkaloids or plant extracts (Chelidonium majus, Fumaria officinalis, or Glaucium flavum) are chromatographed in system I; the plates are connected with the plate pre-coated with various adsorbent, and partly separated fractions are transferred to the second layer and developed in system II. CN-silica-RP18W and CN-silica-silica are used as the connected layers. The alkaloids are identified by R(F) values of standards, and the components of plant extracts are identified in both systems, and by the comparison of UV spectra obtained in diode array detector densitometry.

  7. Solid state chemistry of nitrogen oxides--part II: surface consumption of NO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, S; Fedoseev, G; Minissale, M; Congiu, E; Dulieu, F; Linnartz, H

    2014-05-14

    Nitrogen oxides are considered to be important astrochemical precursors of complex species and prebiotics. However, apart from the hydrogenation of solid NO that leads to the surface formation of hydroxylamine, little is known about the full solid state reaction network involving both nitrogen and oxygen. Our study is divided into two papers, hereby called Part I and Part II. In the accompanying paper, we investigate the surface reactions NO + O/O2/O3 and NO + N with a focus on the formation of NO2 ice. Here, we complement this study by measurements of the surface destruction of solid NO2, e.g., NO2 + H/O/N. Experiments are performed in two separate ultra-high vacuum setups and therefore under different experimental conditions to better constrain the experimental results. Surface reaction products are monitored by means of Fourier Transform Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) techniques using mass spectrometry. The surface destruction of solid NO2 leads to the formation of a series of nitrogen oxides such as NO, N2O, N2O3, and N2O4 as well as HNO, NH2OH, and H2O. When NO2 is mixed with an interstellar more relevant apolar (i.e., CO) ice, solid CO2 and HCOOH are also formed due to interactions between different reaction routes. The astrophysical implications of the full nitrogen and oxygen reaction network derived from Parts I and II are discussed.

  8. Optimal recombination in genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys results on complexity of the optimal recombination problem (ORP, which consists in finding the best possible offspring as a result of a recombination operator in a genetic algorithm, given two parent solutions. In Part II, we consider the computational complexity of ORPs arising in genetic algorithms for problems on permutations: the Travelling Salesman Problem, the Shortest Hamilton Path Problem and the Makespan Minimization on Single Machine and some other related problems. The analysis indicates that the corresponding ORPs are NP-hard, but solvable by faster algorithms, compared to the problems they are derived from.

  9. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part II: Impact of Geological CO2 Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Some key points still prevent the full development of geological carbon sequestration in underground formations, especially concerning the assessment of the integrity of such storage. Indeed, the consequences of gas injection on chemistry and petrophysical properties are still much discussed in the scientific community, and are still not well known at either laboratory or field scale. In this article, the results of an experimental study about the mobilization of Trace Elements (TE during CO2 injection in a reservoir are presented. The experimental conditions range from typical storage formation conditions (90 bar, supercritical CO2 to shallower conditions (60 and 30 bar, CO2 as gas phase, and consider the dissolution of the two carbonates, coupled with the sorption of an initial concentration of 10−5 M of Zn(II, and the consequent release in solution of Mn(II and Sr(II. The investigation goes beyond the sole behavior of TE in the storage conditions: it presents the specific behavior of each element with respect to the pressure and the natural carbonate considered, showing that different equilibrium concentrations are to be expected if a fluid with a given concentration of TE leaks to an upper formation. Even though sorption is evidenced, it does not balance the amount of TE released by the dissolution process. The increase in porosity is clearly evidenced as a linear function of the CO2 pressure imposed for the St-Emilion carbonate. For the Lavoux carbonate, this trend is not confirmed by the 90 bar experiment. A preferential dissolution of the bigger family of pores from the preexisting porosity is observed in one of the samples (Lavoux carbonate while the second one (St-Emilion carbonate presents a newly-formed family of pores. Both reacted samples evidence that the pore network evolves toward a tubular network type.

  10. Part I: Sound color in the music of Gyorgy Kurtag, Part II: "Leopard's Path," thirteen visions for chamber ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachimciuc, Igor

    The dissertation is in two parts, a theoretical study and a musical composition. In Part I the music of Gyorgy Kurtag is analyzed from the point of view of sound color. A brief description of what is understood by the term sound color, and various ways of achieving specific coloristic effects, are presented in the Introduction. An examination of Kurtag's approaches to the domain of sound color occupies the chapters that follow. The musical examples that are analyzed are selected from Kurtag's different compositional periods, showing a certain consistency in sound color techniques, the most important of which are already present in the String Quartet, Op. 1. The compositions selected for analysis are written for different ensembles, but regardless of the instrumentation, certain principles of the formation and organization of sound color remain the same. Rather than relying on extended instrumental techniques, Kurtag creates a large variety of sound colors using traditional means such as pitch material, register, density, rhythm, timbral combinations, dynamics, texture, spatial displacement of the instruments, and the overall musical context. Each sound color unit in Kurtag's music is a separate entity, conceived as a complete microcosm. Sound color units can either be juxtaposed as contrasting elements, forming sound color variations, or superimposed, often resulting in a Klangfarbenmelodie effect. Some of the same gestural figures (objets trouves) appear in different compositions, but with significant coloristic modifications. Thus, the principle of sound color variations is not only a strong organizational tool, but also a characteristic stylistic feature of the music of Gyorgy Kurtag. Part II, Leopard's Path (2010), for flute, clarinet, violin, cello, cimbalom, and piano, is an original composition inspired by the painting of Jesse Allen, a San Francisco based artist. The composition is conceived as a cycle of thirteen short movements. Ten of these movements are

  11. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Gifty E; Via, Brian K; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2016-08-27

    As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest

  12. Biomassas de partes aéreas em plantas da caatinga Aboveground biomass of caatinga plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grécia Cavalcanti Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas de partes aéreas de nove espécies da caatinga foram determinadas e relacionadas com as medidas das plantas, cortando-se 30 plantas de cada espécie e separando-as em caule, galhos, ramos e folhas. As espécies foram divididas em dois grupos: seis espécies com plantas grandes e três com plantas menores. Cada grupo foi separado em classes de diâmetro do caule (DAP. As alturas totais (HT dobraram (3,8 a 8,5 m da classe de menor para a de maior diâmetro (Biomass of aboveground parts of nine caatinga species were determined and related to plant measurements. Thirty plants of each species were collected and separated into stems, branches, twigs and leaves. The species were divided in two groups: six species of large plants and three species of smaller plants. Each group was divided into classes of stem diameter (DBH. Plant height (H doubled (3.8 to 8.5 m from the smallest-diameter class to the largest diameter ( 5 cm diameter, 20% of branches from 1 to 5 cm, 5% of twigs < 1 cm and 5% of leaves. DBH was the single variable that best predicted biomass of parts, in both species groups, according to a power equation (B = a DBH b. H and CPA were also significantly related to biomass for some parts and group, but with R² lower than DBH. Combining DBH and H improved estimation but not enough to justify the extra field effort in determining H. Therefore, plant part biomass can be estimated from measurements of stem diameter, in a non-destructive process.

  13. Is time running out for US energy merchant companies? Part III: The prospects for principal recovery, by region and plant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, P. [McGraw-Hill Co. (USA). Standard & Poor' s

    2003-03-01

    Parts I and II of this article detailed the signs of distress in the US energy merchant sector that lenders should look for and the analytic issues they should consider in estimating load-recovery prospects if a generator defaults. This final instalment presents three examples that illustrate how Standard and Poor's loss recovery valuation analyses for secured power loans take into account variations in regional markets and plant type. Coal-MAAC, which is an example of how favourable recoveries in default could be, is a baseload, coal-fired plant that has undergone extensive retrofit work since its former owner divested it. 3 figs.

  14. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  15. Advances in Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition Research, Part II: Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Schobeiri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-part article presents recent advances in boundary layer research into the unsteady boundary layer transition modeling and its validation. This, Part II, deals with the results of an inductive approach based on comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of unsteady wake flow and unsteady boundary layer flow. The experiments were performed on a curved plate at a zero streamwise pressure gradient under periodic unsteady wake flow, in which the frequency of the periodic unsteady flow was varied. To validate the model, systematic experimental investigations were performed on the suction and pressure surfaces of turbine blades integrated into a high-subsonic cascade test facility, which was designed for unsteady boundary layer investigations. The analysis of the experiment's results and comparison with the model's prediction confirm the validity of the model and its ability to predict accurately the unsteady boundary layer transition.

  16. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Part II: specific underlying renal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Ramin, Susan M

    2008-08-01

    The obstetric outcome in women with kidney disease has improved in recent years due to continuous progress in obstetrics and neonatology, as well as better medical management of hypertension and renal disease. However, every pregnancy in these women remains a high-risk pregnancy. When considering the interaction between renal disease and pregnancy, maternal outcomes are related to the initial level of renal dysfunction more than to the specific underlying disease. With regards to fetal outcomes, though, a distinction may exist between renal dysfunction resulting from primary renal disease and that in which renal involvement is part of a systemic disease. In part II of this review, some specific causes of renal failure affecting pregnancy are considered.

  17. Patient variation in veterinary medicine--part II--influence of physiological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modric, S; Martinez, M

    2011-06-01

    In veterinary medicine, the characterization of a drug's pharmacokinetic properties is generally based upon data that are derived from studies that employ small groups of young healthy animals, often of a single breed. In Part I of the series, we focused on the potential influence of disease processes, stress, pregnancy and lactation on drug pharmacokinetics. In this Part II of the series, we consider other covariates, such as gender, heritable traits, age, body composition, and circadian rhythms. The impact of these factors with respect to predicting the relationship between dose and drug exposure characteristics within an animal population is illustrated through the use of Monte Carlo simulations. Ultimately, an appreciation of these potential influences will improve the prediction of situations when dose adjustments may be appropriate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  19. Investigations about Starting Cracks in DC-Casting of 6063-Type Billets Part II: Modelling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E. K.; Schneider, W.

    Influence on starting crack tendency of varying a number of casting parameters has been studied by experiments, Part I (1), and by model calculations, Part II. Both studies point to starting block shape as a most important single factor in controlling starting cracks. By using the thermal model ALSIM-2 in analysing initial experimental results, the variable heat transfer towards the starting block was determined. This made possible a satisfactory model analysis of the starting phase and likewise the formulation of a useful cracking concept. Thus by using calculated and measured liquid pool depth curve in the starting phase of casting as a basis, an effective starting block shape was found. This new shape practically eliminates the starting crack problems in extrusion billets of the AA6063 type alloys.

  20. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  1. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  2. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part I: Chemical diversity, impacts on plant biology and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathway are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have been only recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss the diversity and biosynthetic origins of phenylpropanoids and particularly of the flavonoid and stilbenoid natural products. We then review data pertaining to the modes of action and biological properties of these compounds, referring on their effects on human health and physiology and their roles as plant defense and antimicrobial compounds. This review continues in Part II discussing the use of biotechnological tools targeting the rational reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in order to modify the production of such compounds in plants and model microbial systems for the benefit of agriculture and forestry.

  3. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 5. Fish and Wildlife. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    the water is chocked with living and dead vegetation. A surface layer of living algae , and rooted and floating plants cover a dense mass of dead and...8217-." -Caya Slough - Dead Slough -. : -Harpers Slough -Upper Mud Hen Cut -Little Louie Slough -Minnesota Slough * -Nelson Cut -DeSota Bay - Greymore Lake...bulrush (Scirpus * spp. . (Also see Table II.) Submerged Vegetation - Table II. Algae - Filamentous algae was noted near Station #3 in the 2nd lake

  4. Multi-element concentrations in plant parts and fluids of Malaysian nickel hyperaccumulator plants and some economic and ecological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Mulligan, David

    2015-04-01

    Information about multi-elemental concentrations in different plant parts of tropical Ni hyperaccumulator species has the potential to provide insight into their unusual metabolism relative to a range of essential and non-essential elements, but this information is scant in the literature. As Ni hyperaccumulation, and possibly co-accumulation of other toxic elements, has been hypothesized to provide herbivore (insect) protection, there is a need to quantify a range of these elements in plant tissues and transport fluids to at least verify the possibility of this explanation. In this study, multiple elements were analyzed in a range of different plant parts and transport fluids from Ni hyperaccumulator species collected from Sabah (Malaysia). The results show preferential accumulation of Ni in leaves over woody parts, but the highest concentrations were found in the phloem tissue (up to 7.9 % in Rinorea bengalensis) and phloem sap (up to 16.9 % in Phyllanthus balgooyi), visible by a bright green coloration in the field fresh material. The amount of Ni contained in one mature R. bengalensis tree was calculated at 4.77 kg. The high Ni concentration in the flowers of Phyllanthus securinegoides could affect insect floral visitors and pollination. High concentrations of Ni in the seeds of this species also could supply the seedling with Ni and aid in herbivory protection during the first stages of development. Foliar Ca and Ni in P. cf. securinegoides and R. bengalensis are positively correlated. Low accumulation of Ca is desirable for phytomining but concentrations of Ca are high in most Ni hyperaccumulators examined, and this could have consequences for the economic viability of Ni extraction from bio ore if these species were to be used as 'metal crops'.

  5. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  6. Constructions of Optical Queues With a Limited Number of Recirculations--Part II: Optimal Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xuan-Chao

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in all-optical packet-switched networks is the lack of optical buffers, and one feasible technology for the constructions of optical buffers is to use optical crossbar Switches and fiber Delay Lines (SDL). In this two-part paper, we consider SDL constructions of optical queues with a limited number of recirculations through the optical switches and the fiber delay lines. Such a problem arises from practical feasibility considerations. In Part I, we have proposed a class of greedy constructions for certain types of optical queues, including linear compressors, linear decompressors, and 2-to-1 FIFO multiplexers, and have shown that every optimal construction among our previous constructions of these types of optical queues under the constraint of a limited number of recirculations must be a greedy construction. In Part II, the present paper, we further show that there are at most two optimal constructions and give a simple algorithm to obtain the optimal construction(s). The main idea i...

  7. The spectrum of oculocutaneous disease: Part II. Neoplastic and drug-related causes of oculocutaneous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Antoinette; Abramson, Amanda K; Patel, Mahir; Warren, Richard B; Menter, M Alan

    2014-05-01

    There are a multitude of diseases that commonly affect both the skin and the eye. Part II of this 2-part series reviews the oculocutaneous manifestations of neoplasms, both benign and malignant, and adverse drug reactions affecting the skin and the eye. Though rare, a number of neoplasms that primarily involve the skin, such as melanoma and basal cell carcinoma, can metastasize to the eye, leading to permanent damage if not properly treated. In addition, periocular neoplasms can irritate the conjunctiva and lid, reducing a patient's ability to see clearly. Neoplastic diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and multiple myeloma, can also lead to permanent changes in the eye if not discovered and managed promptly. Furthermore, there are a multitude of drugs, including those commonly used by dermatologists, which can result in permanent damage to the eye. With proper knowledge of the ocular manifestations and treatment recommendations described in this 2-part series, dermatologists with the assistance of their ophthalmology colleagues can help avoid the complications, including permanent blindness, associated with infectious, inflammatory, genetic, neoplastic, and drug-related conditions. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  9. New GLC analysis of urushiol congeners in different plant parts of poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J C; Waller, C W; Billets, S; Elsohly, M A

    1978-04-01

    Methods are presented for the direct GLC analysis of the catechol C15 alkenyl side-chain congeners contained in the urushiol fraction of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and the C17 homologs of poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum). A number of liquid phases were investigated and demonstrated varying degrees of separation. The methods developed were applied to the analysis of the urushiol fractions obtained from different plant parts of poison ivy. The effects of extraction before and after drying demonstrated tht a larger percentage of urushiol was obtained when the fresh plant material was extracted with ethanol.

  10. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part II: A Collaborative, Appreciative Approach for Supporting Mental Health Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    A continuation of Part I, which introduced mental health recovery concepts to family therapists, Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. This approach draws primarily upon postmodern therapies, which have numerous social justice and strength-based practices that are easily…

  11. Learning Climate in Schools: Part II. Teacher Views of the Learning and Organizational Climate in Schools. Evaluation Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Carolyn

    Part I of the Learning Climate in Schools evaluation brief looked at violence and disruptive behavior in the North Carolina public schools from several perspectives, including that of teachers expressed in an annual survey. Part II examines teacher perceptions of learning and organizational climates using another set of teacher responses to the…

  12. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, A.J.W.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium fulvum, wherein said plant is not a tomato or tobacco plant. The invention also relates to methods for screening the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to at least one pathogen, wherein said path...

  13. CERN scientists take part in the Tevatron Run II performance review committee

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Tevatron Run II is under way at Fermilab, exploring the high-energy frontier with upgraded detectors that will address some of the biggest questions in particle physics.Until CERN's LHC switches on, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider is the world's only source of top quarks. It is the only place where we can search for supersymmetry, for the Higgs boson, and for signatures of additional dimensions of space-time. The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently convened a high-level international review committee to examine Fermilab experts' first-phase plans for the accelerator complex. Pictured here with a dipole magnet in CERN's LHC magnet test facility are the four CERN scientists who took part in the DOE's Tevatron review. Left to right: Francesco Ruggiero, Massimo Placidi, Flemming Pedersen, and Karlheinz Schindl. Further information: CERN Courier 43 (1)

  14. Implementing AORN recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lynne

    2014-09-01

    Construction in and around a working perioperative suite is a challenge beyond merely managing traffic patterns and maintaining the sterile field. The AORN "Recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II" provides guidance on building design; movement of patients, personnel, supplies, and equipment; environmental controls; safety and security; and control of noise and distractions. Whether the OR suite evolves through construction, reconstruction, or remodeling, a multidisciplinary team of construction experts and health care professionals should create a functional plan and communicate at every stage of the project to maintain a safe environment and achieve a well-designed outcome. Emergency preparedness, a facility-wide security plan, and minimization of noise and distractions in the OR also help enhance the safety of the perioperative environment.

  15. Perspectives and challenges of photon-upconversion nanoparticles - Part II: bioanalytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorris, Hans H; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2017-07-07

    In Part II of this review series on lanthanide-doped photon-upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), we present and critically discuss the performance and suitability of UCNPs as background-free luminescent reporters in bioimaging and bioanalytical applications. The preparation of a biocompatible nanoparticle surface is an integral step for all life - science-related applications. UCNPs have found their way into a large number of diagnostic platforms, homogeneous and heterogeneous assay formats, and sensor applications. Many bioanalytical detection schemes involve Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), which is still debated for UCNPs and needs to be much improved. The need for dedicated and standardized instruments as well as recent studies on the dissolution and potential toxicity of UCNPs are addressed. Finally we outline future trends and challenges in the field of upconversion. Graphical Abstract Both synthesis / spectroscopy as well bioanalytical applications of UCNPs are driven by the COST Action CM1403 "The European Upconversion Network".

  16. Domestic violence perpetrator programs in Europe, Part II: A systematic review of the state of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoensi, Thomas D; Koehler, Johann A; Lösel, Friedrich; Humphreys, David K

    2013-10-01

    In Part II of this article, we present the results of a systematic review of European evidence on the effectiveness of domestic violence perpetrator programs. After searching through 10,446 titles, we discovered only 12 studies that evaluated the effectiveness of a perpetrator program in some systematic manner. The studies applied treatment to a total of 1,586 domestic violence perpetrators, and the sample sizes ranged from 9 to 322. Although the evaluations showed various positive effects after treatment, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs do not allow attribution of these findings to the programs. Overall, the methodological quality of the evaluations is insufficient to derive firm conclusions and estimate an effect size. Accordingly, one cannot claim that one programmatic approach is superior to another. Evaluation of domestic violence perpetrator treatment in Europe must be improved and programs should become more tailored to the characteristics of the participants.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  18. Third-space fluid shift in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: Part II: nursing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, Karen; Redden, Maurine

    2002-08-01

    Third-space fluid shift is the mobilisation of body fluid to a non-contributory space rendering it unavailable to the circulatory system. It is a recurrent clinical phenomenon requiring swift identification to minimise deleterious effects. Nurses experience difficulties however in its early identification, diagnosis and subsequent treatment because of the lack of consensual and consistent information regarding third-spacing. This article, part II, building on the previous article, explores the clinical validly and reliability of signs and symptoms of both phases of third-space fluid shift. In addition it reinforces the use multiple patient assessment cues if nurses are to differentiate between, and accurately respond to, the various causes of both hypovolaemia and hypervolaemia. It assists nurses to increase their knowledge and uderstanding of third-space fluid shift in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

  19. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions: part II--an approach to intradermal proliferations and horizontally oriented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Shachar; Al Habeeb, Ayman; Ghazarian, Danny

    2010-05-01

    Melanocytic lesions show great morphological diversity in their architecture and the cytomorphological appearance of their composite cells. Whereas functional melanocytes show a dendritic cytomorphology and territorial isolation, lesional nevomelanocytes and melanoma cells typically show epithelioid, spindled or mixed cytomorphologies, and a range of architectural arrangements. Spindling is common to melanocytic lesions, and may either be a characteristic feature or a divergent appearance. The presence of spindle cells may mask the melanocytic nature of a lesion, and is often disconcerting, either due to its infrequent appearance in a particular lesion or its interpretation as a dedifferentiated phenotype. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions follow the full spectrum of potential biological outcomes, and difficulty may be experienced judging the nature of a lesion due to a lack of consistently reliable features to predict biological behaviour. Over time, recognition of numerous histomorphological features that may portend a more aggressive lesion have been identified; however, the translation of these features into a diagnostic entity requires a gestalt approach. Although most spindle cell melanocytic lesions may reliably be resolved through this standard approach, problem areas do exist for the surgical pathologist or dermatopathologist. With this review (part II of II), we complete our discussion of spindle cell melanocytic lesions, in order to: (1) model a systematic approach to such lesions; and (2) provide familiarity with those melanocytic lesions which either typically or occasionally display a spindled cytomorphology.

  20. Multiobjective Optimization for Fixture Locating Layout of Sheet Metal Part Using SVR and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixture plays a significant role in determining the sheet metal part (SMP spatial position and restraining its excessive deformation in many manufacturing operations. However, it is still a difficult task to design and optimize SMP fixture locating layout at present because there exist multiple conflicting objectives and excessive computational cost of finite element analysis (FEA during the optimization process. To this end, a new multiobjective optimization method for SMP fixture locating layout is proposed in this paper based on the support vector regression (SVR surrogate model and the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. By using ABAQUS™ Python script interface, a parametric FEA model is established. And the fixture locating layout is treated as design variables, while the overall deformation and maximum deformation of SMP under external forces are as the multiple objective functions. First, a limited number of training and testing samples are generated by combining Latin hypercube design (LHD with FEA. Second, two SVR prediction models corresponding to the multiple objectives are established by learning from the limited training samples and are integrated as the multiobjective optimization surrogate model. Third, NSGA-II is applied to determine the Pareto optimal solutions of SMP fixture locating layout. Finally, a multiobjective optimization for fixture locating layout of an aircraft fuselage skin case is conducted to illustrate and verify the proposed method.

  1. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde R; van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Quiroz, Diana; Towns, Alexandra M; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-12-16

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World.

  2. Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions as Part of Plant Defense and Animal Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof De Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system consists of a complex network of cells and molecules that interact with each other to initiate the host defense system. Many of these interactions involve specific carbohydrate structures and proteins that specifically recognize and bind them, in particular lectins. It is well established that lectin-carbohydrate interactions play a major role in the immune system, in that they mediate and regulate several interactions that are part of the immune response. Despite obvious differences between the immune system in animals and plants, there are also striking similarities. In both cases, lectins can play a role as pattern recognition receptors, recognizing the pathogens and initiating the stress response. Although plants do not possess an adaptive immune system, they are able to imprint a stress memory, a mechanism in which lectins can be involved. This review will focus on the role of lectins in the immune system of animals and plants.

  3. Protein-carbohydrate interactions as part of plant defense and animal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Kristof; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-05-19

    The immune system consists of a complex network of cells and molecules that interact with each other to initiate the host defense system. Many of these interactions involve specific carbohydrate structures and proteins that specifically recognize and bind them, in particular lectins. It is well established that lectin-carbohydrate interactions play a major role in the immune system, in that they mediate and regulate several interactions that are part of the immune response. Despite obvious differences between the immune system in animals and plants, there are also striking similarities. In both cases, lectins can play a role as pattern recognition receptors, recognizing the pathogens and initiating the stress response. Although plants do not possess an adaptive immune system, they are able to imprint a stress memory, a mechanism in which lectins can be involved. This review will focus on the role of lectins in the immune system of animals and plants.

  4. Minitron II system for precise control of the plant growth environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, S L; Akers, C P; Akers, S W; Mitchell, C A

    1988-01-01

    A transparent, cylindrical chamber system was developed to allow measurement of gas-exchange by small crop canopies in the undisturbed plant growth environment. The system is an elaboration of the Minitron system developed previously to compare growth of small plants in different environments within the same general growth area. The Minitron II system described herein accommodates hydroponic culture and separate control of atmospheric composition in individual chambers. Root and shoot environments are compartmented separately to accommodate atmospheres of different flow rate and/or gaseous composition. A series of 0-rings and tension-adjustable springs allow carbon dioxide in the flowing atmosphere to be analyzed without cross-contamination between chamber compartments or from external gas sources. Carbon dioxide has been maintained at set point +/- 9 g m-3 over a range of CO2 concentrations from 382 to 2725 g m-3 and with an atmosphere turnover rate of 136.7 cm3 s-1 by computer-assisted mass flow controllers. Each chamber has dimensions large enough (61 cm internal diameter, 0.151 m3 internal volume) to allow adequate replication of individual plants for statistical purposes (e.g., up to 36 equally-spaced plant holders). No significant variation in growth or photosynthetic rate of leaf lettuce occurred between chambers for a given set of environmental conditions. Gas-exchange rates in different chambers changed to a similar extent as CO2 concentration in the flowing atmosphere or chamber temperature were varied by the same amount. When coupled with appropriate control systems, Minitron II chambers can provide separate controlled environments for multiple small plants with adequate precision and at relatively low cost.

  5. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifty E. Acquah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage. Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability

  6. Trends and problems in development of the power plants electrical part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    The article discusses some problems relating to development of the electrical part of modern nuclear and thermal power plants, which are stemming from the use of new process and electrical equipment, such as gas turbine units, power converters, and intellectual microprocessor devices in relay protection and automated control systems. It is pointed out that the failure rates of electrical equipment at Russian and foreign power plants tend to increase. The ongoing power plant technical refitting and innovative development processes generate the need to significantly widen the scope of research works on the electrical part of power plants and rendering scientific support to works on putting in use innovative equipment. It is indicated that one of main factors causing the growth of electrical equipment failures is that some of components of this equipment have insufficiently compatible dynamic characteristics. This, in turn may be due to lack or obsolescence of regulatory documents specifying the requirements for design solutions and operation of electric power equipment that incorporates electronic and microprocessor control and protection devices. It is proposed to restore the system of developing new and updating existing departmental regulatory technical documents that existed in the 1970s, one of the fundamental principles of which was placing long-term responsibility on higher schools and leading design institutions for rendering scientific-technical support to innovative development of components and systems forming the electrical part of power plants. This will make it possible to achieve lower failure rates of electrical equipment and to steadily improve the competitiveness of the Russian electric power industry and energy efficiency of generating companies.

  7. Human Reliability Analysis for Digitized Nuclear Power Plants: Case Study on the LingAo II Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main control room (MCR in advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs has changed from analog to digital control system (DCS. Operation and control have become more automated, centralized, and accurate due to the digitalization of NPPs, which has improved the efficiency and security of the system. New issues associated with human reliability inevitably arise due to the adoption of new accident procedures and digitalization of main control rooms in NPPs. The LingAo II NPP is the first digital NPP in China to apply the state-oriented procedure. In order to address issues related to human reliability analysis for DCS and DCS + state-oriented procedure, the Hunan Institute of Technology conducted a research project based on a cooperative agreement with the LingDong Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. This paper is a brief introduction to the project.

  8. Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Opatrilova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of lead (II ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 µM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 µg/mL or 15 µg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG and phytochelatin 2 (PC2 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the

  9. Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II) Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Shestivska, Violetta; Galiova, Michaela; Novotny, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef; Zehnalek, Josef; Babula, Petr; Opatrilova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the influence of lead (II) ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 μM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 μg/mL or 15 μg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II) ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and phytochelatin 2 (PC2) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the particular

  10. Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II) Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Shestivska, Violetta; Galiova, Michaela; Novotny, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef; Zehnalek, Josef; Babula, Petr; Opatrilova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the influence of lead (II) ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 μM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 μg/mL or 15 μg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II) ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and phytochelatin 2 (PC2) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the particular

  11. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. N Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant... that the applicant wishes to have the application considered under 10 CFR part 52, appendix N, and must...

  13. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  14. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M.A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N.M.F; Abdullah Aziz; Latif, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of s...

  15. Population-based public health interventions: innovations in practice, teaching, and management. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Schaffer, Marjorie A; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty

    2004-01-01

    The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing (PHN). The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/PHN practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based PHN practice and direction for improving population health.

  16. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research.

  17. CFD analysis of the ITER first wall 06 panel. Part II: Thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanino, R.; Bonifetto, R. [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Cau, F.; Portone, A. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Savoldi Richard, L., E-mail: laura.savoldi@polito.it [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the FW06 panel of the ITER shielding blanket is presented in two companion papers. In this Part II we concentrate on the thermal-hydraulics of the water coolant, driven by the nuclear volumetric and plasma surface heat loads discussed in Part I. Both the detailed steady state analysis of a single cooling channel and the coarse transient analysis of the whole panel are considered. The compatibility of the hot spots with the maximum recommended temperatures for the different materials is confirmed. The heat transfer coefficient between coolant and walls is obtained post-processing the results of the simulation and compared with the results of available correlations, which may be used for simpler analyses: in the fully developed flow regions of the cooling pipes, it turns out to be well approximated by the Sieder–Tate correlation. The operation margin with respect to the critical heat flux is also computed and turns out to be sufficiently large compared with the design limit.

  18. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenomics of Immunosuppressants in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Jeannine S; Bemer, Meagan J; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2016-05-01

    Part I of this article included a pertinent review of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), the role of postgraft immunosuppression in alloHCT, and the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of the calcineurin inhibitors and methotrexate. In this article (Part II), we review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of mycophenolic acid (MPA), sirolimus, and the antithymocyte globulins (ATG). We then discuss target concentration intervention (TCI) of these postgraft immunosuppressants in alloHCT patients, with a focus on current evidence for TCI and on how TCI may improve clinical management in these patients. Currently, TCI using trough concentrations is conducted for sirolimus in alloHCT patients. Several studies demonstrate that MPA plasma exposure is associated with clinical outcomes, with an increasing number of alloHCT patients needing TCI of MPA. Compared with MPA, there are fewer pharmacokinetic/dynamic studies of rabbit ATG and horse ATG in alloHCT patients. Future pharmacokinetic/dynamic research of postgraft immunosuppressants should include '-omics'-based tools: pharmacogenomics may be used to gain an improved understanding of the covariates influencing pharmacokinetics as well as proteomics and metabolomics as novel methods to elucidate pharmacodynamic responses.

  19. Geomagnetic Field Variations as Determined from Bulgarian Archaeomagnetic Data. Part II: The Last 8000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacheva, Mary; Jordanova, Neli; Karloukovski, Vassil

    The knowledge about past secular variations of the geomagnetic field is achieved on the basis of archaeomagnetic researches of which the Bulgarian studies form an extended data set. In Part I (Kovacheva and Toshkov, 1994), the methodology used in the Sofia palaeomagnetic laboratory was described and the secular variation curves for the last 2000 years were shown. In Part II (this paper), the basic characteristics of the prehistoric materials used in the archaeomagnetic studies are emphasised, particularly in the context of the rock magnetic studies used in connection with palaeointensity determinations. The results of magnetic anisotropy studies of the prehistoric ovens and other fired structures are summarised, including the anisotropy correction of the palaeointensity results for prehistoric materials, different from bricks and pottery. Curves of the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field during the last 8000 years in Bulgaria are given. The available directional and intensity values have been used to calculate the variation curve of the virtual dipole moment (VDM) for the last 8000 years based on different time interval averages. The path of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) positions is discussed.

  20. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part II: Thermal modeling and analysis of experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Justin S G; Solanki, Prem K; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    This study aims at developing thermal analysis tools and explaining experimental observations made by means of polarized-light cryomacroscopy (Part I). Thermal modeling is based on finite elements analysis (FEA), where two model parameters are extracted from thermal measurements: (i) the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cuvette and the cooling chamber, and (ii) the effective thermal conductivity within the cryoprotective agent (CPA) at the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range. The effective thermal conductivity takes into account enhanced heat transfer due to convection currents within the CPA, creating the so-called Bénard cells. Comparison of experimental results with simulation data indicates that the uncertainty in simulations due to the propagation of uncertainty in measured physical properties exceeds the uncertainty in experimental measurements, which validates the modeling approach. It is shown in this study that while a cavity may form in the upper-center portion of the vitrified CPA, it has very little effect on estimating the temperature distribution within the domain. This cavity is driven by thermal contraction of the CPA, with the upper-center of the domain transitioning to glass last. Finally, it is demonstrated in this study that additional stresses may develop within the glass transition temperature range due to nonlinear behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient. This effect is reported here for the first time in the context of cryobiology, using the capabilities of polarized-light cryomacroscopy.

  1. A Model of Biocomplexity in River Networks - Part II: Tenets and Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, M. D.; Thorp, J. H.; Thoms, M. C.

    2005-05-01

    We are proposing a model of lotic biocomplexity encompassing spatiotemporal scales from headwaters to large rivers and from main channels to floodplains. Part I of our presentation in the symposium discusses the general theory and predicted changes along longitudinal gradients in the river network. In Part II, we use the foundation of this theory to make predictions for the ecological behavior of the river ecosystem. These predictions are designed to stimulate research tests of these hypotheses and to obtain data allowing the continuing refinement of the overall model. Fourteen principles or model tenets are included which describe the functioning of epigean portions of lotic ecosystems on ecological time scales; they are focused more on the riverscape than the entire riverine landscape. These 14 tenets predict how patterns of individual species distributions, community regulation, lotic ecosystem processes, and floodplain interactions will vary over spatiotemporal scales, especially as they relate to the functional process zones formed by hydrogeomorphic patches. We make no claim to originality for all these tenets. Some of these ideas are well supported in the scientific literature, others may be acceptable to the scientific community but currently lack empirical support, and some may be very speculative and possibly controversial.

  2. Avicenna's Canon of Medicine and modern urology: part II: bladder calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madineh, Sayed Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    In the previous issue of the Urology Journal, a comparison of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine with modern urologic findings was done in part I of this article, addressing bladder anatomy and physiology and bladder calculi. In part II of this review, the remaining chapters of the Canon of Medicine on bladder calculi are reviewed. Avicenna points to perineal urethrostomy (perineostomy), which is today performed as the last therapeutic line or as a temporary remedy before surgical treatment. He also describes surgery via transperineal route and warns the surgeon of the proximity of vasa deferentia, prostate gland, and neurovascular bundle and their exposure in this position. Usage of grasping forceps for removal of bladder calculus and emphasis on removing all calculus fragments are the interesting points of this chapter. Avicenna explains a technique similar to the use of a Babcock forceps for prevention of calculus migration. Complications of bladder calculus surgery and cystostomy are also addressed with scientific precision in the Canon. It is noteworthy that 8 centuries before Fournier described necrotizing fasciitis in male genitalia, Avicenna had described Fournier gangrene in his book.

  3. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  4. A novel embeddable spherical smart aggregate for structural health monitoring: part II. Numerical and experimental verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingzhao; Fan, Shuli; Mo, Y. L.; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The newly developed spherical smart aggregate (SSA) based on a radially polarized spherical piezoceramic shell element has unique omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities that can greatly improve the detection aperture and provide additional functionalities in health monitoring applications in concrete structures. Detailed fabrication procedures and electrical characterization of the SSA have been previously studied (Part I). In this second paper (Part II), the functionalities of the SSA used in both active sensing and passive sensing approaches were investigated in experiments and numerical simulations. One SSA sample was embedded in a 1 ft3 concrete specimen. In the active sensing approach, the SSA was first utilized as an actuator to generate stress waves and six conventional smart aggregates (SA) mounted on the six faces of the concrete cube were utilized as sensors to detect the wave response. Conversely, the embedded SSA was then utilized as a sensor to successively detect the wave response from each SA. The experimentally obtained behavior of the SSA was then compared with the numerical simulation results. Further, a series of impact tests were conducted to verify the performance of the SSA in the detection of the impact events from different directions. Comparison with the wave response associated with different faces of the cube verified the omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities of the SSA.

  5. Elastodynamic analysis of a gear pump. Part II: Meshing phenomena and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.; Rivola, A.

    2010-10-01

    A non-linear lumped kineto-elastodynamic model for the prediction of the dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps is presented. It takes into account the most important phenomena involved in the operation of this kind of machines. Two main sources of noise and vibration can be considered: pressure and gear meshing. Fluid pressure distribution on gears, which is time-varying, is computed and included as a resultant external force and torque acting on the gears. Parametric excitations due to time-varying meshing stiffness, the tooth profile errors (obtained by a metrological analysis), the backlash effects between meshing teeth, the lubricant squeeze and the possibility of tooth contact on both lines of action were also included. Finally, the torsional stiffness and damping of the driving shaft and the non-linear behaviour of the hydrodynamic journal bearings were also taken into account. Model validation was carried out on the basis of experimental data concerning case accelerations and force reactions. The model can be used in order to analyse the pump dynamic behaviour and to identify the effects of modifications in design and operation parameters, in terms of vibration and dynamic forces. Part I is devoted to the calculation of the gear eccentricity in the steady-state condition as result of the balancing between mean pressure loads, mean meshing force and bearing reactions, while in Part II the meshing phenomena are fully explained and the main simulation results are presented.

  6. State-of-the-art human gene therapy: part II. Gene therapy strategies and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2014-09-01

    In Part I of this Review (Wang and Gao, 2014), we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future.

  7. Diagnosing DSM-IV--Part II: Eysenck (1986) and the essentialist fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J C

    1997-07-01

    In Part I (Wakefield, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 633-649) of this two-article series, I used the harmful dysfunction analysis of the concept of disorder (Wakefield, 1992a, American Psychologist, 47, 373-388) to 'diagnose' a problem with DSM-IV. I argued that DSM-IV diagnostic criteria often violate the 'dysfunction' requirement by invalidity classifying harms not caused by dysfunctions as disorders. In Part II, I examine Eysenck's (Eysenck, 1986, Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV) argument that DSM commits a 'categorical fallacy' and should be replaced by dimensional diagnoses based on Eysenckian personality traits. I argue that Eysenck's proposed diagnostic criteria violate the 'harm' requirement by invalidly classifying symptomless conditions as disorders. Eysenck commits an 'essentialist fallacy'; he misconstrues 'disorder' as an essentialist theoretical concept when in fact it is a hybrid theoretical-practical or 'cause-effect' concept. He thus ignores the harmful effects essential to disorder that are captured in DSM's symptom-based categories.

  8. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part II: Analysis by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; Castorena, Joe L; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a decedent's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In part I of this 2-part series, GSR results performed by SEM/EDX in undisputed cases of suicidal handgun wounds were studied. In part II, the same population was studied, deceased persons with undisputed suicidal handgun wounds, but GSR testing was performed using ICP-AES. A total of 102 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and the results of the GSR testing. This study found that 50% of cases where the deceased was known to have fired a handgun immediately prior to death had positive GSR results by ICP/AES, which did not differ from the results of GSR testing by SEM/EDX. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon were positive for GSR by either method, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether someone has discharged a firearm and is not useful as a determining factor of whether or not a wound is self-inflicted or non-self-inflicted. While a positive GSR result may be of use, a negative result is not helpful in the medical examiner setting as a negative result indicates that either a person fired a weapon prior to death or a person did not fire a weapon prior to death.

  9. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  10. Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-10-11

    The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

  11. Efficiency of energy funneling in the photosystem II supercomplex of higher plants

    CERN Document Server

    Kreisbeck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of energy transfer properties in photosynthetic multi-protein networks gives insight into their underlying design principles.Here, we discuss excitonic energy transfer mechanisms of the photosystem II (PS-II) C$_2$S$_2$M$_2$ supercomplex, which is the largest isolated functional unit of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants.Despite the lack of a decisive energy gradient in C$_2$S$_2$M$_2$, we show that the energy transfer is directed by relaxation to low energy states. C$_2$S$_2$M$_2$ is not organized to form pathways with strict energetic downhill transfer, which has direct consequences on the transfer efficiency, transfer pathways and transfer limiting steps. The exciton dynamics is sensitive to small structural changes, which, for instance, are induced by the reorganization of vibrational coordinates. In order to incorporate the reorganization process in our numerical simulations, we go beyond rate equations and use the hierarchically coupled equation of motion approach (HEOM). Wh...

  12. Nuclear emergency buildings of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants; Centros alternativos de emergencias de las centrales nucleares de Asco y Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuet, J.; Sabater, J.; Mirallas Esteban, S.

    2016-08-01

    The Nuclear Emergency Buildings sited at Asco and Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are designed to safety manage emergencies in extreme situations, beyond the design basis of the Nuclear Power Plants. Designed in accordance with the requirements of the Spanish Nuclear Regulator (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear-CSN) these buildings are ready to operate over a period of 72 hours without external assistance and ensure habitability for crews of 120 and 70 people respectively. This article describes the architectural conception, features and major systems of the Nuclear Emergency Buildings sited at Asco and Vandellos II. (Author)

  13. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part II: Inter-annual to decadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Nurser, A. J. George; Pirani, Anna; Romanou, Anastasia; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sun, Shan; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yashayaev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their temporal representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which

  14. North Atlantic Simulations in Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments Phase II (CORE-II) . Part II; Inter-Annual to Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Boening, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Howard, Armando M.; Kelley, Maxwell

    2015-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which include

  15. Heavy metals in urban soils of East St. Louis, IL. Part II: Leaching characteristics and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, M D; Landsberger, S

    2000-09-01

    The city of East St. Louis, IL, has a history of abundant industrial activities including smelters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, a coal-fired power plant, companies that produced organic and inorganic chemicals, and petroleum refineries. Following a gross assessment of heavy metals in the community soils (see Part I of this two-part series), leaching tests were performed on specific soils to elucidate heavy metal-associated mineral fractions and general leachability. Leaching experiments, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TLCP) and column tests, and sequential extractions, illustrated the low leachability of metals in East St. Louis soils. The column leachate results were modeled using a formulation developed for fly ash leaching. The importance of instantaneous dissolution was evident from the model. By incorporating desorption/adsorption terms into the source term, the model was adapted very well to the time-dependent heavy metal leachate concentrations. The results demonstrate the utility of a simple model to describe heavy metal leaching from contaminated soils.

  16. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part II: responses in the leaves and general conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie, E-mail: nvanhoud@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Cuypers, Ann [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Horemans, Nele [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bello, Daniel Martinez [Hasselt University, Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Havaux, Michel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA)/Cadarache, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie, Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie de la Photosynthese, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    The cellular redox balance seems an important modulator under heavy metal stress. While for other heavy metals these processes are well studied, oxidative stress related responses are also known to be triggered under uranium stress but information remains limited. This study aimed to further unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. Seventeen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown on a modified Hoagland solution under controlled conditions, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 {mu}M uranium for 1, 3 and 7 days. While in Part I of this study oxidative stress related responses in the roots were discussed, this second Part II discusses oxidative stress related responses in the leaves and general conclusions drawn from the results of the roots and the leaves will be presented. As several responses were already visible following 1 day exposure, when uranium concentrations in the leaves were negligible, a root-to-shoot signaling system was suggested in which plastids could be important sensing sites. While lipid peroxidation, based on the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds, was observed after exposure to 100 {mu}M uranium, affecting membrane structure and function, a transient concentration dependent response pattern was visible for lipoxygenase initiated lipid peroxidation. This transient character of uranium stress responses in leaves was emphasized by results of lipoxygenase (LOX2) and antioxidative enzyme transcript levels, enzyme capacities and glutathione concentrations both in time as with concentration. The ascorbate redox balance seemed an important modulator of uranium stress responses in the leaves as in addition to the previous transient responses, the total ascorbate concentration and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. This could represent either a slow transient response or a stable increase with regard to plant acclimation to uranium stress

  17. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part II. Solid route, metals deposition, other processes; Procesos de fabricacion de metales celulares. Parte II: Via solida, deposicion de metales otros procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2009-07-01

    At the first part of this paper review a description about cellular metal processes by liquid route, was made. In this second part, solid processes and metals deposition are described. In similar way, the different kind of processes in each case are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 147 refs.

  18. Sludge in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden, part II[Combustion of]; Slam fraan skogsindustrin, fas II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kjoerk, Anders; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    During part II of this research program combustible sludge from the pulp and paper industry has been studied in detail. 560,000 tonnes of sludge per year (calculated as dry sludge) are produced in Sweden. The energy potential in the produced sludge is about 2 TWh/year. Today 1 TWh/year is produced in the pulp and paper mill's own boilers. This means that additional energy can be utilized from this material. An objective of this program has been to decide whether or not there are sludge types which are favourable respectively difficult to combust. By mixing different sludge types, or other waste products, emissions and/or problems during combustion can be minimized. These possibilities have been studied thoroughly in this program. A lot of sludge samples have been studied in laboratory scale at SP and in full-scale at Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. As a complement to the practical tests S.E.P. has done research regarding different aspects of sludge as a fuel; for example handling of sludge and regional drying. The results of 40 sintering tests at SP showed that the sintering temperature during combustion of sludge in a fluidised bed, with silica sand as bed material, varied between <850 deg C and >1100 deg C. The evaluation showed that the alkali content in the ash had the largest influence on the sintering temperature. Other factors were less important. During the tests at Chalmers eleven different sludge samples have been combusted together with wood pellets. Initially there were problems with the feeding to the boiler for some of the sludge samples. When the fuel feeding problems were solved the combustion took place without any problems. When sludge is co-combusted together with a 'clean' base fuel such as wood pellets the sulphur-, nitrogen- and chloride contents in the sludge have a large impact on the emissions. The normal way to reduce sulphur dioxide but also hydrogen chloride is to add lime in different positions into and after the boiler. In

  19. EXOTIC USEFUL PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE GREENHOUSE COMPLEX OF THE BOTANICAL GARDEN FROM IASI (NOTE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIA TANASESCU VIOLETA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents fifty-eight different exotic species of medical interest cultivated within the Greenhouse Complex of the Botanical Garden from Iasi.The classification of the species has been made according to the family, the origin, the lifetime, the type of greenhouse and the harvested part of the plant.The medicinal properties of the species known only as decorative are presented too.

  20. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus: A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie C Schai-Braun

    Full Text Available European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA such as linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein, and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe.

  2. Photoprotection in higher plants: the putative quenching site is conserved in all outer light-harvesting complexes of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzo, Milena; Passarini, Francesca; Bassi, Roberto; van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2008-10-01

    In bright sunlight, the amount of energy harvested by plants exceeds the electron transport capacity of Photosystem II in the chloroplasts. The excess energy can lead to severe damage of the photosynthetic apparatus and to avoid this, part of the energy is thermally dissipated via a mechanism called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). It has been found that LHCII, the major antenna complex of Photosystem II, is involved in this mechanism and it was proposed that its quenching site is formed by the cluster of strongly interacting pigments: chlorophylls 611 and 612 and lutein 620 [A.V. Ruban, R. Berera, C. Ilioaia, I.H.M. van Stokkum, J.T.M. Kennis, A.A. Pascal, H. van Amerongen, B. Robert, P. Horton and R. van Grondelle, Identification of a mechanism of photoprotective energy dissipation in higher plants, Nature 450 (2007) 575-578.]. In the present work we have investigated the interactions between the pigments in this cluster not only for LHCII, but also for the homologous minor antenna complexes CP24, CP26 and CP29. Use was made of wild-type and mutated reconstituted complexes that were analyzed with (low-temperature) absorption and circular-dichroism spectroscopy as well as by biochemical methods. The pigments show strong interactions that lead to highly specific spectroscopic properties that appear to be identical for LHCII, CP26 and CP29. The interactions are similar but not identical for CP24. It is concluded that if the 611/612/620 domain is responsible for the quenching in LHCII, then all these antenna complexes are prepared to act as a quencher. This can explain the finding that none of the Lhcb complexes seems to be strictly required for NPQ while, in the absence of all of them, NPQ is abolished.

  3. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals in different parts of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, Chenopodiaceae, a potential hyperaccumulator plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and accumulation of 10 heavy metals was observed in plant parts of species S. tragus, a native representative of Serbian flora. According to high bioaccumulation values (BAF, more than a half of the analyzed elements were bioaccumulated in roots, as well as in the aerial part of the plant. Translocation factor (TF value was calculated, showing the ratio between the concentration of metals in roots and aerial parts of the plant. The results indicate that S. tragus may accumulate significant amounts of Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. Concentrations of some of the individual elements are shown to be statistically different depending on the sampled plant parts. Potential capacity of S. tragus for hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and possible utilization of this plant for phytoremediation is discussed.

  6. Niacin Alternatives for Dyslipidemia: Fool's Gold or Gold Mine? Part II: Novel Niacin Mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Harsh; Dunbar, Richard L

    2016-04-01

    Two cardiovascular outcome trials established niacin 3 g daily prevents hard cardiac events. However, as detailed in part I of this series, an extended-release (ER) alternative at only 2 g nightly demonstrated no comparable benefits in two outcome trials, implying the alternative is not equivalent to the established cardioprotective regimen. Since statins leave a significant treatment gap, this presents a major opportunity for developers. Importantly, the established regimen is cardioprotective, so the pathway is likely beneficial. Moreover, though effective, the established cardioprotective regimen is cumbersome, limiting clinical use. At the same time, the ER alternative has been thoroughly discredited as a viable substitute for the established cardioprotective regimen. Therefore, by exploiting the pathway and skillfully avoiding the problems with the established cardioprotective regimen and the ER alternative, developers could validate cardioprotective variations facing little meaningful competition from their predecessors. Thus, shrewd developers could effectively tap into a gold mine at the grave of the ER alternative. The GPR109A receptor was discovered a decade ago, leading to a large body of evidence commending the niacin pathway to a lower cardiovascular risk beyond statins. While mediating niacin's most prominent adverse effects, GPR109A also seems to mediate anti-lipolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects of niacin. Several developers are investing heavily in novel strategies to exploit niacin's therapeutic pathways. These include selective GPR109A receptor agonists, niacin prodrugs, and a niacin metabolite, with encouraging early phase human data. In part II of this review, we summarize the accumulated results of these early phase studies of emerging niacin mimetics.

  7. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C. B.; Dill, L. H.; Kreider, K. L.; Young, G. W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E. A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S. I.

    2005-08-01

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions.

  8. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  9. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  10. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  11. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  12. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6.

  13. On the Uniqueness of the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition of third-order tensors --- Part II: Uniqueness of the overall decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Canonical Polyadic (also known as Candecomp/Parafac) Decomposition (CPD) of a higher-order tensor is decomposition in a minimal number of rank-1 tensors. In Part I, we gave an overview of existing results concerning uniqueness and presented new, relaxed, conditions that guarantee uniqueness of one factor matrix. In Part II we use these results for establishing overall CPD uniqueness in cases where none of the factor matrices has full column rank. We obtain uniqueness conditions involving Khat...

  14. Fault Detection in Gear Drives with Non-Stationary Rotational Speed - Part II: the Time-Quefrency Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, G.; Ivanov, Yu. Ye.

    2003-03-01

    This paper deals with the recognition of faults in toothing during non-stationary start up and run down of gear drives. In the first part, this task was solved by means of the time-frequency analysis. A planetary gear was used as a case study. Part II contains a new approach using the time-quefrency analysis. The same example was successfully subjected in this procedure.

  15. Tratamento sistêmico da psoríase - Parte II: Imunomoduladores biológicos Systemic treatment of psoriasis - Part II: Biologic immunomodulator agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Arruda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Em continuidade ao capítulo da edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, nesta segunda parte da EMC-D serão discutidas as novas drogas, os imunomoduladores biológicos, que agem em determinadas fases da imunopatogênese da doença, modificando fenotipicamente sua evolução. Também serão discutidos alguns aspectos imunológicos que, atualmente, são responsáveis pelo desencadeamento da doençaAs part of its continued studies of psoriasis, this second part of the Continuing Medical Education in Dermatology segment of the Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia introduces biological immunomodulators. Also known as "biologics", these drugs act on the immunopathogenetic steps of psoriasis by changing its features and progression. This paper also reviews some of the immunologic aspects of psoriasis.

  16. Antioxidative activity of different parts of the plant Lepidium sativum Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jency Malar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium sativum Linn. has been used in traditional and folklore medicine for the treatment of bronchial asthma, diabetes, local and rheumatic pain. An ethanolic extract of cress (L. sativum L. shoot, leaf, stem and seed has been studied for antioxidative active against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total glutathione S-transferase assay, reduced glutathione activity, reducing power (Fe3+–Fe2+ Transformation Ability, and ascorbic acid is also estimated. The percentage yields of free radical scavenging activity (DPPH obtained for different ethanolic extracts of L. sativum. Supreme scavenging activity was detected in shoot (12.19 ± 02% and least in stem (2.69 ± 05%. The activity of total glutathione S-transferase enzyme was found to be more in seed (9600 ± 56.3 μg/ml than other plant parts. The reduced glutathione content of the ethanolic extracts of L. sativum was found to be more in leaf (9 ± 0.2 μg/ml. In the reducing power assay, ethanolic extracts gives the optical density in increasing concentration in all plant parts it shows that it has the reducing ability of Fe3+–Fe2+. Presence of vitamin C was tested. It was found that the shoot extract has highest amount of vitamin C. The results of present data were shown that the ethanolic extract of L. sativum L. plant parts have contributed high potential in vitro antioxidant activity.

  17. Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control (part II): teamwork strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom; Kirwan, Barry

    2010-07-01

    Team performance has been studied in many safety-critical organizations including aviation, nuclear power plant, offshore oil platforms and health organizations. This study looks into teamwork strategies that air traffic controllers employ to manage emergencies and abnormal situations. Two field studies were carried out in the form of observations of simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios of novices and experienced controllers. Teamwork strategies covered aspects of team orientation and coordination, information exchange, change management and error handling. Several performance metrics were used to rate the efficiency of teamwork and test the construct validity of a prototype model of teamwork. This is a companion study to an earlier investigation of taskwork strategies in the same field (part I) and contributes to the development of a generic model for Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Suggestions are made on how to use T(2)EAM to develop training programs, assess team performance and improve mishap investigations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. "Why not stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry--why not?" Part II: GATES in context with redox systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna Maria; Asuero, Agustin G; Toporek, Marcin; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Redox equilibria and titration play an important role in chemical analysis, and the formulation of an accurate mathematical description is a challenge. This article is devoted to static and (mainly) dynamic redox systems; the dynamic systems are represented by redox titrations. An overview addresses earlier approaches to static redox systems (redox diagram plots, including Pourbaix diagrams) and to titration redox systems, thereby covering a gap in the literature. After this short review, the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) is introduced, with generalized electron balance (GEB) as its inherent part within GATES/GEB. Computer simulation, performed according to GATES/GEB, enables following the changes in potential and pH of the solution, together with chemical speciation at each step of a titration, thus providing better insight into this procedure. The undeniable advantages of GATES/GEB over earlier approaches are indicated. Formulation of GEB according to two approaches (I and II) is presented on the respective examples. A general criterion distinguishing between non-redox and redox systems is presented. It is indicated that the formulation of GEB according to Approach II does not need the knowledge of oxidation degrees of particular elements; knowledge of the composition, expressed by chemical formula of the species and its charge, is sufficient for this purpose. Approach I to GEB, known also as the "short" version of GEB, is applicable if oxidation degrees for all elements of the system are known beforehand. The roles of oxidants and reductants are not ascribed to particular components forming a system and to the species thus formed. This is the complete opposite of earlier approaches to redox titrations, based on the stoichiometric redox reaction, formulated for this purpose. GEB, perceived as a law of matter conservation, is fully compatible with other (charge and concentration) balances related to the system in question. The applicability

  19. Persantine-Aspirin Reinfarction Study. Part II. Secondary coronary prevention with persantine and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R; Knatterud, G L; Stamler, J; Meier, P

    1986-02-01

    In the Persantine-Aspirin Reinfarction Study, Part II (PARIS II), 3,128 persons who had recovered from myocardial infarction, suffered from 4 weeks to 4 months previously, were randomized into two groups: dipyridamole (Persantine) plus aspirin (n = 1,563) and placebo (n = 1,565). The average length of follow-up was 23.4 months. Prespecified primary end points were coronary incidence (definite nonfatal myocardial infarction plus death due to recent or acute cardiac event), coronary mortality (death due to recent or acute cardiac event) and total mortality, each at 1 year of patient follow-up and at the end of the study. Coronary incidence in the Persantine plus aspirin group was significantly lower than in the placebo group, both at 1 year (30% reduction) and at the end of the study (24% reduction). The statistically significant differences in coronary incidence, at 1 year and at the end of the study, in favor of the combination treatment remained after adjustment for multiple baseline variables and adjustment for multiple testing (three end points for two time periods). Although there were reductions for other end points, these differences were not statistically significant. Coronary mortality was 20% lower in the Persantine plus aspirin group compared with the placebo group at 1 year, and 6% lower overall. Total mortality in the treated group compared with the placebo group was 11% lower at 1 year and 3% lower overall. The reduced rates of coronary incidence largely reflected lower rates of definite nonfatal myocardial infarction in the Persantine plus aspirin group. Several subgroups were defined a priori and at the end of the study. The beneficial effect of Persantine plus aspirin compared with placebo for coronary incidence tended to be greater for the following groups of patients: those who had a non-Q wave infarct; those who were not taking digitalis; those who were receiving beta-receptor blocking drugs at baseline; those who were in New York Heart

  20. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part II: Africa and the Rest of the Colonial Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this historiographical study examines British education policy in Africa, and in the many crown colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories around the globe. Up until 1920, the British government took far less interest than in India, in the development of schooling in Africa and the rest of the colonial empire, and education was…

  1. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium ful

  2. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  3. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  4. An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part II: Liquid freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Ilicak, Mehmet; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Drange, Helge; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Bailey, David A.; Bentsen, Mats; Biastoch, Arne; Bozec, Alexandra; Böning, Claus; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Curry, Beth; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Danilov, Sergey; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Iovino, Doroteaciro; Jahn, Alexandra; Jung, Thomas; Large, William G.; Lee, Craig; Lique, Camille; Lu, Jianhua; Masina, Simona; Nurser, A. J. George; Rabe, Benjamin; Roth, Christina; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spence, Paul; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Xuezhu; Yeager, Steve G.

    2016-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean simulated in 14 global ocean-sea ice models in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments, phase II (CORE-II) is analyzed in this study. The focus is on the Arctic liquid freshwater (FW) sources and freshwater content (FWC). The models agree on the interannual variability of liquid FW transport at the gateways where the ocean volume transport determines the FW transport variability. The variation of liquid FWC is induced by both the surface FW flux (associated with sea ice production) and lateral liquid FW transport, which are in phase when averaged on decadal time scales. The liquid FWC shows an increase starting from the mid-1990s, caused by the reduction of both sea ice formation and liquid FW export, with the former being more significant in most of the models. The mean state of the FW budget is less consistently simulated than the temporal variability. The model ensemble means of liquid FW transport through the Arctic gateways compare well with observations. On average, the models have too high mean FWC, weaker upward trends of FWC in the recent decade than the observation, and low consistency in the temporal variation of FWC spatial distribution, which needs to be further explored for the purpose of model development.

  5. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  6. [The history of antitobacco actions in the last 500 years. Part. II. Medical actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus, who discovered it in Cuba in October, 1492. Spread of tobacco consumption was initiated by the French diplomat Jean Nicot de Villemain, who in 1560 recommended it in the form of powdered tobacco leaves to the French Queen Catherine de Medice to combat her migraine headaches, and introduced the term Nicotiana tobaccum. Tobacco consumption greatly rose after the I World War, and after the II World War it became very common, especially among man. In the first half of the 20th century the sale of tobacco products rose by 61%, and cigarettes dominated the market of tobacco products. At the beginning of the 20th century cigarettes constituted only 2% of the total sale of tobacco products, while in the middle of the 20th century--more than 80%. Although the first epidemiological papers indicating that "smoking is connected with the shortening of life span" were published in the first half of the 20th century, not until 1950 did Hill and Doll in Great Britain, and Wynder and Graham in USA in 1951 show a statistically significant correlation between cigarettes smoking and lung cancer occurrence. Many controversies according the use of tobacco accompanied it from the beginning of its presence in Europe. The conflicting opinions according to its influence to health coexisted in the 16th to 19th centuries. In this period, especially in the 19th century dominated moral and religious arguments against tobacco. In the 20th century however, and particularly in its second part, development in medical research was enhanced by civil voluntary actions against advertisement and passive smoking. This lead to the significant limitation of tobacco expansion in Europe, USA and Canada in the end of the 20th century.

  7. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  8. Neuro-Oftalmologia: sistema sensorial -- Parte II Revisão 1997 -- 1999 Neuro-Ophthalmology: sensorial system - Part II. Review 1997 - 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta é a segunda parte de uma revisão da literatura do sistema visual sensorial. O autor seleciona artigos publicados na literatura entre os anos de 1997 e 1999 relacionados a neurorretinites, neuropatia óptica compressiva, tumores do nervo óptico, pseudotumor cerebral, neuropatias ópticas hereditárias, hipoplasia do nervo óptico, drusas do disco óptico, neuropatia óptica tóxica, neuropatia óptica traumática, outras neuropatias ópticas e doenças retinianas, doenças do quiasma óptico e do trato óptico, assim como alterações geniculares e retrogeniculares, incluindo os distúrbios visuais corticais. Os artigos são apresentados e comentados quanto às suas conclusões, alcance e relações com o conhecimento previamente estabelecido.This is the second part of a review of papers on the visual afferent system published from 1997 to 1999. In this part the author presents the most important contributions made to areas such as neuroretinitis, optic nerve tumors, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hereditary optic neuropathies, optic disc drusen, optic nerve hypoplasia, traumatic and toxic optic neuropathy as well as geniculate and retrogeniculate visual disorders. Selected papers are considered in relation to their results and previously established concepts.

  9. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  10. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  11. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant... Appendix O to Part 110—Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority Note: Nuclear fuel elements are manufactured from source or...

  12. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging-part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Niels; van der Vliet, Ton; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Feuth, Ton; Roeleveld, Nel; Mullaart, Reinier A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may improve t

  13. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging--part 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Vliet, T. van der; Rotteveel, J.J.; Feuth, T.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may

  14. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshi Mainen J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%, bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%, malaria (14 plants; 28.6%, gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%, gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%, hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%, viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%, chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%, diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%, cancer (2 plants; 4.1%, inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism, HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%. Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0% of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system

  15. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. • The concepts of Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. • Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) and Objective Provision Tree (OPT) were performed and updated. • This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate safety issues using Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM) proposed by Generation IV Forum Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO). In ongoing nuclear energy research such as Generation IV fission power plant (GEN-IV), new methodology based on Technology-Neutral Framework (TNF) has been applied for safety assessment. In this methodology, design and regulatory requirements for safety of nuclear power plants are considered simultaneously. The design based on regulatory requirements can save resource, time, and manpower while maintaining high level safety. ISAM is one of the options to apply TNF in K-DEMO. We have performed safety studies for K-DEMO using Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) and Objective Provision Tree (OPT) which are constitutive part of ISAM. Considering the design phase of K-DEMO, the current study focused on PIRT and OPT for K-DEMO. Results have been reviewed and updated by Korean fusion advisory group after considering the views of specialists from domestic universities, industries, and national institutes in South Korea.

  16. Variações sazonais em águas costeiras: Brasil Lat. 24º. Parte II Seasonal variations in coastal waters: Brazil Lat. 24º. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. de Mesquita

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Four years data of temperature from the coastal areas of Santos and Cananeia are analysed in continuation of part I of this work. Earlier tidal wave theories for coastal areas and some basic processes on the determination of Nz are summarized. Seasonal variations of temperature are found to obey approximately a general harmonic law of propagation with depth and from it estimates of the mean annual values of N are obtained. These estimates (preliminaries seem to indicate that mixing at the coastal areas of Santos is smaller than in the ones of Cananéia.

  17. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  18. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  19. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Lists of Species § 23.92 Are any... specimens listed in Appendix II that are protected under another treaty, convention, or...

  20. Transient Fluid Flow during Steady Continuous Casting of Steel Slabs: Part II. Effect of Double-Ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Seong-Mook; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Thomas, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    ... steady steel slab casting. In Part II of this two-part article, the effect of applying a static magnetic field on stabilizing the transient flow is investigated by modeling a double-ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking (EMBr...

  1. Many independent origins of trans splicing of a plant mitochondrial group II intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yin-Long; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2004-07-01

    We examined the cis- vs. trans-splicing status of the mitochondrial group II intron nad1i728 in 439 species (427 genera) of land plants, using both Southern hybridization results (for 416 species) and intron sequence data from the literature. A total of 164 species (157 genera), all angiosperms, was found to have a trans-spliced form of the intron. Using a multigene land plant phylogeny, we infer that the intron underwent a transition from cis to trans splicing 15 times among the sampled angiosperms. In 10 cases, the intron was fractured between its 5' end and the intron-encoded matR gene, while in the other 5 cases the fracture occurred between matR and the 3' end of the intron. The 15 intron fractures took place at different time depths during the evolution of angiosperms, with those in Nymphaeales, Austrobaileyales, Chloranthaceae, and eumonocots occurring early in angiosperm evolution and those in Syringodium filiforme, Hydrocharis morsus- ranae, Najas, and Erodium relatively recently. The trans-splicing events uncovered in Austrobaileyales, eumonocots, Polygonales, Caryophyllales, Sapindales, and core Rosales reinforce the naturalness of these major clades of angiosperms, some of which have been identified solely on the basis of recent DNA sequence analyses.

  2. Extensive mis-splicing of a bi-partite plant mitochondrial group II intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elina, Helen; Brown, Gregory G

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the seed plant mitochondrial nad5 gene involves two trans-splicing events that remove fragmented group II introns and join the small, central exon c to exons b and d. We show that in both monocot and eudicot plants, extensive mis-splicing of the bi-partite intron 2 takes place, resulting in the formation of aberrantly spliced products in which exon c is joined to various sites within exon b. These mis-spliced products accumulate to levels comparable to or greater than that of the correctly spliced mRNA. We suggest that mis-splicing may result from folding constraints imposed on intron 2 by base-pairing between exon a and a portion of the bi-partite intron 3 downstream of exon c. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that mis-splicing does not occur in Oenothera mitochondria, where intron 3 is further fragmented such that the predicted base-pairing region is not covalently linked to exon c. Our findings suggest that intron fragmentation may lead to mis-splicing, which may be corrected by further intron fragmentation.

  3. Evolutionary trails of plant group II Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type II pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (PLP_deC enzymes play important metabolic roles during nitrogen metabolism. Recent evolutionary profiling of these genes revealed a sharp expansion of histidine decarboxylase (HDC genes in the members of Solanaceae family. In spite of the high sequence homology shared by PLP_deC orthologs, these enzymes display remarkable differences in their substrate specificities. Currently, limited information is available on the gene repertoires and substrate specificities of PLP_deCs which renders their precise annotation challenging and offers technical challenges in the immediate identification and biochemical characterization of their full gene complements in plants. Herein, we explored their evolutionary trails in a comprehensive manner by taking advantage of high-throughput data accessibility and computational approaches. We discussed the premise that has enabled an improved reconstruction of their evolutionary lineage and evaluated the factors offering constraints in their rapid functional characterization, till date. We envisage that the synthesized information herein would act as a catalyst for the rapid exploration of their biochemical specificity and physiological roles in more plant species.

  4. IrII(ethene): metal or carbon radical? Part II: oxygenation via iridium or direct oxygenation at ethene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetterscheid, Dennis G H; Bens, Mariska; de Bruin, Bas

    2005-03-07

    Treatment of [(Me3tpa)IrII(ethene)]2+ (Me(3)tpa =N,N,N-tri(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)amine)(1(2+)) with dioxygen in weakly coordinating solvents results in formation of [(Me3tpa)IrIII(ethene)(superoxo)]2+ (4a2+). In the presence of DMPO (DMPO = 5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidine-1-oxide) DMPO is substituted for ethene, and subsequently oxidized to DMPOX by the superoxo fragment to give [(Me3tpa)IrIII(DMPOX)]2+ (7(2+); DMPOX = 5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidone-1-oxide). In acetonitrile, in the absence of DMPO, oxygenation of 1(2+) to [(Me3tpa)IrIII(formylmethyl)(MeCN)]2+ (2(2+)) is observed. In the presence of DMPO the formation of 2(2+) and 7(2+) is competing. Oxygenation of 1(2+) to 2(2+) may proceed via 4a(2+), involving an insertion mechanism at the metal. However, a mechanism based on olefin ligand non-innocence seems a reasonable alternative. This involves formation of acetonitrile adduct [(Me3tpa)Ir(ethene)(MeCN)]2+ (3(2+)), which has a significant metalla-ethyl radical (IrIII-CH2CH2*) character, allowing attack of 3O2 directly at the ethene ligand. Both pathways are discussed on the basis of experimental observations and DFT geometry optimizations.

  5. [Effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis and dry matter production of rice II -you 084 under different Planting densities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bin; Lai, Shang-kun; Li, Pan-lin; Wang, Yun-xia; Zhu, Jian-guo; Yang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yu-long

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis, dry matter production, non-structural carbohydrate and yield formation of rice, a free air ozone concentration enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted. A super hybrid rice cultivar II-you 084 with 3 spacing levels, low plant density (LD, 16 hills per m2), medium (MD, 24 hills per m2) and high plant density (HD, 32 hills per m2), was grown in the field at current and elevated ozone concentrations (current × 1.5). The results were as follows: Elevated ozone significantly reduced leaf SPAD value of UI-you 084 by 6%, 11% and 13%, at 63, 77, and 86 days after transplanting, respectively. The declines in leaf net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate at filling stage increased significantly on ozone stress over time. Ozone stress decreased dry matter production of rice by 46% from heading stage to plant maturity, thus reduced biomass yield by 25%. Elevated ozone decreased the concentration and accumulation of soluble carbohydrate and starch in stem of II-you 084 at jointing, heading and plant maturity, but significantly increased the dry matter transportation rate. No significant interaction was observed between ozone and planting density for photosynthesis, dry matter production and non-structural carbohydrate of rice. The above results indicated that elevated ozone reduced photosynthesis and growth of rice II-you 084 at late growth stage, which had no relationship with planting density.

  6. Future use of BI-GAS facility. Final report, Part II. [Other possible uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    The 120 tpd BI-GAS pilot plant, intended to produce SNG at high pressure, was completed in 1976. For the next three and a half years, the operator, Stearns-Roger Inc., was engaged in operating the plant while overcoming a series of mechanical problems that have prevented the plant from running at design capacity and pressure. Since July 1980, these problems have apparently been corrected and considerable progress was made. In late 1979, the Yates Congressional Committee directed DOE to investigate the possibility of establishing an entrained-bed gasifier test facility at the site. In January 1981, the DOE established a study group composed of DOE and UOP/SDC personnel to determine how best to use the BI-GAS facility. The group considered four possibilities: Continue operation of the facility in accordance with the technical program plan developed by DOE and Stearns-Roger; modify the plant into an entrained-bed facility for testing components and processes; mothball the facility, or dismantle the facility. The group took the view that modifying the plant into a test facility would increase substantially the amount of engineering data available to the designers of commercial gasification plants. Since it appears that syngas plants will be of commercial interest sooner than SNG plants will, it was decided that the facility should test syngas production components and processes at high pressure. Consequently, it was recommended that: Operation of the plant be continued, both to collect data and to prove the BI-GAS process, as long as the schedule of the technical program plan is met; Begin at once to prepare a detailed design for modifying the BI-GAS plant to a high-pressure, entrained flow syngas test facility; and Implement the modification plan as soon as the BI-GAS process is proven or it becomes apparent that progress is unsatisfactory.

  7. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other

  8. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  9. Studies in transition metal chemistry ; VI. Soluble Ziegler-type catalysts based on vanadium, part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefde Meijer, H.J. de; Hurk, J.W.G. van den; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1966-01-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements in the visible region on soluble catalyst systems prepared from (i) vanadium tetrachloride, aluminium bromide and tetraphenyltin and (ii) vanadium tetrachloride or vanadium oxytrichloride and ethylaluminium dihalides are reported. The formation of hydrocarbonsoluble i

  10. Zircônia tetragonal policristalina. Parte II: Microestrutura e resistividade elétrica Tetragonal zirconia polycrystals. Part II: Microstructure and electrical resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Tadokoro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta segunda parte são mostrados os resultados obtidos em cerâmicas densas de ZrO2: 3% mol Y2O3 (Y-TZP e 12% mol CeO2 (Ce-TZP, analisadas por espectroscopia Raman, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, e por espectroscopia de impedância. Os resultados mostram que, para ambos tipos de amostras, é possível obter cerâmicas densas (> 95% da densidade teórica para temperaturas de sinterização inferiores a 0,45 T F (T F = temperatura de fusão. A taxa de crescimento de grãos é dependente do cátion estabilizante, sendo maior para a Ce-TZP do que para a Y-TZP. Os espectros Raman de cerâmicas sinterizadas mostram as bandas típicas associadas aos modos ativos da fase cristalográfica tetragonal. Os resultados de espectroscopia de impedância são similares aos obtidos por outros pesquisadores tanto para cerâmicas convencionais quanto nanofásicas no caso da Y-TZP. Para a Ce-TZP foi observada uma redução na condutividade extrínseca em conseqüência da maior pureza do precursor cristalizado.Results on dense ZrO2: 3 mol% Y2O3 (Y-TZP and 12 mol% CeO2 (Ce-TZP ceramics are shown in this second part. Sintered specimens were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The main results show that both types of solid solutions may attain a high densification (> 95% of the theoretical density for sintering temperatures lower than 0.45 T F (T F = melting temperature. The rate of grain growth is governed by the stabilizing cation and is faster for Ce-TZP than for Y-TZP. Raman spectra exhibit the six characteristic bands of the tetragonal phase for both specimens. Impedance spectroscopy results for Y-TZP do not differ from those obtained for nanophase ceramics. A reduction in the extrinsic conductivity due to the high purity of the crystallized precursor was observed for Ce-TZP specimens.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Electromagnetic Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority H Appendix H to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. H Appendix H to Part 110—Illustrative List of Electromagnetic Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority G Appendix G to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. G Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and...

  13. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  14. Overlooked Talent Sources and Corporate Strategies for Affirmative Action. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobelli, John L.; Muczyk, Jan P.

    1975-01-01

    Part Two of the two-part article describes corporate strategies for affirmative action in order to obtain the most qualified individuals available for professional positions among minority and female candidates. (Author/BP)

  15. THE FOOTWEAR DESIGNING SESSION USING CRISPIN DYNAMICS ENGINEER. PART II: Creating the parts, Estimating the material consumption, Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversification and customization of products are important characteristic of the modern economy and especially of the fashion industry. Because of this, the lifetime of the footwear product is very short and result the necessity to cut the design and production time. By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. With CRISPIN Dynamics, one can visualize a range of designs on-screen; work out the costs of a new style and even cut out sample shoe components. Reliance on manual skills is largely eliminated, so the staff can work creatively, but with increased accuracy and productivity. One can even send designs to a distant office or manufacturing centre in a matter of minutes. This paper presents the basic function of CRISPIN Dynamics CAD Suite Engineer for footwear design. The process of new product development has six stapes: digitized form of the medium copy, last flatting, model drawing, creation and management of individual parts, estimation of material consumption, multiplying the designed footwear product’s pattern. This product has been developed for shoemakers who wish to ensure that their business remains competitive by increasing the efficiency, speed and accuracy of pattern development and grading.

  16. Synthetic coprecipitates of exopolysaccharides and ferrihydrite. Part II: Siderophore-promoted dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Christian; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2008-02-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) coprecipitated with exopolymers of plants and microbes may differ in its geochemical reactivity from its abiotic counterpart. We synthesized Fh in the presence and absence of acid polysaccharides (polygalacturonic acid (PGA), alginate, xanthan) and characterized the physical and structural properties of the precipitates formed [Mikutta C., Mikutta R., Bonneville S., Wagner F., Voegelin A., Christl I. and Kretzschmar R. (2008) Synthetic coprecipitates of exopolysaccharides and ferrihydrite. Part I: Characterization. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta]. In this paper, we focus on the reactivity of PGA and alginate coprecipitates and pure Fh, and studied their interaction with the microbial siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB) in the presence and absence of low molecular weight organic (LMWO) acid anions (malate, citrate). Batch adsorption and dissolution experiments were performed in the dark at pH 7 in 10 mM NaClO 4 background electrolyte. In the dissolution experiments, different modes of ligand addition were applied (single, simultaneous, stepwise). With an estimated Langmuir sorption maximum of 15 mmol/mol Fe, a PGA coprecipitate with 11% C org sorbed about four times as much DFOB as pure Fh, and the amount of DFOB sorbed was ˜4-fold larger than estimated from the sum of DFOB sorption to pure Fh and PGA alone. The apparent initial dissolution rates, Rapp-initial, and pseudo-first order rate coefficients, k, of the coprecipitates exceeded those of pure Fh by up to two orders of magnitude. Citrate and malate exerted a strong synergistic effect on the DFOB-promoted dissolution of pure Fh, whereas synergistic effects of both anions were absent or negligible for the coprecipitates. Rapp-initial of the citrate and DFOB-promoted dissolution of PGA coprecipitates increased with increasing molar C/Fe ratio of the coprecipitates, independent of the charge of the LMWO ligand. Our results indicate that polyuronates stabilize Fh particles sterically and /or

  17. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 2: Application to EBR-II Primary Sodium System and Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2006-03-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decontamination and decomissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidifed carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, USA. This report is Part 2 of a two-part report. This second report provides a supplement to the first report and describes the application of the humdidified carbon dioxide technique ("carbonation") to the EBR-II primary tank, primary cover gas systems, and the intermediate heat exchanger. Future treatment plans are also provided.

  18. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered.

  19. An Interactive Activation Model of the Effect of Context in Perception. Part II. Report No. 8003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumelhart, David E.; McClelland, James L.

    This report is the second in a two-part series introducing an interactive activation model of context effects in perception. In the first part, a model for the perception of letters in words and other contexts was described and applied to a number of experiments. This second part applies the same model to a number of new experiments designed to…

  20. An Interactive Activation Model of the Effect of Context in Perception. Part II. Report No. 8003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumelhart, David E.; McClelland, James L.

    This report is the second in a two-part series introducing an interactive activation model of context effects in perception. In the first part, a model for the perception of letters in words and other contexts was described and applied to a number of experiments. This second part applies the same model to a number of new experiments designed to…

  1. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  2. Performance enhancement in coal fired thermal power plants. Part II: steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, M.S.; Rajkumar, N. [Central Power Research Institute, Trivandrum (India). Energy Research Centre

    1999-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the performance enhancement study on 22 coal fired thermal power stations in India with capacities 30-500 MW. The oldest units (30 MW) have served for 33 yr and the newer units (500 MW) have been in operation for 7 years. The turbine efficiencies are in the range 31.00-41.90% as compared to the design range of 34.80-43.98%. The isentropic efficiencies are in the range 74.13-86.40% as compared to design values of 83.20-89.10%. Considerable scope for efficiency improvement through low cost solutions: operational optimization, capital overhaul, simple modifications, etc., exists for all classes of units. The efficiencies can be restored to their design values. The developments in turbines over the last quarter of this century which have led to improved isentropic and thermal efficiencies must be adopted for existing units through retrofits, upgrades and revamps. The turbine efficiencies can be improved to 38.0% for 30 MW units and to 47% for 500 MW units. The maximum potential is for improvement in 210 and 500 MW units followed by 110 and 120 MW units. The potential for 30 and 62.5 MW units is rather limited because of their low capacity share, lack of interest in manufacturers to sell spares (because of the low volume of requirement) and large pay back periods for modernisation schemes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, R K

    1975-01-01

    Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.

  4. Radiation effects in concrete for nuclear power plants, Part II: Perspective from micromechanical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pape, Y., E-mail: lepapeym@ornl.gov; Field, K.G.; Remec, I.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A micromechanical model for irradiated concrete is proposed. • Confrontation with literature data is successful. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • The nature of the aggregate alters the severity of damage to irradiated concrete. - Abstract: The need to understand and characterize the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete has become urgent because of the possible extension of service life of many nuclear power generating stations. Current knowledge is primarily based on a collection of data obtained in test reactors. These data are inherently difficult to interpret because materials and testing conditions are inconsistent. A micromechanical approach based on the Hashin composite sphere model is presented to derive a first-order separation of the effects of radiation on cement paste and aggregate, and, also, on their interaction. Although the scarcity of available data limits the validation of the model, it appears that, without negating a possible gamma-ray induced effect, the neutron-induced damage and swelling of aggregate plays a predominant role on the overall concrete expansion and the damage of the cement paste. The radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) effects can also be aided by temperature elevation and shrinkage in the cement paste.

  5. Historia de la robótica: de Arquitas de Tarento al robot da Vinci (Parte II)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    HISTORY OF ROBOTICS: FROM ARCHYTAS OF TARENTUM UNTIL DA VINCI ROBOT. (PART II) Robotic surgery is a reality. In order to to understand how new robots work is interesting to know the history of ancient (see part i) and modern robotics. The desire to design automatic machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.), Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Bacon, Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors. ...

  6. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro;

    2004-01-01

    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine...... tumours. These guidelines essentially cover basic knowledge in the diagnosis and management of the different forms of neuroendocrine tumour. We have, however, tried to give more updated information about the epidemiology and histopathology, which is essential for the clinical management of these tumours....

  7. Programming an interim report on the SETL project. Part I: generalities. Part II: the SETL language and examples of its use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J T

    1975-06-01

    A summary of work during the past several years on SETL, a new programming language drawing its dictions and basic concepts from the mathematical theory of sets, is presented. The work was started with the idea that a programming language modeled after an appropriate version of the formal language of mathematics might allow a programming style with some of the succinctness of mathematics, and that this might ultimately enable one to express and experiment with more complex algorithms than are now within reach. Part I discusses the general approach followed in the work. Part II focuses directly on the details of the SETL language as it is now defined. It describes the facilities of SETL, includes short libraries of miscellaneous and of code optimization algorithms illustrating the use of SETL, and gives a detailed description of the manner in which the set-theoretic primitives provided by SETL are currently implemented. (RWR)

  8. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

  9. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  10. On understanding the very different science premises meaningful to CAM versus orthodox medicine: Part II--applications of Part I fundamentals to five different space-time examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, William A

    2010-04-01

    In Part I of this pair of articles, the fundamental experimental observations and theoretical perspectives were provided for one to understand the key differences between our normal, uncoupled state of physical reality and the human consciousness-induced coupled state of physical reality. Here in Part II, the thermodynamics of complementary and alternative medicine, which deals with the partially coupled state of physical reality, is explored via the use of five different foci of relevance to today's science and medicine: (1) homeopathy; (2) the placebo effect; (3) long-range, room temperature, macroscopic size-scale, information entanglement; (4) an explanation for dark matter/energy plus human levitation possibility; and (5) electrodermal diagnostic devices. The purpose of this pair of articles is to clearly differentiate the use and limitations of uncoupled state physics in both nature and today's orthodox medicine from coupled state physics in tomorrow's complementary and alternative medicine.

  11. Modulation of RNA polymerase II phosphorylation downstream of pathogen perception orchestrates plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangjun; Cheng, Cheng; Cui, Fuhao; de Oliveira, Marcos V V; Yu, Xiao; Meng, Xiangzong; Intorne, Aline C; Babilonia, Kevin; Li, Maoying; Li, Bo; Chen, Sixue; Ma, Xianfeng; Xiao, Shunyuan; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Metz, Richard P; Johnson, Charles D; Koiwa, Hisashi; Sun, Wenxian; Li, Zhaohu; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo A; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2014-12-10

    Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) elicits host transcriptional reprogramming as part of the immune response. Although pathogen perception is well studied, the signaling networks orchestrating immune gene expression remain less clear. In a genetic screen for components involved in the early immune gene transcription reprogramming, we identified Arabidopsis RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 3 (CPL3) as a negative regulator of immune gene expression. MAMP perception induced rapid and transient cyclin-dependent kinase C (CDKC)-mediated phosphorylation of Arabidopsis CTD. The CDKCs, which are in turn phosphorylated and activated by a canonical MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, represent a point of signaling convergence downstream of multiple immune receptors. CPL3 directly dephosphorylated CTD to counteract MAPK-mediated CDKC regulation. Thus, modulation of the phosphorylation dynamics of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcription machinery by MAPKs, CTD kinases, and phosphatases constitutes an essential mechanism for rapid orchestration of host immune gene expression and defense upon pathogen attacks.

  12. Evaluación neurofuncional del tallo cerebral Parte II: Reflejo mandibular = Neurofunctional evaluation of brain stem. II. Mandibular reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sarmiento, Fidias E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El reflejo mandibular o maseterino posee conexiones nerviosas únicas, diferentes de las exhi­bidas por otros reflejos monosinápticos humanos, y permite evaluar, de forma fácil y eficien­te, el tallo cerebral por medio de la estimulación mecánica, eléctrica o magnética. Diversos estudios han demostrado la participación en este reflejo de las interneuronas del tallo cerebral y su modulación por estructuras supraespinales, que hacen parte fundamental de su integra­ción motora. El reflejo mandibular es útil para evaluar la afectación trigémino-trigeminal en polineuropatías como la diabetes, neuromiopatías como la esclerosis múltiple y en pacientes con trastornos del movimiento, con o sin disfunción oromandibular. La evaluación neuro­funcional de este reflejo craneofacial ayuda a identificar la integración sensorimotora del tallo cerebral y las posibles alteraciones de estas vías reflejas, debidas a anormalidades del sistema nervioso central o del periférico. Su apropiada ejecución e interpretación, clínica y neurológica, permite aplicar de manera más personalizada diversos protocolos de neurorre­habilitación, con el fin de ayudar a mejorar la calidad de vida de los individuos con afectación de estas vías neurales.

  13. Derivados organometálicos de estanho(II - Parte 1. Compostos ciclopentadienílicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Geraldo M. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review of the chemistry of cyclopentadienyl Sn(II derivatives which includes the preparation, the molecular structure and reactivity associated with such bis-sandwich tin(II species. It is compared structural and spectroscopic results and it is also discussed how the nature of the cyclopentadienyl ring bonded to the Sn centre plays an important role in the structural and stability features of the derivatives. Bulk rings such as C5HPr i4- , C5Bz5-, C5Me4SiMe2Bu t- and C5Ph5- render air-stable and parallel ring-bonded compounds.

  14. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 1: International availability data exchange for thermal generating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, G.S.; Deschaine, R. [Black and Veatch (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 1 (WG1). WG1's primary focus is to analyse the best ways to measure, evaluate, and apply power plant performance and availability data to promote plant performance improvements worldwide. The paper explores the specific work activities of 2004-2007 to extend traditional analysis and benchmarking frameworks. It is divided into two major topics: Overview of current electric supply industry issues/trends; and, Technical Methods/Tools to evaluate performance in today's ESI.

  15. Direct impact of the sustained decline in the photosystem II efficiency upon plant productivity at different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yonglan; Ungerer, Petra; Zhang, Huayong; Ruban, Alexander V

    2017-02-11

    The impact of chronic photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) on the productivity of plants remains unknown. The present study investigated the influences of persistent decline in the PSII yield on morphology and productivity of Arabidopsis plants that were exposed to lincomycin at two different developmental stages (seedling and rosette stage). The results indicated that, although retarded, the lincomycin treated plants were able to accomplish the entire growth period with only 50% of the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) of the control plants. The decline in quantum yield limited the electron transport rate (ETR). The impact of lincomycin on NPQ was not significant in seedlings, but was pronounced in mature plants. The treated plants produced an above ground biomass of 50% compared to control plants. Moreover, a linear relationship was found between the above ground biomass and total rosette leaf area, and the slope was decreased due to photoinhibition. The starch accumulation was highly inhibited by lincomycin treatment. Lincomycin induced a significant decrease in seed yield with plants treated from the rosette state showing higher yield than those treated from the seedling stage. Our data suggest that the sustained decline of PSII efficiency decreases plant productivity by constraining the ETR, leaf development and starch production.

  16. Further considerations on the evaluation of potential reduced-risk tobacco products. Part II: Re-assessment of a heuristic using the CPS-II database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrelle, Lenn; Coggins, Christopher R E; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard A; Lee, Peter N; Zedler, Barbara K; Heidbreder, Christian

    2010-06-01

    In a previous analysis (see Part I) we proposed a heuristic for assessing the efficacy of potential reduced-risk tobacco products (PRRPs) on lung cancer (LC) rates, using smoking cessation data published in a report from the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS) as a basis for sample size estimates. In this study, an additional analysis was performed using cessation data from the much larger Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II), which also provides data on different durations of cessation. Statistical methods were used to assess whether smokers switching to a PRRP would reduce their risk of LC. Furthermore, non-inferiority tests compared the LC risk in switchers to that in smokers who had quit smoking. The present work shows that similar sample size estimates were obtained whether the analysis was based on the IWHS or the CPS-II data sets, suggesting that the heuristic may be generally applicable to prospective real-life studies to evaluate PRRPs. Non-inferiority testing of switchers compared with quitters required approximately 10-fold more subjects than did superiority testing of switchers compared with smokers. Altogether, these estimates indicate that it is feasible, in terms of study duration and sample size, to clinically assess the LC risk-reducing potential of a PRRP. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Essential features of Chiari II malformation in MR imaging : an interobserver reliability study-part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Niels; van der Vliet, Ton; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Feuth, Ton; Roeleveld, Nel; Mullaart, Reinier A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of morphological features of the malformation on MR images may not always be straightforward. In an attempt to select those features that u

  18. Essential features of Chiari II malformation in MR imaging: an interobserver reliability study--part 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Vliet, T. van der; Rotteveel, J.J.; Feuth, T.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of morphological features of the malformation on MR images may not always be straightforward. In an attempt to select those featur

  19. Airflow analyses using thermal imaging in Arizona's Meteor Crater as part of METCRAX II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzielanek, A. Martina; Vogt, Roland; Cermak, Jan; Maric, Mateja; Feigenwinter, Iris; Whiteman, C. David; Lehner, Manuela; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Krauß, Matthias G.; Bernhofer, Christian; Pitacco, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In October 2013 the second Meteor Crater Experiment (METCRAX II) took place at the Barringer Meteorite Crater (aka Meteor Crater) in north central Arizona, USA. Downslope-windstorm-type flows (DWF), the main research objective of METCRAX II, were measured by a comprehensive set of meteorological sensors deployed in and around the crater. During two weeks of METCRAX II five infrared (IR) time lapse cameras (VarioCAM® hr research & VarioCAM® High Definition, InfraTec) were installed at various locations on the crater rim to record high-resolution images of the surface temperatures within the crater from different viewpoints. Changes of surface temperature are indicative of air temperature changes induced by flow dynamics inside the crater, including the DWF. By correlating thermal IR surface temperature data with meteorological sensor data during intensive observational periods the applicability of the IR method of representing flow dynamics can be assessed. We present evaluation results and draw conclusions relative to the application of this method for observing air flow dynamics in the crater. In addition we show the potential of the IR method for METCRAX II in 1) visualizing airflow processes to improve understanding of these flows, and 2) analyzing cold-air flows and cold-air pooling.

  20. Studies on the sediments of Vembanad Lake, Kerala state: Part II - Distribution of phosphorus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Veerayya, M.

    in the estuarine region has been attributed to several factors. The impoverishment of Mn and Co can be due to (i) desorption of these elements from the river borne detritus on coming into contact with saline waters, (ii) dredging operations which may lead...

  1. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Chronic Disease Disabilities. Volume II, Part C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section C of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on six types of chronic disease disabilities--rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, emphysema, carcinoma of the colon/rectum, kidney…

  2. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Behavioral Disabilities. Volume II, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of behavior disabilities--epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  3. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from I

  4. Medical Malpractice in Dermatology-Part II: What To Do Once You Have Been Served with a Lawsuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vidhi V; Kapp, Marshall B; Wolverton, Stephen E

    2016-12-01

    Facing a malpractice lawsuit can be a daunting and traumatic experience for healthcare practitioners, with most clinicians naïve to the legal landscape. It is crucial for physicians to know and understand the malpractice system and his or her role once challenged with litigation. We present part II of a two-part series addressing the most common medicolegal questions that cause a great deal of anxiety. Part I focused upon risk-management strategies and prevention of malpractice lawsuits, whereas part II provides helpful suggestions and guidance for the physician who has been served with a lawsuit complaint. Herein, we address the best approach concerning what to do and what not to do after receipt of a legal claim, during the deposition, and during the trial phases. We also discuss routine concerns that may arise during the development of the case, including the personal, financial, and career implications of a malpractice lawsuit and how these can be best managed. The defense strategies discussed in this paper are not a guide separate from legal representation to winning a lawsuit, but may help physicians prepare for and cope with a medical malpractice lawsuit. This article is written from a US perspective, and therefore not all of the statements made herein will be applicable in other countries. Within the USA, medical practitioners must be familiar with their own state and local laws and should consult with their own legal counsel to obtain advice about specific questions.

  5. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  6. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  7. How Long Do International School Heads Survive? A Research Analysis (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Part one of a 10-year study showed that international school heads remain, on average, only 2.8 years in a given position. The second part of the study analyzed why a subset of the group (83 school heads) left their positions. Reasons given included problems involving the board of directors, compensation packages, retirement issues and benefits,…

  8. Hyposplenism: a comprehensive review. Part II: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Basem M; Thawani, Nitika; Sae-Tia, Sutthichai; Corazza, Gino R

    2007-04-01

    In the first part of this review, we described the physiological basis of splenic function and hypofunction. We also described the wide spectrum of diseases that can result in functional hyposplenism. In the second part of this review, we will be discussing the clinical picture, including complications, diagnostic methods, and management of hyposplenism.

  9. A systematic review of the Indo-Australian Zosteropidae (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1961-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this, the second part of my revision of the Zosteropidae, 26 species are dealt with, all belonging to the genus Zosterops. The remaining 12 species of the genus and all the other genera, will be treated in the third part, the preparation of which is in progress. Unfortunately, it bec

  10. Intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws: A clinicopathologic review. part II: Odontogenic carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolgar, J.A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Ferlito, A.; Devaney, K.O.; Lewis Jr., J.S.; Rinaldo, A.; Slootweg, P.J.; Barnes, L.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of a 3-part review of the clinicopathologic features of intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (IOCJ). This part deals with odontogenic carcinomas, rare entities that are difficult to evaluate because of changes in classification/nomenclature, lack of standardized diagnostic criteria,

  11. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  12. Mathematics for Junior High School. Commentary for Teachers. Volume II (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part manual for teachers using SMSG junior high school text materials. A chapter-by-chapter commentary on the text is given as well as answers to all the exercises. Chapter topics include: (1) number line and coordinates; (2) equations; (3) scientific notation; (4) applications of percent; and (5) congruence and the…

  13. Computer simulation of sphenopsid architecture. Part II. Calamites multiramis Weiss, as an example of Late Paleozoic arborescent Sphenopsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviero; Lecoustre

    2000-04-01

    A late Carboniferous arborescent sphenopsid has been modelled for the first time with the AMAP 1 system. The natural entity consisting of the three form species 'Calamites multiramis/Annularia stellata/Calamostachys tuberculata' (respectively the trunk/branches and foliage/cones) representing the aerial part of this plant is reconstructed and its architecture modelled. The different growth stages are extrapolated, generating a dynamic view that did not exist until now. The model is based on the hypothesis that the modelled part is not preformed but results from the successive production and elongation of internodes. This growth led to old ontogenetic stages of the plant in agreement with Remy and Remy's reconstruction (Remy, W., Remy, R., 1977. Die Floren des Erdaltertums. Verlag Glückauf, Essen, 468 pp.). With its verticillate sterile organs and cone-shaped fructifications similar to the extant herbaceous relative Equisetum, this calamite is distinguished from the latter taxon by having possible 'throw-away' phyllomorphic branches. We assumed the presence of a restricted zone of branches located in the apical part of the trunk. Moreover, the production of reproductive organs that succeeds the vegetative stage implies a major photosynthetic phase associated with a monocarpical form of development of the fossil plant.

  14. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  15. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  16. Report: transboundary hazardous waste management. part II: performance auditing of treatment facilities in importing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Before implementing the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention in the Asia, Taiwan has conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project to visit the governmental authorities and waste-disposal facilities in the countries that import waste from Taiwan. A total of nine treatment facilities, six of which are reported in this paper, and the five countries where the plants are located were visited in 2001-2002. France, Belgium and Finland primarily handled polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, steel mill dust and metal waste. The United States accepted metal sludge, mainly electroplating sludge, from Taiwan. Waste printed circuit boards, waste wires and cables, and a mixture of waste metals and electronics were the major items exported to China. Relatively speaking, most treatment plants for hazardous waste paid close attention to environmental management, such as pollution control and monitoring, site zoning, system management regarding occupational safety and hygiene, data management, permits application, and image promotion. Under the tight restrictions formulated by the central environment agency, waste treatment plants in China managed the environmental issues seriously. For example, one of the treatment plants had ISO 14001 certification. It is believed that with continuous implementation of regulations, more improvement is foreseeable. Meanwhile, Taiwan and China should also continuously enhance their collaboration regarding the transboundary management of hazardous waste.

  17. Choque cardiogénico: Historia, fisiopatología e implicaciones terapeúticas. Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zeledón S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El choque cardiogénico es la principal causa de muerte entre los pacientes que presentan un síndrome coronario agudo. Después de la revisión histórica y de los conceptos fisiológicos y fisiopatológicos de esta condición clínica expuesta en la primera parte, se revisa su abordaje terapéutico, principalmente la revascularización de emergencia con angioplastía o cirugía.Cardiogenic shock: History, pathophysiology and therapeutical implications. Part II. Cardiogenic shock is the first cause of death among patients with acute coronary syndromes. After a previous discussion of the history and the physiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of this clinical condition in part 1, we review the therapeutic management which predominantly involves urgent angioplasty with stenting or coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  18. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  19. Structural investigation of PsbO from plant and cyanobacterial photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Daria; Rossmann, Maxim; Konarev, Petr V; Irrgang, Klaus-D; Saenger, Wolfram

    2011-03-18

    The manganese-stabilizing protein PsbO is associated with the luminal side of thylakoids close to the redox-active Mn(4)Ca cluster at the catalytically active site of photosystem II (PSII). PsbO is believed to increase the efficiency of oxygen evolution and to stabilize the Mn(4)Ca cluster against photoinhibition. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, we investigated the low-resolution structure of wild-type spinach PsbO and that of chimeric spinach PsbO fused with maltose-binding protein. Small-angle X-ray scattering data revealed that both proteins are monomeric in solution, and that plant and cyanobacterial PsbO have similar structures. We show a highly efficient expression system that allows recombinant production of the active wild type and the chimeric PsbO from spinach and cyanobacteria, with yields compatible with biophysical and structural studies. The binding of spinach PsbO fused with maltose-binding protein to PSII depleted of extrinsic subunits (PSII-ΔpsbO,P,Q) was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The reconstituted PSII was shown to have similar oxygen evolution rates as obtained with wild-type spinach PsbO.

  20. “PROCESS”: A systems code for fusion power plantsPart 2: Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovari, M., E-mail: michael.kovari@ccfe.ac.uk; Fox, F.; Harrington, C.; Kembleton, R.; Knight, P.; Lux, H.; Morris, J.

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • PROCESS is an optimising systems code for fusion reactors. • It allows the user to choose which constraints to impose and which to ignore. • Multiple constraints greatly restrict the parameter space of the optimised model. • For example, when coil current is increased greatly, major radius hardly changes. - Abstract: PROCESS is a reactor systems code – it assesses the engineering and economic viability of a hypothetical fusion power station using simple models of all parts of a reactor system. PROCESS allows the user to choose which constraints to impose and which to ignore, so when evaluating the results it is vital to study the list of constraints used. New algorithms submitted by collaborators can be incorporated – for example safety, first wall erosion, and fatigue life will be crucial and are not yet taken into account. This paper describes algorithms relating to the engineering aspects of the plant. The toroidal field (TF) coils and the central solenoid are assumed by default to be wound from niobium-tin superconductor with the same properties as the ITER conductors. The winding temperature and induced voltage during a quench provide a limit on the current density in the TF coils. Upper limits are placed on the stresses in the structural materials of the TF coil, using a simple two-layer model of the inboard leg of the coil. The thermal efficiency of the plant can be estimated using the maximum coolant temperature, and the capacity factor is derived from estimates of the planned and unplanned downtime, and the duty cycle if the reactor is pulsed. An example of a pulsed power plant is given. The need for a large central solenoid to induce most of the plasma current, and physics assumptions that are conservative compared to some other studies, result in a large machine, with a cryostat 36 m in diameter. Multiple constraints, working together, restrict the parameter space of the optimised model. For example, even when the ratio of

  1. The flipped classroom for professional development: part II. making podcasts and videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charlene M; McDonald, Katie

    2013-11-01

    As described in Part I, podcasts and videos are educational technologies used to flip the classroom. This column describes the technology options for creating podcasts and videos and offers tips on developing podcasts and videos.

  2. Machinability of Green Powder Metallurgy Components: Part II. Sintered Properties of Components Machined in Green State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Perron, Etienne; Blais, Carl; Pelletier, Sylvain; Thomas, Yannig

    2007-06-01

    The green machining process is virtually a must if the powder metallurgy (PM) industries are to solve the lower machining performances associated with PM components. This process is known for lowering the rate of tool wear. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high-green-strength systems that enable green machining. Combined with the optimized cutting parameters determined in Part I of the study, the green machining of PM components seems to be a viable process for fabricating high performance parts on large scale and complete other shaping processes. This second part of our study presents a comparison between the machining behaviors and the sintered properties of components machined prior to or after sintering. The results show that the radial crush strength measured on rings machined in their green state is equal to that of parts machined after sintering.

  3. Geometry with Coordinates, Student's Text, Part II, Unit 48. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank B.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG geometry text for high school students. One of the goals of the text is the development of analytic geometry hand-in-hand with synthetic geometry. The authors emphasize that both are deductive systems and that it is useful to have more than one mode of attack in solving problems. The text begins the development…

  4. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we revi...

  5. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 6, appendices A, B, and C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events (including internal flooding, but excluding internal fire). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, reviewed the WE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. In particular, these results are assessed in relation to the design and operational characteristics of the various reactor and containment types, and by comparing the IPEs to probabilistic risk assessment characteristics. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants.

  6. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 2: Thermal Generating Plant Unavailability Factors and Availability Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curley, G. Michael [North American Electric Reliability Corporation (United States); Mandula, Jiri [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 2 (WG2). WG2's main task is to facilitate the collection and input on an annual basis of power plant performance data (unit-by-unit and aggregated data) into the WEC PGP database. The statistics will be collected for steam, nuclear, gas turbine and combined cycle, hydro and pump storage plant. WG2 will also oversee the ongoing development of the availability statistics database, including the contents, the required software, security issues and other important information. The report is divided into two sections: Thermal generating, combined cycle/co-generation, combustion turbine, hydro and pumped storage unavailability factors and availability statistics; and nuclear power generating units.

  7. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Racanella, Gaia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marras, Roberto [Unicalce S.p.A., R and D Department, Via Tonio da Belledo 30, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Rigamonti, Lucia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  8. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Aabo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7FIN-20500 Aabo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO{sub 2} neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable

  9. Aphids of Java. Part II: Sinomegoura Takahashi, 1960 (Homoptera: Aphididae), with a new species from Coffea*

    OpenAIRE

    Noordam, D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of Sinomegoura. The following three species were collected in Java: Sinomegoura citricola (Van der Goot, 1917), from various woody plants; Sinomegoura symplocois (Van der Goot, 1917), collected by Van der Goot from Symplocos and described by him as Aulacorthum symplocois Van der Goot, 1917; and a new species collected from leaves of Coffea sp., Sinomegoura coffeae spec. nov. Keys are given to the apterae and alatae viviparae, and the species are described.

  10. Evaluation of CNS depressant activity of different plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sanjita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the water-soluble portion of the ethanol extracts of flowers, barks, seeds and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. to confirm their CNS depressant activity. The ethanol extracts of the plant parts were obtained by soxhlet extraction. After performing the gross behavioral study, the CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the prolongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. Attempts have been made to explore the possible mechanism behind this activity by determining their effect on brain monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. The gross behavioral study showed that ethanol extracts of the leaves, flowers and seeds possess significant CNS depressant activity. The leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and so found to cause decrease dopamine and increase serotonin level. From which it can be concluded that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level.

  11. "PROCESS": a systems code for fusion power plants - Part 2:Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Harrington, C; Kembleton, R; Knight, P; Lux, H; Morris, J

    2016-01-01

    PROCESS is a reactor systems code - it assesses the engineering and economic viability of a hypothetical fusion power station using simple models of all parts of a reactor system. PROCESS allows the user to choose which constraints to impose and which to ignore, so when evaluating the results it is vital to study the list of constraints used. New algorithms submitted by collaborators can be incorporated - for example safety, first wall erosion, and fatigue life will be crucial and are not yet taken into account. This paper describes algorithms relating to the engineering aspects of the plant. The toroidal field (TF) coils and the central solenoid are assumed by default to be wound from niobium-tin superconductor with the same properties as the ITER conductors. The winding temperature and induced voltage during a quench provide a limit on the current density in the TF coils. Upper limits are placed on the stresses in the structural materials of the TF coil, using a simple two-layer model of the inboard leg of ...

  12. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

  13. Variation in the volatile constituents of different plant parts of Ligusticopsis wallichiana from western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2012-08-01

    The essential oil composition of the leaves, stem, flowers and roots of Ligusticopsis wallichiana (DC.) Pimenov & Kljuykov were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Forty-five constituents, forming 93.2%-97.8% of the oil compositions, were dominated by acetylenic (31.5%-92.8%) compounds and sesquiterpenoids (0.3%-44.4%). The leaf essential oil was mainly composed 3,5-nonadiyne (35.8%), beta-selinene (20.9%), alpha-funebrene (10.1%) and (Z)-falcarinol (6.1%). The stem oil was dominated by acetylenic compounds (73.8%) represented by 3,5-nonadiyne (67.8%) and (Z)-falcarinol (5.7%). On the contrary, the major components of the flower essential oil were sesquiterpenoids (37.5%), such as germacrene D (16.6%), alpha-funebrene (7.4%), and acetylenic compounds (31.5%), such as (Z)-falcarinol (21.0%) and 3,5-nonadiyne (10.0%). Monoterpenoids constituted 23.9% of the flower oil with limonene (19.9%) as the single major constituent. The essential oil of the roots was dominated by 3,5-nonadiyne (90.5%). The results showed considerable qualitative and quantitative variations in the essential oil compositions of the different plant parts of L. wallichiana. (Z)-Falcarinol (1.9%-21.0%) and alpha-funebrene (0.1%-10.1%) were reported for the first time from the essential oils of L. wallichiana.

  14. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of soil, water, grain, straw, and husk arsenic (As). An arsenic concentration surface was created spatially to describe the distribution of arsenic in soil, water, grain, straw, and husk. Command area map was digitized using Arcview GIS from the “mouza” map. Both arsenic contaminated irrigation water and the soils were responsible for accumulation of arsenic in rice straw, husk, and grain. The accumulation of arsenic was higher in water followed by soil, straw, husk, and grain. Arsenic concentration varied widely within command areas. The extent and propensity of arsenic concentration were higher in areas where high concentration of arsenic existed in groundwater and soils. Spherical model was a relatively better and appropriate model. Kriging method appeared to be more suitable in creating interpolated surface. The average arsenic content in grain was 0.08–0.45 mg/kg while in groundwater arsenic level it ranged from 138.0 to 191.3 ppb.

  15. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  16. Supuestos resueltos de contabilidad II. parte 2ª. curso 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Osés García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Este documento contiene ejercicios solucionados y comentados sobre los temas que componen el Plan Docente de la asignatura COMPTABILITAT II del Grau en Administració i Direcció d’Empreses que se imparte en la Facultat Economia i Empresa de la Universitat de Barcelona. Todos los ejercicios contenidos han aparecido en cursos anteriores al 2012-2013 en alguna de las pruebas de evaluación continuada o exámenes de evaluación final de la asignatura. Entendemos que esta publicación es una h...

  17. Erosive Effects of Various Pure and Combustion-Generated Gases on Metals. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    ii«M)iiii«< -———• --——- ~• —"•—- VMH -11- solid carbon. The interest in the carbonyl formation and in particular to the iron...Di TD ~ c c m u a do o 0 m ««* n o CH41 o «a a •H M 3 • < A O c n c o w o u Z 2 o o M M H to vo o on CM •H UQ i

  18. Project Monitor: Part II. Conservation in small business: an exploratory study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P Y

    1979-08-01

    Project Monitor examined the energy conservation attitude and behavior of small samples of small business owners/operators in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, focusing on manufacturing concerns and retailers. Section I reports the findings on the energy conserving behavior of 92 smaller manufacturers and Section II identifies the factors which affect decision making concerning energy consuming activities by the owners/operators of 94 small retail establishments. In each, the impact of Project Pacesetter and of the coal strike and the general energy situation is considered. (MCW)

  19. Supuestos resueltos de contabilidad II. parte 2ª. curso 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Osés García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Este documento contiene ejercicios solucionados y comentados sobre los temas que componen el Plan Docente de la asignatura COMPTABILITAT II del Grau en Administració i Direcció d’Empreses que se imparte en la Facultat Economia i Empresa de la Universitat de Barcelona. Todos los ejercicios contenidos han aparecido en cursos anteriores al 2012-2013 en alguna de las pruebas de evaluación continuada o exámenes de evaluación final de la asignatura. Entendemos que esta publicación es una h...

  20. Supuestos resueltos de contabilidad II. parte 1ª. curso 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Osés García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Este documento contiene ejercicios solucionados y comentados sobre los temas que componen el Plan Docente de la asignatura COMPTABILITAT II del Grau en Administració i Direcció d’Empreses que se imparte en la Facultat Economia i Empresa de la Universitat de Barcelona. Todos los ejercicios contenidos han aparecido en cursos anteriores al 2012-2013 en alguna de las pruebas de evaluación continuada o exámenes de evaluación final de la asignatura. Entendemos que esta publicación es una h...