WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant operational decision

  1. Operator involvement in plant decision making and self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugwyler, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility has a history of innovation that goes beyond mere compliance with DOE Conduct of Operations. This innovation fosters excellence at all levels of daily operations. Consistent operator input into management decision making and self-assessment has helped to produce an Operations staff that is proud and professional. A group of operators drafted the Fast Flux Test Facility Operations Professional Code, which serves as a benchmark for excellence. Operator committees have proposed changes as varied as the twelve hour rotating shift schedule, a streamlined reactor operator qualification program and an improved new hire training process. The changes succeeded because they had widespread operator acceptance. Similar committees have initiated staffing and qualification changes to help Operations cope with transforming the plant from an operating to a standby status. Standing committees such as the Operations Review Team (1985 to 1988) and the Operations Performance Enhancement Committee (1990 to present) have provided operators with an independent review of root causes and corrective actions to events. This occurs both for in-plant and other DOE facility events, through a Lessons Learned Program. The committees have also had open-quotes management's earclose quotes regarding suggestions for improving safety, efficiency and operator performance. As the Fast Flux Test Facility goes from an operating plant to a plant in standby, one of the primary changes will be to maintain operator interest in continual improvement. The Operations Performance Enhancement Committee can assist in this pursuit -- a pursuit of excellence. The purpose of this paper is to relate the successes of operator involvement at the Fast Flux Test Facility from the viewpoint of an Operations Engineer

  2. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants - part 2. Which factors influence the decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara

    2008-04-01

    The first report contained a summary of relevant research of decision making, a case study at Ringhals power plant and an analysis of some real cases of operational readiness decisions. In this report two case studies in the Swedish power plants, OKG and Forsmark are presented. The case study description consists of three parts; a description of the support from the management system for the decision making process, interviews with decision makers and an analysis of real cases of operational readiness decisions. The purpose of the project has been to increase the understanding of the decision process in operational readiness decisions as well as the support given from the management system and what factors influence the decisions. From a general point of view the circumstances where the decision must be taken varies, but situations and events that lead to questioning of the operational readiness are often easy to identify. There are often support documents such as procedures, rules and technical documents which specify operational limitations which give explicit decision criteria. These decisions are easy. When needed colleagues can be consulted for support. In unclear situations and/or when the technical criteria is not clear, e.g. when the rules and regulations are vague or even in conflict or when it is not evident that you need to question the operational readiness, the decision is more difficult to make. The results from the study shows that such decisions in general are not made by the shift crew manager but handed over to the next management level. The decision making process differs between the power plants. At one of the power plants the decision process is organised in specific meetings where decision made are reviewed by the next higher management level. At another plant the decisions are often made in groups or in consultation with colleagues. The management system makes a distinction between decisions made in consultation and when decisions already

  3. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas, W.A. [Quantum Technologies, Inc., Oak Brook, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  4. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills

  5. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants. Which factors influence the decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this project has been to propose a model for how operational readiness decisions are made and to identify important factors influencing these decisions. The project has also studied the support from the management system for decision making, and made a comparison to how decisions are made in practice. This is mainly an explorative study, but it also deals with relevant research and theories about decision making. The project consists of several parts. The first part is composed of descriptions of important notations and terms, and a summary of relevant research about decision making and its relation to the management system. The project proposes a model for the decision making process. The second part consists of analyses of reports from SKI about operational readiness decisions. The last part is a case study at a nuclear power plant. The case study describes the support from work method theories at the nuclear power plant to the decision maker. Decision makers with different roles in the safety management system were interviewed to give a description of the decision making process and of factors influencing the decisions made in practice. The case study also consists of an analysis of decisions in some real events at the nuclear power plant, as well as of making interviews in connection with these. To sum up, this report presents a model for the decision process and describes the work method theories that support the different parts in the process, how the different parts are applied in practice and circumstances that influence the decision process. The results of the project give an understanding for decision making in operational readiness decisions and the factors that influence the decision. The results are meant to be used as a basis for further studies in other nuclear power plants. The results indicate that the decision process is facilitated if there are clear criteria and work methods, if the work methods are well established and if the

  6. A logic flowgraph-based concept for decision support and management of nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The architecture of an automated decision support system for nuclear plant operators is presented and discussed. The system is based on the use of 'logic flowgraph' process models and is designed in a hierarchical fashion. Its functionality spans from 'function oriented' plant status and alternative success path information displayed to the plant operators at its higher access levels to 'process oriented' diagnostic and recovery information deduced and displayed at its lowest. The design basis for this architecture is the 'defense in depth' plant safety concept. The decision support system goal is to provide plant operators, in the presence of an unforeseen transient, with the best and safest alternative between plant stabilization after shutdown and recovery of normal operation based on early diagnosis. Examples of the system capability to interpret and diagnose abnormal plant conditions and of the information that it can supply to the operators at its three access levels are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Cognitive skills and nuclear power plant operational decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, Isabelle

    1998-01-01

    The author reports a project research which aimed at identifying cognitive skills required for severe accident management. It is based on an analytical model of decision making for severe accident conditions. Moreover, scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision making difficulties and to test cognitive skills associated with each of the model's elements. The model used to identify cognitive skills comprised six general processes to describe decision-making performance: monitor/detect, interpret current state, determine implications, plan, control, feedback. For each of these processes, situational factors, cognitive limitations and biases, individual cognitive skills and team cognitive skills have been identified

  8. Computerized operator decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the potential benefits associated with the use of computers in nuclear plants by the operating crew as an aid in making decisions. Pertinent findings are presented from recently completed projects to establish the context in which operating decisions have to be made. Key factors influencing the decision-making process itself are also identified. Safety parameter display systems, which are being implemented in various forms by the nuclear industry, are described within the context of decision making. In addition, relevant worldwide research and development activities are examined as potential enhancements to computerized operator decision aids to further improve plant safety and availability

  9. Review of decision aids for nuclear-plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Responses to various computer-based operational aids varied widely in detail, thus forcing distillation of the salient features of many operational aids from information sources other than the initial questionnaire. These sources included technical and management presentations, technical papers and reports, personal discussions, taped responses, sales brochures, system specifications and schematics, and other documents. The data base is dynamic, not static, owing to the nature of current trends in operational aid development. The information contained in it is subject to review and revision by the developing organizations. More systems are pending review and entry into the data base; hence the list is incomplete

  10. A method for analysis of nuclear power plant operators' decision making in simulated disturbance situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    An analysis method has been developed for analysis of nuclear power plant operators' decision making in simulated disturbance situations. The aim of the analysis is to investigate operators' orientation which is expected to manifest itself as collective strategies in utilization of resources of decision making. Resources analyzed here are different information sources and, in addition, collaborative resources like communication and participation. The cognitive approach on the basis of the method considers decision making as collective construction of common interpretation of available information. Utilization of information is evaluated with respect to operative context. This is made with help of conceptualization of the disturbance situation from the decision making point of view and by construction of operative reference for activity. The latter means conceptualization of the situation from the safety point of view and also consideration of other boundary constraints of decision making, i.e. economical and technical aspects. The analysis method is intended to be used in routine simulator training in nuclear power plants. By virtue of its contextual and dynamical approach it makes the developing nature of activity visible. Cumulation and distribution of knowledge of decision making as developing activity, controlled by orientation and boundary constraints of process control, is expected to improve operational culture of a plant organization. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig

  11. A decision support system for identifying abnormal operating procedures in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Han; Hwang, Sheue-Ling; Liu, Kang-Hong; Liang, Sheau-Farn Max; Chuang, Chang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A decision support system has been constructed and verified. ► The operator's decision-making time was decreased by about 25%. ► The accuracy was increased by about 18%. ► The system prevents overlooking important information. ► Fewer erroneous solutions were implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. - Abstract: In order to prevent safety hazards that can result from inappropriate decisions made by the operators of a nuclear power plant (NPP), this study was undertaken to develop a decision support system to reduce the complexity of the decision-making process by aiding operators’ cognitive activities, integrating unusual symptoms, and identifying the most suitable abnormal operating procedure (AOP) for operators. The study was conducted from the perspective of human factors engineering in order to compare the process that operators originally used to select an AOP with a process that included a support system for AOP identification. The results of the study indicated that the existence of a support system reduces errors by quickly suggesting likely AOPs. With such a support system in place, there were clear improvements in human performance, i.e., decision-making time decreased by about 25%, and the accuracy of the operators’ decisions, judged by the successful resolution of specific problems, increased by about 18%. In addition, there were fewer erroneous solutions implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. Hence, the decision support system is proposed as a training tool in identifying AOPs in the main control room (MCR).

  12. Concentrating solar power plant investment and operation decisions under different price and support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Christoph; Flath, Christoph M.; Möst, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The dispatch opportunities provided by storage-enhanced Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants have direct implications on the investment decisions as not only nameplate capacity but also the storage capacity and the solar multiple play a crucial role for the viability of the plant investment. By integrating additional technical aspects and operation strategies, this paper extends the optimization model proposed by Madaeni et al., How Thermal Energy Storage Enhances the Economic Viability of Concentrating Solar Power. Using a mixed integer maximization approach the paper yields both the optimal layout decision and the operation of CSP plants. Subsequently, the economic value of CSP storage is analyzed via energy modeling of a Spanish plant location under the respective wholesale market prices as well as the local feed-in tariff. The analysis shows that investment incentives for CSP plants with storage need to appropriately account for the interdependency between the price incentives and the plant operating strategy. As the resulting revenue characteristics influence the optimal size of solar field and storage differing operating strategies also give rise to differing optimal plant layouts. Most noteworthy, the current Spanish support scheme offers only limited incentives for larger thermal storage capacity. - Highlights: • Dispatch opportunities of CSP have direct implications on both investment and operational decisions. • Valuation approach with a single mixed integer maximization problem. • Profitability of CSP plants under the premium feed-in tariff in Spain was assessed. • Layout decision and storage size are influenced by remuneration scheme. • Discuss alternative remuneration schemes for “dispatchable” RE technologies

  13. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants. Which factors influence the decisions?; Driftklarhetsbeslut i kaernkraftanlaeggningar. Vilka faktorer paaverkar beslutsfattandet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara (MTO Psykologi, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this project has been to propose a model for how operational readiness decisions are made and to identify important factors influencing these decisions. The project has also studied the support from the management system for decision making, and made a comparison to how decisions are made in practice. This is mainly an explorative study, but it also deals with relevant research and theories about decision making. The project consists of several parts. The first part is composed of descriptions of important notations and terms, and a summary of relevant research about decision making and its relation to the management system. The project proposes a model for the decision making process. The second part consists of analyses of reports from SKI about operational readiness decisions. The last part is a case study at a nuclear power plant. The case study describes the support from work method theories at the nuclear power plant to the decision maker. Decision makers with different roles in the safety management system were interviewed to give a description of the decision making process and of factors influencing the decisions made in practice. The case study also consists of an analysis of decisions in some real events at the nuclear power plant, as well as of making interviews in connection with these. To sum up, this report presents a model for the decision process and describes the work method theories that support the different parts in the process, how the different parts are applied in practice and circumstances that influence the decision process. The results of the project give an understanding for decision making in operational readiness decisions and the factors that influence the decision. The results are meant to be used as a basis for further studies in other nuclear power plants. The results indicate that the decision process is facilitated if there are clear criteria and work methods, if the work methods are well established and if the

  14. Applications of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Application of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants is being investigated under a US Department of Energy sponsored program at the University of Tennessee. Projects include the feasibility of using neural networks for the following tasks: (1) diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants, (2) detection of the change of mode of operation of the plant, (3) validating signals coming from detectors, (4) review of ''noise'' data from TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant, and (5) examination of the NRC's database of ''Letter Event Reports'' for correlation of sequences of events in the reported incidents. Each of these projects and its status are described briefly in this paper. This broad based program has as its objective the definition of the state-of-the-art in using neural networks to enhance the performance of commercial nuclear power plants

  15. Ergonomics and risk management in high risk organizations: nuclear power plant operator decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de

    2003-08-01

    Nuclear power plants are high hazard environments where emergency situations can have devastating effects. The operator crew has the ultimate responsibility to control the energy production process with safety. The outcome of a crisis is consequently dependent on the crew's judgement, decision making and situation awareness. In such way we should know how operators make their decisions in order to develop safety strategies. The aim of this thesis is to examine the cognitive processes through which operators make decisions when dealing with micro incidents during their actual work, and to determine whether they use a naturalistic or normative decision making strategy. That is, do they try to recognize the micro incident as familiar and base decisions on condition-action rules (naturalistic), or do they need to concurrently compare and contrast options before selecting the best possible (normative). The method employed for data collection was the Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) and Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The main findings of this thesis were that decision making is primarily based on naturalistic strategies, such as condition-action rules and recognition. In new situations rules are created ad hoc. These rules appear derived from experience and training rather than from Standard Operating Procedures and contrast normative competence standards used by nuclear industry. (author)

  16. A decision support system based on hybrid knowledge approach for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.O.; Chang, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic expert system, HYPOSS (Hybrid Knowledge Based Plant Operation Supporting System), which has been developed to support operators' decision making during the transients of nuclear power plant. HYPOSS adopts the hybrid knowledge approach which combines shallow and deep knowledge to couple the merits of both approaches. In HYPOSS, four types of knowledge are used according to the steps of diagnosis procedure: structural, functional, behavioral and heuristic knowledge. Frames and rules are adopted to represent the various knowledge types. Rule-based deduction and abduction are used for shallow and deep knowledge based reasoning respectively. The event-based operational guidelines are provided to the operator according to the diagnosed results

  17. Technical requirements on knowledge base and instrumentation system for decision making in plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    A series of technical surveys and studies are described in this report to examine and identify technical requirements to be posed on knowledge base and instrumentation system as the fundamental in high reliability computational decision making in operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and diagnosis are focused as the important tasks among the operation/maintenance-related tasks. A concrete monitoring and diagnosis system configuration has been proposed consisting of distributed symptom database and of on-demand measurement subsystem. An prototype of the proposed system configuration has been successfully verified. (author)

  18. Control and decision strategies in wastewater treatment plants for operation improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Santín, Ignacio; Vilanova, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the operation of biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with a focus on maintaining effluent water quality while keeping operational costs within constrained limits. It includes control operation and decision schemes and is based on the use of benchmarking scenarios that yield easily reproducible results that readers can implement for their own solutions. The final criterion is the effect of the applied control strategy on plant performance – specifically, improving effluent quality, reducing costs and avoiding violations of established effluent limits. The evaluation of the different control strategies is achieved with the help of two Benchmark Simulation Models (BSM1, BSM2). Given the complexity of the biological and biochemical processes involved and the major fluctuations in the influent flow rate, controlling WWTPs poses a serious challenge. Further, the importance of control goal formulation and control structure design in relation to WWTP process control is widely recogniz...

  19. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  20. A logic flowgraph based concept for decision support and management of nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the US the evolution of automated decision support tools for plant operators has spanned from ''event-oriented'' diagnostic systems to ''symptom-oriented'' computer-based emergency operating procedures. A problem common to both kind of systems is in the initial level of effort required for development of the associated models and software. In the following we will discuss some of the general issues that arise in the development and application of these decision-support systems. We will also propose and discuss an approach founded on the application of an event diagnosis and plant stabilization philosophy. This approach is based on the use of logic flowgraph process-oriented models - arranged in a modular architecture and developed with the aid of an expert-system model builder - as a possible means of achieving the development of an automated and integrated plant management system. This approach should allow the developer to achieve a high process recovery and management capability with a focused and controlled expenditure of development time and resources

  1. Making nuclear power plant operational decisions using probabilistic safety assessment information and personal computers. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    PRISIM described in this case study makes a PSA useful to decision makers like plant managers, operational personnel or safety assessors because it provides a rapid access to specific information and the ability to generate updated PSA results that reflect the plant status at a particular time. From the capabilities of PRISIM one can conclude that the ability of a user friendly update of the system model in the PC or changes in the data files at the computer is not realized to data. Also the calculation of averaged probabilities instead of time dependent instantaneous probabilities is a sort of a restriction and will be changed in the future. 5 refs, 34 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Conduct of inspections for plant modifications, event investigations and operability decisions. Proceedings of an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Preliminary planning started following the approval given by the CNRA. Formal planning for the Workshop was started at the Fifth Meeting of the WGIP in April 1993, in Lyon. Planning included taking into consideration comments made and lessons learned at the first Workshop. The first organising committee meeting for the Workshop was held in London preceding the Sixth WGIP meeting in October 1993. It was decided to remain with the same format: discussion groups with facilitators. It was also decided to have a three day programme with three Discussion Group sessions. The Announcement and Call for Participation was issued in December 1993. As part of the Announcement and Call for Participation, registrants were requested to transmit questions or issues of particular interest within the selected topics, they wanted to be addressed at the Workshop. A compilation of the these is included as Appendix H. Additionally, participants were requested to provide a short paper of one or two pages, describing the practices within their own countries related to the topics, for utilisation during the discussion sessions. These papers are attached as Appendix I. A training session was held for all facilitators on the afternoon of 22 May, to introduce methods in leading small group discussions and to complete final preparations. The Workshop programme (Appendix B) consisted of an opening plenary session, 3 discussion group sessions and a closing plenary session to review conclusions and an open question period. Following completion of the Workshop, facilitators met to evaluate and formulate final reports on the various topics. The main objectives of the Workshop were the following: To meet with inspectors from other organisations, To exchange information regarding regulatory inspections practices, To discuss the major topics: plant modifications, event investigation, and operability decisions, To discuss current issues, To develop conclusions on the topics discussed. Six discussion

  3. Conduct of inspections for plant modifications, event investigations and operability decisions. Proceedings of an International Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary planning started following the approval given by the CNRA. Formal planning for the Workshop was started at the Fifth Meeting of the WGIP in April 1993, in Lyon. Planning included taking into consideration comments made and lessons learned at the first Workshop. The first organising committee meeting for the Workshop was held in London preceding the Sixth WGIP meeting in October 1993. It was decided to remain with the same format: discussion groups with facilitators. It was also decided to have a three day programme with three Discussion Group sessions. The Announcement and Call for Participation was issued in December 1993. As part of the Announcement and Call for Participation, registrants were requested to transmit questions or issues of particular interest within the selected topics, they wanted to be addressed at the Workshop. A compilation of the these is included as Appendix H. Additionally, participants were requested to provide a short paper of one or two pages, describing the practices within their own countries related to the topics, for utilisation during the discussion sessions. These papers are attached as Appendix I. A training session was held for all facilitators on the afternoon of 22 May, to introduce methods in leading small group discussions and to complete final preparations. The Workshop programme (Appendix B) consisted of an opening plenary session, 3 discussion group sessions and a closing plenary session to review conclusions and an open question period. Following completion of the Workshop, facilitators met to evaluate and formulate final reports on the various topics. The main objectives of the Workshop were the following: To meet with inspectors from other organisations, To exchange information regarding regulatory inspections practices, To discuss the major topics: plant modifications, event investigation, and operability decisions, To discuss current issues, To develop conclusions on the topics discussed. Six discussion

  4. A quantitative impact analysis of sensor failures on human operator's decision making in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    In emergency or accident situations in nuclear power plants, human operators take important roles in generating appropriate control signals to mitigate accident situation. In human reliability analysis (HRA) in the framework of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the failure probabilities of such appropriate actions are estimated and used for the safety analysis of nuclear power plants. Even though understanding the status of the plant is basically the process of information seeking and processing by human operators, it seems that conventional HRA methods such as THERP, HCR, and ASEP does not pay a lot of attention to the possibilities of providing wrong information to human operators. In this paper, a quantitative impact analysis of providing wrong information to human operators due to instrument faults or sensor failures is performed. The quantitative impact analysis is performed based on a quantitative situation assessment model. By comparing the situation in which there are sensor failures and the situation in which there are not sensor failures, the impact of sensor failures can be evaluated quantitatively. It is concluded that the impact of sensor failures are quite significant at the initial stages, but the impact is gradually reduced as human operators make more and more observations. Even though the impact analysis is highly dependent on the situation assessment model, it is expected that the conclusions made based on other situation assessment models with be consistent with the conclusion made in this paper. (author)

  5. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress

  6. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  7. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3), Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Operable Unit 2, Cumberland Township, Adams County, Gettysburg, PA, March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 2 (Soils) at the Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant Site in Adams County, Pennsylvania. The selected remedy for the soils at the Westinghouse Elevator Plant is No Additional Action for this Operable Unit. The other alternatives evaluated would produce little or no environmental benefit at substantial cost.

  8. Modelling leaf, plant and stand flammability for ecological and operational decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Numerous factors have been found to affect the flammability of individual leaves and plant parts; however the way in which these factors relate to whole plant flammability, fire behaviour and the overall risk imposed by fire is not straightforward. Similarly, although the structure of plant communities is known to affect the flammability of the stand, a quantified, broadly applicable link has proven difficult to establish and validate. These knowledge gaps have presented major obstacles to the integration into fire behaviour science of research into factors affecting plant flammability, physiology, species succession and structural change, so that the management of ecosystems for fire risk is largely uninformed by these fields. The Forest Flammability Model (Zylstra, 2011) is a process-driven, complex systems model developed specifically to address this disconnect. Flame dimensions and position are calculated as properties emerging from the capacity for convective heat to propagate flame between horizontally and vertically separated leaves, branches, plants and plant strata, and this capacity is determined dynamically from the ignitability, combustibility and sustainability of those objects, their spatial arrangement and a vector-based model of the plume temperature from each burning fuel. All flammability properties as well as the physics of flame dimensions, angle and temperature distributions and the vertical structure of wind within the plant array use published sub-models which can be replaced as further work is developed. This modular structure provides a platform for the immediate application of new work on any aspect of leaf flammability or fire physics. Initial validation of the model examined its qualitative predictions for trends in forest flammability as a function of time since fire. The positive feedback predicted for the subalpine forest examined constituted a 'risky prediction' by running counter to the expectations of the existing approach, however

  9. Aggregate assessments support improved operational decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.

    2003-01-01

    At Darlington Nuclear aggregate assessment of plant conditions is carried out in support of Operational Decision Making. This paper discusses how aggregate assessments have been applied to Operator Workarounds leading to improved prioritisation and alignment of work programs in different departments. As well, aggregate assessment of plant and human performance factors has been carried out to identify criteria which support conservative decision making in the main control room during unit transients. (author)

  10. Simulation and experimental studies of operators' decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators' individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators' individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators' decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface

  11. Simulation and experimental studies of operators` decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators` individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators` individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators` decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface.

  12. Manufacturers' support to plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuschel, D.

    1996-01-01

    For more than 30 years now, safety and availablity of German nuclear power plants has been a common interest of the plant owners and the manufacturing company KWU. This longstanding collaboration for a common goal has created a safety culture unprecented in other countries, and a partnership worth to be continued. Due to the nuclear power phaseout policy, the priority today is on maintaining and safeguarding economically efficient operation of existing power plants. KWU have been adapting their business strategy to the change in the market, and are prepared to stick to this line. Thus KWU and plant operators see to it that the acquired competence in nuclear power plant technology will remain to be concentrated in the hands of the manufacturers. Continuing the partnership in this field, and encouraged by the placement of orders for the future EPR and the SWR 1000, KWU and plant operators will be in the position to offer a sound option for future decisions about construction of new nuclear power plants in Germany. (orig.) [de

  13. The IDA cognitive model for the analysis of nuclear power plant operator response under accident conditions. Part I: problem solving and decision making model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidts, C.; Shen, S.H.; Mosleh, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series of papers describing IDA which is a cognitive model for analysing the behaviour of nuclear power plant operators under accident conditions. The domain of applicability of the model is a relatively constrained environment where behaviour is significantly influenced by high levels of training and explicit requirement to follow written procedures. IDA consists of a model for individual operator behaviour and a model for control room operating crew expanded from the individual model. The model and its derivatives such as an error taxonomy and data collection approach has been designed with ultimate objective of becoming a quantitative method for human reliability analysis (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The present paper gives a description of the main components of IDA such as memory structure, goals, and problem solving and decision making strategies. It also identifies factors that are at the origin of transitions between goals or between strategies. These factors cover the effects of external conditions and psychological state of the operator. The description is generic at first and then made specific to the nuclear power plant environment and more precisely to abnormal conditions

  14. Nuclear plant life - A business decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Regarding the future of the nuclear power option, many scenarios have been put forth over the years. The most commonly accepted projections for installed nuclear capacity show it growing at a rate of about 2% per year throughout the next few decades. These projections appear modes on the surface. However, underlying the projections are critical assumptions and sometimes misconceptions about the lifetimes of existing reactors and how they are determined. The notion of a 40 year plant life is very common. Consequently, many projections start either with the assumption that no plants will be retired in the near terms or with the assumption that each retired plant will be replaced by another nuclear plant after 40 years. Effectively, these assumptions yield future projections for installed capacity that might be characterized as low growth, medium growth and high growth scenarios - or grow, grow, grow. The question remains as to whether or not these assumptions accurately model the driving forces and constraints to nuclear development. After all, there is no scientific basis for believing that all plants, PWRs BWRs, RBMKs, etc., should have the same 40 year life. Most power plant owners purchase the plant for the main reason of supplying electrical power to their consumer. For these owners, electricity production is a day to day commercial activity with various alternatives on how to achieve the prime objective. The decision of which electricity generation alternative to select (gas, coal, nuclear or renewable energy) and how long to operate the plant before replacing it with a new one is essentially a business decision. The paper discusses ageing, the nuclear plant life decision process, the factors which influence the decision and their ramifications regarding the near term growth of nuclear power capacity. The modelling of nuclear plant lifetimes is also discussed. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  15. AECL's support to operating plants world wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeez, S.; Kakaria, B.K.; Hinchley, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Through their operating records, CANDU reactors have established themselves as a successful and cost-effective source of electricity in Canada and abroad. They have proven to be safe, reliable and economical. A variety of factors have contributed to the enviable CANDU record, such as a sound design based on proven principles supported by effective development programs, along with dedicated plant owners committed to excellence in safely maintaining and operating their plants. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the CANDU designer, has continuously maintained a close relationship with owners/operators of the plants in Canada, Argentina, Romania and South Korea. AECL and the plant operators have all benefited from this strengthening relationship by sharing experience and information. CANDU plant operators have been required to respond decisively to the economic realities of downward cost pressures and deregulation. Operating, Maintenance and Administration (OM and A) costs are being given a new focus as plant owners review each cost element to improve the economic returns from their investments. Amongst the three main OM and A constituents, plant maintenance costs are the most variable and have the largest influence on effective plant operations. The correlation between effective plant maintenance and high capacity factors shows clearly the importance of proactive maintenance planning to reduce the frequency and duration of forced plant outages and their negative impacts on plant economics. This paper describes the management processes and organizational structures m AECL that support plant operations and maintenance in operating CANDU plants with cost effective products and services. (author)

  16. Simulation and experimental studies of operators' decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A traditional human factors (i.e., microergonomic) approach to complex human-machine systems is only concerned with improving the workstation (user interface) design. This approach, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface with job and organizational design, results in systems which lead, at best, only to sub-optimization and are therefore inherently error- and failure-prone. Such systems, when eventually faced with the concentration of certain fault events, will suffer from this open-quotes resident pathogenclose quotes and, as such, are doomed to failure. Also, when complex technological systems, such as nuclear power plants, move from routine to non-routine (normal to emergency) operation, the controlling operators need to dynamically match the system's new requirements. This mandates integrated and harmonious changes in information presentation (display), changes in (job) performance requirements in part because of operators' inevitable involuntary transition to different levels of cognitive control, and reconfigurations of the operators' team (organizational) structure and communication. It is also demonstrated that the skill, rule, and knowledge (SRK) model, developed by Rasmussen, is a high-potential and powerful framework that could be utilized for the proposed integration purpose. The objective of this research was threefold: (1) using the SRK model, to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators' individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances, on their performance and preference for traditional and ecological user interfaces

  17. Safety-related decision making at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    The decision making environment of an operating nuclear power plant is presented. The organizations involved, their roles and interactions as well as the main influencing factors and decision criteria are described. The focus is on safety-related decisions, and the framework is based on the situation at Loviisa power station. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is illustrated with decisions concerning plant modifications, optimization, acceptance of temporary configurations and extended repair times. Suggestions are made for rational and flexible risk-based control of allowed times to operate the plant with some components out of service. (orig.)

  18. Failed fuel monitoring at nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors: operating parameters, requirements and decision making criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    The procedure for estimating the number of failed fuel rods in the core and the prediction of their discharge efficiency during operation is presented. The procedure is based on the FFM data base and the I-131 and Xe-133 coolant activity. (author)

  19. Court decisions: Preclusion clause prevents operating stop for Kruemmel nuclear power plant. [Administrative Court of Schleswig, decision 12D 79/83 of Oct. 5, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    According to section 7b of the Atomic Energy Act, once an incontestable permit has been given under section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act, third parties do not have a right of appeal in any subsequent licensing procedure if the said appeal is based on facts which have been put forward already, or could have been brought forward by any third party having had access to information or to the preliminary licence laid open for public inspection. If the licensing authority decided within the margin of discretion provided by the law, the administrative court may not replace this discretion by discretion of the court. If in accordance with section 1 of the Atomic Energy Act an examination of the issues involved may result in a possible decision confirming the licensing authority's view or also the court's view, the court is obliged to accept the decision taken by the licensing authority, due to the principle of separation of powers, unless the licensing authority decided on the basis of incorrect or irrelevant facts, or left out of consideration facts of major importance.

  20. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  1. Pre-IPO Operational and Financial Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Babich; Matthew J. Sobel

    2004-01-01

    Many owners of growing privately held firms make operational and financial decisions in an effort to maximize the expected present value of the proceeds from an initial public offering (IPO). We ask: ÜWhat is the right time to make an IPO?Ý and ÜHow should operational and financial decisions be coordinated to increase the likelihood of a successful IPO?Ý Financial and operational decisions in this problem are linked because adequate financial capital is crucial for operational decisions to be...

  2. Visualization study of operators' plant knowledge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Tarou; Furuta, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear plants are typically very complicated systems and are required extremely high level safety on the operations. Since it is never possible to include all the possible anomaly scenarios in education/training curriculum, plant knowledge formation is desired for operators to enable thein to act against unexpected anomalies based on knowledge base decision making. The authors have been conducted a study on operators' plant knowledge model for the purpose of supporting operators' effort in forming this kind of plant knowledge. In this report, an integrated plant knowledge model consisting of configuration space, causality space, goal space and status space is proposed. The authors examined appropriateness of this model and developed a prototype system to support knowledge formation by visualizing the operators' knowledge model and decision making process in knowledge-based actions with this model on a software system. Finally the feasibility of this prototype as a supportive method in operator education/training to enhance operators' ability in knowledge-based performance has been evaluated. (author)

  3. Ergonomics and risk management in high risk organizations: nuclear power plant operator decision making; A ergonomia e a gestao de risco em organizacoes que lidam com tecnologias perigosas: tomada de decisao de operadores de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de

    2003-08-15

    Nuclear power plants are high hazard environments where emergency situations can have devastating effects. The operator crew has the ultimate responsibility to control the energy production process with safety. The outcome of a crisis is consequently dependent on the crew's judgement, decision making and situation awareness. In such way we should know how operators make their decisions in order to develop safety strategies. The aim of this thesis is to examine the cognitive processes through which operators make decisions when dealing with micro incidents during their actual work, and to determine whether they use a naturalistic or normative decision making strategy. That is, do they try to recognize the micro incident as familiar and base decisions on condition-action rules (naturalistic), or do they need to concurrently compare and contrast options before selecting the best possible (normative). The method employed for data collection was the Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) and Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The main findings of this thesis were that decision making is primarily based on naturalistic strategies, such as condition-action rules and recognition. In new situations rules are created ad hoc. These rules appear derived from experience and training rather than from Standard Operating Procedures and contrast normative competence standards used by nuclear industry. (author)

  4. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  5. Operation monitor for plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tetsufumi; Kanemoto, Shigeru.

    1991-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, states of each of equipment in the plant are monitored accurately even under such a operation condition that the power is changed. That is, the fundamental idea is based on a model comparison method. A deviation between an output signal upon normal plant state obtained in a forecasting model device and that of the objective equipment in the plant are compared with a predetermined value. The result of the comparison is inputted to an alarm device to alarm the abnormality of the states of the equipment to an operator. The device of the present invention thus constituted can monitor the abnormality of the operation of equipment accurately even under such a condition that a power level fluctuates. As a result, it can remarkably contribute to mitigate operator's monitoring operation under the condition such as during load following operation. (I.S.)

  6. Kvanefjeld refinery pilot plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Damien; Furfaro, Domenic

    2016-01-01

    Greenland Minerals and Energy is a junior project development company which is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (asx:GGG). It is developing the Kvanefjeld rare earth and uranium project located in the southern tip of Greenland. The project has completed a Feasibility Study and is currently in the permitting phase. Last year was a busy time for the company as it completed a Feasibility Study, a mining licence application (draft submitted in December 2015) and pilot plant operations. Beneficiation pilot plant operations were completed at GTK in Finland in April 2015. This pilot plant treated approximately 30 tonnes of ore to producing almost 2 tonnes of rare earth mineral concentrate. Later in the year a hydrometallurgical pilot plant was performed which mimicked the Refinery process. This pilot plant was performed at Outotec’s Pori Research laboratories in Finland from September till October 2015. The pilot plant treated approximately 200 kilograms of concentrate over 4 split operating campaigns. Each campaign was performed to focus on the performance of a specific part of the refinery flowsheet. This allowed for full operating focus on a single unit operation to ensure that it was operating correctly. The pilot plant operations were quite successful with no major issues with the flowsheet identified through continuous operation. Some fine tuning of conditions was required to ensure adequate removal of impurities was performed with recycle streams incorporated. Overall the leach extractions observed in the pilot plant exceeded the design assumptions in the Feasibility Study. These programs were partially funded by the EURARE program. The EURARE program aims to encourage the sustainable development of European based rare earth projects. This has the goal of allowing Europe to become less reliant on importation of these key raw materials. The professionalism and performance of both GTK and Outotec contributed significantly to the success of the pilot plant

  7. Plant operator performance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Mitsuko; Kubota, Ryuji.

    1989-01-01

    A plant operator performance evaluation system to analyze plant operation records during accident training and to identify and classify operator errors has been developed for the purpose of supporting realization of a training and education system for plant operators. A knowledge engineering technique was applied to evaluation of operator behavior by both even-based and symptom-based procedures, in various situations including event transition due to multiple failures or operational errors. The system classifies the identified errors as to their single and double types based on Swain's error classification and the error levels reflecting Rasmussen's cognitive level, and it also evaluates the effect of errors on plant state and then classifies error influence, using 'knowledge for phenomena and operations', as represented by frames. It has additional functions for analysis of error statistics and knowledge acquisition support of 'knowledge for operations'. The system was applied to a training analysis for a scram event in a BWR plant, and its error analysis function was confirmed to be effective by operational experts. (author)

  8. Computer aids for plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    For some time, particularly since the TMI accident, nuclear power plant operators have been aware of the difficulties involved in diagnosing accidents and returning plants to their stable, safe operating mode. There are various possible solutions to these problems: improve control organization during accident situations, rewrite control procedures, integrate safety engineers in shifts, improve control rooms, and implement additional computer aids. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the efforts undertaken by EDF over the last few years in this field

  9. Organizing nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Rekittke, K.

    1987-01-01

    With the preliminary culmination in the convoy plants of the high standard of engineered safeguards in German nuclear power plants developed over the past twenty years, the interest of operators has now increasingly turned to problems which had not been in the focus of attention before. One of these problems is the organization of nuclear power plant operation. In order to enlarge the basis of knowledge, which is documented also in the rules published by the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee), the German Federal Minister of the Interior has commissioned a study of the organizational structures of nuclear power plants. The findings of that study are covered in the article. Two representative nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany were selected for the study, one of them a single-unit plant run by an independent operating company in the form of a private company under German law (GmbH), the other a dual-unit plant operated as a dependent unit of a utility. The two enterprises have different structures of organization. (orig.) [de

  10. Expert systems to assist plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Mori, Nobuyuki; Wada, Norio

    1985-01-01

    Large-scale real-time process control systems, such as those for electric power dispatching, large thermal and nuclear power stations, steel mill plants and manufacturing automation systems, need expert systems to assist operator's decision. The expert systems newly developed to fulfill the requirement are founded on OKBS (object oriented knowledge based system). OKBS provides various object types: fuzzy logic type, production rule type, frame type, state transition type, abstract data type and input/output transformation type. (author)

  11. Operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, P.

    1988-04-01

    The textbook for training nuclear power plant personnel is centred on the most important aspects of operating modes of WWER-440 reactors. Attention is devoted to the steady state operation of the unit, shutdown, overhaul with refuelling, physical and power start-up. Also given are the regulations of shift operation and the duties of individual categories of personnel during the shift and during the change of shifts. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Supporting plant operation through computer-based procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Victor; Medrano, Javier; Mendez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Digital Systems are becoming more important in controlling and monitoring nuclear power plant operations. The capabilities of these systems provide additional functions as well as support operators in making decisions and avoiding errors. Regarding Operation Support Systems, an important way of taking advantage of these features is using computer-based procedures (CBPs) tools that enhance the plant operation. Integrating digital systems in analogue controls at nuclear power plants in operation becomes an extra challenge, in contrast to the integration of Digital Control Systems in new nuclear power plants. Considering the potential advantages of using this technology, Tecnatom has designed and developed a CBP platform taking currently operating nuclear power plants as its design basis. The result is a powerful tool which combines the advantages of CBPs and the conventional analogue control systems minimizing negative effects during plant operation and integrating operation aid-systems to support operators. (authors)

  13. Operating plant safety analysis needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.Y.; Love, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective for nuclear power station owners is to operate and manage their plants safely. However, there is also a need to provide economical electric power, which requires that the unit be operated as efficiently as possible, consistent with the safety requirements. The objectives cited above can be achieved through the identification and use of available margins inherent in the plant design. As a result of conservative licensing and analytical approaches taken in the past, many of these margins may be found in the safety analysis limits within which plants currently operate. Improvements in the accuracy of the safety analysis, and a more realistic treatment of plant initial and boundary conditions, can make this margin available for a variety of uses which enhance plant performance, help to reduce O and M costs, and may help to extend licensed operation. Opportunities for improvement exist in several areas in the accident analysis normally performed for Chapter 15 of the FSAR. For example, recent modifications to the ECCS rule, 10CFR50.46 and Appendix K, allow use of margins previously unavailable in the analysis of the Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). To take advantage of this regulatory change, new methods are being developed to analyze both the large and small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). As this margin is used, enhancements in the analysis of other transients will become necessary. The paper discusses accident analysis methods, future development needs, and analysis margin utilization in specific accident scenarios

  14. Plant operation state monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masanori; Babuchi, Katsumi; Arato, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    The system of the present invention accurately monitors a plant operation state of a plant, such as a nuclear power plant and a thermal power plant by using high temperature water, based on water quality informations. That is, water quality informations for the objective portion by using an electrochemical water quality sensor disposed in the objective portion to be monitored in the plant are continuously extracted for a predetermined period of time. Water quality is evaluated based on the extracted information. Obtained results for water quality evaluation and predetermined reference values of the plant operation handling are compared. Necessary part among the results of the measurement is displayed or recorded. The predetermined period of time described above is a period that the water quality information reaches at least a predetermined value or a period that the predetermined value is estimated by the water quality information, and it is defined as a period capable of measuring the information for three months continuously. The measurement is preferably conducted continuously in a period up to each periodical inspection on about every one year. (I.S.)

  15. Quality assurance during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The general requirements applicable to the quality assurance of the Finnish nuclear power plants are presented in the Council of State Decision (395/91) and in the guide YVL 1.4. This guide specifies the quality assurance requirements to be applied during the operation of the nuclear power plants as well as of the other nuclear facilities. Quality assurance applies to all the activities and organizations with a bearing on the safe operation of the nuclear power plants. (5 refs.)

  16. Administration in an operating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, K.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of strict administrative procedures in the daily work is being demonstrated by commenting on events that occured in the operation of German nuclear power plants. The procedure for working in an area of the plant (pressurized medium, high-radioactive level, explosive of flammable mediums), where special measures for safe working have to be taken, is discussed in detail. The administrative problems during refuelling time are further on mentioned, especially the problems connected with administering more than 1,000 people with respect to health protection and sabotage protection. Some general comments on the influences from external causes (authorities, courts, etc.) are given. (orig./ORU) [de

  17. Spill operation system decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.

    1992-01-01

    The MSRC Spill Operation System (SOS) is a tool for the support of decision-making at the time of a catastrophic oil spill. SOS provides MSRC decision-makers with access to information about the source of the spill, the spill environment, and the availability of spill response resources. This system is designed to meet the information needs of a Response Supervisor, an Environmental Advisor, Logistics/Maintenance Supervisor, Operations Supervisor, and the MSRC Regional General Manager. The SOS project Objectives are: (1) integrate currently available data, systems, and technologies; (2) develop an application that effectively supports mobilized operations and can be adapted to support normal operations; (3) ensure that the development of computer applications is driven by user needs and not by technology; and (4) coordinate with government and other industry organizations to avoid duplication of effort. Design Objectives for SOS are: (1) centralize management information storage while decentralizing decision making capabilities; (2) boost User confidence by providing a system that is easy to learn, easy to use, and is open-quotes Sailor Proofclose quotes; and (3) use visualization technology in providing spill related information. This approach includes the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology for maps and geographically associated resource; and support MSRC's concept of operation which includes - a swift notification of response personnel; fast mobilization of response resources; and accurate tracking of resources during a spill. MSRC is organized into five responsibility regions

  18. Intelligent decision aids for abnormal events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Polke, H.

    1988-01-01

    German nuclear power plants are characterized by a high degree of automation, not only for normal operation but also for abnormal events. Therefore the role of the operating personnel is mainly a supervisory function. Nevertheless, for a spectrum of unexpected events the operating personnel have to react with manual recovery actions. In order to minimize human error in such recovery actions, different kinds of intelligent decision aid support the operators today. In this paper such aids are discussed and one of them is described in more detail. (author)

  19. Data warehouse based decision support system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadinic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Safety is an important element in business decision making processes in nuclear power plants. Information about component reliability, structures and systems, data recorded during the nuclear power plant's operation and outage periods, as well as experiences from other power plants are located in different database systems throughout the power plant. It would be possible to create a decision support system which would collect data, transform it into a standardized form and store it in a single location in a format more suitable for analyses and knowledge discovery. This single location where the data would be stored would be a data warehouse. Such data warehouse based decision support system could help make decision making processes more efficient by providing more information about business processes and predicting possible consequences of different decisions. Two main functionalities in this decision support system would be an OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) and a data mining system. An OLAP system would enable the users to perform fast, simple and efficient multidimensional analysis of existing data and identify trends. Data mining techniques and algorithms would help discover new, previously unknown information from the data as well as hidden dependencies between various parameters. Data mining would also enable analysts to create relevant prediction models that could predict behaviour of different systems during operation and inspection results during outages. The basic characteristics and theoretical foundations of such decision support system are described and the reasons for choosing a data warehouse as the underlying structure are explained. The article analyzes obvious business benefits of such system as well as potential uses of OLAP and data mining technologies. Possible implementation methodologies and problems that may arise, especially in the field of data integration, are discussed and analyzed.(author)

  20. Operator decision support system for sodium loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Hyeang; Park, Kyu Ho; Kim, Tak Kon; Jo, Choong Ho; Seong, Kyeong A; Lee, Keon Myeong; Kim, Yeong Dal; Kim, Chang Beom; Kim, Jong Kyu; Jo, Hee Chang; Lee, Ji Hyeong; Jeong, Yoon Soo; Chio, Jong Hyeong; Jeong, Bong Joon; Hong, Joon Seong; Kim, Bong Wan; Seong, Byeong Hak [Korea Advanced Institute Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an operator decision support system by computerizing the sodium circuit. This study developed graphical display interface for the control panel which provides the safety control of equipment, the recognition of experimental process states and sodium circuit states. In this study, basic work to develop an operator decision support real-time expert system for sodium loop was carried out. Simplification of control commands and effective operation of various real-time data and signals by equipment code standardization are studied. The cost ineffectiveness of the single processor structure provides the ground for the development of cost effective parallel processing system. The important tasks of this study are (1) design and implementation of control state surveillance panel of sodium loop, (2) requirement analysis of operator support real-time expert system for sodium loop, (3) design of standard code rule for operating equipment and research on the cost effective all purpose parallel processing system and (4) requirement analysis of expert system and design of control state variables and user interface for experimental process. 10 refs., 36 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Method for plant operation guidance by knowledge engineering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiguchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Kenichi; Motoda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Setsuo

    1983-01-01

    A method for plant operation guidance has been developed by using the Knowledge Engineering technique. The method is characterized by its capability of handling plant dynamics. The knowledge-base includes plant simulation programs as tools to evaluate dynamic behaviors as well as production rules of ''if..., then...'' type. The inference engine is thus capable of predicting plant dynamics and making decisions in accordance with time progress. The performance of the guidance method was evaluated by simulation tests assuming various abnormal situations of a BWR power plant. It was shown that the method can detect each of the abnormal events along the course of their occurrence, and provide the guidance for corrective actions. The operation guidance method proposed in this paper is general and is applicable not only to nuclear power plants but also to other plants such as chemical production plants and fossile power plants. (author)

  2. Nuclear power plant operational data compilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electricite de France R and D Division has set up a nuclear power plant operational data compilation system. This data bank, created through American documents allows results about plant operation and operational material behaviour to be given. At present, French units at commercial operation are taken into account. Results obtained after five years of data bank operation are given. (author)

  3. A Study on the Operator Decision Support for Feed-and-Bleed Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    In the case of a combined accident that includes a failure of the secondary cooling system, it is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of an feed and bleed (F and B) operation because a lot of parameters and alarms should be checked before a decision, and operators may spend a considerable amount of time arriving at the entry for a proper emergency operating procedure that contains the procedure for an F and B operation. Therefore, a clear identification of the success boundary of an F and B operation would help operators in their decision-making when a combined accident that includes a secondary cooling system failure occurs. This study will provide a useful guideline for the initiation of an F and B operation for operators. Cooling the RCS after a scram is one of the most important safety functions for preventing core damage. To support the operator in decision making whether to initiate the F and B operation, plant conditions requiring the initiation of an F and B operation were identified. Plant conditions are affected by the steam generator inventory, RCS inventory, core inventory, and safety injection availability. The combination of accident types, component availabilities, and the initiation time of an F and B operation affect the success of the F and B operation. Operators need clear information about the RCS condition when the steam generators, the RCS's main residual heat removal mechanism, become unavailable. When this happens, the initiation of an F and B operation becomes necessary. As the number of the state increases, the necessity of an F and B operation increases. Especially, the operator should initiate an F and B operation when the RCS condition enters State 3 for Type 1 incidents or State 3-2 for Type 2 incidents. The results of this study may be useful in providing information regarding the necessity and effects of an F and B operation in a quantitative manner. In particular, in the case of a combined accident including a

  4. Nuclear power plant operating experience, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports issued annually that summarize the operating experience of U.S. nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure and radioactive effluents for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1976 data from 55 plants--23 boiling water reactor plants and 32 pressurized water reactor plants

  5. Intelligent operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Akira; Suto, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants consist of many systems and are operated by skillful operators with plenty of knowledge and experience of nuclear plants. Recently, plant automation or computerized operator support systems have come to be utilized, but the synthetic judgment of plant operation and management remains as human roles. Toshiba is of the opinion that the activities (planning, operation and maintenance) should be integrated, and man-machine interface should be human-friendly. We have begun to develop the intelligent operation system aiming at reducing the operator's role within the fundamental judgment through the use of artificial intelligence. (author)

  6. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc

    2007-01-01

    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  7. Expert system of real time for support of operators of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashlykov, A.A.; Davidenko, N.N.; Dumshev, V.G.; Kislov, G.I.; Pavlova, E.V.; Prozorovskij, E.D.; Bashlykov, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of construction and introdution of an intellectual system for information support of operators at nuclear power plants are discussed. This system is used for operator assisstance during real time decision making for NPP operational regime control

  8. Review of operational aids for nuclear plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Many approaches are being explored to improve the safety of nuclear plant operations. One approach is to supply high-quality, relevant information by means of computer-based diagnostic systems to assist plant operators in performing their operational and safety-related roles. The evaluation of operational aids to ensure safe plant operations is a necessary function of NRC. This work has two purposes: to collect limited data on a diversity of operational aids, and to provide a method for evaluating the safety implications of the functions of proposed operational aids. After a discussion of the method evaluation now under study, this paper outlines this data collection to date

  9. Simulators predict power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2002-07-01

    Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.

  10. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelated...... modes are required to cover the whole operational window of a processs plant including intermediary operating modes. Development of such an model ensemble for a plant would constitute a systematic way of defining the possible plant operating modes and thus provide a platform for also defining a set...... of candidate control structures. The present contribution focuses on development of a model ensemble for a plant with an illustartive example for a bioreactor. Starting from a functional model a process plant may be conceptually designed and qualitative operating models may be developed to cover the different...

  11. Prototype equipment status monitor for plant operational configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVerno, M.; Trask, D.; Groom, S.

    1998-01-01

    CANDU plants, such as the Point Lepreau GS, have tens of thousands of operable devices. The status of each operable device must be immediately available to plan and execute future changes to the plant. Historically, changes to the plant's operational configuration have been controlled using manual and administrative methods where the status of each operable device is maintained on operational flowsheets located in the work control area of the main control room. The operational flowsheets are used to plan and develop Operating Orders (OOs) or Order-to-Operate (OTOs) and the control centre work processes are used to manage their execution. After performing each OO procedure, the operational flowsheets are updated to reflect the new plant configuration. This process can be very time consuming, and due to the manual processes, can lead to the potential for time lags and errors in the recording of the current plant configuration. Through a cooperative research and development program, Canadian CANDU utilities and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, the design organization, have applied modern information technologies to develop a prototype Equipment Status Monitor (ESM) to address processes and information flow for efficient operational configuration management. The ESM integrates electronic operational flowsheets, equipment databases, engineering and work management systems, and computerized procedures to assess, plan, execute, track, and record changes to the plant's operational configuration. This directly leads to improved change control, more timely and accurate plant status information, fewer errors, and better decision making regarding future changes. These improvements to managing the plant's operational configuration are essential to increasing plant safety, achieving a high plant availability, and maintaining high capability and capacity factors. (author)

  12. Operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook gives a systematic introduction into the operational and maintenance activities in nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Subjects: (1) Setup and operational behaviour of power reactors, (2) setup of nuclear power plants, (3) radiation protection and nuclear safety, (4) nuclear fuel, (5) constructional layout of nuclear power plants, (6) management, and (7) maintenance. 158 figs., 56 tabs

  13. Operation and safety decision-making support expert system in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yanhui; Su Desong; Chen Weihua; Zhang Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    The article first reviewed three operation support systems currently used in NPP: real-time information surveillance system, important equipment surveillance system and plant process control and monitoring system, then presents the structure and function of three expert support sub-systems (intelligent alarm monitoring system, computer-based operating procedure support system, safety information expert decision support system). Finally the article discussed the meaning of a kind of operation decision making support system. (authors)

  14. An analyser for power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.E.; Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and reliable operation of power plants is essential. Power plant operators need a forecast of what the plant will do when its current state is disturbed. The in-line plant analyser provides precisely this information at relatively low cost. The plant analyser scheme uses a mathematical model of the dynamic behaviour of the plant to establish a numerical simulation. Over a period of time, the simulation is calibrated with measurements from the particular plant in which it is used. The analyser then provides a reference against which to evaluate the plant's current behaviour. It can be used to alert the operator to any atypical excursions or combinations of readings that indicate malfunction or off-normal conditions that, as the Three Mile Island event suggests, are not easily recognised by operators. In a look-ahead mode, it can forecast the behaviour resulting from an intended change in settings or operating conditions. Then, when such changes are made, the plant's behaviour can be tracked against the forecast in order to assure that the plant is behaving as expected. It can be used to investigate malfunctions that have occurred and test possible adjustments in operating procedures. Finally, it can be used to consider how far from the limits of performance the elements of the plant are operating. Then by adjusting settings, the required power can be generated with as little stress as possible on the equipment. (6 figures) (Author)

  15. Method and apparatus for optimizing operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, David [Mentor, OH; Katrompas, Alexander M [Concord, OH; Parikh, Neel J [Richmond Heights, OH

    2009-09-01

    A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.

  16. Towards A New Decision Support System for Design, Management and Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Caniani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing attention paid to the environment has led to a reduction in the emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Moreover, the increasing interest in the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from WWTPs suggests that we reconsider the traditional tools used for designing and managing WWTPs. Indeed, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane can be emitted from wastewater treatment, significantly contributing to the greenhouse gas (GHG footprint. The reduction of energy consumption as well as GHG emission are of particular concern for large WWTPs which treat the majority of wastewater in terms of both volume and pollution load. Nowadays, there is an increasing need to develop new tools that include additional performance indicators related to GHG emissions and energy consumption as well as traditional effluent quality parameters. Energy consumption, in fact, can be considered as an indirect source of GHGs. This paper presents the development of an ongoing research project aiming at setting-up an innovative mathematical model platform for the design and management of WWTPs. The final goal of the project by means of this platform is to minimize the environmental impact of WWTPs through their optimization in terms of energy consumptions and emissions, which can be regarded as discharged pollutants, sludge and GHGs.

  17. Fatigue assessments in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, S.R.; Deardorff, A.F.; Peltola, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1991, the ASME Section XI Task Group on Operating Plant Fatigue Assessment was formed to develop criteria and evaluation methodology for evaluating the effects of cyclic operation in operating nuclear power plants. The objective was to develop guidelines for inclusion in Section XI that could be used by plant operators in evaluating fatigue concerns and their impact on serviceability. This paper discusses the work performed by the Task Group. It explores the concept of ''Fatigue Design Basis'' versus ''Fatigue Operating Basis'' by examining the roles of ASME Section III and ASME Section XI in the design and operation of the nuclear power plants. Guidelines are summarized that may help plant operators perform effective design transient cycle evaluations and optimize cycle counting and fatigue usage tracking. The alternative fatigue evaluation approach using flaw tolerance is also introduced

  18. The operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The duties to be performed in managing the operation of a nuclear power plant are highly diverse, as will be explained in this contribution by the examples of the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station. The excellent safety record and the high availabilities of German nuclear power plants demonstrate that their operators have adopted the right approaches. Systematic evaluation of the operating experience accumulated inhouse and in other plants is of great significance in removing weak spots and improving operation. The manifold and complex activities in the structure of organization and of activities in a nuclear power plant require a high degree of division of labor. (orig.) [de

  19. Operational characteristics of nuclear power plants - modelling of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studovic, M.

    1984-01-01

    By operational experience of nuclear power plants and realize dlevel of availability of plant, systems and componenst reliabiliuty, operational safety and public protection, as a source on nature of distrurbances in power plant systems and lessons drawn by the TMI-2, in th epaper are discussed: examination of design safety for ultimate ensuring of safe operational conditions of the nuclear power plant; significance of the adequate action for keeping proess parameters in prescribed limits and reactor cooling rquirements; developed systems for measurements detection and monitoring all critical parameters in the nuclear steam supply system; contents of theoretical investigation and mathematical modeling of the physical phenomena and process in nuclear power plant system and components as software, supporting for ensuring of operational safety and new access in staff education process; program and progress of the investigation of some physical phenomena and mathematical modeling of nuclear plant transients, prepared at faculty of mechanical Engineering in Belgrade. (author)

  20. Support for decision making and problem solving in abnormal conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.; Humphreys, P.

    1985-01-01

    Under abnormal plant condition effective decision support has to take into account the operator's or other decision maker's mental model of the plant, derived from operating experience. This will be different from the engineering model incorporated in Disturbance Analysis Systems. Recently developed approaches for gaining access to the structure of this mental model provided the basis for the development of an interactive computer system capable of representing and exploring expert knowledge concerning inferences about causal patterns, starting from the information available to the operator in the control room. This system has potential application as an interactive diagnostic aid in support of decision making and problem solving during abnormal conditions. (Auth.)

  1. A symptom based decision tree approach to boiling water reactor emergency operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobel, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a Decision Tree approach to development of BWR Emergency Operating Procedures for use by operators during emergencies. This approach utilizes the symptom based Emergency Procedure Guidelines approved for implementation by the USNRC. Included in the paper is a discussion of the relative merits of the event based Emergency Operating Procedures currently in use at USBWR plants. The body of the paper is devoted to a discussion of the Decision Tree Approach to Emergency Operating Procedures soon to be implemented at two United States Boiling Water Reactor plants, why this approach solves many of the problems with procedures indentified in the post accident reviews of Three Mile Island procedures, and why only now is this approach both desirable and feasible. The paper discusses how nuclear plant simulators were involved in the development of the Emergency Operating Procedure decision trees, and in the verification and validation of these procedures. (orig./HP)

  2. A generic accounting model to support operations management decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, P.J.A.; Wouters, M.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Information systems are generally unable to generate information about the financial consequences of operations management decisions. This is because the procedures for determining the relevant accounting information for decision support are not formalised in ways that can be implemented in

  3. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  4. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  5. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  6. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  7. Regulatory interventions necessitated by non-conservative operator decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, D.; Chande, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Presently, India has 15 nuclear power units in operation and 8 units under construction. Though the safety performance of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in India has been excellent, a few recent events indicate that conservative decision making process can possibly get affected by perceived production goals. In one of the events, a need for some maintenance work arose while reactor start-up was in progress. After it was realized that the maintenance would require considerable time, the proper course of action would have been to shutdown the reactor and add neutron poison to moderator to ensure sufficient sub criticality. This was not done, as it would have delayed the start up of the reactor on completion of maintenance. In another incident, an unintended slow increase in reactor power occurred due to the adjuster rods becoming inoperable on account of blowing-off of fuses in their power supply. Under this condition, the reactor should have been tripped which was not done. Further, the automatic addition of boron poison to the reactor was inhibited. Regulatory review showed that both the incidents were indicative of degradation in safety culture and reflected operator's overriding concern for keeping the units in operation. Appropriate corrective actions were taken to prevent recurrence of such events in the respective units as also in all other operating units of similar type. In the wake of improved production performance operators may develop a tendency to create new operational records and compete with other units. This aspect points out to a need for careful study of events to check the presence of any element of non-conservative decision-making and to identify leading indicators of degradation in safety performance. (author)

  8. Contribution of quality assurance to effective nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.

    1984-01-01

    The regulatory requirements related to quality assurance (QA) serve as an effective mechanism in establishing and implementing the QA programme during the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. However, these requirements only relate to the equipment and activities concerning the safety of nuclear power plants; the decision as to their implementation on other non-safety-related equipment is left to the plant management. As a result, operation statistics show that the safety-related systems are performing satisfactorily and that they are not of serious concern to plant unavailability. On the other hand, non-safety-related equipment which is still vital to plant performances is more frequently responsible for plant outages and losses in electricity production. QA programmes implemented on such equipment are in principle less strict, unsystematic and, in a number of cases, non-existent. An attempt has been made to analyse the existing operating experience data in order to identify the correlation of outage statistics with QA programmes required by existing standards and their implementation practices, both in respect of programme coverage and intensity. Unfortunately, existing operating experience data cannot directly correlate plant performance with the QA programmes implemented in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of QA techniques to plant safety, reliability of plant equipment and plant availability. For these reasons an analysis is made of outage statistics to identify the modes and causes of outages and to relate them to existing QA requirements and practices. Some conclusions are deduced that relate to a possible improvement of plant performance by consequent implementation of QA requirements to the equipment and activities responsible for both plant safety and efficient electricity production, and by adequate grading of QA activities to obtain a cost-effective QA programme in plant operation. (author)

  9. Regulatory framework for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Alcaniz, T.; Esteban Barriendos, M.

    1995-01-01

    As the framework of standards and requirements covering each phase of nuclear power plant project and operation developed, plant owners defined their licensing commitments (codes, rules and design requirements) during the project and construction phase before start-up and incorporated regulatory requirements imposed by the regulatory Body during the licensing process prior to operation. This produces a regulatory framework for operating a plant. It includes the Licensing Basis, which is the starting point for analyzing and incorporating new requirements, and for re-evaluation of existing ones. This presentation focuses on the problems of applying this regulatory framework to new operating activities, in particular to new projects, analyzing new requirements, and reconsidering existing ones. Clearly establishing a plant's licensing basis allows all organizations involved in plant operation to apply the requirements in a more rational way. (Author)

  10. Plant Operation: Work Week, Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A four-day work week for maintenance workers in the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado, reduces absenteeism and increases productivity; a basic manual for physical plant directors is reviewed. (Author/MLF)

  11. Licensing operators for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    The human element in the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is of utmost importance. Not only must the operators be technically competent in the execution of numerous complicated tasks, they must be capable of working together as a team to diagnose dynamic plant conditions to ensure that their plants are operated safely. The significance of human interaction skills and crew communications has been demonstrated most vividly in TMI and Chernobyl. It follows that the NRC must retain its high standards for licensing operators. This paper discusses activities and initiatives being employed by the NRC to enhance the reliability of its licensing examinations, and to build a highly qualified examiner work force

  12. Preparation of Leaders to Make Decisions in Peacekeeping Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pappal, Michael

    2002-01-01

    .... Areas investigated include personal confidence in decision-making of various types, amount of training and education received in peace operations, and assessments of Army preparations of leaders...

  13. Integrated Life Cycle Management: A Strategy for Plants to Extend Operating Lifetimes Safely with High Operational Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, Thomas; Bruck, Paul; Mengers, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators are studying the possibility of extending their existing generating facilities operating lifetime to 60 years and beyond. Many nuclear plants have been granted licenses to operate their facilities beyond the original 40 year term; however, in order to optimize the long term operating strategies, plant decision-makers need a consistent approach to support their options. This paper proposes a standard methodology to support effective decision-making for the long-term management of selected station assets. Methods detailed are intended to be used by nuclear plant site management, equipment reliability personnel, long term planners, capital asset planners, license renewal staff, and others that intend to look at operation between the current time and the end of operation. This methodology, named Integrated Life Cycle Management (ILCM), will provide a technical basis to assist decision makers regarding the timing of large capital investments required to get to the end of operation safely and with high plant reliability. ILCM seeks to identify end of life cycle failure probabilities for individual plant large capital assets and attendant costs associated with their refurbishment or replacement. It will provide a standard basis for evaluation of replacement and refurbishment options for these components. ILCM will also develop methods to integrate the individual assets over the entire plant thus assisting nuclear plant decision-makers in their facility long term operating strategies. (author)

  14. Operational safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational safety of nuclear power plants has become an important safety issue since the Chernobyl accident. A description is given of the various aspects of operational safety, including the importance of human factors, responsibility, the role and training of the operator, the operator-machine interface, commissioning and operating procedures, experience feedback, and maintenance. The lessons to be learnt from Chernobyl are considered with respect to operator errors and the management of severe accidents. Training of personnel, operating experience feedback, actions to be taken in case of severe accidents, and international cooperation in the field of operational safety, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Training of power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftwerksschule, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    In Germany, professional training of power plant operating personnel became an important issue in the fifties, when power plant parameters as well as complexity of instrumentation and control increased considerably. Working Groups of VGB Technische Vereiningung der Grosskraftwerketreiber e.v. (Association of Large Power Plant Operators) developed a professional career for power plant operating personnel and defined pre-requisites, scope and objectives of training. In 1957 the German utilities founded KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (kws) as a school for theoretical training and for guidance of practical training in the power plants. KWS is a non-profit organisation and independent of authorities. Today KWS has 127 members in Germany and in 6 other countries. The objectives of KWS include the training of: -Kraftwerker (control room operators; - Kraftwerksmesiter (shift supervisors); and - shift engineers; according the guidelines of the VGB

  16. The critical safety functions and plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.; Church, J.F.; Cross, M.T.; Guinn, W.M.; Porter, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    The operator's role in nuclear safety is outlined and the concept of ''safety functions'' introduced. Safety functions are a group of actions that prevent core melt or minimize radiation releases to the general public. They can be used to provide a hierarchy of practical plant protection that an operator should use. The plant safety evaluation uses four inputs in predicting the results of an event: the event initiator, the plant design, the initial plant conditions and setup, and the operator actions. If any of these inputs are not as assumed in the evaluation, confidence that the consequences will be as predicted is reduced. Based on the safety evaluation, the operator has three roles in assuring that the consequences of an event will be no worse than the predicted acceptable results: Maintain plant setup in readiness to properly respond. Operate the plant in a manner such that fewer, milder events minimize the frequency and the severity of adverse events. Monitor the plant to verify that the safety functions are accomplished. The operator needs a systematic approach to mitigating the consequences of an event. The concept of safety functions introduces this systematic approach and presents a hierarchy of protection. If the operator has difficulty identifying an event for any reason, the systematic safety function approach allows accomplishing the overall path of mitigating consequences. Ten functions designed to protect against core melt, preserve containment integrity, prevent indirect release of radioactivity, and maintain vital auxiliaries needed to support the other safety functions are identified

  17. Qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America

  18. Evaluation of nuclear power plant operator's ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)

  19. Development of an integrated decision support system to aid cognitive activities of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    As digital and computer technologies have grown, Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) have evolved. In safety-critical systems, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), HMIs are important for reducing operational costs, the number of necessary operators, and the probability of accident occurrence. Efforts have been made to improve Main Control Room (MCR) interface design and to develop automated or decision support systems to ensure convenient operation and maintenance. In this paper, an integrated decision support system to aid operator cognitive processes is proposed for advanced MCRs of future NPPs. This work suggests the design concept of a decision support system which accounts for an operator's cognitive processes. The proposed system supports not only a particular task, but also the entire operation process based on a human cognitive process model. In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed according to a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each cognitive process activity are suggested

  20. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's safety requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Safety objectives and principles; 3. The management and organizational structure of the operating organization; 4. Management of operational safety; 5. Operational safety programmes; 6. Plant commissioning; 7. Plant operations; 8. Maintenance, testing, surveillance and inspection; 9. Preparation for decommissioning.

  1. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's safety requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Safety objectives and principles; 3. The management and organizational structure of the operating organization; 4. Management of operational safety; 5. Operational safety programmes; 6. Plant commissioning; 7. Plant operations; 8. Maintenance, testing, surveillance and inspection; 9. Preparation for decommissioning.

  2. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Arabic Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's safety requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Safety objectives and principles; 3. The management and organizational structure of the operating organization; 4. Management of operational safety; 5. Operational safety programmes; 6. Plant commissioning; 7. Plant operations; 8. Maintenance, testing, surveillance and inspection; 9. Preparation for decommissioning.

  3. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's safety requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Safety objectives and principles; 3. The management and organizational structure of the operating organization; 4. Management of operational safety; 5. Operational safety programmes; 6. Plant commissioning; 7. Plant operations; 8. Maintenance, testing, surveillance and inspection; 9. Preparation for decommissioning.

  4. Pricing, Variety, and Inventory Decisions in Retail Operations Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maddah, Bacel

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with decision making in retail operations management. Specifically, we focus on pricing, variety, and inventory decisions, which are at the interface of the marketing and operations functions of a retail firm. We consider two problems that relate to two major types of retail goods. First, we study joint pricing, variety, and inventory decisions for a set of substitutable" items that serve the same need for the consumer (commonly referred to as a "retailer's ...

  5. A study on the operator's communication pattern characteristics under abnormal operating situation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Park, J.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has become more important and a human reliability analysis (HRA) is known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of a PSA. As a part of enhancing the HRA quality, a study was initiated to find out characteristics of communication pattern and to evaluate communication quality of the operators of nuclear power plants. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing evaluation methods for the effect of human-induced events on risk/performance. This paper describes a study on the operator's communication pattern characteristics under abnormal operating situation of nuclear power plants. The study was carried out in four stages; 1) Video recording 2) Audio scripting 3) Message Classification 4) Communication Pattern Analysis. We recorded eight abnormal simulator training programs from Younggwang nuclear power plant training center. After that we performed message classification and carried out communication pattern analysis. We compared communication patterns of abnormal operating situation with emergency operating situation.As results of analysis, the role of SRO (senior reactor operator) under abnormal operating situation was decreased than the activities under emergency operating situation because each operator (reactor operator, turbine operator, safety supervisor) in main control room (MCR) performs the activity to control by himself with corresponding field engineers with his basic knowledge of the system. On the other hand, the operator's decision making processes and activities under abnormal operating situation were dramatically increased than the emergency operating situation. (authors)

  6. ALARA for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is outlined in connection with nuclear power plant operations. The basis of the concept is reviewed and a specific example of ALARA action is presented. (author)

  7. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  8. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K.

    1998-01-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  9. A judgment and decision-making model for plant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, Richard; Orrock, John L

    2018-06-12

    Recently plant biologists have documented that plants, like animals, engage in many activities that can be considered as behaviors, although plant biologists currently lack a conceptual framework to understand these processes. Borrowing the well-established framework developed by psychologists, we propose that plant behaviors can be constructively modeled by identifying four distinct components: 1) a cue or stimulus that provides information, 2) a judgment whereby the plant perceives and processes this informative cue, 3) a decision whereby the plant chooses among several options based on their relative costs and benefits, and 4) action. Judgment for plants can be determined empirically by monitoring signaling associated with electrical, calcium, or hormonal fluxes. Decision-making can be evaluated empirically by monitoring gene expression or differential allocation of resources. We provide examples of the utility of this judgment and decision-making framework by considering cases in which plants either successfully or unsuccessfully induced resistance against attacking herbivores. Separating judgment from decision-making suggests new analytical paradigms (i.e., Bayesian methods for judgment and economic utility models for decision-making). Following this framework, we propose an experimental approach to plant behavior that explicitly manipulates the stimuli provided to plants, uses plants that vary in sensory abilities, and examines how environmental context affects plant responses. The concepts and approaches that follow from the judgment and decision-making framework can shape how we study and understand plant-herbivore interactions, biological invasions, plant responses to climate change, and the susceptibility of plants to evolutionary traps. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-03-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  12. Safe operation of power plants. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymeyer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Electrotechniques were given a dominating role in the construction of nuclear power plants. The operation of power plants - particularly nuclear power plants - is impossible without the use of electrotechnical and control means. Despite of all reserve in the development and despite of the conservative attitude it is necessary to use the newest results of development and to incite the development ot new electronic systems for the solution of these tasks. (orig.) [de

  13. Increase of hydroelectric power plant operation reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshumbaev, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The new design of the turbine of hydroelectric power plant (HPP) is executed in the form of a pipe with plates. Proposed solution allows increasing the hydroelectric power plant capacity at existing head and water flow. At that time the HPP turbine reliability is increase, its operation performances are improving. Design efficiency is effective mostly for small-scale and micro-HPP due to reliable operation, low-end technology, and harmless ecological application. (author)

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-03-01

    In the third quarter of 1993, all of Finland's four nuclear power plant units were in power operation, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa units. The load factor average of the plant units was 83.6 %. None of the events which occurred during this annual quarter had any bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  15. Operation and maintenance in Genkai PWR Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shojiro

    1984-01-01

    The No.1 PWR plant with 559 MW capacity in the Genkai Nuclear Power Station, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., required about 115 days for the regular inspection in fiscal 1982 and thereafter, although more maintenance work was done. But No.2 plant of the same type required not more than 80 days. In most cases, the period of one operation cycle was from 10 to 12 months, but in the third operation cycle of No.2 plant, it is expected to be 13 months. The capacity ratio of the whole power station was 75.2% at the end of fiscal 1983. These operational records all exceeded the Japanese average. The plants are two-loop Westinghouse type PWRs, and No.1 plant started the commercial operation of anti h and the increment of P 0 + . (author) apacity ratio of No.1 plant was 71.6%, and that of No.2 plant was 85.5%. The intergranular attack on steam generator tubes was found first in the fifth regular inspection, and also in the sixth and seventh inspections, and the faulty tubes were plugged. The prevention of its spread is the largest problem. The in-service quality assurance activity, the personnel training program and the effort of upgrading the plant availability are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Plant operation monitoring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Tsugio; Matsuki, Tsutomu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for monitoring the operation of a nuclear power plant during operation, which improves the safety and reliability of operation without increasing an operator's burden. Namely, a chief in charge orally instruct an operation to an operator upon the operation of a plant constituent equipment. The operator points the equipment and calls the name. Actual operation instruction for the equipment is inputted after confirmation by oral response. The voices of theses series of operation instruction/point-calling/response confirmation are taken into a voice recognition processing device. The processing device discriminates each of the person who calls, and discriminates the content of the calls and objective equipments to be operated. Then, the series of procedures and contents of the operation for the equipments previously disposed in the data base are compared with the order of inputted calls, discriminated contents and the objective equipments to be operated. If they are not agreed with each other, the operation instruction is blocked even if actual operation instructions are inputted. (I.S.)

  17. On the plant operators performance during earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Abe, M.; Niwa, H.; Yoneda, T.; Matsunaga, M.; Suzuki, T.

    1994-01-01

    There is little data on which to judge the performance of plant operators during and after strong earthquakes. In order to obtain such data to enhance the reliability on the plant operation, a Japanese utility and a power plant manufacturer carried out a vibration test using a shaking table. The purpose of the test was to investigate operator performance, i.e., the quickness and correctness in switch handling and panel meter read-out. The movement of chairs during earthquake as also of interest, because if the chairs moved significantly or turned over during a strong earthquake, some arresting mechanism would be required for the chair. Although there were differences between the simulated earthquake motions used and actual earthquakes mainly due to the specifications of the shaking table, the earthquake motions had almost no influence on the operators of their capability (performance) for operating the simulated console and the personal computers

  18. Decision Support System for Reservoir Management and Operation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navar, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is currently experiencing a surge in dam construction for flood control, water supply and hydropower production, but ineffective reservoir management has caused problems in the region, such as water shortages, flooding and loss of potential hydropower generation. Our research aims to remedy ineffective reservoir management by developing a novel Decision Support System(DSS) to equip water managers with a technical planning tool based on the state of the art in hydrological sciences. The DSS incorporates a climate forecast model, a hydraulic model of the watershed, and an optimization model to effectively plan for the operation of a system of cascade large-scale reservoirs for hydropower production, while treating water supply and flood control as constraints. Our team will use the newly constructed hydropower plants in the Omo Gibe basin of Ethiopia as the test case. Using the basic HIDROTERM software developed in Brazil, the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) utilizes a combination of linear programing (LP) and non-linear programming (NLP) in conjunction with real time hydrologic and energy demand data to optimize the monthly and daily operations of the reservoir system. We compare the DSS model results with the current reservoir operating policy used by the water managers of that region. We also hope the DSS will eliminate the current dangers associated with the mismanagement of large scale water resources projects in Africa.

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-02-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa plant units were held during the report period. All events during this quarter are classified as Level hero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below authorised limits. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  20. The operating staff of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, G.; Christ, W.

    1988-01-01

    The training of its staff is one of the pillars of the safe and economical operation of a power plant. This is why power plant owners began to systematically train their staff already in the 50s, and why they created central training facilities. Staff members who have undergone this training make an indispensable contribution to the acceptedly high safety and availability of German power plants. The substantial cost of creating training facilities and of schooling plant staff is considered to be an investment for the future. Low labour turnover permits careful observation and development of staff and leads to a high standard of knowledge and experience. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-07-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. No event in the report period, or in the whole year of 1986, essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the adminstrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days in September

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-05-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the perssonnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the administrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days

  4. Operator support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuyuki; Tai, Ichiro; Sudo, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan maintains the high capacity factor, and its proportion taken in the total generated electric power exceeded 1/4, thus it has become the indispensable energy source. Recently moreover, the nuclear power plants which are harmonious with operators and easy to operate are demanded. For realizing this, the technical development such as the heightening of operation watching performance, the adoption of automation, and the improvement of various man-machine systems for reducing the burden of operators has been advanced by utilizing electronic techniques. In this paper, the trend of the man-machine systems in nuclear power plants, the positioning of operation support system, the support in the aspects of information, action and knowledge, the example of a new central control board, the operation support system using a computer, an operation support expert system and the problems hereafter are described. As the development of the man-machine system in nuclear power plants, the upgrading from a present new central control board system PODIA through A-PODIA, in which the operational function to deal with various phenomena arising in plants and safety control function are added, to 1-PODIA, in which knowledge engineering technology is adopted, is expected. (Kako, I.)

  5. Operation reports of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The requirements aiming to standardize the program of nuclear power plant operation report, required by Brazilian Energy Commission - CNEN - to evaluate the activities related to the nuclear technical safety and to the radiation protection during the units operational phase, are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Professional adaptability of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2006-01-01

    The paper concerns in the results of analysis for nuclear power plant (NPP) operator job and analysis for human errors related NPP accidents. Based on the principle of ergonomics a full psychological selection system of the professional adaptability of NPP operators including cognitive ability, personality and psychological health was established. The application way and importance of the professional adaptability research are discussed. (authors)

  7. Assuring human operator alertness at night in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore-Ede, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The human body is not designed for peak alertness and performance at night, nor is it well-equipped to cope with the frequent day-night inversions required by rotating shift work schedules. As a result, the human operator can become the weak link in a complex technological operation such as a nuclear power plant. The high degree of dependence on human operator vigilance, decision-making ability and performance that is required in nuclear power plant operations can conflict with the human sleepiness and error-proneness which naturally occur during the night shift or after extended periods without adequate sleep. An opportunity to address these problems has come from a series of major research advances in basic circadian physiology

  8. GLObal RIsk MANagement system for plant operations GLORIMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, Eugene B.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended by nuclear power plants in the preparation of their Independent Plant Evaluation (IPE) programs. The result of these projects is the generation of very useful information concerning plant operations, states, availability and risk. The potential application of this information is often unrealized due to the unwieldy form of the data as reported in the IPE. Plant personnel would benefit greatly from quick access to risk information as a means of supporting day-to-day decisions, but the information exists only in a difficult to understand and inaccessible form. There is a need to translate the costs invested in Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) projects into a useable tool for plant personnel. This paper describes a software tool developed by ARD Corporation to be used by plants to assist in determining the operational risks and benefits associated with modifying the plant state during normal and off-normal operations for performing maintenance. This tool integrates a relational database with an easy-to-use graphical user interface and several unique software features. The result is a responsive, easy-to-understand tool that integrates an organization's PRA/IPE into the operational and maintenance needs of the station. The Global Risk Management System is designed to allow the user to evaluate the risk associated with current and proposed plant states. The impact of changes in plant configuration, operational modes and equipment availability are assessed from a risk management perspective, but displayed in an easy-to-understand form for personnel not familiar with risk methodology. Additionally, pipe and instrumentation drawings can be retrieved by the user and displayed as a reference tool. (author)

  9. Smart Interfaces for Decisive Counterspace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ianni, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Research in "smart" man-machine interfaces for counterspace operations has been performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory to improve the warfighter's ability to gain situational awareness during satellite attacks...

  10. Unmanned operation of Hydro Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    2008-01-01

    Intentions to launch unmanned operation are no news, the very first occurred in Hydro Power Plants (HPP) at the time when the first computer technology was implemented into process of power generation, i.e. no later than in 1960 s . ENEL entering Slovenske elektrarne not only revived but significantly accelerated the implementation process of unmanned operation. Experience of ENEL says that unmanned operation means better reliability of the HPP and this is the priority. (author)

  11. Operation control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Osamu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To render the controlling functions of a central control console more centralized by constituting the operation controls for a nuclear power plant with computer systems having substantially independent functions such as those of plant monitor controls, reactor monitor management and CRT display and decreasing interactions between each of the systems. Constitution: An input/output device for the input of process data for a nuclear power plant and indication data for a plant control console is connected to a plant supervisory and control computer system and a display computer system, the plant supervisory control computer system and a reactor and management computer system are connected with a CRT display control device, a printer and a CRT display input/output device, and the display computer system is connected with the CRT display control device and the CRT display unit on the central control console, whereby process input can be processed and displayed at high speed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Development of JOYO Plant Operation Management Expert Tool (JOYPET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michino, Masanobu; Terano, Toshihiro; Hanawa, Mikio; Aoki, Hiroshi; Okubo, Toshiyuki

    2000-03-01

    The Operation and Maintenance Support Systems for JOYO are being developed, with the aim of ensuring the stable and safe operation of JOYO and improving operational reliability of future FBR plants. Plant Operation Management Expert Tool named JOYPET had been developed as one of the Operation and Maintenance Support Systems, which helps plant operation management. The following functions were developed and applied. (1) Papers management (Plant status management) function for maintenance activities, (2) Isolation management support function for plant operation, (3) Automatically drawing function of plant operation schedule, (4) Isolation judgment function for plant operation. By use this system, the plant management of JOYO was able to improved reliability and reduced manpower. (author)

  13. Risk-based decision analysis for groundwater operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document proposes a streamlined approach and methodology for performing risk assessment in support of interim remedial measure (IRM) decisions involving the remediation of contaminated groundwater on the Hanford Site. This methodology, referred to as ''risk-based decision analysis,'' also supports the specification of target cleanup volumes and provides a basis for design and operation of the groundwater remedies. The risk-based decision analysis can be completed within a short time frame and concisely documented. The risk-based decision analysis is more versatile than the qualitative risk assessment (QRA), because it not only supports the need for IRMs, but also provides criteria for defining the success of the IRMs and provides the risk-basis for decisions on final remedies. For these reasons, it is proposed that, for groundwater operable units, the risk-based decision analysis should replace the more elaborate, costly, and time-consuming QRA

  14. Decision-making in plants under competition

    OpenAIRE

    Gruntman, Michal; Groß, Dorothee; Májeková, Maria; Tielbörger, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Plants can plastically respond to light competition in three strategies, comprising vertical growth, which promotes competitive dominance; shade tolerance, which maximises performance under shade; or lateral growth, which offers avoidance of competition. Here, we test the hypothesis that plants can ‘choose’ between these responses, according to their abilities to competitively overcome their neighbours. We study this hypothesis in the clonal plant Potentilla reptans using an experimental setu...

  15. Artificial intelligence aid to efficient plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildberger, A.M.; Pack, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    As the nuclear power industry matures, it is becoming more and more important that plants be operated in an efficient, cost-effective manner, without, of course, any decrease in the essential margins of safety. Indeed, most opportunities for improved efficiency have little or no relation to nuclear safety, but are based on trade-offs among operator controllable parameters both within and external to the reactor itself. While these trade-offs are describable in terms of basic physical theory, thermodynamics, and the mathematics of control systems, their actual application is highly plant specific and influenced even by the day-to-day condition of the various plant components. This paper proposes the use of artificial intelligence techniques to construct a computer-based expert assistant to the plant operator for the purpose of aiding him in improving the efficiency of plant operation on a routine basis. The proposed system, which only advises the human operator, seems more amenable to the current regulatory approach than a truly automated control system even if the latter provides for manual override

  16. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2009-10-01

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  17. Team performance measures for abnormal plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Seaver, D.A.; Holmes, C.W.; Gaddy, C.D.; Toquam, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to work effectively, control room crews need to possess well-developed team skills. Extensive research supports the notion that improved quality and effectiveness are possible when a group works together, rather than as individuals. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recognized the role of team performance in plant safety and has attempted to evaluate licensee performance as part of audits, inspections, and reviews. However, reliable and valid criteria for team performance have not yet been adequately developed. The purpose of the present research was to develop such reliable and valid measures of team skills. Seven dimensions of team skill performance were developed on the basis of input from NRC operator licensing examiners and from the results of previous research and experience in the area. These dimensions included two-way communications, resource management, inquiry, advocacy, conflict resolution/decision-making, stress management, and team spirit. Several different types of rating formats were developed for use with these dimensions, including a modified Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) format and a Behavioral Frequency format. Following pilot-testing and revision, observer and control room crew ratings of team performance were obtained using 14 control room crews responding to simulator scenarios at a BWR and a PWR reactor. It is concluded, overall, that the Behavioral Frequency ratings appeared quite promising as a measure of team skills but that additional statistical analyses and other follow-up research are needed to refine several of the team skills dimensions and to make the scales fully functional in an applied setting

  18. Operator training simulator for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozuka, Hiromi

    1977-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, training of the operators is important. In Japan, presently there are two training centers, one is BWR operation training center at Okuma-cho, Fukushima Prefecture, and another the nuclear power generation training center in Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture, where the operators of PWR nuclear power plants are trained. This report describes the BWR operation training center briefly. Operation of a nuclear power plant is divided into three stages of start-up, steady state operation, and shut down. Start-up is divided into the cold-state start-up after the shut down for prolonged period due to periodical inspection or others and the hot-state start-up from stand-by condition after the shut down for a short time. In the cold-state start-up, the correction of reactivity change and the heating-up control to avoid excessive thermal stress to the primary system components are important. The BWR operation training center offers the next three courses, namely beginner's course, retraining course and specific training course. The training period is 12 weeks and the number of trainees is eight/course in the beginner's course. The simulator was manufactured by modeling No. 3 plant of Fukushima First Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co. The simulator is composed of the mimic central control panel and the digital computer. The software system comprises the monitor to supervise the whole program execution, the logic model simulating the plant interlock system and the dynamic model simulating the plant physical phenomena. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Intelligent decision support system for operators of the supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intelligent decision support system for operators of the supply department of oil and gas extracting industry. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... abnormal situations, pre-crash sensing, industrial drilling, decision-making support systems. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Permanent cessation of Tokai power plant's operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, T.

    1998-01-01

    Tokai power plant (166MWe, Magnox type: GCR) is the first commercial reactor in Japan and has been kept operating stable since its commissioning in July 1996. During this period it has produced electricity of approximately 27.7 billion KWh (as of March 1997) and its stable operation has contributed greatly to the stable supply of electricity in Japan. Furthermore, technologies in various fields have been developed, demonstrated and accumulated through the construction and operation of Tokai power plant. It also contributes to training for many nuclear engineers, and constructions and operations of nuclear power stations by other Japanese power companies. As a pioneer, it has been achieved to develop and popularize Japanese nuclear power generation. On the other hand, Tokai power plant has small capacity in its electric power output, even though the size of the reactor and heat exchangers are rather bigger than those of LWR due to the characteristics of GCR. Therefore, the generation cost is higher than the LWR. Since there is no plant whose reactor type is the same as that of Tokai power plant, the costs for maintenance and fuel cycle are relatively higher than that of LWR. Finally we concluded that the longer we operate it, the less we can take advantage of it economically. As a result of the evaluation for the future operation of Tokai power plant including the current status for supply of electricity by the Japanese utilities and study of decommissioning by Japanese government, we decided to have a plan of stopping its commercial operation of Tokai power plant in the end of March, 1998, when we completely consume its fuel that we possess. From now on, we set about performing necessary studies and researches on the field of plant characterization, remote-cutting, waste disposal for carrying out the decommissioning of Tokai power plant safely and economically. We are going to prepare the decommissioning planning for Tokai power plant in a few years based on the

  1. CANDU 9 operator plant display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueman, R.; Webster, A.; MacBeth, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet evolving client and regulatory needs, AECL has adopted an evolutionary approach to the design of the CANDU 9 control centre. That is, the design incorporates feedback from existing stations, reflects the growing diversity in the roles and responsibilities of the operating staff, and reduces costs associated with plant capital and operations, maintenance and administration (OM and A), through the appropriate introduction of new technologies. Underlying this approach is a refined engineering design process that cost-effectively integrates operational feedback and human factors engineering to define the operating staff information and information presentation requirements. Based on this approach, the CANDU 9 control centre will provide utility operating staff with the means to achieve improved operations and reduced OM and A costs. One of the design features that will contribute to the improved operational capabilities of the control centre is a new Plant Display System (PDS) that is separate from the digital control system. The PDS will be used to implement non-safety panel, and console video display systems within the CANDU 9 main control room (MCR). This paper presents a detailed description of the CANDU 9 Plant Display System and features that provide increased operational capabilities. (author)

  2. The critical safety functions and plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.; Church, J.F.; Porter, N.J.; Cross, M.T.; Guinn, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper outlines the operator's role in nuclear safety and introduces the concept of ''safety functions''. Safety functions are a group of actions that prevent core melt or minimize radiation releases to the general public. They can be used to provide a hierarchy of practical plant protection that an operator should use. ''An accident identical to that at Three Mile Island is not going to happen again'', said the Rogovin investigators. The concepts put forward in this paper are intended to help the operator avoid serious consequence from the next unexpected threat. On the basis of the safety evaluation, the operator has three roles in assuring that the consequences of an event will be no worse than the predicted acceptable results. These three operator roles are: first, maintain plant setup in readiness to properly respond; second, operate the plant in a manner such that fewer, milder events minimize the frequency and the severity of adverse events; third, the operator needs to monitor the plant to verify that the safety functions are accomplished. The operator needs a systematic approach to mitigating the consequences of an event. The concept of ''safety function'' introduces that systematic approach and prevents a hierarchy of protection. If the operator has difficulty in identifying an event for any reason, the systematic safety function approach allows ones to accomplish the overall path of mitigating consequences. There are ten identified functions designed to protect against core melt, preserve containment integrity, prevent indirect release of radioactivity, and maintain vital auxiliaries needed to support the other safety functions. The paper describes in detail the operator's role and the safety functions, and provides many examples of the use of alternative success paths to accomplish the safety function

  3. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  4. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  5. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  6. Method of operating a nuclear turbine plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiraku; Ootawara, Yasuhiko; Imai, Tetsu

    1985-04-25

    A method is presented to prevent the lowering in the reactor feedwater temperature thereby secure necessary amount of steams even in a plant operation under low load. The feedwater temperature of a nuclear reactor is detected at the low load region of the plant and high enthalpy steams are supplied to a high pressure feedwater heater by opening a supply stream extract switching valve. This enables to maintain the feedwater temperature in the nuclear reactor at a constant level.

  7. Simulating operator decision processes at SRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecker, D.G.; Benhardt, H.C.; Pople, H.E. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Cognitive environment simulation (CES) is both a methodology and an artificial intelligence (AI) tool. As a methodology, it denotes a technique that models human operators' cognitive processes to either (a) aid in designing the interface to a complex system (such as nuclear reactor control room) or (b) assess the cognitive causality that effects the likelihood of human error in specific accident scenarios. As an AI tool, CES is an expert system that models human intention formation and errors in a problem-solving context. The immediate objective of the reported work was to demonstrate the feasibility of applying CES to a new domain - that of the defense production reactors, whose design and operating philosophy differ in key areas from power reactors, where CES has already demonstrated interesting results

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-08-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. (author)

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, C.

    1989-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  10. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.; Koponen, H.; Nevander, O.; Paltemaa, R.; Poellaenen, I.; Rannila, P.; Valtonen, K.; Vilkamo, O.

    1988-02-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimburger, H.

    1988-08-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-09-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  13. Wind power plant in grid operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heier, S.

    1993-01-01

    There are new prospects for electrical energy supply in coastal regions and on islands if one succeeds in integrating the available wind energy, dependent on the weather, into existing and to be developed supply structures. Apart from the supply of energy, effects on the grid and on the electrical consumer are gaining in importance. For wind power plants, the operating behaviour is appreciably determined by the electro-technical concept. The mechanical/electrical energy conversion with the corresponding grid connection and plant control play an important part here. Results of measurements and computer simulation make the differences in the behaviour of wind power plants clear. (orig.) [de

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.; Lehtinen, P.

    1985-11-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. (author)

  15. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.

    1988-09-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hzard to the personnel or the environment

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tubulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  17. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-01-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the second quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and availability of the plants. (author)

  18. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost all the time in the first quarter of 1992. The load factor average was 99.8%. All events which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the Scale. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure, originating from the nuclear power plants, were detected in samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the third quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  20. Computer simulation of thermal plant operations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Kelly, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book describes thermal plant simulation, that is, dynamic simulation of plants which produce, exchange and otherwise utilize heat as their working medium. Directed at chemical, mechanical and control engineers involved with operations, control and optimization and operator training, the book gives the mathematical formulation and use of simulation models of the equipment and systems typically found in these industries. The author has adopted a fundamental approach to the subject. The initial chapters provide an overview of simulation concepts and describe a suitable computer environment.

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-08-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such events and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the plants' workers and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in commercial operation during the whole first quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 99.1 %. Failures have been detected in the uppermost spacing lattices of nuclear fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors. Further investigations into the significance of the failures have been initiated. In this quarter, renewed cooling systems for the instrumentation area were introduced at Loviisa 1. The modifications made in the systems serve to ensure reliable cooling of the area even during the hottest summer months when the possibility exists that the temperature of the automation equipment could rise too high causing malfunctions which could endanger plant safety. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below prescribed limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  2. Monitoring and operational support on nuclear power plants using an artificial intelligence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, P.H.; Baptista Filho, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring task in nuclear power plants is of crucial importance with respect to safety and efficient operation. The operators have a wide range of variables to observe and analyze; the quantity of variables and their behavior determine the time they have to take correct decisions. The complexity of such aspects in a nuclear power plant influences both, the plant operational efficiency and the general safety issues. This paper describes an experimental system developed by the authors which aims to assist the operators of nuclear power plants to take quick and safe decisions. The system maps the status of plant and helps the operators to make quick judgments by using artificial intelligence methods. The method makes use of a small set of monitored variables and presents a map of the plant status in a friendly manner. This system uses an architecture that has multiple self-organizing maps to perform these tasks. (author)

  3. Monitoring and operational support on nuclear power plants using an artificial intelligence system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Paulo H.; Baptista Filho, Benedito D., E-mail: phbianchi@gmail.co, E-mail: bdbfilho@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The monitoring task in nuclear power plants is of crucial importance with respect to safety and efficient operation. The operators have a wide range of variables to observe and analyze; the quantity of variables and their behavior determine the time they have to take correct decisions. The complexity of such aspects in a nuclear power plant influences both, the plant operational efficiency and the general safety issues. This paper describes an experimental system developed by the authors which aims to assist the operators of nuclear power plants to take quick and safe decisions. The system maps the status of plant and helps the operators to make quick judgments by using artificial intelligence methods. The method makes use of a small set of monitored variables and presents a map of the plant status in a friendly manner. This system uses an architecture that has multiple self-organizing maps to perform these tasks. (author)

  4. Academic training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the increasing emphasis being placed upon academic training of nuclear power plant operators, it is important that institutions of higher education develop and implement programs which will meet the educational needs of operational personnel in the nuclear industry. Two primary objectives must be satisfied by these programs if they are to be effective in meeting the needs of the industry. One objective is for academic quality. The other primary objective is for programs to address the specialized needs of the nuclear plant operator and to be relevant to the operator's job. The Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University, therefore, has developed a total program for these objectives, which delivers the programs, and/or appropriate parts thereto, at ten nuclear plant sites and with other plants in the planning stage. The Center for Nuclear Studies program leads to a Bachelor of Professional Studies degree in nuclear industrial operations, which is offered through the university college of Memphis State University

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Impact Analysis of Decision Support Systems for Advanced MCR Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Human error is recognized as one of the main causes of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, and there have been efforts to reduce and prevent human errors by developing various operator support systems. Before adapting these support systems to actual NPPs, it is necessary to validate their reliability and to evaluate their effect on operator performance. Particularly for safety-critical systems such as NPPs, the validation and evaluation of support systems is as important as the design of good systems. Such evaluations may be carried out through a theoretical modelling or experimentation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of decision support systems on operator performance by both theoretical and experimental methods. The target system is an integrated decision support system including four decision support sub-systems. In the results of both the theoretical and experimental evaluations, the decision support systems revealed positive effects, and several trends were observed. (authors)

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Impact Analysis of Decision Support Systems for Advanced MCR Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Human error is recognized as one of the main causes of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, and there have been efforts to reduce and prevent human errors by developing various operator support systems. Before adapting these support systems to actual NPPs, it is necessary to validate their reliability and to evaluate their effect on operator performance. Particularly for safety-critical systems such as NPPs, the validation and evaluation of support systems is as important as the design of good systems. Such evaluations may be carried out through a theoretical modelling or experimentation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of decision support systems on operator performance by both theoretical and experimental methods. The target system is an integrated decision support system including four decision support sub-systems. In the results of both the theoretical and experimental evaluations, the decision support systems revealed positive effects, and several trends were observed. (authors)

  7. Understanding power plant investment decision processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.; Richstein, J.C.; De Vries, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand how companies make investment decisions under conditions of deep uncertainty, we interviewed a number of actors in the Dutch electricity sector. Most of the economic literature that is devoted to this question is prescriptive in nature, describing rational methods to the

  8. Genetic algorithms applied to the nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirru, R.; Martinez, A.S.; Pereira, C.M.N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plant operation often involves very important human decisions, such as actions to be taken after a nuclear accident/transient, or finding the best core reload pattern, a complex combinatorial optimization problem which requires expert knowledge. Due to the complexity involved in the decisions to be taken, computerized systems have been intensely explored in order to aid the operator. Following hardware advances, soft computing has been improved and, nowadays, intelligent technologies, such as genetic algorithms, neural networks and fuzzy systems, are being used to support operator decisions. In this chapter two main problems are explored: transient diagnosis and nuclear core refueling. Here, solutions to such kind of problems, based on genetic algorithms, are described. A genetic algorithm was designed to optimize the nuclear fuel reload of Angra-1 nuclear power plant. Results compared to those obtained by an expert reveal a gain in the burn-up cycle. Two other genetic algorithm approaches were used to optimize real time diagnosis systems. The first one learns partitions in the time series that represents the transients, generating a set of classification centroids. The other one involves the optimization of an adaptive vector quantization neural network. Results are shown and commented. (orig.)

  9. IDENTIFYING OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO SELECT SUITABLE DECISION MODELS FOR A PUBLIC SECTOR EPROCUREMENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public sector procurement should be a transparent and fair process. Strict legal requirements are enforced on public sector procurement to make it a standardised process. To make fair decisions on selecting suppliers, a practical method which adheres to legal requirements is important. The research that is the base for this paper aimed at identifying a suitable Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method for the specific legal and functional needs of the Maldivian Public Sector. To identify such operational requirements, a set of focus group interviews were conducted in the Maldives with public officials responsible for procurement decision making. Based on the operational requirements identified through focus groups, criteria-based evaluation is done on published MCDA methods to identify the suitable methods for e-procurement decision making. This paper describes the identification of the operational requirements and the results of the evaluation to select suitable decision models for the Maldivian context.

  10. Load-following operation of PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Hwa; Oh, Soo Yul; Koo, Yang Hyun; Lee, Jae Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    The load-following operation of nuclear power plants will become inevitable due to the increased nuclear share in the total electricity generation. As a groundwork for the load-following capability of the Korean next generation PWRs, the state-of-the-art has been reviewed. The core control principles and methods are the main subject in this review as well as the impact of load-following operations on the fuel performance and on the mechanical integrity of components. To begin with, it was described what the load-following operation is and in what view point the technology should be reviewed. Afterwards the load-following method, performance and problems in domestic 900 MWe class PWRs were discussed, and domestic R and D works were summarized. Foreign technologies were also reviewed. They include Mode G and Mode X of Foratom, D and L bank method of KWU, the method using PSCEA of ABB-CE, and MSHIM of Westinghouse. The load-following related special features of Foratom`s N4 plant, KWU`s plants, ABB-CE`s Systems 80+, and Westinghouse`s AP600 were described in each technology review. The review concluded that the capability of N4 plant with Mode X is the best and the methods in System, 80+ and AP600 would require verifications for the continued and usual load-following operation. It was recommended that the load-following operation experiences in domestic PWRs under operation be required to settle down the capability for the future. In addition, a more enhanced technology is required for the Korean next generation PWR regardless what the reference plant concept is. 30 figs., 19 tabs., 75 refs. (Author).

  11. NPP operator support in decision making - diagnostics of the operation failures using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzela, I.

    2000-01-01

    In large complex systems such as nuclear power plants (NPP) and chemical industry plants, various subsystems fulfil the needs of process control and safety. Continued operation of these systems has both economic and safety implications. Electric utilities seek continuously to improve the operation of power generating stations. The improvement in the NPP Dukovany (4 x 440 MW) is related to the introduction of the plant to frequency control, meaning that the plant is operated not only in the base load operational mode but in the load follow mode as well. To achieve the improvement of plant operation, it was necessary to provide modifications to the plant control system, plant information system and diagnostics. This chapter deals with utilisation of artificial intelligence (AI) methods in implementation of these plant modifications. (orig.)

  12. Decision-making in plants under competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, Michal; Groß, Dorothee; Májeková, Maria; Tielbörger, Katja

    2017-12-21

    Plants can plastically respond to light competition in three strategies, comprising vertical growth, which promotes competitive dominance; shade tolerance, which maximises performance under shade; or lateral growth, which offers avoidance of competition. Here, we test the hypothesis that plants can 'choose' between these responses, according to their abilities to competitively overcome their neighbours. We study this hypothesis in the clonal plant Potentilla reptans using an experimental setup that simulates both the height and density of neighbours, thus presenting plants with different light-competition scenarios. Potentilla reptans ramets exhibit the highest vertical growth under simulated short-dense neighbours, highest specific leaf area (leaf area/dry mass) under tall-dense neighbours, and tend to increase total stolon length under tall-sparse neighbours. These responses suggest shifts between 'confrontational' vertical growth, shade tolerance and lateral-avoidance, respectively, and provide evidence that plants adopt one of several alternative plastic responses in a way that optimally corresponds to prevailing light-competition scenarios.

  13. Haddam Neck Plant. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Gross electrical power generated was 2,464,308 MWh(e) with the reactor on line 4,417 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, primary coolant chemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, reportable occurrences, changes in plant, technical specifications, core vi start-up, containment leak testing, and core v and vi refueling

  14. A diagnosis system for plant operation support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundheimer, S.; Lorenzetti, J.; Lamana, C.

    1990-01-01

    The present article describes a diagnosis system for abnormal power plant events. The design is modular and uses a shell written in C languaje and a knowledge basis that can be changed easily. At present the system works with a reduced knowledge for primary and secondery leacks. The mitigation procedure is being written with the help of operation staff

  15. Improved core monitoring for improved plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    Westinghouse has recently installed a core on-line surveillance, monitoring and operations systems (COSMOS), which uses only currently available core and plant data to accurately reconstruct the core average axial and radial power distributions. This information is provided to the operator in an immediately usable, human-engineered format and is accumulated for use in application programs that provide improved core performance predictive tools and a data base for improved fuel management. Dynamic on-line real-time axial and radial core monitoring supports a variety of plant operations to provide a favorable cost/benefit ratio for such a system. Benefits include: (1) relaxation or elimination of certain technical specifications to reduce surveillance and reporting requirements and allow higher availability factors, (2) improved information displays, predictive tools, and control strategies to support more efficient core control and reduce effluent production, and (3) expanded burnup data base for improved fuel management. Such systems can be backfit into operating plants without changing the existing instrumentation and control system and can frequently be implemented on existing plant computer capacity

  16. Improving nuclear power plant safety through operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    In October 1986, the IAEA convened a one-week Technical Committee Meeting on Improving Nuclear Power Plant Safety Through Operator Aids. The term ''operator aid'' or more formally ''operator support system'' refers to a class of devices designed to be added to a nuclear power plant control station to assist an operator in performing his job and thereby decrease the probability of operator error. The addition of a carefully planned and designed operator aid should result in an increase in nuclear power plant safety and reliability. Operator aids encompass a wide range of devices from the very simple, such as color coding a display to distinguish it out of a group of similar displays, to the very complex, such as a computer-generated video display which concentrates a number of scattered indicator readings located around a control room into a concise display in front of the operator. This report provides guidelines and information to help make a decision as to whether an operator aid is needed, what kinds of operator aids are available and whether it should be purchased or developed by the utility. In addition, a discussion is presented on advanced operator aids to provide information on what may become available in the future. The broad scope of these guidelines makes it most suitable for use by a multi-disciplinary team. The document consists of two parts. The recommendations and results of the meeting discussions are given in the first part. The second part is the annex where the papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting are printed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 10 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Decision rules for spaceborne operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    Recent study of Space Station Freedom requirements for extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform external maintenance tasks emphasize an oversubscription of resources for performing on-orbit tasks. Extravehicular robotics (EVR) and cooperative EVA combined with EVR (using crew and robots synergistically to perform tasks) have been suggested as a part of the solution to reduce EVA. The question remains however, 'Under what conditions is it cost-effective to use the EVA and/or EVR resource.' The answer to such a question also has implications for the Space Station Freedom and its external maintenance as well as the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) where the issue of work-system allocation is magnified by the long distances and scope of EVA work. This paper describes a simple technique of interest to operational planners and robot technology planners for determining in an economic context whether to use EVA alone, EVR alone, or Cooperative EVA. It is also shown that given: (1) the task times for these alternatives; and (2) the marginal costs of EVA, EVR, and IVA, the appropriate work system for performing the task can be identified. The paper illustrates how the work system choice is based on the ratio of costs. An example using Space Station Freedom data is presented to illustrate the trade-offs among alternative work-systems.

  18. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...... for the Japanese fast breeder reactor plant MONJU....

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-09-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection

  20. Operating experience in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany kept their portion of power supply into the public grid system constant in 1983, compared to 1982. The generation had an absolute increase of 3.6% and amounts now to 65.9 TWh. Particularly mentioned should be the generation of the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Plant which is holding the 'World Record' with 9.969 TWh. The availability of the plants was generally satisfactory, as far as long-term retrofit measures with long outage periods were not necessary, as it was the case in Brunsbuettel and Wuergassen. The planned retrofit phases have been completed in all power plants. As far as safety is concerned, there was no reason to recommended a change of the present fundamental planning- and operation aspects. (orig.) [de

  1. Simulation-based decision support for evaluating operational plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe simulation-based decision support techniques for evaluation of operational plans within effects-based planning. Using a decision support tool, developers of operational plans are able to evaluate thousands of alternative plans against possible courses of events and decide which of these plans are capable of achieving a desired end state. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of a decision support system that helps operational analysts understand the consequences of numerous alternative plans through simulation and evaluation. Operational plans are described in the effects-based approach to operations concept as a set of actions and effects. For each action, we examine several different alternative ways to perform the action. We use a representation where a plan consists of several actions that should be performed. Each action may be performed in one of several different alternative ways. Together these action alternatives make up all possible plan instances, which are represented as a tree of action alternatives that may be searched for the most effective sequence of alternative actions. As a test case, we use an expeditionary operation with a plan of 43 actions and several alternatives for these actions, as well as a scenario of 40 group actors. Decision support for planners is provided by several methods that analyze the impact of a plan on the 40 actors, e.g., by visualizing time series of plan performance. Detailed decision support for finding the most influential actions of a plan is presented by using sensitivity analysis and regression tree analysis. Finally, a decision maker may use the tool to determine the boundaries of an operation that it must not move beyond without risk of drastic failure. The significant contribution of this study is the presentation of an integrated approach for evaluation of operational plans.

  2. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Decisions made during the operational phase of a space mission often have significant and immediate consequences. Without the explicit consideration of the risks involved and their representation in a solid model, it is very likely that these risks are not considered systematically in trade studies. Wrong decisions during the operational phase of a space mission can lead to immediate system failure whereas correct decisions can help recover the system even from faulty conditions. A problem of special interest is the determination of the system fault protection strategies upon the occurrence of faults within the system. Decisions regarding the fault protection strategy also heavily rely on a correct understanding of the state of the system and an integrated risk model that represents the various possible scenarios and their respective likelihoods. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling is applicable to the full lifecycle of a space mission project, from concept development to preliminary design, detailed design, development and operations. The benefits and utilities of the model, however, depend on the phase of the mission for which it is used. This is because of the difference in the key strategic decisions that support each mission phase. The focus of this paper is on describing the particular methods used for PRA modeling during the operational phase of a spacecraft by gleaning insight from recently conducted case studies on two operational Mars orbiters. During operations, the key decisions relate to the commands sent to the spacecraft for any kind of diagnostics, anomaly resolution, trajectory changes, or planning. Often, faults and failures occur in the parts of the spacecraft but are contained or mitigated before they can cause serious damage. The failure behavior of the system during operations provides valuable data for updating and adjusting the related PRA models that are built primarily based on historical failure data. The PRA models, in turn

  3. Intelligent decision-making models for production and retail operations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of intelligent decision-making techniques and discusses their application in production and retail operations. Manufacturing and retail enterprises have stringent standards for using advanced and reliable techniques to improve decision-making processes, since these processes have significant effects on the performance of relevant operations and the entire supply chain. In recent years, researchers have been increasingly focusing attention on using intelligent techniques to solve various decision-making problems. The opening chapters provide an introduction to several commonly used intelligent techniques, such as genetic algorithm, harmony search, neural network and extreme learning machine. The book then explores the use of these techniques for handling various production and retail decision-making problems, such as production planning and scheduling, assembly line balancing, and sales forecasting.

  4. Tactical and strategic decision-making aids for nuclear power plant emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the prospective role of computer-based decision aids for nuclear power plant emergency response. The role of these systems is subordinate to human activities, but in a complementary manner these systems process decision logic more accurately and foster a more thorough understanding of emergency situations than might other wise be possible. Within this context two decision support systems being developed are discussed. Both of these systems utilize technology derived from artificial intelligence, focussing on two different facets of emergency response. An automated emergency operating procedures (EOP) tracking expert system is described as a tactical aid for control room operator response. A reactor emergency action level monitor (REALM) expert system is proposed as a strategic decision aid for site emergency response. The discrimination between tactical and strategic decision-making is an intrinsic part of this examination

  5. Operating the plant, quality assurance, and the job of the operating staff, Volume Twelve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes operating the plant (the role of the operator, the control room, plant technical specifications, plant operating procedures, initial startup program, BWR/PWR plant startup, BWR/PWR steady state power operation, BWR/PWR transient operation, emergency operation), quality assurance (what is quality, what is quality control, quality assurance includes quality control, government regulation and quality assurance, administrative controls for nuclear power plants, the necessity of reviews and audits, practical quality assurance), and the job of the operating staff (the plant operating staff, plant safety, first aid and resuscitation, general plant hazards, personnel protective equipment, handling chemicals, handling compressed gas, equipment repair and maintenance, communicating with others

  6. Outline and operations of benzene plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, S; Hirooka, N; Nakamura, M; Goto, T

    1983-01-01

    An account is given of plant which can process 130,000 tonnes of by-product coke oven gas light oil (GLO) per year (via hydrodesulfurization, extraction and distillation) to produce benzene, toluene and xylene. The flowsheets and component equipment of the various production processes are explained, together with special features such as the production of hydrogen from coke oven gas by the PSA process and the processing of GLO by the ARCO process. Plant operation is outlined and the results of performance tests are noted.

  7. Kursk ASSET brings praise for plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    An Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) visited Kursk on 19-31 July 1992 - the first time such a group had been to a RBMK reactor site. Kursk is a four unit station and the IAEA Team was able to consider safety significant events over its 45 reactor-year history. all four units have good operating records, with lifetime load factors of 70-80%. The ASSET's aim was to consider the plants current safety provisions for prevention of accidents and incidents. ASSET recommendations may cover the design and operability of the plant, personnel or operating procedures. At Kursk the Team found that ''highly qualified plant management and a very dedicated and knowledgeable operating staff'' was a major asset. They found a sound maintenance programme although some aspects of the facility appeared neglected. This was attributed to Russian industrial priorities that focused on functionality rather than appearance. it was in the test and maintenance personnel that the ASSET mission found the safety culture weakest. Some of their recommendations are reported in this article. (Author)

  8. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  9. Investigations for decision making on an old tailing pond of a former experimental metallurgical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razikov, Z.A.; Pavljuk, L.M.; Bezzubov, N.I.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations are described on an abandoned tailing pond of a former experimental metallurgical plant which operated during the period 1945-1950. The aim of these investigations was to explore radiological hazards arising from the tailing pond for the population and to obtain data for decision making on redeployment or dumping of the pond. Methods used, results obtained and conclusions drawn are outlined. (author)

  10. Decision analysis for the siting of nuclear power plants: the relevance of multiattribute utility theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L; Nair, K.

    1975-01-01

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long-range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, clearly the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. Hence, the professional judgments and knowledge of experts in these areas should be utilized in analyses of siting decisions. Likewise, the preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate an approach for formally articulating the experts' judgments and the decision makers' preferences, both of which are clearly subjective, and processing these along with the more objective considerations in a logical manner to acquire the implications for decision making. The appropriateness and application of decision analysis for power plant location decisions is discussed and illustrated. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of the decision maker's preferences and tradeoffs concerning multiple objectives. (U.S.)

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-12-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1 and the resulting inspections and repairs at both Loviisa plant units brought about an outage the overall duration of which was 32 days. The annual maintenance outages of the TVO plant units were arranged during the report period and their combined duration was 31.5 days. Nuclear electricity accounted for 35.3% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 83.0%. Three events occurred during the report period which are classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale: feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1, control rod withdrawal at TVO I in a test during an outage when the hydraulic scram system was rendered inoperable and erroneous fuel bundle transfers during control rod drives maintenance at TVO II. Other events during this quarter are classified as Level Zero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. Only small amounts of nuclides originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations related to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing plant modifications and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and their load factors are also given. At the Loviisa 1 plant unit one of two specially-backed AC busbars was lost during the second quarter of 1993. A ca. 30 minute voltage break caused malfunctions in the plant unit's electrical equipment and rendered inoperable certain components important to safety. The event is rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) at level 1. In inspections carried out at TVO II during the annual maintenance outage, the number of cracks detected in control rod structural material was higher than usual. When cracks occur, part of boron carbide, the power regulating medium in control rods, may wash into the reactor water and control rod shutdown capability may be impaired. The event is rated on the INES at level 1. Other events in the second quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  13. Decision tree ensembles for online operation of large smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, Kent C.B.; Wirth, Andrew; Halgamuge, Saman K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a new technique for the online control of large smart grids. ► We use a Decision Tree Ensemble in a Receding Horizon Controller. ► Decision Trees can approximate online optimisation approaches. ► Decision Trees can make adjustments to their output in real time. ► The new technique outperforms heuristic online optimisation approaches. - Abstract: Smart grids utilise omnidirectional data transfer to operate a network of energy resources. Associated technologies present operators with greater control over system elements and more detailed information on the system state. While these features may improve the theoretical optimal operating performance, determining the optimal operating strategy becomes more difficult. In this paper, we show how a decision tree ensemble or ‘forest’ can produce a near-optimal control strategy in real time. The approach substitutes the decision forest for the simulation–optimisation sub-routine commonly employed in receding horizon controllers. The method is demonstrated on a small and a large network, and compared to controllers employing particle swarm optimisation and evolutionary strategies. For the smaller network the proposed method performs comparably in terms of total energy usage, but delivers a greater demand deficit. On the larger network the proposed method is superior with respect to all measures. We conclude that the method is useful when the time required to evaluate possible strategies via simulation is high.

  14. Plant operator performance evaluation based on cognitive process analysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Fukuda, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to clarify plant operators' cognitive processes that has been performed, to improve the man-machine interface which supports their diagnoses and decisions. The cognitive processes under abnormal conditions were evaluated by protocol analyses interviews, etc. in the experiment using a plant training simulator. A cognitive process model is represented by a stochastic network, based on Rasmussen's decision making model. Each node of the network corresponds to an element of the cognitive process, such as observation, interpretation, execution, etc. Some observations were obtained as follows, by comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with the experiment results: A process to reconfirm the plant parameters after execution of a task and feedback paths from this process to the observation and the task definition of next task were observed. The feedback probability average and standard deviation should be determined for each incident type to explain correctly the individual differences in the cognitive processes. The tendency for the operator's cognitive level to change from skill-based to knowledge-based via rule-based behavior was observed during the feedback process

  15. Plant status control - with an operational focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the Nuclear industry, we have done a very good job of designing, developing, constructing, and improving our nuclear facilities. We have, however, often been inconsistent in documenting the details of our facilities, clearly addressing the rules around facility operation, and controlling and tracking the temporary, or permanent changes to our facilities. The reality is, that once we build a facility, we then must operate the facility, for it to be viable. Further we must operate it safely and efficiently for the facility to produce its product, and be acceptable to the public. Unfortunately, when we design and build these large, complicated facilities, we cannot project all the nuances of facility operation, although we can recognize this potential gap, and prepare for it. In order to allow for the complexities of the real world, we must provide the individuals who are tasked with operating our nuclear facilities, with the tools and processes to deal with 'all the nuances' of facility operation. This discussion will focus on the concepts behind a key process for ensuring that we meet our design and operating needs for our facilities, as well as recognizing and dealing with the potential gaps. The key process is 'Plant Status Control', and the discussion will have a primary focus on the needs of the end users, that being the individuals that have the immediate and current accountability for control and safety of the facility, the equipment, the staff, and ultimately the public, that being our Operations staff, and the Shift Manager. (author)

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-05-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole fourth quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 94.7 % (the whole year 90.9 %). All the events in the last annual quarter, which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale, were below scale/level 0. Also the events which occurred in the other quarters of the year 1991 were rated at the scale's lowest levels. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure originating in nuclear power plants were detected in the samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  17. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of the Finnish NPPs describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors are also given. One event during the last quarter of 1993 was rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) as level 1. During this event at Loviisa 2, the secondary circuit emergency feedwater system was erroneously isolated from automatic start-up readiness. The error went unnoticed for 4.5 hours. During 1993 one level 2 incident and three level 1 incidents occurred at the Finnish NPPs. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  18. Training of nuclear power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-04-01

    A collection is presented containing 11 papers submitted at a conference on the selection and education of specialists for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The conference was attended by specialists from universities and colleges, research institutes and production plants. It debated the methods and aims of both general and specialized theoretical and practical personnel education, the proposals for teaching centre equipment, the use of simulators, computers and other aids in the teaching process; training on school reactors was included. A proposal was put forward of the system of education, the teaching process itself, the content of the basic theoretical subjects, and the method of testing pupils' knowledge. The importance was stressed of establishing a national coordination centre to safeguard the syllabus, methodology, teaching aids, and also the training proper. The system of personnel education in the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary, is presented as an example. (M.S.)

  19. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  20. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES)

  1. Training for operators and plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverge, J.; Moroni, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    For many years, EDF has been making a lot of efforts to develop and to provide appropriate training to each of the different categories of personnel who participate in nuclear power plants operation and maintenance. With regard to training related to incidents and accidents management, if is important, among others, to make the difference between training of personnel on shift (plant operating teams and safety engineers) and training of personnel who makes up the emergency response teams that would be called upon in the event of a nuclear accident. Because of different origins, different backgrounds and especially different functions if an accident occurs on a unit, these two populations need completely different trainings. The training that EDF provides to these two categories of personnel is presented separately in the following pages. In both cases, links between functions to be sustained and characteristics of the training are tried to be shown. In conclusion, general perspectives on training evolution in EDF are given. 8 refs

  2. Training device for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A simulated nuclear energy power plant system with visible internal working components comprising a reactor adapted to contain a liquid with heating elements submerged in the liquid and capable of heating the liquid to an elevated temperature, a steam generator containing water and a heat exchanger means to receive the liquid at an elevated temperature, transform the water to steam, and return the spent liquid to the reactor; a steam turbine receiving high energy steam to drive the turbine and discharging low energy steam to a condenser where the low energy steam is condensed to water which is returned to the steam generator; an electric generator driven by the turbine; indicating means to identify the physical status of the reactor and its contents; and manual and automatic controls to selectively establish normal or abnormal operating conditions in the reactor, steam generator, pressurizer, turbine, electric generator, condenser, and pumps; and to be selectively adjusted to bring the reactor to acceptable operating condition after being placed in an abnormal operation. This device is particularly useful as an education device in demonstrating nuclear reactor operations and in training operating personnel for nuclear reactor systems and also as a device for conducting research on various safety systems to improve the safety of nuclear power plants

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole third quarter of 1991. Longer interruptions in electricity generation were caused by the annual maintenances of the Loviisa plant units. The load factor average was 81.7 %. In a test conducted during the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 1 it was detected that the check valve of the discharge line of one pressurized emergency make-up tank did not open sufficiently at the tank's hydrostatic pressure. In connection with a 1988 modification, a too tightly dimensioned bearing had been mounted on the valve's axle rod and the valve had not been duly tested after the operation. The event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale). Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site were below authorised limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive materials originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  4. Systems with artificial intelligence in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Felkel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors first summarize some developments made by GRS teams which can be regarded as the precursors of systems with artificial intelligence, and explain the basic characteristics of artificial intelligence, referring in particular to possible applications in nuclear engineering. The systems described are arranged in four groups according to applicability as follows: plant diagnosis and failure analysis, information systems and operating systems, control systems, assessment and decision aids. The working principle of the systems is explained by some examples giving details of the database and the interference processes. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-08-01

    During the first quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 32.5% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 99.0%. An international nuclear event scale has been introduced for the classification of nuclear power plant events according to their nuclear and radiation safety significance. The scale first undergoes about a year long trial period in several countries. on the scale, events are divided into levels from 1 to 7 of which events at Level 7 are the most serious. Furthermore, Level 0 (Below Scale) is used for events with no safety significance. All events which occurred at the Finnish nuclear power plants this quarter are classified as Level 0. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. At the Loviisa plant, a back-up emergency feedwater system independent of the plant's other systems has been introduced which offers a new, alternative means of removing residual heat from the reactor. Owing to this system, the risk of a severe accident has been further reduced. At the TVO plants, systems have been introduced by which accident sequences which lead to containment failure could be eliminated and the consequences of a potential severe accident could be mitigated. In this report, also the release of short-lived radioactive materials along the transfer route of an irradiated sample is described which occured at the FiR 1 research reactor. The amounts of radioactive materials individuals received in their bodies in connection with this event were very low

  7. Method of operating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Tasuku.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of operating a plant in which the inside of a reactor container is filled with inert gases. That is, the pressure at the inside of the pressure vessel is controlled based on the values sent from an absolute pressure gage and a pressure low gage during usual operation. A pressure high alarm and a pressure high scram signal are generated from a pressure high detector and a scram pressure detector. With such a constitution, since the pressure at the inside of the reactor is always kept at a slightly positive level relative to the surrounding atmospheric pressure even when high atmospheric pressure approaches to the plant site, air does not flow into the reactor container. Accordingly, the oxygen concentration is not increased. When a low atmospheric pressure approaches, the control operation for the pressure at the inside of the container is not necessary. The amount of the inert gases consumed and the amount of radioactive materials released to the atmosphere are decreased. The method of the present invention improves the safety and the reliability of the reactor operation. (N.H.)

  8. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  9. Experience in construction and operation of HWR plants in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madero, C.C.; Cosentino, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    ''ATUCHA I'', the first nuclear power plant in Argentina, is in commerical operation since 1974 with a high capacity factor. The reactor is based on the MZFR prototype designed by SIEMENS with natural uranium and heavy water and PWR technic. The plant was built by SIEMENS on a turnkey contract and was rated 340 MWe. The offer presented in that opportunity by KWU was based on two reactors (ATUCHA I type) inside one single containment, due to the limitation in power of the reactor. Subsequent changes in the nature of the contract resulted in an active participation of CNEA engineering groups in the erection and commissioning of the reactor. In 1978 the national government approved a nuclear power plan to install four 600 MWe HWR plants until 1995. To start implementing this program, CNEA called for tenders for the supply of components and services for the ATUCHA II plant, in connection with the establishment of a local engineering company and the supply and construction of a heavy water production plant. In 1980 a contract was signed with KWU and the local company ENACE was formed to act as architect engineer and site coordinator. The plant will be located in the ATUCHA I site and the reactor will be similar but double in power to that one. Following the schedule of the nuclear plan, CNEA has just started preliminary studies for the next nuclear plant. ENACE will be responsible for the preparation of an offer for an ATUCHA reactor type. Local engineering and manufacturing firms, upon request and coordination from CNEA, and evaluating the local capacity to participate in the design and construction of a CANDU type nuclear plant. Final decision on this fourth nuclear plant in Argentina will be taken middle 1983. (J.P.N.)

  10. Human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive effort is being devoted to developing a comprehensive human factor program that encompasses establishment of a data base for human error prediction using past operation experience in commercial nuclear power plants. Some of the main results of such an effort are reported including data retrieval and classification systems which have been developed to assist in estimation of operator error rates. Also, statistical methods are developed to relate operator error data to reactor type, age, and specific technical design features. Results reported in this paper are based on an analysis of LER's covering a six-year period for LWR's. Developments presently include a computer data management program, statistical model, and detailed error taxonomy

  11. Defensive Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment Christopher L. Vowels W. Anthony Scroggins U.S. Army Research Institute Captain Kyle T...Daniels Master Sergeant Paul M. Volino Joint Readiness Training Center July 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...for distribution: MICHELLE SAMS Director Technical review by Dr. William R. Bickley, U.S. Army Research

  12. Decision making in prioritization of required operational capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, P.; Karev, M.; Kovacheva, Ts.

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes an expert heuristic approach to prioritization of required operational capabilities in the field of defense. Based on expert assessment and by application of the method of Analytical Hierarchical Process, a methodology for their prioritization has been developed. It has been applied to practical simulation decision making games.

  13. An operational decision support framework for monitoring business constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Montali, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Lara, de J.; Zisman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Only recently, process mining techniques emerged that can be used for Operational decision Support (OS), i.e., knowledge extracted from event logs is used to handle running process instances better. In the process mining tool ProM, a generic OS service has been developed that allows ProM to

  14. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartan Ayfer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS. The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartan, Ayfer; Kucukali, Serhat; Ar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS). The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO 1 and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 87.4 %. In consequence of a fire, which broke out in the switchgear building, connections to both external grids were lost and TVO II relied on power supplied by four back-up diesels for 7.5 hrs. The event is classified as Level 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The process of examining the non-leaking fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors has continued. The examinations have revealed, so far, that the uppermost spacing lattices of the bundles exhibit deformations similar to those detected in the leaking fuel bundles removed from the reactors. This event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale) on the Scale. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has assessed the safety of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants based on the new regulations issued on 14.2.1991 by the Council of State. The safety regulations are much more stringent than those in force when the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants were built. The assessment indicated that the TVO nuclear power plant meets these safety regulations. The Loviisa nuclear power plant meets the requirements with the exception of certain requirements related to the ensuring of safety functions and provision for accidents. At the Loviisa nuclear power plant there are several projects under consideration to enhance safety

  17. Decision-Making: Are Plants More Rational than Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-07-25

    A new study presents a novel experimental design and allows a test of risk sensitivity in plants. Faced with a choice between constant and variable resource supply, they make a rational decision for the option that maximizes fitness, a fact rarely observed in animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A decision support system for maintenance management of a boiling-water reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J.H.; Ray, A.; Levin, S.

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the concept and development of a prototype expert system to serve as a decision support tool for maintenance of boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The code of the expert system makes use of the database derived from the two BWR units operated by the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company in Berwick, Pennsylvania. The operations and maintenance information from a large number of plant equipment and sub-systems that must be available for emergency conditions and in the event of an accident is stored in the database of the expert system. The ultimate goal of this decision support tool is to identify the relevant Technical Specifications and management rules for shutting down any one of the plant sub-systems or removing a component from service to support maintenance. 6 refs., 7 figs

  19. Staffing decision processes and issues: Case studies of seven US Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, B.; Roussel, A.; Baker, K.; Durbin, N.; Hunt, P.; Hauth, J.; Forslund, C.; Terrill, E.; Gore, B.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this report is to identify how decisions are made regarding staffing levels and positions for a sample of U.S. nuclear power plants. In this report, a framework is provided for understanding the major forces driving staffing and the implications of staffing decisions for plant safety. The focus of this report is on driving forces that have led to changes in staffing levels and to the establishment of new positions between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Processes used at utilities and nuclear power plants to make and implement these staffing decisions are also discussed in the report. While general trends affecting the plant as a whole are presented, the major emphasis of this report is on staffing changes and practices in the operations department, including the operations shift crew. The findings in this report are based on interviews conducted at seven nuclear power plants and their parent utilities. A discussion of the key findings is followed by a summary of the implications of staffing issues for plant safety

  20. Managing the early termination of operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory mandate to seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. However, it has become more and more apparent that many States are facing the decision of closing nuclear power plants (NPPs) before expiration of their operating licences. Some NPPs have already closed and the owners are evaluating the effects on their staffs, the local economies and safety at the sites. It is evident that safety aspects and management strategies are important factors to be reviewed and monitored throughout the process of early termination and closure.The owners and employees of the NPPs are realizing that they are entering into very difficult phases of the plant life cycle with significant safety concerns. Although a great deal of work has been done to review and process information on technical aspects of early termination prior to decommissioning, far less attention has been given to the management and organizational issues involved in maintaining the required safety level in such nuclear installations. It is important that when decisions are made to terminate operation early, the same safety measures are applied to management concerns for strategic planning as are applied to technical reviews. These management and organizational issues are fundamental to any future decommissioning process. Managers at sites that decided to close early may be working to cope with management of change issues arising during the transition from operation to decommissioning as they monitor resource and competence needs, as well as staff morale and technical issues. If these issues are not treated satisfactorily they can have significant safety consequences. The organization often must address all these challenges with little guidance or experience and with reduced resources. This Safety Report has been developed with the support of experts from regulatory, operating and

  1. Research on operation support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are the typical, complex, large scale engineering system, and at the time of accidents, there is the possibility to extend disasters to wide range beyond borders, therefore, it is the feature that the requirement for their reliability and safety is much severe as compared with other engineering systems. The fact that human errors become the major cause of large accidents is in common in large scale engineering systems, and the development of the operation support system for preventing it has become an important research subject. Also the research on design support system and maintenance support system is in progress to prevent human errors. Operation support system is composed of diagnostic system, operation guide system, man-machine interface and knowledge data base, and throughout these, the research on the human errors arising in the process of human decision making becomes the basis. Rasmussen's model for decision making, the classification of human errors and the reliability analysis for men, the factors affecting human errors, the acquisition of knowledge, the compilation and management of knowledge data base, the diagnostic system, operation guide system and man-machine interface are described. (K.I.)

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-03-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such incidents and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, considers safety-related. During the third quarter of 1989 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 39.0% of the total Finnish electricity production in this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 78.9%. At Loviisa 1, two holes were found in the feedwater distributor of one steam generator. Corresponding wall thinning corrosion was also detected in the walls of two other distributors. The holes were found on the feedwater distributor upper surface in the joint of the secondary circuit feedwater pipe. One hole was about 20 mm x 50 mm in size and the other was a pit hole ca 5 mm in diameter. Metal power had entered the primary circuit at TVO I. This was observed during a post-scram plant start-up. Several control rod drive units had become jammed so tight that control rod withdrawal failed. Metal powder did not hamper reactor scram under the prevailing circumstances because the drive units are prone to jamming only after a control rod is almost fully inserted and because the forces which insert a control rod by various means (electrical, hydraulic) are 6-8 fold compared with the withdrawing force

  3. From Data to Improved Decisions: Operations Research in Healthcare Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capan, Muge; Khojandi, Anahita; Denton, Brian T; Williams, Kimberly D; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kurt, Murat; Lobo, Jennifer Mason; Roberts, Mark S; Zaric, Greg; Zhang, Shengfan; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2017-11-01

    The Operations Research Interest Group (ORIG) within the Society of Medical Decision Making (SMDM) is a multidisciplinary interest group of professionals that specializes in taking an analytical approach to medical decision making and healthcare delivery. ORIG is interested in leveraging mathematical methods associated with the field of Operations Research (OR) to obtain data-driven solutions to complex healthcare problems and encourage collaborations across disciplines. This paper introduces OR for the non-expert and draws attention to opportunities where OR can be utilized to facilitate solutions to healthcare problems. Decision making is the process of choosing between possible solutions to a problem with respect to certain metrics. OR concepts can help systematically improve decision making through efficient modeling techniques while accounting for relevant constraints. Depending on the problem, methods that are part of OR (e.g., linear programming, Markov Decision Processes) or methods that are derived from related fields (e.g., regression from statistics) can be incorporated into the solution approach. This paper highlights the characteristics of different OR methods that have been applied to healthcare decision making and provides examples of emerging research opportunities. We illustrate OR applications in healthcare using previous studies, including diagnosis and treatment of diseases, organ transplants, and patient flow decisions. Further, we provide a selection of emerging areas for utilizing OR. There is a timely need to inform practitioners and policy makers of the benefits of using OR techniques in solving healthcare problems. OR methods can support the development of sustainable long-term solutions across disease management, service delivery, and health policies by optimizing the performance of system elements and analyzing their interaction while considering relevant constraints.

  4. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Guide identifies the main objectives and responsibilities of management with respect to safe operation of nuclear power plants. The Guide discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization to meet these objectives, to establish the management programmes that assure the safety tasks are performed, and to see that the services and facilities needed to accomplish the tasks are available. The Guide is primarily addressed to safety matters directly related to the operating phase. It assumes, in other words, that the safety aspects of siting, design, manufacturing and construction have been resolved. However, it also covers the interrelationships between operations and design, construction and commissioning, including the involvement of the operating organization in appropriate reviews of safety issues with reference to the future operating phase. The Guide is mainly restricted to matters of principle in relation to management-level decision making aimed at establishing safety policies. It is therefore not suitable for implementing such policies at the operational level. The IAEA Codes of Practice and Safety Guides provide detailed guidance for the latter purpose in those areas considered appropriate

  5. Use of decision trees for evaluating severe accident management strategies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclerar Engineering; Lee, Yongjin; Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2016-07-15

    Accident management strategies are defined to innovative actions taken by plant operators to prevent core damage or to maintain the sound containment integrity. Such actions minimize the chance of offsite radioactive substance leaks that lead to and intensify core damage under power plant accident conditions. Accident management extends the concept of Defense in Depth against core meltdown accidents. In pressurized water reactors, emergency operating procedures are performed to extend the core cooling time. The effectiveness of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) became an important issue. Severe accident management strategies are evaluated with a methodology utilizing the decision tree technique.

  6. Biogas plants: Design, construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the big readiness of waste coming from the agricultural activities are looked for the production of Energy and Payments, the biogas like product of the organic decomposition under anaerobic conditions, their composition and characteristic. The elements that conform the design as the digester, the storage, the load tanks and it discharges and the conduction is described and analyzed. They are given a series of elements to obtain the characteristics of the system possible to place as: planning, calculations, evaluation, execution and operation. Lastly the steps are indicated that should be continued in the construction of the plant including planning for the work

  7. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.

  8. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Fragola, J.; Wreathall, J.

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations

  9. Performance management for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    Fuel was loaded to Unit 3 of the second power plant in May 2010. The Second Operation Division stepped in the operation stage from production preparation and commissioning and exploration of performance management was started. By means of performance evaluation, a closed loop of performance management was formed, staff enthusiasm improved, and potential capability inspired through evaluation, analysis and improvement. The performance evaluation covers attitude, skill, efficiency, performance, teamwork sense, cooperation, etc. Quantitative appraisal was carried out through 31 objective indicators of the working process and results. According to the evaluation results and personal interviews, indicators were modified. Through the performance evaluation, positive guidance is provided to the employees to promote the development of employees, departments and the enterprise. (authors)

  10. Operational experience with propulsion nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunichev, V.

    2000-01-01

    Russia possesses a powerful icebreaker transport fleet which offers a solution for important socio-economic tasks of the country's northern regions by maintaining a year-round navigation along the Arctic Sea route. The total operating record of the propulsion nuclear reactors till now exceeds 150 reactor-years, their main equipment items operating life amounted to 120,000 h. Progressive design-constructional solutions being perfected continuously during 40 years of nuclear-powered ships creation in Russia and well proven technology of all components used in the marine nuclear reactors give grounds to recommend marine Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSSs) of KLT-40 type as energy sources for heat and power cogeneration plants and sea water desalination complexes, particularly as floating installations. Co-generation stations are considered for deployment in the extreme north of Russia. Nuclear floating desalination complexes can be used for drinkable water production in coastal regions of Northern Africa, the Near East, India etc. (author)

  11. Operator performance evaluation using multi criteria decision making methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Razali, Siti Fatihah

    2014-06-01

    Operator performance evaluation is a very important operation in labor-intensive manufacturing industry because the company's productivity depends on the performance of its operators. The aims of operator performance evaluation are to give feedback to operators on their performance, to increase company's productivity and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each operator. In this paper, six multi criteria decision making methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), ELECTRE, PROMETHEE II, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are used to evaluate the operators' performance and to rank the operators. The performance evaluation is based on six main criteria; competency, experience and skill, teamwork and time punctuality, personal characteristics, capability and outcome. The study was conducted at one of the SME food manufacturing companies in Selangor. From the study, it is found that AHP and FAHP yielded the "outcome" criteria as the most important criteria. The results of operator performance evaluation showed that the same operator is ranked the first using all six methods.

  12. Role of cognitive models of operators in the design, operation and licensing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Cognitive models of the behavior of nuclear power plant operators - that is, models developed in terms of human properties rather than external task characteristics - are assuming increasingly important roles in plant design, operation and licensing. This is partly due to an increased concern for human decision making during unfamiliar plant conditions, and partly due to problems that arise when modern information technology is used to support operators in complex situations. Some of the problems identified during work on interface design and risk analysis are described. First, the question of categories of models is raised. Next, the use of cognitive models for system design is discussed. The use of the available cognitive models for more effective operator training is also advocated. The need for using cognitive models in risk analysis is also emphasized. Finally, the sources of human performance data, that is, event reports, incident analysis, experiments, and training simulators are mentioned, and the need for a consistent framework for data analysis based on cognitive models is discussed

  13. Classification of nuclear power plant operator support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpeev, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this survey was to examine the general characteristics of modern nuclear power plant process monitoring/control systems and to apply developing technology (intellectual automation) in order to improve the man-machine interface. The support systems that implement each phase of the control function...information, assessment, decision-making, and implementation...were discussed, and where applicable, intellectual automation was applied to the support system. It was concluded that the application of intellectual automation, as well as other (undefined) possibilities for improving the man-machine interface, would relieve the operator of many routine activities and allow him to readily apply high potential to those poorly-formalized scenarios in which the operator's work can't be automated. It was also concluded that the development of such support systems would not be without problems, i.e. software certification, traning, and jurisdictional questions

  14. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  15. Utility systems operation: Optimisation-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco-Garcia, Patricia; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Arellano-Garcia, Harvey; Wozny, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Utility systems provide heat and power to industrial sites. The importance of operating these systems in an optimal way has increased significantly due to the unstable and in the long term rising prices of fossil fuels as well as the need for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an analysis of the problem for supporting operator decision making under conditions of variable steam demands from the production processes on an industrial site. An optimisation model has been developed, where besides for running the utility system, also the costs associated with starting-up the operating units have been modelled. The illustrative case study shows that accounting for the shut-downs and start-ups of utility operating units can bring significant cost savings. - Highlights: → Optimisation methodology for decision making on running utility systems. → Accounting for varying steam demands. → Optimal operating specifications when a demand change occurs. → Operating costs include start-up costs of boilers and other units. → Validated on a real-life case study. Up to 20% cost savings are possible.

  16. Conduct of Operations at Nuclear Power Plants. Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide identifies the main responsibilities and practices of nuclear power plant (NPP) operations departments in relation to their responsibility for the safe functioning of the plant. The guide presents the factors to be considered in structuring the operations department of an NPP; setting high standards of performance; making safety related decisions in an effective manner; conducting control room and field activities in a thorough and professional manner; and maintaining an NPP within established operational limits and conditions. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management and organization of plant operations; 3. Shift complement and functions; 4. Shift routines and operating practices; 5. Control of equipment and plant status; 6. Operations equipment and operator aids; 7. Work control and authorization.

  17. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1992. Longer breaks in production were caused by the annual maintenance of the TVO plant units. The load factor was 87.4 %. At TVO I it was detected during the annual maintenance outage when removing nuclear fuel assemblies from the reactor that one assembly had been loaded into the reactor in an incorrect manner during the previous year's annual maintenance: the assembly was slightly higher than the other assemblies. The water cooling the nuclear fuel partly by-passed the fuel assembly and the coolant flow proper passing through the assembly was below design. The fuel assembly's cooling had been sufficient during the whole operating cycle but could have essentially deteriorated during certain transients with the danger of consequent damage to some fuel rods. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as level 1. Other events in this quarter which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the scale

  18. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  19. Computing and cognition in future power-plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Sheridan, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to speculate on the nature of future interactions between people and computers in the operation of power plants. In particular, the authors offer a taxonomy for examining the differing functions of operators in interacting with the plant and its computers, and the differing functions of the computers in interacting with the plant and its operators

  20. Computing and cognition in future power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Sheridan, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to speculate on the nature of future interactions between people and computers in the operation of power plants. In particular, the authors offer a taxonomy for examining the differing functions of operators in interacting with the plant and its computers, and the differing functions of the computers in interacting with the plant and its operators

  1. The Unbalanced Linguistic Aggregation Operator in Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many linguistic aggregation methods have been proposed and applied in the linguistic decision-making problems. In practice, experts need to assess a number of values in a side of reference domain higher than in the other one; that is, experts use unbalanced linguistic values to express their evaluation for problems. In this paper, we propose a new linguistic aggregation operator to deal with unbalanced linguistic values in group decision making, we adopt 2-tuple representation model of linguistic values and linguistic hierarchies to express unbalanced linguistic values, and moreover, we present the unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted geometric operator to aggregate unbalanced linguistic evaluation values; a comparison example is given to show the advantage of our method.

  2. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  3. Improving operator quality at Genkai Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, Takeshi.

    1989-01-01

    Improvement in operator quality, or improvement in an operator's skill and professional knowledge, is of prime importance because of its great influence on safe and steady plant operation. This paper describes the education and training of reactor operators at the Genkai pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant with respect to the following topics: organization of Genkai power plant; education and training program management; training at the Nuclear Training Center; training and education on-site including emergency procedures training, normal operating procedures training, informational study of emergency conditions in existing plants, and all-around training of operators; qualifying tests for supervisors; and operator motivation

  4. Valuing modular nuclear power plants in finite time decision horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shashi; Roelofs, Ferry; Oosterlee, Cornelis W.

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs, (according to IAEA, ‘small’ refers to reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfront expenditure, enhanced safety, and easy integration with small sized grids. Large reactors on the other hand have been an attractive option due to the economy of scale. In this paper we focus on the economic impact of flexibility due to modular construction of SMRs. We demonstrate, using real option analysis, the value of sequential modular SMRs. Numerical results under different considerations of decision time, uncertainty in electricity prices, and constraints on the construction of units, are reported for a single large unit and for modular SMRs. - Highlights: ► Real option value of modular construction in finite time decision horizon. ► Stochastic grid method is used to value the real option. ► Decisions in finite time can differ significantly from infinite decision time. ► Decisions depend on length of decision horizon and price volatilities

  5. Varenna workshop report. Operational earthquake forecasting and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Marzocchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A workshop on Operational earthquake forecasting and decision making was convened in Varenna, Italy, on June 8-11, 2014, under the sponsorship of the EU FP 7 REAKT (Strategies and tools for Real-time EArthquake risK reducTion project, the Seismic Hazard Center at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV, and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. The main goal was to survey the interdisciplinary issues of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF, including the problems that OEF raises for decision making and risk communication. The workshop was attended by 64 researchers from universities, research centers, and governmental institutions in 11 countries. Participants and the workshop agenda are listed in the appendix.The workshop comprised six topical sessions structured around three main themes: the science of operational earthquake forecasting, decision making in a low-probability environment, and communicating hazard and risk. Each topic was introduced by a moderator and surveyed by a few invited speakers, who were then empaneled for an open discussion. The presentations were followed by poster sessions. During a wrap-up session on the last day, the reporters for each topical session summarized the main points that they had gleaned from the talks and open discussions. This report attempts to distill this workshop record into a brief overview of the workshop themes and to describe the range of opinions expressed during the discussions.

  6. Method of operating BWR type power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the operation efficiency of BWR type reactors by reducing the time from the start-up of the reactor to the start-up of the turbine and electrical generator, as well as decrease the pressure difference in each of the sections of the pressure vessel to thereby extend its life span. Method: The operation comprises switching the nuclear reactor from the shutdown mode to the start-up mode, increasing the reactor power to a predetermined level lower than a rated power while maintaining the reactor pressure to a predetermined level lower than a rated pressure, starting up a turbine and an electrical generator in the state of the predetermined reactor pressure and the reactor power to connect the electrical generator to the power transmission system and, thereafter, increasing the reactor pressure and the reactor power to the predetermined rated pressure and rated power respectively. This can shorten the time from the start-up of the reactor to the start of the power transmission system, whereby the operation efficiency of the power plant can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. How do strategic decisions and operative practices affect operating room productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti

    2011-12-01

    Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation.

  8. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section `Special Reports` three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) Figs, tabs.; Also available in Swedish

  9. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section 'Special Reports' three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  10. Interactive videodisc training for power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, R.; Nolan, J.; Campos, M.; Haukom, R.; Quentin, G.

    1990-01-01

    During the last several years, professionals in the personal computer and video fields have seen their two technologies coming together. This merging has created a new medium called multimedia. Multimedia provides the user with the interactivity of the personal computer and the realism of live-action television. It appears to be a perfect marriage for education, training and selling applications. As multimedia productions continue to be produced and tested with high marks, business and industry are becoming interested. The Interactive Videodisc Trainer (IVT) is a demonstration of how multimedia technology can be used by the electric power industry for operator training. Although the subject for this pilot program is the Claus sulfur recovery unit at the Cool Water Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant, similar courseware can be put to use for training at any type of power plant. The goal is to show many of the features and capabilities inherent in this powerful new training tool, so that utilities can begin to see how it could work for them

  11. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP) - operation of the pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruengel, N.; Dehms, G.; Fiedler, P.; Gerigk, H.P.; Ruddeck, W.; Schrader, L.; Schumacher, H.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG developed the process of hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed for generation of SNG. On basis of test results obtained in a semi-technical pilot plant of a through-put of 250 kg/h dried coal a large pilot plant was erected processing 10 t/h dried brown coal. This plant was on stream for about 14700 h, of which about 7800 h were with gasifier operation; during this time about 38000 t of dried brown coal of the Rhenish district were processed containing 4 to 25% of ash. At pressures of 60 to 120 bar and temperatures of 800 to 935 0 C carbon conversion rates up to 81 percent and methane amounts of 5000 m 3 (STP)/h were reached. The decisive parameter for methane generation was the hydrogen/coal-ratio. Even at high moisture contents, usually diminishing the methane yield from the coal essentially, by high hydrogen/coal-ratios high methane yields could be obtained. The gasifier itself caused no troubles during the total time operation. Difficulties with the original design of the residual char cooler could be overcome by change-over from water injection to liquid carbon dioxide. The design of the heat recovery system proved well. Alltogether so the size increasement of the gasifier from the semi-technical to the large pilot plant as well as the harmonization of gas generation and gas refining was proved. (orig.) With 20 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs [de

  12. Plant specific risk informed decision making -a vision for Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guptan, Rajee; Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety is to ensure and demonstrate that the risk from NPP to public and plant personnel is acceptably low. As a supplement to the deterministic approach, use of probabilistic techniques has been gaining grounds. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a popular international practice to calculate plant risk to the public, environment and plant personnel, in the event of an accident taking place in the plant. The risk posed by Nuclear Reactors to the Public at large is a very important issue in the public acceptance of a Nuclear Power Programme in any country. Risk Definition, generally accepted at present as the measure of possibility for an accidental event and severity of its effects to occur, simultaneously comprises both the probability (frequency) of potential damage occurrence and extent of this damage. NPCIL' s vision is to provide safe, reliable and cost effective energy to the nation by ensuring safe operation of the plants, limiting radiation exposure to plant personnel and public within prescribed limits. To achieve this vision our mission is to enhance the technical competency, resources and the awareness towards improved safety culture specific to Probabilistic Safety Assessment for applying PSA Studies to Risk Informed Decision making. This mission translates into the goal of completion of full scope PSA, with the co-operation and synergetic efforts of the Head quarters and Operating Station experts. NPCIL will then be self sufficient in applying Probabilistic Studies in Risk Informed Decision making to minimize risk and back fitting design changes to optimize the existing design and operating practices, thus providing for safe, reliable and cost effective energy to the nation. (author)

  13. Evolution of the future plants operation for a better safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, B.; Malvache, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a coordinated research project of the french CEA, addressing to the evolutions in plant operation apt to bring perceptible and assessable improvement in the operational safety. This program has been scheduled for the 1992-1996 period, with a global 40 men/year effort. The present status of the two main parts of the project is presented: ESCRIME (program aiming at defining the optimal share of tasks between humans and computers in plant operation), IMAGIN (research in the domain of plant information management, in order to ensure the global coherence of the image of the plant, used by the different actors in plant operation). (authors). 3 refs., 4 figs

  14. The experiences from implementing decision support technology to address water management plans in an operational environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, S. [4DM Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Tonkin, C. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation described Ontario Power Generation's experience in implementing a decision support tool to enable water management plans for its operations through technology solutions. All hydroelectric producers in Ontario are required to make water management plans in order to maintain water levels and flows in their operating regions. This regulation was created in response to environmental concerns as well as to changes in the electricity market and growth of residential and cottage property near water bodies. In order to keep informed and to address compliance issues, operators and managers need situation awareness information to balance operational decisions. The online Adaptive Water Management System (AWMS) decision support tool was recently adopted by Ontario Power Generation to provide information needed to address the requirements of Water Management Plans. The AWMS provides users with information on water levels and flows; the ability to implement, modify, and manage daily instructions at the facilities; track conditions in the watershed; and, provide a status of compliance. The tool was developed by 4DM Inc. in collaboration with Ottawa St. Lawrence Plant Group for the Madawaska River Watershed Management, a model partnership between operator, regulator and Public Advisory Committee to develop a water management plan.

  15. Maintenance Issues in Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contri, P.; Bieth, M.; Rieg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to current social and economical framework, in last years many nuclear power plant owners started a program for the Long Term Operation (LTO)/PLEX (Plant Life Extension) of their older nuclear facilities. This process has many nuclear safety implications, other than strategic and political ones. The need for tailoring the available safety assessment tools to such applications has become urgent in recent years and triggered many research actions. The review of regular maintenance and ageing management programs are tools widely used in LTO/PLEX context in many Countries. However, most of these tools are rather general and in many cases they need reshaping in an LTO/PLEX framework before application, with focus to the safety implications of the LTO/PLEX. Many Countries and plants radically modified their maintenance rules towards a condition based approach as a precondition for the implementation of LTO/PLEX programs. In 2004 a network of European Organisations operating Nuclear Power Plants, SENUF, under the coordination of the JRC-IE, carried out an extensive questionnaire on maintenance practice in their facilities aiming at capturing the aspects of the maintenance programs where research is mostly needed. This paper uses some results of the questionnaire, which was not oriented to LTO/PLEX, to draw some conclusions on how the current maintenance programs could support a potential LTO/PLEX, among the other programs running at NPPs. In this sense, it is spin-off of the SENUF WG on maintenance. The paper aims at identifying the technical attributes of the maintenance programs more directly affecting the decision for a long-term safe operation of a nuclear facility, the issues related to their implementation and safety review. The paper includes an analysis of the questionnaire circulated among the SENUF participants and a discussion on the implications of optimised maintenance programs in existing plants. Some examples at WWER plants taken by sources other than

  16. Conceptual design of autonomous operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, A.; Saiki, A.; Miki, T.; Himeno, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Conceptual design of an autonomous operation system for nuclear power plants has been carried out. Prime objective is to grade up operation reliability by eliminating human factors and enhancing control capabilities. For this objective, operators' role and traditional controllers are replaced with artificial intelligence (AI). Norms of autonomy are defined as (a) to maintain its own basic functions, (b) to protect oneself from catastrophic events, (c) to reorganize oneself in case of its partial failure, (d) to harmonize with the environment, and (e) to improve its performance by itself. For the present, a great emphasis is put on realizing humanlike knowledge-based decision-making process by AI in accordance with the norms (a) and (c). To do this, the authors take a model-based approach and it is intended to make modeling of a problem-solving process from multiple viewpoints and structurization of knowledge used in the process. A hierarchical distributed cooperative system configuration is adopted to allow to dynamically reorganize system functions and it is realized by an object-oriented multi-agent system. Plural agents based on different methodology from each other are applied to individual function or methodology diversity is assured to prevent loss of system functions by common cause failure and to reorganize integrant agents. A prototype autonomous operation system is now under development. (orig.)

  17. Modelling operator cognitive interactions in nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senders, J.W.; Moray, N.; Smiley, A.; Sellen, A.

    1985-08-01

    The overall objectives of the study were to review methods which are applicable to the analysis of control room operator cognitive interactions in nuclear plant safety evaluations and to indicate where future research effort in this area should be directed. This report is based on an exhaustive search and review of the literature on NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operator error, human error, human cognitive function, and on human performance. A number of methods which have been proposed for the estimation of data for probabilistic risk analysis have been examined and have been found wanting. None addresses the problem of diagnosis error per se. Virtually all are concerned with the more easily detected and identified errors of action. None addresses underlying cause and mechanism. It is these mechanisms which must be understood if diagnosis errors and other cognitive errors are to be controlled and predicted. We have attempted to overcome the deficiencies of earlier work and have constructed a model/taxonomy, EXHUME, which we consider to be exhaustive. This construct has proved to be fruitful in organizing our thinking about the kinds of error that can occur and the nature of self-correcting mechanisms, and has guided our thinking in suggesting a research program which can provide the data needed for quantification of cognitive error rates and of the effects of mitigating efforts. In addition a preliminary outline of EMBED, a causal model of error, is given based on general behavioural research into perception, attention, memory, and decision making. 184 refs

  18. Use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, A.; Zhi, Z.; Wang, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Mendes, J.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-11-29

    The rapid expansion of wind power gives rise to a number of challenges for power system operators and electricity market participants. The key operational challenge is to efficiently handle the uncertainty and variability of wind power when balancing supply and demand in ths system. In this report, we analyze how wind power forecasting can serve as an efficient tool toward this end. We discuss the current status of wind power forecasting in U.S. electricity markets and develop several methodologies and modeling tools for the use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions, from the perspectives of the system operator as well as the wind power producer. In particular, we focus on the use of probabilistic forecasts in operational decisions. Driven by increasing prices for fossil fuels and concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, wind power, as a renewable and clean source of energy, is rapidly being introduced into the existing electricity supply portfolio in many parts of the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has analyzed a scenario in which wind power meets 20% of the U.S. electricity demand by 2030, which means that the U.S. wind power capacity would have to reach more than 300 gigawatts (GW). The European Union is pursuing a target of 20/20/20, which aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 as compared to 1990. Meanwhile, China is the leading country in terms of installed wind capacity, and had 45 GW of installed wind power capacity out of about 200 GW on a global level at the end of 2010. The rapid increase in the penetration of wind power into power systems introduces more variability and uncertainty in the electricity generation portfolio, and these factors are the key challenges when it comes to integrating wind power into the electric power grid. Wind power forecasting (WPF) is an important tool to help

  19. Review of operating history at the Palisades Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.; Harrington, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    the Systematic Evaluation Program Branch (SEPB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting the Systematic Evaluation Program whose purpose is to determine the safety margins of the design and operation of the eleven oldest operating commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. A portion of the SEP includes the compilation and interpretation of operational occurrences at these plants. This summary describes the methodology and results of the operational experience review of Palisades Nuclear Plant. The review includes a detailed examination of the operating experience in two segments - plant shutdowns and power reductions, and reportable events

  20. Nuclear power plant system environmental design and decision methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zendehrouh, Z.; Shinozuka, M.; Schauer, F.P.

    1975-01-01

    The methodology described is concerned with a system reliability analysis by which the correlation among the level of design for the environmental and natural phenomena (earthquake, flood, tornado, etc.), reasonable practical measure of safety (such as conventional safety factor), and damage (radioactivity release) probability are established. In fact, the methodology indicates how the risk of environmental and natural hazard is combined with a specific design in order to evaluate damage probability associated with the design. This leads to the optimum design decision when combined further with the cost considerations involving the radioactivity release. This fundamental approach is essential in the design of nuclear plant structures, because, unlike the convential structures, the architectural considerations and structural analysis requirements alone cannot, by themselves, result in a balanced design in the framework of social requirements. The proposed methodology incorporates the different methods of environmental load determinations with their respective probabilistic formulations as well as detailed and advanced multi-discipline (structural, mechanical, soil, nuclear physics, biology, etc.) theoretical and empirical analysis including the effect of probabilistic nature of design variables, to establish a sound and reasonable design decision model for nuclear power plants. The information required for the analysis is also described and the areas for which further research is desirable are pointed out. Furthermore, the proposed methodology can very well be utilized to determine the requirements of standardized plants to facilitate the speed of their design and review process

  1. Using management of aging in German nuclear power plants - aspects of KTA 1403 pertaining to residual power operation, post-shutdown operation and residual operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Pablo; Bever, Thomas; Brast, Gerhard; Elsche, Bjoern; Reese, Sven H.; Grossmann, Patrick; Widera, Martin; Huettner, Frank; Linnemann, Thomas; Smit, Swen-Olaf; Zander, Ralf-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Management of aging in nuclear power plants originated in the United States of America and became a topic of debate in Germany from the late 1990s onward. On the basis of the existing plant-specific measures practiced comprehensively, KTA 1403, ''Management of Aging in Nuclear Power Plants'', was drafted and finalized in 2010. This publication first presents the context of AM with regard to German nuclear power plants, including references to national and international historical developments. Against this backdrop, the difference between management of aging and lifetime management is discussed next. This is followed by a description of the status of the AM process in nuclear power plants currently in operation, especially organizational plant-specific implementation. As a consequence of the decision by the German federal government to discontinue the peaceful use of nuclear power in Germany and the associated 13th amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of July 31, 2011, a considerable part of the German nuclear power plant park already lost its right of power operation. In this situation, aspects of AM are discussed for plants in the no-power, post-operation and residual operation phases. Finally, experience accumulated in plant-specific execution of the AM process on the basis of KTA 1403 is considered and summarized.

  2. Decision support system for the operating room rescheduling problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Essen, J Theresia; Hurink, Johann L; Hartholt, Woutske; van den Akker, Bernd J

    2012-12-01

    Due to surgery duration variability and arrivals of emergency surgeries, the planned Operating Room (OR) schedule is disrupted throughout the day which may lead to a change in the start time of the elective surgeries. These changes may result in undesirable situations for patients, wards or other involved departments, and therefore, the OR schedule has to be adjusted. In this paper, we develop a decision support system (DSS) which assists the OR manager in this decision by providing the three best adjusted OR schedules. The system considers the preferences of all involved stakeholders and only evaluates the OR schedules that satisfy the imposed resource constraints. The decision rules used for this system are based on a thorough analysis of the OR rescheduling problem. We model this problem as an Integer Linear Program (ILP) which objective is to minimize the deviation from the preferences of the considered stakeholders. By applying this ILP to instances from practice, we determined that the given preferences mainly lead to (i) shifting a surgery and (ii) scheduling a break between two surgeries. By using these changes in the DSS, the performed simulation study shows that less surgeries are canceled and patients and wards are more satisfied, but also that the perceived workload of several departments increases to compensate this. The system can also be used to judge the acceptability of a proposed initial OR schedule.

  3. Towards decision support for waiting lists: an operations management view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, J M; Van Der Bij, J D; Kusters, R J

    2001-06-01

    This paper considers the phenomenon of waiting lists in a healthcare setting, which is characterised by limitations on the national expenditure, to explore the potentials of an operations management perspective. A reference framework for waiting list management is described, distinguishing different levels of planning in healthcare--national, regional, hospital and process--that each contributes to the existence of waiting lists through managerial decision making. In addition, different underlying mechanisms in demand and supply are distinguished, which together explain the development of waiting lists. It is our contention that within this framework a series of situation specific models should be designed to support communication and decision making. This is illustrated by the modelling of the demand for cataract treatment in a regional setting in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands. An input-output model was developed to support decisions regarding waiting lists. The model projects the demand for treatment at a regional level and makes it possible to evaluate waiting list impacts for different scenarios to meet this demand.

  4. The importance of the reliability study for the safety operation of chemical plants. Application in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Maria; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Preda, Irina Aida; Stefanescu, Ioan

    1999-01-01

    Heavy water production in Romania is based on H 2 O-H 2 S isotopic exchange process followed by vacuum isotopic distillation. The heavy water plant are complex chemical systems, characterized by an ensemble of static and dynamic equipment, AMC components, enclosures. Such equipment must have a high degree of reliability, a maximum safety in technological operation and a high availability index. Safety, reliable and economical operation heavy water plants need to maintain the systems and the components at adequate levels of reliability. The paper is a synthesis of the qualitative and quantitative assessment reliability studies for heavy water plants. The operation analysis on subsystems, each subsystems being a well-defined unit, is required by the plant complexity. For each component the reliability indicators were estimated by parametric and non-parametric methods based on the plant operation data. Also, the reliability qualitative and quantitative assessment was done using the fault tree technique. For the dual temperature isotopic exchange plants the results indicate an increase of the MTBF after the first years of operation, illustrating both the operation experience increasing and maintenance improvement. Also a high degree of availability was illustrated by the reliability studies of the vacuum distillation plant. The establishment of the reliability characteristics for heavy water plant represents an important step, a guide for highlighting the elements and process liable to failure being at the same time a planning modality to correlate the control times with the maintenance operations. This is the way to minimise maintenance, control and costs. The main purpose of the reliability study was the safety increase of the plant operation and the support for decision making. (authors)

  5. Management control and quality assurance during plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modemann, G.; Ettemeyer, R.; Stephan, W.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with basic aspects of quality assurance for owners of nuclear power plants, with quality assurance for plant operation and with consequences from KTA regulatory requirements. (RW)

  6. To a cooperating approach for plant operator aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penalva, J.M.; Mathieu, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article we present the basic principles of a plant aid system for a spent fuel reprocessing shop. These principles are based on a cooperating approach of plant operator aid and on a systemic step SAGACE. 2 figs

  7. Changing nuclear plant operating limits during startup and shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, E.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Ray, N.K.; Roarty, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    During startup and shutdown operation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, a low pressure decay heat removal system is used to maintain core cooling. During these phases of operation, there are numerous operating practices and design limits to meet special and sometimes conflicting requirements unique to these operations. This paper evaluates the impact and interdependencies of recent issues on plant operation and design

  8. Integration of plant life management in operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutin, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Full text: 1 - INTRODUCTION. Electricite de France is now operating 58 PWR nuclear power plants which produce 75% of french electricity. Besides maintaining safety and availability on a routine basis, it is outmost important to protect the investment. Indeed, such an asset is a tremendous advantage just as the company is going to face the new european electricity market. That is the reason why EDF is devoting important effort to implement ageing management as an integral part of operation and maintenance programs. But it must be recognized that NPP lifetime is not threatened only by component-related problems: other less technical issues must be seriously considered like industrial support, information system, skilled people, public acceptance, etc. 2 - LIFE MANAGEMENT POLICY. In France, there is no limited licensing period for NPPs. The life management policy of nuclear power plants is based on three principles: - safe and cost-effective operation, looking for excellence in daily activities, with an effective experience feedback organisation taking advantage of the high level of standardization of the units, - every ten years, a new set of safety standards, a complete review of each facility and an upgrading of its safety level through appropriate modifications while maintaining unit standardization in all the fleet, - a Life Management Program, at corporate level, which permanently scrutinizes operation and maintenance activities to identify decisions which could impair plant lifetime and which surveys research and development programs related to ageing phenomenon understanding. 3 - INTEGRATION OF LIFETIME CONCERN IN O and M ACTIVITIES. It is outmost important to take in account lifetime concern in daily operation and maintenance activities and this must be done as early as possible in plant life. Even though sophisticated assessments require engineering capacity, many good ideas may arise from plant staff. For that reason, increasing lifetime awareness of plant

  9. Development of Megawatt Demand Setter for Plant Operating Flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Chang; Hah, Yeong Joon; Song, In Ho; Lee, Myeong Hun; Chang, Do Ik; Choi, Jung In

    1993-05-01

    The Conceptual design of the Megawatt Demand Setter (MDS) is presented for the Korean Standardized Nuclear Power Plant. The MDS is a digital supervisory limitation system. The MDS assures that the plant does not exceed the operating limits by regulating the plant operations through monitoring the operating margins of the critical parameters. MDS is aimed at increasing the operating flexibility which allow the nuclear plant to meet the grid demand in very efficient manner. It responds to the grid demand without penalizing plant availability by limiting the load demand when the operating limits are approached or violated. MDS design concepts were tested using simulation responses of Yonggwang Units 3, 4. The design of the Yonggwang Units 3, 4 would be used as a reference which designs of Korean Standardized Nuclear Power Plants would be based upon. The simulation results illustrate that the MDS can be used to improve operating flexibility. (Author)

  10. Operator psychological selection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed job analysis of nuclear power plant operator including operation procedures analysis, interview with personnel familiar with operator job, and 9 events happened in the past in the plant involved operator error analysis, several operator work characteristics and performance influence factors are obtained. According to these specific characteristics and factors, referring to the psychological selection research results in the other related critical occupational fields, a full psychological selection system of nuclear power plant operator is forwarded in this paper, including 21 dimensions in 3 facets as general psychological ability, personality and psychological healthy. Practical measurement methods for the proposed selection dimensions are discussed in the end

  11. Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

  12. A decision-making framework for protecting process plants from flooding based on fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The protection of process plants from external events is mandatory in the Seveso Directive. Among these events figures the possibility of inundation of a plant, which may cause a hazard by disabling technical components and obviating operator interventions. A methodological framework for dealing with hazards from potential flooding events is presented. It combines an extension of the fault tree method with generic properties of flooding events in rivers and of dikes, which should be adapted to site-specific characteristics in a concrete case. Thus, a rational basis for deciding whether upgrading is required or not and which of the components should be upgraded is provided. Both the deterministic and the probabilistic approaches are compared. Preference is given to the probabilistic one. The conclusions drawn naturally depend on the scope and detail of the model calculations and the decision criterion adopted. The latter has to be supplied from outside the analysis, e.g. by the analyst himself, the plant operator or the competent authority. It turns out that decision-making is only viable if the boundary conditions for both the procedure of analysis and the decision criterion are clear.

  13. Nuclear power plant operating experience. Annual report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, M.R.

    1979-12-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of reports issued annually that summarizes the operating experience of US nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1978 data from 65 plants - 25 boiling water reactor plants and 40 pressurized water reactor plants. Discussion of radioactive effluents which has been a part of this report in previous years, has not been included in this issue because of late acquisition of data

  14. Dynamic operational risk management at industrial irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Lustosa, Leonardo J.

    2010-01-01

    Although feasibility studies indicate that industrial irradiation can be sound business, some initiatives fail in few years. In Brazil, the operation of some industrial irradiation plants has been discontinued in spite of the growing export market for tropical fruits like mangoes and papayas, of which Brazil is one of the major producers. This paper discusses the overall aspects of the food irradiation in Brazil, singles out dynamic operation risk management as an important need and provides suggestions for further developments. This research work involves literature review as well as interviews with irradiation industry stake holders in order to identify the ORs and to assess the situation in a logical and integrated way. The results show that public acceptance is not a major issue for the food preservation industry in Brazil. On the contrary, evidences show that there is public support, provided that information on the subject is disseminated among consumers. Need for improvements have been detected in the areas of industrial operational risk management, external relations for export, and regulatory issues, among others to support decision making in establishing and developing industrial food irradiation capabilities to serve Brazilian tropical fruit exports. (author)

  15. Plant operational states analysis in low power and shutdown PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiandong; Qiu Yongping; Zhang Qinfang; An Hongzhen; Li Maolin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of Plant Operational States (POS) analysis is to disperse the continuous and dynamic process of low power and shutdown operation, which is the basis of developing event tree models for accident sequence analysis. According to the design of a 300 MW Nuclear Power Plant Project, operating experience and procedures of the reference plant, a detailed POS analysis is carried out based on relative criteria. Then, several kinds of POS are obtained, and the duration of each POS is calculated according to the operation records of the reference plant. The POS analysis is an important element in low power and shutdown PSA. The methodology and contents provide reference for POS analysis. (authors)

  16. Exponential operations and aggregation operators of interval neutrosophic sets and their decision making methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An interval neutrosophic set (INS) is a subclass of a neutrosophic set and a generalization of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set, and then the characteristics of INS are independently described by the interval numbers of its truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership, and falsity-membership degrees. However, the exponential parameters (weights) of all the existing exponential operational laws of INSs and the corresponding exponential aggregation operators are crisp values in interval neutrosophic decision making problems. As a supplement, this paper firstly introduces new exponential operational laws of INSs, where the bases are crisp values or interval numbers and the exponents are interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs), which are basic elements in INSs. Then, we propose an interval neutrosophic weighted exponential aggregation (INWEA) operator and a dual interval neutrosophic weighted exponential aggregation (DINWEA) operator based on these exponential operational laws and introduce comparative methods based on cosine measure functions for INNs and dual INNs. Further, we develop decision-making methods based on the INWEA and DINWEA operators. Finally, a practical example on the selecting problem of global suppliers is provided to illustrate the applicability and rationality of the proposed methods.

  17. Implications of Perioperative Team Setups for Operating Room Management Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Dietrich; Kauf, Peter; Wieferich, Katharina; Schiffer, Ralf; Luedi, Markus M

    2017-01-01

    Team performance has been studied extensively in the perioperative setting, but the managerial impact of interprofessional team performance remains unclear. We hypothesized that the interplay between anesthesiologists and surgeons would affect operating room turnaround times, and teams that worked together over time would become more efficient. We analyzed 13,632 surgical cases at our hospital that involved 64 surgeons and 48 anesthesiologists. We detrended and adjusted the data for potential confounders including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and surgical list (scheduled cases of specific surgical specialties). The surgical lists were categorized as ear, nose, and throat surgery; trauma surgery; general surgery; and gynecology. We assessed the relationship between turnaround times and assignment of different anesthesiologists to specific surgeons using a Monte Carlo simulation. We found significant differences in team performances among the different surgical lists but no team learning. We constructed managerial decision tables for the assignment of anesthesiologists to specific surgeons at our hospital. We defined a decision algorithm based on these tables. Our analysis indicated that had this algorithm been used in staffing the operating room for the surgical cases represented in our data, median turnaround times would have a reduction potential of 6.8% (95% confidence interval 6.3% to 7.1%). A surgeon is usually predefined for scheduled surgeries (surgical list). Allocation of the right anesthesiologist to a list and to a surgeon can affect the team performance; thus, this assignment has managerial implications regarding the operating room efficiency affecting turnaround times and thus potentially overutilized time of a list at our hospital.

  18. Life Limiting Issues for Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, Thomas; Gaertner, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which identified and characterized life limiting issues for consideration by nuclear plant owners in their decision to extend plant life or seek subsequent license renewal. As nuclear plants operate for longer periods, the risk that a condition in the plant or an event that occurs, at the plant or elsewhere, will cause a plant owner not to extend plant life increases. The Fukushima accident has made this concept concrete. This paper defines 'Life Limiting' concepts for nuclear plants. It identifies the highest risk conditions and events that may limit duration of continued operation in nuclear plants and employs a survey to prioritize these concerns. Methods for evaluating these risks and changing the capability of systems, structures, and components (SSC) to reduce and manage this risk in long term operation are presented. Integrated obsolescence -the existence of an accumulation of events or condition that can threaten long term operation- is discussed. Many of the life limiting conditions or events may be controllable by early identification, recognition, and mitigation of the potential threat. The recognition of conditions may allow measures to be taken to mitigate the condition. Recognition of the potential for events that may be life limiting may allow actions to be taken that will minimize the likelihood or consequences of the event. These actions may include enhanced research on the expected behavior of the SSC, risk assessment and management, and enhanced monitoring and aging management at the plant. (author)

  19. Plant operator selection system for evaluating employment candidates' potential for success in electric power plant operations positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnette, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Plant Operator Selection System is a battery of tests and questionnaires that can be administered to job candidates in less than three hours. Various components of the battery measure what a job candidate has accomplished in previous educational and work situations, how well a candidate compares with others on a number of important aptitudes or abilities, and whether or not a candidate possesses the kind of personal stability required in power plant operations positions. A job candidate's answers to the tests and questionnaires of the Plant Operator Selection System are scored and converted to an OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX. Values of the OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX [OPI] range between 0 and 15. Candidates with high OPI values are much more likely to become effective and successful plant operators than candidates with low OPI values. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages to a company of using the Plant Operator Selection System in evaluating candidates for plant operations jobs

  20. Knowledge representation for integrated plant operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Integrated operation and maintenance of process plants has many advantages. One advantage is the improved economy obtained by reducing the number of plant shutdowns. Another is to increase reliability of operation by monitoring of risk levels during on-line maintenance. Integrated plant operation...... and maintenance require knowledge bases which can capture the interactions between the two plant activities. As an example, taking out a component or a subsystem for maintenance during operation will require a knowledge base representing the interactions between plant structure, functions, operating states...... and goals and incorporate knowledge about redundancy and reliability data. Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used build knowledge bases representing plant goals and functions and has been applied for fault diagnosis and supervisory control but currently it does not take into account structural information...

  1. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  2. Operating-procedure system at Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, C.W.

    1981-05-01

    Three types of procedures are widely used at SRP: Du Pont Savannah Operating Logsheet, Du Pont Savannah Operating Procedure, and Plant Manual. This document briefly reviews originating of the procedures, their preparation, control, and indexing

  3. Plant security during decommissioning; challenges and lessons learned from German phase out decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Andrea; Esch, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to point out the security challenges that may occur during the decommissioning, based on the issues and lessons learned from the German phase out decision. Though national regulations may be different in other countries the basic problems and issues will be the same. Therefore presented solutions will be applicable in other countries as well. The radioactive material remaining at the NPP during decommissioning has the most influence on how the security measures have to be designed. The radioactive material defines the risk potential of the plant and this determines the needed security level. The following aspects have been challenging in Germany: - Scenarios varying from those, used for plants in operation, due to changed operating conditions - Spent fuel will stay in the spent fuel pool for a quite long period before it can be removed from the plant. Risk potential of the plant stays high and requires a high level of security measures - Security measures according to the existing operating license have to stay in place as they are, unless the first license for decommissioning is given respective the spent fuel is removed from the plant site. This even led to the question if improvements of security measures, planned and announced with focus on a plant remaining in operation for another couple of years, need to be done although they will not be required after removing the spent fuel from the plant. A further important aspect for the security design is the fact that a plant under decommissioning has completely different and strongly varying operating procedures, compared to the stable ones of an operating plant. This leads to different needs concerning workspace, infrastructure on plant site, access to buildings etc. An optimized and highly flexible security concept is needed to ensure an adequate level of security as well as an efficient decommissioning. A deep analysis of the vital plant functions, depending on the different

  4. Nurse managers' decision-making in daily unit operation in peri-operative settings: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Eriikka; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Lundgrén-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina

    2016-09-01

    To describe the tactical and the operational decisions made by nurse managers when managing the daily unit operation in peri-operative settings. Management is challenging as situations change rapidly and decisions are constantly made. Understanding decision-making in this complex environment helps to develop decision support systems to support nurse managers' operative and tactical decision-making. Descriptive cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 20 nurse managers with the think-aloud method during the busiest working hours and analysed using thematic content analysis. Nurse managers made over 700 decisions; either ad hoc (n = 289), near future (n = 268) or long-term (n = 187) by nature. Decisions were often made simultaneously with many interruptions. Ad hoc decisions covered staff allocation, ensuring adequate staff, rescheduling surgical procedures, confirmation tangible resources and following-up the daily unit operation. Decisions in the near future were: planning of surgical procedures and tangible resources, and planning staff allocation. Long-term decisions were: human recourses, nursing development, supplies and equipment, and finances in the unit. Decision-making was vulnerable to interruptions, which sometimes complicated the managing tasks. The results can be used when planning decision support systems and when defining the nurse managers' tasks in peri-operative settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Plant designer's view of the operator's role in nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.; Church, J.F.; Cross, M.T.; Porter, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear plant operator's role supports the design assumptions and equipment with four functional tasks. He must set up th plant for predictable response to disturbances, operate the plant so as to minimize the likelihood and severity of event initiators, assist in accomplishing the safety functions, and feed back operating experiences to reinforce or redefine the safety analyses' assumptions. The latter role enhances the operator effectiveness in the former three roles. The Safety Level Concept offers a different perspective that enables the operator to view his roles in nuclear plant safety. This paper outlines the operator's role in nuclear safety and classifies his tasks using the Safety Level Concept

  6. Psychological characteristics of licensed nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwaj, T.; Ford, T.; McGee, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The safe production of electricity by nuclear power plants has been the focus of considerable attention. Much of this concern has been focused on equipment and procedural issues, with less attention to the psychological factors that affect the operations staff of the plants, i.e., those individuals who are most directly responsible for a plant's operations. Stress and type A qualities would be significant for these individuals because of their relationships to job performance and health. Of equal significance would be work-related factors, such as job involvement and work pressure. Also of interest would be hostile tendencies because of the need for cooperation and communications among operations staff. Two variables could influence these psychological factors. One is the degree of responsibility for a plant's nuclear reactors. The individuals with the greatest responsibility are licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). There are also individuals with less direct responsibilities who are not licensed. A second variable is the operating status of the plant, whether or not the plant is currently producing electricity. Relative to ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants, these data suggest a positive view of licensed operators. Of interest are the greater stress scores in the licensed staff of the operating plant in contrast with their peers in the nonoperating plant

  7. Operating experience review for the AP1000 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, T. E.; Lipner, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    Westinghouse is performing an update to the Operating Experience Review (OER) Report for the AP1000 project to account for operating experience since December 1996. Significant Operating Experience Reports, Significant Event Reports, Significant Event Notifications, Operations and Maintenance Reminders, Topical Reports, Event Analysis Reports and Licensee Event Reports were researched for pertinent input to the update. As a part of the OER, Westinghouse has also conducted operator interviews and observations during simulated plant operations and after operating events. The main purpose of the OER is to identify Human Factors Engineering (HFE) related safety issues from existing operating plant experience and to ensure that these issues are addressed in the new design. The issues and lessons learned regarding operating experience provide a basis for improving the plant design. (authors)

  8. Technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam is a subject of continuing interest and importance, notably in view of the widespread use of wet steam cycles in nuclear power plants and the recent developments of advanced low pressure blading for both conventional and wet steam turbines. The nature of water formation in expanding steam has an important influence on the efficiency of turbine blading and on the integrity and safe operating life of blading and associated turbine and plant components. The subjects covered in this book include research, flow analysis and measurement, development and design of turbines and ancillary plant, selection of materials of construction, manufacturing methods and operating experience. (author)

  9. 20 years' operation of the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.; Quasniczka, H.; Fiss, W.; Hentschel, G.; Schulz, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    After a 20 years' operation of the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant a review of the operating results achieved, performance of the main equipment, research and development works performed, and experience gained with education and training of plant staff is given. (author)

  10. Research on psychological evaluation method for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative psychology evaluation methods to the nuclear power plant operators were analyzed and discussed in the paper. The comparison analysis to the scope and result of application was carried out between method of outline figure fitted and method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The research results can be referenced to the evaluation of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  11. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    of the process plant, its function and its structural elements. The paper explains how the means-end concepts of MFM can be used to provide formalized definitions of plant operation modes. The paper will introduce the mode types defined by MFM and show how selected operation modes can be represented...

  12. Guide for training nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.A.; Cagle, C.D.; Corbett, B.L.; Culbert, W.H.; Hamrick, T.P.; Hurt, S.S.; McCord, R.V.; Poteet, K.H.; Bates, A.E.G.; Casto, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered include basic preparation, radiation safety and control, principles of reactor operation, general operating characteristics, facility design, safety systems, instrumentation, reactor theory, fuel handling and core parameters, radioactive material handling, and administrative procedures

  13. Designing nuclear power plants for improved operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this publication is to compile demonstrated, experience based design guidelines for improving the operability and maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are for use principally in the design of new nuclear power plants, but should also be useful in upgrading existing designs. The guidelines derive from the experience of operating and maintaining existing nuclear power plants as well as from the design of recent plants. In particular these guidelines are based on and consistent with both the EPRI advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document, Volume 1, and the European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants. 6 refs, 1 fig

  14. Improving plant state information for better operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, C.; Olivier, E.; Grimaldi, X.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety is strongly dependent on components' reliability and particularly on plant state information reliability. This information, used by the plant operators in order to produce appropriate actions, have to be of a high degree of confidence, especially in accidental conditions where safety is threatened. In this perspective, FRAMATOME, EDF and CEA have started a joint research program to prospect different solutions aiming at a better reliability for critical information needed to safety operate the plant. This paper gives the main results of this program and describes the developments that have been made in order to assess reliability of different information systems used in a Nuclear Power Plant. (Author)

  15. Designing nuclear power plants for improved operation and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this publication is to compile demonstrated, experience based design guidelines for improving the operability and maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are for use principally in the design of new nuclear power plants, but should also be useful in upgrading existing designs. The guidelines derive from the experience of operating and maintaining existing nuclear power plants as well as from the design of recent plants. In particular these guidelines are based on and consistent with both the EPRI advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document, Volume 1, and the European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants. 6 refs, 1 fig.

  16. Decision on thermal power plant can be taken this spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, I.

    1978-01-01

    Towards the end of the 1960s it appeared that nuclear power would be the natural successor to hydroelectric power, as the latter became less attractive for further exploitation, reinforced by environmentalist opposition to several proposed hydroelectric schemes. Conventional thermal power was also considered, but one proposed stand-by plant was rejected in 1971 largely because of environmental considerations. Preliminary planning and PR information on nuclear power in the early 1970s aroused considerable opposition and a governmental commission was appointed in 1975-6 to evaluate the question of reactor safety and transport and disposal of radioactive waste, to report in 1978. It is therefore not possible to count on nuclear power as a supplement until the end of the 1980s at the earliest. Gas-fired thermal power is environmentally attractive, but at present no gas fields have been found which make this economic. Oil-fired power is quite feasible, but no political decision has yet been taken. Coal fuel, based on the Spitzbergen mines has recently become more interesting, and small power plants for the extreme north of Norway are under consideration. Finally it is pointed out that nuclear power is safer than generally assumed while fluidised bed combustion of coal in a combined steam-gas turbine plant will lead to very high thermal efficiencies. (JIW)

  17. Development of JOYO plant operation management expert tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michino, Masanobu; Sawada, Makoto [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1995-03-01

    Operation and maintenance support systems for JOYO are being developed in order to keep the stable and safe operation of JOYO and to improve operational reliability of future FBR plants. As one of the systems, an operation support system named JOYPET has been developing and applied. The system supports the plant management works of JOYO which are necessary for much manpower and knowledge of the plant. The plant management of JOYO was able to improve its reliability and reduce manpower by using this system. As a final step, a judgment function based on the accumulated plant management rule of JOYO will be developed and applied. The function judges the plant condition which allows to start the maintenance works or not. (author).

  18. Preparation and practice for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuesong; Lu Tiezhong

    2015-01-01

    The operational preparation of the nuclear power plant is an important work in nuclear power plant production preparation. Due to the construction period of nuclear power plant from starting construction to production is as long as five years, the professional requirements of nuclear power operation are very strict, and the requirements for nuclear safety are also extremely high. Especially after the Fukushima accident, higher requirements for the safe operation of nuclear power plant are posed by competent authorities of the national level, regulatory authorities and each nuclear power groups. Based on the characteristics of the construction phase of nuclear power plant and in combination with engineering practice, this paper expounds the system established in the field of nuclear power plant operation and generally analyses the related management innovation. (authors)

  19. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A

    2012-01-01

    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  20. Computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In the framework of the Agency's programme on nuclear safety a survey was carried out based on a questionnaire to collect information on computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants in Member States. The intention was to put together a state-of-the-art report where different systems under development or already implemented would be described. This activity was also supported by an INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) recommendation. Two consultant's meetings were convened and their work is reflected in the two sections of the technical document. The first section, produced during the first meeting, is devoted to provide some general background material on the overall usability of Computerized Operator Decision Aids (CODAs), their advantages and shortcomings. During this first meeting, the first draft of the questionnaire was also produced. The second section presents the evaluation of the 40 questionnaires received from 11 Member States and comprises a short description of each system and some statistical and comparative observations. The ultimate goal of this activity was to inform Member States, particularly those who are considering implementation of a CODA, on the status of related developments elsewhere. 8 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Computerization of operation and maintenance for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report provides a resource for computerization of activities in plant operation and maintenance. Experience gained from design and implementation of various computer systems around the world is described. The material may be useful as a guide to modification and upgrading of existing plants as well as design and engineering of new plants. It should be particularly of interest to managers and engineers who are engaged in planning, bidding, specifying or designing computer systems for operation and maintenance applications. Refs, figs and tabs.

  2. Computerization of operation and maintenance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report provides a resource for computerization of activities in plant operation and maintenance. Experience gained from design and implementation of various computer systems around the world is described. The material may be useful as a guide to modification and upgrading of existing plants as well as design and engineering of new plants. It should be particularly of interest to managers and engineers who are engaged in planning, bidding, specifying or designing computer systems for operation and maintenance applications. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Development of an investment decision tool for aged nuclear power plants under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Nagano, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear power generating stock in Japan, which provides 30% or more of the nationwide electricity supply in recent years, is heading into the era of plant aging as those units over 40 years of operation emerge in 2010 and onward. Under accumulating uncertainties surrounding investment decisions, one of the key questions is how best to manage the existing capacity by choosing a wisest option among dismantling, refurbishment, and replacement. This report attempts to develop a methodology to analyze investment decision on aged nuclear units based on real-option analysis, and then presents illustrative simulation runs to demonstrate functions of the numerical models. Major findings are summarized as follows: a) When compared with the conventional net present value (NPV) method, the proposed model is capable to deal with uncertainty explicitly by taking volatility in the formula. Also, for the replacement option, one can choose optimal timings of the dismantling the new plant independently. b) As the profitability increases, the model suggests different investment option as optimal, starting from dismantling to replacement, further to refurbishment, and again to replacement as the most basic pattern. Additionally, where two of the strategies have similar values, postponement of both decisions can be optimal. Through these exercises, the proposed methodology proved itself capable for raising valuable implications to investment decisions in managing the production fleet. (author)

  4. Automation system for operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Fukuzaki, Koji; Kato, Kanji

    1991-01-01

    The automation system comprises a general monitor control device incorporating a plurality of emergency operation plannings concerning an automatic processing, and judging whether the operation is to be conducted or not depending on the plannings based on the data planed by a plant, a control device for controlling the plant in accordance with the planning when monitor control device judges that the operation should be done due to the emergency operation plannings and an operation planning device aiding the formation of the operation plannings. When the state of the power plant exceeds a normal control region, the reactor power is lowered automatically by so much as a predetermined value or to a predetermined level, to automatically return the plant state to the normal control region. In this way, the plant operation efficiency can be improved. Further, after automatic operation, since operation plannings for recovering original operation plannings are prepared efficiently and recovered operation plannings are started in a short period of time, the operators' burden can be mitigated and power saving can be attained. (N.H.)

  5. Commissioning and Operational Experience in Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, S., E-mail: spradhan@barctara.gov.in [Tarapur Based Reprocessing Plant, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India)

    2014-10-15

    After completing design, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance experience of the reprocessing plants at Tarapur, Mumbai and Kalpakkam a new reprocessing plant is commissioned and put into operation at BARC, Tarapur since 2011. Subsequent to construction clearance, commissioning of the plant is taken in many steps with simultaneous review by design and safety committees. In spite of vast experience, all the staff was retrained in various aspects of process and utility operations and in operation of innovative changes incorporated in the design. Operating personnel are licensed through an elaborate procedure consisting of various check lists followed by personnel interview. Commissioning systems were divided in sub-systems. Sub-systems were commissioned independently and later integrated testing was carried out. For commissioning, extreme operating conditions were identified in consultation with designers and detailed commissioning procedures were made accordingly. Commissioning was done in different conditions to ensure safety, smooth operation and maintainability. Few modifications were carried out based on commissioning experience. Technical specifications for operation of the plant are made in consultation with designers and reviewed by safety committees. Operation of the plant was carried out after successful commissioning trials with Deep Depleted Uranium (DDU). Emergency operating procedures for each design basis accident were made. Performance of various systems, subsystems are quite satisfactory and the plant has given very good capacity factor. (author)

  6. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The total generation of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.1 TWh during 1999, which is slightly more than the mean value for the last five years. The total electricity consumption decreased by one percent, compared with 1998, to a total of 142.3 TWh, due to an unusually warm summer and autumn. The abundant supply of hydroelectric power resulted in comparatively extensive load-following operation by the nuclear plants during the year. Production losses due to low demand totalled 3.0 TWh. The closure of Barsebaeck 1 will result in a capacity reduction exceeding 4 TWh per year. The hydroelectric power production was 70 TWh, which was 6 TWh more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. The remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating contributed 9 TWh. Electricity generation by means of wind power is still increasing. There are now about 470 wind power stations, which produced 0.3 TWh during the year. The total electricity generation totalled 149.8 TWh, a three percent decrease compared with 1998. The preliminary figures for export were 15.9 TWh and for import 8.4 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production result. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is provided in the 1999 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. The unit capability factor for the PWRs at Ringhals averaged 91%, while the BWRs averaged 82% mainly due to the extended outages. The BWR reactors at Forsmark averaged as much as 93%. Forsmark 1 experienced the shortest refuelling outage ever in Sweden, only 9 days and 20 hours. In May, Oskarshamn 2 passed a historical milestone - the unit produced 100 TWh since connection to the grid in 1974. The final production day for Barsebaeck 1, which had been in commercial operation since 1975, was on November 30 when a decision by the Swedish Government revoked the operating licence. Three safety-related events

  7. Use of the Safety Monitor in operational decision-making at a nuclear generating facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Shan H.; Hook, Thomas G.; Lee, Roger J.

    1998-01-01

    The utilization of Safety Monitor at a nuclear generating facility in 1994 revolutionized the way US nuclear power plants manage configuration risks. At Southern California Edison (SCE) Company's San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, it transformed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) from a retrospective tool for understanding past risk into a prospective tool for controlling future risk. Since that time, many other nuclear utilities have taken aggressive steps in using PRA better to understand and manage risks associated with plant operation and maintenance. These utilities have employed a variety of methods ranging from systems similar to San Onofre's Safety Monitor to systems dramatically different in both technology and philosophy. In the development and use of its Safety Monitor, SCE has been guided by two philosophical goals: (1) maximize the objectivity of PRA-informed decision-making relative to managing configuration risks, and (2) ensure that risks are managed conservatively

  8. Training and qualification of nuclear power plant operators (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Training center using the simulators, instructor training, training upgrade, deployment of digital control panel and review of training were described with overseas practice. Recently, nuclear power plant on-site simulators were also used for respective operator training. Operator teamwork training, training team performance upgrade, reflection of operating experiences in nuclear power plant accidents, development of training support equipments and management of training records were needed to review and upgrade training and qualification programs. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Analysis of human factor in operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husseiny, A.A.; Sabri, Z.A.

    1980-01-01

    A taxonomy of operator errors is developed here to provide a scheme for compiling data from field experience according to their significance to the operation and their influence on the plant performance. The reversibility of operator actions is taken as the basis of detection of the relevances of errors to the overall operation. In addition, distinction is made between system errors, such as inadequate instrumentation or logistics, and 'operator errors', which indicate that the operator is involved in inducing an operational error rather than being uniquely responsible for an incident. The developed taxonomy can be used for evaluation of the performance of operators during scheduled training programs. Identification of each class of errors would assist in upgrading performance of operators in a given plant and in filing occurrence reports that help in revising safety provisions or operation procedures. The scheme is suitable for sorting and storing failure information in a data library for ease of retrieval by reliability analysis codes. (orig.) [de

  10. Rade-aid: an operational tool for decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, G.; van den Bosch, C.J.H.; Ehrhardt, J.; Steinhauer, C.; Morrey, M.; Robinson, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    If an accidental release of radionuclides occurs, decisions on countermeasures are required. Since the making of a decision involves many competing factors (for instance, the health risk versus the costs relating to a countermeasure), the decision-maker faces a problem. The aim of the RADE-AID (Radiological Accident DEcision AIDing) project is the development of a computer decision support system which can be used in the formulation of decisions. The theoretical background of the decision technique and its methods are outlined, together with the practical application of the technique in the form of the software package developed. Both the benefits of formal techniques and computerized tools in this field are discussed. In order to explore the appropriateness of the decision technique for the management of radiological emergencies, illustrative, but stylized, applications were carried out. Conclusions from these applications are discussed

  11. The role of a multiagent organization in the management of nuclear plants operational objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, B.; Arnaud, G.; Fiche, Ch.; Dumas, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the ESCRIME project, now reaching conclusions, was to optimize the collaboration between plant operators and computerized systems for the management of plant safety and availability. The requirement for putting such a collaboration into effective application was to clarify the operational strategies in order to enable a dialog between men and systems based on a ''shared representation'' of the plant operation. Thus a new vision of this operation, focusing on the completion of the plant fundamental objectives has been defined. This so-called means-ends strategy enables the simultaneous management of these objectives and provides explicit rules (priority...) to solve eventual conflicts (Physical interaction, sharing of resources...) apt to occur. The direct implementation of such strategies by the operators, using a dedicated man/machine interface, has made the object of the second phase of the ESCRIME project, already presented in LOEN in 1996. The third phase of the program, more prospective, aimed at finding an efficient way of sharing the management of plant objectives between the operator(s) and ''intelligent controllers'', preserving the role of the man in the decision loop and enabling him to maintain his awareness about the evolution of the plant. The multiagent organization has been identified as a promising way of sharing executive and decisive tasks between human and computerized agents. This organization, based on explicit ''social'' rules managing the negotiation between autonomous agents, appeared quite perfectly adapted to the management of conflicting objectives like in the means - ends strategy. The main problem to solve was, in fact, to check whether humans could be brought under this social organization in such a way as they could communicate and negotiate efficiently with the computerized agents. After a brief recall of the principles of the means - ends strategy for plant objectives management, this paper will detail the work made on

  12. IAEA activity on operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dounaev, V.; Fujita, Y.; Juslin, K.; Haugset, K.; Lux, I.; Naser, J.

    1994-01-01

    Various operator support systems for nuclear power plants are already operational or under development in the IAEA Member States. Operator support systems are based on intelligent data processing and, in addition to plant operation, they are also becoming more important for safety. A key feature of operator support systems is their availability to restructure data to increase its relevance for a given situation. This can improve the user's ability to identify plant mode, system state, and component state and to identify and diagnose faults. Operator support systems can also assist the user in planning and implementing corrective actions to improve the nuclear power plant's availability and safety. In September 1991, the IAEA Committee for Contractual Scientific Services approved the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'' in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of this programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer for the development and implementation of operator support systems. This includes the experience with human-machine interfaces and closely related issues such as instrumentation and control, the use of computers in nuclear power plants, and operator qualification. (author)

  13. Operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The proceedings contain 34 papers, almost all discussing specific problems or the Dukovany nuclear power plant. The major part is devoted to the matters of maintenance, regular and unplanned repairs, decontamination of the steam generator for inspection and repair purposes, various methods of in-service diagnostics. Some papers discuss reactor start-up, safety assurance, unit control and economic aspects. Environmental impacts of the power plant are also tackled. Some special contributions concern corrosion, chemical analysis of the coolant and the diagnostics of electrical equipment. The possibility is discussed of switching WWER reactors to improved fuel cycles with increased fuel burnup. (M.D.). 37 figs., 23 tabs., 47 refs

  14. Safety margins of operating reactors. Analysis of uncertainties and implications for decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Maintaining safety in the design and operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a very important task under the conditions of a challenging environment, affected by the deregulated electricity market and implementation of risk informed regulations. In Member States, advanced computer codes are widely used as safety analysis tools in the framework of licensing of new NPP projects, safety upgrading programmes of existing NPPs, periodic safety reviews, renewal of operating licences, use of the safety margins for reactor power uprating, better utilization of nuclear fuel and higher operational flexibility, for justification of lifetime extensions, development of new emergency operating procedures, analysis of operational events, and development of accident management programmes. The issue of inadequate quality of safety analysis is becoming important due to a general tendency to use advanced tools for better establishment and utilization of safety margins, while the existence of such margins assure that NPPs operate safely in all modes of operation and at all times. The most important safety margins relate to physical barriers against release of radioactive material, such as fuel matrix and fuel cladding, reactor coolant system boundary, and the containment. Typically, safety margins are determined with use of computational tools for safety analysis. Advanced best estimate computer codes are suggested e.g. in the IAEA Safety Guide on Safety Assessment and Verification for Nuclear Power Plants to be used for current safety analysis. Such computer codes require their careful application to avoid unjustified reduction in robustness of the reactor safety. The issue of uncertainties in safety analyses and their impact on evaluation of safety margins is addressed in a number of IAEA guidance documents, in particular in the Safety Report on Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. It is also discussed in various technical meetings and workshops devoted to this area. The

  15. Fair play in energy policy decisions: Procedural fairness, outcome fairness and acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M.; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To raise public acceptance of new energy policies, promoting the fairness of the outcomes and of the decision-making procedure has been suggested. Very few studies have examined the role of fairness in public acceptance of rebuilding nuclear power plants. Therefore, using a large mail survey, we investigated the public’s acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants in Switzerland by 2020. The study examined the influence of procedural fairness and outcome fairness on the acceptance of this decision, as well as other factors such as risk perception and benefit perception. Additionally, we investigated the moderating influence of general attitudes towards nuclear power on the relation between fairness and decision acceptance. Results indicated that outcome fairness strongly increased decision acceptance, along with general attitudes towards nuclear power and perceived economic benefits. Procedural fairness had only a small impact on decision acceptance. The influence of fairness on decision acceptance did not seem to depend on general nuclear attitudes. Our findings imply that, in the case of rebuilding nuclear power plants, perceived benefits and outcome fairness are important determinants of acceptance of the decision, while procedural fairness only has a limited impact. - Highlights: ► We investigated the role of fairness in the acceptance of a nuclear policy decision. ► Outcome fairness strongly influenced decision acceptance regarding nuclear power plants. ► The role of procedural fairness was relatively small in this respect. ► Also, nuclear attitudes and perceived economic benefits affected decision acceptance. ► Outcome fairness seems more relevant for decision acceptance than procedural fairness.

  16. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. Small amounts of Co-60 and Cs-134 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public

  17. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Ohresser, Sylvia; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    One of the major global challenges of the present time is the reduction of CO2 emissions. Provisions for integration of a CO2 capture plant are already required today in new power plant construction projects in order to enable current plants to also benefit from the possibilities of carbon capture systems to be developed in the future. These provisions for integration should account for the fact that the scrubbing processes are still in the optimization phase. Requisite process parameters may still change in the future. In the development of a plant interface, the paper describes a concept developed by Siemens which ensures maximum flexibility with simultaneous optimization of the plant for the capture process. Emphasis was placed on the following points in the development of this interface and the associated connection concepts: Maximum plant efficiency before and after modification; Maximum flexibility with regard to future process parameters; Optimization of customer investment cash flow; and, Applicability also to existing plants. According to the paper, Siemens can offer a concept which enables future conversion in accordance with the specified criteria. This concept requires no compromises with regard to plant efficiency in process optimization for either current power plant operation without carbon capture or for future operation with carbon capture. The concept also enables retrofitting of existing plants which are not yet capture-ready. However, retrofitting of power plants which are not prepared for operation with carbon capture is considerably more elaborate in most cases, as corridors must frequently still be cleared for the connecting piping.

  18. Long Term Operation R and D to Investigate the Technical Basis for Life Extension and License Renewal Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaertner, John

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an improved technical basis for long term operation of existing plants is a nuclear industry priority. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has responded with a comprehensive Long Term Operation (LTO) Program addressing this need for existing nuclear power plants world-wide. The program supports both the business decisions necessary to achieve high performance operation and the licensing requirements for operation beyond 60 years. The program selects its R and D priorities in a structured and objective way with much industry input to provide useful results for decisions in the 2014 to 2019 time frame. The program is highly collaborative with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and with EPRI-member utilities. The R and D portfolio includes materials aging (metals, concrete, and cables), modernization of information and control technology, enhanced safety analysis, advanced fuel design, demonstration plant activities, life cycle management, and identification of aging management program need for subsequent license renewal. The program has focussed stakeholders world-wide on the technical issues of long term operation, and it is on-track to provide practical results for life extension and license renewal decisions. (author)

  19. Experimental studies of computerized procedures and team size in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-H.; Hwang, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    The operation of a nuclear power plant is so complex that it requires teamwork. To support team performance, a system need to provide all team members integrated information displays as well as decision aids (e.g., computerized procedures). Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of computerized procedures and team size on operating performance. Forty-five participants were involved in the experiments. Each participant executed decision and action tasks to deal with alarm signals, while detecting occasional system errors in the interface. Results showed that effects of computerized procedures were significant on various performance indicators, such as operation time, operation errors, and learning effect, and that two operators would be a satisfactory size in the teamwork system providing computerized procedures

  20. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Demonstration plant operation plan (Deliverable No. 38)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Demo Plant Operating Plan is composed of the following sequence of events starting with the training or personnel, familiarizing of the personnel with the plant and completing the long-term run in the following sequences: inspection during construction, plant completion, shakedown of equipment, process unit startup, shakedown of process units, variable run operation and a turnaround. During the construction period, technical personnel from DRC, MLGW and IGT will be at the plant site becoming familiar with the equipment, its installation and all of the auxiliaries so that on completion of construction they will be well grounded on the plant detail and its configuration. At the same time the supervisory operating personnel will have hands on training the gasifier operation at the IGT pilot plant to develop a field for gasifier operation. As a plant sections are completed, they will be checked out in accordance with the contractor and operator (client) procedure as outlined. Subsequent to this, various vendor designs and furnished equipment will be checked out operating-wise and a performance test run if feasible. The actual startup of the plant will be subsequential with the support areas as utilities, coal handling and waste treatment being placed in operation first. Subsequent to this the process units will be placed in operation starting from the rear of the process train and working forward. Thus the downstream units will be operating before the reactor is run on coal. The reactor will be checked out on coke operation.

  1. Nuclear power plant operation experience - a feedback programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banica, I.; Sociu, F.; Margaritescu, C.

    1994-01-01

    An effective high quality maintenance programme is required for the safe reliable operation of a nuclear power plant. To achieve the objectives of such a programme, both plant management and staff must be highly dedicated and motivated to perform high quality work at all levels. Operating and maintenance experience data collections and analysis are necessary in order to enhance the safety of the plant and reliability of the structures systems and components throughout their operating life. Significant events, but also minor incident, may reveal important deficiencies or negative trends adverse to safety. Therefore, a computer processing system for collecting, classifying and evaluating abnormal events or findings concerning operating-maintenance and for feeding back the results of the lessons learned from experience into the design and the operation of our nuclear power plant is considered to be of paramount importance. (Author)

  2. The assisting system for uranium enrichment plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Fumio

    1990-01-01

    We have been developing an operation assisting system, partially supported by AI system, for uranium enrichment plant. The AI system is a proto-type system aiming a final one which can be applied to any future large uranium enrichment plant and also not only to specific operational area but also to complex and multi-phenomenon operational area. An existing AI system, for example facility diagnostic system that utilizes the result of CCT analysis as knowledge base, has weakness in flexibility and potentiality. To build AI system, we have developed the most suitable knowledge representations using deep knowledge for each facility or operation of uranium enrichment plant. This paper describes our AI proto-type system adopting several knowledge representations that can represent an uranium enrichment plant's operation with deep knowledge. (author)

  3. Typical IAEA operations at a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA operations performed at a typical Fuel Fabrication Plant are explained. To make the analysis less general the case of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Fabrication Plants is considered. Many of the conclusions drawn from this analysis could be extended to other types of fabrication plants. The safeguards objectives and goals at LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants are defined followed by a brief description of the fabrication process. The basic philosophy behind nuclear material stratification and the concept of Material Balance Areas (MBA's) and Key Measurement Points (KMP's) is explained. The Agency operations and verification methods used during physical inventory verifications are illustrated

  4. Using Google Earth in Marine Research and Operational Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, J. D.; Bretherton, D.; Haines, K.; Liu, C.; Rawlings, C.; Santokhee, A.; Smith, I.

    2006-12-01

    A key advantage of Virtual Globes ("geobrowsers") such as Google Earth is that they can display many different geospatial data types at a huge range of spatial scales. In this demonstration and poster display we shall show how marine data from disparate sources can be brought together in a geobrowser in order to support both scientific research and operational search and rescue activities. We have developed the Godiva2 interactive website for browsing and exploring marine data, mainly output from supercomputer analyses and predictions of ocean circulation. The user chooses a number of parameters (e.g. sea temperature at 100m depth on 1st July 2006) and can load an image of the resulting data in Google Earth. Through the use of an automatically-refreshing NetworkLink the user can explore the whole globe at a very large range of spatial scales: the displayed data will automatically be refreshed to show data at increasingly fine resolution as the user zooms in. This is a valuable research tool for exploring these terabyte- scale datasets. Many coastguard organizations around the world use SARIS, a software application produced by BMT Cordah Ltd., to predict the drift pattern of objects in the sea in order to support search and rescue operations. Different drifting objects have different trajectories depending on factors such as their buoyancy and windage and so a computer model, supported by meteorological and oceanographic data, is needed to help rescuers locate their targets. We shall demonstrate how Google Earth is used to display output from the SARIS model (including the search target location and associated error polygon) alongside meteorological data (wind vectors) and oceanographic data (sea temperature, surface currents) from Godiva2 in order to support decision-making. We shall also discuss the limitations of using Google Earth in this context: these include the difficulties of working with time- dependent data and the need to access data securely. essc

  5. Role of conceptual models in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.; Moran, T.P.; Brown, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A crucial objective in plant operation (and perhaps licensing) ought to be to explicitly train operators to develop, perhaps with computer aids, robust conceptual models of the plants they control. The question is whether we are actually able to develop robust conceptual models and validate their robustness. Cognitive science is just beginning to come to grips with this problem. This paper describes some of the evolving technology for building conceptual models of physical mechanisms and some of the implications of such models in the context of nuclear power plant operation

  6. A basis for sound management-plant-operator interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    Sound management-plant-operator interface is based on the application of suitable quality assurance principles. Quality assurance can aptly be termed ''putting priority and emphasis where such are due''. Accordingly, the application of suitable quality assurance principles achieves the all-important combination of both safety and production. Neither of these is mutually exclusive of the other, and both together establish the prime foundation for long-term nuclear power plant operation. This paper presents the application of suitable quality assurance principles to the management, the plant, the operators, and the interface between them. (author)

  7. Safety and operation of the Stade nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcher, H.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of PreussenElektra is to continuously increase the existing safety standard of the Stade nuclear power station using experience gained from faults and operation in nuclear power stations and the progressive state of the art. Modifications to achieve the most gentle operation of the plant have been completed and other are on-going. To do so instruments were attached to those components which are susceptible to fatigue to record the transients and extensive calculatory records were kept. Although the plant has almost 20 years successful operation behind it, it can still stand up well to comparisons with more recent plants as far as safety aspects are concerned. 6 figs

  8. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of manufacturing systems can be significantly increased through diligent application of control based on mathematical models thereby enabling more tight integration of decision making with systems operation. In the present paper analysis of optimal operation of an energy integrated...

  9. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (Decision support system for an OPR-1000 type power plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yo Chan; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    To support operators in the diagnosis of abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), we developed a decision support system for an OPR-1000 type power plant. This system aids operators who identify abnormal situations from annunciated alarms using three functions: an AOP flowchart, AOP search, and alarm simulation. This paper introduces the developed system, compares the characteristics of the functions in the system, and discusses the strength of this approach compared with other previous research. It is expected that the advanced functions may elevate the performance and reliability of operators who manage abnormal situations.

  10. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (Decision support system for an OPR-1000 type power plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yo Chan; Jung, Won Dea

    2014-01-01

    To support operators in the diagnosis of abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), we developed a decision support system for an OPR-1000 type power plant. This system aids operators who identify abnormal situations from annunciated alarms using three functions: an AOP flowchart, AOP search, and alarm simulation. This paper introduces the developed system, compares the characteristics of the functions in the system, and discusses the strength of this approach compared with other previous research. It is expected that the advanced functions may elevate the performance and reliability of operators who manage abnormal situations

  11. Consideration of early closure or continued operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This publication provides information to management and executives of electrical utilities responsible for the operation of nuclear power plants who are tasked with decision making related to early closures or continued operation. This information is based on the experiences of a number of countries in addressing a spectrum of issues broader than only the economics of the operation of the plant itself. Any major decision involving changes in direction for a major investment such as a nuclear power plant has the potential to incur considerable additional costs for stakeholders. Major economic risks can be unexpectedly encountered when decisions based on a simplified economic understanding of energy options are successfully challenged on the grounds that choices and decisions have been made without accounting for some environmental, social or economic issues which are considered of prime significance to important stakeholders. Such risks include not only changes in project scope and delays in project implementation due to re-evaluations necessitated by such challenges, but risks related to the effectiveness, efficiency and safety of ongoing operations or shutdown maintenance of the nuclear power plant. Additional risks encountered at this stage are the adequacy of the decommissioning fund and the need to establish a process whereby the availability of adequate funds will be assured at the time of the final plant shutdown. This publication provides information on several of these additional issues important to key stakeholders, and on methods that allow for their assessment and consideration when developing recommendations related to early closures or continued operations of a NPP. This publication consists of two parts: Part I: Includes a discussion of the main issues for consideration, with emphasis on issues important to stakeholders in addition to plant owners. Part II: Provides an example of a basic analytical approach to the assessment of plant life cycle

  12. Statistical operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauzit, Maurice; Wilmart, Yves

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of the statistical operating results of nuclear power stations as issued in the literature shows that the values given for availability and the load factor often differ considerably from each other. This may be due to different definitions given to these terms or even to a poor translation from one language into another. A critical analysis of these terms as well as the choice of a parameter from which it is possible to have a quantitative idea of the actual quality of the operation obtained is proposed. The second section gives, on an homogenous basis and from the results supplied by 83 nuclear power stations now in operation, a statistical analysis of their operating results: in particular, the two light water lines, during 1975, as well as the evolution in terms of age, of the units or the starting conditions of the units during their first two operating years. Test values thus obtained are compared also to those taken 'a priori' as hypothesis in some economic studies [fr

  13. The safety approach in the operation of EDF power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.; Mira, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    To get a view on what is involved in maintaining a high level of safety in the operation of EdF nuclear power plants, it may be recalled that in 1987, 76 % of the EdF production was nuclear. The nuclear plants include thirty-four standard PWR 900 plants, fourteen PWR 1300 plants, the 305 MW SENA PWR, the four 500 MW GCR: CHINON A3 plant, St-LAURENT A1 (390 MW), A2 (450 MW) and BUGEY 1 (540 MW), the 233 MW PHENIX fast breeder reactor and the CREYS-MALVILLE 1200 MW fast breeder reactor, now being prepared for a new startup after the 1987 incident. So the importance of a safe operation of this investment is considerable for EdF, which is the designer, owner, industrial architect and operator. According to the French regulations, EdF is responsible for the safe operation of its power plants. A considerable human component is also at stake, as the safe operation of plants implies all the personnel to varying degrees. There are 15,000 such employees, all of whom have to be trained, competent and motivated. The operation of this system for 340 reactor-years has to-date resulted in no incident of any significant impact on the environment. Right from the start, safety in operation has always been an essential and clearly stated priority. Among other lessons the Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have reinforced the conviction that the human factors, the man-machine interface, and the safety culture were determining elements. With forty-eigh PWR plants in service, the problem is to maintain safe operation of a system now running at cruising speed, but also including some units (particularly the GCRs) that must be prepared for decommissioning. In addition EDF has to demonstrate the safe operations of CREYS MALVILLE, fast breeder reactor

  14. Nuclear plant operation: achieving excellence through quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, L [Barseback Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden); Bergeron, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Coakley, W [and others

    1992-07-01

    Nuclear power operation is characterised by a very high level of safety and availability resulting in economically competitive electricity production. This achievement must not only be maintained but must be further developed if nuclear power is to regain momentum in the light of its widely recognized environmental advantages. Therefore this meeting bring together all those, managers and technical staff, responsible for the operation of the nuclear in order to allow them to exchange views, experience and knowledge on fundamental aspects such as: management philosophy, quality assurance, human resources and international co-operation; focusing on training (incident analysis and management), human factors and experience feedback; maintenance philosophy, life extension and upgrading, organisation and administration. (A.L.B.)

  15. Nuclear plant operation: achieving excellence through quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, L.; Bergeron, J.P.; Coakley, W.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power operation is characterised by a very high level of safety and availability resulting in economically competitive electricity production. This achievement must not only be maintained but must be further developed if nuclear power is to regain momentum in the light of its widely recognized environmental advantages. Therefore this meeting bring together all those, managers and technical staff, responsible for the operation of the nuclear in order to allow them to exchange views, experience and knowledge on fundamental aspects such as: management philosophy, quality assurance, human resources and international co-operation; focusing on training (incident analysis and management), human factors and experience feedback; maintenance philosophy, life extension and upgrading, organisation and administration. (A.L.B.)

  16. Industrial applications for remote operation in a processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermier, J.; Le Guennec, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the first part of this article, J. Hermier covers the use of remote handling equipment in the UP2-400 plant at La Hague near Cherbourg, in which for the most part master/slave mechanism remote handling units are used with a number of these employed in daily processing operations. As regards this subject, it is useful to remember that, at the time of the designing of this plant (UP2-400), this was the only equipment available on the market with remote-controlled remote handling equipment. In the second part, before speaking about the development of remote operation equipment in the plants now under construction and attempting to project what might be the remote operation role in future plants, R. Le Guennec reviews the problems faced by engineering in designing industrial-sized processing plants and, consequently, the motivations of engineering when faced with a choice between several possible solutions [fr

  17. Operational margin monitoring system for boiling water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutomi, S.; Takigawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-line operational margin monitoring system which has been developed for boiling water reactor power plants to improve safety, reliability, and quality of reactor operation. The system consists of a steady-state core status prediction module, a transient analysis module, a stability analysis module, and an evaluation and guidance module. This system quantitatively evaluates the thermal margin during abnormal transients as well as the stability margin, which cannot be evaluated by direct monitoring of the plant parameters, either for the current operational state or for a predicted operating state that may be brought about by the intended operation. This system also gives operator guidance as to appropriate or alternate operations when the operating state has or will become marginless

  18. The operational benefits of integrated PC control of gamma irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comben, M.; Stephens, P.

    1998-01-01

    Compared with the traditional PLC control systems used on many gamma irradiation plants, the semi-intelligent decision making capabilities of a fully integrated PC control system can bring many benefits to the plant operator. The authors will describe how plant operation is fully automatic with the PC control providing all the input-output data required to run the plant efficiently and safely. Detailed product tracking, with live on-screen data, can be incorporated to give both plant operator and product manufacturer complete confidence in the irradiation process. Advanced features such as on-line diagnostics and mechanical part failure prediction are also described. Also available is automated dosimetry, reducing the opportunity for human error, whilst at the same time saving on staff costs and providing highly professional dose validation reports and comprehensive routine dosimetry documentation. The benefits of PURIDEC's PC control system are not only available with its new plants. The system can be supplied as an upgrade to plants of all ages and design giving the current operator all the benefits described in the paper

  19. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  20. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant in 1987. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Comparison of Plant Life Management Approaches for Long Term Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kisig

    2012-01-01

    Plant life management can be defined as the integration of ageing and economic planning to maintain a high level of safety and optimize operations. Many Member States have given high priority to long term operation of nuclear power plants beyond the time frame originally anticipated (e. g. 30 or 40 years). Out of a total of 445 (369 GWe) operating nuclear power plants, 349 units (297 GWe) have been in operation for more than 20 years (as of November 2011). The need for engineering support to operation, maintenance, safety review and life management for long term operation as well as education and training in the field is increasingly evident. In addition the Fukushima accident has rendered all stake holders even more attentive to safety concerns and to the provision of beyond safety measures in the preparation and scrutiny of applications for operational design life extensions. In many countries, the safety performance of NPPs is periodically followed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) approach. The regulatory The regulatory review and acceptance of the PSR gives the licensee the permission to operate the plant for up to the end of the next PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and other countries operating US designed plants, the license renewal application is based on the five pre-requisite requirements and ageing management programme for passive long life system structure and components(SSCs) and active systems is adequately addressed by the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. Other Member States have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both PSR and additional LRA specific requirements primarily focused on time limited ageing analysis. Taking into account this variety of approaches, the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) initiated work for collecting and sharing information among Member States about good practices on plant life management for long term operation in

  2. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It takes into account developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.

  3. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. It takes into account developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis and risk informed decision making processes. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication

  4. Trojan Nuclear Plant. 1976 Annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated was 2,102,986 MWH with the generator on line 3144.4 hours. Information is presented concerning operations, tests, corrective maintenance, auxiliary feedwater pump modifications, main generator fault, fuel performance, shutdowns and power outages, radiation exposure of personnel, radioactive and chemical effluents, and environmental surveillance

  5. Preparing nuclear power plant units for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudcovic, R.; Telgarsky, K.; Kmosena, J.

    1984-01-01

    The factors are listed which have to be taken into consideration for planning the unit operation, i.e., the implementation of planned repairs, checks of equipment and refuellings. All basic input data were evaluated as the basic for drawing up the schedule of routine repairs and overhauls for the coming period. (E.S.)

  6. Davis PV plant operation and maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This operation and maintenance manual contains the information necessary to run the Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) test facility in Davis, California. References to more specific information available in drawings, data sheets, files, or vendor manuals are included. The PVUSA is a national cooperative research and demonstration program formed in 1987 to assess the potential of utility scale photovoltaic systems.

  7. Treatment of operational experience of nuclear power plants in WANO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the activities associated to the Operating Experience Programme of the World Association of Nuclear Operators. The programme manages the event reports submitted by the nuclear power plants to the WANO database for the preparation by the Operating Experience Central Team of some documents like the significant Operating Experience Reports and Significant Event Reports that help the stations to avoid similar events. (Author)

  8. Error analysis of nuclear power plant operator cognitive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan; Chen Yulong

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plant is a complex human-machine system integrated with many advanced machines, electron devices and automatic controls. It demands operators to have high cognitive ability and correct analysis skill. The author divides operator's cognitive process into five stages to analysis. With this cognitive model, operator's cognitive error is analysed to get the root causes and stages that error happens. The results of the analysis serve as a basis in design of control rooms and training and evaluation of operators

  9. Quality assurance during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance for activities important to safety during commissioning, operation and decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, hereinafter referred to in this Guide as the operation phase or operation. It applies to activities such as: operating, inspecting, testing, commissioning, refuelling, maintaining, repairing, modifying and eventual shut-down and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It applies also to associated activities related to safety, such as environmental monitoring and responses to emergencies

  10. ESCRIME: testing bench for advanced operator workstations in future plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poujol, A.; Papin, B.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of optimal task allocation between man and computer for the operation of nuclear power plants is of major concern for the design of future plants. As the increased level of automation induces the modification of the tasks actually devoted to the operator in the control room, it is very important to anticipate these consequences at the plant design stage. The improvement of man machine cooperation is expected to play a major role in minimizing the impact of human errors on plant safety. The CEA has launched a research program concerning the evolution of the plant operation in order to optimize the efficiency of the human/computer systems for a better safety. The objective of this program is to evaluate different modalities of man-machine share of tasks, in a representative context. It relies strongly upon the development of a specific testing facility, the ESCRIME work bench, which is presented in this paper. It consists of an EDF 1300MWe PWR plant simulator connected to an operator workstation. The plant simulator model presents at a significant level of details the instrumentation and control of the plant and the main connected circuits. The operator interface is based on the generalization of the use of interactive graphic displays, and is intended to be consistent to the tasks to be performed by the operator. The functional architecture of the workstation is modular, so that different cooperation mechanisms can be implemented within the same framework. It is based on a thorough analysis and structuration of plant control tasks, in normal as well as in accident situations. The software architecture design follows the distributed artificial intelligence approach. Cognitive agents cooperate in order to operate the process. The paper presents the basic principles and the functional architecture of the test bed and describes the steps and the present status of the program. (author)

  11. An analysis of nuclear plant operating costs: A 1991 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This report updates a 1988 Energy Information Administration (EIA) report which examined trends in nonfuel operating costs at the Nation's nuclear power plants. Nonfuel operating costs are comprised of operating and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs and capital expenditures incurred after a plant begins operating. Capital expenditures are typically called ''capital additions'' because the costs are added to the utility's rate base and recovered as a depreciation expense over several years, the number of years being regulated by State Public Utility Commissions. These costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep a plant operational as well as those needed to make plant modifications mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or implemented at the utility's discretion. The 1988 report found that from 1974 through 1984, the last year for which data were available, nuclear power plant nonfuel operating costs escalated by 14 percent annually in real terms. The objective of the present study was to determine whether trends in nonfuel operating costs have changed since 1984, if there was any change in the underlying factors influencing these costs, and if so, how these changes affect the basic conclusions of the 1988 report. The general trends are encouraging: Total nonfuel operating costs peaked in 1984 and have been lower since that time; O ampersand M costs have been rising, but at a much lower rate than seen from 1974 through 1984; capital additions costs have actually been declining. 9 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartan Ayfer; Kucukali Serhat; Ar Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly as...

  13. Inspection during operation of a nuclear power plant in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1977-01-01

    The control and surveillance activities, as well as the operating data and results of the three nuclear power plants presently in operation: Jose Cabrera, Santa Maria de Garona and Vandellos, are summarized. The first two are light-water type, with different pressure and boiling characteristics and the third is of the gas-graphite type. The main aspects, from an inspection point of view, of the experience obtained in these three plants are analyzed. (author) [es

  14. Ensuring safe operation at the Loviisa nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnell, B.

    1985-01-01

    Safe operation of a nuclear plant can be achieved only if the plant is designed according to stringent safety principles, if the construction and commissioning work meets high standards and finally if proper attention is paid to the safety aspects in all operational activities. Clearly formulated safety principles and standards are required for all these steps. In the early phases of the Loviisa project only a few IAEA codes of practice and safety guides were available. Their usefulness was, however, felt early, and valuable guidance was offered by them in formulating the quality assurance programme, for example. The paper describes the approach taken in order to achieve high operational safety at the first nuclear power station in Finland, the Loviisa plant. The involvement in the project of the plant owner, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO), was very large, the company serving as its own architect-engineer. Experience has shown that the thorough knowledge of the plant, down to the finest details, obtained by extensive participation in design, erection and commissioning of the plant, is invaluable in the actual operation of the plant. This manifests itself most clearly in the event of malfunctions and incidents or if modifications have to be undertaken. Many different activities affecting the operational safety can be identified: actual operation of the plant, including the creation and maintaining of technical specifications, procedures, instructions, documentation systems, etc.; maintenance, repair and modification work; in-service inspection and testing practices; component failure data collection and analysis; incident reporting, collection and evaluation systems; operator training; quality assurance programme; procedures and implementation; reviews of operational safety by an independent safety committee; and supervision by the safety authorities. In the paper, all these activities are described in some detail. (author)

  15. Supply, operation and radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.; Krey, M.; Haag, G.; Wolters, J.; Merz, E.; Sauermann, P.F.

    1981-07-01

    The subject of 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle' is treated in 5 reports: 1. Uranium supply; 2. Fabrication and characteristics of fuel elements; 3. Design, operation and safety of nuclear power plants after Harrisburg; 4. Radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants - changed political scenery after 1979; 5. Shutdown and dismantling of LWR-KKW - state of knowledge and feasibility. (HP) [de

  16. Quality assurance during operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, J.

    1980-01-01

    The lecture provides a description of the QA manual as operated in French nuclear power plants. Oral comments will include discussion of some difficulties in actual implementation. Also examples will be given of incidents in nuclear plants, which could have been mitigated or fully prevented by QA attitude. (orig./RW)

  17. Conduct of Operations at Nuclear Power Plants. Safety Guide (Spanish Edition); Realizacion de operaciones en centrales nucleares. Guia de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    This Safety Guide identifies the main responsibilities and practices of nuclear power plant (NPP) operations departments in relation to their responsibility for the safe functioning of the plant. The guide presents the factors to be considered in structuring the operations department of an NPP; setting high standards of performance; making safety related decisions in an effective manner; conducting control room and field activities in a thorough and professional manner; and maintaining an NPP within established operational limits and conditions. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management and organization of plant operations; 3. Shift complement and functions; 4. Shift routines and operating practices; 5. Control of equipment and plant status; 6. Operations equipment and operator aids; 7. Work control and authorization.

  18. Morally responsible decision making in networked military operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuijzen-Van Burken, C.G.; Van Bezooijen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing responsible innovations on the battlefield requires a rethinking of social and psychological aspects of moral decision making on the battlefield, and in particular, including how these aspects are influenced by technology. In this chapter, the social aspects of moral decision making are

  19. Demonstration of decision support for real time operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catterson, Victoria; MCarthur, Stephen; Chen, Minjiang

    ELECTRA Deliverable 8.2 reports on the demonstration of decision support within the future control room in light of voltage and frequency control in the 2030+ power system. The decision support must identify key threats and vulnerabilities, and propose and prioritise appropriate interventions....

  20. Practical Application of Modern Forecasting and Decision Tools at an Operational River Management Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawdy, C. M.; Carney, S.; Barber, N. M.; Balk, B. C.; Miller, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) recently completed a complete overhaul of our River Forecast System (RFS). This modernization effort encompassed: uplift or addition of 89 data feeds calibration of a 140 subbasin rainfall-runoff model calibration of over 650 miles of hydraulic routings implementation of a decision optimization routine for 29 reservoirs implementation of hydrothermal forecast models for five river-cooled thermal plants creation of decision-friendly displays creation of a user-friendly wiki creation of a robust reporting system This talk will walk attendees through how a 24x7 river and grid management agency made decisions around how to operationalize the latest technologies in hydrology, hydraulics, decision science and information technology. The tradeoffs inherent in such an endeavor will be discussed so that research-oriented attendees can understand how best to align their research if they desire adoption within industry. More industry-oriented attendees can learn about the mechanics of how to succeed at such a large and complex project. Following the description of the modernization project, I can discuss TVA's plans for future growth of the system. We plan to add the following capabilities in the coming years: forecast verification tools to communicate floodplain risk tools to choose the best possible model forcings ensemble inflow modelling a river policy that allows for more reasonable tradeoff of benefits river decisions based on ensembles The iterative staging of such improvements is highly fraught with technical, political and operational risks. I will discuss how TVA's is using what we learned in the RFS modernization effort to grow further into delivering on the promise of these additional technologies.

  1. Operation guide device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsuneyasu

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to maintain the soundness of nuclear fuels and each of equipments by compensating the effect of the xenon density on the reactor core thermal power resulted upon load following operation of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: The device comprises an instrumentation system for measuring the status of the nuclear reactor, a reactor core performance calculator for calculating the reactor core performance based on the output from the instrumentation system, a xenon density calculator for calculating the xenon density based on the output from the performance calculator, a memory unit for storing the output from the reactor core performance calculator and the xenon density calculator and for transferring the stored memory to a nuclear reactor status forecasting device and an alternative load pattern searching device for searching, in cooperation with the memory unit, an alternative load pattern which is within an operation restrictive condition and most closed to a demanded load pattern when a monitor for the deviation from the flowrate distribution detects the deviation from the operation restrictive conditions. (Yoshino, Y.)

  2. Industrial psychology aspects of power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peche, D

    1980-08-01

    The paper gives a survey of the development of the negotiationes that have taken place from the beginning 1976 between representatives of BMI and VDWE to examine whether psychological qualification examinations for the shift personal of nuclear power plants will be appropriate. As a result it is shown that first- and reexaminations shall be carried out according principle 25, the psychological part of this examination should, however, be renounced to a still pending standardisation and testing. The more detailed examination of the sense organs, proposed on this occasion, will be defined by the representatives of VDEW by a new proposal. The routine psychological judgement along with a documentation of the superiors is, however, not considered suitable.

  3. Method of operating a MHD power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysk, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    A fossil fuel is burned substoichiometrically in the combustor of a mhd power plant to produce a high temperature, fuelrich product gas. The product gas is passed through a mhd channel to generate electricity. A reducing agent, preferably natural gas or hydrocarbon, is injected into the fuelrich product gas leaving the mhd generator; and the resulting mixture is held at a temperature in the range of 950 to 1500 0 C for about 1 second to permit the reducing agent to decompose a portion of the nitrogen oxides formed in the combustor. The fuel-rich product gas then passes thru an afterburner wherein combustion is completed and any excess reducing agent is consumed

  4. Surveillance dosimetry of operating power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Davis, A.I.; Gold, R.

    1981-01-01

    The main focus of the research efforts presently underway is the LWR power reactor surveillance program in which metallurgical test specimens of the reactor PV and dosimetry sensors are placed in three or more surveillance capsules at or near the reactor PV inner wall. They are then irradiated in a temperature and neutron flux-spectrum environment as similar as possible to the PV itself for periods of about 1.5 to 15 effective full-power years (EFPY), with removal of the last capsule at a fluence corresponding to the 30- to 40-year plant end-of-life (EOL) fluence. Because the neutron flux level at the surveillance position is greater than at the vessel, the test is accelerated wit respect to the vessel exposure, allowing early assessment of EOL conditions

  5. Use of computer codes to improve nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.; Polak, V.; Filo, J.; Gatas, J.

    1985-01-01

    For safety and economic reasons, the scope for carrying out experiments on operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very limited and any changes in technical equipment and operating parameters or conditions have to be supported by theoretical calculations. In the Nuclear Power Plant Scientific Research Institute (NIIAEhS), computer codes are systematically used to analyse actual operating events, assess safety aspects of changes in equipment and operating conditions, optimize the conditions, preparation and analysis of NPP startup trials and review and amend operating instructions. In addition, calculation codes are gradually being introduced into power plant computer systems to perform real time processing of the parameters being measured. The paper describes a number of specific examples of the use of calculation codes for the thermohydraulic analysis of operating and accident conditions aimed at improving the operation of WWER-440 units at the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants. These examples confirm that computer calculations are an effective way of solving operating problems and of further increasing the level of safety and economic efficiency of NPP operation. (author)

  6. Renewal of JOYO plant operation management expert tool (JOYPET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Toshikatsu; Aita, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Takanori; Ito, Hideaki; Aoki; Hiroshi; Oda, Toshihiro

    2004-03-01

    JOYO Plant Operation Management Expert Tool system named JOYPET has been developed with the aim of confirming the stable and safety operation of JOYO and improving operational reliability in future FBR plants. New JOYPET system was designed and manufactured in 2002, and began on operation in 2003, because the former system, which was designed in 1988 and operated from 1991 to 2002, was superannuated, and it was difficult to obtain alternative hardwares and replace parts. The difference between the former system and the later new one was adopted the web-online system to use LAN (Local Area Network) instead of the host and the terminal computer system. Then the new system enabled to take unitary document management for reactor operation, and each person was able to search, refer and make document on line directly. This paper summarized the new JOYPET system design, manufacturing, system constitution and operation actual result. (author)

  7. Selection/licensing of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.M.

    1983-07-01

    An important aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety is the reactor operator in the control room. The operators are the first individuals to deal with an emergency situation, and thus, effective performance on their part is essential for safe plant operations. Important issues pertaining to NPP reactor operators would fall within the personnel subsystem of our safety system analysis. While there are many potential aspects of the personnel subsystem, a key first step in this focus is the selection of individuals - attempting to choose individuals for the job of reactor operator who will safely perform the job. This requires a valid (job-related) selection process. Some background information on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process used for selecting NPP reactor operators is briefly presented and a description of a research endeavor now underway at Battelle for developing a valid reactor operator licensing examination is included

  8. Knowledge base for power plant operation and its application to operation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Toshiaki

    1986-01-01

    The present study is aimed at constructing a knowledge base for supervisory control operation in power plants and developing an operation guidance by using it. Examination is made to provide dignosis procedures on the basis of an existing alarm system. An operation guidance procedure for diagnosis is proposed which is to be followed when several alarms are sounded simultaneously in a power plant, and application of the procedure to an existing plant is examined. The operation manual for the plant includes 75 description items for six alarms. It is shown that the number of items related to these alarms can be reduced by 70 % by rearranging them according to the procedure. Another investigation is conducted to provide an operation manual for diagnosis to be used when one alarm is sounded in a plant. The quality of the manual developed is on nearly the same level with that for the existing plant examined. When a knowledge base is to be constructed from an existing operation manual, the processing operation generally requires a certain level of linguistic comprehension ability, such as for judgment of synonyms. It is demonstrated that the procedure proposed here is able to develop a high-quality knowledge base with standardized terminology. The procedure can also serve to construct operation manuals for plants in other industrial fields. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This report aims to provide the basis for improvements in the understanding of nuclear power plants operation and ideas for improving future productivity. The purpose of the project was to identify good practices of operating performance at a few of the world's most productive plants. This report was prepared through a series of consultants meetings, a specialists meeting and an Advisory Group meeting with participation of experts from 23 Member States. The report is based on self-assessment of half a dozen plants that have been chosen as representatives of different reactor types in as many different countries, and the views and assessment of the participants on good practices influencing plant performance. Three main areas that influence nuclear power plant availability and reliability were identified in the discussions: (1) management practices, (2) personnel characteristics, and (3) working practices. These areas cover causes influencing plant performance under plant management control. In each area the report describes factors or good practices that positively influence plant availability. The case studies, presented in annexes, contain the plant self-assessment of areas that influence their availability and reliability. Six plants are represented in the case studies: (1) Dukovany (WWER, 1760 MW) in the Czech Republic; (2) Blayais (PWR, 3640 MW) in France; (3) Paks (WWER, 1840 MW) in Hungary; (4) Wolsong 1 (PHWR, 600 MW) in the Republic of Korea; (5) Trillo 1 (PWR, 1066 MW) in Spain; and (6) Limerick (BWR, 2220 MW) in the United States of America

  10. Evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report aims to provide the basis for improvements in the understanding of nuclear power plants operation and ideas for improving future productivity. The purpose of the project was to identify good practices of operating performance at a few of the world`s most productive plants. This report was prepared through a series of consultants meetings, a specialists meeting and an Advisory Group meeting with participation of experts from 23 Member States. The report is based on self-assessment of half a dozen plants that have been chosen as representatives of different reactor types in as many different countries, and the views and assessment of the participants on good practices influencing plant performance. Three main areas that influence nuclear power plant availability and reliability were identified in the discussions: (1) management practices, (2) personnel characteristics, and (3) working practices. These areas cover causes influencing plant performance under plant management control. In each area the report describes factors or good practices that positively influence plant availability. The case studies, presented in annexes, contain the plant self-assessment of areas that influence their availability and reliability. Six plants are represented in the case studies: (1) Dukovany (WWER, 1760 MW) in the Czech Republic; (2) Blayais (PWR, 3640 MW) in France; (3) Paks (WWER, 1840 MW) in Hungary; (4) Wolsong 1 (PHWR, 600 MW) in the Republic of Korea; (5) Trillo 1 (PWR, 1066 MW) in Spain; and (6) Limerick (BWR, 2220 MW) in the United States of America Figs, tabs

  11. Application study of non-linear reasoning for nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shinji; Yonekawa, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Kazunori; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1999-03-01

    Achievement of improved operation safety of complex nuclear power plants by decision-making functions based on information processing technologies requires real time concluding to be in-time for plant state evolutions, transparency for human operators to understand the derived conclusion, and robustness against local defects inevitably hidden in huge amount of the referred information. These requirements can not be met by the simple rule-based reasoning. The study introduced in this report put a focus on the robustness of the three requirements. This study derives the required feature of robust decision making, after thinking of possible contribution of fast emerging measurement technologies. Finally, two concrete algorithm based on mutual evaluation of relatively simple diagnostic modules are implemented on computer systems and evaluated in views of applicability. (author)

  12. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov)

  13. Optimization of advanced plants operation: The Escrime project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiche, C.; Papin, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Escrime program aims at defining the optimal share of tasks between humans and computers under normal or accidental plant operation. Basic principles we keep in mind are the following: human operators are likely to be necessary in the operation of future plants because we cannot demonstrate that plant design is error free, so unexpected situation can still happen; automation must not release the operators from their decisional role but only help them avoiding situations of cognitive overload which can lead to increase the risk of errors; the optimum share of tasks between human and automatic systems must be based on a critical analysis of the tasks and of the way they are handled. The last point appeared to be of major importance. The corresponding analysis of the French PWR's operating procedures enabled us to define a unified scheme for plant operation under the form of a hierarchy of goals and means. Beyond this analysis, development of a specific testing facility is under way to check the relevance of the proposed plant operation organization and to test the human-machine cooperation in different situations for various levels of automation. 7 refs, 4 figs

  14. Operating procedure automation to enhance safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husseiny, A.A.; Sabri, Z.A.; Adams, S.K.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Packer, D.; Holmes, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Use of logic statements and computer assist are explored as means for automation and improvement on design of operating procedures including those employed in abnormal and emergency situations. Operating procedures for downpower and loss of forced circulation are used for demonstration. Human-factors analysis is performed on generic emergency operating procedures for three strategies of control; manual, semi-automatic and automatic, using standard emergency operating procedures. Such preliminary analysis shows that automation of procedures is feasible provided that fault-tolerant software and hardware become available for design of the controllers. Recommendations are provided for tests to substantiate the promise of enhancement of plant safety. Adequate design of operating procedures through automation may alleviate several major operational problems of nuclear power plants. Also, automation of procedures is necessary for partial or overall automatic control of plants. Fully automatic operations are needed for space applications while supervised automation of land-based and offshore plants may become the thrust of new generation of nulcear power plants. (orig.)

  15. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  16. Operator training simulator for BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadasu

    1988-01-01

    For the operation management of nuclear power stations with high reliability and safety, the role played by operators is very important. The effort of improving the man-machine interface in the central control rooms of nuclear power stations is energetically advanced, but the importance of the role of operators does not change. For the training of the operators of nuclear power stations, simulators have been used from the early stage. As the simulator facilities for operator training, there are the full scope simulator simulating faithfully the central control room of an actual plant and the small simulator mainly aiming at learning the plant functions. For BWR nuclear power stations, two full scope simulators are installed in the BWR Operator Training Center, and the training has been carried out since 1974. The plant function learning simulators have been installed in respective electric power companies as the education and training facilities in the companies. The role of simulators in operator training, the BTC No.1 simulator of a BWR-4 of 780 MWe and the BTC No.2 simulator of a BWR-5 of 1,100 MWe, plant function learning simulators, and the design of the BTC No.2 simulator and plant function learning simulators are reported. (K.I.)

  17. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a statistical analysis of nonfuel operating costs for nuclear power plants. Most studies of the economic costs of nuclear power have focused on the rapid escalation in the cost of constructing a nuclear power plant. The present analysis found that there has also been substantial escalation in real (inflation-adjusted) nonfuel operating costs. It is important to determine the factors contributing to the escalation in operating costs, not only to understand what has occurred but also to gain insights about future trends in operating costs. There are two types of nonfuel operating costs. The first is routine operating and maintenance expenditures (O and M costs), and the second is large postoperational capital expenditures, or what is typically called ''capital additions.'' O and M costs consist mainly of expenditures on labor, and according to one recently completed study, the majoriy of employees at a nuclear power plant perform maintenance activities. It is generally thought that capital additions costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep the plants operational, and to make plant modifications (backfits) required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Many discussions of nuclear power plant operating costs have not considered these capital additions costs, and a major finding of the present study is that these costs are substantial. The objective of this study was to determine why nonfuel operating costs have increased over the past decade. The statistical analysis examined a number of factors that have influenced the escalation in real nonfuel operating costs and these are discussed in this report. 4 figs, 19 tabs

  18. Development of on-line operator aid system (OASYSTM) for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Sig; Choi, Seong Soo; Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Hee Kyo; Yi, Chul Un

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the development of On - line operator Aid SYStem (OASYS TM ) are discussed by focusing attention on the importance of the operator's role for nuclear power plants. The OASYS TM is under development to support the operator's decision making process and to enhance the safety of a nuclear power plant by providing the plant operators with timely and proper guideline during abnormal and emergency conditions. The OASYS TM has capabilities for the signal validation/management, the alarm processing, the failure diagnosis using abnormal operating procedures, and the dynamic tracking of emergency operating procedures using function restoration guidelines and optimal recovery guidelines with a series of complex logic steps covering a broad spectrum of event sequences. The proposed system is being implemented on a SUN-4/75 Workstation using C and Quintus TM prolog language. For verification studies a full-scope real-time simulator is being used. Test results show that the OASYS TM is capable of diagnosing a plant failure quickly and providing an operator guideline with fast response time. After verification the OASYS TM will be installed in the simulator II of Kori nuclear training center

  19. Tactical and operational decisions for operating room planning: efficiency and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, Angela; Tànfani, Elena

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact on welfare implications of a 0-1 linear programming model to solve the Operating Room (OR) planning problem, taking a patient perspective. In particular, given a General Surgery Department made up of different surgical sub-specialties sharing a given number of OR block times, the model determines, during a given planning period, the allocation of those blocks to surgical sub-specialties, i.e. the so called Master Surgical Schedule Problem (MSSP), together with the subsets of elective patients to be operated on in each block time, i.e. the so called Surgical Case Assignment Problem (SCAP). The innovation of the model is two-fold. The first is that OR allocation is "optimal" if the available OR blocks are scheduled simultaneously to the proper subspecialty, at the proper time to the proper patient. The second is defining what "proper" means and include that in the objective function. In our approach what is important is not number of patients who can be treated in a given period but how much welfare loss, due to clinical deterioration or other negative consequences related to excessive waiting, can be prevented. In other words we assume a societal perspective in that we focus on "outcome" (health improving or preventing from worsening) rather than on "output" (delivered procedures). The model can be used both to develop weekly OR planning with given resources (operational decision), and to perform "what if" scenario analysis regarding how to increase the amount of OR time available for the entire department (tactical decision). The model performance is verified by applying it to a real scenario, the elective admissions of the General Surgery Department of the San Martino University Hospital in Genova (Italy). Despite the complexity of this NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, computational results indicate that the model can solve all test problems within 600 s and an average optimality tolerance of less than 0.01%.

  20. Atomic power plant and its operation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Fumiaki; Higashio, Satoru.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve operation performance by partially restraining local over power in the axial power distribution of the reactor core by properly controlling the reactor pressure and furthermore by smoothly and properly performing reactor start-up operation in a short time while maintaining fuel integrity. Method: With the reactor pressure input to the pressure controller from the pressure detector, the valve opening of the main steam adjusting valve is adjusted so that the pressure will decrease when the reactor is started up. Also the adjusting valve is controlled so that the pressure will be lower than the set value of rated pressure, thus changing the axial distribution of void. In the meantime, with the stored state of xenon stored along with the increase of reactor power taken into consideration, the reactor pressure is increased as high as the rated value until the reactor power reaches to the rated power, thereby alleviating the local increase of reactor power without changing the whole reactor power and also enabling substantial reduction of reactor start-up time while maintaining reactor integrity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. How sulphur was dislodged to sustain plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, A.N.; Agarwal, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Kota) employs chemical exchange between water and hydrogen sulphide gas. Formation of sulphur is a known phenomena during production of heavy water in G.S. process plants. It is observed that after three years of plant operation this sulphur is enough to choke the cold tower trays causing flooding of exchange towers and resultant decrease in throughput. G.S. process plants normally go for major turn around once in four years when sulphur is either manually cleaned or removed by steam wash after hydrogen sulphide gas has been removed from the system and towers have been fully decontaminated. As throughput starts decreasing after third year and plant operation becomes more difficult in fourth year, HWP (Kota) had evolved a procedure of heating the towers for dislodging sulphur from sieve trays when plant is running. With these procedures plant operation could be sustained without tower floodings even in fourth year, before plant could go for major turn around for manual removal of sulphur

  2. Factor best of ALWR features into operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes how many features of advanced light-water reactor designs are applicable to existing plants. While no new plants are being ordered, some advanced features have found their way into existing units and have been incorporated into the design of plants being built overseas. Ironically, two of the advanced light-water reactor (ALWR) plant designs--the ABWR and the System 80+--were finally approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the end of last year. Yet US utilities are probably further away from ordering a new nuclear unit than they ever have been. But that doesn't make the program irrelevant. Design advances from this program can affect the economics of nuclear power at a time when owner/operators are striving to compete in a less restrictive market for generation. Advances that can be considered by operating plants emanate from two major programs: (1) the standard plant designs which began in the late 1970s and (2) the ALWR program which sought--successfully, although it took a decade--to precertify designs and lessen the licensing burden on those contemplating a new unit. By using proven technology to simplify plants with higher design margins and enhanced safety features, the ALWR program's goal was to make new plants less expensive, safer, and easier to operate and maintain than their predecessors

  3. Nuclear power plant life management and longer-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation (LTO). It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management. The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. (authors)

  4. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  5. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  6. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations; to be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; and to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  7. Engineerig of structural modifications for operating nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    The engineering of structural modifications for operating nuclear plants offers many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of areas in operating plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common 'fire drills', but controlled enough to assure technically correct designs and minimize the expenditure of man-hours and resulting engineering cost. (orig.)

  8. Flooding PSA with Plant Specific Operating Experiences of Korean PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joon Yull

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to update the flooding PSA with Korean plant specific operating experience data and the appropriate estimation method for the flooding frequency to improve the PSA quality. The existing flooding PSA used the NPE (Nuclear Power Experience) database up to 1985 for the flooding frequency. They are all USA plant operating experiences. So an upgraded flooding frequency with Korean specific plant operation experience is required. We also propose a method of only using the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) data for the flooding frequency estimation in the case of the flooding area in the primary building even though the existing flooding PSA used both PWR and BWR (Boiled Water Reactor) data for all kinds of plant areas. We evaluate the CDF (Core Damage Frequency) with the modified flooding frequency and compare the results with that of the existing flooding PSA method

  9. Pilot plant UF6 to UF4 test operations report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicha, W.J.; Fallings, M.; Gilbert, D.D.; Koch, G.E.; Levine, P.J.; McLaughlin, D.F.; Nuhfer, K.R.; Reese, J.C.

    1987-02-01

    The FMPC site includes a plant designed for the reduction of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ). Limited operation of the upgraded reduction facility began in August 1984 and continued through January 19, 1986. A reaction vessel ruptured on that date causing the plant operation to be shut down. The DOE conducted a Class B investigation with the findings of the investigation board issued in preliminary form in May 1986 and as a final recommendation in July 1986. A two-phase restart of the plant was planned and implemented. Phase I included implementing safety system modifications, changing reaction vessel temperature control strategy, and operating the reduction plant under an 8-week controlled test. The results of the test period are the subject of this report. 41 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Safety aspects and operating experience of LWR plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Yoshioka, T.; Toyota, M.; Hinoki, M.

    1977-01-01

    To develop nuclear power generation for the future, it is necessary to put further emphasis on safety assurance and to endeavour to devise measures to improve plant availability, based on the careful analysis of causes that reduce plant availability. The paper discusses the results of studies on the following items from such viewpoints: (1) Safety and operating experience of LWR nuclear power plants in Japan: operating experience with LWRs; improvements in LWR design during the past ten years; analysis of the factors affecting plant availability; (2) Assurance of safety and measures to increase availability: measures for safety and environmental protection; measures to reduce radiation exposure of employees; appropriateness of maintenance and inspection work; measures to increase plant availability; measures to improve reliability of equipment and components; (3) Future technical problems. (author)

  11. Connecting engineering operations to strategic management: a framework for decision making in engineering offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2012-01-01

    of the organisation. The Global Decision-Making (GDM) framework described here is a decision-making framework for engineering offshoring decisions for product development activities. The framework proposes that risks in engineering offshoring can be reduced by connecting engineering operations to strategic management...

  12. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  13. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  14. Melter operation results in chemical test at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehira, Norio; Yoshioka, Masahiro; Muramoto, Hitoshi; Oba, Takaaki; Takahashi, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Chemical Test of the glass melter system of the Vitrification Facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was performed. In this test, basic performance of heating-up of the melter, melting glass, pouring glass was confirmed using simulated materials. Through these tests and operation of all modes, good results were gained, and training of operators was completed. (author)

  15. Assessing the Structure of Non-Routine Decision Processes in Airline Operations Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, Floor; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge airline operations control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of airline operations control professionals’ decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive

  16. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, F.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Heerkens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals’ decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive

  17. Remote operation and maintenance support services for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Higuma, Koji; Shimizu, Shunichi; Sakuma, Masatake; Sonoda, Yukio; Kanemoto, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    Toshiba Corporation constructed e-Toshiba Operating Plant Service (e-TOPS TM ) system and began remote operation and maintenance support service for nuclear power plants. The service put into practice remote operation and maintenance by harmony of information technologies such as internet and mobile, and nuclear power measurement/diagnostic technologies and security techniques. Outline of e-TOPS TM , remote-control service, -inspection system, -diagnostic service and technologies support service are explained. Construction, objects and application effects of e-TOPS TM , remote diagnostic system using image treatment techniques, construction of device record card control system are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  18. Integrated approach to optimize operation and maintenance costs for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    In the context of increasingly open electricity markets and the 'unbundling' of generating companies from former utility monopolies, an area of major concern is the economic performance of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. Nuclear power, inevitably, must compete directly with other electricity generation sources. Coping with this competitive pressure is a challenge that the nuclear industry should meet if the nuclear option is to remain a viable one. This competitive environment has significant implications for nuclear plant operations, including, among others, the need for the more cost effective management of plant activities, and the greater use of analytical tools to balance the costs and benefits of proposed activities, in order to optimize operation and maintenance costs, and thus insure the economic competitiveness of existing nuclear power plants. In the framework of the activities on Nuclear Economic Performance Information System (NEPIS), the IAEA embarked in developing guidance on optimization of operation and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants. The report was prepared building on the fundamental that optimization of operation and maintenance costs of a nuclear power plant is a key component of a broader integrated business strategic planning process, having as overall result achievement of organization's business objectives. It provides advice on optimization of O and M costs in the framework of strategic business planning, with additional details on operational planning and controlling. This TECDOC was elaborated in 2004-2005 in the framework of the IAEA's programme on Nuclear Power Plant Operating Performance and Life Cycle Management, with the support of two consultants meetings and one technical meeting and based on contributions provided by participants. It can serve as a useful reference for the management and operation staff within utilities, nuclear power plant operators and regulators and other organizations involved in

  19. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of proper site selection, design, construction and commissioning, and the evaluation of these, followed by proper management, operation and maintenance of the plant. In a later phase, a proper transition to decommissioning is required. The organization and management of plant operations ensures that a high level of safety is achieved through the effective management and control of operational activities. This publication is a revision of the Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 2000 as IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2. The purpose of this revision was to restructure Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2 in the light of new operating experience and new trends in the nuclear industry; to introduce new requirements that were not included in Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2 on the operation of nuclear power plants; and to reflect current practices, new concepts and technical developments. This update also reflects feedback on the use of the standards, both from Member States and from the IAEA's safety related activities. The publication is presented in the new format for Safety Requirements publications. The present publication reflects the safety principles of the Fundamental Safety Principles. It has been harmonized with IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3 on The Management System for Facilities and Activities. Guidance on the fulfilment of the safety requirements is provided in supporting Safety Guides. The terminology used in this publication is defined and explained in the IAEA Safety Glossary. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the Fundamental Safety Principles. This

  20. Maintenance planning support method for nuclear power plants based on collective decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Shoji; Takaoka, Kazushi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Fukutomi, Shigeki

    1992-01-01

    Inspection and maintenance planning in nuclear power plants is conducted by decision making based on experts' collective consensus. However, since a great deal of time and effort is required to reach a consensus among expert judgments, the establishment of effective decision making methods is necessary. Therefore, the authors developed a method for supporting collective decision making, based on a combination of three types of decision making methods; the Characteristic Diagram method, Interpretative Structural Modeling method, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. The proposed method enables us to determine the evaluation criteria systematically for collective decision making, and also allows extracting collective decisions using simplified questionnaires. The proposed method can support reaching a consensus of groups effectively through the evaluation of collective decision structural models and their characteristics. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated through its application to the decision making problem concerning whether or not the improved ultrasonic testing equipment should be adopted at nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. Plant-life extension planning for an operating LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The study concluded that continued EBR-II operation is certainly feasible for well beyond 10 more years, and that continued demonstration of the unique inherent safety and operability features of a pool-type liquid-metal-cooled reactor and the demonstration of a reasonable operating lifetime are very important and will provide invaluable information for the design and development of the next generation nuclear power plants

  2. The new operating conditions of French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six themes are examined: France's unique position in view of the size of its nuclear operating plant, the role of nuclear power in matching electricity supply to demand, the excellent flexibility provided by PWR facilities in operation, the approaches used in the field of automatic operational control systems, the systematic use of data processing for maintenance and generation and the gains in productivity that can be gained as a result of improving fuel use [fr

  3. Tianwan nuclear power plant operation and management practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yingbing

    2010-01-01

    Tianwan Nuclear Power Station is a high-tech cooperation project in nuclear sector in the spirit of promoting the political relationship, economic trading and international strategic partnership between China and Russia. It was listed as one of the key nuclear projects to be constructed during the 'Ninth Five-Year' Plan. In this article the author summarizes and feedbacks the practices of operation management in Tianwan Nuclear Power Station in 7 aspects of safety culture construction, operation team building, daily operation management, operation document management, plant chemistry control and management, solid, liquid and gaseous waste management and control of operation performance indicators. (author)

  4. Operations Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This document, Revision 4 of the Operations Program Plan, has been developed as the seven-year master plan for operating of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Subjects covered include public and technical communications; regulatory and environmental programs; startup engineering; radiation handling, surface operations, and underground operations; waste certification and waste handling; transportation development; geotechnical engineering; experimental operations; engineering program; general maintenance; security program; safety, radiation, and regulatory assurance; quality assurance program; training program; administration activities; management systems program; and decommissioning. 243 refs., 19 figs., 25 tabs. (SM)

  5. Modifications needed to operate PWR's plants in G-Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainman, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The production of electricity from PWR nuclear plants represents 44% of the total production of electricity in France for 1984, and 68% of the electricity produced by Thermal power plants (127 TWh over 187 TWh). These data show clearly that the French PWR plants do not work in ''base mode'' anymore but have to fit production with consumption, in other words to assume the frequency control. To participate permanently to the load follow and frequency control, it appeared that some improvements in the field of pressurizer level and pressure control were necessary as well as in the field of operator aids computer. It should be noted that these improvements are useful even without taking into account the constraints due to load follow and frequency control because of the mechanical stress in the CVCS piping, for instance. Some additional tests are planned to better identify this specific problem. The need of a more flexible operating mode than ones given by the initial system (black control rods), significantly reduced in 1973 due to the application of the ECCS criterion, led EDF and Framatome to develop a new operating mode (G. Mode) allowing a faster power escalation (5% PN/mn) whatever the fuel burn-up. This new operating mode improves significantly also the flexibility of operation when the frequency control is needed, and helps a lot the operators in such cases. All the 900 MWe Nuclear plants will be able to operate in ''G mode'' before the end of 1984

  6. Science-based HRA: experimental comparison of operator performance to IDAC (Information-Decision-Action Crew) simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, Rachel [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Li, Yuandan [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Mosleh, Ali [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Information-Decision-Action Crew (IDAC) operator model simulations of a Steam Generator Tube Rupture are compared to student operator performance in studies conducted in the Ohio State University’s Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Facility. This study is presented as a prototype for conducting simulator studies to validate key aspects of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods. Seven student operator crews are compared to simulation results for crews designed to demonstrate three different decision-making strategies. The IDAC model used in the simulations is modified slightly to capture novice behavior rather that expert operators. Operator actions and scenario pacing are compared. A preliminary review of available performance shaping factors (PSFs) is presented. After the scenario in the NPP Simulator Facility, student operators review a video of the scenario and evaluate six PSFs at pre-determined points in the scenario. This provides a dynamic record of the PSFs experienced by the OSU student operators. In this preliminary analysis, Time Constraint Load (TCL) calculated in the IDAC simulations is compared to TCL reported by student operators. We identify potential modifications to the IDAC model to develop an “IDAC Student Operator Model.” This analysis provides insights into how similar experiments could be conducted using expert operators to improve the fidelity of IDAC simulations.

  7. Representing Operational Knowledge of PWR Plant by Using Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    situation and support operational decisions. This paper will provide a general MFM model of the primary side in a standard Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor ( PWR ) system including sub - systems of Reactor Coolant System, Rod Control System, Chemical and Volume Control System, emergency heat removal......The aim of this paper is to explore the capability of representing operational knowledge by using Multilevel Flow Modelling ( MFM ) methodology. The paper demonstrate s how the operational knowledge can be inserted into the MFM models and be used to evaluate the plant state, identify the current...... systems. And the sub - systems’ functions will be decomposed into sub - models according to different operational situations. An operational model will be developed based on the operating procedure by using MFM symbols and this model can be used to implement coordination rules for organize the utilizati...

  8. Transparency and efficiency through plant operations management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladage, L.

    2001-01-01

    Plant operations management systems, being IT application systems, provide integral support of the business processes making up plant operations management. The use of plant operations management systems improves mutually interdependent factors, such as high economic performance, high availability, and maximum safety. Since its commissioning in 1988, the Emsland nuclear power station (KKE) has been run with the IBFS plant operations management system. The work flow management system (WfMS), a module of IBFS, is described as an example of job order processing. IBFS-WfMS is to optimize all processes, thus cutting costs and ensuring that processes are run and documented reliably. Assessing the savings effect achieved through the use of IBFS-WfMS clearly reveals the savings in work/time achieved by the system. These savings are quoted as approx. 4 minutes and DM 10, respectively, per working step, which corresponds to several dozens of manyears or several million DM per annum in the KKE plant under consideration. This result can be extrapolated to other plants. (orig.) [de

  9. Effects of delaying the operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.; Rainey, J.A.; Tepel, R.C.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1983-12-01

    This report documents a study of an actual 24-month nuclear power plant licensing delay. A representative utility was chosen for examination. The research was oriented toward determination of the licensing delay's impact on the utility's operating results, ratepayers, and security issues. The methodology utilized to estimate those impacts involved the recursive interaction of a generation costing program to estimate replacement fuel costs and a financial regulatory model to concomitantly determine the impact on the utility, its ratepayers and security issues. The latter model was executed under six alternate scenarios: (1) no delay in the plant's operation; (2) a 24-month delay; (3) a 24-month delay but further assuming all replacement power was generated by coal-fired plants; (4) a 24-month delay assuming all replacement power from oil-fired plants; (5) no delay but assuming the capital cost of the plant was twice as large; and (6) a 24-month delay with the capital cost of the plant twice as large. Three primary conclusions were made. First, under all scenarios, a 24-month delay in operation of the plant has an adverse impact on the utility's internal generation of funds. Second, although electricity rates are not appreciably affected by the delay, the direction of electricity price changes is contingent on the source of fuel used for replacement power. Finally, a 24-month delay has an adverse impact on the indicators used to evaluate the financial soundness of the utility in all cases under consideration

  10. Implementation of an operator model with error mechanisms for nuclear power plant control room operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Taek

    1996-01-01

    SACOM(Simulation Analyser with Cognitive Operator Model) is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to simulate human operator's cognitive characteristics during the emergency situations of nuclear power plans. An operator model with error mechanisms has been developed and combined into SACOM to simulate human operator's cognitive information process based on the Rasmussen's decision ladder model. The operational logic for five different cognitive activities (Agents), operator's attentional control (Controller), short-term memory (Blackboard), and long-term memory (Knowledge Base) have been developed and implemented on blackboard architecture. A trial simulation with a scenario for emergency operation has been performed to verify the operational logic. It was found that the operator model with error mechanisms is suitable for the simulation of operator's cognitive behavior in emergency situation

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience, 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    The fundamental objective of the Incident Reporting System (IRS) is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants which are operated worldwide. This fourth publication, covering the period 2005-2008, follows on the success of the previous three. It highlights important lessons learned based on a review of the approximately 200 event reports received from the participating countries over this period. The book is written both for a non-technical audience and for senior officials in industry and government who have decision making roles in the nuclear power industry.

  12. MODELLING OF DECISION MAKING OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE'S OPERATOR IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: lack of recommendation action algorithm of UAV operator in emergency situations; decomposition of the process of decision making (DM by UAV’s Operator in emergency situations; development of the structure of distributed decision support system (DDSS for remotely piloted aircraft; development of a database of local decision support system (DSS operators Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS; working-out of models DM by UAV’s Operator. Methods: Algoritm of actions of UAV operator by Wald criterion, Laplace criterion, Hurwitz criterion. Results: The program "UAV_AS" that gives to UAV operator recommendations on how to act in case of emergency. Discussion: The article deals with the problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV flights for decision of different tasks in emergency situation. Based on statistical data it was analyzing the types of emergencies for unmanned aircraft. Defined sequence of actions UAV operator and in case of emergencies.

  13. Plant lifetime reliability and risk: Addressing today's strategies for making tomorrow's decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the research projects, conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that deal with the question: How can an acceptable level of risk of a nuclear power plant be maintained throughout its design life? With a viewpoint that life extension planning for a plant can be viewed as a long-range, strategic maintenance program, the products of this research are discussed from the perspective of being elements that can tie day-to-day, plant operational tactical decisions on component/system reliability with long-range strategic maintenance goals. A common factor in addressing issues associated with design life and life extension is the issue of component aging and the reliability implications of aging. A time-dependent reliability model is described which contains some of the requisite ingredients and is built on a framework from which the component aging/component reliability issue can be addressed. By way of select examples, the additional work needed to further address plant lifetime reliability and risk is indicated

  14. Quality management for nuclear power plant operation: A manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The experience from well operated nuclear power plants shows that achievement of safe, reliable and economic performance is closely related to a strong commitment and involvement by the management personnel. A system of controls is necessary to ensure that satisfactory quality in operation is achieved and maintained over the long term. The key to achieving and assuring quality lies in the ability of management to define performance objectives and to ensure that significant safety and reliability problems are prevented or detected early and resolved. This Manual has been developed by the IAEA to assist plant managers in fulfilling their responsibility with regard to the control and direction of quality and of quality assurance activities in nuclear power plant operation. It emphasizes quality objectives for nuclear power plant operation and indicates the way in which a quality system based on quality assurance principles as established in the IAEA NUSS documents can be used by managers to accomplish these objectives. Since the Manual is mainly directed at management personnel, it is presented in the form of short highlighted practices complemented by typical examples of forms and procedures. Since not all the activities under the heading of quality in operation could be covered in a single document, the activities selected for this Manual comprise those where it was felt that practical advice is generally needed. A pragmatic document useful for direct application by plant managers was the envisaged objective

  15. System 80+TM standard plant: Design and operations overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Ritterbusch, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The System 80+ Standard Plant Design is a 1400 MWe evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR), designed to meet the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) and the demands of the international market for nuclear power plants which are not only safer but also more economical to maintain and operate. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power used a defense-in-depth process that (1) adds design margin to basic components to improve performance during normal operation and to decrease the likelihood of an unanticipated transient or an accident, (2) improves the redundancy and diversity of safety systems in order to mitigate design basis accidents and prevent severe accidents, and (3) improves severe accident mitigation capability. This paper describes the most important improved systems and components with emphasis on severe accident prevention and mitigation capability. The improved design features were implemented in an evolutionary manner using proven components. This approach ensures that the plant operates safely and economically, as demonstrated by operating plants in the US and the Republic of Korea. Detailed studies, summarized in this paper, have shown that the System 80+ plant availability is expected to exceed the ALWR requirement of 87% and that the annual operations and maintenance costs are expected to be reduced by $14 million. (author)

  16. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina Vanni [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: penhamartins@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: sjcvanni@yahoo.com.br; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: delvonei@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  17. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina Vanni; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2009-01-01

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  18. An innovative concept for handling and operation of the wastewater treatment plant of Cottbus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, K.; Schmitt, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new concept for handling and operating the wastewater treatment plant of Cottbus, with computerized modelling and an expert system as integral parts of process analysis and decision-making, is developed. Optimized plant operation and process stability is to be achieved by conrolling process-dependent dosage of wastewater coming from sludge treatment and from faecal wastewater. With the treatment plant still being built, a thorough analysis of the influent and the resulting process conditions is done, using the computerized model. Results and consequences for process optimization are presented in this article. Special attention has to be given to load smoothing and optimization of denitrification, influencing process stability and quality. Thereby not only the legal requirements can be fulfilled but improvement of effluent quality also could be achieved, reducing total nitrogen in the effluent by as much as 50%, lowering wastewater treatment costs by allowing lower control levels and fees to be payed. (orig.) [de

  19. IAEA Leads Operational Safety Mission to Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts led by the International Atomic Energy Agency today concluded a review of the safety practices at the Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) near Bern in Switzerland. The team noted a series of good practices and made recommendations and suggestions to reinforce them. The IAEA assembled the Operational Safety Review Team at the request of the Swiss government. The team, led by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, performed an in-depth operational safety review from 8 to 25 October 2012. The team comprised experts from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States as well as experts from the IAEA. The team conducted an in-depth review of the aspects essential to the safe operation of the Muehleberg NPP. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards and proven good international practices. The review covered the areas of Management, Organization and Administration; Training; Operations; Maintenance; Technical Support; Operating Experience; Radiation Protection; Chemistry, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, Severe Accident Management and Long-Term Operation. The OSART team made 10 recommendations and 11 suggestions related to areas where operations of Muehleberg NPP could be further improved, for example: - Plant management could improve the operating experience program and methods throughout the plant to ensure corrective actions are taken in a timely manner; - In the area of Long-Term Operation, the ageing management review for some systems and components is not complete and the environmental qualification of originally installed safety cables has not yet been revalidated for long-term operation; and - The plant provisions for the protection of persons on the site during an emergency with radioactive release can be improved to minimize health risks to plant personnel. The team also identified 10 good

  20. Job training planning and design for process plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirstad, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented by which process plant operators for nuclear power plants are trained in Sweden. It works by a top-down method of systems analysis which can be integrated into the analysis, specification, and design of the process automation system. The training methods can also be adapted to existing automation systems and operating schedules. The author's method is based on the principle that training programs should be based on job requirements, e.g. operator tasks in common, less frequent, and rare operating conditions. Procedures have been tested for the following steps: Job analysis, analysis of knowledge and experience required, analysis of operator training requirements, set-up and organisation of the training programme, achievement control, evaluation of the training programme.

  1. Job training planning and design for process plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented by which process plant operators for nuclear power plants are trained in Sweden. It works by a top-down method of systems analysis which can be integrated into the analysis, specification, and design of the process automation system. The training methods can also be adapted to existing automation systems and operating schedules. The author's method is based on the principle that training programs should be based on job requirements, e.g. operator tasks in common, less frequent, and rare operating conditions. Procedures have been tested for the following steps: Job analysis, analysis of knowledge and experience required, analysis of operator training requirements, set-up and organisation of the training programme, achievement control, evaluation of the training programme. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Centralized operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Mitsuru; Sato, Hideyuki; Murata, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    According to the prospect of long term energy demand, in 2000, the nuclear power generation facilities in Japan are expected to take 15.9% of the total energy demand. From this fact, it is an important subject to supply nuclear power more stably, and in the field of instrumentation and control, many researches and developments and the incessant effort of improvement have been continued. In the central operation and monitoring system which is the center of the stable operation of nuclear power plants, the man-machine technology aiding operators by electronic and computer application technologies has been positively developed and applied. It is considered that hereafter, for the purpose of rationally heightening the operation reliability of the plants, the high quality man-machine system freely using the most advanced technologies such as high reliability digital technology, optical information transmission, knowledge engineering and so on is developed and applied. The technical trend of operation and monitoring system, the concept of heightening operation and monitoring capability, the upgrading of operation and monitoring system, and the latest operation, monitoring and control systems for nuclear power plants and waste treatment facilities are described. (K.I.)

  3. 14th Biennial conference on reactor operating experience plant operations: The human element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers presented in the following areas of interest: enhancing operator performance; structured approaches to maintenance standards and reliability-centered maintenance; human issues in plant operations and management; test, research, and training reactor utilization; methods and applications of root-cause analysis; emergency operating procedure enhancement programs; test, research, and training reactor upgrades; valve maintenance and diagnostics; recent operating experiences; and current maintenance issues

  4. Configuration control during plant outages. A review of operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinador Veira, Miguel; El Kanbi, Semir [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Stephan, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Martens, Johannes [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    After the occurrence of several significant events in nuclear power plants during shut-down modes of operation in the eighties, and from the results of probabilistic safety assessments completed in the nineties, it was clear that risk from low power and shutdown operational modes could not be neglected and had to be addressed by appropriate safety programs. A comprehensive review of operating experience from the last ten years has been conducted by the Joint Research Centre with the objective of deriving lessons learned and recommendations useful for nuclear regulatory bodies and utilities alike. This paper is focused on one particular challenge that any nuclear plant faces whenever it plans its next outage period: how to manage the configuration of all systems under a complex environment involving numerous concurrent activities, and how to make sure that systems are returned to their valid configuration before the plant resumes power operation. This study highlights the importance of conveying accurate but synthesized information on the status of the plant to the operators in the main control room. Many of the lessons learned are related to the alarm display in the control room and to the use of check lists to control the status of systems. Members of the industry and safety authorities may now use these recommendations and lessons learned to feed their own operating experience feedback programs, and check their applicability for specific sites.

  5. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. This lecture - discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization, the support to be provided to plant management, the services and facilities needed and the management system for assuring the safety tasks are performed - describes the responsibilities of plant management and operating organization - outlines the requirements for recruitment, training and retraining as well as qualification and authorization of personnel - describes the programmes for maintenance, testing, examination, inspection, radiological protection, quality assurance, waste management, fuel management, emergency arrangement and security - describes the development of plant operating procedures including procedures to protect the personnel - outlines the requirements for initial and subsequent operation - describes the importance for evaluation and feedback of operating experience - describes the procedures for changes in hardware, procedures and set points - outlines the information flow and the requirements in reference to records and reports. (orig./RW)

  6. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA’s Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.

  7. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Commissioning and Operation. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA’s Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.

  8. Pilot plant for flue gas treatment - continuous operation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Radzio, B.

    1995-01-01

    Tests of continuous operation have been performed on pilot plant at EPS Kaweczyn in the wide range of SO 2 concentration (500-3000 ppm). The bag filter has been applied for aerosol separation. The high efficiencies of SO 2 and NO x removal, approximately 90% were obtained and influenced by such process parameters as: dose, gas temperature and ammonia stoichiometry. The main apparatus of the pilot plant (e.g. both accelerators) have proved their reliability in hard industrial conditions. (Author)

  9. Use of passive systems to improve plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.

    2000-01-01

    In a deregulated future, a utility's strength will depend on its ability to be cost competitive in the marketplace. However, the competitive advantage of nuclear power will depend on each owner's ability to reduce Operating and Maintenance (O and M) costs without sacrificing nuclear safety. The use of passive systems (i.e., systems without any moving parts) can reduce plant O and M costs while increasing safety in nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. An intelligent tool for the training of nuclear plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, B.

    1990-01-01

    A new type of pedagogical tool has been developped for the training of nuclear power plant operation. This tool combines simulation and expert system. The first process developped is about Steam Generator Tube Rupture (S.G.T.R.). All nuclear power plants will be equiped with this system in 1989 and 1990. After this first experiment, others processes will be developped for this tool

  11. Safety aspects and operating experience of LWR plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Hinoki, M.

    1977-01-01

    From the outset of nuclear power development in Japan, major emphasis has been placed on the safety of the nuclear power plants. There are now twelve nuclear power plants in operation with a total output of 6600 MWe. Their operating records were generally satisfactory, but in the 1974 to 1975 period, they experienced somewhat declined availability due to the repair work under the specific circumstances. After investigation of causes of troubles and the countermeasures thereof were made to ensure safety, they are now keeping good performance. In Japan, nuclear power plants are strictly subject to sufficient and careful inspection in compliance with the safety regulation, and are placed under stringent radiation control of employees. Under the various circumstances, however, the period of annual inspection tends to be prolonged more than originally planned, and this consequently is considered to be one of the causes of reduced availability. In order to develop nuclear power generation for the future, it is necessary to put further emphasis on the assurance of safety and to endeavor to devise measures to improve availability of the plants, based on the careful analysis of causes which reduce plant availability. This paper discusses the results of studies made for the following items from such viewpoints: (1) Safety and Operating Experience of LWR Nuclear Power Plants in Japan; a) Operating experience with light water reactors b) Improvements in design of light water reactors during the past ten years c) Analysis of the factors which affect plant availability; 2) Assurance of Safety and Measures to Increase Availability a) Measures for safety and environmental protection b) Measures to reduce radiation exposure of employees c) Appropriateness of maintenance and inspection work d) Measures to increase plant availability e) Measures to improve reliability of equipments and components; and 3) Future Technical Problems

  12. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraretto, Cristian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia, 1-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  13. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraretto, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  14. Training and qualification of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Based on training experiences of the nuclear power plant operators of pressurized water reactors (PWR) at the Nuclear Power Training Center Ltd. (NTC) in Japan, training programs were reviewed referring to US training programs. A systematic approach is deployed to them, which mainly consist of on-the-job training and the NTC training courses to meet the needs of all operators from beginners to experienced veterans according to their experiences and objectives. The NTC training is conducted using the simulators that simulate the nuclear power plant dynamics through the use of computers. The operators trained at the NTC work in the central control room of every PWR power plant. The NTC also carries out the qualification examinations for the shift managers. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Interactive operational decision making : Purchasing situations & mutual liability problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three chapters of this dissertation deal with three different types of interactive purchasing situations, in which multiple buying organizations interact with similar (or possibly the same) suppliers for the procurement of the same commodity. Decisions to be made in interactive purchasing concern if

  16. Making Risk Models Operational for Situational Awareness and Decision Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, P.R.; Coles, G.; Shoemaker, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present CARIM, a decision support tool to aid in the evaluation of plans for converting control systems to digital instruments. The model provides the capability to optimize planning and resource allocation to reduce risk from multiple safety and economic perspectives. (author)

  17. EDP systems for the operational management of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerler, R.

    1987-01-01

    An EDP-aided operational management system is to be understood as the total of all organizational conditions (structural organization, procedural organization) and technical means, and is intended to give the individual person a better overview to fulfill his/her responsibilities. The introduction of such a system is aimed at providing the operating personnel with a set of tools matching today's technology for management and administration systems which will enable them to fulfill their tasks in an optimum way. Powerful EDP systems are already used in many nuclear power plants to control and monitor operating processes and to collect and evaluate operational data. (orig./DG) [de

  18. The first operation of the Delphos plant: Test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarno, A.; Noviello, G.; Cordisco, S.; Di Paola, L.; Guerra, M.

    1991-09-01

    The data collected during the O and M of the Delphos plant and the testing results are presented and discussed. Together with the maintenance influence on the operation and production of the plant, the various downtime causes are pointed out. An extensive activity has been carried out to investigate the actual behaviour of the photovoltaic generator and the power conditioning unit. The analysis of the experimental results allows to focus on the different causes of loss and suggest some actions to be taken in order to improve the plant efficiency and increase the energy production. (author)

  19. Capital and operating costs of irradiated natural uranium reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.; Jouannaud, C.; Couture, J.; Duboz, J.

    1966-01-01

    This paper presents first a method of analysing natural uranium reprocessing plants investment costs (method similar to LANG and BACH well known in the fuel oil industry) and their operating costs (analysed according to their economic type). This method helps establishing standard cost structures for these plants, allowing thus comparisons between existing or planned industrial facilities. It also helps evaluating the foreseeable consequences of technical progress. Some results obtained are given, concerning: the investment costs sensitivity to the various technical parameters defining the fuel and their comparison according to the country or the economic area taken into account. Finally, the influence of the plants size on their investment costs is shown. (author) [fr

  20. Independent verification in operations at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donderi, D.C.; Smiley, A.; Ostry, D.J.; Moray, N.P.

    1995-09-01

    A critical review of approaches to independent verification in operations used in nuclear power plant quality assurance programs in other countries, was conducted for this study. This report identifies the uses of independent verification and provides an assessment of the effectiveness of the various approaches. The findings indicate that at Canadian nuclear power plants as much, if not more, independent verification is performed than at power plants in the other countries included in the study. Additional requirements in this area are not proposed for Canadian stations. (author)

  1. Fuzzy logics acquisition and simulation modules for expert systems to assist operator's decision for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averkin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new type of fuzzy expert system for assisting the operator's decisions in nuclear power plant system in non-standard situations is proposed. This expert system is based on new approaches to fuzzy logics acquisition and to fuzzy logics testing. Fuzzy logics can be generated by a T-norms axiomatic system to choose the most suitable to operator's way of thinking. Then the chosen fuzzy logic is tested by simulation of inference process in expert system. The designed logic is the input of inference module of expert system

  2. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives

  3. Radiological effects on plants and animals from Clink during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, Bengt; Aquilonius, Karin; Skoog, Sofie; Huutoniemi, Tommi; Torudd, Jesper

    2011-03-01

    This report is the basis for the environmental impact study which is submitted in connection with applications for construction and operation of the encapsulation plant and final disposal facility. The report presents the results of calculations of Clabs'/Clinks' contribution to dose rates for biota in the environment around the Simpevarp peninsula. The biota referred to in this report means plants and animals excluding humans. Calculations are for the reported releases from CLAB to air and water, and estimated future emissions from the CLAB and Clink, both for normal operation and any mishaps. For future emissions both so-called realistic and conservative estimates were used

  4. Plant operation data collection and database management using NIC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inase, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Information Center (NIC), a division of the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, collects nuclear power plant operation and maintenance information both in Japan and abroad and transmits the information to all domestic utilities so that it can be effectively utilized for safe plant operation and reliability enhancement. The collected information is entered into the database system after being key-worded by NIC. The database system, Nuclear Information database/Communication System (NICS), has been developed by NIC for storage and management of collected information. Objectives of keywords are retrieval and classification by the keyword categories

  5. Annual radiological environmental operating report, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in 1988. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. The vast majority of the exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials or from materials commonly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons fallout. Small amounts of Co-60 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. The training of operating personnel at Spanish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Antonio Burgos

    2011-01-01

    An essential condition in order to ensure that nuclear power plants are operated reliably and safely is the availability in the Control Room of duly qualified persons capable both of preventing accidents and of responding to them should they occur. Training of the Control Room operating crews is accomplished in two major stages: a lengthy process of initial training in which the knowledge acquired at high school and university is built upon, leading to the specialisation required to appropriately carry out the tasks to be performed in the Control Room, and a continuous training program aimed at maintaining and improving the knowledge and skills required to operate the plant, with feedback of the lessons learned from the industry's operating experience. The use of full-scope simulators replicating the physical conditions and environment of the Control Room allows the period of initial training to be reduced and is the most appropriate method for the continuous training program of the control room personnel, since these simulators increase the realism of the training scenarios, help to better understand the response of the plant and provide an accurate idea of transient response times. Tecnatom is the Training Centre for Spanish Operators; it is the 'Operator Training Factory' and its mission is to train the nuclear power plant operating personnel in both technological fundamentals and the development of diagnostic skills through practical scenarios on the simulator and on-the-job training. Our training programmes are based on a SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) methodology that has been implemented at both Spanish and overseas plants. (author)

  7. Radiation protection during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Guide describes a Radiation Protection Programme for nuclear power plants. It includes: (1) An outline of the basic principles as well as practical aspects of the programme; (2) A description of the responsibilities of the operating organization to establish an effective programme based upon these principles; (3) A description of the administrative and technical measures to establish and implement the programme. This Guide also deals with the operational aspects to be considered by the operating organization in reviewing design in order to facilitate implementation of the Radiation Protection Programme. This Guide covers the requirements for a Radiation Protection Programme for all operational states of the nuclear power plant. It also includes guidelines for handling planned special exposures and for coping with unplanned exposures and contamination of personnel, areas, and equipment. Additional information concerning emergency situations involving releases of radioactive materials is given in Safety Guides 50-SG-O6, ''Preparedness of the Operating Organization (Licensee) for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants'', and 50-SG-G6, ''Preparedness of Public Authorities for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants''. This Guide covers the principles of dose limitation to site personnel and to the public, but it does not include detailed instructions on the techniques used for the actual measurement and evaluation of the exposures. This Guide does not include detailed instructions on environmental surveys, but it does mention principal steps in environmental monitoring which may be required for confirmation of the acceptability of radioactive discharges

  8. Development of an automated operating procedure system using fuzzy colored petri nets for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    In this work, AuTomated Operating Procedure System (ATOPS) is developed. ATOPS is an automation system for operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) which can monitor signals, diagnose statuses, and generate control actions according to corresponding operating procedures, without any human operator's help. Main functions of ATOPS are anomaly detection function and procedure execution function, but only the procedure execution function is implemented because this work is just the first step. In the procedure execution function, operating procedures of NPP are analyzed and modeled using Fuzzy Colored Petri Nets (FCPN), and executed depending on decision making of the inference engine. In this work, an ATOPS prototype is developed in order to demonstrate its feasibility and it is also validated using FISA-2/WS simulator. The validation is performed for the cases of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). The simulation results show that ATOPS works correctly in the emergency situations

  9. A methodology for nuclear power plant operational events evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jeferson, E-mail: jeferson@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e do Ciclo de Combustivel; Costa, Sergio Dias, E-mail: sergiodiascosta@hotmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Operational events are normal occurrences in industrial plants and in nuclear power plants. The evaluation of operational events gains importance when it comes specifically to nuclear power plants due to the proportions that the impact and the consequences of these events may cause to the installation itself, their workers, the external area of the nuclear installation, the environment and to the public in general. These consequences, for the operation of these facilities can range from very little, until the consequences that lead to accidents and can cause significant impacts. Operational events may be associated or have influence in many fields of knowledge, such as operation, maintenance, engineering, Radiological Protection, physical protection, chemistry, Human or Organizational Factors and external events, among others. The accident at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant, shows the importance of exhausting all the studies concerning operational events in order to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants, considering all the causes and possible consequences. In this context, the evaluation of operational events discipline emerges as an important and relevant tool to contribute to the maintenance and/or improvement of the operational safety of nuclear installations. Not without reason the nuclear industry actively participates in programs of exchange of operational experience, where relevant events are thoroughly evaluated and discussed in specific forums, such as power plant operators, regulators and/or joint technical meetings, always with the purpose to prevent, minimize or mitigate its consequences. Any evaluation of operational events passes necessarily by an in-depth study of the circumstances of the event, culminating with the identification of your cause and proposition of corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar events. Additionally, the events should not be studied individually, but evaluated within a temporal context in order

  10. Hazard and operability study of Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S K; Khilnaney, V K [Heavy Water Board, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical process industry faces the tough challenge of achieving design productivity while maintaining high standards of safety. This task is particularly difficult than handling hazardous chemicals. Hazard and operability study (HazOp) is a technique which involves systematic and thorough study by a multidisciplinary team. This technique provides a means to analyse the design and modes of operations of a plant systematically so as to identify the potential occurrence of hazardous events and operational problems. HazOp is based on the premise that a hazard is not realised if the process is operated within its design intent. This paper gives an overall view of the HazOp study carried out at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru. Some selected recommendations from this study are highlighted. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs.

  11. A methodology for nuclear power plant operational events evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jeferson

    2015-01-01

    Operational events are normal occurrences in industrial plants and in nuclear power plants. The evaluation of operational events gains importance when it comes specifically to nuclear power plants due to the proportions that the impact and the consequences of these events may cause to the installation itself, their workers, the external area of the nuclear installation, the environment and to the public in general. These consequences, for the operation of these facilities can range from very little, until the consequences that lead to accidents and can cause significant impacts. Operational events may be associated or have influence in many fields of knowledge, such as operation, maintenance, engineering, Radiological Protection, physical protection, chemistry, Human or Organizational Factors and external events, among others. The accident at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant, shows the importance of exhausting all the studies concerning operational events in order to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants, considering all the causes and possible consequences. In this context, the evaluation of operational events discipline emerges as an important and relevant tool to contribute to the maintenance and/or improvement of the operational safety of nuclear installations. Not without reason the nuclear industry actively participates in programs of exchange of operational experience, where relevant events are thoroughly evaluated and discussed in specific forums, such as power plant operators, regulators and/or joint technical meetings, always with the purpose to prevent, minimize or mitigate its consequences. Any evaluation of operational events passes necessarily by an in-depth study of the circumstances of the event, culminating with the identification of your cause and proposition of corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar events. Additionally, the events should not be studied individually, but evaluated within a temporal context in order

  12. Operational limits and conditions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content as applicable to various types of thermal reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The principles of the operational limits and conditions are established in section 3 of the Agency's Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Operation, including Commissioning and Decommissioning (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O), which this present Safety Guide supplements. In order to present all pertinent information in this Guide, the provisions of section 3 of the Code are repeated

  13. SIMULTANEOUS SCHEDULING AND OPERATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPRODUCT, CYCLIC CONTINUOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alle

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of scheduling and optimization of operational conditions in multistage, multiproduct continuous plants with intermediate storage are simultaneously addressed. An MINLP model, called TSPFLOW, which is based on the TSP formulation for product sequencing, is proposed to schedule the operation of such plants. TSPFLOW yields a one-order-of-magnitude CPU time reduction as well as the solution of instances larger than those formerly reported (Pinto and Grossmann, 1994. Secondly, processing rates and yields are introduced as additional optimization variables in order to state the simultaneous problem of scheduling with operational optimization. Results show that trade-offs are very complex and that the development of a straightforward (rule of thumb method to optimally schedule the operation is less effective than the proposed approach.

  14. SIMULTANEOUS SCHEDULING AND OPERATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPRODUCT, CYCLIC CONTINUOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alle A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of scheduling and optimization of operational conditions in multistage, multiproduct continuous plants with intermediate storage are simultaneously addressed. An MINLP model, called TSPFLOW, which is based on the TSP formulation for product sequencing, is proposed to schedule the operation of such plants. TSPFLOW yields a one-order-of-magnitude CPU time reduction as well as the solution of instances larger than those formerly reported (Pinto and Grossmann, 1994. Secondly, processing rates and yields are introduced as additional optimization variables in order to state the simultaneous problem of scheduling with operational optimization. Results show that trade-offs are very complex and that the development of a straightforward (rule of thumb method to optimally schedule the operation is less effective than the proposed approach.

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  16. Virtual reality technology in nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a generic virtual reality comprehensive system focusing on the operation and maintenance in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. Under this layout, some key topics and means of the system are discussed. As example 'Virtual Nuclear Island' comprehensive system and its typical applications in NPP are set up. In the end, it prospects the applications of virtual reality technology in NPP operation, training and maintenance. (author)

  17. Improved Governing of Kaplan Turbine Hydropower Plants Operating Island Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the consequences of a major fault in the electric power grid, functioning parts of the grid can be divided into smaller grid islands. The grid islands are operated isolated from the power network, which places new demands on a faster frequency regulation. This thesis investigates a Kaplan turbine hydropower plant operating an island grid. The Kaplan turbine has two control signals, the wicket gate and the turbine blade positions, controlling the mechanical power. The inputs are comb...

  18. Designing for nuclear power plant maintainability and operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Experience has shown that maintenance and operability aspects must be addressed in the design work. ABB Atom has since long an ambition of achieving optimised, overall plant designs, and efficient feedback of growing operating experience has stepwise eliminated shortcomings, and yielded better and better plant operating performances. The records of the plants of the latest design versions are very good; four units in Sweden have operated at an energy availability of 90.1%, and the two Olkiluoto units in Finland at a load factor of 92.7%, over the last decade. The occupational radiation exposures have also been at a low level. The possibilities for implementing 'lessons learned' in existing plants are obviously limited by practical constraints. In Finland and Sweden, significant modernisations are still underway, however, involving replacement of mechanical equipment, and upgrading and backfitting of I and C systems on a large scale, in most of the plants. The BWR 90 design focuses on meeting requirements from utilities as well as new regulatory requirements, with a particular emphasis on the consequences of severe accidents; there shall be no large releases to the environment. Other design improvements involve: all-digital I and C systems and enhanced human factors engineering to improve work environment for operators, optimisation of buildings and containment to decrease construction time and costs, and selection of materials as well as maintenance of operating procedures to reduce radiation exposures even further. The BWR 90 design was offered to Finland in the early 1990s, but development work continues. It has been selected by a number of European utilities for assessing its conformance with the European Utility Requirements (EUR), aiming at a specific EUR Volume 3 for the BWR 90. Some characteristics of the ABB BWRs, with emphasis on features of importance for achieving improved economy and enhanced safety, are described below. (author)

  19. The control of operational risk in nuclear power plant operations - Some cross-cultural perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchard, A.; Rochlin, G.

    1992-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants requires the management of a complex technology under exacting performance and safety criteria. Organizations operating nuclear power plants are faced with the challenge of simultaneously meeting technical, organizational, and social demands, striving toward perfection in a situation where learning by trial and error can be too costly. In this process, they interact with regulatory bodies who seek to help minimize operational risk by imposing and upholding safety standards. The character of this interaction differs in various countries, as does the larger cultural setting. The study generally pursued the question of how organizations operating complex and demanding technologies adapt to such requirements and circumstances, and how they can succeed in delivering nearly error-free performance. One aspect of this study includes the comparison of organizational and cultural environments for nuclear power plant operations in the US, France, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland. The research involved in-depth, continuous observations on location and interviews with plant personnel, especially control operators, at one plant in each country

  20. Computerized operation manual (COM) of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegi, Z.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is to be presented at the International Seminar on Diagnoses of and Response to Abnormal Occurrences at Nuclear Power Plants organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The topic of presentation is the Computerized Operational Manual. This system supports the operator at disturbance situations by displaying quickly and unambiguously the operational instructions and the relevant information without mistakes. By the computerized manual the operator can determine the instruction-subsystem which reflects the real state of the power unit. From this point the system guides the operator on how to drive the unit to another determined state by providing the operational instructions at any time. A data bank is also included which contains information concerning rules restricting on maintenance and repair. The system will be realized at Paks NPP. (author)

  1. On thermoeconomics of energy systems at variable load conditions: Integrated optimization of plant design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Cardona, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thermoeconomics has been assuming a growing role among the disciplines oriented to the analysis of energy systems, its different methodologies allowing solution of problems in the fields of cost accounting, plant design optimisation and diagnostic of malfunctions. However, the thermoeconomic methodologies as such are particularly appropriate to analyse large industrial systems at steady or quasi-steady operation, but they can be hardly applied to small to medium scale units operating in unsteady conditions to cover a variable energy demand. In this paper, the fundamentals of thermoeconomics for systems operated at variable load are discussed, examining the cost formation process and, separately, the cost fractions related to capital depreciation (which require additional distinctions with respect to plants in steady operation) and to exergy consumption. The relevant effects of the efficiency penalty due to off design operation on the exergetic cost of internal flows are also examined. An original algorithm is proposed for the integrated optimization of plant design and operation based on an analytical solution by the Lagrange multipliers method and on a multi-objective decision function, expressed either in terms of net cash flow or primary energy saving. The method is suitable for application in complex energy systems, such as 'facilities of components of a same product' connected to external networks for power or heat distribution. For demonstrative purposes, the proposed thermoeconomically aided optimization is performed for a grid connected trigeneration system to be installed in a large hotel

  2. A predictive model of nuclear power plant crew decision-making and performance in a dynamic simulation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Kevin Anthony

    The safe operation of complex systems such as nuclear power plants requires close coordination between the human operators and plant systems. In order to maintain an adequate level of safety following an accident or other off-normal event, the operators often are called upon to perform complex tasks during dynamic situations with incomplete information. The safety of such complex systems can be greatly improved if the conditions that could lead operators to make poor decisions and commit erroneous actions during these situations can be predicted and mitigated. The primary goal of this research project was the development and validation of a cognitive model capable of simulating nuclear plant operator decision-making during accident conditions. Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment methods can improve the prediction of human error events by providing rich contextual information and an explicit consideration of feedback arising from man-machine interactions. The Accident Dynamics Simulator paired with the Information, Decision, and Action in a Crew context cognitive model (ADS-IDAC) shows promise for predicting situational contexts that might lead to human error events, particularly knowledge driven errors of commission. ADS-IDAC generates a discrete dynamic event tree (DDET) by applying simple branching rules that reflect variations in crew responses to plant events and system status changes. Branches can be generated to simulate slow or fast procedure execution speed, skipping of procedure steps, reliance on memorized information, activation of mental beliefs, variations in control inputs, and equipment failures. Complex operator mental models of plant behavior that guide crew actions can be represented within the ADS-IDAC mental belief framework and used to identify situational contexts that may lead to human error events. This research increased the capabilities of ADS-IDAC in several key areas. The ADS-IDAC computer code was improved to support additional

  3. Model based decision support system of operating settings for MMAT nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Bradley Keith

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Droplet size, which is affected by nozzle type, nozzle setups and operation, and spray solution, is one of the most critical factors influencing spray performance, environment pollution, food safety, and must be considered as part of any application scenario. Characterizing spray nozzles can be a timely and expensive proposition if the entire operational space (all combinations of spray pressure and orifice size, what influence flow rate is to be evaluated. This research proposes a structured, experimental design that allows for the development of computational models for droplet size based on any combination of a nozzle’s potential operational settings. The developed droplet size determination model can be used as Decision Support System (DSS for precise selection of sprayer working parameters to adapt to local field scenarios. Five nozzle types (designs were evaluated across their complete range of orifice size (flow rate* and spray pressures using a response surface experimental design. Several of the models showed high level fits of the modeled to the measured data while several did not as a result of the lack of significant effect from either orifice size (flow rate* or spray pressure. The computational models were integrated into a spreadsheet based user interface for ease of use. The proposed experimental design provides for efficient nozzle evaluations and development of computational models that allow for the determination of droplet size spectrum and spraying classification for any combination of a given nozzle’s operating settings. The proposed DSS will allow for the ready assessment and modification of a sprayers performance based on the operational settings, to ensure the application is made following recommendations in plant protection products (PPP labels.

  4. Application of ann-based decision making pattern recognition to fishing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhlaghinia, M.; Torabi, F.; Wilton, R.R. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Petroleum Engineering], e-mail: Farshid.Torabi@uregina.ca

    2010-10-15

    Decision making is a crucial part of fishing operations. Proper decisions should be made to prevent wasted time and associated costs on unsuccessful operations. This paper presents a novel model to help drilling managers decide when to commence and when to quit a fishing operation. A decision making model based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been developed that utilizes Pattern Recognition based on 181 fishing incidents from one of the most fish-prone fields of the southwest of Iran. All parameters chosen to train the ANN-Based Pattern Recognition Tool are assumed to play a role in the success of the fishing operation and are therefore used to decide whether a fishing operation should be performed or not. If the tool deems the operation suitable for consideration, a cost analysis of the fishing operation can then be performed to justify its overall cost. (author)

  5. The Evidential Basis of Decision Making in Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth

    2017-08-04

    The evidential basis for disease management decision making is provided by data relating to risk factors. The decision process involves an assessment of the evidence leading to taking (or refraining from) action on the basis of a prediction. The primary objective of the decision process is to identify-at the time the decision is made-the control action that provides the best predicted end-of-season outcome, calculated in terms of revenue or another appropriate metric. Data relating to disease risk factors may take a variety of forms (e.g., continuous, discrete, categorical) on measurement scales in a variety of units. Log 10 -likelihood ratios provide a principled basis for the accumulation of evidence based on such data and allow predictions to be made via Bayesian updating of prior probabilities.

  6. Dual hesitant pythagorean fuzzy Hamacher aggregation operators in multiple attribute decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guiwu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the multiple attribute decision making (MADM problem based on the Hamacher aggregation operators with dual Pythagorean hesitant fuzzy information. Then, motivated by the ideal of Hamacher operation, we have developed some Hamacher aggregation operators for aggregating dual hesitant Pythagorean fuzzy information. The prominent characteristic of these proposed operators are studied. Then, we have utilized these operators to develop some approaches to solve the dual hesitant Pythagorean fuzzy multiple attribute decision making problems. Finally, a practical example for supplier selection in supply chain management is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  7. Evolution of operational parameters in a UASB wastewater plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to establish the operational parameters of the plant and evolution of elimination of pollutants. Influent and effluent parameters used for this research, were oils, volatile fatty acidity, alkalinity, ammonium, bacteria, flow, chlorides, BOD, detergents, COD, phosphates, total nitrogen, pH, ...

  8. New Clean Air Act complicates power plant operation, design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    In November the president signed into law the new Clean Air Act, ushering in a new era in the power generation industry. This paper reviews the six important sections of the Clean Air Act and their impact on power plant operation and design

  9. Internet applications in nuclear power plant operation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the Internet is quickly becoming widespread in practically all areas of business and industry. The nuclear industry should not remain indifferent to this new trend. This paper analyses some of the Internet applications that can be easily adapted to nuclear power plant operation management, including. (Author)

  10. Trojan Nuclear Plant. Annual operating report: January--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojan generated 28,791,044 MW hours of electricity, an output greater than any other commercial U.S. plant. Availability factor was 92.6 percent and the capacity factor was 68.6 percent. Data are presented concerning operations, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, specifications, and modifications. Also reported are effluents, waste disposal, meteorology data, radiation doses, chemical uses, and environmental surveillance

  11. Management for nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. (orig./RW)

  12. Operational safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    Since the late 1980s, the IAEA has been actively sponsoring work in the area of indicators to monitor nuclear power plant (NPP) operational safety performance. The early activities were mainly focused on exchanging ideas and good practices in the development and use of these indicators at nuclear power plants. Since 1995 efforts have been directed towards the elaboration of a framework for the establishment of an operational safety performance indicator programme. The result of this work, compiled in this publication, is intended to assist NPPs in developing and implementing a monitoring programme, without overlooking the critical aspects related to operational safety performance. The framework proposed in this report was presented at two IAEA workshops on operational safety performance indicators held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in September 1998 and at the Daya Bay NPP, Szenzhen, China, in December 1998. During these two workshops, the participants discussed and brainstormed on the indicator framework presented. These working sessions provided very useful insights and ideas which where used for the enhancement of the framework proposed. The IAEA is acknowledging the support and contribution of all the participants in these two activities. The programme development was enhanced by pilot plant studies. Four plants from different countries with different designs participated in this study with the objective of testing the applicability, usefulness and viability of this approach

  13. Concrete Plant Operations Optimization Using Combined Simulation and Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Ming; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for concrete plant operations optimization by combining a ready mixed concrete (RMC) production simulation tool (called HKCONSIM) with a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization procedure. A revamped HKCONSIM computer system can be used to automate the simulation

  14. Improvment, extension and integration of operational decision support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSSNET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    2005-07-01

    The DSSNET network was established in October 2000 with the overall objective to create an effective and accepted framework for better communication and understanding between the community of institutions involved in operational off-site emergency management and the many and diverse RTD institutes further developing methods and tools in this area, in particular decision support systems (DSS), for making well informed and consistent judgements with respect to practical improvements of emergency response in Europe. 37 institutions from 21 countries of East and West Europe have been members of the network with about half of them responsible for operational emergency management. The objectives of the network have been numerous and the more important ones include: to ensure that future RTD is more responsive to user needs, to inform the user community of new developments and their potential for improving emergency response, to improve operational decision support systems from feedback of operational experience, to identify how information and data exchange between countries can be improved, to promote greater coherence among operational decision support systems and to encourage shared development of new and improved decision support systems features, and to improve the practicability of operational decision support systems. To stimulate the communication and feedback between the operational and the RTD community, problem-oriented emergency exercises were performed, which covered the various time phases of an accident and which extended from the near range to farther distances with frontier crossing transport of radionuclides. The report describes the objectives of the DSSNET, the five emergency exercises performed and the results of their evaluation. They provided valuable insight and lessons for operators and users of decision support systems, in particular the need for much more intensive training and exercising with decision support systems and their interaction with

  15. Operational experience, availability and reliability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture - presents a survey on nuclear power production and plant performance in the Western World covering all reactor types and light-water reactors in particular and discusses key parameters such as load factors and non-availability analysis. - outlines the main reasons for the reliable performance of Swiss nuclear power plants - quality equipment - operator qualification and training - engineering know how on site - maintenance philosophy and outage planning - information system and feedback of experience - explains the management functions as applied at the Beznau Nuclear Power Station to ensure high power productivity and reliability - improvement - a feedback control system - analysis of production losses - optimization in shut-down planning - minimizing disturbances during plant operation - optimizing personnel qualification and efficiency. (orig.)

  16. Meteorological safeguarding of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, J.; Skulec, S.

    1976-01-01

    A meteorological tower 200 m high has to be built for meteorological control of the operation of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. This meteorological station will measure the physical properties of the lower layers of the atmosphere, carry out experimental verifications of the models of air pollution, investigate the effects of waste heat and waste water from the nuclear power plant on the microclimate, provide the theoretical processing of measured data with the aim of selecting the most favourable model for conditions prevailing in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, perform basic research of the physical properties of the ground and boundary layers of the atmosphere and the coordination of state-wide plans in the field of securing the operation of nuclear power plants with regard to meteorology. (Z.M.)

  17. Development of operator thinking model and its application to nuclear reactor plant operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tetsushi; Endou, Akira; Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1992-01-01

    At first, this paper presents the developing method of an operator thinking model and the outline of the developed model. In next, it describes the nuclear reactor plant operation system which has been developed based on this model. Finally, it has been confirmed that the method described in this paper is very effective in order to construct expert systems which replace the reactor operator's role with AI (artificial intelligence) systems. (author)

  18. Cyclic operation of power plant; Cyklisk drift av kraftvaermeverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan

    2007-12-15

    The great majority of power plants are designed for base load operation with a relatively small number of starts and stops per year. Therefore, there has been no need to consider fatigue at design. Over the last few years operation with more frequent starts and stops exists as a consequence of swinging electricity prices that has become common. This involves significantly higher frequency of damages; not least fatigue relates damages, and the number of severe failures in components that never before have had damage problems may increase as well. In the present work the different types of component that may suffer from cyclic operation related damage are gathered by a literature survey and described as follows: - where and how the damages comes up, - constructions that should be avoided, - non-destructive testing (NDT) for damage that may come up under cyclic operation, - calculation and assessment of integrity of critical components - areas where continued research would be valuable. Recommendations have been put together to be used to prevent cyclic operation related damage and to detect it in time. The target group for this study is i) plant owners of plants where cyclic operation is or may be present, ii) researchers in the area, and, iii) inspectors and NDT-operators. There are quite a number of components where cyclic operation has been found to significantly influence the lift time. Some of these components are described in many papers whereas occasional papers have been found for others. The amount of information that is possible to get for a certain component is likely related to its significance for cyclic operation damage. The most frequently reported problem is ligament cracking of high temperature headers. Other components where extensive studies have been done are: wall panels, creep-fatigue loaded welds and turbine components

  19. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  20. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  1. Engineering development of a digital replacement protection system at an operating US PWR nuclear power plant: Installation and operational experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.H. [Duke Power Co., Seneca, SC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The existing Reactor Protection Systems (RPSs) at most US PWRs are systems which reflect 25 to 30 year-old designs, components and manufacturing techniques. Technological improvements, especially in relation to modern digital systems, offer improvements in functionality, performance, and reliability, as well as reductions in maintenance and operational burden. The Nuclear power industry and the US nuclear regulators are poised to move forward with the issues that have slowed the transition to modern digital replacements for nuclear power plant safety systems. The electric utility industry is now more than ever being driven by cost versus benefit decisions. Properly designed, engineered, and installed digital systems can provide adequate cost-benefit and allow continued nuclear generated electricity. This paper describes various issues and areas related to an ongoing RPS replacement demonstration project which are pertinant for a typical US nuclear plant to consider cost-effective replacement of an aging analog RPS with a modern digital RPS. The following subject areas relative to the Oconee Nuclear Station ISAT{trademark} Demonstrator project are discussed: Operator Interface Development; Equipment Qualification; Validation and Verification of Software; Factory Testing; Field Changes and Verification Testing; Utility Operational, Engineering and Maintenance; Experiences with Demonstration System; and Ability to operate in parallel with the existing Analog RPS.

  2. Engineering development of a digital replacement protection system at an operating US PWR nuclear power plant: Installation and operational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    The existing Reactor Protection Systems (RPSs) at most US PWRs are systems which reflect 25 to 30 year-old designs, components and manufacturing techniques. Technological improvements, especially in relation to modern digital systems, offer improvements in functionality, performance, and reliability, as well as reductions in maintenance and operational burden. The Nuclear power industry and the US nuclear regulators are poised to move forward with the issues that have slowed the transition to modern digital replacements for nuclear power plant safety systems. The electric utility industry is now more than ever being driven by cost versus benefit decisions. Properly designed, engineered, and installed digital systems can provide adequate cost-benefit and allow continued nuclear generated electricity. This paper describes various issues and areas related to an ongoing RPS replacement demonstration project which are pertinant for a typical US nuclear plant to consider cost-effective replacement of an aging analog RPS with a modern digital RPS. The following subject areas relative to the Oconee Nuclear Station ISAT trademark Demonstrator project are discussed: Operator Interface Development; Equipment Qualification; Validation and Verification of Software; Factory Testing; Field Changes and Verification Testing; Utility Operational, Engineering and Maintenance; Experiences with Demonstration System; and Ability to operate in parallel with the existing Analog RPS

  3. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today's NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  4. Higher operational safety of nuclear power plants by evaluating the behaviour of operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertins, M.; Glasner, P.

    1990-01-01

    In the GDR power reactors have been operated since 1966. Since that time operational experiences of 73 cumulative reactor years have been collected. The behaviour of operating personnel is an essential factor to guarantee the safety of operation of the nuclear power plant. Therefore a continuous analysis of the behaviour of operating personnel has been introduced at the GDR nuclear power plants. In the paper the overall system of the selection, preparation and control of the behaviour of nuclear power plant operating personnel is presented. The methods concerned are based on recording all errors of operating personnel and on analyzing them in order to find out the reasons. The aim of the analysis of reasons is to reduce the number of errors. By a feedback of experiences the nuclear safety of the nuclear power plant can be increased. All data necessary for the evaluation of errors are recorded and evaluated by a computer program. This method is explained thoroughly in the paper. Selected results of error analysis are presented. It is explained how the activities of the personnel are made safer by means of this analysis. Comparisons with other methods are made. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs

  5. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knutson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunne, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kasper, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheehan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mau, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  6. A multi-criteria decision making system for damage assessment of critical components in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, A.; Auerkari, P.; Brear, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-criteria decision making tool for engineering applications has been developed in the European project BE5935. The tool has been developed and applied in the area of power plants, primarily for the decisions regarding the inspection and maintenance planning in the area of power plants. Practical application of the methodology and of the software is shown here for the damage assessment of critical components. (authors)

  7. U.S. Central Station Nuclear Power Plants: operating history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The information assembled in this booklet highlights the operating history of U. S. Central Station nuclear power plants through December 31, 1976. The information presented is based on data furnished by the operating electric utilities. The information is presented in the form of statistical tables and computer printouts of major shutdown periods for each nuclear unit. The capacity factor data for each unit is presented both on the basis of its net design electrical rating and its net maximum dependable capacity, as reported by the operating utility to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  8. Method of operation for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barleon, L.; Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the operation of a nuclear power plant is described whose primary coolant circuit contains liquid metal as coolant, and for whose secondary circuit which is coupled to the first by means of heat exchangers, one or more chemical compositions dissociating at higher temperatures and recombining at lower temperatures or associating into the original types are used as operating medium. N 2 O 4 is suggested as operating medium, and metal halogenides e.g. Al 2 Cl 6 , Al 2 Br 6 are also cited as suitable. Corrosion dangers are regarded as low. (UWI) [de

  9. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  10. Operational data collection and analysis for nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Berg, R.M.; Bailey, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes initial work undertaken by the US Department of Energy, through Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to define the operational data necessary for support of nuclear plant life extension (PLEX) programs. This work is being performed in coordination with the Working Group on Plant Life Extension of the US Nuclear Management and Resources Council. The intent of the effort is to use results gained initially from pilot PLEX programs a US BWR and a US PWR to build towards the use of ''PLEX indicators'' by which a plant's readiness for successful life extension can be measured. Another objective of the study was to examine chemistry data in detail to determine how well US plants are collecting, preserving, and trending the chemistry data that is important to PLEX. The methods used to disseminate this data to outside agencies and other utilities were studied. Finally, an analysis was made to determine additional chemistry data needed to support PLEX

  11. Modeling operator actions during a small break loss-of-coolant accident in a Babcock and Wilcox nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, L.S.; Ortiz, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A small break loss-of-accident (SBLOCA) in a typical Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) nuclear power plant was modeled using RELAP5/MOD3. This work was performed as part of the United States Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) Code, Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) study. The break was initiated by severing one high pressure injection (HPI) line at the cold leg. Thus, the small break was further aggravated by reduced HPI flow. Comparisons between scoping runs with minimal operator action, and full operator action, clearly showed that the operator plays a key role in recovering the plant. Operator actions were modeled based on the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the Technical Bases Document for the EOPs. The sequence of operator actions modeled here is only one of several possibilities. Different sequences of operator actions are possible for a given accident because of the subjective decisions the operator must make when determining the status of the plant, hence, which branch of the EOP to follow. To assess the credibility of the modeled operator actions, these actions and results of the simulated accident scenario were presented to operator examiners who are familiar with B ampersand W nuclear power plants. They agreed that, in general, the modeled operator actions conform to the requirements set forth in the EOPs and are therefore plausible. This paper presents the method for modeling the operator actions and discusses the simulated accident scenario from the viewpoint of operator actions

  12. Influence of in-plant air pollution control measures on power plant and system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurten, H.

    1990-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuels causes the emission of air pollutants which have harmful environmental impact. Consequently many nations have in the last few years established regulations for air pollution control and have initiated the development and deployment of air pollution control systems in power plants. The paper describes the methods used for reducing particulate, SO 2 and NO x emissions, their application as backfit systems and in new plants, the power plant capacity equipped with such systems in the Federal Republic of Germany and abroad and the additional investment and operating costs incurred. It is to be anticipated that advanced power plant designs will produce lower pollutant emissions and less waste at enhanced efficiency levels. A comparison with power generation in nuclear power plants completes the first part of the paper. This paper covers the impact of the above-mentioned air pollution control measures on unit commitment in daily operation

  13. Uncertainties in the daily operation of a district heating plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter

    Studies have found that district heating (DH) systems should play an important role in future sustainable energy systems, but that DH has to adapt to lower heat demands. This means adapting to reduced operation hours for units essential for DHs integration in other parts of the energy system......, such as CHP. It will therefore likely be increasingly important to increase the value per operation hour. The value can be increased by offering balancing for the electricity system. This in turn increases the uncertainties in the daily operation planning of the DH system. In this paper the Danish DH plant...... Ringkøbing District Heating is used as a case to investigate what costs market uncertainties can incur on a DH plant. It is found that the market uncertainties in a 4 months simulated period increased Ringkøbing District Heatings costs by less than 1%. Several factors are however not included in this paper....

  14. Management quality in spanish nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez de Zabalza Ramos, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reasons that lead nuclear power plants to require engineering support that is not usual in other types of industrial installations, namely the complexity of the plant and the economic consequences of a possible shutdown. At the time of unit startup, the need to use the services of experienced engineers for the technical support of nuclear power plants induced plant owners to turn to the engineering companies which had participated in the design of the plants. The paper lists the wide range of plant support services which these engineering companies can provide, both from their central offices and on site, especially in the field of change orders and documentation update. The paper also describes the satisfactory development of management parameters in Spanish nuclear power plants both in terms of load factor and comparison of operating and maintenance costs, and how engineering companies have contributed to this achievement, by reducing costs with no loss in the technical quality of their services. Finally, the paper describes how the engineering companies have had to adapt to a shrinking market without losing quality and how they achieved this by diversifying their services. In this context there are two areas of concern. the first area of concern is the competition from certain companies with oversized staff, who attempt to employ them in operation support for nuclear power stations, a field which does not correspond to the training and background of said staff. This could lead to a loss of quality or economic efficiency of nuclear power plants, whose operation up to now has proven satisfactory. The second area of concern is the operator's tendency to use their own resources for engineering support, making more difficult the renewal of human resources and thus leading to a decrease in productivity, and in the transfer of practical and theoretical experience from one plant to another, as well as in the transmission of the latest know

  15. Relativity evaluation of reliability on operation in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inata, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    The report presents a quantitative method for evaluating the reliability of operations conducted in nuclear power plants. The quantitative reliability evaluation method is based on the 'detailed block diagram analysis (De-BDA)'. All units of a series of operations are separately displayed for each block and combined sequentially. Then, calculation is performed to evaluate the reliability. Basically, De-BDA calculation is made for pairs of operation labels, which are connected in parallel or in series at different subordination levels. The applicability of the De-BDA method is demonstrated by carrying out calculation for three model cases: operations in the event of malfunction of the control valve in the main water supply system for PWR, switching from an electrically-operated water supply pump to a turbin-operated water supply pump, and isolation and water removal operation for a low-pressure condensate pump. It is shown that the relative importance of each unit of a series of operations can be evaluated, making it possible to extract those units of greater importance, and that the priority among the factors which affect the reliability of operations can be determined. Results of the De-BDA calculation can serve to find important points to be considered in developing an operation manual, conducting education and training, and improving facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Operation aid device upon periodical inspection of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukusaka, Ryoji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an operation aid device upon periodical inspection of a nuclear power plant, capable of controlling a plurality of control rods safely at good operation efficiency while maintaining subcritical state. Namely, a fuel exchange computer controls an operation for exchanging fuel assemblies upon periodical inspection. An operation aiding computer aids the exchanging operation of fuel assemblies. A control rod position monitoring device allows withdrawal of one control rod under the condition of establishment of entire control rod insertion signal upon operation of exchanging fuel assemblies. Whether all of the four fuel assemblies around one control rod have been entirely taken out or not is judged based on information on the fuel assembly exchanging operation. When conditions for the judgement for operation aiding computer are established, the all insertion signals for the entire control rods as the condition for the withdrawal of the control rods are bypassed, and operation enable signals for plurality control rods are outputted to a control rod manual operation device. (I.S.)

  17. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators--introducing inter-plant life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important goals of competing power plant operators is to ensure safe operation of their plants, characterized by maximum availability throughout the entire life cycle and minimized specific generating costs. One parameter crucial to the total price of electricity--and one that can be actively influenced by the power plant operators--is maintenance. Up to 30% of all electricity generating costs accrue from maintenance. In the past years maintenance measures have been optimized particularly by the application and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, by the increased level of system and component automation as well as more efficient organization structures. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. But the risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analyzed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realized. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the implementation of structured life cycle management are essential requirements. An inter-plant approach is recommended to make a quick implementation of maintenance optimization potentials possible. Plant-specific improvement potentials can be established with the help of a best-practice comparison, and measures and priorities can be defined for realizing them. Creating an inter-plant database will allow experience and findings to be analyzed quickly and efficiently by experts and made available to all participants on a neutral platform. Despite--or maybe owing to--the increasingly competitive marketplace, a sustained reduction in the maintenance costs of power plant operators can only be achieved through a structured, inter-plant exchange of experience. The ZES offers the industry a suitable platform for cooperation with its 'Condition-Based Maintenance' research focus. The introduction

  18. A Simulation for Managing Complexity in Sales and Operations Planning Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuHadway, Scott; Dreyfus, David

    2017-01-01

    Within the classroom it is often difficult to convey the complexities and intricacies that go into making sales and operations planning decisions. This article describes an in-class simulation that allows students to gain hands-on experience with the complexities in making forecasting, inventory, and supplier selection decisions as part of the…

  19. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Client-Oriented Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  20. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Executive Leaflet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to