WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant operational decision

  1. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas, W.A. [Quantum Technologies, Inc., Oak Brook, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  2. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants. Which factors influence the decisions?; Driftklarhetsbeslut i kaernkraftanlaeggningar. Vilka faktorer paaverkar beslutsfattandet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara (MTO Psykologi, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this project has been to propose a model for how operational readiness decisions are made and to identify important factors influencing these decisions. The project has also studied the support from the management system for decision making, and made a comparison to how decisions are made in practice. This is mainly an explorative study, but it also deals with relevant research and theories about decision making. The project consists of several parts. The first part is composed of descriptions of important notations and terms, and a summary of relevant research about decision making and its relation to the management system. The project proposes a model for the decision making process. The second part consists of analyses of reports from SKI about operational readiness decisions. The last part is a case study at a nuclear power plant. The case study describes the support from work method theories at the nuclear power plant to the decision maker. Decision makers with different roles in the safety management system were interviewed to give a description of the decision making process and of factors influencing the decisions made in practice. The case study also consists of an analysis of decisions in some real events at the nuclear power plant, as well as of making interviews in connection with these. To sum up, this report presents a model for the decision process and describes the work method theories that support the different parts in the process, how the different parts are applied in practice and circumstances that influence the decision process. The results of the project give an understanding for decision making in operational readiness decisions and the factors that influence the decision. The results are meant to be used as a basis for further studies in other nuclear power plants. The results indicate that the decision process is facilitated if there are clear criteria and work methods, if the work methods are well established and if the

  3. Control and decision strategies in wastewater treatment plants for operation improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Santín, Ignacio; Vilanova, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the operation of biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with a focus on maintaining effluent water quality while keeping operational costs within constrained limits. It includes control operation and decision schemes and is based on the use of benchmarking scenarios that yield easily reproducible results that readers can implement for their own solutions. The final criterion is the effect of the applied control strategy on plant performance – specifically, improving effluent quality, reducing costs and avoiding violations of established effluent limits. The evaluation of the different control strategies is achieved with the help of two Benchmark Simulation Models (BSM1, BSM2). Given the complexity of the biological and biochemical processes involved and the major fluctuations in the influent flow rate, controlling WWTPs poses a serious challenge. Further, the importance of control goal formulation and control structure design in relation to WWTP process control is widely recogniz...

  4. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  5. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants - part 2. Which factors influence the decisions?; Driftklarhetsbeslut i kaernkraftanlaeggningar - del 2. Vilka faktorer paaverkar beslutsfattandet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara (MTO Psykologi, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    The first report contained a summary of relevant research of decision making, a case study at Ringhals power plant and an analysis of some real cases of operational readiness decisions. In this report two case studies in the Swedish power plants, OKG and Forsmark are presented. The case study description consists of three parts; a description of the support from the management system for the decision making process, interviews with decision makers and an analysis of real cases of operational readiness decisions. The purpose of the project has been to increase the understanding of the decision process in operational readiness decisions as well as the support given from the management system and what factors influence the decisions. From a general point of view the circumstances where the decision must be taken varies, but situations and events that lead to questioning of the operational readiness are often easy to identify. There are often support documents such as procedures, rules and technical documents which specify operational limitations which give explicit decision criteria. These decisions are easy. When needed colleagues can be consulted for support. In unclear situations and/or when the technical criteria is not clear, e.g. when the rules and regulations are vague or even in conflict or when it is not evident that you need to question the operational readiness, the decision is more difficult to make. The results from the study shows that such decisions in general are not made by the shift crew manager but handed over to the next management level. The decision making process differs between the power plants. At one of the power plants the decision process is organised in specific meetings where decision made are reviewed by the next higher management level. At another plant the decisions are often made in groups or in consultation with colleagues. The management system makes a distinction between decisions made in consultation and when decisions already

  6. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  7. Modelling leaf, plant and stand flammability for ecological and operational decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Numerous factors have been found to affect the flammability of individual leaves and plant parts; however the way in which these factors relate to whole plant flammability, fire behaviour and the overall risk imposed by fire is not straightforward. Similarly, although the structure of plant communities is known to affect the flammability of the stand, a quantified, broadly applicable link has proven difficult to establish and validate. These knowledge gaps have presented major obstacles to the integration into fire behaviour science of research into factors affecting plant flammability, physiology, species succession and structural change, so that the management of ecosystems for fire risk is largely uninformed by these fields. The Forest Flammability Model (Zylstra, 2011) is a process-driven, complex systems model developed specifically to address this disconnect. Flame dimensions and position are calculated as properties emerging from the capacity for convective heat to propagate flame between horizontally and vertically separated leaves, branches, plants and plant strata, and this capacity is determined dynamically from the ignitability, combustibility and sustainability of those objects, their spatial arrangement and a vector-based model of the plume temperature from each burning fuel. All flammability properties as well as the physics of flame dimensions, angle and temperature distributions and the vertical structure of wind within the plant array use published sub-models which can be replaced as further work is developed. This modular structure provides a platform for the immediate application of new work on any aspect of leaf flammability or fire physics. Initial validation of the model examined its qualitative predictions for trends in forest flammability as a function of time since fire. The positive feedback predicted for the subalpine forest examined constituted a 'risky prediction' by running counter to the expectations of the existing approach, however

  8. Operational management in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leutscher, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Operational management in pot plant production was investigated by means of system analysis and simulation. A theoretical framework for operational decision-making consisted of elaboration decisions, progress decisions, and adoption decisions. This framework was incorporated in a pot plant

  9. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  10. Simulation and experimental studies of operators` decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators` individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators` individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators` decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface.

  11. Simulating operator decision processes at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, D.G. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center); Pople, H.E. Jr. (Seer Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Benhardt, H.C. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) is both a methodology and an AI tool. As a methodology, it denotes a technique that models human operators' cognitive processes to either (1) aid in designing the interface to a complex system (such as nuclear reactor control room), or (2) assess the cognitive causality that affects the likelihood of human error in specific accident scenarios. As an AI tool, CES is an expert system that models human operators' reasoning and decision processes. In this application, both the methodology and the tool were focused on modeling human intention formation and errors in a problem-solving context. The CES tool consist of an inference engine and knowledge base that are object-oriented at a level of analysis to facilitate the modeling of human decision-making. While descended from the early AI successes of Internist and Caduceus in the arena of medical diagnosis (Pople, 1985), CES has been restructured and enhanced to deal with additional knowledge requirements encountered in real-time control of complex systems. This version of CES receives its input from a virtual display, a file of several hundred plant parameters whose values are sampled every five seconds. Analogously to a crew observing control room displays, CES reads the virtual display file and evaluates what it sees.'' CES' evaluation is based on the changes it observes in relation to its prior knowledge of operational goals, plant structure, event history, and operator procedures that are represented in its knowledge base. Its output is an English-like protocol of observations, explanations, and declarations of recommended action (intent) that it would take if it could. These last also represent actions that human operator(s) could take if they so decide. Through manipulation of its knowledge base, CES can also be caused to make mistakes for human-like reasons.

  12. Simulating operator decision processes at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, D.G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center; Pople, H.E. Jr. [Seer Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Benhardt, H.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) is both a methodology and an AI tool. As a methodology, it denotes a technique that models human operators` cognitive processes to either (1) aid in designing the interface to a complex system (such as nuclear reactor control room), or (2) assess the cognitive causality that affects the likelihood of human error in specific accident scenarios. As an AI tool, CES is an expert system that models human operators` reasoning and decision processes. In this application, both the methodology and the tool were focused on modeling human intention formation and errors in a problem-solving context. The CES tool consist of an inference engine and knowledge base that are object-oriented at a level of analysis to facilitate the modeling of human decision-making. While descended from the early AI successes of Internist and Caduceus in the arena of medical diagnosis (Pople, 1985), CES has been restructured and enhanced to deal with additional knowledge requirements encountered in real-time control of complex systems. This version of CES receives its input from a virtual display, a file of several hundred plant parameters whose values are sampled every five seconds. Analogously to a crew observing control room displays, CES reads the virtual display file and evaluates what it ``sees.`` CES` evaluation is based on the changes it observes in relation to its prior knowledge of operational goals, plant structure, event history, and operator procedures that are represented in its knowledge base. Its output is an English-like protocol of observations, explanations, and declarations of recommended action (intent) that it would take if it could. These last also represent actions that human operator(s) could take if they so decide. Through manipulation of its knowledge base, CES can also be caused to make mistakes for human-like reasons.

  13. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  14. Ergonomics and risk management in high risk organizations: nuclear power plant operator decision making; A ergonomia e a gestao de risco em organizacoes que lidam com tecnologias perigosas: tomada de decisao de operadores de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de

    2003-08-15

    Nuclear power plants are high hazard environments where emergency situations can have devastating effects. The operator crew has the ultimate responsibility to control the energy production process with safety. The outcome of a crisis is consequently dependent on the crew's judgement, decision making and situation awareness. In such way we should know how operators make their decisions in order to develop safety strategies. The aim of this thesis is to examine the cognitive processes through which operators make decisions when dealing with micro incidents during their actual work, and to determine whether they use a naturalistic or normative decision making strategy. That is, do they try to recognize the micro incident as familiar and base decisions on condition-action rules (naturalistic), or do they need to concurrently compare and contrast options before selecting the best possible (normative). The method employed for data collection was the Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) and Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The main findings of this thesis were that decision making is primarily based on naturalistic strategies, such as condition-action rules and recognition. In new situations rules are created ad hoc. These rules appear derived from experience and training rather than from Standard Operating Procedures and contrast normative competence standards used by nuclear industry. (author)

  15. Decision Making System for Operative Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Shakah, G.; Krasnoproshin, V. V.; Valvachev, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Actual problems of construction of computer systems for operative tasks of decision making are considered. possibilities of solving the problems on the basis of the theory of active systems (tas) are investigated.

  16. Spare parts inventory risk for decision making in plant maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Kamal Imran; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Equipment breakdown due to unavailability of spare parts is really disastrous in plant maintenance. The failure increase the cost of repair and production downtime. Therefore, it is important to understand the maintenance and inventory function in order to ensure the plant operate accordingly. Moreover, it is necessary for the plant maintenance to balance the issue of shortage and excess of inventory in plant maintenance. In view of this situation, the spare parts become a critical matters and it is good starting point to tackle the issues from looking at the perspective of spare parts inventory risk. This paper describes the development of risk technique for plant maintenance decision making purposes using the Shortage and Excess Impact Table. It also used the Breakdown Probability Table to quantify the risk for the spare part failure.

  17. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    distillation plant is investigated more closely with the purpose of elucidating essential decisions behind planning experiments, which are suitable for identifying models and constraints. The basis for analysis of optimal operation is the type of operation upon which an application focuses. In this paper...... and their influence upon the further decisions behind the experimental design. An energy-integrated distillation column, which may exhibit fold bifurcations, is used as a relevant example process....

  18. Modeling decisions information fusion and aggregation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenc

    2007-01-01

    Information fusion techniques and aggregation operators produce the most comprehensive, specific datum about an entity using data supplied from different sources, thus enabling us to reduce noise, increase accuracy, summarize and extract information, and make decisions. These techniques are applied in fields such as economics, biology and education, while in computer science they are particularly used in fields such as knowledge-based systems, robotics, and data mining. This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The method...

  19. Defensive Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment Christopher L. Vowels W. Anthony Scroggins U.S. Army Research Institute Captain Kyle T...7260 Alabama Avenue Fort Polk, LA 71459 ii Research Report 2003 Defensive Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment...the entirety of the project and his guidance ensured the research was successful. iv DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS IN A DECISIVE ACTION TRAINING

  20. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method.

  1. Derived operating rules for a reservoir operation system: Comparison of decision trees, neural decision trees and fuzzy decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Chiang; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

    2008-02-01

    This article compares the decision-tree algorithm (C5.0), neural decision-tree algorithm (NDT) and fuzzy decision-tree algorithm (FIDs) for addressing reservoir operations regarding water supply during normal periods. The conventional decision-tree algorithm, such as ID3 and C5.0, executes rapidly and can easily be translated into if-then-else rules. However, the C5.0 algorithm cannot discover dependencies among attributes and cannot treat the non-axis-parallel class boundaries of data. The basic concepts of the two algorithms presented are: (1) NDT algorithm combines the neural network technologies and conventional decision-tree algorithm capabilities, and (2) FIDs algorithm extends to apply fuzzy sets for all attributes with membership function grades and generates a fuzzy decision tree. In order to obtain higher classification rates in FIDs, the flexible trapezoid fuzzy sets are employed to define membership functions. Furthermore, an intelligent genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize the large number of variables in fuzzy decision-tree design. The applicability of the presented algorithms is demonstrated through a case study of the Shihmen Reservoir system. A network flow optimization model for analyzing long-term supply demand is employed to generate the input-output patterns. Findings show superior performance of the FIDs model in contrast with C5.0, NDT and current reservoir operating rules.

  2. A Grid-Connected Desalination Plant Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Ko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a grid-connected desalination plant operation approach is suggested. In desalination plant, large amount of energy is needed to operate pump and motor; hence most of energy is electricity. For this reason, the largest part of the operation cost is electricity charges. To demonstrate power usage, small size desalination measuring system mounted plant is used. Finally, to show the result of a grid-connected desalination plant operation, electric tariff rate of Korea is used. The result shows that total cost reduction rate is calculated about 1.6% of annual total electric plant operation cost.

  3. Simulators predict power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2002-07-01

    Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.

  4. Method and apparatus for optimizing operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, David; Katrompas, Alexander M.; Parikh, Neel J.

    2009-09-01

    A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.

  5. Towards A New Decision Support System for Design, Management and Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Caniani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing attention paid to the environment has led to a reduction in the emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Moreover, the increasing interest in the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from WWTPs suggests that we reconsider the traditional tools used for designing and managing WWTPs. Indeed, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane can be emitted from wastewater treatment, significantly contributing to the greenhouse gas (GHG footprint. The reduction of energy consumption as well as GHG emission are of particular concern for large WWTPs which treat the majority of wastewater in terms of both volume and pollution load. Nowadays, there is an increasing need to develop new tools that include additional performance indicators related to GHG emissions and energy consumption as well as traditional effluent quality parameters. Energy consumption, in fact, can be considered as an indirect source of GHGs. This paper presents the development of an ongoing research project aiming at setting-up an innovative mathematical model platform for the design and management of WWTPs. The final goal of the project by means of this platform is to minimize the environmental impact of WWTPs through their optimization in terms of energy consumptions and emissions, which can be regarded as discharged pollutants, sludge and GHGs.

  6. Decisively Avoiding Defeat: Strategy, the Operational Artist, and Limited War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Decisively Avoiding Defeat: Strategy , the Operational Artist, and Limited War A Monograph by MAJ Matthew W. Bandi United States Army...NUMBER Decisively Avoiding Defeat: Strategy , the Operational Artist, and Limited War 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ease this frustration. This monograph shows how strategy in limited war emerges from the negotiation between policy makers and operational artists over

  7. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelate...

  8. BUSINESS DECISION MAKING ON FINANCING OPERATING ACTIVITIES IN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Djokovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Outputs of management process related to decision making and the implementation of decisions of the business. Business decision-making, in the widest sense of the time aspect, it can be seen from the operational and strategic character. In this paper, the focus is on analyzing leverage and rate of return the operational decision-making in the hotel as a function of current financing activities. Operational decision-making, must be aligned with strategic, so that all segments of the operational decision-making found appropriate and meaningful implementation. Decisions in practice, in most cases, can not be considered independently, because each of them implies the use of properties, human, financial, information technology and other related capabilities.

  9. Preparation of Leaders to Make Decisions in Peacekeeping Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pappal, Michael

    2002-01-01

    .... Areas investigated include personal confidence in decision-making of various types, amount of training and education received in peace operations, and assessments of Army preparations of leaders...

  10. Investment decisions under uncertainties: a case of nuclear power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis discusses the role of flexibility of decisions when investing in projects that are affected by economic uncertainties. It uses the theory of real options to value such investment decisions. The thesis focuses on investment decisions related to nuclear power plants, which usually are aff

  11. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  12. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  13. Decision Support System for Reservoir Management and Operation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navar, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is currently experiencing a surge in dam construction for flood control, water supply and hydropower production, but ineffective reservoir management has caused problems in the region, such as water shortages, flooding and loss of potential hydropower generation. Our research aims to remedy ineffective reservoir management by developing a novel Decision Support System(DSS) to equip water managers with a technical planning tool based on the state of the art in hydrological sciences. The DSS incorporates a climate forecast model, a hydraulic model of the watershed, and an optimization model to effectively plan for the operation of a system of cascade large-scale reservoirs for hydropower production, while treating water supply and flood control as constraints. Our team will use the newly constructed hydropower plants in the Omo Gibe basin of Ethiopia as the test case. Using the basic HIDROTERM software developed in Brazil, the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) utilizes a combination of linear programing (LP) and non-linear programming (NLP) in conjunction with real time hydrologic and energy demand data to optimize the monthly and daily operations of the reservoir system. We compare the DSS model results with the current reservoir operating policy used by the water managers of that region. We also hope the DSS will eliminate the current dangers associated with the mismanagement of large scale water resources projects in Africa.

  14. Applied math for wastewater plant operators

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Joanne K

    1998-01-01

    With many worked examples, this book provides step-by-step instruction for all calculations required for wastewater treatment. Pertinent calculations are conveniently summarized in each chapter. The text covers all the fundamental math concepts and skills needed for daily wastewater treatment plant operations. The workbook for this book can be purchased separately or together in the Applied Math for Wastewater Plant Operators Set (ISBN: 9781566769891).

  15. Operational Sustainment: The Impact of Critical Decisions upon Operational Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-17

    tension between sustainment and operational design focusing upon the 32 critical sustainment uec sions which interface with comnat activities. It has...Remote Areas." SAMS Monograph, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1 April 1986, p. 1. 50. Martin Middlebrook, Operation Corporate : The Falklands War, 1982 (London...Falklands. New York, NY: Praeger, 1983. Middlebrook, Martin. Operation Corporate : The Falklands War 1982. London, England: Penquin Books, Ltd, 1985. 53

  16. Fuzzy logics acquisition and simulation modules for expert systems to assist operator`s decision for nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averkin, A.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Computer centre

    1994-12-31

    A new type of fuzzy expert system for assisting the operator`s decisions in nuclear power plant system in non-standard situations is proposed. This expert system is based on new approaches to fuzzy logics acquisition and to fuzzy logics testing. Fuzzy logics can be generated by a T-norms axiomatic system to choose the most suitable to operator`s way of thinking. Then the chosen fuzzy logic is tested by simulation of inference process in expert system. The designed logic is the input of inference module of expert system.

  17. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

  18. IDENTIFYING OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO SELECT SUITABLE DECISION MODELS FOR A PUBLIC SECTOR EPROCUREMENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public sector procurement should be a transparent and fair process. Strict legal requirements are enforced on public sector procurement to make it a standardised process. To make fair decisions on selecting suppliers, a practical method which adheres to legal requirements is important. The research that is the base for this paper aimed at identifying a suitable Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method for the specific legal and functional needs of the Maldivian Public Sector. To identify such operational requirements, a set of focus group interviews were conducted in the Maldives with public officials responsible for procurement decision making. Based on the operational requirements identified through focus groups, criteria-based evaluation is done on published MCDA methods to identify the suitable methods for e-procurement decision making. This paper describes the identification of the operational requirements and the results of the evaluation to select suitable decision models for the Maldivian context.

  19. Nuclear power plant operation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanae, Katsushige [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1997-07-01

    In this report, the system for operation of a nuclear power plant and the qualities required for its operators were summarized. In Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Atomic Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. operation is continuously made by 6 groups containing each 10 workers on three shifts. A group including the person in charge participates in the operation through cooperation of the control center and the respective spots. The group leaders are chosen from those approved as a person responsible to its operation. The conditions for the person responsible were as follows: to receive simulator training for senior operator, to have more than 7 years experience of operating a nuclear power plant, to pass a practical examination on the ordinary operation and the emergency one, to receive a training course to master the knowledge and techniques for operating an atomic reactor and to success the oral examination on practical knowledge required to perform the duty. Further, the simulators for ABWR training produced by Toshiba Corp. and Hitachi Ltd. were introduced as an example. And the practical training procedures to manipulate the simulator were presented. (M.N.)

  20. Understanding power plant investment decision processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.; Richstein, J.C.; De Vries, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand how companies make investment decisions under conditions of deep uncertainty, we interviewed a number of actors in the Dutch electricity sector. Most of the economic literature that is devoted to this question is prescriptive in nature, describing rational methods to the inves

  1. Simulation-based decision support for evaluating operational plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe simulation-based decision support techniques for evaluation of operational plans within effects-based planning. Using a decision support tool, developers of operational plans are able to evaluate thousands of alternative plans against possible courses of events and decide which of these plans are capable of achieving a desired end state. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of a decision support system that helps operational analysts understand the consequences of numerous alternative plans through simulation and evaluation. Operational plans are described in the effects-based approach to operations concept as a set of actions and effects. For each action, we examine several different alternative ways to perform the action. We use a representation where a plan consists of several actions that should be performed. Each action may be performed in one of several different alternative ways. Together these action alternatives make up all possible plan instances, which are represented as a tree of action alternatives that may be searched for the most effective sequence of alternative actions. As a test case, we use an expeditionary operation with a plan of 43 actions and several alternatives for these actions, as well as a scenario of 40 group actors. Decision support for planners is provided by several methods that analyze the impact of a plan on the 40 actors, e.g., by visualizing time series of plan performance. Detailed decision support for finding the most influential actions of a plan is presented by using sensitivity analysis and regression tree analysis. Finally, a decision maker may use the tool to determine the boundaries of an operation that it must not move beyond without risk of drastic failure. The significant contribution of this study is the presentation of an integrated approach for evaluation of operational plans.

  2. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Decisions made during the operational phase of a space mission often have significant and immediate consequences. Without the explicit consideration of the risks involved and their representation in a solid model, it is very likely that these risks are not considered systematically in trade studies. Wrong decisions during the operational phase of a space mission can lead to immediate system failure whereas correct decisions can help recover the system even from faulty conditions. A problem of special interest is the determination of the system fault protection strategies upon the occurrence of faults within the system. Decisions regarding the fault protection strategy also heavily rely on a correct understanding of the state of the system and an integrated risk model that represents the various possible scenarios and their respective likelihoods. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling is applicable to the full lifecycle of a space mission project, from concept development to preliminary design, detailed design, development and operations. The benefits and utilities of the model, however, depend on the phase of the mission for which it is used. This is because of the difference in the key strategic decisions that support each mission phase. The focus of this paper is on describing the particular methods used for PRA modeling during the operational phase of a spacecraft by gleaning insight from recently conducted case studies on two operational Mars orbiters. During operations, the key decisions relate to the commands sent to the spacecraft for any kind of diagnostics, anomaly resolution, trajectory changes, or planning. Often, faults and failures occur in the parts of the spacecraft but are contained or mitigated before they can cause serious damage. The failure behavior of the system during operations provides valuable data for updating and adjusting the related PRA models that are built primarily based on historical failure data. The PRA models, in turn

  3. Intelligent decision-making models for production and retail operations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of intelligent decision-making techniques and discusses their application in production and retail operations. Manufacturing and retail enterprises have stringent standards for using advanced and reliable techniques to improve decision-making processes, since these processes have significant effects on the performance of relevant operations and the entire supply chain. In recent years, researchers have been increasingly focusing attention on using intelligent techniques to solve various decision-making problems. The opening chapters provide an introduction to several commonly used intelligent techniques, such as genetic algorithm, harmony search, neural network and extreme learning machine. The book then explores the use of these techniques for handling various production and retail decision-making problems, such as production planning and scheduling, assembly line balancing, and sales forecasting.

  4. Operation Husky: Seeking an Operational Approach to Decisive Victory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it...47Hamilton, Master of the Battlefield, 347. 48Bernard Law Montgomery, The Memoirs of Field-Marshal the Viscount Montgomery of 19 of communication was...critical requirement and critical vulnerability. In their 1993 article, “Operational Logic: Selecting the Center of Gravity,” Colonel William H. Mendel and

  5. Computer simulation of thermal plant operations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Kelly, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book describes thermal plant simulation, that is, dynamic simulation of plants which produce, exchange and otherwise utilize heat as their working medium. Directed at chemical, mechanical and control engineers involved with operations, control and optimization and operator training, the book gives the mathematical formulation and use of simulation models of the equipment and systems typically found in these industries. The author has adopted a fundamental approach to the subject. The initial chapters provide an overview of simulation concepts and describe a suitable computer environment.

  6. An Advanced Decision Support Tool for Electricity Infrastructure Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Ma, Jian; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-01-31

    Electricity infrastructure, as one of the most critical infrastructures in the U.S., plays an important role in modern societies. Its failure would lead to significant disruption of people’s lives, industry and commercial activities, and result in massive economic losses. Reliable operation of electricity infrastructure is an extremely challenging task because human operators need to consider thousands of possible configurations in near real-time to choose the best option and operate the network effectively. In today’s practice, electricity infrastructure operation is largely based on operators’ experience with very limited real-time decision support, resulting in inadequate management of complex predictions and the inability to anticipate, recognize, and respond to situations caused by human errors, natural disasters, or cyber attacks. Therefore, a systematic approach is needed to manage the complex operational paradigms and choose the best option in a near-real-time manner. This paper proposes an advanced decision support tool for electricity infrastructure operations. The tool has the functions of turning large amount of data into actionable information to help operators monitor power grid status in real time; performing trend analysis to indentify system trend at the regional level or system level to help the operator to foresee and discern emergencies, studying clustering analysis to assist operators to identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets, and interactively evaluating the alternative remedial actions to aid operators to make effective and timely decisions. This tool can provide significant decision support on electricity infrastructure operations and lead to better reliability in power grids. This paper presents examples with actual electricity infrastructure data to demonstrate the capability of this tool.

  7. Decision Facilitator for Launch Operations using Intelligent Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Launch operations require millions of micro-decisions which contribute to the macro decision of 'Go/No-Go' for a launch. Knowledge workers"(such as managers and technical professionals) need information in a timely precise manner as it can greatly affect mission success. The intelligent agent (web search agent) uses the words of a hypertext markup language document which is connected through the internet. The intelligent agent's actions are to determine if its goal of seeking a website containing a specified target (e.g., keyword or phrase), has been met. There are few parameters that should be defined for the keyword search like "Go" and "No-Go". Instead of visiting launch and range decision making servers individually, the decision facilitator constantly connects to all servers, accumulating decisions so the final decision can be decided in a timely manner. The facilitator agent uses the singleton design pattern, which ensures that only a single instance of the facilitator agent exists at one time. Negotiations could proceed between many agents resulting in a final decision. This paper describes details of intelligent agents and their interaction to derive an unified decision support system.

  8. Operational development of small plant growth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken on the first phase of an empricial effort in the development of small plant growth chambers for production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are discussed. The overall effort is visualized as providing the underpinning of practical experience in handling of plant systems in space which will provide major support for future efforts in planning, design, and construction of plant-based (phytomechanical) systems for support of human habitation in space. The assumptions underlying the effort hold that large scale phytomechanical habitability support systems for future space stations must evolve from the simple to the complex. The highly complex final systems will be developed from the accumulated experience and data gathered from repetitive tests and trials of fragments or subsystems of the whole in an operational mode. These developing system components will, meanwhile, serve a useful operational function in providing psychological support and diversion for the crews.

  9. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...... for the Japanese fast breeder reactor plant MONJU....

  10. Decision-Making: Are Plants More Rational than Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-07-25

    A new study presents a novel experimental design and allows a test of risk sensitivity in plants. Faced with a choice between constant and variable resource supply, they make a rational decision for the option that maximizes fitness, a fact rarely observed in animals.

  11. Structural and functional design of WWTP operation decision support system with a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Shi, H C; Ke, X Y

    2006-01-01

    This paper developes the WWTP operation decision support system (ODSS) to simulate the dynamic behavior of the WWTP treatment process based on ASMs (activated sludge models) and WWTP experiential knowledge. The novel structure and functions of ODSS can offer more flexible and general instructions to the WWTP operations. The three independent sub-systems, namely expert system, simulation system and training system, can cooperate to achieve many more functions such as operation alert, fault diagnosis, process simulation and so forth. The expert system based on the dynamic simulation, an essential part of WWTP ODSS, has been proved to be feasible and effective by the implementation at Fang Zhuang WWTP. Our results indicated that the WWTP ODSS has significant potential for improving plant performance and reducing treatment costs by assisting the operators at the decision-making level.

  12. Staffing decision processes and issues: Case studies of seven US Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.; Roussel, A.; Baker, K.; Durbin, N.; Hunt, P.; Hauth, J.; Forslund, C.; Terrill, E. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Seattle, WA (United States); Gore, B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this report is to identify how decisions are made regarding staffing levels and positions for a sample of U.S. nuclear power plants. In this report, a framework is provided for understanding the major forces driving staffing and the implications of staffing decisions for plant safety. The focus of this report is on driving forces that have led to changes in staffing levels and to the establishment of new positions between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Processes used at utilities and nuclear power plants to make and implement these staffing decisions are also discussed in the report. While general trends affecting the plant as a whole are presented, the major emphasis of this report is on staffing changes and practices in the operations department, including the operations shift crew. The findings in this report are based on interviews conducted at seven nuclear power plants and their parent utilities. A discussion of the key findings is followed by a summary of the implications of staffing issues for plant safety.

  13. From Data to Improved Decisions: Operations Research in Healthcare Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capan, Muge; Khojandi, Anahita; Denton, Brian T; Williams, Kimberly D; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kurt, Murat; Lobo, Jennifer Mason; Roberts, Mark S; Zaric, Greg; Zhang, Shengfan; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2017-11-01

    The Operations Research Interest Group (ORIG) within the Society of Medical Decision Making (SMDM) is a multidisciplinary interest group of professionals that specializes in taking an analytical approach to medical decision making and healthcare delivery. ORIG is interested in leveraging mathematical methods associated with the field of Operations Research (OR) to obtain data-driven solutions to complex healthcare problems and encourage collaborations across disciplines. This paper introduces OR for the non-expert and draws attention to opportunities where OR can be utilized to facilitate solutions to healthcare problems. Decision making is the process of choosing between possible solutions to a problem with respect to certain metrics. OR concepts can help systematically improve decision making through efficient modeling techniques while accounting for relevant constraints. Depending on the problem, methods that are part of OR (e.g., linear programming, Markov Decision Processes) or methods that are derived from related fields (e.g., regression from statistics) can be incorporated into the solution approach. This paper highlights the characteristics of different OR methods that have been applied to healthcare decision making and provides examples of emerging research opportunities. We illustrate OR applications in healthcare using previous studies, including diagnosis and treatment of diseases, organ transplants, and patient flow decisions. Further, we provide a selection of emerging areas for utilizing OR. There is a timely need to inform practitioners and policy makers of the benefits of using OR techniques in solving healthcare problems. OR methods can support the development of sustainable long-term solutions across disease management, service delivery, and health policies by optimizing the performance of system elements and analyzing their interaction while considering relevant constraints.

  14. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  15. Using Simulations to Investigate Decision Making in Airline Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Peter J.; Gray, Judy H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a range of methods to collect data for the investigation of decision-making in airline Operations Control Centres (OCCs). A study was conducted of 52 controllers in five OCCs of both domestic and international airlines in the Asia-Pacific region. A range of methods was used including: surveys, interviews, observations, simulations, and think-aloud protocol. The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of these techniques for gathering data and provides recommendations on the application of simulations. Keywords Data Collection, Decision-Making, Research Methods, Simulation, Think-Aloud Protocol.

  16. Decision support for simulation-based operation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Johan; Hörling, Pontus

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we develop methods for analyzing large amounts of data from a military ground combat simulation system. Through a series of processes, we focus the big data set on situations that correspond to important questions and show advantageous outcomes. The result is a decision support methodology that provides commanders with results that answer specific questions of interest, such as what the consequences for the Blue side are in various Red scenarios or what a particular Blue force can withstand. This approach is a step toward taking the traditional data farming methodology from its analytical view into a prescriptive operation planning context and a decision making mode.

  17. Use of decision trees for evaluating severe accident management strategies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclerar Engineering; Lee, Yongjin; Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2016-07-15

    Accident management strategies are defined to innovative actions taken by plant operators to prevent core damage or to maintain the sound containment integrity. Such actions minimize the chance of offsite radioactive substance leaks that lead to and intensify core damage under power plant accident conditions. Accident management extends the concept of Defense in Depth against core meltdown accidents. In pressurized water reactors, emergency operating procedures are performed to extend the core cooling time. The effectiveness of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) became an important issue. Severe accident management strategies are evaluated with a methodology utilizing the decision tree technique.

  18. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...

  19. Role of Hydrological Ensemble Forecasts in Operational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Saleh, F.; Georgas, N.; Blumberg, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Considerable importance has been placed on addressing uncertainties in hydrologic forecasts, particularly in regards to operational decision making. This work investigates the utility of short term hydrological ensemble forecasts for operational decision making using meteorological inputs from more than 100 ensemble members from different numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. To this end, an advanced automated hydrologic framework comprising of a regional scale hydrologic model, GIS datasets and the meteorological ensemble predictions from different weather prediction facilities was implemented over the Hudson and Raritan River basins, USA. The uncertainties associated with ensemble streamflow forecasts was analysed for three different flood events classified as minor, moderate and major. This was done by visually and statistically comparing the spread, magnitude and timing of the peak of the hydrologic outputs. Results from this work demonstrate the effectiveness of different NWP models for different operational scenarios, thus providing a better understanding of the uncertainties and risks associated with decision making. In addition to gaining insights into the risks associated with issuing flood alerts, this work also offers useful perspectives on the operationally managing water resources.

  20. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  1. Operator performance evaluation using multi criteria decision making methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Razali, Siti Fatihah

    2014-06-01

    Operator performance evaluation is a very important operation in labor-intensive manufacturing industry because the company's productivity depends on the performance of its operators. The aims of operator performance evaluation are to give feedback to operators on their performance, to increase company's productivity and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each operator. In this paper, six multi criteria decision making methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), ELECTRE, PROMETHEE II, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are used to evaluate the operators' performance and to rank the operators. The performance evaluation is based on six main criteria; competency, experience and skill, teamwork and time punctuality, personal characteristics, capability and outcome. The study was conducted at one of the SME food manufacturing companies in Selangor. From the study, it is found that AHP and FAHP yielded the "outcome" criteria as the most important criteria. The results of operator performance evaluation showed that the same operator is ranked the first using all six methods.

  2. EXAMINING CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS IN FUTURE PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' HARA,J.M.HIGGINS,J.BROWN,W.KRAMER,J.PERSENSKY,J.

    2004-09-19

    This paper will examine the results of this research that focus on future concepts of operations. Our approach was to look at current technological developments in the areas of reactor technology, I&C technology, and human-system integration technology and to make projections into the near and longer-term future concerning their potential impact on human performance. The results were discussed in terms of three aspects of concepts of operations: functional staffing models, plant automation, and training and qualifications. Significant changes to each are anticipated and discussed. Research will be needed to address these changes in order to provide for confidence that changes to concepts of operations are accomplished in ways that maintain public safety.

  3. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  4. The Unbalanced Linguistic Aggregation Operator in Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many linguistic aggregation methods have been proposed and applied in the linguistic decision-making problems. In practice, experts need to assess a number of values in a side of reference domain higher than in the other one; that is, experts use unbalanced linguistic values to express their evaluation for problems. In this paper, we propose a new linguistic aggregation operator to deal with unbalanced linguistic values in group decision making, we adopt 2-tuple representation model of linguistic values and linguistic hierarchies to express unbalanced linguistic values, and moreover, we present the unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted geometric operator to aggregate unbalanced linguistic evaluation values; a comparison example is given to show the advantage of our method.

  5. An Intelligent Hierarchical Decision Architecture for Operational Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    complementary operations were originally introduced by Lofti Zadeh . As other researchers have applied fuzzy theory, slight modifications have been made...FUZZY LOGIC In Lofti Zadeh’s 1973 "Outline of a New Approach to the Analysis of Complex Systems and Decision Processes," he stated [10] ... it is this...classes of objects encountered in the physical world do not fit into clean, crisp classes or have precisely defined criteria for membership. Dr. Zadeh

  6. Tactical Unit Data and Decision Requirements for Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    decision requirements useful in urban operations. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or...Building Function Verify mosque and identify possi- ble schools or meeting places Identify types of cinema (stage/theatre) or other similar nearby...Determine mosque and residen- tial floor plans Interior layout of cinema and high-rises Layout of power control facilities Improved Dismounted & Mounted

  7. Operational Decisions: What is the Nature of the Information Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-21

    ground and a decisive battle would be fought between the Chindwin and Irrawaddy River with the city of Mandalay in the balance, Slim was In error, He...with elements of the IV Corps and continue the advance toward the Irrawaddy River giving every 1r,-.,.:.’tion that Mandalay was the objective of the 14th...Corps would cross the Irrawaddy and seize Mandalay without the threat of the Japanese defense being reinforced. A subsequent phase of the operation was

  8. Varenna workshop report. Operational earthquake forecasting and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Marzocchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A workshop on Operational earthquake forecasting and decision making was convened in Varenna, Italy, on June 8-11, 2014, under the sponsorship of the EU FP 7 REAKT (Strategies and tools for Real-time EArthquake risK reducTion project, the Seismic Hazard Center at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV, and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. The main goal was to survey the interdisciplinary issues of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF, including the problems that OEF raises for decision making and risk communication. The workshop was attended by 64 researchers from universities, research centers, and governmental institutions in 11 countries. Participants and the workshop agenda are listed in the appendix.The workshop comprised six topical sessions structured around three main themes: the science of operational earthquake forecasting, decision making in a low-probability environment, and communicating hazard and risk. Each topic was introduced by a moderator and surveyed by a few invited speakers, who were then empaneled for an open discussion. The presentations were followed by poster sessions. During a wrap-up session on the last day, the reporters for each topical session summarized the main points that they had gleaned from the talks and open discussions. This report attempts to distill this workshop record into a brief overview of the workshop themes and to describe the range of opinions expressed during the discussions.

  9. FIESTA: An operational decision aid for space network fault isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dawn; Quillin, Bob; Matteson, Nadine; Wilkinson, Bill; Miksell, Steve

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tolerance Expert System for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Applications (FIESTA) is a fault detection and fault diagnosis expert system being developed as a decision aid to support operations in the Network Control Center (NCC) for NASA's Space Network. The operational objectives which influenced FIESTA development are presented and an overview of the architecture used to achieve these goals are provided. The approach to the knowledge engineering effort and the methodology employed are also presented and illustrated with examples drawn from the FIESTA domain.

  10. How do strategic decisions and operative practices affect operating room productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti

    2011-12-01

    Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation.

  11. Risk informed decision-making in nuclear power plants (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, Dae Il

    2000-11-01

    The risk insight resulted from Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is used in risk-informed decision-making including in-service inspection, in-service testing, graded quality assurance, and technical specification. This report is introducing the state of the art of the risk-informed decision-making. The contents of 1998 final version of U.S. regulatory guide concerning the risk informed decision-making are described. This report is also introducing U.S. maintenance rule since it is closely related to the risk informed desision-making. Research results of risk-informed in-service testing and technical specification optimization applided to Korean nuclear power plants are described.

  12. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition...... of the process plant, its function and its structural elements. The paper explains how the means-end concepts of MFM can be used to provide formalized definitions of plant operation modes. The paper will introduce the mode types defined by MFM and show how selected operation modes can be represented...

  13. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  14. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  15. Use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, A.; Zhi, Z.; Wang, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Mendes, J.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-11-29

    The rapid expansion of wind power gives rise to a number of challenges for power system operators and electricity market participants. The key operational challenge is to efficiently handle the uncertainty and variability of wind power when balancing supply and demand in ths system. In this report, we analyze how wind power forecasting can serve as an efficient tool toward this end. We discuss the current status of wind power forecasting in U.S. electricity markets and develop several methodologies and modeling tools for the use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions, from the perspectives of the system operator as well as the wind power producer. In particular, we focus on the use of probabilistic forecasts in operational decisions. Driven by increasing prices for fossil fuels and concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, wind power, as a renewable and clean source of energy, is rapidly being introduced into the existing electricity supply portfolio in many parts of the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has analyzed a scenario in which wind power meets 20% of the U.S. electricity demand by 2030, which means that the U.S. wind power capacity would have to reach more than 300 gigawatts (GW). The European Union is pursuing a target of 20/20/20, which aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 as compared to 1990. Meanwhile, China is the leading country in terms of installed wind capacity, and had 45 GW of installed wind power capacity out of about 200 GW on a global level at the end of 2010. The rapid increase in the penetration of wind power into power systems introduces more variability and uncertainty in the electricity generation portfolio, and these factors are the key challenges when it comes to integrating wind power into the electric power grid. Wind power forecasting (WPF) is an important tool to help

  16. Decision support system for the operating room rescheduling problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Essen, J Theresia; Hurink, Johann L; Hartholt, Woutske; van den Akker, Bernd J

    2012-12-01

    Due to surgery duration variability and arrivals of emergency surgeries, the planned Operating Room (OR) schedule is disrupted throughout the day which may lead to a change in the start time of the elective surgeries. These changes may result in undesirable situations for patients, wards or other involved departments, and therefore, the OR schedule has to be adjusted. In this paper, we develop a decision support system (DSS) which assists the OR manager in this decision by providing the three best adjusted OR schedules. The system considers the preferences of all involved stakeholders and only evaluates the OR schedules that satisfy the imposed resource constraints. The decision rules used for this system are based on a thorough analysis of the OR rescheduling problem. We model this problem as an Integer Linear Program (ILP) which objective is to minimize the deviation from the preferences of the considered stakeholders. By applying this ILP to instances from practice, we determined that the given preferences mainly lead to (i) shifting a surgery and (ii) scheduling a break between two surgeries. By using these changes in the DSS, the performed simulation study shows that less surgeries are canceled and patients and wards are more satisfied, but also that the perceived workload of several departments increases to compensate this. The system can also be used to judge the acceptability of a proposed initial OR schedule.

  17. Decision Support Systems for Launch and Range Operations Using Jess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2007-01-01

    The virtual test bed for launch and range operations developed at NASA Ames Research Center consists of various independent expert systems advising on weather effects, toxic gas dispersions and human health risk assessment during space-flight operations. An individual dedicated server supports each expert system and the master system gather information from the dedicated servers to support the launch decision-making process. Since the test bed is based on the web system, reducing network traffic and optimizing the knowledge base is critical to its success of real-time or near real-time operations. Jess, a fast rule engine and powerful scripting environment developed at Sandia National Laboratory has been adopted to build the expert systems providing robustness and scalability. Jess also supports XML representation of knowledge base with forward and backward chaining inference mechanism. Facts added - to working memory during run-time operations facilitates analyses of multiple scenarios. Knowledge base can be distributed with one inference engine performing the inference process. This paper discusses details of the knowledge base and inference engine using Jess for a launch and range virtual test bed.

  18. Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

  19. Evolution of the future plants operation for a better safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papin, B.; Malvache, P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a coordinated research project of the french CEA, addressing to the evolutions in plant operation apt to bring perceptible and assessable improvement in the operational safety. This program has been scheduled for the 1992-1996 period, with a global 40 men/year effort. The present status of the two main parts of the project is presented: ESCRIME (program aiming at defining the optimal share of tasks between humans and computers in plant operation), IMAGIN (research in the domain of plant information management, in order to ensure the global coherence of the image of the plant, used by the different actors in plant operation). (authors). 3 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Dynamic operational risk management at industrial irradiation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Patricia, E-mail: pwieland@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lustosa, Leonardo J. [Pontifical Catholic Univ. (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Although feasibility studies indicate that industrial irradiation can be sound business, some initiatives fail in few years. In Brazil, the operation of some industrial irradiation plants has been discontinued in spite of the growing export market for tropical fruits like mangoes and papayas, of which Brazil is one of the major producers. This paper discusses the overall aspects of the food irradiation in Brazil, singles out dynamic operation risk management as an important need and provides suggestions for further developments. This research work involves literature review as well as interviews with irradiation industry stake holders in order to identify the ORs and to assess the situation in a logical and integrated way. The results show that public acceptance is not a major issue for the food preservation industry in Brazil. On the contrary, evidences show that there is public support, provided that information on the subject is disseminated among consumers. Need for improvements have been detected in the areas of industrial operational risk management, external relations for export, and regulatory issues, among others to support decision making in establishing and developing industrial food irradiation capabilities to serve Brazilian tropical fruit exports. (author)

  1. An integrated framework for gas turbine based power plant operational modeling and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongjun

    The deregulation of the electric power market introduced a strong element of competition. Power plant operators strive to develop advanced operational strategies to maximize the profitability in the dynamic electric power market. New methodologies for gas turbine power plant operational modeling and optimization are needed for power plant operation to enhance operational decision making, and therefore to maximize power plant profitability by reducing operations and maintenance cost and increasing revenue. In this study, a profit based, lifecycle oriented, and unit specific methodology for gas turbine based power plant operational modeling was developed, with the power plant performance, reliability, maintenance, and market dynamics considered simultaneously. The generic methodology is applicable for a variety of optimization problems, and several applications were implemented using this method. A multiple time-scale method was developed for gas turbine power plants long term generation scheduling. This multiple time-scale approach allows combining the detailed granularity of the day-to-day operations with global (seasonal) trends, while keeping the resulting optimization model relatively compact. Using the multiple time-scale optimization method, a profit based outage planning method was developed, and the key factors for this profit based approach include power plant aging, performance degradation, reliability degradation, and, importantly, the energy market dynamics. Also a novel approach for gas turbine based power plant sequential preventive maintenance scheduling was introduced, and a profit based sequential preventive maintenance scheduling was developed for more effective maintenance scheduling. Methods to evaluate the impact of upgrade packages on gas turbine power plant performance, reliability, and economics were developed, and TIES methodology was applied for effective evaluation and selection of gas turbine power plant upgrade packages.

  2. Knowledge representation for integrated plant operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Integrated operation and maintenance of process plants has many advantages. One advantage is the improved economy obtained by reducing the number of plant shutdowns. Another is to increase reliability of operation by monitoring of risk levels during on-line maintenance. Integrated plant operation...... and maintenance require knowledge bases which can capture the interactions between the two plant activities. As an example, taking out a component or a subsystem for maintenance during operation will require a knowledge base representing the interactions between plant structure, functions, operating states...... and goals and incorporate knowledge about redundancy and reliability data. Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used build knowledge bases representing plant goals and functions and has been applied for fault diagnosis and supervisory control but currently it does not take into account structural information...

  3. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.

  4. NWS Alaska Sea Ice Program: Operations and Decision Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, M. B.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Heim, R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service's Alaska Sea Ice Program is designed to service customers and partners operating and planning operations within Alaska waters. The Alaska Sea Ice Program offers daily sea ice and sea surface temperature analysis products. The program also delivers a five day sea ice forecast 3 times each week, provides a 3 month sea ice outlook at the end of each month, and has staff available to respond to sea ice related information inquiries. These analysis and forecast products are utilized by many entities around the state of Alaska and nationally for safety of navigation and community strategic planning. The list of current customers stem from academia and research institutions, to local state and federal agencies, to resupply barges, to coastal subsistence hunters, to gold dredgers, to fisheries, to the general public. Due to a longer sea ice free season over recent years, activity in the waters around Alaska has increased. This has led to a rise in decision support services from the Alaska Sea Ice Program. The ASIP is in constant contact with the National Ice Center as well as the United States Coast Guard (USCG) for safety of navigation. In the past, the ASIP provided briefings to the USCG when in support of search and rescue efforts. Currently, not only does that support remain, but our team is also briefing on sea ice outlooks into the next few months. As traffic in the Arctic increases, the ASIP will be called upon to provide more and more services on varying time scales to meet customer needs. This talk will address the many facets of the current Alaska Sea Ice Program as well as delve into what we see as the future of the ASIP.

  5. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A

    2012-01-01

    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  6. User centered design of a digital procedure guidance component for nuclear power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Santos, Isaac L. dos; Oliveira, Mauro V. de; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Mol, Antonio C. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulov@ien.gov.br; luquetti@ien.gov.br; mvitor@ien.gov.br; grecco@ien.gov.br; mol@ien.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The use of nuclear power plants to produce electric energy is a safety-critical process where ultimate operational decisions still relies with the control room operators. Thus it is important to provide the best possible decision support through effective supervisory control interfaces. A user centered design approach, based on cognitive task analysis methods, was used to observe the operators training on the nuclear power plant simulator of the Human System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS). We noted deficiencies in the integration between the computerized interfaces and the hardcopy (paper) procedures. An new prototype of digital procedures - the digital procedure component guidance (PCG) - was designed in PowerPoint as an alternative to the current hardcopy procedure manuals. The design improves upon the graphical layout of system information and provides better integration of procedures, automation, and alarm systems. The design was validated by expert opinion and a scenario-based comparison. Future implementation and testing of the redesign is suggested for further validation. (author)

  7. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The total generation of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.1 TWh during 1999, which is slightly more than the mean value for the last five years. The total electricity consumption decreased by one percent, compared with 1998, to a total of 142.3 TWh, due to an unusually warm summer and autumn. The abundant supply of hydroelectric power resulted in comparatively extensive load-following operation by the nuclear plants during the year. Production losses due to low demand totalled 3.0 TWh. The closure of Barsebaeck 1 will result in a capacity reduction exceeding 4 TWh per year. The hydroelectric power production was 70 TWh, which was 6 TWh more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. The remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating contributed 9 TWh. Electricity generation by means of wind power is still increasing. There are now about 470 wind power stations, which produced 0.3 TWh during the year. The total electricity generation totalled 149.8 TWh, a three percent decrease compared with 1998. The preliminary figures for export were 15.9 TWh and for import 8.4 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production result. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is provided in the 1999 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. The unit capability factor for the PWRs at Ringhals averaged 91%, while the BWRs averaged 82% mainly due to the extended outages. The BWR reactors at Forsmark averaged as much as 93%. Forsmark 1 experienced the shortest refuelling outage ever in Sweden, only 9 days and 20 hours. In May, Oskarshamn 2 passed a historical milestone - the unit produced 100 TWh since connection to the grid in 1974. The final production day for Barsebaeck 1, which had been in commercial operation since 1975, was on November 30 when a decision by the Swedish Government revoked the operating licence. Three safety-related events

  8. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  9. Operational period for the nuclear power plant Borssele. Memo on aspects with regard to decision making on the operational period for the nuclear power plant Borssele; Bedrijfsduur kerncentrale Borssele. Notitie over aspecten die een rol spelen bij de besluitvorming over de bedrijfsduur van de kerncentrale Borssele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, D

    2005-04-01

    A number of aspects with respect to the closure of the nuclear power plant Borssele in the Netherlands are discussed: nuclear safety and service life; environmental aspects; proliferation and terrorism; judicial aspects; cost; other (comparisons with closures in other countries, employment, supply security); and a state-of-the-art with regard to a motion that was introduced by a delegate of the Dutch parliament (Spies) in 2004. [Dutch] In deze notitie worden enkele met de sluiting samenhangende aspecten nader toegelicht, te weten: nucleaire veiligheid en levensduur; milieuaspecten; proliferatie en terrorisme; juridische aspecten; kostenaspecten; overige aspecten (sluitingsregelingen in het buitenland, werkgelegenheid en leveringszekerheid); en stand van zaken met betrekking tot de uitvoering van de motie Spies van juli 2004.

  10. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  11. Towards a Decision Support System for Space Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Hogle, Charles; Ruszkowski, James

    2013-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has put in place a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) technological framework for the development and execution of the Flight Production Process (FPP). This framework has provided much added value and return on investment to date. This paper describes a vision for a model based Decision Support System (DSS) for the development and execution of the FPP and its design and development process. The envisioned system extends the existing MBSE methodology and technological framework which is currently in use. The MBSE technological framework currently in place enables the systematic collection and integration of data required for building an FPP model for a diverse set of missions. This framework includes the technology, people and processes required for rapid development of architectural artifacts. It is used to build a feasible FPP model for the first flight of spacecraft and for recurrent flights throughout the life of the program. This model greatly enhances our ability to effectively engage with a new customer. It provides a preliminary work breakdown structure, data flow information and a master schedule based on its existing knowledge base. These artifacts are then refined and iterated upon with the customer for the development of a robust end-to-end, high-level integrated master schedule and its associated dependencies. The vision is to enhance this framework to enable its application for uncertainty management, decision support and optimization of the design and execution of the FPP by the program. Furthermore, this enhanced framework will enable the agile response and redesign of the FPP based on observed system behavior. The discrepancy of the anticipated system behavior and the observed behavior may be due to the processing of tasks internally, or due to external factors such as changes in program requirements or conditions associated with other organizations that are outside of

  12. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    OpenAIRE

    L. C. Rietveld; Borger, K.J.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; G. I. M. Worm

    2008-01-01

    For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a un...

  13. Yannawa wastewater treatment plant (Bangkok, Thailand): design, construction and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, S

    2004-01-01

    Yannawa Wastewater Treatment plant (Phase 1) serves a population equivalent of 500,000 and is located on a restricted site within the city of Bangkok, Thailand. Secondary treatment is based on the CASS sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process and the plant is one of the largest multi-storey SBRs in the world. The limitation of available site area, the ground conditions and the characteristics of the wastewater to be treated set a series of challenges for the designers, contractors and commissioning and operational staff. This paper briefly describes the collection system, the process selection and the treatment streams of the wastewater treatment plant. The SBR secondary treatment plant is described in more detail. The problems that arose during commissioning and operation and the solutions made possible by the use of an SBR type of process are discussed. Details of plant performance during performance testing and during the first three years of plant operation are provided.

  14. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Ohresser, Sylvia; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    One of the major global challenges of the present time is the reduction of CO2 emissions. Provisions for integration of a CO2 capture plant are already required today in new power plant construction projects in order to enable current plants to also benefit from the possibilities of carbon capture systems to be developed in the future. These provisions for integration should account for the fact that the scrubbing processes are still in the optimization phase. Requisite process parameters may still change in the future. In the development of a plant interface, the paper describes a concept developed by Siemens which ensures maximum flexibility with simultaneous optimization of the plant for the capture process. Emphasis was placed on the following points in the development of this interface and the associated connection concepts: Maximum plant efficiency before and after modification; Maximum flexibility with regard to future process parameters; Optimization of customer investment cash flow; and, Applicability also to existing plants. According to the paper, Siemens can offer a concept which enables future conversion in accordance with the specified criteria. This concept requires no compromises with regard to plant efficiency in process optimization for either current power plant operation without carbon capture or for future operation with carbon capture. The concept also enables retrofitting of existing plants which are not yet capture-ready. However, retrofitting of power plants which are not prepared for operation with carbon capture is considerably more elaborate in most cases, as corridors must frequently still be cleared for the connecting piping.

  15. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Demonstration plant operation plan (Deliverable No. 38)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Demo Plant Operating Plan is composed of the following sequence of events starting with the training or personnel, familiarizing of the personnel with the plant and completing the long-term run in the following sequences: inspection during construction, plant completion, shakedown of equipment, process unit startup, shakedown of process units, variable run operation and a turnaround. During the construction period, technical personnel from DRC, MLGW and IGT will be at the plant site becoming familiar with the equipment, its installation and all of the auxiliaries so that on completion of construction they will be well grounded on the plant detail and its configuration. At the same time the supervisory operating personnel will have hands on training the gasifier operation at the IGT pilot plant to develop a field for gasifier operation. As a plant sections are completed, they will be checked out in accordance with the contractor and operator (client) procedure as outlined. Subsequent to this, various vendor designs and furnished equipment will be checked out operating-wise and a performance test run if feasible. The actual startup of the plant will be subsequential with the support areas as utilities, coal handling and waste treatment being placed in operation first. Subsequent to this the process units will be placed in operation starting from the rear of the process train and working forward. Thus the downstream units will be operating before the reactor is run on coal. The reactor will be checked out on coke operation.

  16. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, F.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Heerkens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals’ decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive

  17. Assessing the Structure of Non-Routine Decision Processes in Airline Operations Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, Floor; Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Heerkens, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge airline operations control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of airline operations control professionals’ decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive acti

  18. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, F.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Heerkens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals’ decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive acti

  19. MODIS-Based Products for Operational Decision Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMH Consulting proposes to develop a web-based decision support system to assist in Rapid Assessment, Monitoring, and Management (RAMM-DSS) on a regional scale. SMH...

  20. Nuclear plant operation: achieving excellence through quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, L. [Barseback Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden); Bergeron, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Coakley, W. [and others

    1992-07-01

    Nuclear power operation is characterised by a very high level of safety and availability resulting in economically competitive electricity production. This achievement must not only be maintained but must be further developed if nuclear power is to regain momentum in the light of its widely recognized environmental advantages. Therefore this meeting bring together all those, managers and technical staff, responsible for the operation of the nuclear in order to allow them to exchange views, experience and knowledge on fundamental aspects such as: management philosophy, quality assurance, human resources and international co-operation; focusing on training (incident analysis and management), human factors and experience feedback; maintenance philosophy, life extension and upgrading, organisation and administration. (A.L.B.)

  1. Science-based HRA: experimental comparison of operator performance to IDAC (Information-Decision-Action Crew) simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, Rachel [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Li, Yuandan [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Mosleh, Ali [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Information-Decision-Action Crew (IDAC) operator model simulations of a Steam Generator Tube Rupture are compared to student operator performance in studies conducted in the Ohio State University’s Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Facility. This study is presented as a prototype for conducting simulator studies to validate key aspects of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods. Seven student operator crews are compared to simulation results for crews designed to demonstrate three different decision-making strategies. The IDAC model used in the simulations is modified slightly to capture novice behavior rather that expert operators. Operator actions and scenario pacing are compared. A preliminary review of available performance shaping factors (PSFs) is presented. After the scenario in the NPP Simulator Facility, student operators review a video of the scenario and evaluate six PSFs at pre-determined points in the scenario. This provides a dynamic record of the PSFs experienced by the OSU student operators. In this preliminary analysis, Time Constraint Load (TCL) calculated in the IDAC simulations is compared to TCL reported by student operators. We identify potential modifications to the IDAC model to develop an “IDAC Student Operator Model.” This analysis provides insights into how similar experiments could be conducted using expert operators to improve the fidelity of IDAC simulations.

  2. ESCRIME: testing bench for advanced operator workstations in future plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poujol, A.; Papin, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1994-12-31

    The problem of optimal task allocation between man and computer for the operation of nuclear power plants is of major concern for the design of future plants. As the increased level of automation induces the modification of the tasks actually devoted to the operator in the control room, it is very important to anticipate these consequences at the plant design stage. The improvement of man machine cooperation is expected to play a major role in minimizing the impact of human errors on plant safety. The CEA has launched a research program concerning the evolution of the plant operation in order to optimize the efficiency of the human/computer systems for a better safety. The objective of this program is to evaluate different modalities of man-machine share of tasks, in a representative context. It relies strongly upon the development of a specific testing facility, the ESCRIME work bench, which is presented in this paper. It consists of an EDF 1300MWe PWR plant simulator connected to an operator workstation. The plant simulator model presents at a significant level of details the instrumentation and control of the plant and the main connected circuits. The operator interface is based on the generalization of the use of interactive graphic displays, and is intended to be consistent to the tasks to be performed by the operator. The functional architecture of the workstation is modular, so that different cooperation mechanisms can be implemented within the same framework. It is based on a thorough analysis and structuration of plant control tasks, in normal as well as in accident situations. The software architecture design follows the distributed artificial intelligence approach. Cognitive agents cooperate in order to operate the process. The paper presents the basic principles and the functional architecture of the test bed and describes the steps and the present status of the program. (author).

  3. Davis PV plant operation and maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This operation and maintenance manual contains the information necessary to run the Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) test facility in Davis, California. References to more specific information available in drawings, data sheets, files, or vendor manuals are included. The PVUSA is a national cooperative research and demonstration program formed in 1987 to assess the potential of utility scale photovoltaic systems.

  4. Operator Training Simulator for an Industrial Bioethanol Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Gerlach; Sören Tholin; Hass, Volker C; Carl-Fredrik Mandenius

    2016-01-01

    Operator training simulators (OTS) are software tools for training process operators in large-scale industrial applications. Here, we describe the development, implementation and training of an OTS for a large-scale industrial plant for bioethanol production. The design of the OTS is based on conceptual analysis (previously reported by us in this journal) of various configuration alternatives and training procedures at the plant. In this article, we report on how the conceptual design is used...

  5. Investment and operating costs of binary cycle geothermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, B.; Brugman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Typical investment and operating costs for geothermal power plants employing binary cycle technology and utilizing the heat energy in liquid-dominated reservoirs are discussed. These costs are developed as a function of reservoir temperature. The factors involved in optimizing plant design are discussed. A relationship between the value of electrical energy and the value of the heat energy in the reservoir is suggested.

  6. Manual of Operations for the S-50 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman R.T.

    1945-06-01

    It is recognized that the S-50 plant operations are far from standardized and therefore any manual will require continual revision to keep it up to date. Even during the period of writing this first edition, many changes occurred and were incorporated in the manual. Such revisions could delay indefinitely the issuance of the manual and it was felt that in its present form it could be useful in the training of new plant personnel. The specific purpose of the process employed by the Ferclave Corporation in the plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is one of secret information and cannot be released here. It can be stated, however, that the plant operation involves the processing of a chemical substance. This substance is not identified in the plant or in the process but is referred to only as 'material'. Its code designation is C-616. The process in general involves the separation of the raw material into constituents with more desirable properties. It is not necessary to know the name of the material nor the exact nature of the process in order to carry out the operations so this information will not be given in this Manual. The problem involved is to transport the material from the containers in which it is received by the plant into equipment set-up in the plant for carrying out the operation, to remove the various products from the process equipment and to do other auxiliary operations.

  7. Assessing Sustainment Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    documents. i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT DATE (dd-mm-yy) May 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (from. . . to...a CP Operations Guide with the intent of improving performance on CP Occupation, CP Operations and Follow Up Operations. Significant differences...Information, Command Post Occupation, Command Post Operations, and Follow Up Operations. Data was collected from 602 checklists from nine rotations. Six

  8. Measuring Command Post Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    documents. i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT DATE (dd-mm-yy) May 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (from. . . to...a CP Operations Guide with the intent of improving performance on CP Occupation, CP Operations and Follow Up Operations. Significant differences...Information, Command Post Occupation, Command Post Operations, and Follow Up Operations. Data was collected from 602 checklists from nine rotations. Six

  9. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  10. Representing Operational Knowledge of PWR Plant by Using Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    situation and support operational decisions. This paper will provide a general MFM model of the primary side in a standard Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor ( PWR ) system including sub - systems of Reactor Coolant System, Rod Control System, Chemical and Volume Control System, emergency heat removal......The aim of this paper is to explore the capability of representing operational knowledge by using Multilevel Flow Modelling ( MFM ) methodology. The paper demonstrate s how the operational knowledge can be inserted into the MFM models and be used to evaluate the plant state, identify the current...... systems. And the sub - systems’ functions will be decomposed into sub - models according to different operational situations. An operational model will be developed based on the operating procedure by using MFM symbols and this model can be used to implement coordination rules for organize the utilizati...

  11. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  12. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  13. Interactive operational decision making : Purchasing situations & mutual liability problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three chapters of this dissertation deal with three different types of interactive purchasing situations, in which multiple buying organizations interact with similar (or possibly the same) suppliers for the procurement of the same commodity. Decisions to be made in interactive purchasing concern if

  14. Defining Decisive: Toward Developing a Doctrinal Understanding of Decisive Operations and Decisive Points for the 21st Century Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-30

    final.” As Clausewitz observed : “Lastly, even the ultimate outcome of a war is not always to be regarded as final. The defeated state often...Josephus’ observation of their prowess in the quotation above, turned decisive military action into an empire of amazing political stability. That...uniform application of a decisive point methology (to include the Marine Corps’ CC – CR – CV approach) within military doctrine, will be required before

  15. Operational Design: Distilling Clarity from Complexity for Decisive Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    sensory data. Noted developmental psychologist Jean Piaget theorized that the mind either assimilates new sensory data into existing sche- mata or... Piaget , Jean , and Bärbel Inhelder. Memory and Intelligence. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973. Pike, Douglas. The Viet-Cong Strategy of Terror... Piaget and Inhelder, Memory and Intelligence. 20. Maleki, “Decision Making in Iran’s Foreign Policy.” See also Afrasiabi and Maleki, “Iran’s Foreign

  16. Connecting engineering operations to strategic management: a framework for decision making in engineering offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2012-01-01

    of the organisation. The Global Decision-Making (GDM) framework described here is a decision-making framework for engineering offshoring decisions for product development activities. The framework proposes that risks in engineering offshoring can be reduced by connecting engineering operations to strategic management...... with challenges to both management and engineering. These challenges are addressed by management at the operational level. However, this resulted in both positive and negative impacts. We propose this is because there is a decoupling between global engineering operations and the strategic level...

  17. Overview of recent operating experience regarding plant aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G.M.; Caruso, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    Recent, as well as past, studies of reactor trip frequencies and other types of operating experience have shown that relatively high frequencies are likely in new plants with little accumulated operating time. In order to better understand all the factors which contribute to high frequencies in new plants, the authors have made a comparison of reactor trip frequencies between plants which went into operation in the 1960's and the early 1970's and those which have gone into operation more recently. Trip frequency versus accumulated operating time for two plant groups are compared to see the extent to which design differences (e.g., capacity, thermal margin) affect trip frequency. This paper also presents a review of some recent events in which plant age has played a major role. The events which are reviewed have been identified through the normal systematic event analysis program conducted by the NRC. Information regarding these events was obtained through followup by reviews conducted by NRC Resident Inspectors as well as event reports submitted by licenses.

  18. Model based decision support system of operating settings for MMAT nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Bradley Keith

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Droplet size, which is affected by nozzle type, nozzle setups and operation, and spray solution, is one of the most critical factors influencing spray performance, environment pollution, food safety, and must be considered as part of any application scenario. Characterizing spray nozzles can be a timely and expensive proposition if the entire operational space (all combinations of spray pressure and orifice size, what influence flow rate is to be evaluated. This research proposes a structured, experimental design that allows for the development of computational models for droplet size based on any combination of a nozzle’s potential operational settings. The developed droplet size determination model can be used as Decision Support System (DSS for precise selection of sprayer working parameters to adapt to local field scenarios. Five nozzle types (designs were evaluated across their complete range of orifice size (flow rate* and spray pressures using a response surface experimental design. Several of the models showed high level fits of the modeled to the measured data while several did not as a result of the lack of significant effect from either orifice size (flow rate* or spray pressure. The computational models were integrated into a spreadsheet based user interface for ease of use. The proposed experimental design provides for efficient nozzle evaluations and development of computational models that allow for the determination of droplet size spectrum and spraying classification for any combination of a given nozzle’s operating settings. The proposed DSS will allow for the ready assessment and modification of a sprayers performance based on the operational settings, to ensure the application is made following recommendations in plant protection products (PPP labels.

  19. Sensitivity analysis in discrete multiple criteria decision problems: on the siting of nuclear power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Rietveld, P.

    1989-01-01

    Inclusion of evaluation methods in decision support systems gives way to extensive sensitivity analysis. In this article new methods for sensitivityanalysis are developed and applied to the siting of nuclear power plants in the Netherlands.

  20. Sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikoilidou, E.; Samiotis, G.; Bellos, D.; Amanatidou, E.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant is significantly linked to its removal efficiency, cost of sludge management, energy consumption and monitoring cost. The biological treatment offers high organic removal efficiency, it also entails significant sludge production, which contains active (live) and inactive (dead) microorganisms and must be treated prior to final disposal, in order to prevent adverse impact on public health and environment. The efficiency of the activated sludge treatment process is correlated to an efficient solid-liquid separation, which is strongly depended on the biomass settling properties. The most commonly encountered settling problems in a wastewater treatment plant, which are usually associated with operating conditions and specific microorganisms growth, are sludge bulking, floating sludge, pin point flocs and straggler flocs. Sustainable management of sludge and less energy consumption are the two principal aspects that determine the operational cost of wastewater treatment plants. Sludge treatment and management accumulate more than 50% of the operating cost. Aerobic wastewater treatment plants have high energy requirements for covering the needs of aeration and recirculations. In order to ensure wastewater treatment plants’ effective operation, a large number of physicochemical parameters have to be monitored, thus further increasing the operational cost. As the operational parameters are linked to microbial population, a practical way of wastewater treatment plants’ controlling is the microscopic examination of sludge, which is proved to be an important tool for evaluating plants’ performance and assessing possible problems and symptoms. This study presents a biological wastewater treatment plant with almost zero biomass production, less energy consumption and a practical way for operation control through microbial manipulation and microscopic examination.

  1. The Evidential Basis of Decision Making in Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth

    2017-08-04

    The evidential basis for disease management decision making is provided by data relating to risk factors. The decision process involves an assessment of the evidence leading to taking (or refraining from) action on the basis of a prediction. The primary objective of the decision process is to identify-at the time the decision is made-the control action that provides the best predicted end-of-season outcome, calculated in terms of revenue or another appropriate metric. Data relating to disease risk factors may take a variety of forms (e.g., continuous, discrete, categorical) on measurement scales in a variety of units. Log10-likelihood ratios provide a principled basis for the accumulation of evidence based on such data and allow predictions to be made via Bayesian updating of prior probabilities.

  2. Location, Planting Decisions, and the Marketing of Quality-Differentiated Agricultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander E. Saak

    2003-01-01

    In a marketing environment, the demand conditions, the costs of shipping and storing grain varieties, the interest rate on farm loans, and the distribution of cropland in the area are important determinants of growers' planting decisions. In this article, I focus on a market for two quality-differentiated agricultural commodities: one produced with the use of biotechnology and the other, without. I develop a model for analyzing the equilibrium planting and marketing decisions made by geograph...

  3. Multigranular Uncertain Linguistic Prioritized Aggregation Operators and Their Application to Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hong Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate multiple criteria group decision-making problems in which there are priority relationships between the decision elements (criteria and experts, and decision information provided by decision makers takes the form of multigranular uncertain linguistic information. Firstly, some operational laws and possibility degree of multi-granular uncertain linguistic variables are introduced. Then, some new linguistic aggregation operators based on the prioritized aggregation operator, such as the multigranular uncertain linguistic prioritized weighted average (MULPWA operator and the multigranular uncertain linguistic prioritized ordered weighted average (MULPOWA operator, are developed and their desirable properties are studied. The prominent characteristics of these proposed operators are that they can aggregate directly the uncertain linguistic variables whose values form the linguistic term sets with different granularities and convey the prioritization phenomenon among the aggregated arguments. Furthermore, based on the MULPWA and MULPOWA operators, an approach to deal with multiple criteria group decision-making problems under multi-granular uncertain linguistic environments is developed. Finally, a practical example is provided to illustrate the multiple criteria group decision-making process.

  4. Operator Training Simulator for an Industrial Bioethanol Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Gerlach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Operator training simulators (OTS are software tools for training process operators in large-scale industrial applications. Here, we describe the development, implementation and training of an OTS for a large-scale industrial plant for bioethanol production. The design of the OTS is based on conceptual analysis (previously reported by us in this journal of various configuration alternatives and training procedures at the plant. In this article, we report on how the conceptual design is used in simulation models and graphical user interfaces and how the design is applied for training of operators in the real plant environment. The results imply that OTS would be time- and cost-efficient tools for application in the biotechnological industry.

  5. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Client-Oriented Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to cr

  6. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Executive Leaflet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to cr

  7. The logistics of operations: integrating strategic decisions for competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Cárdenas Aguirre

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Literature about logistics indicates the functions of supplying, operations and distribution like most important of the logistics activity in the companies. Most of the reviewed academic production focuses to the initial and final functions, leaving a breach among them when not taking care of the function of operations from the logistic point of view, paper that of certain way has fulfilled the operations management. The objective of the present article, is to give the bases for the definition of the central elements of which it has occurred in calling logistic of operations, logistic of production or internal logistics, as well as of its paper and importance in the performance of the organization.

  8. Dynamic Operations Wayfinding System (DOWS) for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Laboratory; Lew, Roger Thomas [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    A novel software tool is proposed to aid reactor operators in respond- ing to upset plant conditions. The purpose of the Dynamic Operations Wayfind- ing System (DOWS) is to diagnose faults, prioritize those faults, identify paths to resolve those faults, and deconflict the optimal path for the operator to fol- low. The objective of DOWS is to take the guesswork out of the best way to combine procedures to resolve compound faults, mitigate low threshold events, or respond to severe accidents. DOWS represents a uniquely flexible and dy- namic computer-based procedure system for operators.

  9. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Borger

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For a drinking water treatment plant simulation, water quality models, a hydraulic model, a process-control model, an object model, data management, training and decision-support features and a graphic user interface have been integrated. The integration of a hydraulic model in the simulator is necessary to correctly determine the division of flows over the plant's lanes and, thus, the flow through the individual treatment units, based on valve positions and pump speeds. The flow through a unit is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes. Using this library, a hydraulic model was set up and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek.

  10. Operation experience of Suralaya coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragi, M. [PT Indonesia Power (Indonesia). Suralaya Generation Business Unit

    2004-07-01

    Coal utilization for generating electricity at Suralaya coal-fired power plant has been increased from time to time. It has been driven by the growth of electricity demand from industry as well as consumption from the household sector. Generally, boilers for power plant were designed to burn the locally available coals with a limited specification range. Suralaya coal-fired power plant was built based on coal specifications from Bukit Asam (Sumatera Island), which categorized as sub-bituminous coal rank. Nowadays, supply of coal for Suralaya coal-fired power plant not only comes from Bukit Asam coal mine but also from Kalimantan coal mines. The utilization of coal from the other mines has brought other consequences on operating and equipment of the plant. It needs some effort to deal with the effect from different specifications of coal from the originated design of coal. 4 tabs.

  11. Operational energy performance assessment system of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingbo; Zeng, Siyu; Chen, Jining; He, Miao; Yang, Wan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the statistical analysis of operational energy consumption and its influential factors from data of 599 Chinese WWTPs in 2006, it is noticed that the most influential factors include treatment technology adopted, treated sewage amount, removed pollutants amount, etc. Using the conclusion above, this paper sets up an integrated system of operational energy performance assessment for municipal wastewater treatment plants. Combining with result from on-spot research and model simulation, the calculating method of benchmark value and score of 7 energy efficiency indicators grouped into 3 levels is stated. Applying the assessment system to three plants, its applicability and objectivity are proved and suggestions to improve energy performance are provided.

  12. The training of operating personnel at Spanish nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Antonio Burgos, E-mail: aburgos@tecnatom.es [TECNATOM S.A.. Escuela de Formacion Almaraz y Trillo, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    An essential condition in order to ensure that nuclear power plants are operated reliably and safely is the availability in the Control Room of duly qualified persons capable both of preventing accidents and of responding to them should they occur. Training of the Control Room operating crews is accomplished in two major stages: a lengthy process of initial training in which the knowledge acquired at high school and university is built upon, leading to the specialisation required to appropriately carry out the tasks to be performed in the Control Room, and a continuous training program aimed at maintaining and improving the knowledge and skills required to operate the plant, with feedback of the lessons learned from the industry's operating experience. The use of full-scope simulators replicating the physical conditions and environment of the Control Room allows the period of initial training to be reduced and is the most appropriate method for the continuous training program of the control room personnel, since these simulators increase the realism of the training scenarios, help to better understand the response of the plant and provide an accurate idea of transient response times. Tecnatom is the Training Centre for Spanish Operators; it is the 'Operator Training Factory' and its mission is to train the nuclear power plant operating personnel in both technological fundamentals and the development of diagnostic skills through practical scenarios on the simulator and on-the-job training. Our training programmes are based on a SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) methodology that has been implemented at both Spanish and overseas plants. (author)

  13. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  14. A methodology for nuclear power plant operational events evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jeferson, E-mail: jeferson@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e do Ciclo de Combustivel; Costa, Sergio Dias, E-mail: sergiodiascosta@hotmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Operational events are normal occurrences in industrial plants and in nuclear power plants. The evaluation of operational events gains importance when it comes specifically to nuclear power plants due to the proportions that the impact and the consequences of these events may cause to the installation itself, their workers, the external area of the nuclear installation, the environment and to the public in general. These consequences, for the operation of these facilities can range from very little, until the consequences that lead to accidents and can cause significant impacts. Operational events may be associated or have influence in many fields of knowledge, such as operation, maintenance, engineering, Radiological Protection, physical protection, chemistry, Human or Organizational Factors and external events, among others. The accident at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant, shows the importance of exhausting all the studies concerning operational events in order to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants, considering all the causes and possible consequences. In this context, the evaluation of operational events discipline emerges as an important and relevant tool to contribute to the maintenance and/or improvement of the operational safety of nuclear installations. Not without reason the nuclear industry actively participates in programs of exchange of operational experience, where relevant events are thoroughly evaluated and discussed in specific forums, such as power plant operators, regulators and/or joint technical meetings, always with the purpose to prevent, minimize or mitigate its consequences. Any evaluation of operational events passes necessarily by an in-depth study of the circumstances of the event, culminating with the identification of your cause and proposition of corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar events. Additionally, the events should not be studied individually, but evaluated within a temporal context in order

  15. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based on Generalized Aggregation Operators under Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the multiple attribute decision making (MADM problems with dual hesitant fuzzy information. We first introduce some basic concepts and operations on dual hesitant fuzzy sets. Then, we develop some generalized dual hesitant fuzzy aggregation operators which encompass some existing operators as their particular cases and discuss their basic properties. Next, we apply the generalized dual hesitant fuzzy Choquet ordered aggregation (GDHFCOA operator to deal with multiple attribute decision making problems under dual hesitant fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the developed method and demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  16. The role of a multiagent organization in the management of nuclear plants operational objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papin, B.; Arnaud, G.; Fiche, Ch.; Dumas, M.

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the ESCRIME project, now reaching conclusions, was to optimize the collaboration between plant operators and computerized systems for the management of plant safety and availability. The requirement for putting such a collaboration into effective application was to clarify the operational strategies in order to enable a dialog between men and systems based on a ''shared representation'' of the plant operation. Thus a new vision of this operation, focusing on the completion of the plant fundamental objectives has been defined. This so-called means-ends strategy enables the simultaneous management of these objectives and provides explicit rules (priority...) to solve eventual conflicts (Physical interaction, sharing of resources...) apt to occur. The direct implementation of such strategies by the operators, using a dedicated man/machine interface, has made the object of the second phase of the ESCRIME project, already presented in LOEN in 1996. The third phase of the program, more prospective, aimed at finding an efficient way of sharing the management of plant objectives between the operator(s) and ''intelligent controllers'', preserving the role of the man in the decision loop and enabling him to maintain his awareness about the evolution of the plant. The multiagent organization has been identified as a promising way of sharing executive and decisive tasks between human and computerized agents. This organization, based on explicit ''social'' rules managing the negotiation between autonomous agents, appeared quite perfectly adapted to the management of conflicting objectives like in the means - ends strategy. The main problem to solve was, in fact, to check whether humans could be brought under this social organization in such a way as they could communicate and negotiate efficiently with the computerized agents. After a brief recall of the principles of the means - ends strategy for plant

  17. Decision Making Training in the Mission Operations Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, William S.

    2013-01-01

    At JSC, we train our new flight controllers on a set of team skills that we call Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM). SFRM is akin to Crew Resource Management for the airlines and trains flight controllers to work as an effective team to reduce errors and improve safety. We have developed this training over the years with the assistance of Ames Research Center, Wyle Labs and University of Central Florida. One of the skills we teach is decision making/ problem solving (DM/PS). We teach DM/PS first in several classroom sessions, reinforce it in several part task training environments, and finally practice it in full-mission, full-team simulations. What I am proposing to talk about is this training flow: its content and how we teach it.

  18. Operational Decision Aids: The Application of Nomography and Uncertainty Analysis to Decision-Aiding Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-15

    analyses to decision aiding systems. The models described here have been implemented for test and evaluation in the University of Pennsylvania OIY test...been concerned with the monetary value of gambles (e.g., Hosteller and Nogee (Reference 4) and Tversky (Reference S)), thus simplifying the comparison...APPEARANCE All of the graphical displays used in the aid have been designed to take advantage of the RAMTEK color display capability at the University of

  19. A new microbiological risk analysis tool for cryptosporidium to support decision making in drinking water treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macián-Cervera, Javier; Escuder-Bueno, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    One of the main hazards over the water quality in the water supply systems from surface raw water is cryptosporidium, considered by World Health Organization, as the most dangerous emergent pathogen. Analitycal methods for cryptosporidium are expensive, laborious and they do not have enough precission, on the other hand, labs analyze discretal samples, while drinking water production is a continuous process. In that point, the introduction of risk models in necessary to check the ability of safety of the water produced. The advances in tools able to quantify risk applied to conventional treatment drinking water treatment plants is quite useful for the operators, able to assess about decisions in operation and in investments. The model is applied into a real facility. With the results, it's possible to conclude interesting guidelines and policies about improving plant's operation mode. The main conclusion is that conventional treatment is able to work as effective barrier against cryptosporidium, but it is necessary to assess the risk of the plant while it is operating. Taking into account limitations of knowledge, risk estimation can rise non tolerable levels. In that situation, the plant must make investments in the treatment improving the operation, to get tolerable risk levels.

  20. Tactical/Operational Decision Making for Designing Green Logistics Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Mallidis (Ioannis); R. Dekker (Rommert); D. Vlachos (Dimitrios)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCap and trade regulations along with an increasing consumer and company demand for green products and services constitute two major drivers for motivating corporations to adopt green practices. However, the adoption of such practices usually increases their operational costs. Therefore,

  1. Tactical/Operational Decision Making for Designing Green Logistics Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Mallidis (Ioannis); R. Dekker (Rommert); D. Vlachos (Dimitrios)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCap and trade regulations along with an increasing consumer and company demand for green products and services constitute two major drivers for motivating corporations to adopt green practices. However, the adoption of such practices usually increases their operational costs. Therefore,

  2. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses.

  3. Decision support system for the operating room rescheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essen, van J. Theresia; Hurink, J.L.; Hartholt, Woutske; Akker, van den Bernd J.

    2012-01-01

    Due to surgery duration variability and arrivals of emergency surgeries, the planned Operating Room (OR) schedule is disrupted throughout the day which may lead to a change in the start time of the elective surgeries. These changes may result in undesirable situations for patients, wards or other in

  4. Engineering development of a digital replacement protection system at an operating US PWR nuclear power plant: Installation and operational experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.H. [Duke Power Co., Seneca, SC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The existing Reactor Protection Systems (RPSs) at most US PWRs are systems which reflect 25 to 30 year-old designs, components and manufacturing techniques. Technological improvements, especially in relation to modern digital systems, offer improvements in functionality, performance, and reliability, as well as reductions in maintenance and operational burden. The Nuclear power industry and the US nuclear regulators are poised to move forward with the issues that have slowed the transition to modern digital replacements for nuclear power plant safety systems. The electric utility industry is now more than ever being driven by cost versus benefit decisions. Properly designed, engineered, and installed digital systems can provide adequate cost-benefit and allow continued nuclear generated electricity. This paper describes various issues and areas related to an ongoing RPS replacement demonstration project which are pertinant for a typical US nuclear plant to consider cost-effective replacement of an aging analog RPS with a modern digital RPS. The following subject areas relative to the Oconee Nuclear Station ISAT{trademark} Demonstrator project are discussed: Operator Interface Development; Equipment Qualification; Validation and Verification of Software; Factory Testing; Field Changes and Verification Testing; Utility Operational, Engineering and Maintenance; Experiences with Demonstration System; and Ability to operate in parallel with the existing Analog RPS.

  5. Hybrid aggregation operator and its application to multiple attribute decision making problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuZeshui; DaQingli

    2003-01-01

    By combining the advantages of the additive weighted mean (AWM) operator and the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator, this paper first presents a hybrid operator for aggregating data information, and then proposes a hybrid aggregation (HA) operator-based method for multiple attribute decision making (MADM) problems. The theoretical analyses and the numerical results show that the HA operator generalizes both the AWM and OWA operators, and reflects the importance of both the given argument and the ordered position of the argument. Thus, the HA operator can reflect better real situations in practical applications. Finally, an illustrative example is given.

  6. Operational Encirclements: Can the United States Military Decisively Follow Through?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    friction that trickles down onto the battlefield. The European theatre during World War II was no different. The failure of American, and British...American and their Allied partners would continue to experience the ill-effects of it right up until the end of the war in the European theatre ...on Friday 27 March 2009 about Operation Anaconda. I used some information from our conversation. The following is verbatim from my monograph, "A

  7. Observations of Distribution Company Decisive Action Operations at the NTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    common trend I have observed is that a personally prepared, well- crafted commander’s intent includes the following: � A clear image of the...rotations. I observed how company commanders exercise mission com- mand and how distribution com- panies execute tactical distribution operations at...commanders who do not under- stand their organization’s role in the brigade combat team (BCT) distri- bution network will fail to exercise mission

  8. The Roles of Decision Makers in Special Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    appropriate. They were not trained to fly long distance at night, especially in a desert dust storm. A special operation task force should consist of fully...Hostage Crisis—which were conducted by different countries’ Special Forces , are studied in order to test the argument. Ultimately, this thesis seeks to...the Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis—which were conducted by different countries’ Special Forces , are studied in order to test the argument

  9. Analysis of Special Operations Forces in Decision Aids: Recommendations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Soviet-made armored scout cars operated by Malaysian troops. By that time, the United States had lost 102 men-18 killed and 84 wounded. Somali leaders...designation of targets; attack by F-15E and F-16C using CBU-87, -89 Execution and GBU; attack by A-10 using Maverick and 30-mm cannon; attack by B-52 using...patrolling designated areas of the battlefield and attacking individual armored vehicles with precision-guided weapons such as Maverick . Discontinuity

  10. Concrete Plant Operations Optimization Using Combined Simulation and Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Ming; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for concrete plant operations optimization by combining a ready mixed concrete (RMC) production simulation tool (called HKCONSIM) with a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization procedure. A revamped HKCONSIM computer system can be used to automate the simulation m

  11. Concrete Plant Operations Optimization Using Combined Simulation and Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Ming; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for concrete plant operations optimization by combining a ready mixed concrete (RMC) production simulation tool (called HKCONSIM) with a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization procedure. A revamped HKCONSIM computer system can be used to automate the simulation m

  12. Concrete Plant Operations Optimization Using Combined Simulation and Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Ming; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for concrete plant operations optimization by combining a ready mixed concrete (RMC) production simulation tool (called HKCONSIM) with a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization procedure. A revamped HKCONSIM computer system can be used to automate the simulation

  13. Development, Operation, and Future Prospects for Implementing Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    , as is the case of biomass from nature conservation, straw, deep litter, etc. Further, the chapter discusses whether or not biogas technology can create new job opportunities in rural areas that lack development. Economic results from operating centralized biogas plants in Denmark now also stress the importance...

  14. Cyclic operation of power plant; Cyklisk drift av kraftvaermeverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan

    2007-12-15

    The great majority of power plants are designed for base load operation with a relatively small number of starts and stops per year. Therefore, there has been no need to consider fatigue at design. Over the last few years operation with more frequent starts and stops exists as a consequence of swinging electricity prices that has become common. This involves significantly higher frequency of damages; not least fatigue relates damages, and the number of severe failures in components that never before have had damage problems may increase as well. In the present work the different types of component that may suffer from cyclic operation related damage are gathered by a literature survey and described as follows: - where and how the damages comes up, - constructions that should be avoided, - non-destructive testing (NDT) for damage that may come up under cyclic operation, - calculation and assessment of integrity of critical components - areas where continued research would be valuable. Recommendations have been put together to be used to prevent cyclic operation related damage and to detect it in time. The target group for this study is i) plant owners of plants where cyclic operation is or may be present, ii) researchers in the area, and, iii) inspectors and NDT-operators. There are quite a number of components where cyclic operation has been found to significantly influence the lift time. Some of these components are described in many papers whereas occasional papers have been found for others. The amount of information that is possible to get for a certain component is likely related to its significance for cyclic operation damage. The most frequently reported problem is ligament cracking of high temperature headers. Other components where extensive studies have been done are: wall panels, creep-fatigue loaded welds and turbine components

  15. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knutson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunne, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kasper, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheehan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mau, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  16. Inertial fusion power plant concept of operations and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Brad; Dunne, Mike; Kasper, Jack; Sheehan, Timothy; Lang, Dwight; Anklam, Tom; Roberts, Valerie; Mau, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  17. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  18. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based on Hesitant Fuzzy Einstein Geometric Aggregation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first define an accuracy function of hesitant fuzzy elements (HFEs and develop a new method to compare two HFEs. Then, based on Einstein operators, we give some new operational laws on HFEs and some desirable properties of these operations. We also develop several new hesitant fuzzy aggregation operators, including the hesitant fuzzy Einstein weighted geometric (HFEWGε operator and the hesitant fuzzy Einstein ordered weighted geometric (HFEWGε operator, which are the extensions of the weighted geometric operator and the ordered weighted geometric (OWG operator with hesitant fuzzy information, respectively. Furthermore, we establish the connections between the proposed and the existing hesitant fuzzy aggregation operators and discuss various properties of the proposed operators. Finally, we apply the HFEWGε operator to solve the hesitant fuzzy decision making problems.

  19. Interval Generalized Ordered Weighted Utility Multiple Averaging Operators and Their Applications to Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new class of aggregation operator based on utility function and apply them to group decision-making problem. First of all, based on an optimal deviation model, a new operator called the interval generalized ordered weighted utility multiple averaging (IGOWUMA operator is proposed, it incorporates the risk attitude of decision-makers (DMs in the aggregation process. Some desirable properties of the IGOWUMA operator are studied afterward. Subsequently, under the hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (HARA utility function, another new operator named as interval generalized ordered weighted hyperbolic absolute risk aversion utility multiple averaging-HARA (IGOWUMA-HARA operator is also defined. Then, we discuss its families and find that it includes a wide range of aggregation operators. To determine the weights of the IGOWUMA-HARA operator, a preemptive nonlinear objective programming model is constructed, which can determine a uniform weighting vector to guarantee the uniform standard comparison between the alternatives and measure their fair competition under the condition of valid comparison between various alternatives. Moreover, a new approach for group decision-making is developed based on the IGOWUMA-HARA operator. Finally, a comparison analysis is carried out to illustrate the superiority of the proposed method and the result implies that our operator is superior to the existing operator.

  20. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Floor; Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Heerkens, Hans

    2016-03-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive activities on the decision ladder: sensemaking, option evaluation and action planning. The relationship between this structure and decision quality was measured. A simulated task was staged, based on which think-aloud protocols were obtained. Results show that the general decision process structure resembles the structure of experts working under routine conditions, in terms of the general structure of the macrocognitive activities, and the rule-based approach used to identify options and actions. Surprisingly, high quality of decision outcomes was found to relate to the use of rule-based strategies. This implies that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing. Practitioner Summary: We examined the macrocognitive structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during a simulated unfamiliar disruption in relation to decision quality. Results suggest that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing.

  1. Online Condition Monitoring to Enable Extended Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-03-31

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption for online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components.

  2. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumann, Ulrich; Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    The power generation sector is currently confronted with new challenges relating to the conservation of dwindling fuel reserves. At the same time we must reduce CO2 emissions in order to counteract global warming. This paper shows that power plant operation, which employs shutdowns during periods of low load demand coupled with the optimization of startup procedures are a key to reducing CO2 emissions and to conserving resources. The startup technology developed by Siemens also offers grid support in the event of naturally occurring failures of renewable energy sources. Additionally, plant profitability is improved due to the resulting savings in fuel.

  3. Valuing modular nuclear power plants in finite time decision horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.; Roelofs, F; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs, (according to IAEA, ‘small’ refers to reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfro

  4. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  5. Dimension reduction of decision variables for multireservoir operation: A spectral optimization model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan; Leon, Arturo S.; Gibson, Nathan L.; Hosseini, Parnian

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the operation of a multireservoir system is challenging due to the high dimension of the decision variables that lead to a large and complex search space. A spectral optimization model (SOM), which transforms the decision variables from time domain to frequency domain, is proposed to reduce the dimensionality. The SOM couples a spectral dimensionality-reduction method called Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion within the routine of Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The KL expansion is used to represent the decision variables as a series of terms that are deterministic orthogonal functions with undetermined coefficients. The KL expansion can be truncated into fewer significant terms, and consequently, fewer coefficients by a predetermined number. During optimization, operators of the NSGA-II (e.g., crossover) are conducted only on the coefficients of the KL expansion rather than the large number of decision variables, significantly reducing the search space. The SOM is applied to the short-term operation of a 10-reservoir system in the Columbia River of the United States. Two scenarios are considered herein, the first with 140 decision variables and the second with 3360 decision variables. The hypervolume index is used to evaluate the optimization performance in terms of convergence and diversity. The evaluation of optimization performance is conducted for both conventional optimization model (i.e., NSGA-II without KL) and the SOM with different number of KL terms. The results show that the number of decision variables can be greatly reduced in the SOM to achieve a similar or better performance compared to the conventional optimization model. For the scenario with 140 decision variables, the optimal performance of the SOM model is found with six KL terms. For the scenario with 3360 decision variables, the optimal performance of the SOM model is obtained with 11 KL terms.

  6. A Decision Support System for Plant Optimization in Urban Areas with Diversified Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyi Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine is an important factor which limits the choice of urban plant species, especially in environments with high-density buildings. In practice, plant selection and configuration is a key step of landscape architecture, which has relied on an experience-based qualitative approach. However, the rationality and efficiency of this need to be improved. To maintain the diversity of plant species and to ensure their ecological adaptability (solar radiation in the context of sustainable development, we developed the Urban Plants Decision Support System (UP-DSS for assisting plant selection in urban areas with diversified solar radiation. Our methodology mainly consists of the solar radiation model and calibration, the urban plant database, and information retrieval model. The structure of UP-DSS is also presented at the end of the methodology section, which is based on the platform of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Microsoft Excel. An application of UP-DSS is demonstrated in a residential area of Wuhan, China. The results show that UP-DSS can provide a very scientific and stable tool for the adaptive planning of shade-tolerant plants and photoperiod-sensitive plants, meanwhile, it also provides a specific plant species and the appropriate types of plant community for user decision-making according to different sunshine radiation conditions and the designer’s preferences.

  7. Geothermal power plant investment decisions. Interim report, June 1-November 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Amundsen, C.B.; Edelstein, R.H.; Blair, P.D.

    1979-12-01

    Investment decisions for financing the construction of geothermal power plants are discussed. Discussed here are the investment objectives of investor-owned electric utilities, municipal electric utilities, and potential third party financiers as determined from extensive reviews of literature, executive interviews and responses to mailed surveys. The framework is provided for a computerized quantitative decision model currently being developed at Technecon for investment and policy analysis applications. (MHR)

  8. Connecting engineering operations to strategic management: a framework for decision making in engineering offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2012-01-01

    with challenges to both management and engineering. These challenges are addressed by management at the operational level. However, this resulted in both positive and negative impacts. We propose this is because there is a decoupling between global engineering operations and the strategic level...... of the organisation. The Global Decision-Making (GDM) framework described here is a decision-making framework for engineering offshoring decisions for product development activities. The framework proposes that risks in engineering offshoring can be reduced by connecting engineering operations to strategic management....... This paper, built upon empirical data, provides a framework wherein to view engineering offshoring which both strengthens the academic field and responds to the needs of practitioners....

  9. DSOM - Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance - Application to a USMC Base Centralized Energy System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meador, Richard J.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-06-01

    PNNL DSOM technology coordinates efficient steam plant operation with EMCS and SCADA systems, providing generation support and automated load shedding to meet peak demand limits saving over $1M in two years.

  10. Assembly plant simulation to support decision-making n Layout Design considering safety issues. A case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Sáez Más

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation model that has been created to support decision-making during the layout redesign of an engine and transmission assembly plant in the automotive sector. The plant requires a new layout and supply logistic due to an increase in its complexity and daily production. Discrete event simulation has been used to validate an initial proposal and to propose different what-if scenarios of layout and operations management systems. These scenarios will be evaluated regarding materials flow generated throughout the plants. The main focus of the decision process was focused on safety issues related to the material handling. The simulation model and its description have been done according to the methodology proposed in Sáez Más, García Sabater, Morant Llorca, y Maheut (2016, where the simulation model is focus as a 4-layer architecture (network, logic, database and visual reality. The achieved model is very flexible and modular, and it allows to save modelling time because of the parameterize of different combinations in layout and operations management.

  11. State dependence, personality, and plants: light-foraging decisions in Mimosa pudica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Franz W; Hodson, Christina N; Roitberg, Bernard D

    2016-09-01

    Plants make foraging decisions that are dependent on ecological conditions, such as resource availability and distribution. Despite the field of plant behavioral ecology gaining momentum, ecologists still know little about what factors impact plant behavior, especially light-foraging behavior. We made use of the behavioral reaction norm approach to investigate light foraging in a plant species that exhibits rapid movement: Mimosa pudica. We explored how herbivore avoidance behavior in M. pudica (which closes its leaflets temporarily when disturbed) is affected by an individual's energy state and the quality of the current environment and also repeatedly tested the behavior of individuals from two seed sources to determine whether individuals exhibit a "personality" (i.e., behavioral syndrome). We found that when individuals are in a low-energy state, they adopt a riskier light-foraging strategy, opening leaflets faster, and not closing leaflets as often in response to a disturbance. However, when plants are in a high-energy state, they exhibit a plastic light-foraging strategy dependent on environment quality. Although we found no evidence that individuals exhibit behavioral syndromes, we found that individuals from different seed sources consistently behave differently from each other. Our results suggest that plants are capable of making state-dependent decisions and that plant decision making is complex, depending on the interplay between internal and external factors.

  12. The Operator's Diagnosis Task under Abnormal Operating Conditions in Industrial Process Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodstein, L.P.; Pedersen, O.M.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of serious accidents in connection with the operation of technical installations demonstrate that the diagnosis task which confronts personnel under non-normal plant conditions is a critical one. This report presents a preliminary outline of characteristic traits connected with the task...

  13. A new linguistic aggregation operator and its application to multiple attribute decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new linguistic aggregation operator in linguistic environment is established and the desirable properties: monotonic, focus effect, idempotent, commutative and bounded are studied. Then, a new restricted ordering relation on the n-dimensional linguistic scales is proposed which satisfies strict pareto-dominance and is restricted by a weighting vector. A practical multiple attribute decision making methodology for an uncertain linguistic environment is proposed based on the proposed operator. An example is given to illustrate the rationality and validity of the new approach to decision making application.

  14. Decision Support Services provided by the NWS Alaska Regional Operations Center in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Osiensky, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The NWS Alaska Region's Regional Operations Center (AR ROC) provides a variety of decision support services to partners and customers across the state. The AR ROC is virtual most times but can flex to stand up support for partners as needed. Support can vary from briefings over the phone or in person to dedicated virtual support to providing on-site meteorologist at an Emergency Operations Center or Incident Command Post to provide tailored support services. During 2015 there have been a number of situations where the AR ROC provided unique support services. This presentation will outline a few examples of how these unique support services benefitted partner agency decisions.

  15. A Hybrid Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Photovoltaic Solar Plant Location Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. I. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to decaying fossil resource and increasing environmental consciousness, the demand of renewable energy resources is escalating these days. Photovoltaic solar energy is one of the most popular renewable energy resources in places where sunlight is abundant. The selection of a desirable location for constructing a photovoltaic solar plant is the first and one of the most important stages in the plant construction to provide a long-term energy production. In this paper, a comprehensive multiple-criteria decision-making model, which incorporates the interpretive structural modeling (ISM, fuzzy analytic network process (FANP and VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska OptimizacijaI Kompromisno Resenje in Serbian,meaning multi-criteria optimization and compromise solution, is proposed to select the most suitable photovoltaic solar plant location. The ISM is applied first to determine the interrelationships among the criteria and among the sub-criteria,andtheresults are used to construct a decision-making network. The FANP is applied next to solve the network and to calculate the importance weights of the sub-criteria. Finally, the VIKOR is adopted to determine the ranking of the photovoltaic solar plant locations. The proposed model is applied in a case study in evaluating photovoltaic solar plant locations in Taiwan. By applying the proposed model, decision makers can have a better thinking process and make more appropriate decisions justifiably.

  16. 75 FR 14638 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...Energy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant... Manager, Plant Licensing Branch III-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear...

  17. Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant Fittings Stock Management and Design of a Decision Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Through analyzing the desired characteristics of fittings in a nuclear power plant, the representative random stock models are built, and forecast methods about the desired probability of fittings are discussed secondly, the design of the plant fittings stock decision support system (FSDSS) is given.Then the main features of this system and function modules are introduced, and the special emphasis on organization of a database and composition and memory of a model base is given.

  18. Extended IOWG Operator and its Use in Group Decision Making Based on Multiplicative Linguistic Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshui Xu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In [1], Xu and Da introduced the Induced Ordered Weighted Geometric (IOWG operator, which takes as its argument pairs, called OWG pairs, in which one component is used to induce an ordering over the second components which are exact numerical values and then aggregated. In this study, we develop an extended IOWG (EIOWG operator, in which the second components are linguistic variables. We study some desirable properties of the EIOWG operator, and then apply the EIOWG operator to group decision making based on multiplicative linguistic preference relations.

  19. Construction and operation of biogas plants. Bau und Betrieb von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, F. von

    1985-01-01

    Biogas utilisation in agriculture has increased considerably as a consequence of the energy crisis. So far, energy production was the most important aspect, and the high-quality natural fertilizer offered by the fermentation residues was commonly neglected. This fertilizer is an effective substitute for commercial fertilizers and thus contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution. The book discusses the chemical and biological mechanisms, the criteria of selection for plants and materials, optimum gas production techniques, uses of the product gas, and the advantages and properties of the biofertilizer produced. Planning procedures, design, construction, function and performance of several biogas production plants now in operation are described. Hints are given for do-it-yourself construction, as are cost-benefit calculations and decision aids for construction.

  20. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  1. Building a normative decision support system for clinical and operational risk management in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornalba, Chiara; Bellazzi, Roberto G; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a decision support system for risk management in hemodialysis (HD) departments. The proposed system exploits a domain ontology to formalize the problem as a Bayesian network. It also relies on a software tool, able to automatically collect HD data, to learn the network conditional probabilities. By merging prior knowledge and the available data, the system allows to estimate risk profiles both for patients and HD departments. The risk management process is completed by an influence diagram that enables scenario analysis to choose the optimal decisions that mitigate a patient's risk. The methods and design of the decision support tool are described in detail, and the derived decision model is presented. Examples and case studies are also shown. The tool is one of the few examples of normative system explicitly conceived to manage operational and clinical risks in health care environments.

  2. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim, Nichols [Truckee Meadows Community College, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students also participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.

  3. Designing a Decision Making Support Information System for the Operational Control of Industrial Technological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Faradian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic is a new and innovative technology that was used in order to develop a realization of engineering control. In recent years, fuzzy logic proved its great potential especially applied to automatization of industrial process control, where it enables the control design to be formed based on experience of experts and results of experiments. The projects that have been realized reveal that the application of fuzzy logic in the technological process control has already provided us with better decisions compared to that of standard control technique. Fuzzy logic provides an opportunity to design an advisory system for decision-making based on operator experience and results of experiments not taking a mathematical model as a basis. The present work deals with a specific technological process ─ designing a support decision making information system for the operational control of the lime kiln with the use of fuzzy logic based on creation of the relevant expert-objective knowledge base.

  4. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, M.G.; Jayakumar, P.; King, J.D.; Guitton, T.G.; Doornberg, J.N.; Ring, D.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information. Sec

  5. Hybrid Decision-making Method for Emergency Response System of Unattended Train Operation Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suitable selection of the emergency alternatives is a critical issue in emergency response system of Unattended Train Operation (UTO metro system of China. However, there is no available method for dispatcher group in Operating Control Center (OCC to evaluate the decision under emergency situation. It was found that the emergency decision making in UTO metro system is relative with the preferences and the importance of multi-dispatcher in emergency. Regarding these factors, this paper presents a hybrid method to determinate the priority weights of emergency alternatives, which aggregates the preference matrix by constructing the emergency response task model based on the Weighted Ordered Weighted Averaging (WOWA operator. This calculation approach derives the importance weights depending on the dispatcher emergency tasks and integrates it into the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case from train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed methods for Group Multi-Criteria Decision Making (GMCDM in emergency management of UTO metro system. The innovation of this research is paving the way for a systematic emergency decision-making solution which connects the automatic metro emergency response system with the GMCDM theory.

  6. Joint operational decision-making in collaborative transportation networks: The role of IT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, P.; Wortmann, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper addresses horizontal supply chain collaboration among autonomous freight carriers in the less-than-truckload industry. The main purpose of the paper is to identify and explain the challenges with joint operational decision-making in this context and investigate the precise role

  7. Workflow Driven Decision Support Systems: A case of an intra-operative visualization system for surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalote-Parmar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate visualization during Minimally Invasive Surgeries (MIS) has led several technology research labs to develop decision support systems such as Intra-operative Visualization Systems (IVS). IVS focuses on providing surgeons with real-time imaging support to improve task visualization and

  8. 007 to the Rescue – Cognitive Fit of Operations Research and Agent-based Decision Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauth, Elfriede I.; Hillegersberg, van Jos; Velde, van de Steef L.

    2007-01-01

    Adoption rates of traditional Operations Research (OR) based decision support systems (DSS) suffer from perceived complexity of the underlying model and its detrimental effect on user-friendliness. The mental effort required to understand abstract models can hinder adoption. This barrier may seem ev

  9. Towards fault-tolerant decision support systems for ship operator guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Lajic, Zoran; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation are very important elements in the design of fault-tolerant decision support systems for ship operator guidance. This study outlines remedies that can be applied for fault diagnosis, when the ship responses are assumed to be linear in the wave excitation. A novel...

  10. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... fossil fuel generation, renewable energy sources, demand-side measures such as energy conservation, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

  11. Enhanced Situational Awareness and Decision Support for Operators of Future Distributed Power Network Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaher, Ammar S. A. E.; Catterson, V. M.; Syed, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    . The control room visualisation and decision support functionality for aiding the operator in restoring the frequency to its target value will be considered. The analysis takes place within the Web-ofCells framework, adopted to deal with power system control through a web of subsystems, called cells, which...

  12. Naturalistic Decision Making in Power Grid Operations: Implications for Dispatcher Training and Usability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin

    2008-11-17

    The focus of the present study is on improved training approaches to accelerate learning and improved methods for analyzing effectiveness of tools within a high-fidelity power grid simulated environment. A theory-based model has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The theoretical foundation for the method is based on the concepts of situation awareness, the methods of cognitive task analysis, and the naturalistic decision making (NDM) approach of Recognition Primed Decision Making. The method has been systematically explored and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine NDM processes, we analyzed transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations during the simulated scenario to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. The results of the analysis indicate that the proposed framework can be used constructively to map or assess the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify the mental models and mental simulations that the operators employ at different points in the scenario. This report documents the method, describes elements of the model, and provides appendices that document the simulation scenario and the associated mental models used by operators in the scenario.

  13. Licensing method for new nuclear power plant: A study on decision making modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N; Ohaga, E. O.; Jung, J. C. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This work provides a study on decision making modeling for a licensing method of a new nuclear power plant. SWOT analysis provides the licensing alternatives attributes, then the expectation from either COL or two step licensing method is decided by inputting the output from the Hurwitz mathematical model. From the analysis, COL shows the best candidate for both optimistic and pessimistic conditions.

  14. Business Intelligence Solutions for Wind Power Plants Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union energy strategies imply significant changes in the power systems. These should contribute to sustainable development and protection of the environment by enabling the EU to achieve its targets set in the third package of legislative proposals for electricity and gas markets. Renewable energy sources (RES in Romania have been encouraged since 2007 and this lead to a large volume of projects. It took several years to have the first MW installed in wind power plants (WPP. Nowadays, the installed wind power in Romania is about 2642 MW, most of them (about 85% being concentrated in the south-eastern part of the country. Based on recorded data during four years in Romania, a couple of analyses have been performed. They contribute to a better integration of wind energy into power systems. This paper will describe how business intelligence solutions are applied on data regarding wind power plants operation and main conclusions that could be drawn.

  15. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weng, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  16. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Weng, Dean [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  17. Two years of operation of a large solar cooling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Romagnoni, P. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Casasola, L. (CERIT, Pordenone (Italy))

    1993-05-01

    A solar plant was installed with a surface area of 440 m[sup 2] of evacuated-tube collectors, a reflecting surface of the same area and an absorption refrigeration system for air-conditioning the CERIT building of Pordenone. A 43 m[sup 3] heat-storage unit, at temperatures of 80-90[sup o]C, and a 150 m[sup 3] cold-storage unit were also installed. These components form the largest solar cooling plant in Europe. After two years of operation, it is possible to evaluate the project as a whole, and to appreciate the contribution of the flat solar reflector and the working of the absorption unit. (Author)

  18. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  19. N. Sarkozy confirms the continued operation of the Fessenheim plant; N. Sarkozy confirme la poursuite de l'exploitation de la centrale de Fessenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-01-15

    In january 2012, the French authority for nuclear safety (ASN) assured that all the reactors operating in France are safe, including the oldest plant: Fessenheim. President Sarkozy has confirmed the decision not to decommission the Fessenheim plant. The socialist candidate F. Hollande has promised to stop Fessenheim plant and to decrease the contribution of nuclear energy in the production of electricity from 75% to 50% by 2025 if he is elected. (A.C.)

  20. Uncertainties in the daily operation of a district heating plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter

    Studies have found that district heating (DH) systems should play an important role in future sustainable energy systems, but that DH has to adapt to lower heat demands. This means adapting to reduced operation hours for units essential for DHs integration in other parts of the energy system...... Ringkøbing District Heating is used as a case to investigate what costs market uncertainties can incur on a DH plant. It is found that the market uncertainties in a 4 months simulated period increased Ringkøbing District Heatings costs by less than 1%. Several factors are however not included in this paper....

  1. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faidy, C. [EDF SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  2. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.''...

  3. 77 FR 59615 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Mound Plant in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... warranted by the evaluation, is as follows: Facility: Mound Plant. Location: Miamisburg, Ohio. Job Titles... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Mound Plant in... Services. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: NIOSH gives notice as required by 42 CFR 83.12(e) of a decision to...

  4. Decision-oriented Usability Evaluation of an Operation Interface: Model and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun; SUN Lin-yan; LI Min

    2012-01-01

    To support multi-factor decision problems about usability evaluation, especially when studies fall short of comparable objects, a fuzzy synthetic evaluation model is explored in this paper. Grey relational analysis (GRA) is brought in the model to calculate weight vectors of the usability factors. And membership functions of a remark vector are constructed in the context of use of the operation interface. The present method is applied in usability evaluation of operation interface and is proved to be effective. The comprehensive usability gradation of the operation interface to good is 0. 616 4 that meets the requirements in practice.

  5. Power plant technology 2014. Strategies, systems engineering and operation; Kraftwerkstechnik 2014. Strategien, Anlagentechnik und Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Michael; Hurtado, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The book on power plant technology 2014 (strategies, systems engineering and operation) covers the following issues: Climate, politics and economy; wind power; fossil-fuel power plants, flexible power plants - plant operation, flexible power plants- materials, materials for energy technology, fuel feed and incineration, modeling of the water-vapor-circuit, corrosion, deposits and cleaning, vapor turbines, GUD power plants, fluidized bed combustion, energetic biomass use, combined heat and power generation and decentralized units, storage facilities, emissions - mitigation and measuring techniques.

  6. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background First.... NFP-58, which authorizes operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (PNPP). The license... rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the...

  7. Operating experience 1993 in Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    For many years, the Swedish nuclear power plants had a very good track record, compared with the international average. This trend was broken in 1993. During the year, six power plants were shut down for extended periods of time, for different safety-related reasons. During the autumn, a reactor containment leak was detected during scheduled containment leak rate testing at Barsebaeck 2. The unit was shut down for extensive investigation and corrective action for the rest of the year. Ringhals 2 was shut down last six months of the year as crack indications were found in a weld next to a control rod penetration in the reactor vessel head. Extensive tests and analyses revealed that the crack originated from the manufacturing of the vessel head and was of minor importance to safety. Oskarshamn 1 was shut down the whole year. Cracks in cold bent pipes in the residual heat removal system and cracks in the feedwater riser pipes lead to extensive replacement of piping, including pipes inside the reactor vessel. Decontamination of the reactor vessel was successful and attracted world wide interest. A programme for plant status verification was started in order to establish long-term operating conditions. Replacement of the pipe insulation and the inlet strainers in the core and containment spray systems solved the problems with clogging at certain failures in Barsebaeck, Ringhals 1 and Oskarshamn 1 and 2. Six of the reactors had an extremely high availability, of about 90 per cent and more. By year end, eleven of the twelve reactors were in full power operation.

  8. Development of a majority vote decision module for a self-diagnostic monitoring system for an air-operated valve system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Shin [Dept. of Information and Communication Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jang Bom [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Taek [Dept. of Information and Communication Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    A self-diagnostic monitoring system is a system that has the ability to measure various physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, or acceleration from sensors scattered over a mechanical system such as a power plant, in order to monitor its various states, and to make a decision about its health status. We have developed a self-diagnostic monitoring system for an air-operated valve system to be used in a nuclear power plant. In this study, we have tried to improve the self-diagnostic monitoring system to increase its reliability. We have implemented three different machine learning algorithms, i.e., logistic regression, an artificial neural network, and a support vector machine. After each algorithm performs the decision process independently, the decision-making module collects these individual decisions and makes a final decision using a majority vote scheme. With this, we performed some simulations and presented some of its results. The contribution of this study is that, by employing more robust and stable algorithms, each of the algorithms performs the recognition task more accurately. Moreover, by integrating these results and employing the majority vote scheme, we can make a definite decision, which makes the self-diagnostic monitoring system more reliable.

  9. Operating Experience from two new Biomass Fired FBC-Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolhar-Nordenkampf, M.; Tschanun, I.; Kaiser, S. [Austrian Energy and Environment AG, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    The use of renewable fuels in industrial power plants is rising continuously. The driving forces are the Kyoto protocol for CO{sub 2} reduction resulting in government support for green power electricity, substitution of imported primary energy and multi-fuel concepts together with RDF. Biomass fuel exists in various forms, traditionally as wood, bark, harvesting residues sewage sludge and organic waste. A favourable combustion technology is Austrian Energy's 'ECOFLUID' bubbling fluidized bed. Advantageous is the principle of a substoichiometric bed operation which allows bed temperature control in the range between 650 deg C - 850 deg C. Therefore, also fuel with low ash melting temperature can be burned. The applied staged combustion concept results in a homogenous temperature profile in the furnace and first pass of the boiler and thus low NO{sub x} emission. One new plant, owned by Energie AG in Timelkam/Austria has been commissioned in winter 2005. The main fuel of this 57 t/h boiler is bark, wood residues and waste wood up to 30% of the total thermal capacity. Grinding dust and saw dust can be co-fired, too. Optionally, sludge and animal wastes can be fired. The boiler is designed for 42 barg at live steam temperature of 440 deg C. The other new 30 MW{sub th} plant, owned by M-real Hallein AG in Hallein/Austria has been commissioned in winter 2005, too. The boiler is fired with wood chips, bark, rejects and other paper mill residues and furthermore it is able to burn the sludge of the mills own waste water treatment plant. Beside the boiler works as a post combustion system for exhaust gases from a 1 MW Biogas Otto-Engine, or alternatively it is able to burn the biogas directly. The boiler is designed for 61 barg at live steam temperature of 450 deg C.

  10. A conceptual framework for automating the operational and strategic decision-making process in the health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, Toni; Ennejmy, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Making reliable and justified operational and strategic decisions is a really challenging task in the health care domain. So far, the decisions have been made based on the experience of managers and staff, or they are evaluated with traditional methods, using inadequate data. As a result of this kind of decision-making process, attempts to improve operations usually have failed or led to only local improvements. Health care organizations have a lot of operational data, in addition to clinical data, which is the key element for making reliable and justified decisions. However, it is progressively problematic to access it and make usage of it. In this paper we discuss about the possibilities how to exploit operational data in the most efficient way in the decision-making process. We'll share our future visions and propose a conceptual framework for automating the decision-making process.

  11. Operations Research in Agriculture: Better Decisions for a Scarce and Uncertain World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Carravilla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Operations Research / Management Science (OR/MS can be described as the discipline of applying advanced analytical methods to help making better decisions and has been around in the agricultural and forestry management sectors since the fifties, approaching decision problems that range from more strategic sector- level planning to farm operation issues and integrated supply chain management. In this paper insights are given on the use of OR/MS in agriculture, illustrating them with cases drawn from the literature on this topic while keeping the descriptions accessible to uninitiated readers.The presence of OR/MS in Agriculture and Forest Management applications is already extensive but the potential for development is huge in times where resources are becoming increasingly scarce and more has to be done with less, in a sustainable way.

  12. A Two-stage Discriminating Framework for Making Supply Chain Operation Decisions under Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, H; Rong, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of making supply chain operation decisions for refineries under two types of uncertainties: demand uncertainty and incomplete information shared with suppliers and transport companies. Most of the literature only focus on one uncertainty or treat more uncertainties identically. However, we note that refineries have more power to control uncertainties in procurement and transportation than in demand in the real world. Thus, a two-stage framework for dealing wit...

  13. Decision Tree Classifier for Classification of Plant and Animal Micro RNA's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bhasker; Pant, Kumud; Pardasani, K. R.

    Gene expression is regulated by miRNAs or micro RNAs which can be 21-23 nucleotide in length. They are non coding RNAs which control gene expression either by translation repression or mRNA degradation. Plants and animals both contain miRNAs which have been classified by wet lab techniques. These techniques are highly expensive, labour intensive and time consuming. Hence faster and economical computational approaches are needed. In view of above a machine learning model has been developed for classification of plant and animal miRNAs using decision tree classifier. The model has been tested on available data and it gives results with 91% accuracy.

  14. Operation and maintenance results from ISFOC CPV plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eduardo; Martinez, María; de la Rubia, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of field operation and maintenance data collected during a period of over eight years, from CPV installations consisting of three different CPV technologies (including second generation of one of these technologies), has allowed us to get valuable information about the long-term degradation of the CPV systems. Through the study of the maintenance control ratio previously defined and by applying the root cause analysis methodology, the components responsible for the most unplanned interventions for each technology were identified. Focusing maintenance efforts on these components, a reduction of the unplanned interventions and the total cost of maintenance has been achieved over the years. Therefore, the deployment of an effective maintenance plan, identifying critical components, is essential to minimize the risk for investors and maximize the CPV power plants lifetime and energy output, increasing the availability of CPV installations, boosting market confidence in CPV systems.

  15. Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Multicriteria Decision-Making Method Based on Generalized Prioritized Aggregation Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ting Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on linguistic term sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the concept of hesitant fuzzy linguistic sets was introduced. The focus of this paper is the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM problems in which the criteria are in different priority levels and the criteria values take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers (HFLNs. A new approach to solving these problems is proposed, which is based on the generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs. Firstly, the new operations and comparison method for HFLNs are provided and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Subsequently, two prioritized aggregation operators and a generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs are developed and applied to MCDM problems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, which are then compared to the existing approach.

  16. Hesitant fuzzy linguistic multicriteria decision-making method based on generalized prioritized aggregation operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-ting; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    Based on linguistic term sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the concept of hesitant fuzzy linguistic sets was introduced. The focus of this paper is the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problems in which the criteria are in different priority levels and the criteria values take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers (HFLNs). A new approach to solving these problems is proposed, which is based on the generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs. Firstly, the new operations and comparison method for HFLNs are provided and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Subsequently, two prioritized aggregation operators and a generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs are developed and applied to MCDM problems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, which are then compared to the existing approach.

  17. Toward an operational model of decision making, emotional regulation, and mental health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collura, Thomas Francis; Zalaquett, Ronald P; Bonnstetter, Carlos Joyce; Chatters, Seria J

    2014-01-01

    Current brain research increasingly reveals the underlying mechanisms and processes of human behavior, cognition, and emotion. In addition to being of interest to a wide range of scientists, educators, and professionals, as well as laypeople, brain-based models are of particular value in a clinical setting. Psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and other mental health professionals are in need of operational models that integrate recent findings in the physical, cognitive, and emotional domains, and offer a common language for interdisciplinary understanding and communication. Based on individual traits, predispositions, and responses to stimuli, we can begin to identify emotional and behavioral pathways and mental processing patterns. The purpose of this article is to present a brain-path activation model to understand individual differences in decision making and psychopathology. The first section discusses the role of frontal lobe electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry, summarizes state- and trait-based models of decision making, and provides a more complex analysis that supplements the traditional simple left-right brain model. Key components of the new model are the introduction of right hemisphere parallel and left hemisphere serial scanning in rendering decisions, and the proposition of pathways that incorporate both past experiences as well as future implications into the decision process. Main attributes of each decision-making mechanism are provided. The second section applies the model within the realm of clinical mental health as a tool to understand specific human behavior and pathology. Applications include general and chronic anxiety, depression, paranoia, risk taking, and the pathways employed when well-functioning operational integration is observed. Finally, specific applications such as meditation and mindfulness are offered to facilitate positive functioning.

  18. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, R; Popa, B [Faculty of Power Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Spl. Independentei, sect. 6, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Popa, F [Institute for Hydropower Studies and Design, 5-7 Vasile Lascar, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020491 (Romania); Zachia-Zlatea, D, E-mail: bogdan.popa@rosha.r [Hidroelectrica S.A., 3 Constantin Nacu, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020995 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  19. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, R.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.; Zachia-Zlatea, D.

    2010-08-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  20. 基于相对捕集度的碳捕集电厂灵活运行多目标优化决策分析%Analysis on Relative Capture Degree Based Multi-objective Optimization Decision of Flexible Operation of Carbon Capture Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓辉; 杨磊; 李学平; 卢志刚

    2014-01-01

    碳捕集设备的灵活运行模式给碳捕集电厂带来了更多的运行调控策略,在灵活运行模式的基础上,定义了相对捕集度的概念,根据相对捕集度推导出灵活运行模式下的运行公式。给出了碳捕集设备的启动能耗公式。基于相对捕集度,以减排量和机组煤耗作为目标函数,运用多目标细菌群体趋药性算法对目标函数进行优化,同时完成发电机组间的出力优化分配。最后以单个碳捕集电厂为例,将基准运行模式和灵活运行模式进行了对比分析,并通过减耗率的大小来评价灵活运行模式优化的效果,仿真结果说明了所提方法的有效性。%The flexible operation mode of carbon capture equipment has brought more operation control strategies to the carbon capture plant.The concept of relative capture degree is defined based on the flexible operation mode.The formula is derived under the flexible operation mode according to the relative capture degree.The start energy consumption formula of the carbon capture equipment is given.By taking the emission reduction and coal consumption of generators as the objective function,the multi-objective bacterial colony chemotaxis algorithm is used to optimize the objective function based on the relative capture degree.At the same time,the optimal percentage of output between the generators is completed.Finally,simulation test is carried out in a carbon capture plant.By comparing the basic running mode with the flexible operation mode,the concept of proportion of emission reduction to coal consumption is given to analyze the result of optimization.Simulation results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Corrective Action Decision / Record of Decision for Rocky Flats Plant (USDOE) Peripheral Operable Unit and Central Operable Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is one of several important historical documents associated with remediation activities at the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge. The Rocky Flats National...

  2. Pilot plant operation of the Uranium Chip Oxidation Facility at the Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Y.C.

    1987-01-16

    Due to changing environmental regulations, the current practice of depleted uranium chip (machine turning) disposal via shallow land burial has become environmentally objectionable. The chips are pyrophoric and oxidize rapidly when exposed to air; therefore, long-term storage of the uranium chips presents a major fire hazard. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Development Division was contacted to devise a disposal method that would eliminate chip burial and minimize storage space requirements. The proposed method of accomplishing this task was oxidizing the uranium chips to uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) under controlled conditions. Pilot plant operation of the Uranium Chip Oxidation Facility (UCOF) was initiated on May 20, 1985, by the Y-12 Development Division. The purpose of this initial development testing was to evaluate the equipment, determine operating parameters, and provide on-the-job training for Waste Treatment Operations (WTO) personnel. Startup of the UCOF began with the check-out of the equipment using only the No. 1 oxidizer. Following the verification stage, the oxidizer was loaded with an initial charge of cold uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) in preparation for test burning. Results of the test are given.

  3. Flexible and adaptive water systems operations through more informed and dynamic decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2016-12-01

    Timely adapting the operations of water systems to be resilient against rapid changes in both hydroclimatic and socioeconomic forcing is generally recommended as a part of planning and managing water resources under uncertain futures. A great opportunity to make the operations more flexible and adaptive is offered by the unprecedented amount of information that is becoming available to water system operators, providing a wide range of data at increasingly higher temporal and spatial resolution. Yet, many water systems are still operated using very simple information systems, typically based on basic statistical analysis and the operator's experience. In this work, we discuss the potential offered by incorporating improved information to enhance water systems operation and increase their ability of adapting to different external conditions and resolving potential conflicts across sectors. In particular, we focus on the use of different variables associated to different dynamics of the system (slow and fast) diversely impacting the operating objectives on the short-, medium- and long-term. The multi-purpose operations of the Hoa Binh reservoir in the Red River Basin (Vietnam) is used to demonstrate our approach. Numerical results show that our procedure is able to automatically select the most valuable information for improving the Hoa Binh operations and mitigating the conflict between short-term objectives, i.e. hydropower production and flood control. Moreover, we also successfully identify low-frequency climate information associated to El-Nino Southern Oscillation for improving the performance in terms of long-term objectives, i.e. water supply. Finally, we assess the value of better informing operational decisions for adapting the system operations to changing conditions by considering different climate change projections.

  4. Distinction between Externally vs. Internally Guided Decision-Making: Operational Differences, Meta-Analytical Comparisons and Their Theoretical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Takashi; Ohira, Hideki; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty). Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision-making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making). Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision-making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject's own, i.e., internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e., circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision-making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision-making to clarify experimental-operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using multi-level kernel density analysis, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision-making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics.

  5. An Integrated Decision-Making Model for the Location of a PV Solar Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. I. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for electricity, the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase in environmental consciousness, generating power from renewable energy resources has become necessary. How to select the most appropriate site is a critical and foremost decision that must be made when setting up a renewable energy plant. This research proposes a two-stage framework for evaluating the suitability of renewable energy plant site alternatives. In the first stage, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is adopted to set the assurance region (AR of the quantitative factors, and the AR is incorporated into data envelopment analysis (DEA to assess the efficiencies of plant site candidates. A few sites are selected for further analysis. In the second stage, experts are invited to evaluate the qualitative characteristics of the selected sites, and FAHP is used to calculate the priorities of these sites. Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources, because of its abundance, inexhaustibility, safety and cleanliness. Based on the proposed integrated decision-making model, a case study for selecting the most appropriate photovoltaic (PV solar plant site is examined.

  6. Modeling population dynamics, landscape structure, and management decisions for controlling the spread of invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplat, Paul; Coutts, Shaun; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2012-02-01

    Invasive plants cause substantial economic and environmental damage throughout the world. However, eradication of most invasive species is impossible and, in some cases, undesirable. An alternative is to slow the spread of an invasive species, which can delay impacts or reduce their extent. We identify three main areas where models are used extensively in the study of plant spread and its management: (i) identifying the key drivers of spread to better target management, (ii) determining the role spatial structure of landscapes plays in plant invasions, and (iii) integrating management structures and limitations to guide the implementation of control measures. We show how these three components have been approached in the ecological literature as well as their potential for improving management practices. Particularly, we argue that scientists can help managers of invasive species by providing information about plant invasion on which managers can base their decisions (i and ii) and by modeling the decision process through optimization and agent-based models (iii). Finally, we show how these approaches can be articulated for integrative studies. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Inter-plant coordination and its relationships with supply chain integration and operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Chaudhuri, Atanu; Farooq, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Based on the data obtained from the sixth version of International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS VI), this paper explores the relationships at the level of plant between (1) inter-plant coordination and operational performance, and (2) between inter-plant coordination and internal/external ...... and customer integration; and (3) the relationships between inter-plant coordination and cost/flexibility are fully mediated by supplier integration.......Based on the data obtained from the sixth version of International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS VI), this paper explores the relationships at the level of plant between (1) inter-plant coordination and operational performance, and (2) between inter-plant coordination and internal...

  8. Operational decision support system for large combined sewage systems: Lisbon/Tagus estuary case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póvoa, P; Nobre, A; Leitão, P; Galvão, P; Santos, H; Frazão, A; Neves, R; Matos, J S

    2015-01-01

    Managing combined sewage systems in large cities discharging to coastal waters, often bearing recreational activities, remains a challenge. Studying the impacts of such discharges requires the development of specific models. Hydrodynamic and water quality modelling of coastal waters employs numerical methods and algorithms, leading to the design of complex models which require expert use. The use of such models as decision support tools to simulate discharge impacts and define adequate corrective measures could represent a key part in meeting this challenge. In this paper, the authors describe the work undertaken to develop an operational decision support system (ODSS) methodology aiming to enable wastewater utilities' non-expert staff to carry out user-friendly scenario analysis based on computational fluid dynamics simulations. This article depicts the application and validation of the ODSS to the combined sewage system and the Tagus estuary of the city of Lisbon in Portugal. The ODSS was used for simulating the effects in the receiving coastal waters of a discharge caused by a scheduled maintenance operation in the sewage infrastructure. Results show that the use of such ODSS by non-expert staff increases their decision capabilities and knowledge of the wastewater utility's contribution to reducing negative impacts of sewage discharges on the receiving water bodies.

  9. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Analyst-Oriented Volume - Code of Best Practice for Soft Operational Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to cr

  10. A decision support system for quantitative measurement of operational efficiency in a blood collection facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kros, John F; Yim Pang, Robyn

    2004-04-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is presented that allows users to input, analyze, and output data derived from blood banking operations. The DSS developed is a hybrid system that is both data and model driven. The system provides information, models, and data manipulation tools to assist users in the quantitative measurement of the operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. A relational database was developed to address the four major variables, which impact the cost per unit of blood being collected. Using visual basic, a user interface and mathematical model were developed establishing the relationships to analyze cost per unit of collected blood. Using inputs from users and historical financial data, the DSS calculates the cost per unit as each of the major variables is altered. Real life situations by the mobile operations team at a blood collection facility were used to test the DSS.

  11. Optimal offering and operating strategies for wind-storage systems with linear decision rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    The participation of wind farm-energy storage systems (WF-ESS) in electricity markets calls for an integrated view of day-ahead offering strategies and real-time operation policies. Such an integrated strategy is proposed here by co-optimizing offering at the day-ahead stage and operation policy...... to be used at the balancing stage. Linear decision rules are seen as a natural approach to model and optimize the real-time operation policy. These allow enhancing profits from balancing markets based on updated information on prices and wind power generation. Our integrated strategies for WF...

  12. Geographic variations in seed dispersal by ants: are plant and seed traits decisive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, R.; Coll-Toledano, J.; Manzaneda, A. J.; Cerdá, X.

    2007-03-01

    The effect of local ant species on the dispersal success of a myrmecochorous plant, Helleborus foetidus, was analyzed in two populations of the Iberian Peninsula (Caurel and Cazorla, respectively). The contribution of the various local ant species to dispersal was very unequal. While 5 and 19 ant taxa visited the plants of Caurel and Cazorla, respectively, most removal activity (67 and 80%) was performed by two species only (Formica lugubris and Camponotus cruentatus, respectively). Visits by dispersers were also unequally distributed between neighboring plants. While some plants were always visited during the period of seed release, others were never visited. A regression model indicated that this pattern might be explained by two plant traits: ants preferred to visit plants that released more seeds and whose elaiosomes were richer in oleic acid. Although it has long been known that this compound triggers removal by ants, it is the first demonstration that quantitative variations in elaiosome traits contribute to variation in dispersal success. Finally, other variables being equal, morphological traits (seed size, elaiosome size, and elaiosome/seed size ratio) did not affect ant behavior. Although myrmecochory has long been considered a diffuse interaction, our results support the idea that, at local scale, a limited number of ant species may be decisive to its evolution.

  13. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  14. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  15. Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

  16. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  17. 76 FR 73720 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000 Pressurized..., NUREG-2103, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant...

  18. Optimization of operation for combined heat and power plants - CHP plants - with heat accumulators using a MILP formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grue, Jeppe; Bach, Inger [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology]. E-mails: jeg@iet.auc.dk; ib@iet.auc.dk

    2000-07-01

    The power generation system in Denmark is extensively based on small combined heat and power plants (CHP plants), producing both electricity and district heating. This project deals with smaller plants spread throughout the country. Often a heat accumulator is used to enable electricity production, even when the heat demand is low. This system forms a very complex problem, both for sizing, designing and operation of CHP plants. The objective of the work is the development of a tool for optimisation of the operation of CHP plants, and to even considering the design of the plant. The problem is formulated as a MILP-problem. An actual case is being tested, involving CHP producing units to cover the demand. The results from this project show that it is of major importance to consider the operation of the plant in detail already in the design phase. It is of major importance to consider the optimisation of the plant operation, even at the design stage, as it may cause the contribution margin to rise significantly, if the plant is designed on the basis of a de-tailed knowledge of the expected operation. (author)

  19. Improved Customer Churn and Retention Decision Management Using Operations Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaimon Olanrewaju Adebiyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of operations research cannot be overemphasized, as it provides the best possible results in any given circumstance, through analysis of operations and the use of scientific method thus, this paper explore the combination of two operations research models (analytic hierarchy process and Markov chain for solving subscribers’ churn and retention problem peculiar to most service firms. A conceptual model for unraveling the problem customer churn and retention decision management was proposed and tested with data on third level analysis of AHP for determining appropriate strategies for customer churn and retention in the Nigeria telecommunication industries. A survey was conducted with 408 subscribers; the sample for the study was selected through multi-stage sampling. Two analytical tools were proposed for the analysis of data. These include: Expert Choice/Excel Solver (using Microsoft Excel and Windows based Quantitative System for Business (WinQSB. This paper plays important role in understanding various strategies for effective churn and retention management and the ranking of churn and retention drivers in order of importance to stakeholders` decision-making. The study provided a framework for understanding the application of AHP and Markov chain for modeling, analysing and proffering solution to problem of churn and retention. The study recommends organizational strategies (corporate, business and functional that reverse the churn alternatives with high priority and equally strengthen service delivery on high priority retention alternatives in order to ensure firms sustainable competitive advantage.

  20. 77 FR 12594 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Rocky Flats Plant in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... revision as warranted by the evaluation, is as follows: Facility: Rocky Flats Plant. Location: Golden... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Rocky Flats... Human Services. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: NIOSH gives notice as required by 42 CFR 83.12(e) of a decision...

  1. Optimizing power plant cycling operations while reducing generating plant damage and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Besuner, P.H.; Grimsrud, P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Bissel, A. [Electric Supply Board, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation describes a method for analyzing, quantifying, and minimizing the total cost of fossil, combined cycle, and pumped hydro power plant cycling operation. The method has been developed, refined, and applied during engineering studies at some 160 units in the United States and 8 units at the Irish Electric Supply Board (ESB) generating system. The basic premise of these studies was that utilities are underestimating the cost of cycling operation. The studies showed that the cost of cycling conventional boiler/turbine fossil power plants can range from between $2,500 and $500,000 per start-stop cycle. It was found that utilities typically estimate these costs by factors of 3 to 30 below actual costs and, thus, often significantly underestimate their true cycling costs. Knowledge of the actual, or total, cost of cycling will reduce power production costs by enabling utilities to more accurately dispatch their units to manage unit life expectancies, maintenance strategies and reliability. Utility management responses to these costs are presented and utility cost savings have been demonstrated. (orig.) 7 refs.

  2. Steam generator tube degradation at the Doel 4 plant influence on plant operation and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheveneels, G. [AIB-Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-02-01

    The steam generator tubes of Doel 4 are affected by a multitude of corrosion phenomena. Some of them have been very difficult to manage because of their extremely fast evolution, non linear evolution behavior or difficult detectability and/or measurability. The exceptional corrosion behavior of the steam generator tubes has had its drawbacks on plant operation and safety. Extensive inspection and repair campaigns have been necessary and have largely increased outage times and radiation exposure to personnel. Although considerable effort was invested by the utility to control corrosion problems, non anticipated phenomena and/or evolution have jeopardized plant safety. The extensive plugging and repairs performed on the steam generators have necessitated continual review of the design basis safety studies and the adaptation of the protection system setpoints. The large asymmetric plugging has further complicated these reviews. During the years many preventive and recently also defence measures have been implemented by the utility to manage corrosion and to decrease the probability and consequences of single or multiple tube rupture. The present state of the Doel 4 steam generators remains troublesome and further examinations are performed to evaluate if continued operation until June `96, when the steam generators will be replaced, is justified.

  3. An Evolutionary Complex Systems Decision-Support Tool for the Management of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J. S.; Allen, P. M.; Ridgway, K.

    2011-12-01

    This research aimed to add both to the development of complex systems thinking in the subject area of Operations and Production Management and to the limited number of applications of computational models and simulations from the science of complex systems. The latter potentially offer helpful decision-support tools for operations and production managers. A mechanical engineering firm was used as a case study where a combined qualitative and quantitative methodological approach was employed to extract the required data from four senior managers. Company performance measures as well as firm technologies, practices and policies, and their relation and interaction with one another, were elicited. The data were subjected to an evolutionary complex systems model resulting in a series of simulations. The findings included both reassuring and some unexpected results. The simulation based on the CEO's opinions led the most cohesive and synergistic collection of practices describing the firm, closely followed by the Marketing and R&D Managers. The Manufacturing Manager's responses led to the most extreme evolutionary trajectory where the integrity of the entire firm came into question particularly when considering how employees were utilised. By drawing directly from the opinions and views of managers rather than from logical 'if-then' rules and averaged mathematical representations of agents that characterise agent-based and other self-organisational models, this work builds on previous applications by capturing a micro-level description of diversity and a learning effect that has been problematical not only in terms of theory but also in application. This approach can be used as a decision-support tool for operations and other managers providing a forum with which to explore a) the strengths, weaknesses and consequences of different decision-making capacities within the firm; b) the introduction of new manufacturing technologies, practices and policies; and, c) the

  4. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    From a safety point of view, 2000 was - as were previous years - satisfactory. Total electricity production from the Swedish nuclear power stations amounted to 54.2 TWh, which was over 20% less than the 70.2 TWh produced in 1999. The two main reasons for the reduction were the closure of Barsebaeck 1 on 1st December 1999, and the cutback in output from all reactors due to the particularly good availability of hydro power in 2000. Some reactors were even shut down completely as a result of the low power demand, which has not happened previously. The quantity of unutilised production capacity as a result of these reductions amounted to 11.6 TWh. Costdown operation prior to the annual overhaul shutdowns, which makes better use of the fuel, represented a further 2.1 TWh of unutilised capacity. The average energy availability of the three PWRs at Ringhals was 82.0%, while that of the eight BWRs was 84.2%. Forsmark 3, Ringhals 3 and Oskarshamn 3 all had average availabilities of over 90%. Of five events with safety implications that occurred in the plants during the year, three are described under Special Reporting. One of them relates to the crack indications in welds that were found in an American PWR in the autumn, and which were subsequently also found in Ringhals 4.

  5. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-05-15

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  6. Procedure for estimating nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M.L.; Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options.

  7. Record of Decision for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County, Commerce City, Colorado.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County (east of...

  8. Research of Operation Modes of Heat Storage Tank in CHP Plant Using Numerical Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streckiene, Giedre; Miseviciute, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    ... ________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 6 Re search of Operation Modes of Heat Storage Tank in CHP Plant Using Numerical Simulation Giedre Streckiene 1 , Violeta Miseviciute 2 , 1 - 2 Department...

  9. Modeling and Analyzing Operational Decision-Making Synchronization of C2 Organization in Complex Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve capability of operational decision-making synchronization (ODMS in command and control (C2 organization, the paper puts forward that ODMS is the negotiation process of situation cognition with three phases about “situation cognition, situation interaction and decision-making synchronization” in complex environment, and then the model and strategies of ODMS are given in quantity. Firstly, measure indexes of three steps above are given in the paper based on the time consumed in negotiation, and three patterns are proposed for negotiating timely in high quality during situation interaction. Secondly, the ODMS model with two stages in continuous changing situation is put forward in the paper, and ODMS strategies are analyzed within environment influence and time restriction. Thirdly, simulation cases are given to validate the process of ODMS under different continuous changing situations the results of this model are better than the other previous models to fulfill the actual restrictions, and the process of ODMS can be adjusted more reasonable for improving the capability of ODMS. Then we discuss the case and summarize the influence factors of ODMS in the C2 organization as organization structure, shared information resources, negotiation patterns, and allocation of decision rights.

  10. A Coastal Flood Decision Support Tool for Forecast Operations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Moore, A.; Plumb, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT Coastal flooding and erosion poses a serious threat to infrastructure, livelihood, and property for communities along Alaska's northern and western coastline. While the National Weather Service Alaska Region (NWS-AR) forecasts conditions favorable for coastal flooding, an improvement can be made in communicating event impacts between NWS-AR and local residents. Scientific jargon used by NWS-AR to indicate the severity of flooding potential is often misconstrued by residents. Additionally, the coastal flood forecasting process is cumbersome and time consuming due to scattered sources of flood guidance. To alleviate these problems, a single coastal flooding decision support tool was created for the Fairbanks Weather Forecast Office to help bridge the communication gap, streamline the forecast and warning process, and take into account both the meteorological and socioeconomic systems at work during a flood event. This tool builds on previous research and data collected by the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and the NWS-AR, using high resolution elevation data to model the impacts of storm tide rise above the mean lower low water level on five of the most at-risk communities along the Alaskan coast. Important local buildings and infrastructure are highlighted, allowing forecasters to relate the severity of the storm tide in terms of local landmarks that are familiar to residents. In this way, this decision support tool allows for a conversion from model output storm tide levels into real world impacts that are easily understood by forecasters, emergency managers, and other stakeholders, helping to build a Weather-Ready Nation. An overview of the new coastal flood decision support tool in NWS-AR forecast operations will be discussed. KEYWORDS Forecasting; coastal flooding; coastal hazards; decision support

  11. Hesitant Triangular Fuzzy Information Aggregation Operators Based on Bonferroni Means and Their Application to Multiple Attribute Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) problems with hesitant triangular fuzzy information. Firstly, definition and some operational laws of hesitant triangular fuzzy elements are introduced. Then, we develop some hesitant triangular fuzzy aggregation operators based on Bonferroni means and discuss their basic properties. Some existing operators can be viewed as their special cases. Next, we apply the proposed operators to deal with multiple attribute decision-making problems under hesitant triangular fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the developed method and demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness. PMID:25140338

  12. Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

  13. Operation reliability analysis of independent power plants of gas-transmission system distant production facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskunov Maksim V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new approach was developed to analyze the failure causes in operation of linear facilities independent power supply sources (mini-CHP-plants of gas-transmission system in Eastern part of Russia. Triggering conditions of ceiling operation substance temperature at condenser output were determined with mathematical simulation use of unsteady heat and mass transfer processes in condenser of mini-CHP-plants. Under these conditions the failure probability in operation of independent power supply sources is increased. Influence of environmental factors (in particular, ambient temperature as well as output electric capability values of power plant on mini-CHP-plant operation reliability was analyzed. Values of mean time to failure and power plant failure density during operation in different regions of Eastern Siberia and Far East of Russia were received with use of numerical simulation results of heat and mass transfer processes at operation substance condensation.

  14. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  15. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and geographical information system for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account...

  16. Integrating SAR and derived products into operational volcano monitoring and decision support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.; Ajadi, O.; Arko, S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2015-02-01

    Remote sensing plays a critical role in operational volcano monitoring due to the often remote locations of volcanic systems and the large spatial extent of potential eruption pre-cursor signals. Despite the all-weather capabilities of radar remote sensing and its high performance in monitoring of change, the contribution of radar data to operational monitoring activities has been limited in the past. This is largely due to: (1) the high costs associated with radar data; (2) traditionally slow data processing and delivery procedures; and (3) the limited temporal sampling provided by spaceborne radars. With this paper, we present new data processing and data integration techniques that mitigate some of these limitations and allow for a meaningful integration of radar data into operational volcano monitoring decision support systems. Specifically, we present fast data access procedures as well as new approaches to multi-track processing that improve near real-time data access and temporal sampling of volcanic systems with SAR data. We introduce phase-based (coherent) and amplitude-based (incoherent) change detection procedures that are able to extract dense time series of hazard information from these data. For a demonstration, we present an integration of our processing system with an operational volcano monitoring system that was developed for use by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Through an application to a historic eruption, we show that the integration of SAR into systems such as AVO can significantly improve the ability of operational systems to detect eruptive precursors. Therefore, the developed technology is expected to improve operational hazard detection, alerting, and management capabilities.

  17. Online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring for water and wastewater treatment plants processes and operations optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Céline; Scott, Amanda; Biller, Dondra

    2017-08-01

    Organic measurements, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were developed decades ago in order to measure organics in water. Today, these time-consuming measurements are still used as parameters to check the water treatment quality; however, the time required to generate a result, ranging from hours to days, does not allow COD or BOD to be useful process control parameters - see (1) Standard Method 5210 B; 5-day BOD Test, 1997, and (2) ASTM D1252; COD Test, 2012. Online organic carbon monitoring allows for effective process control because results are generated every few minutes. Though it does not replace BOD or COD measurements still required for compliance reporting, it allows for smart, data-driven and rapid decision-making to improve process control and optimization or meet compliances. Thanks to the smart interpretation of generated data and the capability to now take real-time actions, municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment facility operators can positively impact their OPEX (operational expenditure) efficiencies and their capabilities to meet regulatory requirements. This paper describes how three municipal wastewater and drinking water plants gained process insights, and determined optimization opportunities thanks to the implementation of online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring.

  18. GIS Based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis For Cement Plant Site Selection For Cuddalore District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, A.

    2015-12-01

    India's cement industry is a vital part of its economy, providing employment to more than a million people. On the back of growing demands, due to increased construction and infrastructural activities cement market in India is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.96 percent during the period 2014-2019. In this study, GIS-based spatial Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is used to determine the optimum and alternative sites to setup a cement plant. This technique contains a set of evaluation criteria which are quantifiable indicators of the extent to which decision objectives are realized. In intersection with available GIS (Geographical Information System) and local ancillary data, the outputs of image analysis serves as input for the multi-criteria decision making system. Moreover, the following steps were performed so as to represent the criteria in GIS layers, which underwent the GIS analysis in order to get several potential sites. Satellite imagery from LANDSAT 8 and ASTER DEM were used for the analysis. Cuddalore District in Tamil Nadu was selected as the study site as limestone mining is already being carried out in that region which meets the criteria of raw material for cement production. Several other criteria considered were land use land cover (LULC) classification (built-up area, river, forest cover, wet land, barren land, harvest land and agriculture land), slope, proximity to road, railway and drainage networks.

  19. Maine Yankee: Making the Transition from an Operating Plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, W.; McGough, M. S.

    2002-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company in making the transition from an operating nuclear power plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Maine Yankee (MY) is a 900-megawatt Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor whose architect engineer was Stone & Webster. Maine Yankee was put into commercial operation on December 28, 1972. It is located on an 820-acre site, on the shores of the Back River in Wiscasset, Maine about 40 miles northeast of Portland, Maine. During its operating life, it generated about 1.2 billion kilowatts of power, providing 25% of Maine's electric power needs and serving additional customers in New England. Maine Yankee's lifetime capacity factor was about 67% and it employed more than 450 people. The decision was made to shutdown Maine Yankee in August of 1997, based on economic reasons. Once this decision was made planning began on how to accomplish safe and cost effective decommissioning of the plant by 2004 while being responsive to the community and employees.

  20. Application of an expert system for real time diagnosis of the limiting conditions for operation in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Gustavo Varanda; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: gustavopaiva@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In the history of nuclear power plants operation safety is an important factor to be considered and for this, the use of resistant materials and the application of redundant systems are used to make a plant with high reliability. Through the acquisition of experience with time and accidents that happened in the area, it was observed that the importance of creating methods that simplify the operator work in making decisions in accidents scenarios is an important factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This work aims to create a program made with the Python language, which with the use of an expert systems be able to apply, in real time, the rules contained in the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) and tell to the operator the occurrence of any limiting conditions and the occurrence of failure to perform the require actions in the time to completion. The generic structure used to represent the knowledge of the expert system was a fault tree where the events of this tree are objects in program. To test the accuracy of the program a simplified model of a fault tree was used that represents the LCO of the nuclear power station named Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto 1. With the results obtained in the analysis of the simplified model it was observed a significant reduction in the time to identify the LCO, showing that the implementation of this program to more complex models of fault tree would be viable.(author)

  1. Guangxi Shanglin Aluminum Plant cross-regional technical upgrade project(phase 1)put into operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The project(Phase 1)of cross-regional techni- cal upgrade of the aluminum plant of Guangxi Shanglin Nannan Industrial Co.was completed and put into operation on June 8,2007.The plant is a cross-regional technical upgrade pro- ject of Nanning Aluminum Plant,featuring the integration of coal,electricity and aluminum.

  2. 78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI42 Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant... environmental effect of renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. Compliance with the provisions... nuclear power plant. This document is necessary to clarify and correct the revisions made to the......

  3. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant... with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (Fitzpatrick), Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  4. Distributed Low-Complexity Controller for Wind Power Plant in Derated Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Madjidian, Daria; Spudic, Vedrana;

    2013-01-01

    We consider a wind power plant of megawatt wind turbines operating in derated mode. When operating in this mode, the wind power plant controller is free to distribute power set-points to the individual turbines, as long as the total power demand is met. In this work, we design a controller...

  5. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume is directed primarily towards entry-level operators and the operators of ponds, package plants, or small treatment plants. Ten chapters examine the…

  6. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating... Operating License No. DPR-72 for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3), located in...

  7. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  8. Decision support by Operations Research in the energy sector and environment sector. Proceedings; Entscheidungsunterstuetzung durch Operations Research im Energie- und Umweltbereich. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renatus, Fabian; Kunze, Robert; Karschin, Ingo; Geldermann, Jutta; Fichtner, Wolf (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the workshop of the GOR work groups ''OR in Environmental Protection'' and ''Decision theory and decision-making practice'' from 1st to 2nd March, 2012, in Goslar (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) An extended solution representation for the biobjective inventory routing problem (Thibaut Barthelemy); (2) Decision support at load management (Lutz Hillemacher); (3) A quantitative demand analysis of cogeneration units in a virtual network (Marius Hilleke); (4) Decision behaviour in the Newsvendor model (Christian Koester); (5) Operational environmental information systems for the next generation (Fabian Renatus); (6) Fuzzy decision theory - A satisfying Approach (Heinrich J. Rommelfanger); (7) Optimization of the expansion planning of electrical distribution systems with evolutionary algorithms under consideration of economic-regulatory contexts (Stefan Schnabel).

  9. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  10. External Validation of a Decision Tool To Guide Post-Operative Management of Patients with Secondary Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jasper J; Ram, Kim; Schultz, Marcus J; Boermeester, Marja A

    Timely identification of patients in need of an intervention for abdominal sepsis after initial surgical management of secondary peritonitis is vital but complex. The aim of this study was to validate a decision tool for this purpose and to evaluate its potential to guide post-operative management. A prospective cohort study was conducted on consecutive adult patients undergoing surgery for secondary peritonitis in a single hospital. Assessments using the decision tool, based on one intra-operative and five post-operative variables, were performed on the second and third post-operative days and when the patients' clinical status deteriorated. Scores were compared with the clinical reference standard of persistent sepsis based on the clinical course or findings at imaging or surgery. Additionally, the potential of the decision tool to guide management in terms of diagnostic imaging in three previously defined score categories (low, intermediate, and high) was evaluated. A total of 161 assessments were performed in 69 patients. The majority of cases of secondary peritonitis (68%) were caused by perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. Post-operative persistent sepsis occurred in 28 patients. The discriminative capacity of the decision tool score was fair (area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic = 0.79). The incidence rate differed significantly between the three score categories (p peritonitis, the decision tool score predicts with fair accuracy whether persistent sepsis is present.

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd quarter, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment, and tabulated data on the plants` production and load factors are also given. (4 figs., 4 tabs.).

  12. Multi-Model Long-Range Ensemble Forecast for Decision Support in Hydroelectric Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, M. L.; Parkinson, S.; Blestrud, D.; Holbrook, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    Idaho Power Company (IPC) is a hydroelectric based utility serving over a million customers in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon. Hydropower makes up ~50% of our power generation and accurate predictions of streamflow and precipitation drive our long-term planning and decision support for operations. We investigate the use of a multi-model ensemble approach for mid and long-range streamflow and precipitation forecasts throughout the Snake River Basin. Forecast are prepared using an Idaho Power developed ensemble forecasting technique for 89 locations throughout the Snake River Basin for periods of 3 to 18 months in advance. A series of multivariable linear regression, multivariable non-linear regression and multivariable Kalman filter techniques are combined in an ensemble forecast based upon two data types, historical data (streamflow, precipitation, climate indices [i.e. PDO, ENSO, AO, etc…]) and single value decomposition derived values based upon atmospheric heights and sea surface temperatures.

  13. Analytic hierarchy process as module for productivity evaluation and decision-making of the operation theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Abdelrahman E M; Hamoud, Hesham S

    2016-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments of experts to derive priority scales, these scales that measure intangibles in relative terms. The aim of the article was to develop a model for productivity measurement of the operation theater (OT), which could be applied as a model for quality improvement and decision-making. AHP is used in this article to evolve such a model. The steps consist of identifying the critical success factors for measuring the productivity of OT, identifying subfactors that inflauence the critical factors, comparing the pairwise, deriving their relative importance and ratings, and calculating the cumulative effect according to the attributes in OT. The cumulative productivitycan be calculated by the end and can be compared Ideal productivity to measure the productive of OT in percentage fraction. Hence, the productivity could be calculated. Hence, AHP is a very useful model to measure the productivity in OT.

  14. Operating costs and plant options analysis for the Shamokin fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, M.G.; Dowdy, T.E.; Litman, R.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examined the operating costs and options to improve the Shamokin Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Demonstration Plant located near Shamokin, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to perform an operating cost analysis and compare the results with projected operating costs. An analysis was also made to identify possible cost savings options. Two base case scenarios were developed for this study: the first scenario assumed that the plant operated in a manner similar to operations during the extended test program; and the second scenario was concerned with two options. One option assumed upgrading the plant to achieve continuous full load operation, restarting, and used revised costs and revenues. The second assumed reconfiguring the plant for cogeneration.

  15. Value as a parameter to consider in operational strategies for CSP plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Oelof; Dinter, Frank; Govender, Saneshan

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduced a value parameter to consider when analyzing operational strategies for CSP plants. The electric system in South Africa, used as case study, is severely constrained with an influx of renewables in the early phase of deployment. The energy demand curve for the system is analyzed showing the total wind and solar photovoltaic contributions for winter and summer. Due to the intermittent nature and meteorological operating conditions of wind and solar photovoltaic plants, the value of CSP plants within the electric system is introduced. Analyzing CSP plants based on the value parameter alone will remain only a philosophical view. Currently there is no quantifiable measure to translate the philosophical view or subjective value and it solely remains the position of the stakeholder. By introducing three other parameters, Cost, Plant and System to a holistic representation of the Operating Strategies of generation plants, the Value parameter can be translated into a quantifiable measure. Utilizing the country's current procurement program as case study, CSP operating under the various PPA within the Bid Windows are analyzed. The Value Cost Plant System diagram developed is used to quantify the value parameter. This paper concluded that no value is obtained from CSP plants operating under the Bid Window 1 & 2 Power Purchase Agreement. However, by recognizing the dispatchability potential of CSP plants in Bid Window 3 & 3.5, the value of CSP in the electric system can be quantified utilizing Value Added Relationship VCPS-diagram. Similarly ancillary services to the system were analyzed. One of the relationships that have not yet been explored within the industry is an interdependent relationship. It was emphasized that the cost and value structure is shared between the plant and system. Although this relationship is functional when the plant and system belongs to the same entity, additional value is achieved by marginalizing the cost structure. A

  16. Development of a Nuclear Plant Analyzer for Education and Operation Guide of the CANDU Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Su Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, S. K.; Kim, H. D.; Cho, U. Y.; Lim, J. C.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. J.; Park, J. W.; Yeom, C. S.; Suh, J. S.; Park, K. S.; Jung, J. B.; Lee, K. M.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, I. K. [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Operator training through the utilization of the NPA can improve efficiently the operator`s capability to cope with plant abnormal behaviors and enhance the safety and operability of nuclear power plants (NPP). Recent trend toward the computing automation and integrated design approach in NPP design analysis recognizes importance of the utilization of NPA technology. Major efforts are made into the expansion of functional capability of the CANDU plant simulation/analysis program obtained through the previous CANDU engineering R and D activities at IAE and into the development of configuration design technology for visualization through graphic display network. Through the simulation tests on the predictive capability of the plant simulation/analysis program and the examination of behavior of the plant operation parameters in typical operational and upset transients, the validation and improvement of the models for the major plant systems have been made. The reactor kinetics model has been improved for 3-D neutronic transient problems. Reactor burnup calculation and on-power fuelling capability have been modelled for the CANDU in-core fuel management practice. Furthermore, the graphic display of simulation results and control panels is user-interactively visualized, and the establishment of basic distributed computing network system through server/client concept with multimedia technique are tried for real time simulation and computational efficiency. The present simulation program has a limitation on the analysis for fast transient problems because of the lack of the explicit two-phase flow model, however, a CANDU NPA which has been developed as the mid-term part of our long term goal constructing `Simulation Based CANDU Design and Analysis System` is anticipated to be used as an assistant tool for nuclear system engineers and plant operators, and as a basic tool for the development of an advanced integrated engineering analyzer. 29 refs., 9 tabs., 110 figs

  17. Simulation platform of economical operation and dispatch for power plant based on float-coded genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱奕; 伞冶; 马克茂

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a float-coded genetic algorithm and its application to the optimization of the power plant operation concerning the simulation problem of economical operation for power plant systems. The method proposed realizes the load optimization between generating units of power plants and their loads, solves the problem of influence of a unit plant pause spoilage and load variance on the optimal plant combination and load, and finally establishes a simulation platform for the power plant economical operation.

  18. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  19. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  20. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and geographical information system for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives....... The estimation of criteria weights, which is necessary for applying the FWOD procedure, is done by means of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), such that a combined AHP-FWOD methodology allows identifying the more suitable sites for building biogas plants. We show that the FWOD relevance-ranking procedure...... can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account...

  1. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and Geographical Information System for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... suitable sites for building biogas plants. We show that the FWOD relevance-ranking procedure can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support...... frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account the most relevant criteria for the social, economic and political dimensions....

  2. Operations GUNNERSIDE and GROUSE - Special Operations During World War II Against the German Controlled Heavy Water Plant in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    Vemork be attacked with sufficient force to destroy all accumulated stocks of heavy water , the major pieces of machinery in the electrolysis plant...chain reaction within the nuclear reactor . Jens-Anton Poulsson, The Heavy Water Raid: The Race for the Atom Bomb 1942-1944 (Orion Forlag AS, 2009...Special Operations during N/A World War ll against the German Controlled Heavy Water Plant in NoiWay. 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  3. Analysis of Pending Problems for a Technology Demand of Domestic Operational Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae Seo; Park, Won Seok; Wi, Myung Hwan; Ha, Jae Joo

    2008-01-15

    Eleven technology fields were chosen, which have a relation with the solution of the pending problems of domestic operational nuclear power plants to manage an efficient operation and safe regulation for domestic nuclear power plants. The progressive background, requirements, and performance on the pending problems, 34, of an operation and regulation for domestic nuclear power plants were analyzed with regard to a risk information application, severe accident, PSR of structural materials, underwater monitoring, operation inspection and a fire protection, an instrument aging, metal integrity and steam generator, human technology and a digital I and C, quality assurance, secondary system and a user reliance and mass communications. KAERI's role is to provide a solution to these pending problems of domestic nuclear power plants. KAERI's technology is to be applicable to the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants to raise an operational efficiency and an application frequency of nuclear power plants. In the future, a technology treaty between KAERI and KHNP is to be established to solve the pending problems for domestic nuclear power plants. Operation rate of nuclear power plants will also be raised and contribute to the supply of national energy due to this technology treaty.

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants` production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the second quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Olkiluoto plant units and the Midsummer outage at Olkiluoto 2 due to reduced demand for electricity. There were also brief interruptions in power operation at the Olkiluoto plant units due to three reactor scrams. All plant units are undergoing long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level which has been approved by STUK The load factor average of all plant units was 88.7 %. One event in the second quarter of 1997 was classified level 1 on the INES. The event in question was a scram at Olkiluoto 1 which was caused by erroneous opening of switches. Other events in this quarter were level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.).

  5. Wind Power Plants Fundamentals, Design, Construction and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Twele, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Wind power plants teaches the physical foundations of usage of Wind Power. It includes the areas like Construction of Wind Power Plants, Design, Development of Production Series, Control, and discusses the dynamic forces acting on the systems as well as the power conversion and its connection to the distribution system. The book is written for graduate students, practitioners and inquisitive readers of any kind. It is based on lectures held at several universities. Its German version it already is the standard text book for courses on Wind Energy Engineering but serves also as reference for practising engineers.

  6. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  7. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  8. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  9. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  10. The development of Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) for Soils - A decision support tool in nuclear and radiological emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Zhi Yi, Amelia; Dercon, Gerd; Blackburn, Carl; Kheng, Heng Lee

    2017-04-01

    In the event of a large-scale nuclear accident, the swift implementation of response actions is imperative. For food and agriculture, it is important to restrict contaminated food from being produced or gathered, and to put in place systems to prevent contaminated produce from entering the food chain. Emergency tools and response protocols exist to assist food control and health authorities but they tend to focus on radioactivity concentrations in food products as a means of restricting the distribution and sale of contaminated produce. Few, if any, emergency tools or protocols focus on the food production environment, for example radioactivity concentrations in soils. Here we present the Operational Intervention Levels for Soils (OIL for Soils) concept, an optimization tool developed at the IAEA to facilitate agricultural decision making and to improve nuclear emergency preparedness and response capabilities. Effective intervention relies on the prompt availability of radioactivity concentration data and the ability to implement countermeasures. Sampling in food and agriculture can be demanding because it may involve large areas and many sample types. In addition, there are finite resources available in terms of manpower and laboratory support. Consequently, there is a risk that timely decision making will be hindered and food safety compromised due to time taken to sample and analyse produce. However, the OILs for Soils concept developed based on experience in Japan can help in this situation and greatly assist authorities responsible for agricultural production. OILs for Soils - pre-determined reference levels of air dose rates linked to radionuclide concentrations in soils - can be used to trigger response actions particularly important for agricultural and food protection. Key considerations in the development of the OILs for Soils are: (1) establishing a pragmatic sampling approach to prioritize and optimize available resources and data requirements for

  11. An adaptive decision framework for the conservation of a threatened plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Shea, Katriona; Lah, Kristopher J.; McKenzie, Paul M.; Ball, Lianne C.; Runge, Michael C.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    Mead's milkweed Asclepias meadii, a long-lived perennial herb of tallgrass prairie and glade communities of the central United States, is a species designated as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Challenges to its successful management include the facts that much about its life history is unknown, its age at reproductive maturity is very advanced, certain life stages are practically unobservable, its productivity is responsive to unpredictable environmental events, and most of the known populations occur on private lands unprotected by any legal conservation instrument. One critical source of biological uncertainty is the degree to which fire promotes growth and reproductive response in the plant. To aid in its management, we developed a prototype population-level state-dependent decision-making framework that explicitly accounts for this uncertainty and for uncertainties related to stochastic environmental effects and vital rates. To parameterize the decision model, we used estimates found in the literature, and we analyzed data from a long-term monitoring program where fates of individual plants were observed through time. We demonstrate that different optimal courses of action are followed according to how one believes that fire influences reproductive response, and we show that the action taken for certain population states is informative for resolving uncertainty about competing beliefs regarding the effect of fire. We advocate the use of a model-predictive approach for the management of rare populations, particularly when management uncertainty is profound. Over time, an adaptive management approach should reduce uncertainty and improve management performance as predictions of management outcome generated under competing models are continually informed and updated by monitoring data.

  12. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Borger, K.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filt

  13. Accelerating progress toward operational excellence of fossil energy plants with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Turton, R. Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research (AVESTARTM). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This paper will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture.

  14. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality.

  15. Effect of operating conditions and reactor configuration on efficiency of full-scale biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Boe, Kanokwan; Ellegaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    A study on 18 full-scale centralized biogas plants was carried out in order to find significant operational factors influencing productivity and stability of the plants. It was found that the most plants were operating relatively stable with volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration below 1.5 g....../l. VFA concentration increase was observed in occasions with dramatic overloading or other disturbances such as operational temperature changes. Ammonia was found to be a significant factor for stability. A correlation between increased residual biogas production and high ammonia was found. When ammonia...

  16. Standard Operating Procedures, MCSP Monarch and Plant Monitoring, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains the six Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the initial survey instructions (ISI) developed and followed for surveys conducted as part of the...

  17. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  18. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  19. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  20. Operator training for the Yacyreta binational hydroelectric power plant; Formacion de operadores para la Central Hidroelectrica de Yacireta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dure, Francisco; Tachella, Heriberto [Entidad Binacional Yacyreta, Isla Yacireta (Paraguay). Central Hidroelectrica Yacyreta]. E-mail: yacyreta@internet.siscotel.com

    1998-07-01

    This work is oriented to the power plant operators, by exposing the criteria and methods adopted for operators selection, training and incorporation to the Yacyreta Hydroelectric Power Plant. The used criteria considered some aspects, as follows: the operation staff should be consisted of equal numbers of Argentine and Paraguayan nationalities, viewing the both systems operation; experience of the shift supervisors in operating a plant for a minimum of 10 years; the supervisors should participate training the auxiliary operators.

  1. The prioritisation of invasive alien plant control projects using a multi-criteria decision model informed by stakeholder input and spatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, G G; Le Maitre, D C; O'Farrell, P J; van Wilgen, B W

    2012-07-30

    Invasions by alien plants are a significant threat to the biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide. The South African Working for Water program was established to address this problem. It needs to formulate objective and transparent priorities for clearing in the face of multiple and sometimes conflicting demands. This study used the analytic hierarchy process (a multi-criteria decision support technique) to develop and rank criteria for prioritising alien plant control operations in the Western Cape, South Africa. Stakeholder workshops were held to identify a goal and criteria and to conduct pair-wise comparisons to weight the criteria with respect to invasive alien plant control. The combination of stakeholder input (to develop decision models) with data-driven model solutions enabled us to include many alternatives (water catchments), that would otherwise not have been feasible. The most important criteria included the capacity to maintain gains made through control operations, the potential to enhance water resources and conserve biodiversity, and threats from priority invasive alien plant species. We selected spatial datasets and used them to generate weights that could be used to objectively compare alternatives with respect to agreed criteria. The analysis showed that there are many high priority catchments which are not receiving any funding and low priority catchments which are receiving substantial allocations. Clearly, there is a need for realigning priorities, including directing sufficient funds to the highest priority catchments to provide effective control. This approach provided a tractable, consensus-based solution that can be used to direct clearing operations.

  2. The Legacy of Past Tree Planting Decisions for a City Confronting Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sean Greene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Management decisions grounded in ecological understanding are essential to the maintenance of a healthy urban forest. Decisions about where and what tree species to plant have both short and long-term consequences for the future function and resilience of city trees. Through the construction of a theoretical damage index, this study examines the legacy effects of a street tree planting program in a densely populated North American city confronting an invasion of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis. An investigation of spatial autocorrelation for locations of high damage potential across the City of Toronto, Canada was then conducted using Getis-Ord Gi*. Significant spatial clustering of high damage index values affirmed that past urban tree planting practices placing little emphasis on species diversity have created time-lagged consequences of enhanced vulnerability of trees to insect pests. Such consequences are observed at the geographically local scale, but can easily cascade to become multi-scalar in their spatial extent. The theoretical damage potential index developed in this study provides a framework for contextualizing historical urban tree planting decisions where analysis of damage index values for Toronto reinforces the importance of urban forest management that prioritizes proactive tree planting strategies that consider species diversity in the context of planting location.

  3. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  4. Reactor operating procedures for startup of continuously-operated chemical plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Kösters, P.H.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Rules are presented for the startup of an adiabatic tubular reactor, based on a qualitative analysis of the dynamic behavior of continuously-operated vapor- and liquid-phase processes. The relationships between the process dynamics, operating criteria, and operating constraints are investigated, sin

  5. Guide to the selection, training, and licensing or certification of reprocessing plant operators. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-06-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 55, establishes procedures and criteria for the licensing of operators, including senior operators, in ''Production and Utilization Facilities'', which includes plants for reprocessing irradiated fuel. A training guide is presented which will facilitate the licensing of operators for nuclear reprocessing plants by offering generalized descriptions of the basic principles (theory) and the unit operations (mechanics) employed in reprocessing spent fuels. In the present volume, details about the portions of a training program that are of major interest to management are presented. (JSR)

  6. Integration of chemical product development, process design and operation based on a kilo-plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yu; WU Zhihui; JIANG Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an integrated approach of computer-aided product development, process design and operation analysis based on a kilo-plant. The implemented kilo-plant, as a research platform to manufacture product in kilogram-scale, was designed especially for fine and specialty chemicals. The characteristics of product synthesis, process operation and product quality control are investigated coupled with computer-aided monitoring, online modeling, simulation and operation process optimization. In this way, chemical product discovery, process design and operation are integrated in a systematic approach, in the aim to respond to rapid changing marketplace demands to new products.

  7. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Pressurized water reactors. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The examinations developed using the PWR catalog will cover those topics listed under Title 10, (ode of Federal Regulations Part 55. The PWR catalog contains approximately 5100 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Catalog Organization; Generic Knowledge and Abilities; Plant Systems; Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions; Components and Theory.

  8. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations: implications for upstream water use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset includes all data used in the creation of figures and graphs in the paper: "Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations:...

  9. LONG TERM OPERATION ISSUES FOR ELECTRICAL CABLE SYSTEMS IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Dr Leonard S [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Glass III, Dr. Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power plants contain hundreds of kilometers of electrical cables including cables used for power, for instrumentation, and for control. It is essential that safety-related cable systems continue to perform following a design-basis event. Wholesale replacement of electrical cables in existing plants facing licensing period renewal is both impractical and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore important to understand the long term aging of cable materials to have confidence that aged cables will perform when needed. It is equally important in support of cable aging management to develop methods to evaluate the health of installed cables and inform selective cable replacement decisions. The most common insulation materials for electrical cables in nuclear power plants are cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene-propylene rubber. The mechanical properties of these materials degrade over time in the presence of environmental stresses including heat, gamma irradiation, and moisture. Mechanical degradation of cable insulation beyond a certain threshold is unacceptable because it can lead to insulation cracking, exposure of energized conductors, arcing and burning or loss of the ability of the cable system to function during a design-basis accident. While thermal-, radiation-, and moisture-related degradation of polymer insulation materials has been extensively studied over the last few decades, questions remain regarding the long-term performance of cable materials in nuclear plant-specific environments. Identified knowledge gaps include an understanding of the temperature-dependence of activation energies for thermal damage and an understanding of the synergistic effects of radiation and thermal stress on polymer degradation. Many of the outstanding questions in the aging behavior of cable materials relate to the necessity of predicting long-term field degradation using accelerated aging results from the laboratory. Materials degrade faster under more extreme

  10. Operational Earthquake Forecasting and Decision-Making in a Low-Probability Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.; the International Commission on Earthquake ForecastingCivil Protection

    2011-12-01

    for reliability and skill by retrospective testing, and the models should be under continuous prospective testing against long-term forecasts and alternative time-dependent models. (d) Short-term models used in operational forecasting should be consistent with the long-term forecasts used in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. (e) Alert procedures should be standardized to facilitate decisions at different levels of government, based in part on objective analysis of costs and benefits. (f) In establishing alert protocols, consideration should also be given to the less tangible aspects of value-of-information, such as gains in psychological preparedness and resilience. Authoritative statements of increased risk, even when the absolute probability is low, can provide a psychological benefit to the public by filling information vacuums that lead to informal predictions and misinformation. Formal OEF procedures based on probabilistic forecasting appropriately separate hazard estimation by scientists from the decision-making role of civil protection authorities. The prosecution of seven Italian scientists on manslaughter charges stemming from their actions before the L'Aquila earthquake makes clear why this separation should be explicit in defining OEF protocols.

  11. Assessment of LWR piping design loading based on plant operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, P. O.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of this study has been to: (1) identify current Light Water Reactor (LWR) piping design load parameters, (2) identify significant actual LWR piping loads from plant operating experience, (3) perform a comparison of these two sets of data and determine the significance of any differences, and (4) make an evaluation of the load representation in current LWR piping design practice, in view of plant operating experience with respect to piping behavior and response to loading.

  12. Determinants of farmers' tree planting investment decision as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gessesse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices are one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explores the major determinants of farm level tree planting decision as a land management strategy in a typical framing and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree planting decision (Chi-square = 37.29, df = 15, P<0.001. Besides, the computed significant value of the model suggests that all the considered predictor variables jointly influenced the farmers' decision to plant trees as a land management strategy. In this regard, the finding of the study show that local land-users' willingness to adopt tree growing decision is a function of a wide range of biophysical, institutional, socioeconomic and household level factors, however, the likelihood of household size, productive labour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system have positively and significantly influence on tree growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land use conversion and land degradation are serious which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, devising sustainable and integrated land management policy options and implementing them would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  13. A Post Licensing Study of Community Effects at Two Operating Nuclear Power Plants. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Bruce J.; And Others

    In an effort to identify and assess the social, economic, and political effects of nuclear power plant construction and operation upon two host communities (Plymouth, Massachusetts and Waterford, Connecticut), a post-licensing review revealed that the primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was an increase in the property…

  14. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, G Scott; Hudson, Naomi L; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management.

  15. Intelligent decision support system of operation-optimization in copper smelting converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚俊峰; 梅炽; 彭小奇; 周安梁; 吴冬华

    2002-01-01

    An artificial intelligence technique was applied to the optimization of flux-adding systems and air-blasting systems, the display of on-line parameters, forecasting of mass and compositions of slag in the slagging period, optimization of cold material-adding systems and air-blasting systems, the display of on-line parameters, and the forecasting of copper mass in the copper blow period in copper smelting converters. They were integrated to build the Intelligent Decision Support System of the Operation-Optimization of Copper Smelting Converter(IDSSOOCSC), which is self-learning and self-adaptating. Development steps, monoblock structure and basic functions of the IDSSOOCSC were introduced. After it was applied in a copper smelting converter, every production quota was clearly improved after IDSSOOCSC had been run for 4 months. Blister copper productivity is increased by 6%, processing load of cold input is increased by 8% and average converter life-span is improved from 213 to 235 furnace times.

  16. Archimede solar energy molten salt parabolic trough demo plant: Improvements and second year of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Augusto; Donnola, Sandro; Matino, Francesca; Tamano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    Since July 2013, the first stand-alone Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) demo plant, which was built in collaboration with Archimede Solar Energy and Chiyoda Corporation, is in operation, located adjacent to the Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) manufacturing plant in Massa Martana (Italy). During the two year's operating time frame, the management of the demo plant has shown that MSPT technology is a suitable and reliable option. Several O&M procedures and tests have been performed, as Heat Loss and Minimum Flow Test, with remarkable results confirming that this technology is ready to be extended to standard size CSP plant, if the plant design takes into account molten salt peculiarities. Additionally, the plant has been equipped on fall 2014 with a Steam Generator system by Chiyoda Corporation, in order to test even this important MSPT plant subsystem and to extend the solar field active time, overcoming the previous lack of an adequate thermal load. Here, a description of the plant improvements and the overall plant operation figures will be presented.

  17. The Application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis to the Ioland Water Treatment Plant in Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, John; Tkach, Mark; Olszewski, Jennifer; Chaudhry, Rabia; Mendoza, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    This presentation demonstrates the application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) at Zambia's principal water treatment facility, The Iolanda Water Treatment Plant. The water treatment plant is prone to unacceptable failures during periods of low hydropower production at the Kafue Gorge Dam Hydroelectric Power Plant. The case study explores approaches of increasing the water treatment plant's ability to deliver acceptable levels of service under the range of current and potential future climate states. The objective of the study is to investigate alternative investments to build system resilience that might have been informed by the CRIDA process, and to evaluate the extra resource requirements by a bilateral donor agency to implement the CRIDA process. The case study begins with an assessment of the water treatment plant's vulnerability to climate change. It does so by following general principals described in "Confronting Climate Uncertainty in Water Resource Planning and Project Design: the Decision Tree Framework". By utilizing relatively simple bootstrapping methods a range of possible future climate states is generated while avoiding the use of more complex and costly downscaling methodologies; that are beyond the budget and technical capacity of many teams. The resulting climate vulnerabilities and uncertainty in the climate states that produce them are analyzed as part of a "Level of Concern" analysis. CRIDA principals are then applied to this Level of Concern analysis in order to arrive at a set of actionable water management decisions. The principal goals of water resource management is to transform variable, uncertain hydrology into dependable services (e.g. water supply, flood risk reduction, ecosystem benefits, hydropower production, etc…). Traditional approaches to climate adaptation require the generation of predicted future climate states but do little guide decision makers how this information should impact decision making. In

  18. Toxicity Tests for Ensuring Succesful Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cěbere, B.; Faltiņa, E.; Zelčāns, N.; Kalniņa, D.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters are complex and can be polluted by non-biodegradable end toxic organic compounds and are a serious threat to the environment. Chemical procedure alone cannot provide sufficient information. A complete evaluation of wastewaters should include ecotoxicological tests too, especially concerning the complex wastewaters. In the literature review the authors attempted to establish which is the more promising and suitable aquatic toxicology test for sewage treatment plant influent toxicity monitoring. A variety of types of organisms representing different trophic levels and many different species are used for aquatic toxicity testing. Toxicity characterization would be needed both for influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plant. For the purpose of screening biological wastewater treatment influent, toxicity to activated sludge microorganisms is important and toxicology tests here used are respirometry and bioluminescence toxicology tests. Respirometry toxicity tests are easy, fast and inexpensive compared to other approaches. Bioluminescence has been widely used, the most thoroughly investigated test system is the Microtox. The toxicity tests have also been compared by different authors. International, national and regional authorities use these tools to meet various regulatory and legislative requirements. Importance of biotesting has been emphasized also in EU legislation.

  19. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

  20. Study of operation optimization based on data mining technique in power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianqiang; LIU Jizhen; GU Junjie; NIU Chenglin

    2007-01-01

    The determination of operation optimization value is very important for economic analysis and operation optimization in power plants.The operation optimization value determined by traditional methods usually cannot reflect the actual running states correctly in power plants with the increase in running time.Based on a large amount of history data stored in power plants,a way of operation optimization by applying data mining technique is proposed.The structure of operation optimi-zation based on data mining is established and the fuzzy association rule mining algorithm is introduced to find the operation optimization target value to guide the operation in power plants.Based on the actual local data in a 300 MW unit,the operation optimization value in typical load ranges is found out by data mining to provide better adjustment guidance in industry process.Experimental results show that the determination of operation optimization value based on data mining can improve the efficiency and decrease the emission of pollutants.

  1. Tableau-based decision procedure for the multiagent epistemic logic with all coalitional operators for common and distributed knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajspur, Mai; Goranko, Valentin; Shkatov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    We develop a conceptually clear, intuitive and feasible decision procedure for testing satisfiability in the full multiagent epistemic logic CMAEL(CD) with operators for common and distributed knowledge for all coalitions of agents mentioned in the language. To that end, we introduce Hintikka str...

  2. Is the Ownership Structure Model a Decisive Determinant of Co-Operatives' Financial Success? A Financial Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Kuikman, J.; Doumpos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper, the financial/ownership structures of agribusiness co-operatives (co-ops) are analyzed in order to examine whether new co-op models perform better than the more traditional ones. The assessment procedure introduces a new financial decision-aid approach, which is based on dat

  3. 75 FR 60740 - Record of Decision for the Base Closure and Realignment Beddown and Flight Operations of Remotely...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Operations of Remotely Piloted Aircraft at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota. The ROD states the Air Force... Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: On September 17, 2010, the United States Air Force... Remotely Piloted Aircraft at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota, inputs from the public and regulatory agencies...

  4. Advanced decision support techniques in combination with smart card and local operating network technologies for intelligent energy management in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolokotsa, D.; Kalaitzakis, K.; Stavrakakis, G.; Sutherland, G.; Santamouris, M.; Soultanidis, S.; Moumtzis, P.; Brunet, J.; Guillaumin, P.; Pelegrini, L.; Romiti, G.; Bakker, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to present recent developments of integrated building energy manaeement system combining intelligent decision making systems and smart card technology using Local Operating Network (LON) techniques applying mainly to existing buildings and to new buildings with

  5. IMPACT OF THE COLD END OPERATING CONDITIONS ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE STEAM POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Laković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional steam power plant working under the Rankine Cycle and the steam condenser as a heat sink and the steam boiler as a heat source have the same importance for the power plant operating process. Energy efficiency of the coal fired power plant strongly depends on its turbine-condenser system operation mode. For the given thermal power plant configuration, cooling water temperature or/and flow rate change generate alterations in the condenser pressure. Those changes have great influence on the energy efficiency of the plant. This paper focuses on the influence of the cooling water temperature and flow rate on the condenser performance, and thus on the specific heat rate of the coal fired plant and its energy efficiency. Reference plant is working under turbine-follow mode with an open cycle cooling system. Analysis is done using thermodynamic theory, in order to define heat load dependence on the cooling water temperature and flow rate. Having these correlations, for given cooling water temperature it is possible to determine optimal flow rate of the cooling water in order to achieve an optimal condensing pressure, and thus, optimal energy efficiency of the plant. Obtained results could be used as useful guidelines in improving existing power plants performances and also in design of the new power plants.

  6. Reduction of operations and maintenance costs at geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Stevens, C.G.; Rard, J.A.; Kasameyer, P.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    To reduce chemical costs at geothermal power plants, we are investigating: (a) improved chemical processes associated with H{sub 2}S abatement techniques, and (b) the use of cross dispersive infrared spectrometry to monitor accurately, reliably, and continuously H{sub 2}S emissions from cooling towers. The latter is a new type of infrared optical technology developed by LLNL for non-proliferation verification. Initial work is focused at The Geysers in cooperation with Pacific Gas and Electric. Methods for deploying the spectrometer on-site at The Geysers are being developed. Chemical analysis of solutions involved in H{sub 2}S abatement technologies is continuing to isolate the chemical forms of sulfur produced.

  7. Safety requirements to the operation of hydropower plants; Sicherheit beim Betrieb von Wasserkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Reinhard [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse (BG ETEM), Koeln (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Employers have to take into account various safety and health requirements relating to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of hydropower plants. Especially the diversity of the hydropower plant components requires the consideration of different safety and health aspects. In 2011 the ''Fachausschuss Elektrotechnik'' (expert committee electro-technics) of the institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention presented a new ''BG-Information'' dealing with ''Safe methods operating hydropower plants''. The following article gives an introduction into the conception and the essential requirements of this new BG-Information. (orig.)

  8. INVASIVE PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS REMNANT FOREST: RECOMMENDATION FOR CHOOSING BEST DECISION FOR INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT OF Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decky Indrawan Junaedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. is an exotic species found in native remnant forest of GPNP which is located inside the Cibodas Botanic Garden (CBG. Risk assessment is an important tool to choose best decision for invasive plant management.  Risk assessment analysis on C. aurantiacum in Cibodas Botanic Garden was conducted using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method.  Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP used in the valuation process. Three sub-criteria used: minimizing the ecological impact, minimizing the management cost, and maximizing the public acceptance. Five management alternatives were used: do nothing (DN, eradication (E, containment (C, bio-control (BC and harvesting (H. Harvesting (H recommended as the best management decision for C. aurantiacumin at CBG remnant forest. This harvesting decision is not only creating environment/ ecosystem remediation but also as sources of fund in the management activity of the area.

  9. Ergonomic study of an operator's work of a molybdenum plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Esteban; Meyer, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    This study was part of an ergonomic program which is being carried out through an agreement between the University of Concepción and a Chilean private mining company. The purpose of this case study was to identify working conditions in which the physical and mental workload could be over the capabilities of the operator. He was responsible for loading trucks with sacks of molybdenum and for downloading reagents and handles them. The methods employed in this study included electronic records, interviews, surveys, review of the company standards, a time study and physical and mental workload analysis. Results showed that 84% of the time the operator was carrying out principal and secondary activities and no break periods were detected. It was found that the pace of work and the shift system generated unfavorable conditions by imbalance in the workload on the different days of the week. In the light of the results recommendations were made for a number of ergonomic changes. Most of them were accepted by the company. The most important achievement was a change in the shift system. The overload of the operator was due to the fact that he was in a shift working 5 days and resting on weekends. The imbalance was mainly because the work of the week end was accumulated for Monday. As a result of the study, the company contracted a second worker for this job and adopted a 7x7 shift system, meaning that they work seven days and rest seven days. An evaluation carried out two month after adopting the new shift revealed that changes were well accepted by the worker.

  10. 76 FR 26301 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Y-12 Plant in Oak...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...: Facility: Y-12 Plant. Location: Oak Ridge, TN. Job Titles and/or Job Duties: All workers potentially... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Y-12 Plant in...: HHS gives notice as required by 42 CFR 83.12(e) of a decision to evaluate a petition to designate a...

  11. Solar steam supply: Initial operation of a plant

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Dirk; Lichtenthäler, Niels; Dersch, Jürgen; Schenk, Heiko; Hennecke, Klaus; Anthrakidis, Anette; Rusack, Markus; Lokurlu, Ahmet; Saidi, Karim; Walder, Marcus; Fischer, Stephan; Wirth, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiences in operating a parabolic trough collector field for process heat supply by direct steam generation. The solar steam generator has been running automatically since its start in 2010 except for a winter pause up to now, August 2011, without any malfunction. It has supplied steam at 4 bar absolute and 143°C to the main production steam line on sunny days. Direct steam generation has proven to be a viable technology to supply saturated steam to an industrial st...

  12. Applying Hybrid Decision-Making Method Based on Fuzzy AHP-WOWA Operator for Emergency Alternative Evaluation of Unattended Train Operation Metro System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal alternative selection to address the emergency situation is critical for dispatcher group in Unattended Train Operation (UTO to guide emergency process. It is difficult to provide the precise decision value under one criterion and to evaluate the emergency alternatives among multiple dispatchers. This paper presents a hybrid emergency decision-making method integrating fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP described by linguistic terms with enhanced weighted ordered weighted averaging (WOWA operator. The enhanced WOWA operator aggregates the preference matrices of multidispatcher through the constructed emergency response task model of dispatcher group in OCC. This calculation approach takes into consideration the relations of emergency tasks to derive the importance weights of dispatchers and integrates them into the ordered weighted averaging (OWA operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case study of applying the method in an emergency of a train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of the methods associated with the group multicriteria decision-making (GMCDM theory in emergency management of UTO metro system.

  13. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  14. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  15. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume emphasizes material needed by intermediate-level operators and stresses the operation and maintenance of conventional treatment plants. This volume…

  16. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  17. 7 CFR 56.18 - Schedule of operation of official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Licensed and Authorized Graders § 56.18 Schedule of operation of official plants. Grading operating schedules for services performed pursuant to §§ 56.52 and 56.54 shall be requested in writing and be approved by the Administrator. Normal...

  18. 7 CFR 70.18 - Schedule of operation of official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.18 Schedule of operation of official plants. Grading operation schedules for services performed pursuant to §§ 70.76 and 70.77 shall be requested in writing and be approved by the...

  19. Total simulation of operator team behavior in emergencies at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, K; Sunaoshi, W; Suzuki, K

    2000-09-01

    In a large and complex system (i.e., a space aeronautics and nuclear power plant) it would be valuable to conduct operator training and support to demonstrate standard operators' behavior in coping with an anomaly caused by multiple malfunctions in which procedures would not have been stipulated previously. A system simulating operator team behavior including individual operator's cognitive behavior, his operations and physical behavior, and even verbal communication among team members, has been developed for a typical commercial nuclear power plant. This simulation model is not a scenario-based system but a complete knowledge-based system, based on the mental model that was envisaged by detailed analyses of experimental results obtained in the full-scope plant simulator. This mental model is composed of a set of knowledge bases and rules able to generate both diagnosis and prognosis depending on the observed situation even for multiple malfunctions. Simulation results of operator team behavior and plant dynamics were compared with corresponding experiments in several anomalies of multiple malfunctions. The comparison showed a reasonable agreement, so the simulation conditions were varied on cognitive task processing speed of individual operators, on team role sharing scheme, and on human machine interface (1st generation to 2nd generation control panel) to assess the sensitivity of this simulation model. Finally, it was shown that this simulation model has applications for the use of training standards and computer aided operator support systems.

  20. Information management system for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, M.C. (Duke Power Co. (US)); Jones, C.R. (S. Levy Inc. (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the principal requirements and features of a computerized information management system (IMS) believed to be a necessary part of the program to design, build and operate the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States. This way a result of extensive review and input from an industry group studying future nuclear power plant construction improvements. The needs of the power plant constructor, owner and operator for such a computerized technical data base are described in terms of applications and scope and timing of turnover of the IMS by the plant designer. The applications cover the full life cycle of the plant including project control, construction activities, quality control, maintenance and operation. The scope of the IMS is also described in terms of the technical data to be included, hardware and software capabilities and training. The responsibilities of the plant designer for developing the IMS and generating the technical data base is defined as part of the plant process. The requirements to be met include a comprehensive plant data model and computer system hardware and software.

  1. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Tasks for ANAV NPPs in Support of Plant Operation and Control

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis tasks aimed at supporting plant operation and control of nuclear power plants are an important issue for the Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellòs (ANAV). ANAV is the consortium that runs the Ascó power plants (2 units) and the Vandellòs-II power plant. The reactors are Westinghouse-design, 3-loop PWRs with an approximate electrical power of 1000 MW. The Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) thermal-hydraulic analysis team has jointly worked togeth...

  2. Development and Application of Decision Aid for Tactical Control of Battlefield Operations: Bibliographic Sort of the Decision Aiding Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    98 .~ LS)~ TRA S-IISSION EýF I~@BETWEEN MMS AND ENIVIR NTISwAD 7226117 7112 48 It 1972 - 1973 L ISTINýG BY YEAR . * AUTwqR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ... INTELLIGENCE NTIS AD 760782 72 AUT.,,-*. "iE-i:. Y , •ST IN SIMPLE DEZ MAK T.’SK NTIS AD 760703 73. AUTI’R DF- ` A v^R GAMES MODEL VOL I MAIN REPORT NTIS AD...35914 BAKER C w RBJ STUDY OF JUDGEMENT AND DEC TAKING OCCVP PSY 57 31 ii BEI.LMAN R CONSTRUCTION MULTI-STAGE MULTI-PERSON BUSINS GAME OPER RES 57 5 469

  3. Aggregation operators on intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy number and its application to multi-criteria decision making problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianqiang; Zhang Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and their operational laws are defined. Based on these op-erational laws, some aggregation operators, including intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy weighted arithmetic averaging operator and weighted geometric averaging operator are proposed. Expected values, score function, and accuracy function of intuitionitsic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are defined. Based on these, a kind of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method is proposed. By using these aggregation operators, criteria values are aggregated and integrated intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers of alternatives are attained. By comparing score function and accuracy function values of integrated fuzzy numbers, a ranking of the whole alternative set can be attained. An example is given to show the feasibility and availability of the method.

  4. Aggregation Operators on Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers and its Application to Multi-Criteria Decision Making Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Changyong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present some aggregation operators with triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers and study their desirable properties. Firstly, the score function and the accuracy function of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number are given, the method for ranking triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are developed. Then, some geometric aggregation operators for aggregating triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are developed, such as triangular intuitionistic fuzzy weighted geometric (TIFWG operator, the triangular intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted geometric (TIFOWG operator and the triangular intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid geometric (TIFHG operator. Moreover, an application of the new approach to multi-criteria decision making method was proposed based on the geometric average operator of TIFNs, and the new ranking method for TIFNs is used to rank the alternatives. Finally, an example analysis is given to verify and demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Frank Aggregation Operators for Triangular Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Set and Its Application in Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindong Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an approach to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM problems, in which the individual assessments are in the form of triangle interval type-2 fuzzy numbers (TIT2FNs. Firstly, some Frank operation laws of triangle interval type-2 fuzzy set (TIT2FS are defined. Secondly, some Frank aggregation operators such as the triangle interval type-2 fuzzy Frank weighted averaging (TIT2FFWA operator and the triangle interval type-2 fuzzy Frank weighted geometric (TIT2FFWG operator are developed for aggregation TIT2FNs. Furthermore, some desirable properties of the two aggregation operators are analyzed in detail. Finally, an approach based on TIT2FFWA (or TIT2FFWG operator to solve MAGDM is developed. An illustrative example about supplier selection is provided to illustrate the developed procedures. The results demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of our new method.

  6. Simulation and comparison of different operational strategies for storage utilization in concentrated solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Erdocia, Ioseba

    2016-05-01

    The increase of electric power demand and the wish to protect the environment are leading to a change in the energy sources. Conventional energy plants are losing strength against the renewable energy plants and, in particular, solar energy plants have a huge potential to provide clean energy supply for the increasing world's energy demand. Among the existing solar technologies, Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is one of the most promising technologies. One of the major advantages of CSP plants is the technically feasible and cost-effective integration of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems. To increase the plant dispatchability, it is possible to create different operational strategies defining how such TES system is used. In this work, different strategies with different overall goals have been simulated over a complete year and the results are presented and compared here to demonstrate the capabilities of the operational strategies towards an increased dispatchability and plant economic effectiveness. The analysis shows that different strategies may lead to significant differences in the plant annual production, expected economic incomes, number of power block stops, mean efficiency, etc. Specifically, it has been found that the economic incomes of a plant can be increased (+1.3%) even with a decreased total energy production (-1.5%) if the production is scheduled to follow a demand/price curve. Also, dramatic reduction in the number of turbine stops (-67%) can be achieved if the plant is operated towards this objective. The strategies presented in this study have not been optimized towards any specific objective, but only created to show the potential of well designed operational strategies in CSP plants. Therefore, many other strategies as well as optimized versions of the strategies explained below are possible and will be analyzed in future works.

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillanpaeae, T. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants` production and load factors. In the third quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units and a shutdown at Olkiluoto 1 to identify and repair malfunctions of a high pressure turbine control valve. The load factor average of all plant units was 77.2%. Events in the third quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The names of Teollisuuden Voima Oy`s plant units have changed. Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 now replace the names TVO I and TVO II previously used in quarterly reports. (orig.).

  8. Expert system decision support for low-cost launch vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, G. P.; Levin, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in assessing the feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with AI expert systems applied to low cost expendable launch vehicle systems is described. Part one identified potential application areas in vehicle operations and on-board functions, assessed measures of cost benefit, and identified key technologies to aid in the implementation of decision support systems in this environment. Part two of the program began the development of prototypes to demonstrate real-time vehicle checkout with controller and diagnostic/analysis intelligent systems and to gather true measures of cost savings vs. conventional software, verification and validation requirements, and maintainability improvement. The main objective of the expert advanced development projects was to provide a robust intelligent system for control/analysis that must be performed within a specified real-time window in order to meet the demands of the given application. The efforts to develop the two prototypes are described. Prime emphasis was on a controller expert system to show real-time performance in a cryogenic propellant loading application and safety validation implementation of this system experimentally, using commercial-off-the-shelf software tools and object oriented programming techniques. This smart ground support equipment prototype is based in C with imbedded expert system rules written in the CLIPS protocol. The relational database, ORACLE, provides non-real-time data support. The second demonstration develops the vehicle/ground intelligent automation concept, from phase one, to show cooperation between multiple expert systems. This automated test conductor (ATC) prototype utilizes a knowledge-bus approach for intelligent information processing by use of virtual sensors and blackboards to solve complex problems. It incorporates distributed processing of real-time data and object-oriented techniques for command, configuration control, and auto-code generation.

  9. PAREX, a numerical code in the service of La Hague plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisson, J.; Huron, P.; Huel, C. [AREVA NC, La Hague Plant, Technical Direction, 50444, Beaumont-Hague (France); Dinh, B. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Process Department, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    The PAREX code developed by the CEA is able to simulate the PUREX process in steady or transient state. From an operator point of view, this numerical code for simulation of liquid-liquid extraction operations is an outstanding tool as an aid for plant operation through process flow sheet optimization, troubleshooting and safety analysis calculations. This paper focuses on two examples. The first concerns the evaluation of the available operating margin of the extraction zone of the first purification cycle flowsheet. The second example concerns a uranium-plutonium splitting operation where the code was used to explain a shift of plutonium concentration in the solvent outlet. (authors)

  10. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  11. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    Electric power has been traditionally supplied to customers at regulated rates by vertically integrated utilities (VIUs), which own generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, the regulatory authorities of VIUs are promoting competition in their businesses to lower the price of electric energy. Consequently, in new deregulated circumstances, many suppliers and marketers compete in the generation market, and conflict of interest may often occur over transmission. Therefore, a neutral entity, called an independent system operator (ISO), which operates the power system independently, has been established to give market participants nondiscriminatory access to transmission sectors with a natural monopoly, and to facilitate competition in generation sectors. Several types of ISOs are established at present, with their respective regions and authorities. The ISO receives many requests from market participants to transfer power, and must evaluate the feasibility of their requests under the system's condition. In the near future, regulatory authorities may impose various objectives on the ISOs. Then, based on the regulators' policies, the ISO must determine the optimal schedules from feasible solutions, or change the market participants' requests. In a newly developed power market, market participants will conduct their transactions in order to maximize their profit. The most crucial information in conducting power transactions is price and demand. A direct transaction between suppliers and consumers may become attractive because of its stability of price, while in a power exchange market, gaming and speculation of participants may push up electricity prices considerably. To assist the consumers in making effective decisions, suitable methods for forecasting volatile market price are necessary. This research has been approached from three viewpoints: Firstly, from the system operator's point of view, desirable system operation and power market structure

  12. Theoretical and experimental researches on the operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F.-V.; Anton, I.-A.

    2015-11-01

    Purpose of the work: The total cost of a sewage plants is often determined by the present value method. All of the annual operating costs for each process are converted to the value of today's correspondence and added to the costs of investment for each process, which leads to getting the current net value. The operating costs of the sewage plants are subdivided, in general, in the premises of the investment and operating costs. The latter can be stable (normal operation and maintenance, the establishment of power) or variables (chemical and power sludge treatment and disposal, of effluent charges). For the purpose of evaluating the preliminary costs so that an installation can choose between different alternatives in an incipient phase of a project, can be used cost functions. In this paper will be calculated the operational cost to make several scenarios in order to optimize its. Total operational cost (fixed and variable) is dependent global parameters of wastewater treatment plant. Research and methodology: The wastewater treatment plant costs are subdivided in investment and operating costs. We can use different cost functions to estimate fixed and variable operating costs. In this study we have used the statistical formulas for cost functions. The method which was applied to study the impact of the influent characteristics on the costs is economic analysis. Optimization of plant design consist in firstly, to assess the ability of the smallest design to treat the maximum loading rates to a given effluent quality and, secondly, to compare the cost of the two alternatives for average and maximum loading rates. Results: In this paper we obtained the statistical values for the investment cost functions, operational fixed costs and operational variable costs for wastewater treatment plant and its graphical representations. All costs were compared to the net values. Finally we observe that it is more economical to build a larger plant, especially if maximum loading

  13. U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, RL

    2003-09-18

    The ''U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries'' (NUREG/CR-6577, Supp. 2) report has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants during 2000-2001. Costs incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, which represent fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications, which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operations summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from operating reports submitted by the licensees, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) database for enforcement actions, and outage reports.

  14. Planning guide biomass conversion plants consisting of concrete. Planning, dimensioning and operation; Planungshilfe Biogasanlagen aus Beton. Planung, Bemessung, Ausfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middel, Matthias (ed.)

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, the construction of biomass conversion plants for the production of clean energy experienced a boom. This boom will still continue for some years. The operation of biomass conversion plants imposes high demands on the construction. Simultaneously, the operators of biomass conversion plants expect a long trouble-free service life of their plants. Biogas plants consisting of concrete meet these requirements, if these are carefully planned and performed. The book under consideration provides the necessary expertise for this.

  15. Impact of fuel cell power plants on multi-objective optimal operation management of distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, T. [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zeinoddini-Meymand, H. [Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents an interactive fuzzy satisfying method based on hybrid modified honey bee mating optimization and differential evolution (MHBMO-DE) to solve the multi-objective optimal operation management (MOOM) problem, which can be affected by fuel cell power plants (FCPPs). The objective functions are to minimize total electrical energy losses, total electrical energy cost, total pollutant emission produced by sources, and deviation of bus voltages. A new interactive fuzzy satisfying method is presented to solve the multi-objective problem by assuming that the decision-maker (DM) has fuzzy goals for each of the objective functions. Through the interaction with the DM, the fuzzy goals of the DM are quantified by eliciting the corresponding membership functions. Then, by considering the current solution, the DM acts on this solution by updating the reference membership values until the satisfying solution for the DM can be obtained. The MOOM problem is modeled as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem. Evolutionary methods are used to solve this problem because of their independence from type of the objective function and constraints. Recently researchers have presented a new evolutionary method called honey bee mating optimization (HBMO) algorithm. Original HBMO often converges to local optima, in order to overcome this shortcoming, we propose a new method that improves the mating process and also, combines the modified HBMO with DE algorithm. Numerical results for a distribution test system have been presented to illustrate the performance and applicability of the proposed method. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Arsenic pilot plant operation and results:Weatherford, Oklahoma.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Malynda Jo; Arora, H. (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Karori, Saqib (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona); Pathan, Sakib (Narasimhan Consulting Services Inc., Phoenix, Arizona)

    2007-05-01

    Narasimhan Consulting Services, Inc. (NCS), under a contract with the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), designed and operated pilot scale evaluations of the adsorption and coagulation/filtration treatment technologies aimed at meeting the recently revised arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water. The standard of 10 {micro}g/L (10 ppb) is effective as of January 2006. The pilot demonstration is a project of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, a partnership between the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF), SNL and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development). The pilot evaluation was conducted at Well 30 of the City of Weatherford, OK, which supplies drinking water to a population of more than 10,400. Well water contained arsenic in the range of 16 to 29 ppb during the study. Four commercially available adsorption media were evaluated side by side for a period of three months. Both adsorption and coagulation/filtration effectively reduced arsenic from Well No.30. A preliminary economic analysis indicated that adsorption using an iron oxide media was more cost effective than the coagulation/ filtration technology.

  17. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  18. Barriers And Profits Of Distan ce Education In Operations Research Based Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Szapiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Distance education and blended learning allow universities to lower costs, have more return on economies of scale, better control educational process and provide higher quality services for students. This process however requires specialized software to be used by a university. The paper tackles issues related with this approach and presents guidelines for construction of a framework for creating web-based education support software in quantitative area – the meta-framework that al lows for a rapid construction of web-based educational decision analysis software. The framework design in paper covers three aspect: (1 information system modeling, (2 decision problem modeling and (3 teaching process modeling. The information system modeling includes system architecture, servers, programming languages and technical design. The decision problem modeling prov ides means to present an abstract decision problem (and more generally - a problem where quantitative methods can be used and to model interaction between software and decision maker (i.e. a student learning a decision algorithm. Teaching process modeling includes support for linear teaching algorithm in the decision making process, further this can be extended into non-linear and hybrid teaching algorithms. As a proof of concept a working framework prototype named Combine! will be presented. The software’s usefulness was evaluated through a survey carried out on 234 students at Warsaw School of Economics.

  19. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Tasks for ANAV NPPs in Support of Plant Operation and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Reventós

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-hydraulic analysis tasks aimed at supporting plant operation and control of nuclear power plants are an important issue for the Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellòs (ANAV. ANAV is the consortium that runs the Ascó power plants (2 units and the Vandellòs-II power plant. The reactors are Westinghouse-design, 3-loop PWRs with an approximate electrical power of 1000 MW. The Technical University of Catalonia (UPC thermal-hydraulic analysis team has jointly worked together with ANAV engineers at different levels in the analysis and improvement of these reactors. This article is an illustration of the usefulness of computational analysis for operational support. The contents presented were operational between 1985 and 2001 and subsequently changed slightly following various organizational adjustments. The paper has two different parts. In the first part, it describes the specific aspects of thermal-hydraulic analysis tasks related to operation and control and, in the second part, it briefly presents the results of three examples of analyses that were performed. All the presented examples are related to actual situations in which the scenarios were studied by analysts using thermal-hydraulic codes and prepared nodalizations. The paper also includes a qualitative evaluation of the benefits obtained by ANAV through thermal-hydraulic analyses aimed at supporting operation and plant control.

  20. Operational Decision Support for Material Management in Continuous Mining Systems: From Simulation Concept to Practical Full-Scale Implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soleymani Shishvan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Material management in opencast mines is concerned with planning, organizing, and control of the flow of materials from their extraction points to destinations. It can be strongly affected by operational decisions that have to be made during the production process. To date, little research has focused on the application of simulation modeling as a powerful supportive tool for decision making in such systems. Practical experiences from implementing a simulation model of a mine for the operational support on an industrial scale are not known to the authors. This paper presents the extension of a developed stochastic simulation model by the authors from a conceptual stage (TRL4 to a new Technology Readiness Level (TRL 6 by implementing it in an industrially relevant environment. A framework for modeling, simulation, and validation of the simulation model applied to two large opencast lignite mines is presented in detail. Operational implementation issues, experiences, and challenges in practical applications are discussed. Furthermore, the strength of applying the simulation modeling as an operational decision support for material management in coal mining is demonstrated. Results of the case studies are used to describe the details of the framework, and to illustrate the strength and limitations of its application.

  1. Design and Implementation of Multi Agentbased Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (A Case Study on Military Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datunaya Wahyudi Sumari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quick, accurate, and complete information is highly required for supporting strategically impact decision making in a Military Operation (MO in order to reduce the decision cycle and to minimize the loss. For that purpose, we propose, design and implement a hierarchical Multi Agentbased Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (MAIFSDMS. The information fusion is implemented by applying Maximum Score of the Total Sum of Joint Probabilities (MSJP fusion method and is done by a collection of Information Fusion Agents (IFA that forms a multiagent system. MAIFS uses a combination of generalization of Dasarathy and Joint Director’s Laboratory (JDL process models for information fusion mechanism. Information fusion products that are displayed in graphical forms provide comprehensive information regarding the MO’s area dynamics. By observing the graphics resulted from the information fusion, the commandant will have situational awareness and knowledge in order to make the most accurate strategic de cision as fast as possible.

  2. The Operator Training Simulator System for the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, Trevor [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, Pebble House, Centurion (South Africa)], E-mail: trevor.dudley@pbmr.co.za; Villiers, Piet de; Bouwer, Werner [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, Pebble House, Centurion (South Africa); Luh, Robert [GSE Systems, Inc., 7133 Rutherford Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21244 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a First of a Kind Engineering with respect to the over 200 new innovations used in the design. The PBMR technical design is an inherited modified design from an earlier design such as the German 15 MWe AVR (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchs Reaktor) and the THTR-300 MWe Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR), which ran in Germany as a test and research facility for 20 years. This paper discusses the Operator Training Simulator System for the PBMR Demonstration Power Plant. The Operator Training Simulator System will be used for operator training and licensing of plant operators. Included in the discussion is an overview of the major elements of the Operator Training Simulator System, including some of the main functional areas.

  3. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchettini, Gabriele; Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alexandru; Glass, Richard; Ellis, Clare Butler; Machera, Kyriaki; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Spanoghe, Pieter; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment, promoting integrated pest management and stimulating effective non-chemical alternatives. The core idea of the SUD is that it is necessary to monitor the use of PPPs through the implementation of an appropriate set of risk indicators to monitor progress and trends in risk reduction within the Member States. To contribute to this direction, following a comprehensive analysis of the risk (including procedures of risk assessment and risk management) and involving stakeholders in the decision process, specific toolboxes of practical indirect risk indicators of exposure of Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents were developed and are now available to be used by Member States (MSs) based on their specific context.

  4. Decision Support Tool and Simulation Testbed for Airborne Spacing and Merging in Super Dense Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of a decision support tool and simulation testbed for Airborne Spacing and Merging (ASM). We focus on concepts...

  5. Decision Support Tool and Simulation Testbed for Airborne Spacing and Merging in Super Dense Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of a decision support tool for distributed air-ground scheduling sequencing, spacing and merging of aircraft in...

  6. Classification of emotions by multivariate analysis and individual differences of nuclear power plant operators` emotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Naoko; Yoshimura, Seiichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study is the development of a simulation model which expresses operators` emotion under plant emergency. This report shows the classification of emotions by multivariate analysis and investigation results conducted to clarify individual differences of activated emotion influenced by personal traits. Although a former investigation was conducted to classify emotions into five basic emotions proposed by Johnson-Laird, the basic emotions was not based on real data. For the development of more realistic and accurate simulation model, it is necessary to recognize basic emotion and to classify emotions into them. As a result of analysis by qualification method 3 and cluster analysis, four basic clusters were clarified, i.e., Emotion expressed towards objects, Emotion affected by objects, Pleasant emotion, and Surprise. Moreover, 51 emotions were ranked in the order according to their similarities in each cluster. An investigation was conducted to clarify individual differences in emotion process using 87 plant operators. The results showed the differences of emotion depending on the existence of operators` foresight, cognitive style, experience in operation, and consciousness of attribution to an operating team. For example, operators with low self-efficacy, short experience or low consciousness of attribution to a team, feel more intensive emotion under plant emergency and more affected by severe plant conditions. The model which can express individual differences will be developed utilizing and converting these data hereafter. (author)

  7. Annual report, August 1976--July 1977 Radiation dose to construction workers at operating nuclear power plant sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, G.W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation exposures received by most construction workers at nuclear power plant sites have not been measured routinely because field surveys have indicated exposure levels below the point for which monitoring is required. As a consequence, the dose to individuals and groups of workers is not known to the degree desired for adequate environmental impact assessment. This study was developed to measure and evaluate radiation exposure and exposure rates received by construction workers at various reactor sites where one or more reactors are operating while construction is proceeding on one or more additional reactors. This study is providing a data base from which a realistic assessment of radiological impact can be made for the construction workers of proposed multiunit nuclear power plants and to help arrive at a decision as to whether increased control of the radiation exposure of these workers is warranted. Four nuclear sites were included in this study after receiving approval of the operating utilities. Data from thermoluminescent personnel dosimeters and environmental dosimeters showed that the construction workers receive very little exposure above background.

  8. Foraging decisions of bison for rapid energy gains can explain the relative risk to neighboring plants in complex swards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Sabrina; Fortin, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Herbivores commonly base their foraging decisions not only on the intrinsic characteristics of plants, but also on the attributes of neighboring species. Although herbivores commonly orient their food choices toward the maximization of energy intake, the impact of such choices on neighboring plants remains largely unexplored. We evaluated whether foraging decisions by herbivores aiming at a rapid intake of digestible energy could explain multiple neighboring effects in complex swards. Specifically, we assessed how spatial patterns of occurrence of Carex atherodes, a highly profitable sedge species, could control the risk of bison (Bison bison) herbivory for seven other plant species. The foraging behavior of 70 free-ranging bison was evaluated in their natural environment during summer, and then related to plant characteristics. We used this information to estimate the instantaneous intake rate of digestible energy at individual feeding stations. We found that neighbor contrast defense and associational susceptibility can both be explained by simple foraging rules of energy maximization. Energy gains were higher when C. atherodes was consumed while avoiding the species for which we detected neighbor contrast defense. The lower intake rate associated with their consumption was due to an increase in handling time caused by their small size relative to C. atherodes. Bison also had higher energy gains by consuming instead of avoiding the plant species that experienced associational susceptibility. Because most of these plants were at least as tall as C. atherodes, their presence increased the heterogeneity of the grazed stratum. Avoiding their consumption increased handling time thereby reducing the instantaneous rate of energy intake. Overall, we found that bison adjust their fine-scale foraging decisions to vertical and horizontal sward structures in a way that maximizes their energy intake rate. Energy maximization principles thus provide a valuable framework to

  9. Operation of Shared Systems via a Common Control System in a Multi-Modular Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral type reactors may need to be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands due to the small electrical output of an individual reactor. Sharing of systems among modules at a nuclear plant site is economically beneficial. Operation of systems shared between modules in a multi-modular plant is an issue never met in current NPPs, which may impact human performance. A design of operation of the shared systems via a common control system is presented as a technical approach to solve the problem. Modules and shared systems are controlled in independent network domains, respectively. Different from current NPPs, a limitation of operation authorities corresponding to certain modules and shared systems is defined to minimize the operation confusion between modules by one operator and to minimize the operation confusion of shared systems by different operators. Different characteristics of the shared system are analyzed, and different operation and control strategies are presented. An example is given as an application of the operation strategies. The operation design of the multi-modular system is in the preliminary stage, and, as an concept design, more verification and validation is needed in further works.

  10. Method for Prediction of the Power Output from Photovoltaic Power Plant under Actual Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Surzhikova, O. A.; Savkin, K. D.

    2017-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic technology is one of the most rapidly growing renewable sources of electricity that has practical application in various fields of human activity due to its high availability, huge potential and environmental compatibility. The original simulation model of the photovoltaic power plant has been developed to simulate and investigate the plant operating modes under actual operating conditions. The proposed model considers the impact of the external climatic factors on the solar panel energy characteristics that improves accuracy in the power output prediction. The data obtained through the photovoltaic power plant operation simulation enable a well-reasoned choice of the required capacity for storage devices and determination of the rational algorithms to control the energy complex.

  11. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met......, waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have...

  12. Nuclear power plant simulators: their use in operator training and requalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.; Baer, D.K.; Francis, C.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the capabilities and use of nuclear power plant simulators either built or being built by the US nuclear power industry; to determine the adequacy of existing standards for simulator design and for the training of power plant operators on simulators; and to assess the issues about simulator training programs raised by the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2.

  13. User Charge Revenues for Wastewater Treatment Plants--Insufficient to Cover Operation and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-02

    AD-All 588 SEMERAL ACCOUNTINq OFFICE WASHINGTON DC COMUNITY AN--ETC F/S 13/2 USER CHARGE REVENUES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS--INSUFFICI--ETC(U...COMPTROLLER GENERAL 0 Report To The Congress OF THE UNITED STATES User Charge Revenues For Wastewater = Treatment Piants-Insutficient To Cover Operation And...Maintenance Half of the 36 municipal wastewater treatment plants GAO reviewed in 10 States were not raising sufficient funds from their user charge iP

  14. Intuitionistic Trapezoidal Fuzzy Group Decision-Making Based on Prospect Choquet Integral Operator and Grey Projection Pursuit Dynamic Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahang Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the interaction among attributes and the influence of decision makers’ risk attitude, this paper proposes an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy aggregation operator based on Choquet integral and prospect theory. With respect to a multiattribute group decision-making problem, the prospect value functions of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are aggregated by the proposed operator; then a grey relation-projection pursuit dynamic cluster method is developed to obtain the ranking of alternatives; the firefly algorithm is used to optimize the objective function of projection for obtaining the best projection direction of grey correlation projection values, and the grey correlation projection values are evaluated, which are applied to classify, rank, and prefer the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is taken in the present study to make the proposed method comprehensible.

  15. An approach for using risk assessment in risk-informed decisions on plant-specific changes to the licensing basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Mark A.; Cheok, Michael C.; Cunningham, Mark A.; Holahan, Gary M.; King, Thomas L.; Parry, Gareth W.; Ramey-Smith, Ann M.; Rubin, Mark P.; Thadani, Ashok C

    1999-03-01

    This paper discusses an acceptable approach that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has proposed for using Probabilistic Risk Assessment in making decisions on changes to the licensing basis of a nuclear power plant. First, the overall philosophy of risk-informed decision-making, and the process framework are described. The philosophy is encapsulated in five principles, one of which states that, if the proposed change leads to an increase in core damage frequency or risk, the increases must be small and consistent with the intent of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Safety Goal Policy Statement. The second part of the paper discusses the use of PRA to demonstrate that this principle has been met. The discussion focuses on the acceptance guidelines, and on comparison of the PRA results with those guidelines. The difficulties that arise because of limitations in scope and analytical uncertainties are discussed and approaches to accommodate these difficulties in the decision-making are described.

  16. Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.

  17. Initial assessment of the operability of the VHTR-HTSE nuclear hydrogen plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, R. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-11-01

    The generation of hydrogen from nuclear power will need to compete on three fronts: production, operability, and safety to be viable in the energy marketplace of the future. This work addresses the operability of a coupled nuclear and hydrogen-generating plant while referring to other work for progress on production and safety. Operability is a measure of how well a plant can meet time-varying production demands while remaining within equipment limits. It can be characterized in terms of the physical processes that underlie operation of the plant. In this work these include the storage and transport of energy within components as represented by time constants and energy capacitances, the relationship of reactivity to temperature, and the coordination of heat generation and work production for a near-ideal gas working fluid. Criteria for assessing operability are developed and applied to the Very High Temperature Reactor coupled to the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis process, one of two DOE/INL reference plant concepts for hydrogen production. Results of preliminary plant control and stability studies are described. A combination of inventory control in the VHTR plant and flow control in the HTSE plant proved effective for maintaining hot-side temperatures near constant during quasi-static change in hydrogen production rate. Near constant electrolyzer outlet temperature is achieved by varying electrolyzer cell area to control cell joule heating. It was found that rates of temperature change in the HTSE plant for a step change in hydrogen production rate are largely determined by the thermal characteristics of the electrolyzer. It's comparatively large thermal mass and the presence of recuperative heat exchangers result in a tight thermal coupling of HTSE components to the electrolyzer. It was found that thermal transients arising in the chemical plant are strongly damped at the reactor resulting in a stable combined plant. The large Doppler reactivity

  18. Continuous Hesitant Fuzzy Aggregation Operators and Their Application to Decision Making under Interval-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hong Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interval-valued hesitant fuzzy set (IVHFS, which is the further generalization of hesitant fuzzy set, can overcome the barrier that the precise membership degrees are sometimes hard to be specified and permit the membership degrees of an element to a set to have a few different interval values. To efficiently and effectively aggregate the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information, in this paper, we investigate the continuous hesitant fuzzy aggregation operators with the aid of continuous OWA operator; the C-HFOWA operator and C-HFOWG operator are presented and their essential properties are studied in detail. Then, we extend the C-HFOW operators to aggregate multiple interval-valued hesitant fuzzy elements and then develop the weighted C-HFOW (WC-HFOWA and WC-HFOWG operators, the ordered weighted C-HFOW (OWC-HFOWA and OWC-HFOWG operators, and the synergetic weighted C-HFOWA (SWC-HFOWA and SWC-HFOWG operators; some properties are also discussed to support them. Furthermore, a SWC-HFOW operators-based approach for multicriteria decision making problem is developed. Finally, a practical example involving the evaluation of service quality of high-tech enterprises is carried out and some comparative analyses are performed to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the developed approaches.

  19. Continuous hesitant fuzzy aggregation operators and their application to decision making under interval-valued hesitant fuzzy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ding-Hong; Wang, Tie-Dan; Gao, Chang-Yuan; Wang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Interval-valued hesitant fuzzy set (IVHFS), which is the further generalization of hesitant fuzzy set, can overcome the barrier that the precise membership degrees are sometimes hard to be specified and permit the membership degrees of an element to a set to have a few different interval values. To efficiently and effectively aggregate the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information, in this paper, we investigate the continuous hesitant fuzzy aggregation operators with the aid of continuous OWA operator; the C-HFOWA operator and C-HFOWG operator are presented and their essential properties are studied in detail. Then, we extend the C-HFOW operators to aggregate multiple interval-valued hesitant fuzzy elements and then develop the weighted C-HFOW (WC-HFOWA and WC-HFOWG) operators, the ordered weighted C-HFOW (OWC-HFOWA and OWC-HFOWG) operators, and the synergetic weighted C-HFOWA (SWC-HFOWA and SWC-HFOWG) operators; some properties are also discussed to support them. Furthermore, a SWC-HFOW operators-based approach for multicriteria decision making problem is developed. Finally, a practical example involving the evaluation of service quality of high-tech enterprises is carried out and some comparative analyses are performed to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the developed approaches.

  20. Joint Operation of Several Types of Power Plants to Increasing Net Profit in Deregulated Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes joint operation of power plant and electric energy storage plant in order to maximizing overall profit in a restructured electricity market. The goal is investigating the coupling efficiency on profit increment considering various intensities of power plant’s fuel constraint. In order to reach this goal, the amount of overall profits of fuel-constrained power plant, battery plant and their coupling are first calculated in a specific time interval. Then, the coupling efficiency is determined using incremental profit rate. Having an appropriate strategy to calculate this parameter is essential. Hence, a comprehensive approach to selfschedule of individual and coupled plants is developed. This comprehensive self-scheduling approach is therefore formulated and solved as a Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed.

  1. Precursor Report of Data Needs and Recommended Practices for PV Plant Availability Operations and Maintenance Reporting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Roger R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration; Balfour, John R. [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the factors that affect reliability of a photovoltaic (PV) power plant is an important aspect of optimal asset management. This document describes the many factors that affect operation and maintenance (O&M) of a PV plant, identifies the data necessary to quantify those factors, and describes how data might be used by O&M service providers and others in the PV industry. This document lays out data needs from perspectives of reliability, availability, and key performance indicators and is intended to be a precursor for standardizing terminology and data reporting, which will improve data sharing, analysis, and ultimately PV plant performance.

  2. An Approach to Multicriteria Group Decision-Making with Unknown Weight Information Based on Pythagorean Fuzzy Uncertain Linguistic Aggregation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to multicriteria group decision-making (MCGDM problems in which the experts have different priority levels, the criteria values are in the form of Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic variables (PFULVs, and the information about weights of experts and criteria is completely unknown, a novel decision-making method is developed. Firstly, the concept of PFULV is defined, and some operational laws, score function, accuracy function, and normalized Hamming distance of PFULVs are presented. Then, to aggregate information given by all experts, the Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic prioritized weighted averaging aggregation (PFULPWAA operator and the Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic prioritized weighted geometric aggregation (PFULPWGA operator are proposed. Furthermore, in order to get a comprehensive evaluation value for each alternative, the Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic Maclaurin symmetric mean aggregation (PFULMSMA operator and the weighted PFULMSMA (WPFULMSMA operator are proposed. Moreover, to obtain the information about the weights of criteria, the model based on grey relational analysis (GRA method is established. Finally, a method of MCGDM with PFULVs is developed, and an application example is given to illustrate the validity and feasibility of the provided procedure.

  3. Characteristic operator functions for quantum input-plant-output models and coherent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, John E.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the characteristic operator as the generalization of the usual concept of a transfer function of linear input-plant-output systems to arbitrary quantum nonlinear Markovian input-output models. This is intended as a tool in the characterization of quantum feedback control systems that fits in with the general theory of networks. The definition exploits the linearity of noise differentials in both the plant Heisenberg equations of motion and the differential form of the input-output relations. Mathematically, the characteristic operator is a matrix of dimension equal to the number of outputs times the number of inputs (which must coincide), but with entries that are operators of the plant system. In this sense, the characteristic operator retains details of the effective plant dynamical structure and is an essentially quantum object. We illustrate the relevance to model reduction and simplification definition by showing that the convergence of the characteristic operator in adiabatic elimination limit models requires the same conditions and assumptions appearing in the work on limit quantum stochastic differential theorems of Bouten and Silberfarb [Commun. Math. Phys. 283, 491-505 (2008)]. This approach also shows in a natural way that the limit coefficients of the quantum stochastic differential equations in adiabatic elimination problems arise algebraically as Schur complements and amounts to a model reduction where the fast degrees of freedom are decoupled from the slow ones and eliminated.

  4. Development of a Leading Performance Indicator from Operational Experience and Resilience in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela F. Nelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of operational performance indicators is of utmost importance for nuclear power plants, since they measure, track, and trend plant operation. Leading indicators are ideal for reducing the likelihood of consequential events. This paper describes the operational data analysis of the information contained in the Corrective Action Program. The methodology considers human error and organizational factors because of their large contribution to consequential events. The results include a tool developed from the data to be used for the identification, prediction, and reduction of the likelihood of significant consequential events. This tool is based on the resilience curve that was built from the plant's operational data. The stress is described by the number of unresolved condition reports. The strain is represented by the number of preventive maintenance tasks and other periodic work activities (i.e., baseline activities, as well as, closing open corrective actions assigned to different departments to resolve the condition reports (i.e., corrective action workload. Beyond the identified resilience threshold, the stress exceeds the station's ability to operate successfully and there is an increased likelihood that a consequential event will occur. A performance indicator is proposed to reduce the likelihood of consequential events at nuclear power plants.

  5. Towards a Risk-based Decision Support for Offshore Wind Turbine Installation and Operation & Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Vatne, Sigrid Ringdalen

    2016-01-01

    Costs of operation & maintenance, assembly, transport and installation of offshore wind turbines contribute significantly to the total cost of offshore wind farm. These operations are mostly carried out by specific ships that have to be hired for the operational phase and for duration of installa......Costs of operation & maintenance, assembly, transport and installation of offshore wind turbines contribute significantly to the total cost of offshore wind farm. These operations are mostly carried out by specific ships that have to be hired for the operational phase and for duration...

  6. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use in Corps of Engineers Floating Plant Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 11 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use...Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use in Corps of Engineers Floating Plant Operations Michael Tubman and Timothy Welp Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory...sensitive emissions, increase use of renewable energy, and reduce the use of fossil fuels was conducted with funding from the U.S. Army Corps of

  7. Use Of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) In Expert Systems To Advise Nuclear Plant Operators And Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Robert E.

    1988-03-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. f2 Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been codified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)3 of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. Nuclear power plants have many redundant systems and can continue to operate when one or more of these systems is disabled or removed from service for maintenance or testing. PRAs provide a means of evaluating the risk to the public associated with the operation of nuclear power plants with components or systems out of service. While the choice of the "source term" and methodology in a PRA may influence the absolute probability and consequences of a core melt, the ratio of two PRA calculations for two configurations of the same plant, carried out on a consistent basis, can readily identify the increase in risk associated with going from one configuration to the other. PRISIM,4 a personal computer program to calculate the ratio of core melt probabilities described above (based on previously performed PRAs), has been developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). When one or several components are removed from service, PRISM then calculates the ratio of the core melt probabilities. The inference engine of the expert system then uses this ratio and a constant risk criterion,5 along with information from its knowledge base (which includes information from the PRA), to advise plant personnel as to what action, if any, should be taken.

  8. In vitro propagation of plant virus using different forms of plant tissue culture and modes of culture operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sharon M-H; Doran, Pauline M

    2009-09-10

    Plant virus accumulation was investigated in vitro using three different forms of plant tissue culture. Suspended cells, hairy roots and shooty teratomas of Nicotiana benthamiana were infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using the same initial virus:biomass ratio. Viral infection did not affect tissue growth or morphology in any of the three culture systems. Average maximum virus concentrations in hairy roots and shooty teratomas were similar and about an order of magnitude higher than in suspended cells. Hairy roots were considered the preferred host because of their morphological stability in liquid medium and relative ease of culture. The average maximum virus concentration in the hairy roots was 0.82+/-0.14 mg g(-1) dry weight; viral coat protein represented a maximum of approximately 6% of total soluble protein in the biomass. Virus accumulation in hairy roots was investigated further using different modes of semi-continuous culture operation aimed at prolonging the root growth phase and providing nutrient supplementation; however, virus concentrations in the roots were not enhanced compared with simple batch culture. The relative infectivity of virus in the biomass declined by 80-90% during all the cultures tested, irrespective of the form of plant tissue used or mode of culture operation. Hairy root cultures inoculated with a transgenic TMV-based vector in batch culture accumulated green fluorescent protein (GFP); however, maximum GFP concentrations in the biomass were relatively low at 39 microg g(-1) dry weight, probably due to genetic instability of the vector. This work highlights the advantages of using hairy roots for in vitro propagation of TMV compared with shooty teratomas and suspended plant cells, and demonstrates that batch root culture is more effective than semi-continuous operations for accumulation of high virus concentrations in the biomass.

  9. Some Induced Correlated Aggregating Operators with Interval Grey Uncertain Linguistic Information and Their Application to Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Jun Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the interval grey uncertain linguistic correlated ordered arithmetic averaging (IGULCOA operator and the induced interval grey uncertain linguistic correlated ordered arithmetic averaging (I-IGULCOA operator based on the correlation properties of the Choquet integral and the interval grey uncertain linguistic variables to investigate the multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM problems, in which both the attribute weights and the expert weights are correlative. Firstly, the relative concepts of interval grey uncertain linguistic variables are defined and the operation rules between the two interval grey uncertain linguistic variables are established. Then, two new aggregation operators: the interval grey uncertain linguistic correlated ordered arithmetic averaging (IGULCOA operator and the induced interval grey uncertain linguistic correlated ordered arithmetic averaging (I-IGULCOA operator are developed and some desirable properties of the I-IGULCOA operator are studied, such as commutativity, idempotency, monotonicity, and boundness. Furthermore, the IGULCOA and I-IGULCOA operators based approach is developed to solve the MAGDM problems, in which both the attribute weights and the expert weights are correlative and the attribute values take the form of the interval grey uncertain linguistic variables. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  10. Operation of the Pinellas Plant Child Development Center/Partnership School: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-20

    The US Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL), through the DOE Pinellas Area Office (PAO) and GE Neutron Devices (GEND), is proposing a joint venture to operate a Partnership School and Child Development Center at the Pinellas Plant. The Child Development Center/Partnership School proposal has been developed. The building has been constructed, teachers and staff selected, and the building made ready for immediate occupancy. The proposed action addressed by this environmental assessment is the operation and utilization of the school as a Partnership School, a preschool Child Development Center, and a before- and after-hours child care facility. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the potential impacts from the operation of the proposed action are assessed. Additionally, since the proposed school is located next to an industrial facility, impacts on the school population from routine plant operations, as well as abnormal events, are analyzed, and changes in plant operation that may be prudent are considered. 25 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Operation of the Pinellas Plant Child Development Center/Partnership School: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-20

    The US Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL), through the DOE Pinellas Area Office (PAO) and GE Neutron Devices (GEND), is proposing a joint venture to operate a Partnership School and Child Development Center at the Pinellas Plant. The Child Development Center/Partnership School proposal has been developed. The building has been constructed, teachers and staff selected, and the building made ready for immediate occupancy. The proposed action addressed by this environmental assessment is the operation and utilization of the school as a Partnership School, a preschool Child Development Center, and a before- and after-hours child care facility. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the potential impacts from the operation of the proposed action are assessed. Additionally, since the proposed school is located next to an industrial facility, impacts on the school population from routine plant operations, as well as abnormal events, are analyzed, and changes in plant operation that may be prudent are considered. 25 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Knowledge Visualizations: A Tool to Achieve Optimized Operational Decision Making and Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    synthesis or visualization, while gaining situation awareness. Understanding is the decision-maker’s application of their cognitive world model applied...Information, knowledge, and meaning [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.b-eye-network.com/blogs/devlin/archives/ business_uninte/4. php DIKUW

  13. Safety significance of inadvertent operation of motor operated valves in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruger, C.J.; Higgins, J.C.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Hall, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    This report addresses concerns about the consequences of valve mispositioning which were brought to the forefront following an event at Davis Besse in 1985 (NRC, 1985a). The concern related to the ability to reposition ``position changeable`` motor operated valves (MOVs) in the event of their inadvertent operation from the control room and was documented in Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Bulletin 85-03 (NRC, 1985b) and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 (NRC, 1989). The mispositioned MOVs may not be able to be returned to their required position due to high differential pressure (dP) or high flow conditions across the valves. The inability to reposition such valves may have significant safety consequences as in the Davis Besse event. However, full consideration of such mispositioning in safety analyses and in MOV test programs can be labor intensive and expensive. Industry raised concerns that consideration of position changeable valves under GL 89-10 would not decrease the probability of core damage to an extent which would justify licensee costs. As a response, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has conducted separate scoping studies for both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRS) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques to determine if such valve mispositioning by itself is significant to safety. The approach utilized internal events PRA models to survey the order of magnitude of the risk significance of valve mispositioning by considering the failure of selected position changeable MOVS. The change in core damage frequency (CDF) was determined for each valve considered and the results were presented as a risk increase ratio for each of four assumed MOV failure rates. The risk increase ratios resulting from this failure rate sensitivity study can be used as a basis for a judgement determination of the risk significance of the MOV mispositioning issue for BWRs and PWRS.

  14. A method for risk informing procedures at operating nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. F.; Martin del Campo, C., E-mail: pnelson_007@yahoo.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The technical approach presented establishes a framework intended to provide the necessary elements for a deployable human performance monitoring program that incorporates insights from plant specific probabilistic risk assessments, human reliability analysis, as well as the development of plant specific human failure data. A human performance monitoring program of this structure would be used to provide the ability to risk inform procedures (e.g., operations or maintenance) to determine the operational risk significance of procedural performance (i.e., precautions, prerequisites, procedure steps), the likelihood of consequential human error dur the performance of the procedure, and the identification of procedure specific barriers to reduce or eliminate consequential human errors. The program would provide the means to assess procedures prior to execution and the means to record and trend human failure events leading to a plant specific human failure database for human activities characterized as pre-initiator. The technical methods and data processing for each of these areas are developed and presented, as well as an example application of an operational procedure error leading to a plant level event (i.e, plant trip). (Author)

  15. Hierarchical decision processes that operate over distinct timescales underlie choice and changes in strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Braden A; Kiani, Roozbeh

    2016-08-02

    Decision-making in a natural environment depends on a hierarchy of interacting decision processes. A high-level strategy guides ongoing choices, and the outcomes of those choices determine whether or not the strategy should change. When the right decision strategy is uncertain, as in most natural settings, feedback becomes ambiguous because negative outcomes may be due to limited information or bad strategy. Disambiguating the cause of feedback requires active inference and is key to updating the strategy. We hypothesize that the expected accuracy of a choice plays a crucial rule in this inference, and setting the strategy depends on integration of outcome and expectations across choices. We test this hypothesis with a task in which subjects report the net direction of random dot kinematograms with varying difficulty while the correct stimulus-response association undergoes invisible and unpredictable switches every few trials. We show that subjects treat negative feedback as evidence for a switch but weigh it with their expected accuracy. Subjects accumulate switch evidence (in units of log-likelihood ratio) across trials and update their response strategy when accumulated evidence reaches a bound. A computational framework based on these principles quantitatively explains all aspects of the behavior, providing a plausible neural mechanism for the implementation of hierarchical multiscale decision processes. We suggest that a similar neural computation-bounded accumulation of evidence-underlies both the choice and switches in the strategy that govern the choice, and that expected accuracy of a choice represents a key link between the levels of the decision-making hierarchy.

  16. Airports’ Operational Performance and Efficiency Evaluation Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jardim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Airport benchmarking depends on airports’ operational performance and efficiency indicators, which are important for business agents, operational managers, regulatory agencies, airlines and passengers. There are several sets of single and complex indicators to evaluate airports’ performance and efficiency as well as several techniques to benchmark such infrastructures. The general aim of this work is twofold: to balance the data envelopment analysis (DEA and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA tools and to show that airport benchmarking is also possible using a multicriteria decision analysis tool called Measuring Attractiveness by a Categorical Based Evaluation Technique (MACBETH. Whilst DEA measures the relative performance in the presence of multiple inputs and outputs, MCDA/ MACBETH uses performance and efficiency indicators to support benchmark results, being useful for evaluating the real importance and weight of the selected indicators. The work is structured as follows: first, a state-of-the-art review concerning either airport benchmarking and performance indicators or DEA and MCDA tool techniques; second, an overview of the impacts on airports’ operational performance and efficiency of emergent operational factors (sudden meteorological/natural phenomena; third, two case studies on a set of worldwide airports and Madeira (FNC Airport; and fourth, some insights into and challenges for future research that are still under development.

  17. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF 1991 STEAM-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT OPERATION AND AIR EMISSIONS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides graphical representations of data derived from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration, s Form EIA-767 (Steam Electric Plant Operation and Design Report). or more than 10 years, EIA has collected monthly boiler level data from...

  18. Operational flexibility and economics of power plants in future low-carbon power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    Future power systems will require large shares of low-carbon generators such as renewables and power plants with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to keep global warming below 2. °C. Intermittent renewables increase the system-wide demand for flexibility and affect the operation of thermal power plan

  19. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  20. Ergodynamics in the Reliability of Power Plant Operators and Prospective Hybrid Intelligence Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venda; Chachko

    1996-01-01

    Based on ergodynamics and the hybrid intelligence theory, an analysis of the nuclear power plant operator's performance is given at the levels of strategies, tactics, and actions. Special attention is paid to the strategies used in the course of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Data from Ukrainian and Russian power plants and training centres, and from accidents around the world were collected and processed. It is shown that in an emergency it is essential for the human operator to be flexible. This flexibility includes two main training and personal factors: a large set of strategies and tactics the operator manages to use, and quick transformations between the strategies (tactics). It was also found that some emergency tasks are too complicated: They require simultaneous use of different strategies, with time strictly limited by nuclear power plant dynamics. Those tasks cannot be successfully solved by any individual operator. Hybrid intelligence systems involving different specialists should be used in those cases in order to avoid failures in emergency problem solving and macroergonomic organizational design.

  1. Operational flexibility and economics of power plants in future low-carbon power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    Future power systems will require large shares of low-carbon generators such as renewables and power plants with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to keep global warming below 2. °C. Intermittent renewables increase the system-wide demand for flexibility and affect the operation of thermal power

  2. 75 FR 73135 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... licensee), for operation of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (FNP), located in Houston... the FNP from the required implementation date of March 31, 2010, for several new requirements of 10 CFR Part 73. Specifically, FNP would be granted an exemption from being in full compliance...

  3. 75 FR 19428 - Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... COMMISSION Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing The U... significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's regulations in Title 10 of the Code of...

  4. 75 FR 70708 - Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... COMMISSION Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing The U... no significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's regulations in Title 10 of the Code...

  5. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  6. More efficient operation of coal fired power plants using nonlinear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulsari, A.; Wemberg, A.; Anttila, A.; Multas, A. [Nonlinear Solution Oy, Turku (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Abstract: Coal fired power plants should be operated in such a way that the emissions are kept clearly below desired limits and the combustion efficiency is as high as can be achieved. This requires a lot of quantitative knowledge of the effects of the process variables and fuel characteristics on the emissions and efficiency. Mathematical models can be developed with different approaches. Physical models are too slow to be used for on-line process guidance, and require too many assumptions and simplifications. It is feasible to develop empirical or semi-empirical models from normal production data of the power plant. This technical communication explains with an example of a coal fired power plant how nonlinear models are an effective means of determining the best operating conditions at any given load for a given type of coal.

  7. Operating experiences of the TESC BWE filter in the Escatron PFBC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, A.; Guilarte, R.; Nales, T.; Abellanal, I.

    1999-07-01

    A Ceramic Filter based on the TESC (Two Ends Supported Candle) concept by BWE has been operating since November 1997 at the 71 MWe Escatron PFBC Power Plant of ENDESA S.A. The Ceramic Filter is treating 1/9 of the combustion gases (this is 10.5 Kg/s), replacing a secondary cyclone, at temperatures ranging 750--820 C. The aim of this Project is to demonstrate the performance of a Ceramic Filter based on the TESC system, which keeps the ceramic elements working on compression by a pneumatic supporting system. The Escatron PFBC plant burns local lignites working under commercial conditions, and the objective is to optimize the main filtration parameters for these coals. The operating experience will permit evaluation of the design, the prediction of life expectancy of the materials used, while carrying out the tests needed to define commercial operating parameters. At present (December 1998) 4,420 hours of operation have been logged, 2,300 hours through the Ceramic Filter (mainly at full load) and the rest through a bypass cyclone system. The longest continuous Filter run lasted 687 hours, while the average run duration at the present test period is around 500 hours. Some problems regarding massive ash bridging due to the extremely sticky nature of the ash have been the main operating problem. Nevertheless, the operating results together with the very few candle failures (only in two of the runs) have proved that the TESC concept is right and a promising way to commercial hot gas filtration units. This paper describes the Escatron Filter Plant and reviews the operation experiences of the TESC Ceramic Filter at 71 MWe Escatron PFBC Plant.

  8. Decision support for green supply chain operations by integrating dynamic simulation and LCA indicators: diaper case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhitya, Arief; Halim, Iskandar; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan

    2011-12-01

    As the issue of environmental sustainability is becoming an important business factor, companies are now looking for decision support tools to assess the fuller picture of the environmental impacts associated with their manufacturing operations and supply chain (SC) activities. Lifecycle assessment (LCA) is widely used to measure the environmental consequences assignable to a product. However, it is usually limited to a high-level snapshot of the environmental implications over the product value chain without consideration of the dynamics arising from the multitiered structure and the interactions along the SC. This paper proposes a framework for green supply chain management by integrating a SC dynamic simulation and LCA indicators to evaluate both the economic and environmental impacts of various SC decisions such as inventories, distribution network configuration, and ordering policy. The advantages of this framework are demonstrated through an industrially motivated case study involving diaper production. Three distinct scenarios are evaluated to highlight how the proposed approach enables integrated decision support for green SC design and operation.

  9. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. Methods A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1. Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS data for most scenarios (43 of 45. Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Results Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of

  10. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  11. Decision no. 2011-DC-0222 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the Comurhex company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0222 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant a Comurhex de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de certaines de ses installations nucleaires de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to Comurhex company, operator of the Tricastin uranium conversion plant (France). (J.S.)

  12. Decision no. 2011-DC-0218 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the EURODIF SA company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0218 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant a EURODIF SA de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de certaines de ses installations nucleaires de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the EURODIF SA company, operator of the George Besse I uranium enrichment plant of the Tricastin site (France). (J.S.)

  13. Decision no. 2011-DC-0221 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the SET company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0221 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant a la SET de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de certaines de ses installations nucleaires de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the SET company, operator of the Georges Besse II and RECII uranium enrichment plants of the Tricastin site (France). (J.S.)

  14. Decision no. 2011-DC-0223 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the MELOX SA company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0223 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant a MELOX SA de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de certaines de ses installations nucleaires de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to MELOX SA company, operator of the Melox MOX fuel fabrication plant of Marcoule (France). (J.S.)

  15. Decision no. 2011-DC-0219 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the SOCATRI company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0219 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant a SOCATRI de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de certaines de ses installations nucleaires de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the SOCATRI company, operator of the nuclear dismantling and waste processing plants of the Tricastin site (France). (J.S.)

  16. Predicting the operation performance of condensate polishing plant using a mathematical kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handy, B.J.; Greene, J.C. [NNC Solutions Ltd, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    NNC limited provides an ion exchange resin technology facility, which includes a resin testing service. A range of ion exchange resin properties is measured and this includes ion exchange capacity, resin bead particle sizes and anion kinetic performance in terms of mass transfer coefficients. It has long been considered by the authors that the experimental data for resins taken from operating condensate polishing plant (CPP) could be used to predict the expected plant performance. This has now been realised with the development of a mathematical model which predicts CPP behaviour using appropriate experimentally derived parameters and plant design data. Modelling methods for the separate anion and cation components of a mixed bed were initially developed before the mixed bed as a whole was addressed. Initially, an analytical approach was adopted, which proved successful for simple cases. For more complex examples a numerical approach was developed and found to be more suitable. The paper describes the development of anion and cation bed models, and a mixed bed model. In the latter model, the anion and cation components modelled earlier are combined, and used to model simultaneously typical concentrations of ammonia, sodium, chloride and sulphate. Examples of operation are given, and observations and points of interest are discussed with respect to the calculated concentration profiles. The experimental behaviour of a number of resin samples taken from operating plant was examined in a purpose-built ultrapure water recirculation loop equipped with a range of analytical instruments. This has permitted the observed experimental results to be compared with model predictions. The next stage of the model development is to identify plants suitable for testing the model against real plant performance and the authors are now seeking to identify plant managers interested in collaborating in this venture. (orig.)

  17. A technical system to improve the operational monitoring of the Zaporozhye nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Nowak, K. [Technischer Ueberwachungsverein Rheinland, Koeln (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Protection; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Weiss, F.P.; Zschau, J.

    1998-10-01

    As part of the programme implemented by the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety to cooperate with the Central and Eastern European States (CEES) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in the area of nuclear safety, a technical system to improve operational monitoring has been designed, specified and established since 1992 as a pilot project in the Zaporozhye/Ukraine nuclear power plant by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf and Technischer Ueberwachungsverein Rheinland with a significant contribution from the State Scientific and Technical Centre of the Ukrainian supervisory authority. The technical system complements existing operational checking and monitoring facilities by including modern means of information technology. It enables a continuous monitoring of the state of unit 5 in normal operation and in cases of anomalies or incidents so that when recognisable deviations from the regular plant operation occur, the Ukrainian supervisory authority can immediately inquire and if necessary impose conditions on the operator. The radiological and meteorological parameters at the nuclear power plant location are monitored to the extent necessary to assess the current radiation situation and to implement efficient emergency management measures. (orig.)

  18. Methods for planning and operating decentralized combined heat and power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, H.

    2000-02-01

    In recent years, the number of decentralized combined heat and power (DCHP) plants, which are typically located in small communities, has grown rapidly. These relatively small plants are based on Danish energy resources, mainly natural gas, and constitute an increasing part of the total energy production in Denmark. The topic of this thesis is the analysis of DCHP plants, with the purpose to optimize the operation of such plants. This involves the modelling of district heating systems, which are frequently connected to DCHP plants, as well as the use of heat storage for balancing between heat and power production. Furthermore, the accumulated effect from increasing number of DCHP plants on the total power production is considered. Methods for calculating dynamic temperature response in district heating (DH) pipes have been reviewed and analyzed numerically. Furthermore, it has been shown that a tree-structured DH network consisting of about one thousand pipes can be reduced to a simple chain structure of ten equivalent pipes without loosing much accuracy when temperature dynamics are calculated. A computationally efficient optimization method based on stochastic dynamic programming has been designed to find an optimum start-stop strategy for a DCHP plant with a heat storage. The method focuses on how to utilize heat storage in connection with CHP production. A model for the total power production in Eastern Denmark has been applied to the accumulated DCHP production. Probability production simulations have been extended from the traditional power-only analysis to include one or several heat supply areas. (au)

  19. A Decision Model for Merging Base Operations: Outsourcing Pest Management on Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    well as our children —Megan, Grayson, and Morgan Bishop, and Tonika Nicole Brown—for their tremendous love, support, and encouragement in our writing...administrator and principal of the Bishop clan of homeschoolers . Valerie, you seized this time to complete your training, become licensed, and pass...commonality among which functions are outsourced or why. Each installation has a unique set of challenges that affects the decision to outsource a

  20. Determinants of farmers' tree-planting investment decisions as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessesse, Berhan; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Bräuning, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices is one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explored the major determinants of farm-level tree-planting decisions as a land management strategy in a typical farming and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree-planting decisions (χ2 = 37.29, df = 15, P labour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system had a critical influence on tree-growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land-use conversion and land degradation were serious, which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, the study recommended that devising and implementing sustainable land management policy options would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  1. Determinants of farmers' tree planting investment decision as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessesse, B.; Bewket, W.; Bräuning, A.

    2015-11-01

    Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices are one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explores the major determinants of farm level tree planting decision as a land management strategy in a typical framing and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree planting decision (Chi-square = 37.29, df = 15, Plabour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system have positively and significantly influence on tree growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land use conversion and land degradation are serious which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, devising sustainable and integrated land management policy options and implementing them would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  2. The GMOseek matrix: a decision support tool for optimizing the detection of genetically modified plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Block, Annette; Debode, Frédéric; Grohmann, Lutz; Hulin, Julie; Taverniers, Isabel; Kluga, Linda; Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Broeders, Sylvia; Huber, Ingrid; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Heinze, Petra; Berben, Gilbert; Busch, Ulrich; Roosens, Nancy; Janssen, Eric; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina; Morisset, Dany

    2013-01-01

    .... For this reason, GMO testing is very challenging and requires more complex screening strategies and decision making schemes, demanding in return the use of efficient bioinformatics tools relying on reliable information...

  3. Water use in the development and operation of geothermal power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Sullivan, J. L.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2010-09-17

    Geothermal energy is increasingly recognized for its potential to reduce carbon emissions and U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Energy and environmental analyses are critical to developing a robust set of geothermal energy technologies. This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies. The results of the life cycle analysis are summarized in a companion report, Life Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to inform power plant design and operations. Chapter 2 summarizes the geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study, which include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists but water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 3 describes the methods and approach to this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS plant, a 50-MW EGS plant, a 10-MW binary plant, and a 50-MW flash plant. The two EGS scenarios include hydraulic stimulation activities within the construction stage of the life cycle and assume binary power generation during operations. The EGS and binary scenarios are assumed to be air-cooled power plants, whereas the flash plant is assumed to rely on evaporative cooling. The well field and power plant design for the scenario were based on simulations using DOE's Geothermal Economic Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). Chapter 4 presents the water requirements for the power plant life cycle for the scenarios evaluated. Geology

  4. Water use in the development and operation of geothermal power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Sullivan, J. L.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2010-09-17

    Geothermal energy is increasingly recognized for its potential to reduce carbon emissions and U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Energy and environmental analyses are critical to developing a robust set of geothermal energy technologies. This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies. The results of the life cycle analysis are summarized in a companion report, Life Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to inform power plant design and operations. Chapter 2 summarizes the geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study, which include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists but water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 3 describes the methods and approach to this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS plant, a 50-MW EGS plant, a 10-MW binary plant, and a 50-MW flash plant. The two EGS scenarios include hydraulic stimulation activities within the construction stage of the life cycle and assume binary power generation during operations. The EGS and binary scenarios are assumed to be air-cooled power plants, whereas the flash plant is assumed to rely on evaporative cooling. The well field and power plant design for the scenario were based on simulations using DOE's Geothermal Economic Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). Chapter 4 presents the water requirements for the power plant life cycle for the scenarios evaluated. Geology

  5. Lesson Learned from the Recent Operating Experience of Domestic Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang-Ju; Kim, Min-Chull; Koo, Bon-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jae; Lee, Kyung-Won; Kim, Ji-Tae; Lee, Durk-Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    According to the public concerns, it seems that one of the main missions of a nuclear regulatory body is to collect operational experiences from various nuclear facilities, and to analyze their follow-up information. The extensive use of lessons learned from operating experiences to back fit safety systems, improve operator training and emergency procedures, and to focus more attention on human factors, safety culture and quality management systems are also desired. Collecting operational experiences has been mainly done regarding the incidents and major failures of components (so called 'event'), which usually demands lots of regulatory resources. This paper concentrates on new information, i.e. lesson learned from recent investigation results of domestic events which contain 5 years' experience. This information can induce many insights for improving operational safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs)

  6. The role of coordinated marketing-operations strategy in services : Implications for managerial decisions and execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, M.; Rhee, van der B.; Karniouchina, E.; Verma, R.; Victorino, L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of a coordinated marketing and operations strategy in goods and service producing business organizations. Customer engagement and co-production are imperative service delivery considerations, and therefore an aligned marketing and operations

  7. The role of coordinated marketing-operations strategy in services : Implications for managerial decisions and execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, M.; Karniouchina, E.; Rhee, van der B.; Verma, R.; Victorino, L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of a coordinated marketing and operations strategy in goods and service producing business organizations. Customer engagement and co-production are imperative service delivery considerations, and therefore an aligned marketing and operations str

  8. Nested algorithms for optimal reservoir operation and their embedding in a decision support platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delipetrev, B.

    2016-01-01

    Reservoir operation is a multi-objective optimization problem traditionally solved with dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithms. The thesis presents novel algorithms for optimal reservoir operation named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP), nested reinforcement le

  9. The role of coordinated marketing-operations strategy in services : Implications for managerial decisions and execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, M.; Rhee, van der B.; Karniouchina, E.; Verma, R.; Victorino, L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of a coordinated marketing and operations strategy in goods and service producing business organizations. Customer engagement and co-production are imperative service delivery considerations, and therefore an aligned marketing and operations str

  10. 77 FR 20482 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... approximately 467 Firestone brand Transforce AT, size LT265/70R17, light truck replacement tires manufactured... addressed to: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  11. Evaluation of rope shovel operators in surface coal mining using a Multi-Attribute Decision-Making model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vukotic Ivana; Kecojevic Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Rope shovels are used to dig and load materials in surface mines. One of the main factors that influence the production rate and energy consumption of rope shovels is the performance of the operator. This paper presents a method for evaluating rope shovel operators using the Multi-Attribute Decision-Making (MADM) model. Data used in this research were collected from an operating surface coal mine in the southern United States. The MADM model consists of attributes, their weights of importance, and alter-natives. Shovel operators are considered the alternatives. The energy consumption model was developed with multiple regression analysis, and its variables were included in the MADM model as attributes. Preferences with respect to min/max of the defined attributes were obtained with multi-objective opti-mization. Multi-objective optimization was conducted with the overall goal of minimizing energy con-sumption and maximizing production rate. Weights of importance of the attributes were determined by the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The overall evaluation of operators was performed by one of the MADM models, i.e., PROMETHEE II. The research results presented here may be used by mining professionals to help evaluate the performance of rope shovel operators in surface mining.

  12. Cognitive issues in autonomous spacecraft-control operations: An investigation of software-mediated decision making in a scaled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth Drummond

    As advances in technology are applied in complex, semi-automated domains, human controllers are distanced from the controlled process. This physical and psychological distance may both facilitate and degrade human performance. To investigate cognitive issues in spacecraft ground-control operations, the present experimental research was undertaken. The primary issue concerned the ability of operations analysts who do not monitor operations to make timely, accurate decisions when autonomous software calls for human help. Another key issue involved the potential effects of spatial-visualization ability (SVA) in environments that present data in graphical formats. Hypotheses were derived largely from previous findings and predictions in the literature. Undergraduate psychology students were assigned at random to a monitoring condition or an on-call condition in a scaled environment. The experimental task required subjects to decide on the veracity of a problem diagnosis delivered by a software process on-board a simulated spacecraft. To support decision-making, tabular and graphical data displays presented information on system status. A level of software confidence in the problem diagnosis was displayed, and subjects reported their own level of confidence in their decisions. Contrary to expectations, the performance of on-call subjects did not differ significantly from that of continuous monitors. Analysis yielded a significant interaction of sex and condition: Females in the on-call condition had the lowest mean accuracy. Results included a preference for bar charts over line graphs and faster performance with tables than with line graphs. A significant correlation was found between subjective confidence and decision accuracy. SVA was found to be predictive of accuracy but not speed; and SVA was found to be a stronger predictor of performance for males than for females. Low-SVA subjects reported that they relied more on software confidence than did medium- or high

  13. Decision support framework for evaluating the operational environment of forest bioenergy production and use: Case of four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdevšek Malovrh, Špela; Kurttila, Mikko; Hujala, Teppo; Kärkkäinen, Leena; Leban, Vasja; Lindstad, Berit H; Peters, Dörte Marie; Rhodius, Regina; Solberg, Birger; Wirth, Kristina; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija; Krč, Janez

    2016-09-15

    Complex policy-making situations around bioenergy production and use require examination of the operational environment of the society and a participatory approach. This paper presents and demonstrates a three-phase decision-making framework for analysing the operational environment of strategies related to increased forest bioenergy targets. The framework is based on SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis and the Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART). Stakeholders of four case countries (Finland, Germany, Norway and Slovenia) defined the factors that affect the operational environments, classified in four pre-set categories (Forest Characteristics and Management, Policy Framework, Technology and Science, and Consumers and Society). The stakeholders participated in weighting of SWOT items for two future scenarios with SMART technique. The first scenario reflected the current 2020 targets (the Business-as-Usual scenario), and the second scenario contained a further increase in the targets (the Increase scenario). This framework can be applied to various problems of environmental management and also to other fields where public decision-making is combined with stakeholders' engagement. The case results show that the greatest differences between the scenarios appear in Germany, indicating a notably negative outlook for the Increase scenario, while the smallest differences were found in Finland. Policy Framework was a highly rated category across the countries, mainly with respect to weaknesses and threats. Intensified forest bioenergy harvesting and utilization has potentially wide country-specific impacts which need to be anticipated and considered in national policies and public dialogue.

  14. Analysis of operational methane emissions from pressure relief valves from biogas storages of biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The study presents the development of a method for the long term monitoring of methane emissions from pressure relief valves (PRV(1)) of biogas storages, which has been verified during test series at two PRVs of two agricultural biogas plants located in Germany. The determined methane emission factors are 0.12gCH4kWhel(-1) (0.06% CH4-loss, within 106days, 161 triggering events, winter season) from biogas plant A and 6.80/7.44gCH4kWhel(-1) (3.60/3.88% CH4-loss, within 66days, 452 triggering events, summer season) from biogas plant B. Besides the operational state of the biogas plant (e.g. malfunction of the combined heat and power unit), the mode of operation of the biogas flare, which can be manually or automatically operated as well as the atmospheric conditions (e.g. drop of the atmospheric pressure) can also affect the biogas emission from PRVs.

  15. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  16. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Macroscopic mass and energy balance of a pilot plant anaerobic bioreactor operated under thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Bombardiere, John; Chatfield, Mark; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael; Stafford, David A; Castillo-Angeles, Saul; Castellanos-Hernandez, Nehemias

    2006-01-01

    Intensive poultry production generates over 100,000 t of litter annually in West Virginia and 9 x 10(6) t nationwide. Current available technological alternatives based on thermophilic anaerobic digestion for residuals treatment are diverse. A modification of the typical continuous stirred tank reactor is a promising process being relatively stable and owing to its capability to manage considerable amounts of residuals at low operational cost. A 40-m3 pilot plant digester was used for performance evaluation considering energy input and methane production. Results suggest some changes to the pilot plant configuration are necessary to reduce power consumption although maximizing biodigester performance.

  18. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1999-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish NPPs describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. All Finnish NPP units were in power operation for the whole second quarter of 1999, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Olkiluoto plant units. The load factor average of the plant units in this quarter was 93.1%. Two events in this quarter were classified Level 1 on the INKS Scale. At Olkiluoto 1, a valve of the containment gas treatment system had been in an incorrect position for almost a month, owing to which the system would not have been available as planned in an accident. At Olkiluoto 2, main circulation pump work was done during the annual maintenance outage and a containment personnel air lock was briefly open in violation of the Technical Specifications. Water leaking out of the reactor in an accident could not have been directed to the emergency cooling system because it would have leaked out from the containment via the open personnel air lock. Other events in this quarter had no bearing on the nuclear or radiation safety of the plant units. The individual doses of NPP personnel and also radioactive releases off-site were well below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  19. Operation and performance of the ICARUS-T600 cryogenic plant at Gran Sasso underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M; Baibussinov, B; Boffelli, F; Bubak, A; Calligarich, E; Canci, N; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Cieślik, K; Cline, D B; Cocco, A G; Dabrowska, A; Dermenev, A; Disdier, J M; Falcone, A; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Ferrari, A; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Guglielmi, A; Haranczyk, M; Holeczek, J; Ivashkin, A; Kirsanov, M; Kisiel, J; Kochanek, I; Lagoda, J; Mania, S; Menegolli, A; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Otwinowski, S; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Plonski, P; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rossella, M; Rubbia, C; Sala, P R; Scaramelli, A; Segreto, E; Sergiampietri, F; Stefan, D; Sulej, R; Szarska, M; Terrani, M; Torti, M; Varanini, F; Ventura, S; Vignoli, C; Wang, H G; Yang, X; Zalewska, A; Zani, A; Zaremba, K

    2015-01-01

    ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber is the first large mass electronic detector of a new generation able to combine the imaging capabilities of the old bubble chambers with the excellent calorimetric energy measurement. After the three months demonstration run on surface in Pavia during 2001, the T600 cryogenic plant was significantly revised, in terms of reliability and safety, in view of its long-term operation in an underground environment. The T600 detector was activated in Hall B of the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory during Spring 2010, where it was operated without interruption for about three years, taking data exposed to the CERN to Gran Sasso long baseline neutrino beam and cosmic rays. In this paper the T600 cryogenic plant is described in detail together with the commissioning procedures that lead to the successful operation of the detector shortly after the end of the filling with liquid Argon. Overall plant performance and stability during the long-term underground operation are discusse...

  20. Programming Coup D’Oeil: The Impact of Decision Making Technology in Operational Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    that it is time consuming and it requires a high degree of good information to yield accurate options for success. In warfare, tempo is vital and...influence decision makers and planners is ethnocentrism . Dong, Day, and Collaço defined ethnocentrism as the “belief that 6 one‟s ethnic or cultural...group is the center of everything, and all other things are related to or dependent on it.” 12 Ethnocentrism plays a role in shaping stereotypes

  1. Acceleration Operators in the Value Iteration Algorithms for Average Reward Markov Decision Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Shlakhter, Oleksandr

    2008-01-01

    One of the most widely used methods for solving average cost MDP problems is the value iteration method. This method, however, is often computationally impractical and restricted in size of solvable MDP problems. We propose acceleration operators that improve the performance of the value iteration for average reward MDP models. These operators are based on two important properties of Markovian operator: contraction mapping and monotonicity. It is well known that the classical relative value iteration methods for average cost criteria MDP do not involve the max-norm contraction or monotonicity property. To overcome this difficulty we propose to combine acceleration operators with variants of value iteration for stochastic shortest path problems associated average reward problems.

  2. Site selection process for new nuclear power plants - a method to support decision making and improving public participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Vivian B.; Cunha, Tatiana S. da; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego, E-mail: vbmartins@ien.gov.br, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Impactos Ambientais; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian Energy Plan (PNE 2030) that guides the Government in formulating its strategy for expanding energy supply by 2030 highlights the need for the Brazilian electrical system have more than 4,000 MW from nuclear sources by 2025. Therefore, the Government presented a proposal to build four more nuclear power plants with capacity of 1,000 MW each, at first, two in the Northeast and two in Southeast. The selection and site assessment are key parts of the installation process of a nuclear plant and may significantly affect the cost, public acceptance and safety of the facility during its entire life cycle. The result of this initial stage, it can even seriously affect program success. Wrong decisions in the process of site selection may also require a financial commitment to higher planned in a later phase of the project, besides causing extensive and expensive downtime. Select the location where these units will be built is not a trivial process, because involves the consideration of multiple criteria and judgments in addition to obtaining, organizing and managing a diverse range of data, both qualitative and quantitative, to assist in decision making and ensure that the site selected is the most appropriate in relation to safety and technical, economic and environmental feasibility. This paper presents an overview of the site selection process and its stages, the criteria involved in each step, the tools to support decision making that can be used and the difficulties in applying a formal process of decision making. Also discussed are ways to make the process more transparent and democratic, increasing public involvement as a way to improve acceptance and reduce opposition from various sectors of society, trying to minimize the expense and time involved in the implementation of undertakings of this kind. (author)

  3. Decision Support Using Simulation for Customer-Driven Manufacturing System Design and Operations Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Heilala, Juhani; Montonen, Jari; Jarvinen, Paula; Kivikunnas, Sauli

    2010-01-01

    The chapter is a summary of following national public research projects: "Integrated dynamic simulation model of enterprise for planning of operations", (1997-1999); "Integrated dynamic customer driven production network management using operative simulation" (2000-2001) and "Integrated dynamic electronic production and suppliers control and planning of resources" (2000-2001). Development work was later carried out in the projects "Modelling and simulation of manufacturing systems for value n...

  4. Iranian Operational Decision Making: Case Studies from the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    intentions, they began a disinformation campaign, feeding false intelligence to the Iraqi high command through double agents.90 Because of these measures...planned a very large disinformation operation in which the Americans, the Soviets, and the Iraqis were deceived. This operation...featured the use of decoys, feints, and a disinformation campaign that success- fully fooled not only the Iraqis, but also their American allies

  5. Civil classification of the acquirer and operator of a photovoltaic power plant. Consumer or entrepreneur?; Zivilrechtliche Einordnung des Erwerbers und Betreibers einer Photovoltaikanlage. Verbraucher oder Unternehmer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidewindt, Holger [Verbraucherzentrale Nordrhein-Westfalen e.V., Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    With the prospect of revenue from the feed consumption and cost savings by means of private 'small investors' for the energy policy turnaround are obtained. The civil protection in acquisition and operation of the photovoltaic power plant largely depends on their classification according to paragraph paragraph 13, 14 Civil Law Code (BGB). paragraph paragraph 305 ff. BGB are fully applicable only to consumers. Consumer organizations can act only under the participation of consumers. The recent judgments show that the registration of relevant aspects and their proper legal assessment are a major challenge. Therefore, the feed-in tariff as a demarcation criterion was a wrong decision.

  6. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  7. Resolving plant operational issues related to pressurizer safety relief valve piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R.A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Div.; Testa, M.F. [Duquesne Light Co., Shippingport, PA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1995-11-01

    Pressurizer safety and relief valve (PSARV) piping has many technical issues related to the qualification and operation of the system that have been addressed at Beaver Valley Unit 2. The PSARV piping is part of a system that must meet Code requirements while being subjected to very significant fluid transient loadings. Valve components include safety valves, power operated relief valves (PORVs), and motor operated block valves. Fluid slugs upstream of these valves can be steam or can be hot or cold water, resulting in a significant variance in possible slug densities. Problems with design options and hardware installed to decrease slug density such as heat tracing, and the susceptibility of the PORVs to leak are issues that affect plant operation, efficiency and cost effectiveness.

  8. Tableau-based decision procedure for the multi-agent epistemic logic with operators of common and distributed knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Goranko, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    We develop an incremental-tableau-based decision procedure for the multi-agent epistemic logic MAEL(CD) (aka S5_n (CD)), whose language contains operators of individual knowledge for a finite set Ag of agents, as well as operators of distributed and common knowledge among all agents in Ag. Our tableau procedure works in (deterministic) exponential time, thus establishing an upper bound for MAEL(CD)-satisfiability that matches the (implicit) lower-bound known from earlier results, which implies ExpTime-completeness of MAEL(CD)-satisfiability. Therefore, our procedure provides a complexity-optimal algorithm for checking MAEL(CD)-satisfiability, which, however, in most cases is much more efficient. We prove soundness and completeness of the procedure, and illustrate it with an example.

  9. Adaptive models for decision making in production management for thermoelectrical plants; Modelos adaptativos para suporte a decisao na gestao da producao de unidades termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Carlos Arthur Mattos Teixeira; Nascimento, Ricardo Santos; Pacheco, Luciana de Almeida; Ferreira, Adonias Magdiel S.; Leite, Weliton Emanuel S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Barretto, Sergio Torres Sa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The development of technologies for the efficient production management of increasingly complex and dynamic systems has proven been a competitive differential for businesses world-class. The integrated management systems are currently among the areas of knowledge more defendants by the different branches of human activity. These systems has widely used mathematical modeling and optimization methods, through which it is feasible identify the optimal operational status, which can be translated as the minimum cost, maximum profit or minimum use of equipment, besides other goals. Also, they could measure the technical-economic consequences to operate in an operational status different from optimal. Thus, integrated systems management tools has been increasingly adopted in decision-support in production units. This paper proposes a methodology for the development of adaptive models, embedded in integrated management. This research also incorporates a software development, called Production Planning and Control of Thermo Electrical Co-Generation Unit that, connected to industrial plants' supervision layer, adapt its model in real time. (author)

  10. Optimal Bidding and Operation of a Power Plant with Solvent-Based Carbon Capture under a CO2 Allowance Market: A Solution with a Reinforcement Learning-Based Sarsa Temporal-Difference Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziang Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a reinforcement learning (RL-based Sarsa temporal-difference (TD algorithm is applied to search for a unified bidding and operation strategy for a coal-fired power plant with monoethanolamine (MEA-based post-combustion carbon capture under different carbon dioxide (CO2 allowance market conditions. The objective of the decision maker for the power plant is to maximize the discounted cumulative profit during the power plant lifetime. Two constraints are considered for the objective formulation. Firstly, the tradeoff between the energy-intensive carbon capture and the electricity generation should be made under presumed fixed fuel consumption. Secondly, the CO2 allowances purchased from the CO2 allowance market should be approximately equal to the quantity of CO2 emission from power generation. Three case studies are demonstrated thereafter. In the first case, we show the convergence of the Sarsa TD algorithm and find a deterministic optimal bidding and operation strategy. In the second case, compared with the independently designed operation and bidding strategies discussed in most of the relevant literature, the Sarsa TD-based unified bidding and operation strategy with time-varying flexible market-oriented CO2 capture levels is demonstrated to help the power plant decision maker gain a higher discounted cumulative profit. In the third case, a competitor operating another power plant identical to the preceding plant is considered under the same CO2 allowance market. The competitor also has carbon capture facilities but applies a different strategy to earn profits. The discounted cumulative profits of the two power plants are then compared, thus exhibiting the competitiveness of the power plant that is using the unified bidding and operation strategy explored by the Sarsa TD algorithm.

  11. Optimal operation of cascaded hydroelectric power plants in the power market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡兴国; 马平; 林士颖

    2004-01-01

    An improved network flow algorithm, which includes the minimum cost network flow and the same period network flow, is proposed to solve the optimization of cascaded hydroelectric power plants in a competitive electricity market. The typical network flow is used to find the feasible flow and add the discharge water to different cascaded hydroelectric power plants at the same step. The same period network flow is used to find the optimal flow and add the power output at a different step. This new algorithm retains the advantages of the typical network flow, such as simplicity and ease of realization. The result of the case analysis indicates that the new algorithm can achieve high calculation precision and can be used to calculate the optimal operation of cascaded hydroelectric power plants.

  12. Integration of computerized operation support systems on a nuclear power plant environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaime, Guilherme D.G.; Almeida, Jose C.S.; Oliveira, Mauro V., E-mail: gdjaime@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.br [Instituto Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Sistemas Complexos. Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Automation of certain tasks in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control room is expected to result in reduced operators' mental workload, which may induce other benefits such as enhanced situation awareness and improved system performance. The final goal should be higher level of operational safety. Thus, recent works are increasingly assessing automation. The LABIHS compact NPP simulator, though, still operates under strictly manual printed hard-copy procedures, despite of the fact that the simulator incorporates several advancements in design of digitalized Human-Interfaces (HSIs). This work presents the development, implementation and integration of selected components to achieve increased level of computerized/automated operation of the LABIHS compact NPP simulator. Specifically, we discuss three components: (I) Automatic Plant Mode Detection, (II) Automatic Alarm Filtering, and (III) Computerized Procedures. Each one of these components has to be carefully designed/integrated so that one can avoid the undesired effects of some known implementations of automated systems on NPP, such as the reduction in the operator's system awareness, an increase in monitoring workload, and the degradation in manual skills, which could lead to automation-induced system failures. (author)

  13. Controlling the Filling and Capping Operation of a Bottling Plant using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Chakraborty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic stages of operation of a bottling plant, i.e. the filling and capping process. The main aim of our paper is to control the filling and capping section of a bottling plant simultaneously. At first a set of empty bottle is run by using a conveyer towards filling section, after the operation, the filled bottles are sent towards the capping section. After successful capping operation, the sealed bottles terminate towards exit and a new set of empty bottle arrive, in this way the process continues. This paper includes the method using which, a bunch of bottles can be filled and capped at one instant of time. This method has made the operation more flexible and time saving. The filling and capping operations are controlled using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, as the PLC’s are very much user-efficient, cost-effective and easy to control. By using PLC automation the whole process is kept under control. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is used to monitor the process by means of a display system.

  14. A study of air-operated valves in U.S. nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothberg, O. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Khericha, S. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watkins, J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Holbrook, M. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2000-02-01

    A study of air-operated valves in nuclear power plant applications was conducted for the NRC Office of Research (the project was initiated by NRC/AEOD). The results of the study were based on visits to seven nuclear power plant sites, literature studies, and examinations of event records in databases available to the NRC. The purpose is to provide information to the NRC staff concerning capabilities and performance of air-operated valves (AOVs). Descriptions of air systems and AOVs were studied along with the support systems and equipment. Systems and equipment that contain AOVs and SOVs were studied to determine their dependencies. Applications of AOVs and SOVs were listed along with current NRC requirements.

  15. Operational and field test results from the 500 kw direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinak, A.J.; Lobach, J.L.; Nichols, K.E.

    1981-10-01

    A 500 kw geothermal powerplant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between geothermal brine and an isobutane (IC/sub 4/) working fluid is currently operating at the East Mesa test facility. The pilot plant program was initiated to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct contact heat exchange and associated plant operations. In addition to verifying the design performance of the DCHX itself, test efforts to date have (1) quantified the effect of dissolved gases (primarily CO/sub 2/) transferred from the brine to the IC/sub 4/ loop on the pressure elevation in the unvented power condenser and demonstrated a viable scheme to control this pressure elevation, (2) evaluated the potential of flash extraction and recovery of dissolved IC/sub 4/ from the spent brine, and (3) demonstrated control of fouling in critical components by pretreating the brine with small amounts of a chemical additive (FLOCON 247, Pfizer, Inc.).

  16. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonina Alona; Bolonins Genadijs; Blumberga Dagnija

    2014-01-01

    District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with redu...

  17. Air quality assessment of benzo(a)pyrene from asphalt plant operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel; Stewart, Robert; Rankin, Erika

    2012-01-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the contribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from asphalt plant operation, utilising Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker for PAHs, to the background air concentration around asphalt plants in the UK. The purpose behind this assessment was to determine whether the use of published BaP emission factors based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology is appropriate in the context of the UK, especially as the EPA methodology does not give BaP emission factors for all activities. The study also aimed to improve the overall understanding of BaP emissions from asphalt plants in the UK, and determine whether site location and operation is likely to influence the contribution of PAHs to ambient air quality. In order to establish whether the use of US EPA emissions factors is appropriate, the study has compared the BaP emissions measured and calculated emissions rates from two UK sites with those estimated using US EPA emission factors. A dispersion modelling exercise was carried out to show the BaP contribution to ambient air around each site. This study showed that, as the US EPA methodology does not provide factors for all emission sources on asphalt plants, their use may give rise to over- or under-estimations, particularly where sources of BaP are temperature dependent. However, the contribution of both the estimated and measured BaP concentrations to environmental concentration were low, averaging about 0.05 ng m(-3) at the boundary of the sites, which is well below the UK BaP assessment threshold of 0.25 ng m(-3). Therefore, BaP concentrations, and hence PAH concentrations, from similar asphalt plant operations are unlikely to contribute negatively to ambient air quality.

  18. Review of Current Data Exchange Practices: Providing Descriptive Data to Assist with Building Operations Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingood, W.; Stein, J.; Considine, T.; Sloup, C.

    2011-05-01

    Retailers who participate in the U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEA) identified the need to enhance communication standards. The means are available to collect massive numbers of buildings operational data, but CBEA members have difficulty transforming the data into usable information and energy-saving actions. Implementing algorithms for automated fault detection and diagnostics and linking building operational data to computerized maintenance management systems are important steps in the right direction, but have limited scalability for large building portfolios because the algorithms must be configured for each building.

  19. Designing a Operational Evaluation Model for Outsourcing Decision Making by Effective Outsourcing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jafarnejad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizations around the world are looking for new approaches to maintain or develop competitive advantage. Outsourcing can be such an approach and one of the strategies that can lead to greater competitiveness. Maintaining and developing core competences as a way of providing barriers to protect against present and future competitors; make full use of external capabilities, innovation and investment; and finally, provide better service, quality and cost to the customer. In this study we determined variables and factors involved in maintenance outsourcing process and developed a generic model for the maintenance outsourcing process by three main factors such as characteristics of organization, characteristics of Environment/Industry and characteristics of Contractors. Then the proposed model has been tested in an electric company by the use of gray theory in order to determine that the organization do complete outsourcing or outsourcing with non-decisions.

  20. Towards maintenance-free SOVs (solenoid operated valves). [For nuclear power plant use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, R. (Valcor Engineering Corp., Springfield, NJ (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Because most solenoid operated valves (SOVs) are being used in vital safety related systems in nuclear power plants, they must be shown to perform satisfactorily over 40 years of normal service plus one year into post-LOCA. Current practice in SOV design and manufacture, as described here, aims to minimize the need for maintenance and to make it simpler when it is necessary. (author).

  1. Will decision-support systems be widely used for the management of plant diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Decision-support systems (DSSs) are interactive computer-based systems that help decision makers solve unstructured problems under complex, uncertain conditions. Experimental use of DSSs has resulted in improved disease suppression and lowered risks of crop damage. In many cases, it has also led to the use of smaller quantities of active substances, as compared with standard spraying practices. Hundreds of DSSs have been developed over the years and are readily available and affordable. However, most farm managers do not use them as part of their integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Since the mid-1980s, the author of this paper, together with numerous colleagues, has developed DSSs and decision rules for the management of diseases in a variety of crops, including extensive crops, such as wheat, sunflower, and pea; semi-intensive crops, such as pear, chickpea, cotton, and tarragon; and intensive crops, such as tomato, potato, cucumber, sweet pepper, carrot, and grapevine. Some of these systems were used widely, but others were not. This experience may allow us to draw general conclusions regarding the use of DSSs and decision rules. Possible explanations for the widely varying acceptance rates are presented, and the effects of anticipated changes in the agribusiness sector on the future use of DSSs are discussed.

  2. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  3. Towards a "crippled-mode" operation of an industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafnicki, Konrad; Narce, Cécile

    2006-02-01

    In house treatment of metal plating wastewater mainly involves chemical treatments performed in continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTR). The inflow of these tanks is directly produced by the plating shops activity, and the storage capacity never exceeds a few hours of incoming flow. Thus, any fault on one of the CFSTR may impose a complete stop of the whole manufacturing process, which is unacceptable for the manufacturer. Another solution would be having "spare" CFSTRs ready to be used as alternative in case of any CFSTR fault or maintenance. The latter solution however implies additional costs in equipment, storage space and maintenance so as to keep this equipment fit and ready for operation. The paper presents the study of a "crippled-mode" wastewater treatment (WWT) operation which enables a sufficiently efficient working of the WWT plant during maintenance phases and failure repairing on any of the CFSTR, without any extra equipment needed. This survey has been performed on real industrial WWT plants, with a continuous influent and under industrial operation constraints. The performances of the detoxication have been analysed when a CFSTR is short-circuited and the corresponding chemical treatment is shunt in the upstream or downstream CSFTR. This work shows the possibility of satisfying the environmental regulations with a WWT plant functioning under subnormal conditions.

  4. Comparison of Operator Aided Optimization with Iterative Manual Optimization in a Simulated Tactical Decision Aiding Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    4 5 ,/, . LEG - - .... .... . ...................... . "S ’= .. 0 fUNCION EVALUAIONS A 52 i TILITY 50 go BLEST UTILITY TO DATE 73.73 The operator...NS S.. 250 - " \\ M..= . BES UTIIT TO U = 37 -122- l .- - ’. ’-,-,,--/-- ’ I / I5 -- S. *1 3 4 FUNCION (3) BES ’ ) I -.B= .0ś FUCINEV/ALL T IONS 1

  5. Transforming Fleet Network Operations with Collaborative Decision Support and Augmented Reality Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    transit between areas of responsibility. There is also the challenge of communicating with ships in other areas depending on operational requirements...within fault management are quality assurance for RAS (reliability, availability, and survivability), alarm surveillance, localization, correction...Accounting management includes usage measurement, tariffing and pricing, collection and finance, and enterprise control. This part of the FCAPS model

  6. A Predictive Task Network Model for Estimating the Effectiveness of Decision Aids for Sonar Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    METHOD 2.1 Building the model Using existing task analyses of navy sonar systems (Matthews, Greenley and Webb, 1991) and with the assistance of...Critical Operator Tasks. DRDC Toronto Report # CR-2003-131 Matthews, M.L., Greenley , M. and Webb, R.D.G (1991). Presentation of Information from Towed

  7. Health-safety and environmental risk assessment of power plants using multi criteria decision making method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozi Ali Seyed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of environmental issues at global and regional levels including pollution of water, air etc. as well as the outcomes such as global warming and climate change has led to being considered environmental aspects as effective factors for power generation. Study ahead, aims at examination of risks resulting from activities of Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant located in Iran. Method applied in the research is analytical hierarchy process. After identification of factors causing risk, the analytical hierarchy structure of the power plant risks were designed and weight of the criteria and sub-criteria were calculated by intensity probability product using Eigenvector Method and EXPERT CHOICE Software as well. Results indicate that in technological, health-safety, biophysical and socio economic sections of the power plant, factors influenced by the power plant activities like fire and explosion, hearing loss, quantity of groundwater, power generation are among the most important factors causing risk in the power plant. The drop in underground water levels is the most important natural consequence influenced on Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant.

  8. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  9. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan (China); Ya-Tang Cheng [Power Research Institute, Taiwan (China)

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  10. A Direct Approach Based on C2-IULOWA Operator for Group Decision Making with Uncertain Additive Linguistic Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hong Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to group decision making (GDM problem with uncertain additive linguistic preference relations (UALPRs, we investigate the efficient aggregation of the uncertain additive linguistic preference information. First, we introduce two measures to assess the consistency level and the consensus level of uncertain additive linguistic preference information, respectively, and study some of their desirable properties. Then, based on both the two measures, we propose a coinduced uncertain linguistic ordered weighted averaging (IULOWA operator, called the consistency and consensus coinduced uncertain linguistic ordered weighted averaging (C2-IULOWA operator, to aggregate individual uncertain additive linguistic preference information, in which the consistency level and the consensus level synergistically serve as inducing variables and then guide the determination of the associated weights. We have proved the collective uncertain linguistic preference information aggregated by the C2-IULOWA operator that can maintain the fundamental properties of preference relation, such as indifference, reciprocity, and transitivity. By using the C2-IULOWA operator, we develop a direct GDM approach with UALPRs. Finally, an illustrative example on the selection of chief quality officer is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and rationalitly of the developed approach.

  11. Integrating Ensemble Forecasts of Precipitation and Streamflow into Decision Support for Reservoir Operations in North Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Limon, R. A.; Alizadeh, B.; Seo, D. J.; Fincannon, T. J.; Winguth, A. M. E.; Brown, J.; Blaylock, L.; Lampe, M.; Philpott, A.; Bell, F.

    2016-12-01

    North Central Texas relies heavily on surface water for water supply. To meet the growing demand, large raw water suppliers, such as the Tarrant Regional Water District (TRWD), operate systems of reservoirs that are connected by extensive networks of pipelines over long distances. To ensure water supply at all times, while minimizing flooding risks and pumping cost, TRWD utilizes a suite of decision support tools. This research aims to improve the operating efficiency of the water delivery system by providing skillful ensemble precipitation and inflow forecasts that can be used to optimize the water supply operations under uncertain environmental conditions. To assess the value of medium- and long-range forecasts of precipitation and inflow to operation and management of the TRWD's reservoir-pipeline system, a set of hindcasting and verification experiments is being carried out. The hindcasting experiments use weather and climate reforecasts from the Global Ensemble Forecast System and the Climate Forecast System Version 2, and the forecasting and verification tools of the National Weather Service's Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast Service, the Community Hydrologic Prediction System, and the Ensemble Verification System. The value of ensemble forecasts will be demonstrated via the TRWD forecasting model, which uses RiverWare. We also present a multiscale bias correction procedure for post-processing the raw streamflow ensembles.

  12. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Product and Producton Development (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working

  13. Planning of biogas plants. A question of co-operation and negotiation; Planering av biogasanlaeggningar. En fraaga om samverkan och foerhandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Jamil

    2003-04-01

    During the last years there has been an increased interest in Sweden to build biogas reactors. The planning of a biogas plant brings about the need for co-operation between a variety of actors. Furthermore, there are a number of different issues that need to be dealt with. To build a biogas plant is thus a rather complicated thing to do. The aim of this report is to increase the knowledge about the processes that precede a decision to build a biogas plant, in order to try to facilitate the planning of future projects. The report is based on case studies of the planning of two biogas plants in Sweden and the empirical material consists of interviews with key persons as well as written documents. In the study, three parallel processes are identified and analysed, which are all crucial to carry through a project. These are the project planning process, the political process and the application process. The most important result of the study is that there is not only one way to carry through a project and that the choice of strategy depends on the character of the project and the different questions that need to be handled. Examples of other results are: the importance of an early and continuous dialogue with the political leadership, the necessity to build an organisation for the co-operation between key actors and that the project leaders should be flexible and open to changes in the project throughout the planning process.

  14. Operational experience of the industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Licki, Janusz; Pawelec, Andrzej; Tymiński, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation processes for air pollution control. The process, which has been developed in Japan, the United States, Germany and Poland allows simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x with high efficiency and by-product generated can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial installations using this technology have been constructed in the world, one in China and the second in Poland. Other plants are constructed in Japan and China. Chinese installation is mostly SO 2 removal oriented (since the NO x emission limits in China are not imposed up to now), so Polish plant one is as a matter of fact the first installation for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases. The plant located in EPS Pomorzany in Szczecin treats the flue gases emitted from two Benson boilers of 65 MW e and 100 MW th each. The flue gases of maximum flow of 270 000 N m 3/h are irradiated by four accelerators of 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each. Description of the plant and the results obtained have been presented in this paper. The plant has been in operation for more than 2500 h (5500 h including one accelerator set operation). Removal efficiencies up to 95% for SO 2 and up to 70% for NO x were achieved. Several thousand tons of the by-product was sold in the form of NPK fertilizer. Economically, the technology is competitive with the conventional ones.

  15. Nuclear power plant human computer interface design incorporating console simulation, operations personnel, and formal evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, C.; Edwards, R.M.; Goldberg, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    New CRT-based information displays which enhance the human machine interface are playing a very important role and are being increasingly used in control rooms since they present a higher degree of flexibility compared to conventional hardwired instrumentation. To prototype a new console configuration and information display system at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), an iterative process of console simulation and evaluation involving operations personnel is being pursued. Entire panels including selector switches and information displays are simulated and driven by plant dynamical simulations with realistic responses that reproduce the actual cognitive and physical environment. Careful analysis and formal evaluation of operator interaction while using the simulated console will be conducted to determine underlying principles for effective control console design for this particular group of operation personnel. Additional iterations of design, simulation, and evaluation will then be conducted as necessary.

  16. Construction and operation of the flue gas desulphurization plant at Altbach/Deizisau power station, unit no. 5. Experience from commissioning and initial operating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.; Necker, P.; Strauss, J.; Hemming, H.; Landgraf, E.

    1987-04-01

    Since take-over the flue gas desulphurization plant has easily maintained the required level of desulphurisation. Caking-on and incrustation are substantially avoided. By redesigning the gypsum drying process an easily storable gypsum which can be used both in the gypsum and cement industry is produced. According to experience gained to date it is expected that the flue gas desulphurisation plant will not impair the availability of the power plant unit taking into account statutory regulations. In overall terms the plant has satisfactorily fulfilled the expectations of the operator.

  17. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier [Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Department of Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering (MIE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Center for Process Engineering and Technology (PROCESS), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Arnell, Magnus [Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Department of Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering (MIE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); CIT Urban Water Management, Gjuterigatan 1D, SE-582 73 Linköping (Sweden); Amerlinck, Youri [BIOMATH, Department of Mathematical Modelling, Statistics and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Corominas, Lluís [ICRA, Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, H_2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Gernaey, Krist V. [Center for Process Engineering and Technology (PROCESS), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Guo, Lisha [ModelEAU, Département de génie civil et de génie des eaux, Université Laval, 1065 Avenue de la Médecine, Québec G1V 0A6, QC (Canada); Lindblom, Erik [Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Department of Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering (MIE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Sweco Environment, Gjörwellsgatan 22, SE-100 26 Stockholm (Sweden); and others

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO{sub 2} emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially since N{sub 2}O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO{sub 2}. The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. - Graphical abstract: The 3-D representation of effluent quality (EQI), operational cost (OCI) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) during the evaluation of several (plant-wide) control/operational strategies: (1) modification of the DO set point, (2) modification of the primary clarifier TSS removal efficiency and (3

  18. A study on the operator's errors of commission (EOC) in accident scenarios of nuclear power plants: methodology development and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kang, Da Il

    2003-04-01

    As the concern on the operator's inappropriate interventions, the so-called Errors Of Commission (EOCs), that can exacerbate the plant safety has been raised, much of interest in the identification and analysis of EOC events from the risk assessment perspective has been increased. Also, one of the items in need of improvement for the conventional PSA and HRA that consider only the system-demanding human actions is the inclusion of the operator's EOC events into the PSA model. In this study, we propose a methodology for identifying and analysing human errors of commission that might be occurring from the failures in situation assessment and decision making during accident progressions given an initiating event. In order to achieve this goal, the following research items have been performed: Firstly, we analysed the error causes or situations contributed to the occurrence of EOCs in several incidents/accidents of nuclear power plants. Secondly, limitations of the advanced HRAs in treating EOCs were reviewed, and a requirement for a new methodology for analysing EOCs was established. Thirdly, based on these accomplishments a methodology for identifying and analysing EOC events inducible from the failures in situation assessment and decision making was proposed and applied to all the accident sequences of YGN 3 and 4 NPP which resulted in the identification of about 10 EOC situations.

  19. [Teamwork in the operating theatre. Effect on quality of decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfrörer, R; Schüpfer, G; Schmidt, C E; Bauer, M

    2005-12-01

    German hospitals face growing economic pressure. Due to the reimbursement system with diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), revenues from capitation fees have to be earned by each clinic. This leads to minimization of resources for every single case. Cost effectiveness is also realised through shorter hospital stays, reduction of hospital beds and a steady rise in cases per year. As a consequence, all employees are confronted with an increasing workload. Compensation of these working conditions can be achieved by human engineering. Despite statements from politicians and hospital leadership in order to cope with this situation, reality is far away: overwork, shorter or missing recreation periods, pressure of time and low income of staff members have turned hospitals into a deterring workplace. If satisfaction of elementary needs such as adherence to break times, is not achieved shortly, politicians and hospital leadership will find out that without motivated and satisfied staff there will not be efficient performance. The present article addresses this issue and gives examples for increasing efficiency through motivation. Focus is on cooperation in the operation room, advantages and risks of teamwork and auxiliary measures for improvement. The aim is to underline how complex and fragile working in an operation room proceeds and how little is done to support this process. Finally, examples are described which improve teamwork, motivation, efficiency and efficacy.

  20. Competence-Oriented Decision Model for Optimizing the Operation of a Cascading Hydroelectric Power Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Derib Asfaw

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The operation of the four Perak cascading reservoirs namely, Temenggor, Bersia, Kenering and Chenderoh analyzed using the newly developed genetic algorithm model. The reservoirs are located in the state of Perak of Peninsular Malaysia that used for hydroelectric power generation and flood mitigation. The hydroelectric potential of the cascading scheme is 578 MW. However, the actual annual average generation was 228 MW, which is about 39% of the potential. The research aimed to improve the annual average hydroelectric power generation. The result of the fitness value used to select the optimal option from the test of eight model runs options. After repeated runs of the optimal option, the best model parameters are found. Therefore, optimality achieved at population size of 150, crossover probability of 0.75 and generation number of 60. The operation of GA model produced an additional of 12.17 MW per day. The additional power is found with the same total annual volume of release and similar natural inflow pattern. The additional hydroelectric power can worth over 22 million Ringgit Malaysia per year. In addition, it plays a significant role on the growing energy needs of the country.

  1. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-15

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ``green`` material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ``green`` soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction.

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE), Operable Unit 1, Fernald, Hamilton and Butler Counties, OH, March 1, 1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 1 consists of Waste Pits 1 through 6, the Burn Pit, the Clearwell, and associated environmental media (excluding groundwater).

  3. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  4. Survey of operation and maintenance-related materials needs in geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views on research and development priorities. A wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent`s perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  5. SURVEY OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE-RELATED MATERIALS NEEDS IN GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views research and development priorities. A. wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent's perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  6. Performance analysis of monary and binary geothermal power plants operation for Ukraine conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlla Е. Denysova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Every day the shortage in natural gas and coal does increase. In this respect, a great attention is paid to alternative energy sources, and geothermal electrical power generation represents one of the most cost-effective technologies. New power generation technologies using geothermal resources are ecologically clean and are close approaching to traditional ones from the efficiency point of view. This research aim is to analyze the efficiency of monary and binary geothermal power plants operation under actual conditions in Ukraine. Authors discuss prospects for the geothermal power engineering development in Ukraine and other countries. The principal thermal diagrams of monary and binary power plants are represented, as well as their operational principle considering these schemes advantages and disadvantages. Effected is an analysis of such stations performances under conditions of Ukraine. This research value and practical significance are related to the fact that for Ukraine both monary and binary geothermal power plants are very promising, but each engineering solutions should strictly follow its specific functional conditions.

  7. Simulation of a Martian Solar Thermal Power Plant - Diurnal Operation and Power-Efficiency Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.; Popescu, G.; Feidt, M.

    A solar thermal power plant operating on Mars surface is analyzed in this work. During analysis meteorological data measured at Viking Landers (VL) sites were used. Our results show that during autumn at VL1 site, properly designed thermal power plant based on flat - plate solar collectors are comparable in performance with PV- based power systems. During a winter dust-storm day the maximum output power is much smaller than during autumn. High efficiency thermal engines is recommended to be used in combination with solar collectors kept perpendicular on Sun's rays. When a horizontal solar collector is considered, the dependence of the maximum output power on optimum solar efficiency seems to be quadratic at both VL1 and VL2 sites. When a collector perpendicular on Sun's rays is considered, this dependence is more complicate, but keeps the quadratic feature. A certain optimum solar efficiency threshold (around 5%) must be exceeded in order the system provide useful power. No obvious difference exists between power plant performance in the two years of VL2 operation.

  8. Survey of operation and maintenance-related materials needs in geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views on research and development priorities. A wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent`s perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  9. SURVEY OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE-RELATED MATERIALS NEEDS IN GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views research and development priorities. A. wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent's perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  10. Plan for the Startup of HA-21I Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS, H.T.

    2000-02-17

    Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given. The Startup Plan provides a phased approach that bridges the activities between the completion of the Activity Based Startup Review authorizing the use of the three additional furnaces and the unrestricted operation of the five thermal stabilization muffle furnaces. The four phases are: (1) the initiation of five furnace operations using three empty (simulated full) boat charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C; (2) three furnace operations (one full charge from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); (3) four furnace operations (two full charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); and (4) integrated five furnace operations and unrestricted operations. Phase 1 of the Plan will be considered as the cold runs. This Plan also provides management oversight and administrative controls that are to be implemented until unrestricted operations are authorized. It also provides a formal review process for ensuring that all preparations needed for full five furnace operations are completed and formally reviewed prior to proceeding to the increased activity levels associated with five furnace operations. Specific objectives include: (1) To ensure that activities are conducted in a safe manner. (2) To provide supplemental

  11. Development of an environmental impact assessment and decision support system for seawater desalination plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lattemann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater desalination is a rapidly growing coastal-based industry. The combined production capacity of all seawater desalination plants worldwide has increased by 30% over the last two years: from 28 million cubic meters per day in 2007—which is the equivalent of the average discharge of the River

  12. Development of an environmental impact assessment and decision support system for seawater desalination plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lattemann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater desalination is a rapidly growing coastal-based industry. The combined production capacity of all seawater desalination plants worldwide has increased by 30% over the last two years: from 28 million cubic meters per day in 2007—which is the equivalent of the average discharge of the River S

  13. Evaluation of Conservation Voltage Reduction with Analytic Hierarchy Process: A Decision Support Framework in Grid Operations Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsung An

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic framework to evaluate the performance of conservation voltage reduction (CVR by determining suitable substations for CVR in operations planning. Existing CVR planning practice generally only focuses on the energy saving aspect without taking other underlying attributes into account, i.e., network topology and reduced voltage effects on other substations. To secure the desired operating reserve and avoid any adverse impacts, these attributes should be considered for implementing CVR more effectively. This research develops a practical decision-making framework based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP to quantify several of the aforementioned attributes. Candidate substations for CVR deployment are prioritized such that performances are compared in terms of power transfer distribution factor (PTDF, voltage sensitivity factor (VSF, and CVR factor. In addition, to meet a specified reserve requirement, an integer programming approach is adopted to select potential substations for CVR implementations. Case studies for a Korean electric power system under diverse operating conditions are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Integrating Strategic and Operational Decision Making Using Data-Driven Dashboards: The Case of St. Joseph Mercy Oakland Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Weiner; Balijepally, Venugopal; Tanniru, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals have invested and continue to invest heavily in building information systems to support operations at various levels of administration. These systems generate a lot of data but fail to effectively convert these data into actionable information for decision makers. Such ineffectiveness often is attributed to a lack of alignment between strategic planning and information technology (IT) initiatives supporting operational goals. We present a case study that illustrates how the use of digital dashboards at St. Joseph Mercy Oakland (SJMO) Hospital in Pontiac, Michigan, was instrumental in supporting such an alignment. Driven by a focus on key performance indicators (KPIs), dashboard applications also led to other tangible and intangible benefits. An ability to track KPIs over time and against established targets, with drill-down capabilities, allowed leadership to hold staff members accountable for achieving their performance targets. By displaying the dashboards in prominent locations (such as operational unit floors, the physicians' cafeteria, and nursing stations), SJMO ushered in transparency in the planning and monitoring processes. The need to develop KPI metrics and drive data collection efforts became ingrained in the work ethos of people at every level of the organization. Although IT-enabled dashboards have been instrumental in supporting this cultural transformation, the focus of investment was the ability of technology to make collective vision and action the responsibility of all stakeholders.

  15. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolonina Alona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with reduced district heating supply temperature. Conclusions on the benefits of new operation modes are introduced.

  16. The need for operating guidelines and a decision making framework applicable to the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; Randolph, Richard O.

    While formal principles have been adopted for the eventuality of detecting intelligent life in our galaxy (SETI Principles), no such guidelines exist for the discovery of non-intelligent extraterrestrial life within the solar system. Current scientifically based planetary protection policies for solar system exploration address how to undertake exploration, but do not provide clear guidance on what to do if and when life is detected. Considering that martian life could be detected under several different robotic and human exploration scenarios in the coming decades, it is appropriate to anticipate how detection of non-intelligent, microbial life could impact future exploration missions and activities, especially on Mars. This paper discusses a proposed set of interim guidelines based loosely on the SETI Principles and addresses issues extending from the time of discovery through future handling and treatment of extraterrestrial life on Mars or elsewhere. Based on an analysis of both scientific and ethical considerations, there is a clear need for developing operating protocols applicable at the time of discovery and a decision making framework that anticipates future missions and activities, both robotic and human. There is growing scientific confidence that the discovery of extraterrestrial life in some form is nearly inevitable. If and when life is discovered beyond Earth, non-scientific dimensions may strongly influence decisions about the nature and scope of future missions and activities. It is appropriate to encourage international discussion and consideration of the issues prior to an event of such historical significance.

  17. Aging influence on exergy destruction in an operating 320MW steam power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Sina; Abroshan, Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Exergy analysis in power plants is a strong tool to evaluate cycle performance qualitatively. Most of previous studies applied second law approach to find optimum values for main cycle parameters. Although, these researches are useful to improve the design features of future power plants, they do not imply any recommendation to improve an aged unit. In This study an exergy analysis of an operating unit was performed to clear main sources of exergy destruction. Second law efficiency and exergy losses of all main components in the steam power plant, which is located in the south of Iran, were calculated based on present data. To find out aging influence on the plant performance, outcomes were compared with design results. This comparison cleared components which affected by aging, and the amount of miss performance were specified too. Boiler and high pressure turbine (HP) were the most influenced components due to aging effects. Besides, the calculations were done at three loads in order to evaluate performance of components in off design conditions.

  18. Experimental verification of an energy consumption signal tool for operational decision support in an office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.; Henze, Gregor P.; Hirsch, Adam I.; Florita, Anthony R.; Dodier, Robert H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates an energy signal tool to assess the system-level and whole-building energy use of an office building in downtown Denver, Colorado. The energy signal tool uses a traffic light visualization to alert a building operator to energy use which is substantially different from expected. The tool selects which light to display for a given energy end-use by comparing measured energy use to expected energy use, accounting for uncertainty. A red light is only displayed when a fault is likely enough, and abnormal operation costly enough, that taking action will yield the lowest cost result. While the theoretical advances and tool development were reported previously, it has only been tested using a basic building model and has not, until now, been experimentally verified. Expected energy use for the field demonstration is provided by a compact reduced-order representation of the Alliance Center, generated from a detailed DOE-2.2 energy model. Actual building energy consumption data is taken from the summer of 2014 for the office building immediately after a significant renovation project. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a first look at the building following its major renovation compared to the design intent. The tool indicated strong under-consumption in lighting and plug loads and strong over-consumption in HVAC energy consumption, which prompted several focused actions for follow-up investigation. In addition, this paper illustrates the application of Bayesian inference to the estimation of posterior parameter probability distributions to measured data. Practical discussion of the application is provided, along with additional findings from further investigating the significant difference between expected and actual energy consumption.

  19. Decision no. 2011-DC-0213 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering Electricite de France (EDF) company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0213 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant a Electricite de France (EDF) de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de certaines de ses installations nucleaires de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to Electricite de France (EDF) company, operator of the French NPPs. (J.S.)

  20. Decision no. 2011-DC-0214 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering CIS bio international company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of its basic nuclear facility in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0214 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant a CIS bio international de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de son installation nucleaire de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to CIS bio international company, operator of the radiopharmaceuticals fabrication facility (INB 29) of Saclay (France). (J.S.)