WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant morphology

  1. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  2. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about...... the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death......, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during...

  3. Reshaping Plant Biology: Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptors for Plant Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduzzi, Mathilde; Binder, Brad M.; Bucksch, Alexander; Chang, Cynthia; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Pradal, Christophe; Sparks, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    An emerging challenge in plant biology is to develop qualitative and quantitative measures to describe the appearance of plants through the integration of mathematics and biology. A major hurdle in developing these metrics is finding common terminology across fields. In this review, we define approaches for analyzing plant geometry, topology, and shape, and provide examples for how these terms have been and can be applied to plants. In leaf morphological quantifications both geometry and shape have been used to gain insight into leaf function and evolution. For the analysis of cell growth and expansion, we highlight the utility of geometric descriptors for understanding sepal and hypocotyl development. For branched structures, we describe how topology has been applied to quantify root system architecture to lend insight into root function. Lastly, we discuss the importance of using morphological descriptors in ecology to assess how communities interact, function, and respond within different environments. This review aims to provide a basic description of the mathematical principles underlying morphological quantifications. PMID:28217137

  4. Morphological and Physiological Responses of Strawberry Plants to Water Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Klamkowski; Waldemar Treder

    2006-01-01

    The most of previous studies have been focused on the effect of water stress on plant yielding. However, the conditions in which plants grow from the moment of planting might affect their morphology and physiological response. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of water deficiency on growth and plant physiological response of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. ‘Salut’) under greenhouse conditions. The plants were grown in plastic containers filled with peat substratum. Wat...

  5. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on root morphology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... fertilizers, are highly effective in improving root morphology and growth in safflower. .... made by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955). ... In case of cv. Saif-32 ..... Previous studies showed that plant growth promotion.

  6. Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Soil salinity affects various physiological and biochemical processes which result in reduced biomass production.

  7. Plant Structure Ontology. Unified Vocabulary of Anatomy and Morphology of a Flowering Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formal description of plant phenotypes and standardized annotation of gene expression and protein localization data require uniform terminology that would accurately describe plant anatomy and morphology. This will facilitate cross-species comparative studies and quantitative comparison of phenotype...

  8. Morphological characteristics of motile plants for dynamic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-11-01

    Most plants have been considered as non-motile organisms. However, plants move in response to environmental changes for survival. In addition, some species drive dynamic motions in a short period of time. Mimosa pudica is a plant that rapidly shrinks its body in response to external stimuli. It has specialized organs that are omnidirectionally activated due to morphological features. In addition, scales of pinecone open or close up depending on humidity for efficient seed release. A number of previous studies on the dynamic motion of plants have been investigated in a biochemical point of view. In this study, the morphological characteristics of those motile organs were investigated by using X-ray CT and micro-imaging techniques. The results show that the dynamic motions of motile plants are supported by structural features related with water transport. These studies would provide new insight for better understanding the moving mechanism of motile plant in morphological point of view. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  9. Morphological Plant Modeling: Unleashing Geometric and Topological Potential within the Plant Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksch, Alexander; Atta-Boateng, Acheampong; Azihou, Akomian F.; Battogtokh, Dorjsuren; Baumgartner, Aly; Binder, Brad M.; Braybrook, Siobhan A.; Chang, Cynthia; Coneva, Viktoirya; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Gehan, Malia A.; Diaz-Martinez, Diego Hernan; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Klein, Laura L.; Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Mao; Lynch, Jonathan P.; Maizel, Alexis; Maloof, Julin N.; Markelz, R. J. Cody; Martinez, Ciera C.; Miller, Laura A.; Mio, Washington; Palubicki, Wojtek; Poorter, Hendrik; Pradal, Christophe; Price, Charles A.; Puttonen, Eetu; Reese, John B.; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Spalding, Edgar P.; Sparks, Erin E.; Topp, Christopher N.; Williams, Joseph H.; Chitwood, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    The geometries and topologies of leaves, flowers, roots, shoots, and their arrangements have fascinated plant biologists and mathematicians alike. As such, plant morphology is inherently mathematical in that it describes plant form and architecture with geometrical and topological techniques. Gaining an understanding of how to modify plant morphology, through molecular biology and breeding, aided by a mathematical perspective, is critical to improving agriculture, and the monitoring of ecosystems is vital to modeling a future with fewer natural resources. In this white paper, we begin with an overview in quantifying the form of plants and mathematical models of patterning in plants. We then explore the fundamental challenges that remain unanswered concerning plant morphology, from the barriers preventing the prediction of phenotype from genotype to modeling the movement of leaves in air streams. We end with a discussion concerning the education of plant morphology synthesizing biological and mathematical approaches and ways to facilitate research advances through outreach, cross-disciplinary training, and open science. Unleashing the potential of geometric and topological approaches in the plant sciences promises to transform our understanding of both plants and mathematics. PMID:28659934

  10. Morphological Plant Modeling: Unleashing Geometric and Topological Potential within the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bucksch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometries and topologies of leaves, flowers, roots, shoots, and their arrangements have fascinated plant biologists and mathematicians alike. As such, plant morphology is inherently mathematical in that it describes plant form and architecture with geometrical and topological techniques. Gaining an understanding of how to modify plant morphology, through molecular biology and breeding, aided by a mathematical perspective, is critical to improving agriculture, and the monitoring of ecosystems is vital to modeling a future with fewer natural resources. In this white paper, we begin with an overview in quantifying the form of plants and mathematical models of patterning in plants. We then explore the fundamental challenges that remain unanswered concerning plant morphology, from the barriers preventing the prediction of phenotype from genotype to modeling the movement of leaves in air streams. We end with a discussion concerning the education of plant morphology synthesizing biological and mathematical approaches and ways to facilitate research advances through outreach, cross-disciplinary training, and open science. Unleashing the potential of geometric and topological approaches in the plant sciences promises to transform our understanding of both plants and mathematics.

  11. Morphological Plant Modeling: Unleashing Geometric and Topological Potential within the Plant Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksch, Alexander; Atta-Boateng, Acheampong; Azihou, Akomian F; Battogtokh, Dorjsuren; Baumgartner, Aly; Binder, Brad M; Braybrook, Siobhan A; Chang, Cynthia; Coneva, Viktoirya; DeWitt, Thomas J; Fletcher, Alexander G; Gehan, Malia A; Diaz-Martinez, Diego Hernan; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Klein, Laura L; Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Mao; Lynch, Jonathan P; Maizel, Alexis; Maloof, Julin N; Markelz, R J Cody; Martinez, Ciera C; Miller, Laura A; Mio, Washington; Palubicki, Wojtek; Poorter, Hendrik; Pradal, Christophe; Price, Charles A; Puttonen, Eetu; Reese, John B; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Spalding, Edgar P; Sparks, Erin E; Topp, Christopher N; Williams, Joseph H; Chitwood, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    The geometries and topologies of leaves, flowers, roots, shoots, and their arrangements have fascinated plant biologists and mathematicians alike. As such, plant morphology is inherently mathematical in that it describes plant form and architecture with geometrical and topological techniques. Gaining an understanding of how to modify plant morphology, through molecular biology and breeding, aided by a mathematical perspective, is critical to improving agriculture, and the monitoring of ecosystems is vital to modeling a future with fewer natural resources. In this white paper, we begin with an overview in quantifying the form of plants and mathematical models of patterning in plants. We then explore the fundamental challenges that remain unanswered concerning plant morphology, from the barriers preventing the prediction of phenotype from genotype to modeling the movement of leaves in air streams. We end with a discussion concerning the education of plant morphology synthesizing biological and mathematical approaches and ways to facilitate research advances through outreach, cross-disciplinary training, and open science. Unleashing the potential of geometric and topological approaches in the plant sciences promises to transform our understanding of both plants and mathematics.

  12. Morphological and Physiological Responses of Strawberry Plants to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Klamkowski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The most of previous studies have been focused on the effect of water stress on plant yielding. However, the conditions in which plants grow from the moment of planting might affect their morphology and physiological response. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of water deficiency on growth and plant physiological response of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. ‘Salut’ under greenhouse conditions. The plants were grown in plastic containers filled with peat substratum. Water stress was imposed by reducing the irrigation according to substratum moisture readings. Water stressed plants had the lowest values of water potential and showed strong decrease in gas exchange rate. Also, biomass and leaf area were the lowest in this group of plants. No differences in the length of root system were observed between control and water stressed plants. The lack of water in growing medium resulted also in a decrease of density and reduction of dimensions of stomata on plant leaves. These changes contribute to optimizing the use of assimilates and water use efficiency in periods when water availability is decreased.

  13. Morphological and Physiological Responses of Strawberry Plants to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Klamkowski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most of previous studies have been focused on the effect of water stress on plant yielding. However, the conditions in which plants grow from the moment of planting might affect their morphology and physiological response. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of water deficiency on growth and plant physiological response of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. ‘Salut’ under greenhouse conditions. The plants were grown in plastic containers filled with peat substratum. Water stress was imposed by reducing the irrigation according to substratum moisture readings. Water stressed plants had the lowest values of water potential and showed strong decrease in gas exchange rate. Also, biomass and leaf area were the lowest in this group of plants. No differences in the length of root system were observed between control and water stressed plants. The lack of water in growing medium resulted also in a decrease of density and reduction of dimensions of stomata on plant leaves.These changes contribute to optimizing the use of assimilates and water use efficiency in periods when water availability is decreased.

  14. Morphological evolution in land plants: new designs with old genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno D; Dolan, Liam

    2012-02-19

    The colonization and radiation of multicellular plants on land that started over 470 Ma was one of the defining events in the history of this planet. For the first time, large amounts of primary productivity occurred on the continental surface, paving the way for the evolution of complex terrestrial ecosystems and altering global biogeochemical cycles; increased weathering of continental silicates and organic carbon burial resulted in a 90 per cent reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The evolution of plants on land was itself characterized by a series of radical transformations of their body plans that included the formation of three-dimensional tissues, de novo evolution of a multicellular diploid sporophyte generation, evolution of multicellular meristems, and the development of specialized tissues and organ systems such as vasculature, roots, leaves, seeds and flowers. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the genes and developmental mechanisms that drove the explosion of plant morphologies on land. Recent studies indicate that many of the gene families which control development in extant plants were already present in the earliest land plants. This suggests that the evolution of novel morphologies was to a large degree driven by the reassembly and reuse of pre-existing genetic mechanisms.

  15. Plant morphology and allometric relationships in competing and non-competing plants of Tagetes patula L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborga Jarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allometric relationships (defined as correlation coefficients between plant mass - stem diameter, plant mass - stem height and stem diameter - stem height in plants of Tagetes patula L. (Brassicaceae var. "Tangerine" were analyzed. Competing and non-competing plants were compared in a glasshouse experiment. Competing plants were grown in broad range of densities, from 200 to 6000 individuals • m-2. For non-competing plants no allometric relationships were observed, while for competing plants they were strong, irrespective of density treatment used. Gradual changes of plant morphology (plant mass, stem diameter, stem height and height/mass ratio with the increase of competition intensity were also analyzed.The present study clearly showed, that the intraspecific competition influenced allometric relationships between height, mass and stem diameter of Tagetes patula.

  16. Manufacturing of porous oxide ceramics by replication of plant morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieber, H.; Rambo, C.; Cao, J.; Vogli, E.; Greil, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (DE). Dept. of Materials Science (III) Glass and Ceramics

    2002-07-01

    Biomorphic oxide ceramics of alumina, mullite and zirconia with a directed pore morphology on the micrometer level were manufactured from bioorganic plant structures by sol-gel processing as well as sol-assisted nano-powder infiltrations. The inherent open porous morphology of natural grown rattan palms was used for vacuum-infiltration with aluminum isopropoxide (Al(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}), zirconium oxichloride (ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O) and SiO{sub 2} nano powder. Hydrolysis of the sols by adding HNO{sub 3} and pyrolysis in inert atmosphere at 800 C resulted in the formation of biocarbon/ceramic replica of the original wood morphology. The specimens were sintered in air at temperatures up to 1600 C to yield porous oxide ceramics with an unidirected pore structure similar to the original plant material. Repeated infiltration, hydrolysis and annealing steps were applied to increase the density of the ceramic materials. (orig.)

  17. The plant structure ontology, a unified vocabulary of anatomy and morphology of a flowering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Katica; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Zapata, Felipe; Stevens, Peter F; Vincent, Leszek P; Avraham, Shulamit; Reiser, Leonore; Pujar, Anuradha; Sachs, Martin M; Whitman, Noah T; McCouch, Susan R; Schaeffer, Mary L; Ware, Doreen H; Stein, Lincoln D; Rhee, Seung Y

    2007-02-01

    Formal description of plant phenotypes and standardized annotation of gene expression and protein localization data require uniform terminology that accurately describes plant anatomy and morphology. This facilitates cross species comparative studies and quantitative comparison of phenotypes and expression patterns. A major drawback is variable terminology that is used to describe plant anatomy and morphology in publications and genomic databases for different species. The same terms are sometimes applied to different plant structures in different taxonomic groups. Conversely, similar structures are named by their species-specific terms. To address this problem, we created the Plant Structure Ontology (PSO), the first generic ontological representation of anatomy and morphology of a flowering plant. The PSO is intended for a broad plant research community, including bench scientists, curators in genomic databases, and bioinformaticians. The initial releases of the PSO integrated existing ontologies for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa); more recent versions of the ontology encompass terms relevant to Fabaceae, Solanaceae, additional cereal crops, and poplar (Populus spp.). Databases such as The Arabidopsis Information Resource, Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre, Gramene, MaizeGDB, and SOL Genomics Network are using the PSO to describe expression patterns of genes and phenotypes of mutants and natural variants and are regularly contributing new annotations to the Plant Ontology database. The PSO is also used in specialized public databases, such as BRENDA, GENEVESTIGATOR, NASCArrays, and others. Over 10,000 gene annotations and phenotype descriptions from participating databases can be queried and retrieved using the Plant Ontology browser. The PSO, as well as contributed gene associations, can be obtained at www.plantontology.org.

  18. Environmental Nanoparticles Interactions with Plants: Morphological, Physiological, and Genotoxic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Remédios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs are characterized by their small size (less than 100 nm and large surface area, which confer specific physicochemical properties as strength, electrical, and optical features. NPs can be derived from natural or anthropic sources, such as engineered or unwanted/incidental NPs. The composition, dimension, and morphology of engineered NPs enable their use in a variety of areas, such as electronic, biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, energy, environmental, catalysis, and materials science. As nanotechnology is an innovative and scientific growth area with an exponential production, more information is needed concerning the impacts of these nanomaterials (NMs in the environment and, particularly, in animals/humans health and in plants performance. So, research on NPs as emerging contaminants is therefore a new field in environmental health. This minireview describes, briefly, the NPs characterization and their occurrence in the environment stating air, water, and soil. Finally, particular emphasis is given to the interaction of NPs with plants at different levels: morphology, physiology, and genotoxicity. By analyzing this compiled information, it is evident that research on NPs phytotoxicity is in the beginning, and more comprehensive studies are needed not only on NPs cytotoxicity and genotoxicity but also on the best and the most reliable methods of assessing NPs toxicity.

  19. Compost and vermicompost as nursery pot components: effects on tomato plant growth and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazcano, C.; Arnold, J.; Tato, A.; Zaller, J. G.; Dominguez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract Post transplant success after nursery stage is strongly influenced by plant morphology. Cultural practices strongly shape plant morphology, and substrate choice is one of the most determining factors. Peat is the most often used amendment in commercial potting substrates, involving the exploitation of non-renewable resources and the degradation of highly valuable peatland ecosystems and therefore alternative substrates are required. Here the feasibility of replacing peat by compost or vermicompost for the production of tomato plants in nurseries was investigated through the study of the effect of increasing proportions of these substrates (0%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 75% and 100%) in target plant growth and morphological features, indicators of adequate post-transplant growth and yield. Compost and vermicompost showed to be adequate substrates for tomato plant growth. Total replacement of peat by vermicompost was possible while doses of compost higher than 50% caused plant mortality. Low doses of compost (10 and 20%) and high doses of vermicompost produced significant increases in aerial and root biomass of the tomato plants. In addition these treatments improved significantly plant morphology (higher number of leaves and leaf area, and increased root volume and branching). The use of compost and vermicompost constitute an attractive alternative to the use of peat in plant nurseries due to the environmental benefits involved but also due to the observed improvement in plant quality. Additional key words: peat moss, plant nursery, soil-less substrate, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Author) 37 refs.

  20. Knowledge-based object recognition for different morphological classes of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Thorsten; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1995-01-01

    Micropropagation of plants is done by cutting juvenile plants and placing them into special container-boxes with nutrient-solution where the pieces can grow up and be cut again several times. To produce high amounts of biomass it is necessary to do plant micropropagation by a robotic syshoot. In this paper we describe parts of the vision syshoot that recognizes plants and their particular cutting points. Therefore, it is necessary to extract elements of the plants and relations between these elements (for example root, shoot, leaf). Different species vary in their morphological appearance, variation is also immanent in plants of the same species. Therefore, we introduce several morphological classes of plants from that we expect same recognition methods. As a result of our work we present rules which help users to create specific algorithms for object recognition of plant species.

  1. Morphological Transformation of Plant Cells in vitro and Its Effect on Plant Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhigang; ZENG Zhaolin; LIU Ruizhi; DENG Ying

    2005-01-01

    Enhancement of cell growth in suspension cultures is urgently needed in plant cell culture engineering. This study investigates the relationship between morphological transformation and cell growth in callus and suspension cultures of saffron cells belonging to the cell line C96 induced from Crocus sativus L. In the suspension culture, an unbalanced osmotic pressure between the intracell and extracell regions induced a large morphological transformation which affected normal division of the saffron cells. An increase in osmotic pressure caused by the addition of sucrose inhibits the vacuolation and shrinkage of cytoplasm in the cells. As the sucrose concentration increases, the total amount of accumulated biomass also increases. Besides the sucrose concentration, increased ionic strength and inoculation ratio also help restrain to a large extent the vacuolation and shrinkage of the cytoplasm in the suspended cells, which results in increased biomass. The conditions for optimal biomass are: Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with 40 g/L sucrose and 60% (v/v) inoculation ratio.

  2. ANTECOLOGY ENTOMOPHILOUS ALPINE PLANTS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CAUCASUS. I MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kurashev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants with yellow and white color dominated, 37% and 24%, respectively. The flowers of most species of plants - actinomorphic (70%. Most species have actinomorphic flowers (70%. The average height of the generative organs in communities varies from 7 to 22 cm. Wide variation and lack of correlation between morphological parameters of plants can talk about a wide variety of plants’ adaptations to pollinate, and they have no distinct syndromes of pollination.

  3. Plant morphology, yield and quality of sagú starch

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés Restrepo, Magda Piedad; Ortiz Grisales, Sanín; Sánchez, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    For Colombian people the edible fruit of Sagú Maranta arundinacea are the rhizome. This is used in an informal way by their starch in different products elaboration for human feeding. However, their agronomy is unknown. Plant propagation, dais to rhizome harvest, native starch production and chemical and phytochemical of the integral plant was analyzed. The cultivation settled down to open sky with 0.5x1.0 m. inside furrow and among furrows respectively. Uses descriptive statistic for the qua...

  4. Field investigation on Salixpsammophila plant morphology and airflow structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Wang Zhi; Liu Lianyou; Hasi Eerdon; Sun Bingyan; Tang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The field investigation was undertaken to determin the characteristics of Salix psammophila plant morphdogy and airflow structure of single-line S.psammophila on the southern edge of the Mu Su sandland.The results showed that artificially cultivated single-line S.psammophila could accumulate sand because the plant decreased the windward and leeward wind velocity.There was a significant correlation (R = 0.696) between accumulated sand volume (V2) and plant volume (V1).The wind velocity was 6 m/s at a 4 m height of single-line S.psammophilahedge row.The wind velocity decreased at 3 H windward and increased at 2 H to windward.The wind velocity then steeply decreased to leeward and reached its lowest value at 1 H to leeward and gradually recovered to the open field velocity.The protection distance of the single-line S.psammophila was about 17 H' and the effective protection distance was aboui 13 H'.Single-line S.psammophila had few effects on the wind velocity when the wind was above the plant height.

  5. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

  6. Morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on bulbous plants (Taurus mountain in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaarslan Emel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM on bulbous plants in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey. Thirteen soil samples and bulbous roots were taken from the rhizosphere of bulbous plants. The soils were analyzed for the number of VAM spores and chemical and physical properties. In addition, the roots were examined for infection levels, and morphological identification of VAM spores was made. All tested plants are considered mycorrhizal plants. We determined three spore species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus hoi and Scutellospora calospora from the surveyed soils. The spore distribution rates were as follows: G. Mossea 61.54 %, G. Hoi 23.07 % and Scutellospora calospora 15.38 %. Results suggest that VAM fungal spores and root colonization display variation in rhizosphere under bulbous plants in different ecological conditions.

  7. Classical morphology of plants as an elementary instance of classical invariant theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V Mavrodiev

    Full Text Available It has long been known that structural chemistry shows an intriguing correspondence with Classical Invariant Theory (CIT. Under this view, an algebraic binary form of the degree n corresponds to a chemical atom with valence n and each physical molecule or ion has an invariant-theoretic counterpart. This theory was developed using the Aronhold symbolical approach and the symbolical processes of convolution/transvection in CIT was characterized as a potential "accurate morphological method". However, CIT has not been applied to the formal morphology of living organisms. Based on the morphological interpretation of binary form, as well as the process of convolution/transvection, the First and Second Fundamental Theorems of CIT and the Nullforms of CIT, we show how CIT can be applied to the structure of plants, especially when conceptualized as a series of plant metamers (phytomers. We also show that the weight of the covariant/invariant that describes a morphological structure is a criterion of simplicity and, therefore, we argue that this allows us to formulate a parsimonious method of formal morphology. We demonstrate that the "theory of axilar bud" is the simplest treatment of the grass seedling/embryo. Our interpretations also represent Troll's bauplan of the angiosperms, the principle of variable proportions, morphological misfits, the basic types of stem segmentation, and Goethe's principle of metamorphosis in terms of CIT. Binary forms of different degrees might describe any repeated module of plant organisms. As bacteria, invertebrates, and higher vertebrates are all generally shared a metameric morphology, wider implications of the proposed symmetry between CIT and formal morphology of plants are apparent.

  8. Unidentifiable by morphology: DNA barcoding of plant material in local markets in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset; Saeedi, Yousef; de Boer, Hugo J

    2017-01-01

    Local markets provide a rapid insight into the medicinal plants growing in a region as well as local traditional health concerns. Identification of market plant material can be challenging as plants are often sold in dried or processed forms. In this study, three approaches of DNA barcoding-based molecular identification of market samples are evaluated, two objective sequence matching approaches and an integrative approach that coalesces sequence matching with a priori and a posteriori data from other markers, morphology, ethnoclassification and species distribution. Plant samples from markets and herbal shops were identified using morphology, descriptions of local use, and vernacular names with relevant floras and pharmacopoeias. DNA barcoding was used for identification of samples that could not be identified to species level using morphology. Two methods based on BLAST similarity-based identification, were compared with an integrative identification approach. Integrative identification combining the optimized similarity-based approach with a priori and a posteriori information resulted in a 1.67, 1.95 and 2.00 fold increase for ITS, trnL-F spacer, and both combined, respectively. DNA barcoding of traded plant material requires objective strategies to include data from multiple markers, morphology, and traditional knowledge to optimize species level identification success.

  9. How do Plant Morphological Characteristics, Species Composition and Richness Regulate Eco-hydrological Function?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Hong Wang; Chang-Qun Duan

    2010-01-01

    Although considerable research has focused on the relationship between ecosystem structure and function, interactions of plant morphological characteristics, species composition and richness with eco-hydrological functions remain unclear. We measured water adherence (i.e. the capacity of a plant species to retain water), documented plant surface morphology and observed surface runoff at three sites in China. The adhering water ratios for each plant species differed, ranging from 17.1% to 151.5% in leaves, and from 14.4% to 41.1% in branches. Small, light-weight, soft, non-cuticularized leaves that were densely situated on small branches showed good water adherence. The next best adherence was found by branches with intermediately coarse surfaces. The plant species with high standing biomass also showed good water adherence, and the contribution of a species to total adherence was dependent upon its aboveground standing biomass. Vegetation parameters strongly affected water adherence,whereas the effect of species richness was not significant. Conversely, species richness showed a significant influence on surface runoff. The effect of plant morphological characteristics and composition constitutes a basic process in the regulation of eco-hydrological function, and vegetation parameters play somewhat different roles in that regulation. The key roles must therefore be considered from a management perspective.

  10. Mapping quantitative trait loci for plant adaptation and morphology traits in wheat using single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) morphological and adaptation-related traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTL) define potential growing areas of a wheat cultivar. To dissect the QTL for heading date (HD), lodging resistance (LR), shattering resistance (SR), cold tolerance (CT), plant...

  11. Effect of Different Plant Arrangements on Maize Morphology and Forage Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jana Jirmanová; Pavel Fuksa; Josef Hakl; Václav Brant; Jaromír Šantrůček

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out in Central Bohemia to understand the effect of row spacing and stand density on plant morphology, productivity and quality of silage maize in two row spacing treatments (0.70 m and 0.35 m...

  12. Effect of Different Plant Arrangements on Maize Morphology and Forage Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jana Jirmanová; Pavel Fuksa; Josef Hakl; Václav Brant; Jaromír Santrucek

    2016-01-01

      A study was carried out in Central Bohemia to understand the effect of row spacing and stand density on plant morphology, productivity and quality of silage maize in two row spacing treatments (0.70 m and 0.35 m...

  13. Calculation of Differential Propagation Constant Determined by Plant Morphology Using Polarimetric Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chufeng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of vegetation greatly impacts propagation of polarized electromagnetic wave. In order to validate this phenomenon, the mathematical relation between the differential propagation constant of forest vegetation and of its polarized echo is quantitatively derived by using backscattering power profile. The fluctuation of differential propagation constant with frequency is analyzed by combining the morphological characteristics of vegetation. The accurate copolarized data of 3–10 GHz frequency-domain of small trees are obtained by indoor wideband polarimetric measurement system. The results show that morphological characteristics of vegetation at different frequencies can be obtained by the differential propagation constant of polarized electromagnetic wave. At low frequencies, the plants with structural features presented oriented distribution. However, the plants show random distribution of the echoes at higher frequencies, which is mainly from the canopy. The research provides important information to choose the coherence models employed in the parameters retrieval of vegetations.

  14. Drag forces of common plant species in temperate streams: consequences of morphology, velocity and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    Swift flow in streams may physically influence the morphology and distribution of plants. I quantified drag as a function of velocity, biomass and their interaction on the trailing canopy of seven European stream species in an experimental flume and evaluated its importance for species distribution...... a variety of environmental conditions and plant traits influences distribution. Drag on the trailing canopy usually increased 15- to 35-fold for a 100-fold increase of biomass suggesting that an even distribution of plants at low density across the stream bed offers greater resistance to downstream flow...

  15. Plant growth, phosphorus nutrition, and root morphological responses to arbuscular mycorrhizas, phosphorus fertilization, and intraspecific density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, M S; Janos, D P

    2005-05-01

    We examined the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), phosphorus fertilization, intraspecific density, and their interaction, on the growth, phosphorus uptake, and root morphology of three facultative mycotrophic crops (Capsicum annuum, Zea mays, and Cucurbita pepo). Plants were grown in pots with or without AM at three densities and four phosphorus availabilities for 10 weeks. AM colonization, plant weight, and shoot phosphorus concentration were measured at harvest. Root morphology was assessed for C. annuum and Z. mays. Phosphorus fertilization reduced but did not eliminate AM colonization of all species. AM, phosphorus, and density interacted significantly to modify growth of C. annuum and C. pepo such that increased density and phosphorus diminished beneficial effects of AM. Increased density reduced positive effects of AM on C. annuum and C. pepo shoot phosphorus concentrations. AM altered both Z. mays and C. annuum root morphology in ways that complemented potential phosphorus uptake by mycorrhizas, but increased density and phosphorus diminished these effects. We infer that increased density predominantly influenced plant responses by affecting whether or not carbon (photosynthate) or phosphorus limited plant growth. By exacerbating carbon limitation, high density reduced the benefit/cost ratio of mycorrhizas and minimized their effects.

  16. The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Alshahrani, Mona; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Gosline, George; Groom, Quentin; Hamann, Thomas; Kattge, Jens; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Schmidt, Marco; Sierra, Soraya; Smets, Erik; Vos, Rutger A; Weiland, Claus

    2016-11-14

    The systematic analysis of a large number of comparable plant trait data can support investigations into phylogenetics and ecological adaptation, with broad applications in evolutionary biology, agriculture, conservation, and the functioning of ecosystems. Floras, i.e., books collecting the information on all known plant species found within a region, are a potentially rich source of such plant trait data. Floras describe plant traits with a focus on morphology and other traits relevant for species identification in addition to other characteristics of plant species, such as ecological affinities, distribution, economic value, health applications, traditional uses, and so on. However, a key limitation in systematically analyzing information in Floras is the lack of a standardized vocabulary for the described traits as well as the difficulties in extracting structured information from free text. We have developed the Flora Phenotype Ontology (FLOPO), an ontology for describing traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based on phenotype description patterns and automated reasoning to generate the FLOPO. The resulting ontology consists of 25,407 classes and is based on the PO and PATO. The classified ontology closely follows the structure of Plant Ontology in that the primary axis of classification is the observed plant anatomical structure, and more specific traits are then classified based on parthood and subclass relations between anatomical structures as well as subclass relations between phenotypic qualities. The FLOPO is primarily intended as a framework based on which plant traits can be integrated computationally across all species and higher taxa of flowering plants. Importantly, it is not intended to replace established vocabularies or ontologies, but rather

  17. The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2016-11-14

    Background The systematic analysis of a large number of comparable plant trait data can support investigations into phylogenetics and ecological adaptation, with broad applications in evolutionary biology, agriculture, conservation, and the functioning of ecosystems. Floras, i.e., books collecting the information on all known plant species found within a region, are a potentially rich source of such plant trait data. Floras describe plant traits with a focus on morphology and other traits relevant for species identification in addition to other characteristics of plant species, such as ecological affinities, distribution, economic value, health applications, traditional uses, and so on. However, a key limitation in systematically analyzing information in Floras is the lack of a standardized vocabulary for the described traits as well as the difficulties in extracting structured information from free text. Results We have developed the Flora Phenotype Ontology (FLOPO), an ontology for describing traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based on phenotype description patterns and automated reasoning to generate the FLOPO. The resulting ontology consists of 25,407 classes and is based on the PO and PATO. The classified ontology closely follows the structure of Plant Ontology in that the primary axis of classification is the observed plant anatomical structure, and more specific traits are then classified based on parthood and subclass relations between anatomical structures as well as subclass relations between phenotypic qualities. Conclusions The FLOPO is primarily intended as a framework based on which plant traits can be integrated computationally across all species and higher taxa of flowering plants. Importantly, it is not intended to replace established

  18. Morphological and Physiological Plant Responses to Drought Stress in Thymus citriodorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzislaw Attila Tátrai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is considered as a determinant factor that affects plant growth. The commercial medicinal values of an aromatic plant rely on the presence of secondary metabolites that are affected under water shortage. Two-year-old Thymus citriodorus plants were subjected to different polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 levels (0, 2%, and 4% under greenhouse condition. PEG treatment lasted for 15 days. Thyme plant showed a morphological drought avoidance mechanism by maintaining the root system development through shoot fresh weight reduction resulting in promoted root absorption capacity and sustained plant growth. Moreover, stressed plants were able to maintain water use efficiency and root : shoot ratio suggesting a strong relation between root water uptake and water use saving strategies. Furthermore, thyme plants reduced tissue dehydration through stomatal closure and improved root water uptake. Content of volatile oil constituents of geraniol and diisobutyl phthalate increased upon drought stress while pseudophytol was reduced. Unexpectedly, thymol was not reported as a main oil element under either control or mild stress condition, while it was increased upon high drought stress in measure of 4.4%. Finally, carvacrol significantly accumulated under high drought stress (+31.7% as compared to control plants.

  19. Correlation of Plant Morphological and Grain Quality Traits with Mineral Element Contents in Yunnan Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ya-wen; SHEN Shi-quan; WANG Lu-xiang; LIU Jia-fu; PU Xiao-ying; DU Juan; QIU Min

    2005-01-01

    Correlations between four grain quality, 24 plant morphological traits and eight element contents of 653 accessions fromYunnan rice were analyzed. P, K, Ca and Mg contents of core collection were closely correlated to the most plant morphologicaland grain quality traits, and there were highly significant correlations (P <0.01) among some traits including P content to number ofstems and tillers, K content and amylose content, Ca content and plant height, Mg content and protein content. Mn, Zn, Cu and Fecontents of core collection were closely related to a few traits, such as Fe content and gel consistency (-0.1121 **), Zn content andseed setting rate (-0.1411 **), Cu content and number of grains per panicle (-0.1398**), Mn content and plant height (-0.2492**).

  20. Imaging Nuclear Morphology and Organization in Cleared Plant Tissues Treated with Cell Cycle Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Junior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; Engler, Gilbert; Engler, Janice de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of root cells through chemical treatment can generate a large number of cells blocked in specific cell cycle phases. In plants, this approach can be employed for cell suspension cultures and plant seedlings. To identify plant cells in the course of the cell cycle, especially during mitosis in meristematic tissues, chemical inhibitors can be used to block cell cycle progression. Herein, we present a simplified and easy-to-apply protocol to visualize mitotic figures, nuclei morphology, and organization in whole Arabidopsis root apexes. The procedure is based on tissue clearing, and fluorescent staining of nuclear DNA with DAPI. The protocol allows carrying out bulk analysis of nuclei and cell cycle phases in root cells and will be valuable to investigate mutants like overexpressing lines of genes disturbing the plant cell cycle.

  1. Morphological Characterization of Four Selected Spider Plant (Cleome Gynandra L. Morphs from Zimbabwe and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Masuka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with climate change one way of adaptation is to reach into the genetic resource of the so-called miner crops. These crops are thought to be more resilient to climate change while being more nutritious than the modern vegetables. It is vital to characterise these crops in order to gather information that will help in their widespread usage. The objective of this study was to morphologically characterise four morphs; three from Zimbabwe and one from Kenya under greenhouse conditions at the Crop Science Department of the University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. This work assessed number of days to seedling emergence, number of days to flowering, number of leaflets/compound leaf and number of pods/plant and other parameters. The analysis of variance for all the traits exhibited significant differences (P=0.05. There was significant variation among spider plant morphs in plant height, petiole length, length of leaflet, fruit length, fruit width, days to seedling emergence, days to flowering, number of leaflets per compound leaf and number of pods per plant. Morphs from different locations exhibited variability for stem pigmentations. The Kenyan morph differed from the Zimbabwean morphs as it was smaller and produced a higher number of pods per plant. We recommend further studies to reveal the molecular markers associated with the morphological differences we observed.

  2. Morphological changes in atypical bird's foot trefoil plants obtained during genetic transformation by agrobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical plants of bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., Bokor cv showing altered morphological characters that deviate from a normal phenotype were found after plant regeneration from transformed tissue. It had been obtained by genetic transformation of root sections of seedlings using Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector LBA4404/pBI121 on a medium supplemented with 0.2 mg I-1 BAP. The transformants 2b arid 4a were found to have a greatly atypical habit, including shortened internodes, elongated leaves, regular leaf arrangement along the stem and thicker leaves. Inheritance of altered characters was observed in the first progeny generation, and their genetic origin was considered.

  3. Morphological, physiological and plant infectivity characterization of Frankia strains isolated from Casuarina’s nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Moritz; Kelly Campos Guerra P. de Goes; Souza,José Roberto P de; Letícia Trindade Ataíde; Diva Souza Andrade

    2007-01-01

    Frankia are soil microorganisms that form symbiosis with roots of tree species called actinorhizal plants and are capable of fixing atmospheric N2. This study was carried out to characterize morphologically, physiologically and to assess the nodulation of four Frankia reference strains (HFPCcI3, JCT287, KB5 and F59) and 12 (IPRF) isolated from root nodules of Casuarina plants. All strains (Reference and IPRF) were characterized as Gram-positive and 50% as acid-fast. The Frankia strains produc...

  4. Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Hoshino, Junko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-08-28

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) in March 2011, much attention has been paid to the biological consequences of the released radionuclides into the surrounding area. We investigated the morphological changes in Japanese fir, a Japanese endemic native conifer, at locations near the F1NPP. Japanese fir populations near the F1NPP showed a significantly increased number of morphological defects, involving deletions of leader shoots of the main axis, compared to a control population far from the F1NPP. The frequency of the defects corresponded to the radioactive contamination levels of the observation sites. A significant increase in deletions of the leader shoots became apparent in those that elongated after the spring of 2012, a year after the accident. These results suggest possibility that the contamination by radionuclides contributed to the morphological defects in Japanese fir trees in the area near the F1NPP.

  5. Non-Smooth Morphologies of Typical Plant Leaf Surfaces and Their Anti-Adhesion Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-quan Ren; Shu-jie Wang; Xi-mei Tian; Zhi-wu Han; Lin-na Yan; Zhao-mei Qiu

    2007-01-01

    The micromorphologies of surfaces of several typical plant leaves were investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Different non-smooth surface characteristics were described and classified.The hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion of non-smooth leaf surfaces were quantitatively measured.Results show that the morphology of epidermal cells and the morphology and distribution density of epicuticular wax directly affect the hydrophobicity and anti-adhesion.The surface with uniformly distributed convex units shows the best anti-adhesion,and the surface with regularly arranged trellis units displays better anti-adhesion.In contrast,the surface with randomly distributed hair units performs relatively bad anti-adhesion.The hydrophobic models of papilla-ciliary and fold-setal non-smooth surfaces were set up to determine the impacts of geometric parameters on the hydrophobicity.This study may provide an insight into surface machine molding and apparent morphology design for biomimetics engineering.

  6. Diversity of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture and Its Relationship to Plant Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Addie M.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C.P.; Schnable, Patrick; Crants, James C.; Scanlon, Michael J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and controls initiation of all aerial plant organs. In maize (Zea mays), leaves are formed throughout vegetative development; on transition to floral development, the shoot meristem forms the tassel. Due to the regulated balance between stem cell maintenance and organogenesis, the structure and morphology of the shoot meristem are constrained during vegetative development. Previous work identified loci controlling merist...

  7. Methanol fixation of plant tissue for Scanning Electron Microscopy improves preservation of tissue morphology and dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Mark J; White, Rosemary G

    2013-10-02

    It is well known that preparation of biological (plant and animal) tissues for Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) by chemical fixation and critical point drying results in shrinkage of tissues, often by up to 20-30%, depending on the tissue type and fixation protocol used. We sought to identify a protocol that would preserve tissue size and morphology better than standard chemical fixatives and dehydration regimes. We compared a range of processing techniques by quantifying changes in tissue size and recording details of surface morphology using leaf tissues from three commonly studied species; Arabidopsis thaliana, barley and cotton. All processing protocols altered tissue dimensions. Methanol fixation and dehydration, followed by a further short (1 h) dehydration step in ethanol and critical point drying (which was based on a previously published method), preserved tissue dimensions most consistently of all protocols tested, although it did cause 8% shrinkage in all three species. This protocol was also best for preservation of surface morphology in all three species. We outline a recommended protocol and advise that the method is best trialled for different tissues, especially thicker or larger samples. This study shows that simultaneous fixation and dehydration in methanol followed by ethanol results in better preservation of dimensions and morphology of critical point dried plant tissues than other fixation and dehydration procedures. It is a quick and simple method, and requires standard SEM preparation equipment.

  8. Diversity of maize shoot apical meristem architecture and its relationship to plant morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Addie M; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C P; Schnable, Patrick; Crants, James C; Scanlon, Michael J; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2015-03-05

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and controls initiation of all aerial plant organs. In maize (Zea mays), leaves are formed throughout vegetative development; on transition to floral development, the shoot meristem forms the tassel. Due to the regulated balance between stem cell maintenance and organogenesis, the structure and morphology of the shoot meristem are constrained during vegetative development. Previous work identified loci controlling meristem architecture in a recombinant inbred line population. The study presented here expanded on this by investigating shoot apical meristem morphology across a diverse set of maize inbred lines. Crosses of these lines to common parents showed varying phenotypic expression in the F1, with some form of heterosis occasionally observed. An investigation of meristematic growth throughout vegetative development in diverse lines linked the timing of reproductive transition to flowering time. Phenotypic correlations of meristem morphology with adult plant traits showed an association between the meristem and flowering time, leaf shape, and yield traits, revealing links between the control and architecture of undifferentiated and differentiated plant organs. Finally, quantitative trait loci mapping was utilized to map the genetic architecture of these meristem traits in two divergent populations. Control of meristem architecture was mainly population-specific, with 15 total unique loci mapped across the two populations with only one locus identified in both populations. Copyright © 2015 Thompson et al.

  9. Developmental morphology of the Asian one-leaf plant, Monophyllaea glabra (Gesneriaceae) with emphasis on inflorescence morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Madoka; Imaichi, Ryoko; Kato, Masahiro

    2005-04-01

    We examined the developmental morphology of the tropical Asian one-leaf plant Monophyllaea glabra, which is believed to have diverged first in the phylogenetic tree of the genus. The embryo within the seed consists of two cotyledons and a hypocotyl with no shoot or root apical meristems. The endogenous root meristem is formed nearer the hypocotyl end than in other examined Monophyllaea species. One of the cotyledons grows to form the macrocotyledon by means of the basal meristem. The groove meristem arises between the anisocotyledons, shifts toward the macrocotyledon, and is transformed to the inflorescence apex, which produces inflorescence axes in the axils of all ventral bracts of two rows, and secondary inflorescences in the axils of the lower dorsal bracts of the other two rows. The macrocotyledon may act as a ventral bract for the first inflorescence axis at the reproductive stage. This organization suggests that a common ancestor of Monophyllaea and Whytockia with decussate inflorescences diverged in one direction to become Monophyllaea and in another to become Whytockia.

  10. Morphological preservation of carbonaceous plant fossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, M E; Beyssac, O; Benzerara, K; Bernard, S; Menguy, N; Cox, S C; Martinez, I; Johnston, M R; Brown, G E

    2012-03-01

    Morphological and chemical evidence of ancient life is widespread in sedimentary rocks retrieved from shallow depths in the Earth's crust. Metamorphism is highly detrimental to the preservation of biological information in rocks, thus limiting the geological record in which traces of life might be found. Deformation and increasing pressure/temperature during deep burial may alter the morphology as well as the composition and structure of both the organic and mineral constituents of fossils. However, microspore fossils have been previously observed in intensely metamorphosed rocks. It has been suggested that their small size, and/or the nature of the polymer composing their wall, and/or the mineralogy of their surrounding matrix were key parameters explaining their exceptional preservation. Here, we describe the remarkable morphological preservation of plant macrofossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand containing lawsonite. Leaves and stems can be easily identified at the macroscale. At the microscale, polygonal structures with walls mineralized by micas within the leaf midribs and blades may derive from the original cellular ultrastructure or, alternatively, from the shrinkage during burial of the gelified remnants of the leaves in an abiotic process. Processes and important parameters involved in the remarkable preservation of these fossils during metamorphism are discussed. Despite the excellent morphological preservation, the initial biological polymers have been completely transformed to graphitic carbonaceous matter down to the nanometer scale. This occurrence demonstrates that plant macrofossils may experience major geodynamic processes such as metamorphism and exhumation involving deep changes and homogenization of their carbon chemistry and structure but still retain their morphology with remarkable integrity even if they are not shielded by any hard-mineralized concretion.

  11. How do mineral fertilization and plant growth regulators affect yield and morphology of naked oat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Witkowicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat (Avena sativa var. nuda is of an increasing interest in many parts of the world. This is why plant breeders have developed forms that are morphologically different from the current ones, such as naked, dwarf or with an increased 1000-grain-weight. In three experiments conducted at two sites, the influence of phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilizers, spray application of urea and spray application of plant growth regulators (PGRs Promalin (gibberellins + cytokinin and Moddus (cimectacarps on the yield and morphological traits of different oat forms were studied. At a better site, only genotype statistically influenced oat grain yield. At a poorer site, apart from genotype there were statistically significant responses to P and K fertilizers and to the application of Moddus (especially in the experiment with a dwarf cultivar. The internode and panicle length were modified mostly by cimectacarps, which shortened specific internodes, but not the panicle. The PGR Promalin had no significant effect on oat stem morphology.

  12. [Identification of original plants of uyghur medicinal materials fructus elaeagni using morphological characteristics and DNA barcode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Ping; Fan, Cong-Zhao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Morphology and molecular identification technology were used to identify 3 original plants of Fructus Elaeagni which was commonly used in Uygur medicine. Leaves, flowers and fruits from different areas were selected randomly for morphology research. ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode was used to identify 17 samples of Fructus Elaeagni. The genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. The results showed that Elaeagnus angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientalis cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits. The sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 220 to 223 bp, the average GC content was 61.9%. The haplotype numbers of E. angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientals were 4, 3, 3, respectively. The results from the NJ tree and ML tree showed that the 3 original species of Fructus Elaeagni cannot be distinguished obviously. Therefore, 3 species maybe have the same origin, and can be used as the original plant of Uygur medicineal material Fructus Elaeagni. However, further evidence of chemical components and pharmacological effect were needed.

  13. Morphological and chemical characteristics of onion plants (Allium cepa L. associated with resistance to onion thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Cezar Pacheco da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thrips tabaci Lindeman is the main pest of onion crops, and chemical control is the main method adopted by farmers. Alternative control methods should be prioritised to reduce the amount of insecticides used. Resistant cultivars are one efficient way to control thrips in the field. Our aim was to assess the influence of morphological and chemical characteristics of seven onion cultivars and their resistance to T. tabaci. The number of thrips and the morphological and chemical characteristics of the plants were assessed. Among the evaluated cultivars, Alfa São Francisco RT, BR 29 and Sirius showed resistance to T. tabaci, as indicated by the lower number of thrips observed during the cycle (64, 87, and 74 thrips, respectively. Morphological and chemical characteristics were associated with onion’s resistance to T. tabaci. For the cultivar Alfa São Francisco RT, a wider central angle (16.4°, a thinner cuticle, a larger amount of epicuticular waxes, and stomata on the surface of leaves accounted for resistance. For the cultivars BR 29 and Sirius, the resistance was likely due to the presence of resistance-conferring substances or high amounts of some component in the chemical composition of plants.

  14. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%-46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml-1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON MORPHOLOGICAL, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GREENGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the different growth regulating compounds on morphological, quality and yield parameters in greengram at Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad during rabi 2009- 10. The basic material for the present investigation consists of Greengram cv WGG-37 and two growth promoting (NAA and Brassinosteroid and growth retarding substances (Chlormequat chloride and Mepiquat chloride. These growth regulators were sprayed at flower initiation stage. The morphological traits viz., plant height, number of branches per plant, number of trifoliates per plant and days to 50% flowering and maturity were significantly increased by NAA @ 20 ppm, whereas total dry matter production (TDM over growth regulator treatments at all stages NAA (20 ppm and brassinosteroid (20ppm recorded significantly higher values. Among the quality parameters highest seed protein content (% and highest nitrogen harvest index values were recorded with growth retarding substance chlormequat chloride (187.5 g a.i ha-1 in greengram. The seed yield increased significantly with NAA (20 ppm followed by mepiquat chloride 5% AS, brassinosteroid (20 ppm, chlormequat chloride (137.5.5 a.i/ha.

  16. EFFECT OF SELECTED PETROLEUM-DERIVED SUBSTANCES ON BRUCHUS RUFIMANUS BOH. FEEDING AND ON SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of petrol, used engine oil and diesel oil on Bruchus rufimanus Boh. feeding and on selected morphological characteristics of plants. In addition, the effect of bioremediation process on the above mentioned features was examined. Pest’s feeding intensity assessment was carried out by determining the number of damaged seeds and their weight. Assessment of morphological characteristics of plants was made in the technological maturity of broad bean...

  17. Growth and Form in Biology:Generation of the Plant Morphology by Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Based on a Pressure Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁羽翔

    2004-01-01

    Considering the role of mechanical forces playing in the morphogenetic pattern formation, we propose a secondorder differential equation for the growth and form of plants based on the turgor pressure field at the organ and cellular level. The solutions can well describe various kinds of morphological features of flowers under certain hypotheses. The plant morphology is considered as the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a circular growing boundary, while the employed hypotheses are subjected to further experimental confirmation.

  18. Molecular and morphological characterisation of Pseudococcidae surveyed on crops and ornamental plants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrà, A; Soto, A; Malausa, T

    2012-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are common invasive pests in Europe, causing major problems on crops and ornamental plants. However, very few data are available concerning the mealybug fauna of southern Europe. This lack of data and the difficulty of identifying mealybugs morphologically by traditional techniques currently limit the perspectives for efficient specific pest management. The aim of this study was to provide multi-criterion characterization of mealybugs surveyed in eastern Spain in order to facilitate their routine identification through DNA sequencing or the use of derived species-specific molecular tools. We characterised 33 mealybug populations infesting crops and ornamental plants in eastern Spain, using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques, including the sequencing of the universal barcode DNA region cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). This characterisation has led to the identification of ten species and provides sequence data for three previously unsequenced species, contributing to the phylogenetic knowledge of the family Pseudococcidae. In addition, the intraspecific variations found in the populations of five mealybug species provide insight into their invasion history.

  19. Drought tolerance acquisition in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.): a research on plant morphology, physiology and proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Ana Elisa; Irar, Sami; Majada, Juan P; Rodríguez, Ana; Fernández, Belén; Pagès, Montserrat

    2013-02-21

    Plants perceiving drought stress activate multiple responses to synchronise developmental and molecular activities aimed at improving survival. In this study we attained a multidisciplinary approach to examine the interplay among plant morphology, physiology and proteomics for understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptive response to drought stress. The stress-related phenotype, the differential expression of putative members of the LEA family of proteins, the seed proteomic profile, and the endogenous content of free and conjugated abscisic acid (ABA and ABAGE) were analysed in two Eucalyptus globulus provenances with contrasting drought tolerance. Differences in morphology were noticeable, drought-tolerant genotypes displaying smaller seeds with higher desiccation in the mature state and a more developed root system that was not reduced under water stress treatments. From physiological and molecular points of view, the endogenous contents of ABA and ABAGE were also higher in the tolerant provenance, as well as the accumulation of proteins involved in abiotic stress tolerance processes. In addition, evidence of two immunologically-related proteins to the maize RAB17 and RAB28 proteins is first reported in Eucalyptus, showing similarities between species. Our results show that E. globulus displays simultaneous adjustments for acquiring drought tolerance that are expressed at physiological, developmental and molecular levels.

  20. Morphological characterisation of complex powder used for protective coatings for geothermal plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaki, I.; Karlsdottir, S. N.; Buzaianu, A.; Serghiuta, S.; Popescu, G.; Motoiu, V. A.; Ragnarstottir, K. R.; Guðlaugsson, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to review the morphological characteristics, microstructures, physical and chemical properties of two complex composite powders: Ni18Cr5Si2B and Ni21Cr11Al2.5Y. These powders will be used as an option for coating geothermal turbine blades to prevent corrosion. The corrosion process in the steam turbine results in damages being recognized as the leading cause of reduced availability in geothermal power plants and is depends on temperature, mechanical and vaporous carryover of impurities and water treatment. Thermal spraying is a suitable technique for coating layers with wear and corrosion resistance. Therefore this technique could be successfully used in geothermal applications for obtaining coatings layers from new complex composite powders protecting the turbine blades from corrosions and good control of steam chemistry. The composite powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction and electronic microscopy to provide detailed information about composites morphological modifications. The results obtained after morphological evaluation are encouraging for using these composite powders as an option for coating geothermal components using thermal spraying technique.

  1. A particle based model to simulate microscale morphological changes of plant tissues during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasena, H C P; Senadeera, W; Brown, R J; Gu, Y T

    2014-08-07

    Fundamental understanding on microscopic physical changes of plant materials is vital to optimize product quality and processing techniques, particularly in food engineering. Although grid-based numerical modelling can assist in this regard, it becomes quite challenging to overcome the inherited complexities of these biological materials especially when such materials undergo critical processing conditions such as drying, where the cellular structure undergoes extreme deformations. In this context, a meshfree particle based model was developed which is fundamentally capable of handling extreme deformations of plant tissues during drying. The model is built by coupling a particle based meshfree technique: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and a Discrete Element Method (DEM). Plant cells were initiated as hexagons and aggregated to form a tissue which also accounts for the characteristics of the middle lamella. In each cell, SPH was used to model cell protoplasm and DEM was used to model the cell wall. Drying was incorporated by varying the moisture content, the turgor pressure, and cell wall contraction effects. Compared to the state of the art grid-based microscale plant tissue drying models, the proposed model can be used to simulate tissues under excessive moisture content reductions incorporating cell wall wrinkling. Also, compared to the state of the art SPH-DEM tissue models, the proposed model better replicates real tissues and the cell-cell interactions used ensure efficient computations. Model predictions showed good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental findings on dried plant tissues. The proposed modelling approach is fundamentally flexible to study different cellular structures for their microscale morphological changes at dehydration.

  2. The evolution of the plant genome-to-morphology auxin circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2016-09-01

    In his Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866), 150 years ago, Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) combined developmental patterns in animals with the concept of organismic evolution, and 50 years ago, a new era of plant research started when focus shifted from crop species (sunflower, maize etc.) to thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model organism. In this contribution, we outline the general principles of developmental evolutionary biology sensu Haeckel and describe the evolutionary genome-to-morphology-plant hormone auxin (IAA, indole-3-acetic acid)-circuit with reference to other phytohormones and a focus on land plants (embryophytes) plus associated epiphytic microbes. Our primary conclusion is that a system-wide approach is required to truly understand the ontogeny of any organism, because development proceeds according to signal pathways that integrate and respond to external as well as internal stimuli. We also discuss IAA-regulated embryology in A. thaliana and epigenetic phenomena in the gametophyte development, and outline how these processes are connected to the seminal work of Ernst Haeckel.

  3. Reconsideration of Plant Morphological Traits: From a Structure-Based Perspective to a Function-Based Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shu-Nong

    2017-01-01

    This opinion article proposes a novel alignment of traits in plant morphogenesis from a function-based evolutionary perspective. As a member species of the ecosystem on Earth, we human beings view our neighbor organisms from our own sensing system. We tend to distinguish forms and structures (i.e., "morphological traits") mainly through vision. Traditionally, a plant was considered to be consisted of three parts, i.e., the shoot, the leaves, and the root. Based on such a "structure-based perspective," evolutionary analyses or comparisons across species were made on particular parts or their derived structures. So far no conceptual framework has been established to incorporate the morphological traits of all three land plant phyta, i.e., bryophyta, pteridophyta and spermatophyta, for evolutionary developmental analysis. Using the tenets of the recently proposed concept of sexual reproduction cycle, the major morphological traits of land plants can be aligned into five categories from a function-based evolutionary perspective. From this perspective, and the resulting alignment, a new conceptual framework emerges, called "Plant Morphogenesis 123." This framework views a plant as a colony of integrated plant developmental units that are each produced via one life cycle. This view provided an alternative perspective for evolutionary developmental investigation in plants.

  4. Ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation of plant cells: effects on morphology and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peng; Xu, Lin; Zhong, Wenjing; Yu, Alfred C H

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between ultrasound pulses and microbubbles is known to generate acoustic cavitation that may puncture biological cells. This work presents new experimental findings on the bioeffects of ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation in plant cells with emphasis on direct observations of morphological impact and analysis of viability trends in tobacco BY-2 cells that are widely studied in higher plant physiology. The tobacco cell suspensions were exposed to 1 MHz ultrasound pulses in the presence of 1% v/v microbubbles (10% duty cycle; 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency; 70 mm between probe and cells; 1-min exposure time). Few bioeffects were observed at low peak negative pressures (cavitation presumably occurred. In contrast, at 0.9 MPa peak negative pressure (with more inertial cavitation activities according to our passive cavitation detection results), random pores were found on tobacco cell wall (observed via scanning electron microscopy) and enhanced exogenous uptake into the cytoplasm was evident (noted in our fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran uptake analysis). Also, instant lysis was observed in 23.4% of cells (found using trypan blue staining) and programmed cell death was seen in 23.3% of population after 12 h (determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling [TUNEL]). These bioeffects generally correspond in trend with those for mammalian cells. This raises the possibility of developing ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation into a targeted gene transfection paradigm for plant cells and, conversely, adopting plant cells as experimental test-beds for sonoporation-based gene therapy in mammalian cells.

  5. Pollination syndromes in a specialised plant-pollinator interaction: does floral morphology predict pollinators in Calceolaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murúa, M; Espíndola, A

    2015-03-01

    Pollination syndromes are defined as suites of floral traits evolved in response to selection imposed by a particular group of pollinators (e.g., butterflies, hummingbirds, bats). Although numerous studies demonstrated their occurrence in plants pollinated by radically different pollinators, it is less known whether it is possible to identify them within species pollinated by one functional pollinator group. In such a framework, we expect floral traits to evolve also in response to pollinator subgroups (e.g., species, genera) within that unique functional group. On this, specialised pollination systems represent appropriate case studies to test such expectations. Calceolaria is a highly diversified plant genus pollinated by oil-collecting bees in genera Centris and Chalepogenus. Variation in floral traits in Calceolaria has recently been suggested to reflect adaptations to pollinator types. However, to date no study has explicitly tested that observation. In this paper, we quantitatively test that hypothesis by evaluating the presence of pollination syndromes within the specialised pollination system formed by several Calceolaria and their insect pollinators. To do so, we use multivariate approaches and explore the structural matching between the morphology of 10 Calceolaria taxa and that of their principal pollinators. Our results identify morphological matching between floral traits related to access to the reward and insect traits involved in oil collection, confirming the presence of pollinator syndromes in Calceolaria. From a general perspective, our findings indicate that the pollination syndrome concept can be also extended to the intra-pollinator group level. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Flow around an individual morphologically complex plant: investigating the role of plant aspect in the numerical prediction of complex river flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, R.; Hardy, R. J.; Warburton, J.; Marjoribanks, T.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic vegetation has a significant influence on the hydraulic functioning of river systems. Plant morphology has previously been shown to alter the mean and turbulent properties of flow, influenced by the spatial distribution of branches and foliage, and these effects can be further investigated through numerical models. We report on a novel method for the measurement and incorporation of complex plant morphologies into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The morphological complexity of Prunus laurocerasus is captured under foliated and defoliated states through terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Point clouds are characterised by a voxelised representation and incorporated into a CFD scheme using a mass flux scaling algorithm, allowing the numerical prediction of flows around individual plants. Here we examine the sensitivity of plant aspect, i.e. the positioning of the plant relative to the primary flow direction, by rotating the voxelised plant representation through 15° increments (24 rotations) about the vertical axis. This enables the impact of plant aspect to be quantified upon the velocity and pressure fields, and in particular how this effects species-specific drag forces and drag coefficients. Plant aspect is shown to considerably influence the flow field response, producing spatially heterogeneous downstream velocity fields with both symmetric and asymmetric wake shapes, and point of reattachments that extend up to seven plant lengths downstream. For the same plant, changes in aspect are shown to account for a maximum variation in drag force of 168%, which equates to a 65% difference in the drag coefficient. An explicit consideration of plant aspect is therefore important in studies concerning flow-vegetation interactions, especially when reducing the uncertainty in parameterising the effect of vegetation in numerical models.

  7. Characterization and inhibitory activity of chitosan on hyphae growth and morphology of Botrytis cinerea plant pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Silva Junior

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Low and high molecular weight chitosan were tested in different concentrations and growth times with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activity against Botrytis cinerea, a very important plant pathogen. Tested chitosans were characterized by vibratory spectroscopy and elementary analyzes to determine the deacetylation degree. In addiction molar mass was estimated by viscosity measuring. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized for antimicrobial activity observation. Results showed that both chitosans markedly inhibited fungal growth, which was effected by incubation time and chitosan concentration. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that chitosan induced changes in surface morphology. The present study show that chitosan is capable of inhibit the growth and cause serious damage to the cell structure of the B. cinerea, as well as have the ability to form an impervious layer around the cell. Therefore, chitosan could be considered as a potential alternative for synthetic fungicides.Industrial relevance. Ultrastructural analysis showed that chitosan is capable of causing serious damage to the cell structure of the B. cinerea, as well as have the ability to form an impervious layer around the cell. Chitosan could inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in vitro and consequently may be considered as a potential alternative in replacement of synthetic fungicides.Keywords. biopolymer; chitosan; antifungal activity; fungal morphology; electron microscopy

  8. Environment Quality: Impact From Traffic, Power Plant and Land Morphology, a Case Study of Prishtina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajcinovci Bujar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental air pollution is a global health concern, a complex phenomenon which is directly reflected on public health, economic and human development. Environmental air pollution has been drastically multiplied, followed by the beginning of the new Millennia in Prishtina, the capital city of the Kosovo. The new millennium began as a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of demographic, human geography, social and economic phenomena. The presented study aims to determine prevalent traffic and land morphology composition attributes, which have influenced and continue to have environmental impact in the city of Prishtina. According to the conceptual findings from the empirical observations, the heavy city traffic and the land morphology structure, determine the urban air pollution level. Prishtina is generally polluted due to its geomorphic position in relation to the power plants Kosovo A, and Kosova B. The impact of the above cited factors, is even bigger when the dominant winds prevail through valley, which encompasses the city. The findings from this paper propose the necessity of careful driven urban solutions.

  9. Environment Quality: Impact From Traffic, Power Plant and Land Morphology, a Case Study of Prishtina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcinovci, Bujar

    2017-05-01

    Environmental air pollution is a global health concern, a complex phenomenon which is directly reflected on public health, economic and human development. Environmental air pollution has been drastically multiplied, followed by the beginning of the new Millennia in Prishtina, the capital city of the Kosovo. The new millennium began as a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of demographic, human geography, social and economic phenomena. The presented study aims to determine prevalent traffic and land morphology composition attributes, which have influenced and continue to have environmental impact in the city of Prishtina. According to the conceptual findings from the empirical observations, the heavy city traffic and the land morphology structure, determine the urban air pollution level. Prishtina is generally polluted due to its geomorphic position in relation to the power plants Kosovo A, and Kosova B. The impact of the above cited factors, is even bigger when the dominant winds prevail through valley, which encompasses the city. The findings from this paper propose the necessity of careful driven urban solutions.

  10. Patterns in leaf morphological traits of Chinese woody plants and the application for paleoclimate reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoqi; Wang, Zhiheng

    2017-04-01

    Leaf morphological traits (LMTs) directly influence carbon-uptake and water-loss of plants in different habitats, and hence can be sensitive indicators of plant interaction with climate. The relationships between community-aggregated LMTs and their surrounding climate have been used to reconstruct paleoclimate. However, the uncertainties in its application remain poorly explored. Using distribution maps and LMTs data (leaf margin states, leaf length, leaf width, and length-width product/ratio) of 10480 Chinese woody dicots and dated family-level phylogenies, we demonstrated the variations of LMTs in geographical patterns, and analyzed their relationships with climate across different life-forms (evergreen and deciduous; trees, shrubs and lianas) and species quartiles with different family-ages. Results showed that from southern to northern China, leaves became shorter and narrower, while leaf length-width ratio increased and toothed-margin percentage decreased. Our results revealed great uncertainties in leaf margin-temperature relationships induced by life-form, precipitation and evolutionary history, and suggested that the widely-used method, leaf margin analysis, should be applied cautiously on paleotemperature reconstruction. Differently, mean leaf size responded tightly to spatial variations in annual evapotranspiration (AET) and primary productivity (GPP and NPP), and these relationships remained constant across different life-forms and evolutionary history, suggesting that leaf size could be a useful surrogate for paleo primary productivity.

  11. Measuring Leaf Area in Soy Plants by HSI Color Model Filtering and Mathematical Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalcázar, M.; Padín, J.; Brun, M.; Pastore, J.; Ballarin, V.; Peirone, L.; Pereyra, G.

    2011-12-01

    There has been lately a significant progress in automating tasks for the agricultural sector. One of the advances is the development of robots, based on computer vision, applied to care and management of soy crops. In this task, digital image processing plays an important role, but must solve some important problems, like the ones associated to the variations in lighting conditions during image acquisition. Such variations influence directly on the brightness level of the images to be processed. In this paper we propose an algorithm to segment and measure automatically the leaf area of soy plants. This information is used by the specialists to evaluate and compare the growth of different soy genotypes. This algorithm, based on color filtering using the HSI model, detects green objects from the image background. The segmentation of leaves (foliage) was made applying Mathematical Morphology. The foliage area was estimated counting the pixels that belong to the segmented leaves. From several experiments, consisting in applying the algorithm to measure the foliage of about fifty plants of various genotypes of soy, at different growth stages, we obtained successful results, despite the high brightness variations and shadows in the processed images.

  12. Hydrology, shore morphology and species traits affect seed dispersal, germination and community assembly in shoreline plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Sarneel, J.M.; van Paassen, José; Rip, W.J.; Bakker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary 1.Seed dispersal and germination are two primary processes influencing plant community assembly. On freshwater shores, water levels regulate both processes. However, it is still unclear how water levels, shore morphology and species traits interactively affect seed dispersal and germination,

  13. Taxonomy of Plant Genetic Resources – Use of Morphological, Molecular and Phytochemical Data in Order to Verify Existing Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lohwasser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and it is essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples of the interaction of morphological, molecular and phytochemical data, investigations of a parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collection of the German genebank are demonstrated. 220 parsley and 300 opium poppy accessions were cultivated and described morphologically. In addition, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  14. River channel morphology and hydraulics properties due to introduction of plant basket hydraulic structures for river channel management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuża, Tomasz; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Plesiński, Karol; Walczak, Natalia; Szoszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Radecki-Pawlik, Bartosz

    2016-04-01

    In the present time integrated water management is directly connected with management and direct works in river channels themselves which are taking into account morphological processes in rivers and improve flow conditions. Our work focused on the hydraulic and hydrodynamic consequences upon the introduction of the concept of the improvement of the hydromorphological conditions of the Flinta River in a given reach following river channel management concept. Based on a comprehensive study of the hydromorphological state of the river, four sections were selected where restoration measures can efficiently improve river habitat conditions in the river. For each section a set of technical and biological measures were proposed and implemented in practice. One of the proposed solutions was to construct plant basket hydraulic structures (PBHS) within the river channel, which are essentially plant barriers working as sediment traps, changing river channel morphology and are in line with concepts of Water Framework Directive. These relatively small structures work as crested weirs and unquestionably change the channel morphology. Along our work we show the results of three-year long (2013-2015) systematic measurements that provided information on the morphological consequences of introducing such structures into a river channel. Our main conclusions are as follows: 1. Plant basket hydraulic structures cause changes in hydrodynamic conditions and result in sediment accumulation and the formation of river backwaters upstream and downstream the obstacle; 2. The introduced plant basket hydraulic structures cause plant debris accumulation which influences the hydrodynamic flow conditions; 3. The installation of plant basket hydraulic structures on the river bed changes flow pattern as well as flow hydrodynamic conditions causing river braiding process; 4. The erosion rate below the plant basket hydraulic structures is due to the hydraulic work conditions of the PBHS and its

  15. Study on Plant Morphological Traits and Production Characteristics of Super High-Yielding Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AO Xue; XIE Fu-ti; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAO Ming-hui; ZHU Qian; LI Jie; ZHANG Hui-jun; WANG Hai-ying; YU Cui-mei; LI Chun-hong; YAO Xing-dong

    2013-01-01

    Super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14, soybean cultivars from Ohio in the United States, and the common soybean cultivars from Liaoning Province, China, with similar geographic latitudes and identical pod-bearing habits were used as the study materials for a comparison of morphological traits and production characteristics to provide a theoretical basis for the breeding of improved super high-yielding soybean cultivars. Using a randomized block design, different soybean cultivars from the same latitude were compared under conventional and unconventional treatments for their production characteristics, including morphological traits, leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthesis rate, and dry matter accumulation. The specific characteristics of the super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14 were analyzed. The results showed that the plant height of Liaodou 14 was significantly lower than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, whereas the number of its main-stem nodes was higher than that of the cultivars from Ohio or Liaoning. A high pod density was observed in Liaodou 14 under conventional treatments. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments, the branch number of Liaodou 14 was markedly higher than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, and its branch length and leaf inclination angle were significantly higher than those of common cultivars from Liaoning or Ohio. Only small changes in the leaf inclination angle were observed in Liaodou 14 treated with conventional or unconventional methods. Under each treatment, Liaodou 14 exhibited the lowest amplitude of reduction in SPAD values and net photosynthesis rates from the grain-filling to ripening stages;the cultivars from Ohio and the common cultivars from Liaoning exhibited more significant reductions. Liaodou 14 reached its peak LAI later than the other cultivars but maintained its LAI at a higher level for a longer duration. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments

  16. Comparative characteristics of anatomical and morphological adaptations of plants of two subgenera Haworthia Duval to arid environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Volodymyrivna Nuzhyna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative anatomical and morphological characteristics of plants of two subgenera: Haworthia and Hexangularis. The study revealed two different strategies of adaptation to arid conditions of the growth of different subgenera of the genus Haworthia. Plants of the subgenus Haworthia adapted to arid conditions by increasing the accumulation of water, the presence of “windows”, a smaller stoma size, and a thinner outer wall of the epidermis cells. On the other hand, plants of the subgenus Hexangularis adapted to arid conditions by reducing overheating and transpiration as well as by the presence of papillae and a thickened outer wall of the epidermis cells.

  17. Effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame (Sesamum indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame, an experiment was conducted at experimental station, college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Four different irrigation intervals (one, two, three and four weeks with four plant densities (20, 30, 40 and 50 plants/m2 were compared in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Irrigation intervals and plant densities allocated in main plots and subplots, respectively. Different characteristics such as plant height, distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of grains per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, 1000-seed weight, harvest index and oil yield were recorded. The results showed that there were no significant difference between different irrigation intervals in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of grains per capsule, 1000-seed weight and harvest index. Different irrigation intervals had significant effects on plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, grain yield and oil yield. There were significant differences between different plant densities in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of graines per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, harvest index and oil yield. The highest grain yield (798/7 kg/ha and oil yield (412/8 kg/ha were obtained at one week and four weeks irrigation intervals, respectively. Between all treatments, 50 plants/m2 and one week irrigation interval produced the highest grain yield (914/7 kg/ha and oil yield (478/6 kg/ha. Because of shortage of water in Mashhad condition, the results recommended that, 50 plants/m2 and two weeks irrigation interval produced rather acceptable grain yield, with less water consumption.

  18. Genetic variation in plant morphology contributes to the species-level structure of grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Raj; Grime, J Phil; Burke, Terry

    2010-05-01

    It is becoming apparent that genetic diversity can influence the species diversity and structure of ecological communities. Here, we investigated the intraspecific trait variation responsible for this relationship. We grew 10 genotypes of the sedge Carex caryophyllea, as monocultures, under standardized conditions and measured traits related to morphology, growth, and life history. The same genotypes had been prominent in determining the structure of multispecies experimental communities, equivalent in species diversity, in which the genetic diversity of the constituent plant species had been varied in parallel. The trait measurements revealed substantial phenotypic variation among Carex genotypes, related predominantly to differences in physical size and to the spatial deployment of above- and belowground tissue. Genotypes successful in experimental communities were larger in size and tended to adopt a "guerrilla" clonal growth strategy. In general, multivariate trait summaries of genotype size (and to a lesser extent, variation along a linear discriminant axis) predicted genotype and species abundance in experimental communities. However, one genotype exhibited a large disparity in this respect. The performance of this genotype lay closer to prediction when it was growing with a highly competitive grass genotype. The strength of the relationship between genotype size and performance within communities decreased with decreasing community genetic diversity. These results indicate that intraspecific trait measurements are useful for predicting and understanding community structure. They also imply that competitive interactions between the genotypes of different species play an increased role in determining phenotype in genetically impoverished communities.

  19. Quantitative trait loci × environment interactions for plant morphology vary over ontogeny in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechaine, Jennifer M; Brock, Marcus T; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L; Weinig, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Growth in plants occurs via the addition of repeating modules, suggesting that the genetic architecture of similar subunits may vary between earlier- and later-developing modules. These complex environment × ontogeny interactions are not well elucidated, as studies examining quantitative trait loci (QTLs) expression over ontogeny have not included multiple environments. Here, we characterized the genetic architecture of vegetative traits and onset of reproduction over ontogeny in recombinant inbred lines of Brassica rapa in the field and glasshouse. The magnitude of genetic variation in plasticity of seedling internodes was greater than in those produced later in ontogeny. We correspondingly detected that QTLs for seedling internode length were environment-specific, whereas later in ontogeny the majority of QTLs affected internode lengths in all treatments. The relationship between internode traits and onset of reproduction varied with environment and ontogenetic stage. This relationship was observed only in the glasshouse environment and was largely attributable to one environment-specific QTL. Our results provide the first evidence of a QTL × environment × ontogeny interaction, and provide QTL resolution for differences between early- and later-stage plasticity for stem elongation. These results also suggest potential constraints on morphological evolution in early vs later modules as a result of associations with reproductive timing.

  20. EFFECT OF SELECTED PETROLEUM-DERIVED SUBSTANCES ON BRUCHUS RUFIMANUS BOH. FEEDING AND ON SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of petrol, used engine oil and diesel oil on Bruchus rufimanus Boh. feeding and on selected morphological characteristics of plants. In addition, the effect of bioremediation process on the above mentioned features was examined. Pest’s feeding intensity assessment was carried out by determining the number of damaged seeds and their weight. Assessment of morphological characteristics of plants was made in the technological maturity of broad bean seeds. The results of the experiment showed that all substances used in the experiment had no significant effect on B. rufimanus Boh feeding. Diesel oil most adversely affected the analyzed morphological characteristics. Applied bioremediation caused a decrease the mass of seeds developed by plant and the number of damaged seeds in the object contaminated with petrol and contributed to the increase in the number and weight of pods and the number of seeds per one plant in the object contaminated with diesel oil.

  1. Contrasting Effects of Long-Term Grazing and Clipping on Plant Morphological Plasticity: Evidence from a Rhizomatous Grass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Li

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of plant morphological plasticity in response to grazing and clipping of semiarid grassland can provide insight into the process of disturbance-induced decline in grassland productivity. In recent studies there has been controversy regarding two hypotheses: 1 grazing avoidance; and 2 growth limiting mechanisms of morphological plasticity in response to defoliation. However, the experimental evidence presented for the memory response to grazing and clipping of plants has been poorly reported. This paper reports on two experiments that tested these hypotheses in field and in a controlled environment, respectively. We examined the effects of long-term clipping and grazing on the functional traits and their plasticity for Leymus chinensis (Trin. Tzvelev (the dominate species in the typical-steppe grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. There were four main findings from these experiments. (i The majority of phenotypic traits of L. chinensis tended to significantly miniaturize in response to long-term field clipping and grazing. (ii The significant response of morphological plasticity with and without grazing was maintained in a hydroponic experiment designed to remove environmental variability, but there was no significant difference in L. chinensis individual size traits for the clipping comparison. (iii Plasticity indexes of L. chinensis traits in a controlled environment were significantly lower than under field conditions indicating that plants had partial and slight memory effect to long-term grazing. (iv The allometry of various phenotypic traits, indicated significant trade-offs between leaf and stem allocation with variations in plant size induced by defoliation, which were maintained only under grazing in the hydroponic controlled environment experiment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the morphological plasticity of L. chinensis induced by artificial clipping was different with that by livestock grazing

  2. Supplementary Material for: The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The systematic analysis of a large number of comparable plant trait data can support investigations into phylogenetics and ecological adaptation, with broad applications in evolutionary biology, agriculture, conservation, and the functioning of ecosystems. Floras, i.e., books collecting the information on all known plant species found within a region, are a potentially rich source of such plant trait data. Floras describe plant traits with a focus on morphology and other traits relevant for species identification in addition to other characteristics of plant species, such as ecological affinities, distribution, economic value, health applications, traditional uses, and so on. However, a key limitation in systematically analyzing information in Floras is the lack of a standardized vocabulary for the described traits as well as the difficulties in extracting structured information from free text. Results We have developed the Flora Phenotype Ontology (FLOPO), an ontology for describing traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based on phenotype description patterns and automated reasoning to generate the FLOPO. The resulting ontology consists of 25,407 classes and is based on the PO and PATO. The classified ontology closely follows the structure of Plant Ontology in that the primary axis of classification is the observed plant anatomical structure, and more specific traits are then classified based on parthood and subclass relations between anatomical structures as well as subclass relations between phenotypic qualities. Conclusions The FLOPO is primarily intended as a framework based on which plant traits can be integrated computationally across all species and higher taxa of flowering plants. Importantly, it is not intended to replace established

  3. Plant physiological, morphological and yield-related responses to night temperature changes across different species and plant functional types

    OpenAIRE

    Panpan Jing; Dan Wang; Chunwu Zhu; Jiquan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs ...

  4. Study of phenological and morphological characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cold tolerant genotypes in fall planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samane najib niya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate phenological and morphological characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cold tolerant genotypes, a field trial carried out on 2004-2005 at the experimental field of College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study 152 cold tolerant accessions with 4 checks (Karaj12-60-31, ILC482, ILC3279 and FLIP84-48C were evaluated in the Augmented preliminarily design in fall planting (9 October. There were considerable variations among genotypes with each other and with checks about phonological stages (days from sowing to emergence, emergence to flowering and flowering to ripening and morphological characteristics (plant height, number of branches and their length per plant. The differences in all cases were significant (p≤0.05. Vegetative growth period was more than 165 days in 84% of accessions and reproductive growth period was more than 29 days in 87% of them. The height of plant in 86% of accessions was more than 30cm, and total branch length per plant was more than 300cm in 82% of accessions. According to the results and regarding to the remarkable yield of some accessions, there is a suitable possibility for selecting genotypes with suitable agronomical characteristics in order to continue cold tolerance trials in replicated experiments.

  5. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant.

  6. Plant physiological, morphological and yield-related responses to night temperature changes across different species and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Jing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day. The effects of high night temperature (HNT and low night temperature (LNT on plant ecophysiological and growing processes and how the effects vary among different plant functional types (PFTs have not been analyzed extensively. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of HNT and LNT on plant physiology and growth across different PFTs and experimental settings. Plant species were grouped according to their photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4 and CAM, growth forms (herbaceous, woody, and economic purposes (crop, non-crop. We found that HNT and LNT both had a negative effect on plant yield, but the effect of HNT on plant yield was primarily related to a reduction in biomass allocation to reproduction organs and the effect of LNT on plant yield was more related to a negative effect on total biomass. Leaf growth was stimulated at HNT and suppressed at LNT. HNT accelerated plants ecophysiological processes, including photosynthesis and dark respiration, while LNT slowed these processes. Overall, the results showed that the effects of night temperature on plant physiology and growth varied between HNT and LNT, among the response variables and PFTs, and depended on the magnitude of temperature change and experimental design. These findings suggest complexities and challenges in seeking general patterns of terrestrial plant growth in HNT and LNT. The PFT specific responses of plants are

  7. Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

    2015-03-01

    Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants.

  8. Morphology of olfactory sensilla and its role in host plant recognition by Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood) (Heteroptera: Alydidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Ursi Ventura; Antônio Ricardo Panizzi

    2005-01-01

    The external morphology of the sensilla, including pores and permeable points on the cuticle of the antennae of adults of Neomegalotomus parvus (West.) (Heteroptera: Alydidae) was investigated with regard to their olfactory function. Behavioural evidence of olfaction, the importance of the different antennal segments in locating the host under still-air, and the responses of the insects to plants' scents and to pheromones in wind assays were also studied. With the scanning electronic microsco...

  9. Variation in seed size is structured by dispersal syndrome and cone morphology in conifers and other nonflowering seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Andrew B; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Mathews, Sarah

    2017-02-10

    Seed size varies tremendously in plants and its evolution is influenced by multiple ecological and biological factors that are difficult to disentangle. In this study, we focus on understanding the role of seed dispersal by animals in the evolution of seed size in conifers, the most diverse extant nonflowering seed plant group. Relationships among seed size, dispersal syndrome, climate and cone morphology were analyzed across conifers using quantitative models of character evolution and phylogenetic regression techniques. Dispersal syndrome is a more consistent predictor of seed size within major extant conifer clades than climate. Seeds are generally larger in animal-dispersed than wind-dispersed species, and particular cone morphologies are consistently associated with specific ranges in seed size. Seed size and cone morphology evolve in a correlated manner in many animal-dispersed conifers, following a trade-off that minimizes the total size of the dispersal unit. These relationships are also present in other nonflowering seed plant groups, and have been important in the evolution of seeds and cones at least over the Cenozoic and perhaps over much of the later Mesozoic.

  10. Morphological and physiological characteristics of rapeseed plants regenerated in vitro from thin cell layers in the presence of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ghnaya, Asma; Charles, Gilbert; Hourmant, Annick; Ben Hamida, Jeannette; Branchard, Michel

    2007-10-01

    Phytoremediation offers owners and managers of metal-contaminated sites an innovative and cost-effective option to address recalcitrant environmental contamination. The use of plants to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate or store metals. This includes the use of plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels for phytoextraction and the use of plants growing under conditions that are toxic to other plants, for preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilisation). Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) was shown to be able to accumulate substantial amounts of metals combined with high biomass. Brassica napus was therefore selected for heavy metal (HM) tolerance and accumulation through in vitro selection. A selective pressure applied during the neoformation process from transversal thin cell layers (tTCLs) allowed us to select tolerant cells and tissues. Toxic metals (such as Zn) were added to the culture media in order to select zinc-tolerant plants. Exerting a selective pressure during tTCLs regeneration aimed at selecting plants with exceptional zinc tolerance and/or accumulating capacity. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of regenerated plants cultivated in greenhouse appeared to depend very significantly on the concentration of ZnSO(4) applied during the neoformation process. Plants regenerated in the presence of ZnSO(4) at 100 microM exhibited a greater size and a higher biomass together with flowering precocity. The contents of zinc, chlorophyll, and proline were modified in the regenerated plants. Pre-treatment with an excess of ZnSO(4) (>500 microM) was responsible for a percentage of tTCLs intolerance above 96%. With lower Zn concentrations (100-250 microM), the survival rates (33-15%) were higher.

  11. Anatomical, morphological, and phytochemical effects of inoculation with plant growth- promoting rhizobacteria on peppermint (Mentha piperita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario Cappellari, Lorena; Santoro, Maricel Valeria; Reinoso, Herminda; Travaglia, Claudia; Giordano, Walter; Banchio, Erika

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) generally exert their effects through enhancement of plant nutrient status and/or phytohormone production. The effects of PGPR on aromatic plant species are poorly known. We measured plant growth parameters, chlorophyll content, trichome density, stomatal density, and levels of secondary metabolites in peppermint (Mentha piperita) seedlings inoculated with PGPR strains Bacillus subtilis GB03, Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r, P. putida SJ04, or a combination of WCS417r + SJ04. The treated plants, in comparison with controls, showed increases in shoot biomass, root biomass, leaf area, node number, trichome density, and stomatal density, and marked qualitative and quantitative changes in monoterpene content. Improved knowledge of the factors that control or affect biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and monoterpene accumulation will lead to strategies for improved cultivation and productivity of aromatic plants and other agricultural crops without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  12. Generating Artificial Plant Morphologies for Function and Aesthetics through Evolving L-Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veenstra, Frank; Faina, Andres; Støy, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Due to the replacement of natural flora and fauna with ur- ban environments, a significant part of the earth’s organisms that function as primary consumers have been dispelled. To compensate for the reduction in the amount of primary con- sumers, robotic systems that mimic plant-like organisms...... are interesting to mimic for their potential functional and aes- thetic value in urban environments. To investigate how to utilize plant developmental strategies in order to engender ur- ban artificial plants, we built a simple evolutionary model that applies an L-System based grammar as an abstraction of plant...

  13. Plant morphological and development responses to light quality in a horticultural context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieperen, van W.

    2012-01-01

    Many horticultural crops (food and ornamental) are produced year-round in greenhouses at high latitudes, where the limited availability of natural sunlight restricts plant production during large parts of the year. To enable year-round plant production supplemental light is necessary to enhance phot

  14. Modelling grass digestibility on the basis of morphological and physiological plant characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental

  15. Plant morphology, environment, and leaf area growth in wheat and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area expansion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants, as contrasting representatives of the Gramineae family, was analysed. Seven variables were identified that together completely determine leaf area expansion of the plant: leaf appearance rate per tiller, specific sit

  16. Effects of Riyadh cement industry pollutions on some physiological and morphological factors of Datura innoxia Mill. plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Hediat M H; Al-Rumaih, M M; Al-Dosary, M A

    2011-07-01

    Cement factory emissions into air cause serious air pollution and affect the plant and animal life in the environment. Herein, we report the effects of cement industry emissions (O3, SO2 and NO2) in air, as pollutants, at Riyadh City on Datura innoxia Mill. plant. Morphological characters including plant height, leaves area and number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root systems of D. innoxia showed a significant reduction from their normal control plants as a response to exposure to pollutant emissions. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents recorded reductions in values compared to control plant, and the lowest values of chlorophyll A, B, total chlorophyll, carotenoids and total pigments were 0.431, 0.169, 0.60, 0.343 and 0.943 mg/g respectively at a distance of 1-5 m from the cement factory in fruiting stage. These changes in values may be attributed to a probable deceleration of the biosynthetic process rather than degradation of pigments. Further D. innoxia showed a significant (P plant. The root system recorded the lowest values of reducing sugars (0.350 mg/g f. wt.), non-reducing sugars (0.116 mg/g f. wt.), total sugars (0.466 mg/g f. wt.), protein content (0.931 mg/g f. wt.) and total lipids content (0.669 mg/g f. wt.) in fruiting stage at a distance of 1-5 m from the cement factory. The peroxidase activity of shoot and root systems of the studied plant was also significantly higher than those of control plant. Thus a highest value of (29.616 units/g f. wt.) peroxidase activity was recorded in vegetative stage of shoot system at a distance 1-5 m from the cement factory. Results of the study indicated that cement industry emission strongly influence the physiology and morphology of date palm D. innoxia which contribute date fruits, a staple food in the Arab world.

  17. Responses of plant morphology and seed quality to long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... shows that 1000-seed weight, germination percentage, plant height, fiber root length, height of first ramet, individual .... The shape of L. chinensis seed was thin and ... Animal trampling, especially after rain, compact the topsoil ...

  18. Time-invariant differences between plant individuals in interactions with arthropods correlate with intraspecific variation in plant phenology, morphology and floral scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppler, Jonas; Höfers, Maren K; Wiesmann, Lisa; Junker, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    The basic units of ecological and evolutionary processes are individuals. Network studies aiming to infer mechanisms from complex systems, however, usually focus on interactions between species, not individuals. Accordingly, the structure and underlying mechanisms of individual-based interaction networks remain largely unknown. In a common garden, we recorded all interactions on flowers and leaves of 97 Sinapis arvensis individuals from seedling stage to fruit set and related interindividual differences in interactions to the plant individuals' phenotypes. The plant individuals significantly differed in their quantitative and qualitative interactions with arthropods on flowers and leaves. These differences remained stable over the entire season and thus were time-invariant. Variation in interacting arthropod communities could be explained by a pronounced intraspecific variability in flowering phenology, morphology and flower scent, and translated into variation in reproductive success. Interestingly, plant individuals with a similar composition of flower visitors were also visited by a similar assemblage of interaction partners at leaves. Our results show that the nonuniformity of plant species has pronounced effects in community ecology, potentially with implications for the persistence of communities and populations, and their ability to withstand environmental fluctuations.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Biscarini

    Full Text Available In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions.In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25. In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7 and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011.We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  1. Convergence beyond flower morphology? Reproductive biology of hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Maruyama, P K; Oliveira, P E

    2016-03-01

    Convergent reproductive traits in non-related plants may be the result of similar environmental conditions and/or specialised interactions with pollinators. Here, we documented the pollination and reproductive biology of Bionia coriacea (Fabaceae), Esterhazya splendida (Orobanchaceae) and Ananas ananassoides (Bromeliaceae) as case studies in the context of hummingbird pollination in Cerrado, the Neotropical savanna of Central South America. We combined our results with a survey of hummingbird pollination studies in the region to investigate the recently suggested association of hummingbird pollination and self-compatibility. Plant species studied here differed in their specialisation for ornithophily, from more generalist A. ananassoides to somewhat specialist B. coriacea and E. splendida. This continuum of specialisation in floral traits also translated into floral visitor composition. Amazilia fimbriata was the most frequent pollinator for all species, and the differences in floral display and nectar energy availability among plant species affect hummingbirds' behaviour. Most of the hummingbird-pollinated Cerrado plants (60.0%, n = 20), including those studied here, were self-incompatible, in contrast to other biomes in the Neotropics. Association to more generalist, often territorial, hummingbirds, and resulting reduced pollen flow in open savanna areas may explain predominance of self-incompatibility. But it is possible that mating system is more associated with the predominance of woody hummingbird plants in the Cerrado plant assemblage than to the pollination system itself.

  2. When will plant morphology affect the shape of a seed dispersal "kernel"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, R D; Rawlinson, A A

    2001-08-07

    Most models of dispersal assume that plants are point sources. In reality, the scale in height over which seed sources are distributed is often of the same order as the scale in distance over which most individual seeds are dispersed. But is this sufficient to affect the fundamental shapes of dispersal frequency distributions? Most published conclusions about the effects of canopy structure on dispersal are subjective. A model is developed to explore the consequences of plant canopies for the shapes of whole-plant seed dispersal "kernels". The canopies were described by simple geometric shapes, while an empirical probability density function (PDF) was used for dispersal from a point source. It was found that the resulting whole-plant PDF for dispersal distance was almost invariably peaked, whereas the PDF for the density of seed rain (as would be measured by pitfall traps) could either be peaked or monotonic according to the canopy shape, position of seeds in the canopy, and mean dispersal distance. The shapes of kernels from whole plants (distributed seed sources) can be very different from those derived from a point source under certain circumstances. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. Colonization of Greek olive cultivars' root system by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus: root morphology, growth, and mineral nutrition of olive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Chatzistathis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooted leafy cuttings of three Greek olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars (Koroneiki, Kothreiki and Chondrolia Chalkidikis were grown for six months in three soil types, in an experimental greenhouse, in order to investigate: i if their root system was colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF genus and, ii if genotypic differences concerning growth and mineral nutrition of olive plants existed. Gigaspora sp. colonized the root system of the three cultivars studied, while Glomus sp. colonized only the root system of 'Koroneiki'. Furthermore, in most cases root colonization by AMF differed among cultivars and soil types. The maximum root colonization, in all soils, was found in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis'. In the three soils studied, the ratio shoot dry weight (SDW/ root dry weight (RDW was higher in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis' than in the other two cultivars. Furthermore, root system morphology of the three olive cultivars was completely different, irrespectively of soil type. Leaf Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations, as well as total per plant nutrient content and nutrient use efficiency, differed among cultivars under the same soil conditions. These differences concerning root morphology, SDW/RDW, as well as nutrient uptake and use efficiency, could be possibly ascribed to the differential AMF colonization by Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp.

  4. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F.; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or ...

  5. Alpha Stable Distribution Based Morphological Filter for Bearing and Gear Fault Diagnosis in Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gear and bearing play an important role as key components of rotating machinery power transmission systems in nuclear power plants. Their state conditions are very important for safety and normal operation of entire nuclear power plant. Vibration based condition monitoring is more complicated for the gear and bearing of planetary gearbox than those of fixed-axis gearbox. Many theoretical and engineering challenges in planetary gearbox fault diagnosis have not yet been resolved which are of great importance for nuclear power plants. A detailed vibration condition monitoring review of planetary gearbox used in nuclear power plants is conducted in this paper. A new fault diagnosis method of planetary gearbox gears is proposed. Bearing fault data, bearing simulation data, and gear fault data are used to test the new method. Signals preprocessed using dilation-erosion gradient filter and fast Fourier transform for fault information extraction. The length of structuring element (SE of dilation-erosion gradient filter is optimized by alpha stable distribution. Method experimental verification confirmed that parameter alpha is superior compared to kurtosis since it can reflect the form of entire signal and it cannot be influenced by noise similar to impulse.

  6. Application of Modern Experimental Technique to Solve Morphological Complexity in Plants Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURANTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomy has two approaches, i.e. classical and experimental taxonomy. Classical taxonomy uses morphological characters, while experimental taxonomy uses broader methods including chemistry, physics and mathematics, in the form of laboratory data that are revealed together with the progress of optical technique (microscope, chemistry methods (chromatography, electrophoresis, etc. Modern taxonomy tends to use series of interrelated data. More data used would result in more validity and give better clarification of taxonomic status. A lot of modern taxonomic data such as palynology, cytotaxonomy (cytology, chemical constituent (chemotaxonomy, isozyme and DNA sequencing were used recently.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS IN HIGH SALINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of increasing salinity to the morpho-metric parameters of Salix alba L., which dominated in the coastal areas on rivers of Steppe Dnieper, is investigated. We added Mg as salt MgSO4 * 3H2O in the range of concentration: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/l in a solution of willow cuttings. In the solution was added and plant growth regulator "Kornevin" the synthetic origin. The negative effect of salt at a concentration from 1.0 g/l to 2.5 g/l in the dynamics of growth and development was found. The correlation between the size and salinity in dynamics of growth and development of plant were demonstrated: in the growth of shoots (R = 0.83, 0.91 and 0.95, in the growth of roots (R = 0.92, 0.68 and 0.84 respectively depended from salt concentration. The length of the leaf blade was from 4% to 8%, from 7% to 43%, from 333% to 11% (R = 0,68, 0,93, 0,61, depending on the concentration of salt and during observing compared with control (distilled water. "Kornevin" and combined effect of salt increased the length of the leaf blade growth by 4-5, 2-4, 3-5 times, the roots by7 and 3-14 times, the shoots by 3-4, 6-7 and 5-7 times in the dynamics of growth compared with control (MgSO4, 2,5 g/l. The recommendations regarding for the advisability of using the plant growth regulator "Kornevin", as very effective plant growth preparation that promoted rooting and activated physiological processes of plant organism, expressed protective effect in conditions of excessive salinity, were provided. Key words: the morpho-metric index, the plant growth regulators, abiotic factors, salinity factor, the adaptation.

  8. Morphology and Food Plants of Cuckoo Bees (Apidae: Hymenoptera From Indian Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat H. Raina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuckoo bees belong to the genus Bombus (Apidae: Hymenoptera under sub genus Psythrus Lepeletier and is widely distributed subgenus from the oriental region represented by 17 valid species. This subgenus is represented by eight valid species from Indian Himalayas viz. B. ferganicus B. novus, B. morawatizianus, B. cornutus, B. branickii, B. skorikovi, B. tibetanus and B. turneri. Due emphasis has been laid on their altitudional distribution, food plants, taxonomy, synonymy, and illustrations. Being their parasitic nature these species lack worker caste and has negligible role in pollination ecology although they have got preference to forage on different host plants. The species were observed feeding sluggishly on flower heads of Rosa weibbiana, Cirsium spp. and Trifoium spp. Many new food plants of these species have been recorded for the first time from the area under study. During the present studies six species of the cuckoo bees were collected and identified and one species viz. B. turneri which could not found during the present study were procured on exchanged from BMNH, London.

  9. The disadvantages of being a hybrid during drought: A combined analysis of plant morphology, physiology and leaf proteome in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holá, Dana; Benešová, Monika; Fischer, Lukáš; Haisel, Daniel; Hnilička, František; Hniličková, Helena; Jedelský, Petr L; Kočová, Marie; Procházková, Dagmar; Rothová, Olga; Tůmová, Lenka; Wilhelmová, Naďa

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis of various parameters that characterize plant morphology, growth, water status, photosynthesis, cell damage, and antioxidative and osmoprotective systems together with an iTRAQ analysis of the leaf proteome was performed in two inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) differing in drought susceptibility and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. The aim of this study was to dissect the parent-hybrid relationships to better understand the mechanisms of the heterotic effect and its potential association with the stress response. The results clearly showed that the four examined genotypes have completely different strategies for coping with limited water availability and that the inherent properties of the F1 hybrids, i.e. positive heterosis in morphological parameters (or, more generally, a larger plant body) becomes a distinct disadvantage when the water supply is limited. However, although a greater loss of photosynthetic efficiency was an inherent disadvantage, the precise causes and consequences of the original predisposition towards faster growth and biomass accumulation differed even between reciprocal hybrids. Both maternal and paternal parents could be imitated by their progeny in some aspects of the drought response (e.g., the absence of general protein down-regulation, changes in the levels of some carbon fixation or other photosynthetic proteins). Nevertheless, other features (e.g., dehydrin or light-harvesting protein contents, reduced chloroplast proteosynthesis) were quite unique to a particular hybrid. Our study also confirmed that the strategy for leaving stomata open even when the water supply is limited (coupled to a smaller body size and some other physiological properties), observed in one of our inbred lines, is associated with drought-resistance not only during mild drought (as we showed previously) but also during more severe drought conditions.

  10. Colonization and Diversity of AM Fungi by Morphological Analysis on Medicinal Plants in Southeast China

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    Mingyuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungal distributions in the rhizosphere of 20 medicinal plants species in Zhangzhou, southeast China, were studied. The results showed 66 species of 8 genera of AM fungi were identified, of which 38 belonged to Glomus, 12 to Acaulospora, 9 to Scutellospora, 2 to Gigaspora, 2 to Funneliformis, 1 to Septoglomus, 1 to Rhizophagus, and 1 to Archaeospora. Glomus was the dominant genera and G. melanosporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, G. etunicatum, Funneliformis mosseae, and G. rubiforme were the prevalent species. The highest colonization (100% was recorded in Desmodium pulchellum (L. Benth. while the lowest (8.0% was in Acorus tatarinowii Schott. The AM fungi spore density ranged from 270 to 2860 per 100 g soil (average 1005, and the species richness ranged from 3 to 14 (average 9.7 per soil sample. Shannon-Wiener index ranged from 0.52 to 2 (average 1.45. In the present study, the colonization had a highly negative correlation with available K and electrical conductivity. Species richness correlated positively with electrical conductivity and organic matter. Shannon-Wiener index had a highly significant negative correlation with pH. This study provides a valuable germplasm and theoretical basis for AM fungal biotechnology on medicinal standardization planting.

  11. Regulatory Shifts in Plastid Transcription Play a Key Role in Morphological Conversions of Plastids during Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebers, Monique; Grübler, Björn; Chevalier, Fabien; Lerbs-Mache, Silva; Merendino, Livia; Blanvillain, Robert; Pfannschmidt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Plastids display a high morphological and functional diversity. Starting from an undifferentiated small proplastid, these plant cell organelles can develop into four major forms: etioplasts in the dark, chloroplasts in green tissues, chromoplasts in colored flowers and fruits and amyloplasts in roots. The various forms are interconvertible into each other depending on tissue context and respective environmental condition. Research of the last two decades uncovered that each plastid type contains its own specific proteome that can be highly different from that of the other types. Composition of these proteomes largely defines the enzymatic functionality of the respective plastid. The vast majority of plastid proteins is encoded in the nucleus and must be imported from the cytosol. However, a subset of proteins of the photosynthetic and gene expression machineries are encoded on the plastid genome and are transcribed by a complex transcriptional apparatus consisting of phage-type nuclear-encoded RNA polymerases and a bacterial-type plastid-encoded RNA polymerase. Both types recognize specific sets of promoters and transcribe partly over-lapping as well as specific sets of genes. Here we summarize the current knowledge about the sequential activity of these plastid RNA polymerases and their relative activities in different types of plastids. Based on published plastid gene expression profiles we hypothesize that each conversion from one plastid type into another is either accompanied or even preceded by significant changes in plastid transcription suggesting that these changes represent important determinants of plastid morphology and protein composition and, hence, the plastid type. PMID:28154576

  12. Photoprotective Strategies of Mediterranean Plants in Relation to Morphological Traits and Natural Environmental Pressure: A Meta-Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; Garcia-Plazaola, Jose I; Esteban, Raquel; Míguez, Fátima; Artetxe, Unai; Gómez-Sagasti, Maria T

    2017-01-01

    Despite being a small geographic extension, Mediterranean Basin is characterized by an exceptional plant biodiversity. Adaptive responses of this biocoenosis are delineated by an unusual temporal dissociation along the year between optimal temperature for growth and water availability. This fact generates the combination of two environmental stress factors: a period of summer drought, variable in length and intensity, and the occurrence of mild to cold winters. Both abiotic factors, trigger the generation of (photo)oxidative stress and plants orchestrate an arsenal of structural, physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms to withstand such environmental injuries. In the last two decades an important effort has been made to characterize the adaptive morphological and ecophysiological traits behind plant survival strategies with an eye to predict how they will respond to future climatic changes. In the present work, we have compiled data from 89 studies following a meta-analytical approach with the aim of assessing the composition and plasticity of photosynthetic pigments and low-molecular-weight antioxidants (tocopherols, glutathione, and ascorbic acid) of wild Mediterranean plant species. The influence of internal plant and leaf factors on such composition together with the stress responsiveness, were also analyzed. This approach enabled to obtain data from 73 species of the Mediterranean flora, with the genus Quercus being the most frequently studied. Main highlights of present analysis are: (i) sort of photoprotective mechanisms do not differ between Mediterranean plants and other floras but they show higher plasticity indexes; (ii) α-tocopherol among the antioxidants and violaxanthin-cycle pigments show the highest responsiveness to environmental factors; (iii) both winter and drought stresses induce overnight retention of de-epoxidised violaxanthin-cycle pigments; (iv) this retention correlates with depressions of Fv/Fm; and (v) contrary to what

  13. Photoprotective Strategies of Mediterranean Plants in Relation to Morphological Traits and Natural Environmental Pressure: A Meta-Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fernández-Marín

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a small geographic extension, Mediterranean Basin is characterized by an exceptional plant biodiversity. Adaptive responses of this biocoenosis are delineated by an unusual temporal dissociation along the year between optimal temperature for growth and water availability. This fact generates the combination of two environmental stress factors: a period of summer drought, variable in length and intensity, and the occurrence of mild to cold winters. Both abiotic factors, trigger the generation of (photooxidative stress and plants orchestrate an arsenal of structural, physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms to withstand such environmental injuries. In the last two decades an important effort has been made to characterize the adaptive morphological and ecophysiological traits behind plant survival strategies with an eye to predict how they will respond to future climatic changes. In the present work, we have compiled data from 89 studies following a meta-analytical approach with the aim of assessing the composition and plasticity of photosynthetic pigments and low-molecular-weight antioxidants (tocopherols, glutathione, and ascorbic acid of wild Mediterranean plant species. The influence of internal plant and leaf factors on such composition together with the stress responsiveness, were also analyzed. This approach enabled to obtain data from 73 species of the Mediterranean flora, with the genus Quercus being the most frequently studied. Main highlights of present analysis are: (i sort of photoprotective mechanisms do not differ between Mediterranean plants and other floras but they show higher plasticity indexes; (ii α−tocopherol among the antioxidants and violaxanthin-cycle pigments show the highest responsiveness to environmental factors; (iii both winter and drought stresses induce overnight retention of de-epoxidised violaxanthin-cycle pigments; (iv this retention correlates with depressions of Fv/Fm; and (v

  14. Effect of colchicine applied to callus of mangosteen on morphological changes of regenerated plants

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    Te-chato, S.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Calli of mangosteen raised on callus induction medium (CIM at 20 days of culture were submerged in various concentrations of colchicine. The cultures were incubated on a rotary shaker and shaken at 80 rpm for 2 hours. In the case of high concentrations of colchicine (500 and 750 mg/l, the calli were cultured directily on the colchicine-containing media for 90 days. The results showed that leaves of regenerated shoots contained more chlorophyll b than those of control. However, shoot size, leaf area and leaf number tended to decrease while number and lenght of roots increased. A high concentration of colchicine, 500 mg/l, produced shoots with brown-callused leaves. However, roots could be induced from these shoots to from complete plantlets. Some of the intact leaves produced a large number of shoots. Colchicine at 750 mg/l gave some morphological abnormalities with 5 roots per shoot. A small shoot could produce a large healthy root. Some shoots produced 3 leaves per whorl.

  15. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of biofuel plant Euphorbia lathyris to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Yang, Ziyi; Lu, Changmei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal Univ., Nanjing (China)], E-mail: 08134@njnu.edu.cn); Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Lijun [Nanjing Inst. for the Comprehensive Utilization of Wild plants, Nanjing (China)

    2013-05-15

    Saline lands are characterized by salinity and nutrient deficiency and there is an ever increasing need for economical, adaptable plant species to rejuvenate these lands. In this study, we determined the suitability and tolerance of Euphorbia lathyris L. (Caper spurge), a well-known biofuel plant, as a sustainable candidate to colonize saline lands. We investigated the germination rate, seedling growth, solute change and anti-oxidative enzyme activities etc. under salt stress conditions. Our results showed that Caper spurge seeds prefer to germinate under nonsaline environments and high salt stress induced temporary dormancy during germination, but did not completely hamper the viability of the seeds. The seedling biomass increased without any visible distress symptoms in the presence of NaCl not over 171 mM. Further increase in NaCl concentration had a negative impact on the seedling growth. These demonstrate that Caper spurge seedlings have the potential to grow in saline lands. The salinity tolerance of Caper spurge seedlings was closely associated with the regional distribution of Na{sup + }in roots, stable absorption of Ca{sup 2{sup +,}} K{sup + }and Mg{sup 2{sup +,}} accumulation of organic solutes, and increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes. However, excessive accumulation of Na{sup +,} sharp increase of superoxide (O{sub 2}), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, malonaldehyde (MDA) and cell membrane leakage, reduction of osmoprotectants, and decreased activities of CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) etc. under high salinity might be the reasons for the restrained seedling growth.

  16. Effects of Cycocel on Morphological Traits, Nitrogen and Potassium Content of Basil Plants under Water Stress Conditions

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    A Rezaei Estakhroeih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Basil (Ocimum basilicum is an annual plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It used as a drug, spice and fresh vegetable. Drought stress is one of the important limiting factors of plant growth. Water stress has significant effects on morphological and biochemical characteristics of purple Basil. As the soil water content decreases, the plant height, stem diameter, number and area of leaves, leaf area index (LAI, herb yield and leaf chlorophyll contents (a,b and total chlorophyll decrease, as well. However, the amounts of anthocyanin and proline increase. Cycocel (CCC which chemically called chlormequat chloride is an alkylating agent and a quaternary ammonium salt.. Cycocel is used as plant growth regulator. Application of Cycocel increases the number of siliques/ plant, seed yield and dry matter produced of oilseed rape. Cycocel application decreases the plant height and increases the yield level and protein percentage of seed in faba bean. This research was performed to investigate the effect of Cycocel on morphological characteristics, the percentage of nitrogen and potassium of basil plants under drought stress conditions Materials and Methods This research has been conducted in the research station of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with 56o 58' E longitude, 30o 15' N latitude, and 1753.8 altitudes. According to the regional information from 1952 to 2005, the average temperature was 17.1 o C, the average rainfall was 154.1 mm, the average annual relative humidity is 32%, and the climate of Kerman according to De Martonne method is semiarid. A split plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications was employed. Three levels of irrigation, including 50 (severe stress (I3, 75 (mild stress (I2 and 100 (full irrigation (I1 percent of crop water requirement were assigned to the main plots while five levels of Cycocel application (zero (control, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 milligrams per litre were assigned to the sub

  17. Vegetation development following stream/river restoration: more natural fluvial dynamics and morphology, return of aquatic and riparian plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    After centuries of human interventions in stream/river dynamics and morphology aimed at optimizing landscapes for agricultural and industrial purposes, new insights have inspired water managers to try and combine stream and river ecosystem functions with the conservation of biodiversity. Around the world, aquatic and riparian species have declined strongly due to pollution, destruction and fragmentation of their habitat, so that biodiversity conservation initiatives primarily focus on habitat restoration. In the past decades many stream and river restoration projects have been carried out and often hydrological dynamics and morphology have been restored to a more natural state. However, the successful restoration of aquatic and riparian habitats very often failed to result in restoration of their biodiversity. This lack of success from a biodiversity conservation perspective is usually attributed to 'dispersal limitation', meaning that the habitat may be restored, but species fail to reach the site and re-colonize it. Especially re-colonization by aquatic and riparian plant species is important, as such species function as ecosystem engineers: their presence alters fluvial dynamics and morphology, generates additional habitat heterogeneity and provides habitat and food for animal species. Following minor disturbances, re-colonization is often possible through locally remaining populations, by seeds in the seed bank or by surviving plant fragments. However, following major disturbances, colonization and establishment from other source populations are necessary. This usually occurs through dispersal of seeds (and in more aquatic species also by dispersal of vegetative fragments) into the restored wetland area. As dispersal occurs predominantly over short distances and source populations of aquatic and riparian species may be lacking in the surroundings, dispersal may be a limiting factor in the development of aquatic and riparian vegetation at a restored site. But

  18. The morphological structure of leaves and the dust-retaining capability of afforested plants in urban Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R

    2012-09-01

    Air pollution is a serious health problem throughout the world, exacerbating a wide range of respiratory and vascular illnesses in urban areas. The mass artificial plantation is very helpful to absorb dust and reduce pollution for conservation of the urban environment. The foliar surface of plants is an important receptor of atmospheric pollutants. Therefore, selection of suitable plant species for urban environment is very important. The dust-retaining capability of urban trees in Guangzhou was determined at four different types of urban area, and the morphological traits of their leaves such as wax, cuticle, stomata, and trichomes were observed under a scanning electron microscope. It was determined that the dust-retaining capability of any given tree species is significantly different in the same place. Of the four studied tree species in the industrial area (IA) and commercial/traffic areas (CTA) type urban areas, the highest amounts of dust removed by Mangifera indica Linn was 12.723 and 1.482 g/m(2), respectively. However, in contrast, the equivalent maxima for Bauhinia blakeana is only 2.682 g/m(2) and 0.720 g/m(2), respectively. Different plant species have different leaf morphology. The leaf of M. indica has deep grooves and high stomata density which are in favor of dust-retained, and thus, their dust-retained capability is stronger, while B. blakeana has the cells and epicuticular wax with its stomata arranging regularly, resulting in poor dust catching capability. Leaf size was also shown to be related to dust capture for the four studied tree species. The dust removal capacity of individual tree species should be taken into account in the management of greening plantation in and around an urban area. It was also shown that temporal variation in dust accumulation occurred over the 28-day observation period and this was discussed. Furthermore, spatial contrasts in dust accumulation were evidenced by the data. This reflected the differing pollution

  19. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  20. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carina Verónica; Jofré, María Florencia; Vila, Hernán F.; Stoffel, Markus; Bottini, Rubén; Giordano, Carla Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1) are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment), while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment). In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots) in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy), or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance). None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and agronomical

  1. Cladodes, leaf-like organs in Asparagus, show the significance of co-option of pre-existing genetic regulatory circuit for morphological diversity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hokuto; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2012-08-01

    Plants in the genus Asparagus have determinate leaf-like organs called cladodes in the position of leaf axils. Because of their leaf-like morphology, axillary position, and morphological variation, it has been unclear how this unusual organ has evolved and diversified. In the previous study, we have shown that cladodes in the genus Asparagus are modified axillary shoots and proposed a model that cladodes have arisen by co-option and deployment of genetic regulatory circuit (GRC) involved in leaf development. Moreover, we proposed that the alteration of the expression pattern of genes involved in establishment of adaxial/abaxial polarity has led to the morphological diversification from leaf-like to rod-like form of cladodes in the genus. Thus, these results indicated that the co-option and alteration of pre-existing GRC play an important role in acquisition and subsequent morphological diversification. Here, we present data of further expression analysis of A. asparagoides. The results suggested that only a part of the GRC involved in leaf development appears to have been co-opted into cladode development. Based on our study and several examples of the morphological diversification, we briefly discuss the importance of co-option of pre-existing GRC and its genetic modularity in the morphological diversity of plants during evolution.

  2. Innate immune response, intestinal morphology and microbiota changes in Senegalese sole fed plant protein diets with probiotics or autolysed yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, S; Medina, A; Pires, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Sansuwan, K; Fernandes, J M O; Valente, L M P; Ozório, R O A

    2016-08-01

    The effects of using plant ingredients in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diet on immune competence and intestine morphology and microbial ecology are still controversial. Probiotics or immunostimulants can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota in a way that protects fish against pathogens. The current study aimed to examine the intestine histology and microbiota and humoral innate immune response in juvenile sole fed diets with low (35 %) or high (72 %) content of plant protein (PP) ingredients supplemented with a multispecies probiotic bacteria or autolysed yeast. Fish fed the probiotic diet had lower growth performance. Lysozyme and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed PP72 diets than in their counterparts fed PP35 diets after 17 and 38 days of feeding. At 2 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed larger intestine section area and longer villus than fish fed unsupplemented PP35. At 17 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed more goblet cells than the other dietary groups, except the group fed yeast supplemented PP35 diet. High dietary PP level, acutely stimulate fish innate immune defence of the fish after 2 and 17 days of feeding. However, this effect does not occur after 73 days of feeding, suggesting a habituation to dietary treatments and/or immunosuppression, with a reduction in the number of the goblet cells. Fish fed for 38 days with diets supplemented with autolysed yeast showed longer intestinal villus. The predominant bacteria found in sole intestine were Vibrio sp. and dietary probiotic supplementation caused a reduction in Vibrio content, regardless of the PP level.

  3. The Effects of Drought Stress on Morphological Traits and Yield of Three Medicinal Plants ( Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens in Greenhouse Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R Amiri Deh Ahmadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the important problems in arid and semi_arid regions. drought stress take place in plants when available water is lesser than evapotranspiration. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on morphological traits and yield of three medicinal plants an experiment was carried out during the 2010 year in research greenhouse of faculity of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in a factoriel arrengement based on a Completely Randomized Block Design with four replications. factors include 4 drought stress levels: Field capacity (100%, 75%, 50% and FC25% and 3 medicinal plants include: Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Aniethum graveolens. The traits such as plant height, leaf number per plant, number of lateral branches per plant, umbrellas per plant, umbels per umbrellas, seed number per plant, seed weight per plant, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were measured. Results showed that decreasing content of water in soil lesser than field capacity had significant effects on all of these traits. Coriandrum sativum in FC25% had maximum seed number in umbrellas(14 number, seed number per plant(27 number, Umbrellas per plant(4 number, umbels per umbrellas(10 number and 1000 seeds weight (6.5 gr. also Foeniculum vulgare in FC25% had minimum seed number in umbrellas(2 number, seed number per plant(2 number. Umbrellas per plant(0.25number, umbels per umbrellas(0.5 number and 1000 seeds weight (0.15 gr. Harvest index positive correlation with seed weight per plant and 1000 seeds weight.

  4. Assessment of plant development, morphology and flavonoid content in different cultivation treatments of Calendula officinalis L: , Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Nunes Alves Paim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cultivation treatments on plant development, morphology and flavonoid content in Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae. The cultivation treatments were liming (LIM, liming + organic fertilizer (LORG and liming + NPK chemical fertilizer (LCHEM. The experiment was completely randomized with sixty repetitions and the means were compared by ANOVA and Duncan's test (significance of 95%. The results show that LORG and LCHEM produced greater plant development compared with LIM treatment. The LORG treatment also produced plants with greater homogeneity, fresh mass, and higher numbers of flowers per plant, but lower biomass of flower produced by each individual. Morphoanatomical variations were also observed with tubular flowers with yellow centres (TCA and tubular flowers with brown centres (TAC that produced a higher content of flavonoids (1.41 and 1.44% respectively, compared with ligulate flowers with yellow centres (LCA and ligulate flowers with brown centres (LAC (0.89 and 0.95% respectively. The chemical compounds in the flowers of calendula viewed by thin-layer chromatography showed that the treatments did not have any influence on the qualitative chemical profile of the plant. However, cultivars of calendula that underwent treatment LCHEM produced a greater quantity of total flavonoids (1.14% against 1.04% for LORG and 1.03% for LIM.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência dos tratos culturais no desenvolvimento vegetal, morfologia e teor de flavonóides para Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae. Os tratos culturais foram: calagem (CA, calagem + adubação orgânica (CAO e calagem + adubação química NPK (CAQ. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado com sessenta repetições e a comparação das médias realizada por ANOVA e teste de Duncan (significância de 95%. Os resultados apontam que CAO e CAQ apresentaram maior desenvolvimento vegetal comparados com tratamento CA. O

  5. Effect of the Date of Planting on Morphological Characteristics, Yield and Essential Oil Content of Achillea millefolium sub sp millefolium.L in Mashhad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of planting date on morphological characteristic, yield and essential oil content of Achillea millefolium sub sp millefolium.L., an experiment in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD with four treatments including four planting date (6 July, 1 August, 7 September and 7 October in four replications was conducted. During the growing stage and at the end of experiment period, following factors were measured: time and growth degree day (GDD to bolting and flowering, plant height, shoot number, lateral inflorescence numbers, inflorescence diameter and height, inflorescence yield, essential oil percentage and yield and total biomass. Our results indicated that planting date affects all of the measured factors. In the first planting date, the plants were tall (116 cm and had big inflorescence (9.97 and 8.72 cm for inflorescence diameter and height respectively. Most measured traits (shoot and lateral inflorescence number, inflorescence dry weight and total biomass had highest value in the August 1st planting date and lowest value in forth planting date (7 October 7th. Essential oil percentage was affected by planting date and the highest essential oil percentage (0.17 was produced in 7 October and the lowest (0.13 was obtained in August 1st planting date but the maximum and minimum essential oil yield (1.77 and 0.87 ml relation with 1 August and 7 September planting date respectively. In conclusion, 1 August is the best date for sowing of the plant. In general, The first of August was the best planting date for this Achillea species in Mashhad climate.

  6. Dependence of Plant Uptake and Diffusion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Leaf Surface Morphology and Micro-structures of Cuticular Waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingqing; Li, Yungui; Zhu, Lizhong; Xing, Baoshan; Chen, Baoliang

    2017-04-01

    The uptake of organic chemicals by plants is considered of great significance as it impacts their environmental transport and fate and threatens crop growth and food safety. Herein, the dependence of the uptake, penetration, and distribution of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the morphology and micro-structures of cuticular waxes on leaf surfaces was investigated. Plant surface morphologies and wax micro-structures were examined by scanning emission microscopy, and hydrophobicities of plant surfaces were monitored through contact angle measurements. PAHs in the cuticles and inner tissues were distinguished by sequential extraction, and the cuticle was verified to be the dominant reservoir for the accumulation of lipophilic pollutants. The interspecies differences in PAH concentrations cannot be explained by normalizing them to the plant lipid content. PAHs in the inner tissues became concentrated with the increase of tissue lipid content, while a generally negative correlation between the PAH concentration in cuticles and the epicuticular wax content was found. PAHs on the adaxial and abaxial sides of a leaf were differentiated for the first time, and the divergence between these two sides can be ascribed to the variations in surface morphologies. The role of leaf lipids was redefined and differentiated.

  7. Selection and adaptation to high plant density in the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic maize (Zea mays L.) population: II. Plant morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant density at which Zea mays L. hybrids achieve maximum grain yield has increased throughout the hybrid era while grain yield on a per plant basis has increased little. Changes in plant characteristics including flag leaf angle, anthesis-silking interval (ASI), plant height, tassel branch num...

  8. Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

    2013-06-01

    The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio 'a', anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C' were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio 'a' were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C' were highly variable characters (CV > 12%).

  9. Egg morphology, laying behavior and record of the host plants of Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851), a new alien species for Europe (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elisabetta; Stroiński, Adam; Lucchi, Andrea

    2015-11-17

    The exotic planthopper, Ricania speculum (Ricaniidae) was recently detected in Liguria, in northern Italy, and recorded as a first alert for Europe. The first morphological description of eggs and laying behavior are given. Eggs are inserted into the woody tissue of a wide range of different host plants in such a unique manner among native and alien planthoppers of Italy that it can be used to describe the prevalence and diffusion of the species in new environments, though in the absence of juveniles and/or adults. In addition, the paper lists the host plants utilized for egg laying and describes the eggs.

  10. The study of the morphological features of autophagy as a type of programmed death of plant cells under the condition of bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Іванович Шевченко

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the destruction of the plant cells protoplast is studied under the condition of bacterial infection. According to the autophagy processes in animal cells, the morphological ways of plant cells autophagy – vacuolization of cytoplasm, condensation and decondensation of the nuclear mass, multivesicular nucleation, phagophore expansion and macroautophagosome ripening, autophagolysosome formation by the way of tonoplast invagination, mitophagy phenomenon are determined. The places of the final degradation of the ruined cytoplasm in the vacuoles of destroyed cells are shown

  11. Morphology and behavior of the early stages of the skipper, Urbanus esmeraldus, on Urera baccifera, an ant-visited host plant

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Alice R.; Greeney, Harold F.; Oliveira, Paulo S; Barbosa, Eduardo P.; André V L Freitas

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Urbanus (Hbner) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) contains around 34 described species, and is widely distributed from the extreme southern United States to Argentina. Here, we describe the larval morphology and behavior of Urbanus esmeraldus (Hbner)(Hesperiidae) in Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), a plant producing food rewards and fleshy fruits that attract ants (including predacious species) in a Brazilian forest. Larvae pass through five instars and construct two kinds of leaf...

  12. Morphology of olfactory sensilla and its role in host plant recognition by Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Heteroptera: Alydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The external morphology of the sensilla, including pores and permeable points on the cuticle of the antennae of adults of Neomegalotomus parvus (West. (Heteroptera: Alydidae was investigated with regard to their olfactory function. Behavioural evidence of olfaction, the importance of the different antennal segments in locating the host under still-air, and the responses of the insects to plants' scents and to pheromones in wind assays were also studied. With the scanning electronic microscope mechanoreceptor sensilla were found on the four segments of the antennae of N. parvus. The density of the sensilla was greater on the 4th segment. On the apical segment, sensilla with olfactory morphological traits were observed. Bugs with intact antennae located food more frequently and faster than those with blocked or amputated antennae. N. parvus preferred intact seeds to sealed seeds, but there was no preference when the last segment of the antenna was blocked. In wind tunnel, bugs were attracted to mature and green pods, and to hexanic extract of mature pods of pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.; there was no response to panicles of rice, Oryza sativa L. or to the male pheromone.A morfologia externa dos sensilos de adultos de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westw. (Het.: Alydidae, incluindo poros e pontos permeáveis na cutícula, foi estudada em microscópio eletrônico de varredura, em relação à função olfativa. A evidência comportamental do olfato e a importância dos diferentes segmentos antenais na localização do hospedeiro, em condições de ausência de movimentação do ar, foram também estudados. Sensilos mecanoreceptores foram observados nos quatro segmentos da antena de N. parvus, sendo no entanto, a densidade maior no quarto segmento. Nos segmentos apicais, foram observados sensilos com características morfológicas olfativas. Percevejos com antenas intactas localizaram o alimento com mais freqü��ncia e rapidez do que aqueles com

  13. Arabidopsis plants grown in the field and climate chambers significantly differ in leaf morphology and photosystem components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants exhibit phenotypic plasticity and respond to differences in environmental conditions by acclimation. We have systematically compared leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in the field and under controlled low, normal and high light conditions in the laboratory to determine their most prominent phenotypic differences. Results Compared to plants grown under field conditions, the "indoor plants" had larger leaves, modified leaf shapes and longer petioles. Their pigment composition also significantly differed; indoor plants had reduced levels of xanthophyll pigments. In addition, Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 levels were up to three times higher in the indoor plants, but differences in the PSI antenna were much smaller, with only the low-abundance Lhca5 protein showing altered levels. Both isoforms of early-light-induced protein (ELIP were absent in the indoor plants, and they had less non-photochemical quenching (NPQ. The field-grown plants had a high capacity to perform state transitions. Plants lacking ELIPs did not have reduced growth or seed set rates, but their mortality rates were sometimes higher. NPQ levels between natural accessions grown under different conditions were not correlated. Conclusion Our results indicate that comparative analysis of field-grown plants with those grown under artificial conditions is important for a full understanding of plant plasticity and adaptation.

  14. VARIATION IN CREOSOTEBUSH (LARREA TRIDENTATA) CANOPY MORPHOLOGY IN RELATION TO HABITAT, SOIL FERTILITY AND ASSOCIATED ANNUAL PLANT COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) crown morphology may reflect changes in the relative demand for water vs. nutrient resources, coinciding with shrub growth and development Creosotebushes with inverted cone-shaped crowns were more abundant in water-limited environme...

  15. QTL Analysis of Spike Morphological Traits and Plant Height in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Using a High-Density SNP and SSR-Based Linkage Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Zhai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat yield can be enhanced by modifying the spike morphology and the plant height. In this study, a population of 191 F9 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was developed from a cross between two winter cultivars Yumai 8679 and Jing 411. A dense genetic linkage map with 10,816 markers was constructed by incorporating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR marker information. Five spike morphological traits and plant height were evaluated under nine environments for the RILs and parental lines, and the number of detected environmentally stable QTLs were 18 and 3, respectively. The 1RS/1BL (rye translocation increased both spike length and spikelet number with constant spikelet compactness. The QPht.cau-2D.1 was identical to gene Rht8, which decreased spike length without modifying spikelet number. Notably, four novel QTLs locating on chromosomes 1AS (QSc.cau-1A.1, 2DS (QSc.cau-2D.1 and 7BS (QSl.cau-7B.1 and QSl.cau-7B.2 were firstly identified in this study, which provide further insights into the genetic factors that shaped the spike morphology in wheat. Moreover, SNP markers tightly linked to previously reported QTLs will eventually facilitate future studies including their positional cloning or marker-assisted selection.

  16. Morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types in temperate grasslands along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengyuan; Ma, Linna; Yuan, Shan; Wang, Renzhong

    2017-01-20

    At the species level, plants can respond to climate changes by changing their leaf traits; however, there is scant information regarding the responses of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types (PFTs) to aridity. Herein, the leaf traits of five PFTs representing 17 plant species in temperate grasslands were examined along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China. The results show that leaf thickness in shrubs, perennial grasses and forbs increased with heightened aridity. Trees increased soluble sugar content, but shrubs, perennials and annual grasses enhanced proline accumulation due to increasing aridity. Moreover, vessel diameter and stomatal index in shrubs and perennial grasses decreased with increasing aridity, but stomatal density and vascular diameter of five PFTs were not correlated with water availability. In conclusion, divergences in adaptive strategies to aridity among these PFTs in temperate grasslands were likely caused by differences in their utilization of water resources, which have different temporal and spatial distribution patterns. Leaf traits of shrubs and perennial grasses had the largest responses to variability of aridity through regulation of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits, which was followed by perennial forbs. Trees and annual grasses endured aridity only by adjusting leaf physiological processes.

  17. Morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types in temperate grasslands along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengyuan; Ma, Linna; Yuan, Shan; Wang, Renzhong

    2017-01-01

    At the species level, plants can respond to climate changes by changing their leaf traits; however, there is scant information regarding the responses of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types (PFTs) to aridity. Herein, the leaf traits of five PFTs representing 17 plant species in temperate grasslands were examined along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China. The results show that leaf thickness in shrubs, perennial grasses and forbs increased with heightened aridity. Trees increased soluble sugar content, but shrubs, perennials and annual grasses enhanced proline accumulation due to increasing aridity. Moreover, vessel diameter and stomatal index in shrubs and perennial grasses decreased with increasing aridity, but stomatal density and vascular diameter of five PFTs were not correlated with water availability. In conclusion, divergences in adaptive strategies to aridity among these PFTs in temperate grasslands were likely caused by differences in their utilization of water resources, which have different temporal and spatial distribution patterns. Leaf traits of shrubs and perennial grasses had the largest responses to variability of aridity through regulation of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits, which was followed by perennial forbs. Trees and annual grasses endured aridity only by adjusting leaf physiological processes. PMID:28106080

  18. Prohexadione-calcium changes morphological and physical traits in strawberry plants and preconditions transplants to water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekie, J.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Hicklenton, P.R.; Duval, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Prohexadione-calcium (ProCa) applied as foliar spray, increases root to shoot ratio and reduces specific leaf area (SLA) in strawberry plants ( Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). These effects may help treated plants to survive a transplant shock. Under mild water stress, ProCa caused a transient reduction

  19. Prohexadione-calcium changes morphological and physical traits in strawberry plants and preconditions transplants to water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekie, J.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Hicklenton, P.R.; Duval, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Prohexadione-calcium (ProCa) applied as foliar spray, increases root to shoot ratio and reduces specific leaf area (SLA) in strawberry plants ( Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). These effects may help treated plants to survive a transplant shock. Under mild water stress, ProCa caused a transient reduction

  20. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND MINERAL CONTENT IN EUCOMIS AUTUMNALIS (MILL. CHITT. PLANTS OBTAINED FROM BULBS TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES AND COATED WITH NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucomis autumnalis is an attractive ornamental species from the South Africa, commonly used in natural medicine. Plant protection programs, particularly those concerning plants grown for phytotherapeutics, are focused on prophylactic treatments that facilitate a limited use of pesticides negatively affecting the environment. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and sodium alginate are exemplary non-toxic and biodegradable substances used for hydrogel coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treating E. autumnalis bulbs with fungicide or coating with natural polysaccharides on the morphological traits and content of minerals in the leaves and bulbs. Prior to planting, the bulbs were divided into three groups: (I untreated bulbs (control; (II bulbs treated with Kaptan and Topsin fungicides; (III bulbs coated with oligochitosan and sodium alginate. Bulb coating was found to exert a stimulating effect on plant height, number and length of leaf, greenness index (SPAD, number of flowers per inflorescence, fresh weight of the aboveground part and fresh weight of bulbs. The leaves and bulbs of plants grown from coated bulbs contained more nitrogen, potassium and boron. Treating the bulbs with fungicides positively affected the number of leaves, greenness index and fresh weight of the aboveground part.

  1. Leaf removal and prohexadione-calcium can modify Camarosa strawberry nursery plant morphology for plasticulture fruit production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekie, J.Y.; Hicklenton, P.; Duval, J.; Chandler, C.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Mowing and the application of a new gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, prohexadione-calcium (ProCa), were studied as methods to modify the bate-root transplant morphology of Camarosa strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) in a Nova Scotia nursery. The effect these nursery practices had on fruit

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal morphology and dark septate fungal associations in medicinal and aromatic plants of Western Ghats, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, T; Senthilkumar, M; Rajangam, M; Udaiyan, K

    2006-12-01

    We investigated roots of 107 medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in the Western Ghats region of Southern India for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) associations. Of the 107 MAPs belonging to 98 genera in 52 families examined, 79 were AM and 38 harbored a DSE association. Typical Arum- and Paris-type mycorrhizas are first reported in the presumed nonmycorrhizal family Amaranthaceae. Similarly, DSE associations are recorded for the first time in nine plant families and 37 plant species. Thirty MAPs had both AM and DSE associations. The number of MAPs having Arum-type mycorrhiza was greater than those having Paris-type. This was more prominent among herbaceous plants than in trees where the Paris-type was predominant. Similarly, the Arum-type was more prevalent in annuals than in perennials. DSE associations were more frequent in herbs and perennials compared to other MAPs.

  3. A single recessive gene conferring short leaves in romaine x Latin type lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crosses, and its effect on plant morphology and resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the relationship between plant morphology and disease resistance is crucial to successful breeding, particularly resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor. Latin type lettuce cultivars are small plants with upright leaves longer than they are wide, similar to romaine type...

  4. Morphological, Phenological And Agronomical Characterisation Of Variability Among Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Local Populations From The National Centre For Plant Genetic Resources: Polish Genebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boros Lech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was to analyse the morphological, phenological and agronomical variability among common bean local populations from The National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, Polish Genebank, in order to know the relation among them, and to identify potentially useful accessions for future production and breeding. A considerable genotypic variation for number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant and weight of seeds per plant were found. Studied bean accessions differed significantly in terms of thousand seeds weight (TSW as well as severity of bacterial halo blight and anthracnose, the major bean diseases. The lowest genotypic diversity was found for the percentage of protein in the seeds, the length of the vegetation period and lodging. The cluster analysis allowed identification of five groups of bean accessions. Genotypes from the first cluster (POLPOD 98-77, KOS 002 and Raba cv. and from the second cluster (WUKR 06-573a, KRA 4, WUKR 06-0534 together with Prosna cv. are of the highest usefulness for breeding purposes. There was no grouping of local populations depending on region of origin.

  5. THE POLLEN MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATION OF 8 PLANTS SPECIES IN EDIBLE PLANTS OF INNER MONGOLIA%内蒙古8种野生食用植物花粉形态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛诣超; 蔡萍; 辛淑青; 李珊珊

    2014-01-01

    本文通过采用扫描电镜(SEM),对内蒙古8种野生食用植物的花粉形态进行了详细的观察描述.掌握了它们在扫描电镜水平上的形状、大小、表面纹饰、萌发器官类型及数量等形态特征.为生态建设、草地资源保护、生物多样性研究及进一步开发野生食用植物资源等相关工作提供了可靠的孢粉学参考.%Pollen morphology of 8 plants species in edible plants of Inner Mongolia was observed and described particularly under Scanning Electronic Microscope(SEM).Grasped their morphological characteristics on the level of SEM,such as their shape,size,surface ornamentation germinator and quantity,and so on.The paper could offer reliable reference about palynological for correlative researches,such as ecology construction,meadow conservation,biodiversity research,develop continuously edible plants resources,etc.

  6. 与栽培密度相关的水稻形态基因研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS ON PLANT MORPHOLOGICAL GENES RELATED TO PLANTING DENSITY IN RICE(Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 徐建伟; 张丹丹; 舒小丽; 吴殿星

    2011-01-01

    The yield of rice is closely related with the density of planting.Compared with traditional hand transplanting,high-density cultivation is more convenient for efficient agricultural production by the novel cultivation methods such as direct seeding,throwing rice seedlings and machine transplanting.In this paper,the relationship of planting density with grain yield was briefly summarized,and the research progress on plant morphological genes related to planting density,i.e.ideal plant architecture,tiller controlling,tiller angle,erected leaves,rolled leaves and narrow leaves were reviewed.%水稻产量与栽培密度密切相关,在直播、抛秧和机插秧等有别于传统手插秧的新型栽培模式下,高密度栽培更加便于农业的高效生产。本文简述了水稻不同栽培密度与产量间的关系,综述了与水稻栽培密度相关的理想株型、分蘖角度控制、分蘖数控制、直立叶、卷叶及窄叶等形态基因的研究及其进展。

  7. Morphology and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} electrodes prepared using functionalized plant oil binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Hee [Department of Electrical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Hong, Chang Kook [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Yongbong-Dong 300, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    Chemically functionalized plant oils, viz. acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and maleinized acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO), were used as bio-based binders for the TiO{sub 2} electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The surface roughness and number of appropriate pores were increased in the TiO{sub 2} films prepared using the plant oil binders in comparison with the film prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG), due to the larger number of functionalities. The short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) and open circuit photovoltage (V{sub OC}) were increased, and the conversion efficiency was significantly improved, in the cell using the plant oil binders. (author)

  8. Establishment of morphology simulation model for above-ground part of cotton plant%棉花地上部形态模拟模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 潘学标; 张立祯; 庞艳梅; 刘琰琰

    2012-01-01

    There are three reasons for the increasing demand of crop models that build plants on the basis of architectural principles and organogenetic processes. The first of these reasons is that realistic concepts of developing new crops need to be guided by such models. The second is that there is an increasing interest in crop phenotypic plasticity based on variable architecture and morphology. The third reason is that engineering of mechanized cropping systems requires information on crop architecture. Functional-structural plant models (FSPM) are the best bridge to connect the function and structure of plant growth and development, which are the tendency of future plant models. FSPM is a digital tool for crop growth regulation and variety design. With regard to studies on cotton cultivation in China, an explanatory model of cotton growth and development (COTGROW) was developed and modified based on the processes of the GOSSYM cotton model. The COTGROW model included meteorological, soil and other environmental conditions and management practices modules. The objective of this study was to construct a virtual growth model of cotton with eco-physiological processes. Field experiments with different densities of cotton cultivar "NuCoTN 33B" were conducted for 2008?010 in Anyang (36?7'N, 114?2'E) of Henan Province, China. The experiment included five planting densities (plantsrrf2): 1.5, 3.3, 5.1, 6.9 and 8.7. Plants were sown on 18 April in 2008 (Exp. 2008), 26 April in 2009 (Exp. 2009) and 29 April (Exp. 2010). Each treatment had three replications in a randomized complete block design. Five plants were collected for each replication at the sampling dates. The soil was a sandy clay-loam, previously managed as meadow land. The plots were irrigated and fertilized to avoidnutrient and water limitations to plant growth. Weeds were removed by hand to avoid herbicide effects on the plant growth. No plant disease, pest or stress symptoms were observed. Detailed observations

  9. Changes in plant morphology in response to recurrent selection in the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic maize population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize plant phenotype has changed a great deal through the era of hybrid maize production. Some of the observed changes, such as upright leaf angle, silking-anthsis interval, and tassel branch number, have well understood contributions to improved grain yield in modern hybrids. However, less is ...

  10. Mapping QTLs Linked to Physio-Morphological and Plant Production Traits under Drought Stress in Rice (Oryza sativa L. in the Target Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Gomez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a major constraint for rice (Oryza sativa L. production and yield stability in rainfed ecosystems. Identifying genomic regions (QTLs contributing in drought resistance will help to develop rice cultivars suitable for water-limiting environments through marker-assisted breeding. QTLs linked to physio-morphological and plant production traits under drought stress in the field were mapped by evaluating 177 F6 recombinant inbred (RI lines of Bala × Azucena under rainfed conditions in the target environment (TE. The rice lines were subjected to severe drought stress during reproductive phase due to a natural rainfall failure event. The RI lines showed significant variation in physio-morphological and plant production traits under stress. A total of 24 QTLs were identified for various traits under stress, which individually explained 4.6 to 22.3% phenotypic variation. Composite interval mapping detected three markers viz., RM3894, RG409 and G1073 on chromosomes 3 and 8 linked to grain yield under drought stress in TE, respectively explaining 22..3, 17.1 and 10.9% of phenotypic variation. QTLs for leaf drying, days to 50% flowering and number of productive tillers under drought stress co-located at certain of these regions. Further, QTLs for several root traits overlapped with QTLs for grain yield under stress in these RI lines, indicating the pleiotropic effects of root trait QTLs on rice performance under stress. Correlation coefficients between potential root traits determined in another study and plant production under stress in this study were not significant in these RI lines. Consistent QTLs for drought resistance traits and yield under drought stress in TE were detected and might be useful for rainfed rice improvement.

  11. Morphology, ultrastructure and mineral uptake is affected by copper toxicity in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana (Benth.) T.D. Penn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Tielle Abreu; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Oliveira, Sérgio José Ribeiro; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Souza, Vânia Lima; Dos Santos Silva, José Victor; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio

    2015-10-01

    Toxic effects of copper (Cu) were analyzed in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana, a species that is highly tolerant to flooding and found in Brazil in wetlands contaminated with Cu. Plants were cultivated in fully nutritive solution, containing different concentrations of Cu (from 0.08 μmol to 0.47 mmol L(-1)). Symptoms of Cu toxicity were observed in both leaves and roots of plants cultivated from 0.16 mmol Cu L(-1). In the leaves, Cu clearly induced alterations in the thickness of the epidermis, mesophyll, palisade parenchyma, and intercellular space of the lacunose parenchyma. Also, this metal induced disorganization in thylakoid membranes, internal and external membrane rupture in chloroplasts, mitochondrial alterations, and electrodense material deposition in vacuoles of the parenchyma and cell walls. The starch grains disappeared; however, an increase of plastoglobule numbers was observed according to Cu toxicity. In the roots, destruction of the epidermis, reduction of the intercellular space, and modifications in the format of initial cells of the external cortex were evident. Cell walls and endoderm had been broken, invaginations of tonoplast and vacuole retractions were found, and, again, electrodense material was observed in these sites. Mineral nutrient analysis revealed higher Cu accumulation in the roots and greater macro- and micronutrients accumulation into shoots. Thus, root morphological and ultrastructural changes induced differential nutrients uptake and their translocations from root toward shoots, and this was related to membrane and endoderm ruptures caused by Cu toxicity.

  12. The influence of soil from the side space of the street on germination capacity and some morphological characters of seedling s of selected plants species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pałys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Germination capacity, length of roots and seedlings and air-dry matter of plants of soybean, cucumber, buskwheat, winter wheat and white mustard were estimated in four soil material: bare soil and grass-covered soil from a side-space ofroads with heavy traffic. soil from a farming field and washed, calcinated sand (pure sand. Highest germination capacity of investigated plants was found on pure sand. Seedlings germinated on soil from the grassy side space of the street had longer aboveground parts in comparison with those germinating on other soil material. Significantly smaller length of abovegro und parts of seedlings were found on the object with washed and calcinated sand. On the pure sand, plant seedlings formed higher air-dry matter in comparison with the soil from a farming field. Independently of soil material, soybean and winter wheat seedlings formed the longest roots, aboveground parts and highest content of air-dry matter. On the soil from the grassy side space of the street roots of seedlings were significantly longer than roots of seedlings germinated on soil from a farming field. Greater content of some heavy metals in soil from side space ofthe street had no influence on germination capacity and investigated morphological characters of tested pIants.

  13. Morphology and behavior of the early stages of the skipper, Urbanus esmeraldus, on Urera baccifera, an ant-visited host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Alice R; Greeney, Harold F; Oliveira, Paulo S; Barbosa, Eduardo P; Freitas, André V L

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Urbanus (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) contains around 34 described species, and is widely distributed from the extreme southern United States to Argentina. Here, we describe the larval morphology and behavior of Urbanus esmeraldus (Hübner)(Hesperiidae) in Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), a plant producing food rewards and fleshy fruits that attract ants (including predacious species) in a Brazilian forest. Larvae pass through five instars and construct two kinds of leaf shelters. Experiments with ejected fecal pellets showed that these can serve as cues to ground-dwelling ants that climb onto host plants and potentially attack the larvae. Manipulation with pellets placed at different distances suggests that ejection behavior decreases larval vulnerability to ant predation. Larval preference for mature leaves may be related with increased predation risk at ant-visited young leaves. The study shows that a combination of natural history and experimental data can help understand the life history of a butterfly using a plant with high predation risk.

  14. Morphology and Behavior of the Early Stages of the Skipper, Urbanus esmeraldus, on Urera baccifera, an Ant—Visited Host Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Alice R.; Greeney, Harold F.; Oliveira, Paulo S.; Barbosa, Eduardo P.; Freitas, André V.L.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Urbanus (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) contains around 34 described species, and is widely distributed from the extreme southern United States to Argentina. Here, we describe the larval morphology and behavior of Urbanus esmeraldus (Hübner)(Hesperiidae) in Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), a plant producing food rewards and fleshy fruits that attract ants (including predacious species) in a Brazilian forest. Larvae pass through five instars and construct two kinds of leaf shelters. Experiments with ejected fecal pellets showed that these can serve as cues to ground—dwelling ants that climb onto host plants and potentially attack the larvae. Manipulation with pellets placed at different distances suggests that ejection behavior decreases larval vulnerability to ant predation. Larval preference for mature leaves may be related with increased predation risk at ant—visited young leaves. The study shows that a combination of natural history and experimental data can help understand the life history of a butterfly using a plant with high predation risk. PMID:22953699

  15. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchire Eranga Wijesinghe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields.

  16. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-08-12

    The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS) disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon) leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields.

  17. Morphological and anatomical investigations into the mechanism of leaf pair unrolling in Uraria picta (Jacq.) Desv. Ex DC. (Papilionaceae), a medicinal plant in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyesiku, Olubukunola O; Okusanya, Olubukanla T; Olowokudejo, James D

    2013-01-01

    Uraria picta leaf-pair unrolling inside out is a remarkable feat. A leaf-pair was investigated to understand the mechanism of spontaneous reverse inside out act of the plant. The upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) surfaces of the leaf-pair were examined using scanning and light microscopy. The scan showed diversity of hairs varying in shape from straight, pointed, curve, and club to hook. There were deposits of wax on both sides of the leaf-pair. The light microscope showed hairs are restricted to the midrib on the adaxial surface of the leaflets. Hooked hairs dominated the entire abaxial surface of the leaflets. The transverse section of the midrib section showed abundance of structural and mechanical tissues, collenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues. Both morphological and anatomical attributes were used to explain the mechanism and how the plant got its Yoruba vernacular name 'Alupayida' as well as its purported use in changing the sex of the unborn child and in breaking up love affairs.

  18. Molecular and morphological analysis reveals five new species of Zygophiala associated with flyspeck signs on plant hosts from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gao

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Zygophiala are associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck disease on a wide range of hosts. In this study, 63 Zygophiala isolates collected from flyspeck colonies on a range of plants from several regions of China were used for phylogeny, host range and geographic distribution analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed on four genes--internal transcribed spacer (ITS, partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF, β-tubulin (TUB2, and actin (ACT--both individually and in combination. Isolates were grouped into 11 clades among which five new species, Z. emperorae, Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora, were described. Species of Zygophiala differed in observed host range and geographic distribution. Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were the most prevalent throughout the sampled regions of China, whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were collected only in southern China. The hosts of Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were mainly in the family Rosaceae whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were found mainly on banana (Musa spp.. Cross inoculation tests provided evidence of host specificity among SBFS species.

  19. Energetic costs and implications of the intake of plant secondary metabolites on digestive and renal morphology in two austral passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Gonzalo; Ríos, Juan Manuel; Maldonado, Karin; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Seed-eating birds have a diet of high nutritional value; however, they must cope with plant secondary metabolites (PSM). We postulated that the detoxification capacity of birds is associated with a metabolic cost, given that the organs responsible for detoxification significantly contribute to energetic metabolism. We used an experimental approach to assess the effects of phenol-enriched diets on two passerines with different feeding habits: the omnivorous rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) and the granivorous common diuca-finch (Diuca diuca). The birds were fed with one of three diets: control diet, supplemented with tannic acid, or supplemented with Opuntia ficus-indica phenolic extract (a common food of the sparrow but not the finch). After 5 weeks of exposure to the diets, we measured basal metabolic rates (BMR), energy intake, glucuronic acid output and digestive and kidney structure. In both species, detoxification capacity expressed as glucuronic acid output was higher in individuals consuming phenol-enriched diets compared to the control diet. However, whereas sparrows increase energy intake and intestinal mass when feeding on phenol-enriched diets, finches had lower intestinal mass and energy intake remains stable. Furthermore, sparrows had higher BMR on phenol-enriched diets compared to the control group, whereas in the finches BMR remains unchanged. Interspecific differences in response to phenols intake may be determined by the dietary habits of these species. While both species can feed on moderate phenolic diets for 5 weeks, energy costs may differ due to different responses in food intake and organ structure to counteract the effects of PSM intake.

  20. Molecular and Morphological Tools to Distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838 (Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae): A New Weevil Pest of the Endangered Century Plant, Agave eggersiana from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Lourdes Chamorro; Joshua Persson; Christian W. Torres-Santana; Jeff Keularts; Sonja J. Scheffer; Matthew L. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The agave snout weevil (AGW) or sisal weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal is here reported for the first time in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) where it threatens Agave eggersiana Trel., a USVI endemic and endangered century-plant. We provide molecular, morphological, and behavioral characters to successfully distinguish the two known Scyphophorus...

  1. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    of the 1-2 years; 3. – the dynamic of photosynthesis intensity in these plants, during the day, during summer/autumn months.The study results are promising for acclimatization of the species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal in particular conditions of Baia Mare. Morphological and physiological parametres tested are maintaned at similar to those of native habitat, described in the literature.

  2. A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

  3. Morphology at the Rijksherbarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.

    1979-01-01

    In the following the role of morphology, anatomy and palynology in systematics at the Rijksherbarium will be discussed, as far as flowering plants are concerned. It will be demonstrated that most of the research in this field is rooted in the interest of individual workers, and that no planning was

  4. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE Rosellinia pepo Pat. EN PLANTAS DE MACADAMIA ISOLATION AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Rosellinia pepo Pat. IN MACADAMIA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Eliana Realpe Ortiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El hongo Rosellinia pepo Pat., causante de la llaga estrellada, se considera uno de los principales problemas fitosanitarios de la macadamia por ocasionar la muerte de la planta en su etapa productiva. Debido a que no existe una metodología de aislamiento confiable que asegure la recuperación del hongo con un porcentaje mínimo de contaminación y los estudios relacionados con este patógeno son escasos se planteó una investigación con el fin de perfeccionar una metodología de aislamiento y realizar algunas caracterizaciones morfológicas de este patógeno. La nueva metodología permitió obtener aislamientos con un 91,26% de pureza del hongo. La tasa de crecimiento fue de 4,68 mm día-1. Las colonias son de color blanco y apariencia algodonosa en su inicio, pero a medida que envejece el micelio toma un color café o negro y su apariencia se torna quebradiza. La observación de micelio blanco en forma de estrella en el lado interior del medio sintético permite diferenciarlo de otras especies como R. bunodes. Las mediciones microscópicas de los hinchamientos piriformes presentaron en promedio 106,4mm de largo y 75,3mm de ancho. Este trabajo también permitió determinar el nivel de inóculo infectivo.The fungus Rosellinia pepo Pat, the causal agent of star gall, is considered to be a main phytosanitary problem to the Macademia tree by causing the death of the tree while in its productive stage. Because no reliable isolation method exists that assures recovery of the mushroom with a minimum percentage of contamination and studies of this pathogen are scarce. This study was conducted to perfect an isolation methodology and permit some morphological characterizations of this pathogen. The new methodology allowed isolations with 91,26% purity of mushroom to be obtained. The rate of growth was 4,68 mm day-1. The colonies were of white color and cottony appearance in the beginning, but as the micelio aged it assumed a brown or black color and a

  5. Morphological Snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Luis; Baumela Molina, Luis; Henríquez, Pedro; Márquez Neila, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a morphological approach to curve evolution. The differential operators used in the standard PDE snake models can be approached using morphological operations on a binary level set. By combining the morphological operators associated to the PDE components we achieve a new snakes evolution algorithm. This new solution is based on numerical methods which are very simple, fast and stable. Moreover, since the level set is just a binary piecewise constant function, this approach does ...

  6. Effects of Shading and External Mechanical Supporting on Morphological Plasticity of Climbing Plant Momordica Charantia%攀援植物苦瓜对遮阴和外界支持物的形态可塑性反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶建平; 钟章成

    2001-01-01

    Through the method of shading and providing external mec hanical support,the growth dynamics and morphological characters of herbaceous c limbing plant Momordica charantia were studied .The results showed :(1)the g rowth of Momordica charantia had significant difference under different shad ing treatments,the poor light conditions decreased the chance for plants to incr ease modular numbers and accumulate biomass;(2)the plant formed few shoots ,thin laminas ,long and thin petioles and slender stems in poor light conditions ,and in thes e light conditions ,the plants showed stronger morphological plasticity than in rich light conditions;(3)the plant had stronger morphological plasticity in earl y growth period than in later growth period ;(4) the absence of external mechani cal support had little effect on plant growth when climbing plant grew in rich l ight conditions.%通过人为遮阴和人为提供外界支持物的方法,对草本攀援植物苦瓜的生长动态以及形态特征进行了研究,结果表明:(1)不同遮阴处理下苦瓜植株的生长有较大的差异,弱光照不利于苦瓜构件数量的增加和生物量的积累;(2)植株在弱光下形成较少的分枝、较薄的叶片,以及较细长的主茎和叶柄,表现比强光生长环境下更强的形态可塑性;(3)植株在生长早期较生长晚期有较大的形态可塑性;(4)在光资源充足的情况下,外界支持物的缺乏不会对苦瓜的生长造成太大的影响.

  7. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  8. 基于基因表达式编程的植物形态建模智能化方法%Intelligent modeling method for plant morphology based on gene expression programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁维龙; 胡辰; 程志君; 徐利锋

    2013-01-01

    The plant simulation based on computer modeling and visualization has become an important topic in the scientific researches, such as the researches of computer graphics, agroforestry, and ecology. Due to the complexities of plant structure, especially in the modeling of large-scale scenes of natural environments, how to quickly and efficiently establish models of the scenes using computers has been a research focus in the area of plant modeling. It is a key step to select appropriate morphogenetic model to simulate morphology and architecture in plant modeling. However, it is needed to artificially extract the parameters of the model based on the priori knowledge of the plants in order to simulate the realistic plant morphology as required, no matter what kind of morphogenetic model is chosen. Larger number of parameters for the rules will be needed in the modeling of large-scale scenes. Extraction of the parameters for the rules based on the artificial method is time-consuming and laborious. Thus it is particularly important to develop a method for efficiently extracting the rule parameters in simulating different types of plants. In this study, an intelligent method for simulating and visualizing plant shape was proposed, aiming at solving the problems caused by blindness and low efficiency when only using L-systems to simulate plant shapes by manual way. The production rules and the initial axioms of the model with L-systems were obtained by this method. Then the spatial structure of specific plants based on the concepts of gene expression programming was simulated. We proposed a restrictive strategy to design the initial population with the control of the branch number and the morphology of individuals, which can be used to guide the evolution of simulated plants towards the target shape and reduce the searching scope with the algorithm. The method was developed based on the analysis of previous studies, the most of which were using traditional genetic

  9. 唇形科益母草等7种植物果实化学成分分析及形态特征%Studies on Chemical Constituents and Morphological Characters of the Fruits of Seven Labiatae Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文群; 曾碧榕; 陈忠

    2003-01-01

    The chemical constituents and morphological characters of the fruits of seven Labiatae plants have been studied. The results showed that the contents of fatty oils in the fruits are abundant. The main constituents of unsaturated fatty acids are α-linolenic acid, linolic acid, oleic acid, and arachidonic acid. The main constituents of saturated fatty acids are palmitic acid and stearic acid. Although different kinds of fruit oils have different content of a specific unsaturated fatty acid, the content of total unsaturated fatty acids is more than 90% of fruit oils. The fruits also contain eighteen kinds of amino acids and some mineral elements. Due to high nutritional ingredients, there is potential prospect to explore and utilize them. Their morphological characters were also discussed.

  10. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  11. Mixed Compound of DCPTA and CCC Increases Maize Yield by Improving Plant Morphology and Up-Regulating Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Wang

    Full Text Available DCPTA (2-diethylaminoethyl-3, 4-dichlorophenylether and CCC (2-chloroethyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride have a great effect on maize growth, but applying DCPTA individually can promote the increase of plant height, resulting in the rise of lodging percent. Plant height and lodging percent decrease in CCC-treated plants, but the accumulation of biomass reduce, resulting in yield decrease. Based on the former experiments, the performance of a mixture which contained 40 mg DCPTA and 20 mg CCC as active ingredients per liter of solution, called PCH was tested with applying 40mg/L DCPTA and 20mg/L CCC individually. Grain yield, yield components, internode characters, leaf area per plant, plant height and lodging percent as well as chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, enzymatic antioxidants, membranous peroxide and organic osmolyte were analyzed in two years (2011 and 2012, using maize hybrid, Zhengdan 958 (ZD 958 at density of 6.75 plants m-2. CCC, DCPTA and PCH were sprayed on the whole plant leaves at 7 expanded leaves stage and water was used as control. Compared to control, PCH significantly increased grain yield (by 9.53% and 6.68% from 2011 to 2012. CCC significantly decreased kernel number per ear (by 6.78% and 5.69% and thousand kernel weight (TKW (by 8.57% and 6.55% from 2011 to 2012. Kernel number per ear and TKW increased in DCPTA-treated and PCH-treated plants, but showed no significant difference between them. In CCC-treated and PCH-treated plants, internode length and plant height decreased, internode diameter increased, resulting in the significant decline of lodging percent. With DCPTA application, internode diameter increased, but internode length and plant height increased at the same time, resulting in the augment of lodging percent. Bending strength and puncture strength were increased by applying different plant growth regulators (PGRs. In PCH-treated plants, bending strength and puncture strength were greater than other

  12. The effects of mineral nitrogen limitation, competition, arbuscular mycorrhiza, and their respective interactions, on morphological and chemical plant traits of Plantago lanceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankoke, Helga; Höpfner, Ingo; Matuszak, Agnieszka; Beyschlag, Wolfram; Müller, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that suffer from a multitude of challenges such as abiotic stress or the interactions with competitors, antagonists and symbionts, which influence their performance as well as their eco-physiological and biochemical responses in complex ways. In particular, the combination of different stressors and their impact on plant biomass production and the plant's ability to metabolically adjust to these challenges are less well understood. To study the effects of mineral nitrogen (N) availability, interspecific competition and the association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on biomass production, biomass allocation patterns (root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area) and metabolic responses, we chose the model organism Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Plants were grown in a full factorial experiment. Biomass production and its allocation patterns were assessed at harvest, and the influence of the different treatments and their interactions on the plant metabolome were analysed using a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Limited supply of mineral N caused the most pronounced changes with respect to plant biomass and biomass allocation patterns, and altered the concentrations of more than one third of the polar plant metabolome. Competition also impaired plant biomass production, yet affected the plant metabolome to a much lesser extent than limited mineral N supply. The interaction of competition and limited mineral N supply often caused additive changes on several traits. The association with AMF did not enhance biomass production, but altered biomass allocation patterns such as the root/shoot ratio and the specific leaf area. Interestingly, we did not find significant changes in the plant metabolome caused by AMF. A targeted analysis revealed that only limited mineral N supply reduced the concentrations of one of the main target defence

  13. Occurrence of morphological and anatomical adaptive traits in young and adult plants of the rare Mediterranean cliff species Primula palinuri Petagna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability.

  14. Effect of the density of transplants in reforestation on the morphological quality of the above-ground part of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. six years after planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Houšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of the above-ground part of European beech planted at different densities and spacing patterns for the purpose of artificial forest regeneration was monitored 3, 4 and 6 years after planting. The initial numbers of beech transplants were 5,000 pcs.ha−1, 10,000 pcs.ha−1, 15,000 pcs.ha−1 and 20,000 pcs.ha−1. The spacing pattern of transplants was either square or rectangular nearly in all variants: 1.4 × 1.4 m, 2 × 1 m, 1 × 1 m, 0.8 × 0.8 m, 1 ×0.65 m, 0.7 × 0.7 m and 1 × 0.5 m. Conclusions following out from the research are as follows: 1. neither the chosen density of transplants nor their spacing pattern had an essential influence on the after-planting loss or damage of trees; 2. through the planting of larger-diameter transplants it is possible to achieve canopy closure more rapidly as well as faster growth of the plantation; these beech plants keep the edge in growth and quality even 6 years after planting; 3. the higher is the beech plantation density, the less individuals occur in such a plantation with inappropriate stem form; 4. beech plants of the worst quality were found on plots with the lowest initial density of transplants (5,000 and 10,000 pcs.ha−1, yet the number of promising trees was sufficient even there. Thus, none of the experimental numbers of transplants per hectare or spacing arrangements of the European beech transplants can be claimed as inappropriate; however, further monitoring of the plots is necessary.

  15. Evaluation of wheat growth, morphological characteristics, biomass yield and quality in Lunar Palace-1, plant factory, green house and field systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Yuming; Wang, Minjuan; Xie, Beizhen; Yu, Juan; Liu, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important agricultural crops in both space such as Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) and urban agriculture fields, and its cultivation is affected by several environmental factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the influences of different environmental conditions (BLSS, plant factory, green house and field) on the wheat growth, thousand kernel weight (TKW), harvest index (HI), biomass yield and quality during their life cycle. The results showed that plant height partially influenced by the interaction effects with environment, and this influence decreased gradually with the plant development. It was found that there was no significant difference between the BLSS and plant factory treatments on yields per square, but the yield of green house and field treatments were both lower. TKW and HI in BLSS and plant factory were larger than those in the green house and field. However, grain protein concentration can be inversely correlated with grain yield. Grain protein concentrations decreased under elevate CO2 condition and the magnitude of the reductions depended on the prevailing environmental condition. Conditional interaction effects with environment also influenced the components of straw during the mature stage. It indicated that CO2 enriched environment to some extent was better for inedible biomass degradation and had a significant effect on "source-sink flow" at grain filling stage, which was more beneficial to recycle substances in the processes of the environment regeneration.

  16. Manipulation of the hypocotyl sink activity by reciprocal grafting of two Raphanus sativus varieties: its effects on morphological and physiological traits of source leaves and whole-plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Daisuke; Betsuyaku, Eriko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    To reveal whether hypocotyl sink activities are regulated by the aboveground parts, and whether physiology and morphology of source leaves are affected by the hypocotyl sink activities, we conducted grafting experiments using two Raphanus sativus varieties with different hypocotyl sink activities. Comet (C) and Leafy (L) varieties with high and low hypocotyl sink activities were reciprocally grafted and resultant plants were called by their scion and stock such as CC, LC, CL and LL. Growth, leaf mass per area (LMA), total non-structural carbohydrates (TNCs) and photosynthetic characteristics were compared among them. Comet hypocotyls in CC and LC grew well regardless of the scions, whereas Leafy hypocotyls in CL and LL did not. Relative growth rate was highest in LL and lowest in CC. Photosynthetic capacity was correlated with Rubisco (ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) content but unaffected by TNC. High C/N ratio and accumulation of TNC led to high LMA and structural LMA. These results showed that the hypocotyl sink activity was autonomously regulated by hypocotyl and that the down-regulation of photosynthesis was not induced by TNC. We conclude that the change in the sink activity alters whole-plant growth through the changes in both biomass allocation and leaf morphological characteristics in R. sativus.

  17. 高光和低光下木本植物形态和生理可塑性响应%MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PLASTICITY OF WOODY PLANT IN RESPONSE TO HIGH LIGHT AND LOW LIGHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宝利; 吕艳伟; 尹春英; 李春阳

    2005-01-01

    Being sessile, plants have evolved numerous strategies to accommodate contrasting light environment, so as to efficiently capture and use limited light resource and to avoid the damaging effects of excessive irradiance. Plant performance is enhanced through morphological and physiological acclimation to light environment. The plasticity of morphological and physiological traits enables the woody plants to survive at the extremes of light gradients. Shade plants and sun plants have developed distinct morphological and physiological strategies for acclimation to contrasting light environment. These strategies involve changes in growth, alteration in biomass allocation, readjustment in structure of the photosynthetic apparatus, nitrogen allocation to different photosynthetic processes, up - regulation antioxidant defense systems and thermal dissipation, as well as a long -term adjustment that renders a differentiated phenotype. Frequent evidence indicates that sun plants display a larger phenotype plasticity than shade - tolerant ones, though the reverse is sometimes observed. A rational understanding of how plants survive and thrive in adverse light environment is provided in this review. Results from this review lead to useful conclusions for establishing better management practices. Extensive studies on natural light conditions in conjunction with artificial simulation experiments are needed to quantify the effects of natural light conditions on woody plants, so as to facilitate the development of silvicultural regeneration techniques for forest management. Ref 96%光资源的时空异质性普遍存在.为了提高光利用效率或有效避免强光的伤害,植物通常采取多种调节措施.植物适应林下异质、多变的环境过程中,表型的可塑性是非常关键的.植物表型可塑性与其环境异质性密不可分.植物通过生长变化、生物量分配、光合器官结构调整、叶氮分配、抗氧化防御系统、热耗散机制,

  18. EFFECT OF PROTECTIVE FUNCTION OF VERMICULTURE PRODUCTS ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS IN THE CONDITION OF ABIOTIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Vasilyuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of MgSO4 on morphometric specifics of the Salix alba L., which characterized by high rates of growth and development is investigated. Mg2+ was added in the form of MgSO4*3H2O at a concentration of 2.5 g/l considering of salt water content in the research solutions with S. alba L. and  combined with plant growth regulator (GR of natural origin Humisol. These studies have shown toxicity ofMgSO4 at a concentration of 2.5 g/l during all the period of growth and development. So, MgSO4 had toxic effect on plant growth and development within whole period of observation. We registered negative correlation (R = - 0.99 between toxic properties of salt and the age of the studied plants (for example, the growth rate of shoots and leaf blades by S. alba L. and positive correlation (R = 0.99 while studied the root growth rate, which was caused by the direct contact of rhizosphere and negative stressors. The GR Humisol accelerated the rate of physiological processes of growth and development of shoots and roots in 2-3 times, but the growth of leaf blade was not activated regards the control. The combined effect of magnesium salts and GR levelled toxic concentrations of magnesium sulphate were accelerated plant growth or stimulated growth up to control values, promoted adaptation mechanisms of plants and provided a protective role against excessive salinity. We suggested using the Humisol as a natural product, vermiculture, adaptogene, protector, and fertilizer agent of natural origin, which provides for biota to consume the environmental services without damage to the environment under conditions of excessive pressure of salt stress on plant organism.

  19. Morphological abnormalities in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) at the territories contaminated as a result of the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Takase, Tsugiko; Sato, Natsumi; Keitoku, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Our research, carried out in 2014-2016 at eight sites in the radioactive contaminated territories of Fukushima Prefecture, showed that the young trees of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) are sensitive to radiation. Irradiation induced cancellation of the apical dominance in this species. The effect is similar to that observed in young trees of Scots pine growing in the Chernobyl zone. At the same time, we did not observed any morphological abnormalities in mature trees of Japanese red pine. The probability of cancelling the apical dominance in Japanese red pine increased to 0.11 and 0.14 in the two less irradiated populations, and to 0.5 and 0.9 at sites were the absorbed dose rates were approximately 14 and 25 μGy h(-1), respectively. Most of the observed abnormalities appeared in the second whorl after the beginning of exposure. No new abnormalities were observed in the fifth whorl. This temporal pattern is similar to those reported for Scots pine in Chernobyl and for Japanese fir in Fukushima. Additional detailed studies are necessary for interpretation of the observed temporal pattern and, in general, for explanation of the mechanism of formation of the morphological abnormalities.

  20. Eriophyes species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) inhabiting lime trees (Tilia spp.: Tiliaceae)--supplementary description and morphological variability related to host plants and female forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soika, Grazyna; Kozak, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Three poorly known species of the subfamily Eriophyinae living on Tilia spp. (Tiliaceae) are illustrated and supplementary descriptions are provided. Two of them, Eriophyes exilis (Nalepa 1892) and Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa 1918), were recorded both in vein angle galls on leaves of Tilia platyphyllos Scop. and in erinea on leaves of Tilia tomentosa Moench, Tilia americana L. 'Moltkei', Tilia americana var. heterophylla (Vent.) Loudon, Tilia cordata Mill., Tiliajaponica (Miq.) Simonk., Tilia petiolaris DC. and Tilia zamoyskiana Wr6bl. The third species, Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa 1890, was found in nail galls on leaves of T platyphyllos, T americana and T. cordata. All of these Eriophyes species showed noticeable morphological differences between protogyne and deutogyne females in terms of the number of dorsal annuli, location of setae d, length of setae e and 3a, distance between tubercles 3a and the length and pattern of the prodorsal shield. Based on a comparative morphological analysis of this original data with that published by A. Nalepa, new synonyms for the following species are proposed: Erophyes exilis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes leiosoma Nalepa syn. nov.; Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes tiliaceus Nalepa syn. nov., Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa = Eriophyes rudis Nalepa syn. nov. = Eriophyes tomentosae Nalepa syn. nov. A key to all studied Eriophyes species living on lime trees is included.

  1. 基于模糊顺序形态学的植物叶片脉络边缘提取%Plant leaf vein edge detection based on fuzzy order morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳蕾; 贾洪雷; 包佳林

    2015-01-01

    植物叶片是作物分类和识别的简单有效方法,叶片的脉络和边缘特征提取是识别叶片的基础步骤。植物叶片图像通常受噪声影响,提取清晰的脉络和边缘比较困难,该文提出了基于模糊顺序形态学的植物叶片脉络边缘特征提取方法。首先,根据像素邻域特性,利用植物叶片脉络边缘及内部区域的差异性,构造了隶属度函数;然后,依据Sugeno模糊模型,定义了能够增大叶片脉络边缘和内部区域差异的模糊规则,进行模糊推理;该文采用了抑制噪声特别有效的顺序形态学边缘检测算子,对图像进行脉络边缘提取,最终得到植物叶片脉络和边缘信息图像。试验结果表明,该文方法克服了自然环境中噪声的影响,提取的植物叶片脉络和边缘更加清晰、定位更加准确。%Leaf is the important part of a plant, and leaf vein and edge feature are often used for classifying the plant. Leaf vein and edge features can also indicate the growing condition of plant. Leaf vein and edge extraction is useful for studying leaf and plant structures. However, it is difficult to obtain the accurate leaf vein and edge because of uncertainties in the process of image acquisition and processing. So the extraction algorithm of leaf vein and edge is required. The traditional algorithms can detect leaf edge and vein, but the interference immunity is poor and is easily affected by noise. So the edge is not complete and it is difficult to detect the complicate edge and small vein. The tradition algorithm is not adequate to feature extraction of plant leaf in complicated conditions. Recently, the new extraction methods are emerging, including neural network, fuzzy theory, and morphology, etc. However, each algorithm has its own limitations the result of extraction is not ideal. In this paper, plant leaf vein and edge extraction based on fuzzy order morphology was proposed. The proposed method

  2. Morphological and biochemical changes in Azadirachta indica from coal combustion fly ash dumping site from a thermal power plant in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Sami Ullah; Raja, Vaseem; Siddiqui, Weqar A

    2016-07-01

    The foliar and biochemical traits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss from fly ash (FA) dumping site in Badarpur thermal power plant (BTPP) New Delhi, India was studied. Three different experimental sites were selected at different distances from the thermal power plant. Ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), total chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal index (SI), stomatal conductance (SC), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration [CO2]i, net photosynthetic rate (NPR), nitrogen, nitrate, nitrate reductase activity, proline, protein, reducing sugar and sulphur content were measured. Considerable reduction in pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), and total chlorophyll was observed at fly ash dumping site. Fly ash stress revealed the inhibitory effect on Nitrate reductase activity (NRA), Nitrate, soluble protein, and reducing sugar content, whereas stimulatory effect was found for the stomatal index, nitrogen, proline, antioxidants and sulphur content in the leaves. Under fly ash stress, stomatal conductance was low, leading to declining in photosynthetic rate and increase in the internal CO2 concentration of leaf. Single leaf area (SLA), leaf length and leaf width also showed a declining trend from control to the polluted site. Antioxidant enzymes increased in leaves reflecting stress and extenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  3. Expression of ZmGA20ox cDNA alters plant morphology and increases biomass production of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phat T; De Tar, Joann R; Lee, Hyeyoung; Folta, Michelle K; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2016-07-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is considered a model herbaceous energy crop for the USA, for its adaptation to marginal land, low rainfall and nutrient-deficient soils; however, its low biomass yield is one of several constraints, and this might be rectified by modulating plant growth regulator levels. In this study, we have determined whether the expression of the Zea mays gibberellin 20-oxidase (ZmGA20ox) cDNA in switchgrass will improve biomass production. The ZmGA20ox gene was placed under the control of constitutive CaMV35S promoter with a strong TMV omega enhancer, and introduced into switchgrass via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgene integration and expression levels of ZmGA20ox in T0 plants were analysed using Southern blot and qRT-PCR. Under glasshouse conditions, selected transgenic plants exhibited longer leaves, internodes and tillers, which resulted in twofold increased biomass. These phenotypic alterations correlated with the levels of transgene expression and the particular gibberellin content. Expression of ZmGA20ox also affected the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the employment of ectopic ZmGA20ox and selection for natural variants with high level expression of endogenous GA20ox are appropriate approaches to increase biomass production of switchgrass and other monocot biofuel crops.

  4. Research Development of the Distribution of Plant Root Morphology and Discussion on Its New Methods%关于植物根系形态分布研究进展与新方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇晓雷; 杨平

    2011-01-01

    Root system, as an indispensable part in plants growing, plays a signifieant role in the reinforcement of shallow slope. And roots structure is an irregular complex shape with self-similarity that can hardly be quantitatively measured in Euclidean geometry. However, by applying fractal theory to the roots structure, it can lead to a good quantitative description of root morphology. Based on the reference discussing plant roots slope and the application of fractal theory in roots research both home and abroad, the paper proposed the idea of building the model of plaht root morphology with L-system theory, and then numerically simulated the influence of the combined effect of the model and soil on the stability of slopeby finite elements software.%根系是影响植物生长的重要组成部分,同时根系对浅层边坡加固具有重要作用。根系结构是一个具有自相似特征的非规整复杂形体,欧氏几何中难以定量测量,将分形理论应用于根系结构中,能很好的定量描述根系结构形态。本文分析植物根系护坡和分形理论在植物根系中应用这两个领域国内外研究成果。在此基础上提出,基于L-系统理论构建植物根系形态模型,利用有限元软件数值模拟根系模型与土共同作用对边坡稳定性影响的思路。

  5. QTL mapping of temperature sensitivity reveals candidate genes for thermal adaptation and growth morphology in the plant pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendenmann, M H; Croll, D; Palma-Guerrero, J; Stewart, E L; McDonald, B A

    2016-04-01

    Different thermal environments impose strong, differential selection on populations, leading to local adaptation, but the genetic basis of thermal adaptation is poorly understood. We used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici to study the genetic architecture of thermal adaptation and identify candidate genes. Four wild-type strains originating from the same thermal environment were crossed to generate two mapping populations with 263 (cross 1) and 261 (cross 2) progeny. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing was used to genotype 9745 (cross 1) and 7333 (cross 2) single-nucleotide polymorphism markers segregating within the mapping population. Temperature sensitivity was assessed using digital image analysis of colonies growing at two different temperatures. We identified four QTLs for temperature sensitivity, with unique QTLs found in each cross. One QTL had a logarithm of odds score >11 and contained only six candidate genes, including PBS2, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase associated with low temperature tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This and other QTLs showed evidence for pleiotropy among growth rate, melanization and growth morphology, suggesting that many traits can be correlated with thermal adaptation in fungi. Higher temperatures were highly correlated with a shift to filamentous growth among the progeny in both crosses. We show that thermal adaptation has a complex genetic architecture, with natural populations of Z. tritici harboring significant genetic variation for this trait. We conclude that Z. tritici populations have the potential to adapt rapidly to climate change and expand into new climatic zones.

  6. Association mapping of genetic network for plant morphological traits in cotton%棉花植株形态学性状遗传网络的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yongjun; YU Jiwen; XUE Angli; FAN Shuli; SONG Meizhen; PANG Chaoyou; PEI Wenfeng; YU Shuxun; ZHU Jun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Morphological traits played an important role in vegetative growth of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L .) , and also had an critical impact on reproductive growth . In this study , we dissected the genetic architecture of four morphological traits ,including plant height (PLH) , stem diameter (STD) , stem first (STF) and stem node (STN) . Thirty‐nine lines and their 178 F1 hybrids of upland cotton grown in three environments were used for association mapping . The association mapping was conducted using mixed linear model approaches for analyzing full genetic model with genetic effects of additive , dominance , epistasis and their environment interaction . The results showed that 25 highly significant quantitative trait SSRs ( QTSs) were detected and their total heritability was high for the four morphological traits studied ( h2G+ GE ≈63 .08% 78 .28% ) . It was revealed that additive , dominance and their environment interaction effects were important genetic recourses for morphological traits in cotton . This research provides new insights into cotton quantitative genetics and molecular breeding .%棉花形态性状对于棉株营养生长至关重要,同时,对其生殖生长也有着关键影响.该研究对来源于3个不同种植环境下的39个陆地棉品种材料及其178个F1组合的株高、茎秆粗、第一果节数和果枝数的遗传结构进行了剖析.关联分析采用基于混合线性模型的统计方法,剖析的遗传效应包括加性效应、显性效应、上位性效应及其与环境的互作效应.结果共检测到25个数量性状SSR( simple sequence repeat ,简单重复序列)位点与这4个形态学性状显著相关,总遗传率达到63.08%~78.28%;加性、显性及其与环境的互作效应是棉花形态性状遗传的重要遗传资源,直接选择显著的SSR位点可优化棉株的形态性状.

  7. Comparative biochemical analysis during the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass from six morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana (Triploid Musa AAA group) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Irénée; Hiligsmann, Serge; Vanderghem, Caroline; Bilik, Igor; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We studied banana lignocellulosic biomass (BALICEBIOM) that is abandoned after fruit harvesting, and assessed its biochemical methane potential, because of its potential as an energy source. We monitored biogas production from six morphological parts (MPs) of the "Williams Cavendish" banana cultivar using a modified operating procedure (KOP) using KOH. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The bulbs, leaf sheaths, petioles-midribs, leaf blades, rachis stems, and floral stalks gave total biogas production of 256, 205, 198, 126, 253, and 221 ml g⁻¹ dry matter, respectively, and total biomethane production of 150, 141, 127, 98, 162, and 144 ml g⁻¹, respectively. The biogas production rates and yields depended on the biochemical composition of the BALICEBIOM and the ability of anaerobic microbes to access fermentable substrates. There were no significant differences between the biogas analysis results produced using KOP and gas chromatography. Acetate was the major VFA in all the MP sample culture media. The bioconversion yields for each MP were below 50 %, showing that these substrates were not fully biodegraded after 188 days. The estimated electricity that could be produced from biogas combustion after fermenting all of the BALICEBIOM produced annually by the Cameroon Development Corporation-Del Monte plantations for 188 days is approximately 10.5 × 10⁶ kW h (which would be worth 0.80-1.58 million euros in the current market). This bioenergy could serve the requirements of about 42,000 people in the region, although CH₄ productivity could be improved.

  8. Role of Hsl7 in morphology and pathogenicity and its interaction with other signaling components in the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, C Ben; Aulakh, Kavita Burman; Perlin, Michael H

    2011-07-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis undergoes a dimorphic transition in response to mating pheromone, host, and environmental cues. On a solid medium deficient in ammonium (SLAD [0.17% yeast nitrogen base without ammonium sulfate or amino acids, 2% dextrose, 50 μM ammonium sulfate]), U. maydis produces a filamentous colony morphology, while in liquid SLAD, the cells do not form filaments. The p21-activated protein kinases (PAKs) play a substantial role in regulating the dimorphic transition in fungi. The PAK-like Ste20 homologue Smu1 is required for a normal response to pheromone, via upregulation of pheromone expression, and virulence, and its disruption affects both processes. Our experiments suggest that Smu1 also regulates cell length and the filamentous response on solid SLAD medium. Yeast two-hybrid analysis suggested an Hsl7 homologue as a potential interacting partner of Smu1, and a unique open reading frame for such an arginine methyltransferase was detected in the U. maydis genome sequence. Hsl7 regulates cell length and the filamentous response to solid SLAD in a fashion opposite to that of Smu1, but neither overexpression nor disruption of hsl7 attenuates virulence. Simultaneous disruption of hsl7 and overexpression of smu1 lead to a hyperfilamentous response on solid SLAD. Moreover, only this double mutant strain forms filaments in liquid SLAD. The double mutant strain was also significantly reduced in virulence. A similar filamentous response in both solid and liquid SLAD was observed in strains lacking another PAK-like protein kinase involved in cytokinesis and polar growth, Cla4. Our data suggest that Hsl7 may regulate cell cycle progression, while both Smu1 and Cla4 appear to be involved in the filamentous response in U. maydis.

  9. Morphology of Parastrongylidium estevesi comb. nov. and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Stichotrichia from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. V. Siqueira-Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In samples of raw sewage collected from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (ETE-Penha, we found populations of two species, Deviata estevesi Paiva & Silva-Neto, 2005 and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. The organisms were studied in vivo under phase contrast microscopy, differential interference contrast (DIC, and after protargol-impregnation. The population of D. estevesi exhibited more extensive variation in cirral pattern than previously described. The interphasic organisms of new species D. brasiliensis sp. nov. are distinguishable from their congeners based on a series of morphometric features: cirral row R3 usually presents 1-3 cirri behind the right frontal cirrus, on average there are four macronuclear nodules, and, during morphogenesis of cell division, primordium V of the proter originates from the anterior region of cirral row R5 instead of row R6, as in the type species D. abbrevescens Eigner, 1995. In D. estevesi, the ventral cirral rows replicate by within-row primordia, which develop independently for the proter and for the opisthe, suggesting that it belongs to or is closely related to Parastrongylidium, hence the combination P. estevesi comb. nov. is established.

  10. Relationship of 17 Rosa Plants Detected by Morphology and ISSR Analysis%17份蔷薇属植物的亲缘关系的形态学和ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 曾丽; 叶康; 赵子刚; 张嫔; 龚霄雯; 尹勤; 孙强

    2011-01-01

    The genetic relationship of 17 Rosa plants is analyzed by ISSR and morphological data. NTSYS2.1 is used in clustering analysis. The results showed: 13 primers were selected to perform ISSR -PCR. A total of 479 DNA bands was obtained, of which 221 bands had polymorphism, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.46. All these plants could be divided into three groups by morphological data: the first group was consisted of Rosa rugosa ' Bao Dao' , Rosa chinensis ' Sophie' s perpetral' , Rosa chinensis ' Comtesse dll cayla' , Rosa hybrid tea ' Sophy' s Rose' , Rosa hybrid climbingroses ' Ten Shen Qi' , Rosa chinensis ' Da Fu Gui' , Rose hybrid bracteata ' Mermaid' , Rosa chinensis ' Jin Ou Fan Lv' , Rosa chinensis ' Jin Fen Lian' and Rosa chinensis ' Yi Ji Fen'; the second group was consisted of Rosa chinensis ' Viridiflora' , Rosa chinensis ' Hu Zhong Yue' , Rosa chinensis ' Yu Shi Zhuang' , Rosa hybrid tea ' Yankee Dodle' , Rosa chinensis ' Si Mian Jing' and Rosa chinensis ' Pu Fu Hong'; the third group was consisted of Rosa gallica ' Versicolor'. All these plants can be divided into four groups by ISSR cluster analysis. The first group was consisted of Rosa rugosa ' Bao Dao'; the second group was consisted of Rosa chinensis ' Viridiflora', Rosa chinensis ' Pu Fu Hong', Rosa chinensis ' Comtesse dll cayla' , Rose hybrid bracteata ' Mermaid' , Rosa chinensis ' Si Mian Jing' , Rosa chinensis ' Hu Zhong Yue' and Rosa chinensis ' Yu Shi Zhuang'; the third group was consisted of Rosa hybrid tea ' Sophy' s Rose' and Rosa hy brid tea ' Yankee Dodle'; and the fourth group was consisted of Rosa gallica ' Versicolor' , Rosa chinensis ' Jin Ou Fan Lv' , Rosa hybrid climbingroses ' Ten Shen Qi' , Rosa chinensis ' Sophie' s perpetral' , Rosa chinensis ' Yi Ji Fen' , Rosa chinensis ' Da Fu Gui' and Rosa chinensis ' Jin Fen Lian'. The results of morphologic cluster analysis and ISSR cluster analysis were similar.%利用ISSR分子标记结合形态学指标对17份蔷薇属植物

  11. original article the use of morphological and cell wall chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    and plant debris to skin. Actinomycetoma is ... species) and plants (Streptomyces scabies) (6, 12,. 13). The cultural ... Cell wall components of Actinomycetes enable rapid qualitative identification of certain ..... morphological differentiation of an.

  12. 大蒜种体形态分析及植株收获性能试验研究%Morphological Analysis of Garlic Seed and Experimental Study on Plant Harvesting Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小瑜; 崔荣江; 荐世春; 付乾坤; 崔中凯

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at achieving mechanized planting and harvesting of garlic , this article researches the morphological characteristic of garlic seed using statistical method .The results show that there is a positive correlation between the qual-ity and the length , width and height of garlic seed .Using the statistical data , this article establishes a three-dimensional model of garlic seed , which provides a fundamental data for the seed filling design of garlic seeder .Researching the me-chanical property of garlic plant during harvest time provides parameter basis for the design of digging -drawing style garlic combine harvester .%以实现大蒜的机械化种植和收获为目标,用统计分析的方法研究了大蒜种体的形态特征。结果表明:蒜种的质量与蒜种的长、宽和高存在着正相关的关系,即蒜种的质量越高相应的蒜种的长、宽、高越大,反之亦然。同时,根据统计数据建立了蒜种的三维模型,为大蒜播种机取种装置的设计提供基础数据。针对大蒜的机械化收获需求,研究了收获期大蒜植株的力学性能,为挖拔式大蒜联合收获机的设计提供参数依据。

  13. Rhizome morphology and flowering characteristic of 5 species Curcuma plants%5种姜黄属植物的根茎形态及其相关特性与开花特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈荔荔; 许丽珍; 吕锦权; 盛爱武; 刘念

    2014-01-01

    对5种姜黄属( Curcuma L.)植物根茎的形态及其贮藏期根茎的相关特性与人工栽培条件下的开花特性进行了研究.结果表明,可直接用肉眼分辨南岭莪术( Curcuma kwangsiensis var.naulingensis)、广西莪术( C. kwangsiensis),而南昆山莪术(C.nankunshanensis)、郁金(C.aromatica)、大莪术(C.elata)则需切开根茎通过颜色分辨;在整个栽培过程中,水培条件下姜黄属植物的开花率优于土培;南岭莪术开花率最高,且其根茎内蛋白质浓度最高;南昆山莪术的花期最长;而郁金、大莪术只展叶不开花.5种姜黄属植物根茎随着冷藏时间的增加,根茎质量、长度、直径、蛋白质浓度均随之减小.%Rhizome morphology and correlation property in storage period , and the flowering characteris-tic at artificial conditions of 5 species Curcuma plants were studied .The results showed that Curcuma kwangsiensis var.naulingensis and C.kwangsiensis could be distinguished by naked eyes , and that C.nankunshanensis, C.aromatica and C.elata must be distinguished by cutting the rhizomes through the colour.In the whole process of cultivation , the percentage of flowering of Curcuma plants under water culture was higher than that under soil culture , with the highest percentage of C.kwangsiensis var.naulingensis and the highest protein content in its rhizomes .The flowering period of C.nankun-shanensis was longest.C.aromatica and C.elata only leafed with no flower .The weight, length, diame-ter, protein content of the rhizomes of 5 species Curcuma plants were reduced with the increase of storage time.

  14. Morphological Comparison on the Leaf Epidermis and Glandular Hairs in 11 Medical Plants from Labiatae%11种唇形科药用植物叶表及腺毛的形态比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凤莲

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为利用叶表面和腺毛形态特征区分唇形科植物奠定基础.[方法] 选取11种常见的唇形科药用植物,利用扫描电镜观察比较其叶表面及腺毛的形态特征.[结果] 叶表皮细胞表面覆有一层厚度适中的角质层,有不同程度的条状纹理.下表皮细胞小于上表皮细胞.叶表面有气孔、腺毛和非腺毛,且下表面的气孔、腺毛和非腺毛比上表面多.气孔呈圆形至椭圆形,副卫细胞表面的角质层常凸起呈苞片状,气孔周围有条状纹理,且常以气孔为中心呈放射状.非腺毛分枝或不分枝;基部的条状角质纹理呈放射状或纵横交错.腺毛呈盾状或头状,腺毛的形态、大小、密度和头细胞的数目有明显的差别.[结论] 该研究为唇形科药用植物的分类和利用提供了新的依据.%[Objective]The purpose of the study was to lay a foundation for distinguishing labiatae plants on the basis of the morphological characters of leaf epidermis and glandular hairs.[Method] Eleven familiar medial plants from labiatae were selected, their morphological characters of leaf epidermis and glandular hairs were observed by scanning electron microscope and compared.[Result] There was a moderately thick cuticle covering the surface of leaf epidermis cells and it had striped texture to different degrees. The lower epidermis cells were smaller than the upper epidermis cells. There were stomata, glandular hairs and non-glandular hairs on leaf epidermis and that on the lower leaf epidermis were more than that on the upper leaf epidermis. The stomata varied from circular to ellipse, the cuticle covering the surface of subsidiary cell often bulged to be bracteal. There was striped texture around stomata and it was often radial with stomata as center. There were branches on non-glandular hairs or not and the striped cuticle textures on their bases were radial or crossing. The glandular hairs were peltate or capitate and the shape, sizes

  15. Effect of benzene compounds from plants on the growth and hyphal morphology in Neurospora crassa Efeito de compostos benzênicos de plantas sobre o crescimento e a morfologia das hifas em Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Mendonça Neves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the benzene compounds from plants, respectively cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and cinnamic aldehyde on growth and hyphal morphology of Neurospora crassa, were investigated. Cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and cinnamic aldehyde inhibited colony growth, but produced no visible alterations on hyphae. Caffeic acid and coumaric acid did not inhibit growth, but changed hyphal morphology. The results suggest that caffeic and coumaric acids probably affect polarity maintenance (the continued deposition of wall material at the extending tip, while cinnamic aldehyde, ferulic and cinnamic acids decrease growth rate, but did not change hyphal polarity. The actin cytoskeleton and the Spitzenkörper appeared diffuse and not clearly visible when one of the benzene compounds was present in the culture.Os efeitos de compostos benzênicos de plantas, respectivamente ácido cinâmico, ácido coumárico, ácido ferúlico, ácido cafeico e aldeído cinâmico, sobre o crescimento da colônia e a morfologia das hifas de Neurospora crassa foram investigados. Ácido cinâmico, ácido ferúlico e aldeído cinâmico inibiram o crescimento colonial, mas não produziram diferenças visíveis sobre as hifas. Ácido cafeico e ácido coumárico não inibiram o crescimento, mas alteraram a morfologia das hifas. Os resultados sugerem que os ácidos cafeico e coumárico afetam provavelmente a manutenção da polaridade (a contínua deposição de material da parede na ponta em extensão, enquanto aldeído cinâmico e os ácidos cinâmicos e ferúlico diminuem a velocidade de crescimento, mas não alteram a polaridade das hifas. Actina no citoesqueleto e no Spitzenkörper apareceu difuso e não estava claramente visível na presença de um dos compostos benzênicos na cultura.

  16. 长白山泥炭湿地主要植物植硅体形态特征研究%PHYTOLITH ANALYSIS:MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PEATLAND PLANT SPECIES IN CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    介冬梅; 刘红梅; 葛勇; 郭梅娥; 栗娜

    2011-01-01

    对长白山地区常见的泥炭地25个属31个种植物进行了植硅体形态鉴定统计,共发现植硅体类型15种,它们分别是硅化气孔、棒型、扇型、板型、硅质突起、尖型、导管型、帽型、齿型、哑铃型、鞍型、多边帽型、毛发型等.除禾本科和莎草科、菊科部分植物植硅体含量高外,木贼科、堇菜科、茜草科、蓼科等部分植物植硅体的含量也较高.禾本科植物的短细胞植硅体对植物分类有意义,但可能因采样境和种类差异等原因,长白山泥炭湿地禾本科植物的植硅体在形态和数量上都与其他区域同类研究结果有所差异,如禾本科早熟禾亚科的菵草中新发现了含量丰富的枕木型植硅体,黍亚科的荩草和水稗中还发现少量帽型植硅体;另外菊科兴安一枝黄花和齿苞风毛菊含有大量的特殊的尖形植硅体.硅化气孔宽度大小可指示环境湿度状况,对硅化气孔的数量和大小的深人研究将对古环境和古CO_2浓度的恢复一定帮助.长白山泥炭湿地植物的植硅体与植物的分类关系密切,湿地植物植硅体中硅质突起、棒型、哑铃型和尖型植硅体特征组合代表湿冷组合,本研究中的5块泥炭湿地植硅体的组合特征受纬度变化影响不明显.%Phytolith analysis is an important method in the reconstruction of paleoenvironment. It is also an useful tool in the fields of paleoecology , environmental archaeology ,and plant taxonomy. The research on applying phytolith analysis in peatland to reconstruct paleobotany and paleoenvimment depends on the study on modem plant phytoliths. In this paper,phytoliths from 25 genera,31 species from peatlands aroud Changbai Mountains were analyzed. The paper focused on the morphological differences of phytoliths, the phytolith morpho-types could be classified into 15 categories , they were silicified stomata , elongate , fan -shaped , plate-shaped , silicious tuber , point

  17. 不同根构型玉米的根系形态及其对密度的响应%Root Morphology and Its Response to Planting Density in Different Genotypes with Root Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红光; 刘剑钊; 张秀芝; 闫孝贡; 张洪喜; 袁静超; 盖嘉慧; 任军

    2014-01-01

    在两种种植密度下对8个测交种的根系形态及在0~60 cm土壤剖面的分布进行测定。结果表明,根长、根干重和根拔拉力均具有显著的基因型差异,其中,L105和L109属于大根系基因型;L172和L224属于小根系基因型。L132、L160、L224对密度的反应较为敏感,L219对密度的反应较为迟钝。在增加种植密度后,各基因型根系均有纵向延伸的特征,不同基因型根长和根干重在不同土壤层次间分布比例差异较大,且其对密度的反应仅表现在特定的土层内。%An experiment was conducted to evaluate the root morphology of eight genotypes and their distribu-tion in 0-60 cm soil layer in different planting density treatments. The results indicated that there were significant differences for root length, root dry weight, and vertical root pulling resistance. L105 and L109 had the larger root system, L172 and L224 had the smaller root system. L132, L160 and L224 were more sensitive toplanting density except for L219. The root presented the vertical extension with the increasing of density. There were significant geno-typic differences in different soil layers for root length and root dry weight. The reaction of genotypes on root system was in specific soil layers in different planting density treatments.

  18. 中国南方现代块根块茎类植物淀粉粒形态分析%MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STARCH GRAINS OF ROOT AND TUBER PLANTS IN SOUTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万智巍; 杨晓燕; 葛全胜; 蒋梅鑫

    2011-01-01

    为了研究块根块茎类植物的利用历史,对中国南方常见块根块茎植物天南星科(Araceae)、薯蓣科(Dioscoreaceae)、百合科(Liliaceae)、睡莲科(Nymphaeaceae)、莎草科(Cyperaceae)、菱科(Trapaceae)、姜科(Zingiberaceae)和豆科(Leguminosae)中13个种的14个样品进行了现代淀粉粒形态分析.研究结果表明,根茎类植物的淀粉粒与禾本科、壳斗科等其他被人类利用的植物的淀粉粒具有明显的不同.综合运用粒径、二维形状、表面特征、脐点位置、单复粒、消光臂形态、长短轴比值以及针状草酸钙晶体等一系列指标,可以对这14个样品进行一定程度上的区分.块根块茎植物淀粉粒的长短轴比值与其粒径具有较好的正相关关系;植物淀粉粒组合中的某些特征性淀粉粒,可以作为该种植物淀粉的鉴定依据.此项研究结果充实了中国现代淀粉粒数据库,也为将来进行古代块根块茎类淀粉粒的鉴定提供了研究基础.%The understanding of root and tuber plant is a key issue in the origin of tropical agriculture and environmental archaeology. In order to identify starch grain of root and tuber plant collected from archaeological sites and establish the starch grains database of modern root and tuber plants of South China, 14 samples from 13 species within Families Araceae, Dioscoreaceae, Liliaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Cyperaceae, Trapaceae, Zingiberaceae and Leguminosae are analyzed. Unlike the starch grain from the tribe Trticeae, which is always lenticular with a diameter of about 20μm, the starch grain from Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum is always polygonal with a mean of 7μm. The starch grain from Castanea and Quercus is always ovoid or spindly with an average size of about 10 μm. The morphological characteristics of starch grains from roots and tubers are complicated. Except the very tiny starch grain,most of root and tuber starch grains have eccentric hilaand are more than 15

  19. Pollen morphological characteristics, viability test and storage of endangered medicinal plant Atractylodes lancea%濒危药用植物茅苍术花粉形态、活力测定及贮存研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 谷巍; 巢建国; 高杰; 周娟娟; 申修源

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the pollen morphological characteristics, viability test and storage character of the endangered plant Atractybdes lancea. Method: Pollen grains morphologies of A. lancea were observed by scanning electron microscope. The optimum culture medium and viability determination methods were screened out by liquid culture and dyeing methods, and then the pollen germination capacities in different storage conditions were detected. Result: The pollen grains are quasi-spherical, with tricrdpate and spinous sculpture. The optimal culture medium was ME, + 16% PEG4000 + 10% sucrose, in which the pollen germination capacity reached to 62. 1% , while the other three dyeing methods were not able to be applied to detecting the pollen viability of A. lancea. The low storage temperature could significantly prolong the storage time of pollen of A. lancea. A1 -80℃, pollen viability could be maintained for 60 days. Conclusion: liquid culture method is suitable for the determination of pollen germination of A. lancea, and the rate of pollen germination is closely related to the storage time and temperature. At hist, this study provides a foundation for the artificial pollination and cultivating in wildness of A. lancea.%目的:研究濒危药用植物茅苍术花粉形态、活力测定及贮存.方法:采用扫描电镜观察茅苍术花粉形态,用液体培养及染色法筛选花粉萌发最适培养基及活力测定方法,并检测不同贮存条件下花粉的活力.结果:茅苍术花粉粒呈类球形,具3萌发沟,外壁表面具刺状雕纹;在ME3+16%PEG4000+10%蔗糖液体培养基上花粉萌发率最高,达62.1%,而其他3种染色法均不宜用于茅苍术花粉活力的检测;低温可明显延长茅苍术花粉的贮存时间,在-80℃低温下可贮存60d.结论:液体培养法适于茅苍术花粉粒活力的测定,花粉萌发率与贮存温度及时间密切相关,本研究为茅苍术人工辅助授粉及野生抚育研究提供了科学的依据.

  20. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  1. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  2. Avaliação de caracteres morfológicos úteis na identificação de plantas poliplóides de melancia Evaluation of morphological characters useful in the identification of poliploid watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de F. Souza

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando ao estudo da variação quantitativa de caracteres morfológicos em genótipos diplóides, triplóides e tetraplóides de melancia [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai], três linhagens diplóides, três linhagens tetraplóides e três híbridos triplóides foram avaliados quanto ao número de cloroplastos por estômato foliar (NCF; largura e comprimento foliar (LFH e CFH; relação largura/comprimento foliar (LF/CF; diâmetro de caule (DCE; diâmetro da corola em flores masculinas e femininas (DCM e DCF; diâmetro do ovário (DOV; peso de fruto (PMF, diâmetro transversal e longitudinal de fruto (DTF e DLF; relação diâmetro transversal/diâmetro longitudinal (DT/DL e espessura média da casca (EMC. Foi utilizado delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições e parcelas de cinco plantas. Realizou-se análise univariada, segundo o modelo hierárquico, considerando-se o nível de ploidia como o fator principal. Os genótipos foram agrupados em dendrograma baseado na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis e também dispostos em um plano cartesiano, utilizando-se os escores das duas primeiras variáveis canônicas. A contribuição relativa das variáveis para a composição dos grupos de divergência foi estimada por meio do método de Singh e a matriz de correlação foi obtida utilizando a análise de componentes principais. O NCF apresentou maior importância relativa (41% para a formação dos grupos de divergência, enquanto, os caracteres DMF, EMC e PMF apresentaram contribuição inferior a 1,0%. As variáveis NCF, LF/CF, DCP, DCF, DCM, DOV e DT/DL, analisadas conjuntamente, mostraram-se eficientes para a discriminação de plantas diplóides, triplóides e tetraplóides, e, portanto são recomendadas para auxiliar nos programas de melhoramento de melancia, que visem à obtenção de plantas poliplóides.The quantitative variation of the morphological characters in diploid, triploid and tetraploid genotypes of

  3. Aspects of morphological diversity of oregano in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sivicka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oregano populations are variable by morphology, cytology, genetics, biochemistry and agrobotany. Using international Draft Descriptor Lists it is possible to describe oregano samples and to select the most variable accessions for cultivation of Origanum vulgareL. The aim of this research was to explore the several aspects of morphological diversity of oregano in Latvia. In summer 2012, 44 oregano accessions from an ex situcollection of spice- and medicinal plants of the Laboratory of Cultivated Plants and Apilogy ( Jelgava, 1 Strazdu str. were analysed. Plant growth habit, plant height, number of stems per plant, branching density, colour of the upper surface and shape of blade of the leaf, density of flowers, colour of petals were described in this research. The results showed that oregano accessions differ morphologically in Latvia. It is necessary to continue this research to allow plants to fully express their characteristics and to explore the possible changeableness of parameters.

  4. TRY - a global database of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentice, C.; Leadley, P.; Boenisch, G.; Garnier, E.; Westoby, M.; Reich, P. B.; Wright, I. J.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Violle, C.; Harrison, S. P.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Reichstein, M.; Enquist, B. J.; Soudzilovskaia, N. A.; Ackerly, D. D.; Anand, M.; Atkin, O.; Bahn, M.; Baker, T. R.; Baldocchi, D.; Bekker, R.; Blanco, C. C.; Blonder, B.; Bond, W. J.; Bradstock, R.; Bunker, D. E.; Casanoves, F.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chambers, J. Q.; Chapin, F. S.; Chave, J.; Coomes, D.; Cornwell, W. K.; Craine, J. M.; Dobrin, B. H.; Duarte, L.; Durka, W.; Elser, J.; Esser, G.; Estiarte, M.; Fagan, W. F.; Fang, J.; Fernandez-Mendez, F.; Fidelis, A.; Finegan, B.; Flores, O.; Ford, H.; Frank, D.; Freschet, G. T.; Fyllas, N. M.; Gallagher, R. V.; Green, W. A.; Gutierrez, A. G.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Hodgson, J. G.; Jalili, A.; Jansen, S.; Joly, C. A.; Kerkhoff, A. J.; Kirkup, D.; Kitajima, K.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Knops, J. M. H.; Kramer, K.; Kuehn, I.; Kurokawa, H.; Laughlin, D.; Lee, T. D.; Leishman, M.; Lens, F.; Lenz, T.; Lewis, S. L.; Lloyd, J.; Llusia, J.; Louault, F.; Ma, S.; Mahecha, M. D.; Manning, P.; Massad, T.; Medlyn, B. E.; Messier, J.; Moles, A. T.; Mueller, S. C.; Nadrowski, K.; Naeem, S.; Niinemets, Ue.; Noellert, S.; Nueske, A.; Ogaya, R.; Oleksyn, J.; Onipchenko, V. G.; Onoda, Y.; Ordonez, J.; Overbeck, G.; Ozinga, W. A.; Patino, S.; Paula, S.; Pausas, J. G.; Penuelas, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Pillar, V.; Poorter, H.; Poorter, L.; Poschlod, P.; Prinzing, A.; Proulx, R.; Rammig, A.; Reinsch, S.; Reu, B.; Sack, L.; Salgado-Negre, B.; Sardans, J.; Shiodera, S.; Shipley, B.; Siefert, A.; Sosinski, E.; Soussana, J. -F.; Swaine, E.; Swenson, N.; Thompson, K.; Thornton, P.; Waldram, M.; Weiher, E.; White, M.; White, S.; Wright, S. J.; Yguel, B.; Zaehle, S.; Zanne, A. E.; Wirth, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits - the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs - determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from spe

  5. TRY - a global database of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentices, I.C.; Leadley, P.; Bönisch, G.; Garnier, E.; Westobys, M.; Reich, P.B.; Wrights, I.J.; Cornelissen, C.; Violle, C.; Harisson, S.P.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Reichstein, M.; Enquist, B.J.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Ackerly, D.D.; Anand, M.; Atkin, O.; Bahn, M.; Baker, T.R.; Baldochi, D.; Bekker, R.; Blanco, C.C.; Blonders, B.; Bond, W.J.; Bradstock, R.; Bunker, D.E.; Casanoves, F.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chambers, J.Q.; Chapin III, F.S.; Chave, J.; Coomes, D.; Cornwell, W.K.; Craine, J.M.; Dobrin, B.H.; Duarte, L.; Durka, W.; Elser, J.; Esser, G.; Estiarte, M.; Fagan, W.F.; Fang, J.; Fernadez-Mendez, F.; Fidelis, A.; Finegan, B.; Flores, O.; Ford, H.; Frank, D.; Freschet, T.; Fyllas, N.M.; Gallagher, R.V.; Green, W.A.; Gutierrez, A.G.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S.I.; Hodgson, J.G.; Jalili, A.; Jansen, S.; Joly, C.A.; Kerkhoff, A.J.; Kirkup, D.; Kitajima, K.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Knops, J.M.H.; Kramer, K.; Kühn, I.; Kurokawa, H.; Laughlin, D.; Lee, T.D.; Leishman, M.; Lens, F.; Lewis, S.L.; Lloyd, J.; Llusia, J.; Louault, F.; Ma, S.; Mahecha, M.D.; Manning, P.; Massad, T.; Medlyn, B.E.; Messier, J.; Moles, A.T.; Müller, S.C.; Nadrowski, K.; Naeem, S.; Niinemets, Ü.; Nöllert, S.; Nüske, A.; Ogaya, R.; Oleksyn, J.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Onoda, Y.; Ordonez Barragan, J.C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Poorter, L.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from spe

  6. TRY - a global database of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentice, C.; Leadley, P.; Boenisch, G.; Garnier, E.; Westoby, M.; Reich, P. B.; Wright, I. J.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Violle, C.; Harrison, S. P.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Reichstein, M.; Enquist, B. J.; Soudzilovskaia, N. A.; Ackerly, D. D.; Anand, M.; Atkin, O.; Bahn, M.; Baker, T. R.; Baldocchi, D.; Bekker, R.; Blanco, C. C.; Blonder, B.; Bond, W. J.; Bradstock, R.; Bunker, D. E.; Casanoves, F.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chambers, J. Q.; Chapin, F. S.; Chave, J.; Coomes, D.; Cornwell, W. K.; Craine, J. M.; Dobrin, B. H.; Duarte, L.; Durka, W.; Elser, J.; Esser, G.; Estiarte, M.; Fagan, W. F.; Fang, J.; Fernandez-Mendez, F.; Fidelis, A.; Finegan, B.; Flores, O.; Ford, H.; Frank, D.; Freschet, G. T.; Fyllas, N. M.; Gallagher, R. V.; Green, W. A.; Gutierrez, A. G.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Hodgson, J. G.; Jalili, A.; Jansen, S.; Joly, C. A.; Kerkhoff, A. J.; Kirkup, D.; Kitajima, K.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Knops, J. M. H.; Kramer, K.; Kuehn, I.; Kurokawa, H.; Laughlin, D.; Lee, T. D.; Leishman, M.; Lens, F.; Lenz, T.; Lewis, S. L.; Lloyd, J.; Llusia, J.; Louault, F.; Ma, S.; Mahecha, M. D.; Manning, P.; Massad, T.; Medlyn, B. E.; Messier, J.; Moles, A. T.; Mueller, S. C.; Nadrowski, K.; Naeem, S.; Niinemets, Ue.; Noellert, S.; Nueske, A.; Ogaya, R.; Oleksyn, J.; Onipchenko, V. G.; Onoda, Y.; Ordonez, J.; Overbeck, G.; Ozinga, W. A.; Patino, S.; Paula, S.; Pausas, J. G.; Penuelas, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Pillar, V.; Poorter, H.; Poorter, L.; Poschlod, P.; Prinzing, A.; Proulx, R.; Rammig, A.; Reinsch, S.; Reu, B.; Sack, L.; Salgado-Negre, B.; Sardans, J.; Shiodera, S.; Shipley, B.; Siefert, A.; Sosinski, E.; Soussana, J. -F.; Swaine, E.; Swenson, N.; Thompson, K.; Thornton, P.; Waldram, M.; Weiher, E.; White, M.; White, S.; Wright, S. J.; Yguel, B.; Zaehle, S.; Zanne, A. E.; Wirth, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits - the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs - determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from spe

  7. Survey of poisonous plants in Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some verbal reports also indicate the presence of plant species, which are .... morphological similarity of the plants and/or vernacular names), and ..... animals and occasionally foes. Although an ... mRNA resulting in cell death. Symptoms.

  8. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  9. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  10. 'Egusi' Melon Accessions Using Agro- Morphological and Molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    'Egusi' melon is an important vegetable crop in the tropics and subtropics .... length, number of days to first fruiting, number of fruits per plants, fruit circumference, ..... morphological classification because molecular markers have the ability to ...

  11. Morphological and cytological differences within the species Lupinus luteus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lupinus luteus L. from five different geographical proveniences were investigated morphologically and cytologically. The plants originating from Palestine differ from the rest in many morphological traits. Cytologically they differ by one chromosomal translocation. The Palestinian plants give semisterile F1 hybrids with the rest of the species. They are described as a new subspecies: Lupinus luteus L. ssp. orientalis Kazim. et. Kazim.

  12. Morphology of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  14. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openin

  15. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openings and closi

  16. Morphological image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De; Kawakatsu, T.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a morphological image analysis method to characterize images in terms of geometry and topology. We present a method to compute the morphological properties of the objects building up the image and apply the method to triply periodic minimal surfaces and to images taken from polymer chemi

  17. Morphological image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, H; Kawakatsu, T; Landau, DP; Lewis, SP; Schuttler, HB

    2001-01-01

    We describe a morphological image analysis method to characterize images in terms of geometry and topology. We present a method to compute the morphological properties of the objects building up the image and apply the method to triply periodic minimal surfaces and to images taken from polymer chemi

  18. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  19. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphological representation assigned to a complex word must provide the formal structure .... This brings us to the cases where, on Williams's (1981a:258) analysis, the compositional notion ...... Die en moda Ii tei t . Kaaps tad: Ba 1 kema.

  1. Morphological associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G X; Sussner, P; Diza-de-Leon, J L

    1998-01-01

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. A nonlinear activation function usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network and set the next state of the neuron. In this paper we introduce a novel class of artificial neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before possible application of a nonlinear activation function. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. The main emphasis of the research presented here is on morphological associative memories. We examine the computing and storage capabilities of morphological associative memories and discuss differences between morphological models and traditional semilinear models such as the Hopfield net.

  2. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  3. Natural plant genetic engineer Agrobacterium rhizogenes: role of T-DNA in plant secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sheela

    2012-03-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a natural plant genetic engineer. It is a gram-negative soil bacterium that induces hairy root formation. Success has been obtained in exploring the molecular mechanisms of transferred DNA (T-DNA) transfer, interaction with host plant proteins, plant defense signaling and integration to plant genome for successful plant genetic transformation. T-DNA and corresponding expression of rol genes alter morphology and plant host secondary metabolism. During transformation, there is a differential loss of a few T-DNA genes. Loss of a few ORFs drastically affect the growth and morphological patterns of hairy roots, expression pattern of biosynthetic pathway genes and accumulation of specific secondary metabolites.

  4. Morphological bidirectional associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G X.; Diaz-de-Leon, J L.; Sussner, P

    1999-07-01

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we discuss a novel class of artificial neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different from those of traditional neural network models. The main emphasis of the research presented here is on morphological bidirectional associative memories (MBAMs). In particular, we establish a mathematical theory for MBAMs and provide conditions that guarantee perfect bidirectional recall for corrupted patterns. Some examples that illustrate performance differences between the morphological model and the traditional semilinear model are also given.

  5. Leaf epidermal micro-morphology characteristics of five plants in Rosaceae%蔷薇科5种植物叶表皮微形态特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪梅; 范曾丽

    2012-01-01

    As seen under an optical microscope, the experiment conducted an observation and a study on micro-morphological char- acters of leaf epidermis of five species in three genera, namely Malus halliana, Rosa banksiae Ait, Rosa multiflora Thunb, Rosa xan- thina, Rose maximowicziana. And some quantity indices were measured by analysis system of microphotograph. The results revealed that the epidermal structure of the five Rosaceae speeies is the same type: almost adaxial epidermis are polygonal shapes and their anticlinal walls are mainly fiat or shallow wavy. Abaxial epidermises are irregular and their anticlinal wails are mainly fiat or shallow wavy. Stomatal apparatus distribute around the outer epidermis, being random. But the types of anticlinal wall , the proportionment of length to width of stomatal aperture and the index of stomatal apparatus eet. are different among species. Therefore, leaf epidermal morphology may verify the systematic relationships and classification of Rosaceae.%在光学显微镜下,对蔷薇科3属5种植物,即垂丝海棠、七里香、多花蔷薇、黄刺玫、伞花蔷薇的叶表皮微形态特征进行观察和研究,并测定相应的数量指标。结果表明,5种蔷薇科植物叶表皮形态较为一致:上表皮几乎全为多边形,垂周壁平直或浅波状;下表皮多为无规则型,垂周壁平直或浅波状;气孔器均分布在下表皮,均为无规则型。但表皮细胞垂周壁式样、气孔长短轴之比及气孔器指数等细微特征在种间存在差异,可以区分种类。因此,叶表皮特征对于蔷薇科种类的划分和亲缘关系的确定具有一定的分类学意义。

  6. Review on the Morphology Distribution and Monitoring Methods of Mercury in Coal-Fired Power Plant%燃煤电厂汞的形态分布及监测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓勇; 张金池; 蔡同锋; 张布伟

    2014-01-01

    Mercury pollution is serious in China because it is a big country used energy from burning coal. The harmfulness of mercury has been widely focused, and many measures have been taken to control its emissions. In order to achieve effective control of mercury, morphology distribution and monitoring methods of mercury were introduced in this paper, and Ontario Hydro Method and Solid Adsorption were analyzed in detail as well. In addition, the advantages and shortcomings of these two kinds of methods were presented and stated the recommended monitoring methods in our country at present.%我国是燃煤大国,汞污染严重,其危害性已被广泛关注。为了实现汞的有效控制,对燃煤电厂汞的形态分布和监测方法进行了介绍,并对监测方法中常用的安大略法和固体吸附法做了详细分析,列举了其优点和不足之处,同时也分析了我国现行的推荐监测方法。

  7. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; Eerd, A.R.T. van; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few representat

  8. Aspects of Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we review the basic concepts of integral-geometry-based morphological image analysis. This approach yields an objective, numerical characterization of two- and three-dimensional patterns in terms of geometrical and topological descriptors called Minkowski functionals. We review its mat

  9. Vocabulary— Teaching Through Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A large vocabulary is crucial to learners of English, but how to teach vocabulary effectively is equally important to a teacher of English. This article tries to emphasize the importance of part of speech in vocabulary teaching by analyzing the characteristics of English words from the aspect of morphology.

  10. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin

    2010-01-01

    in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations...

  11. Water level-dependent morphological plasticity in Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. and Schl. (Alismataceae).

    OpenAIRE

    GR Demetrio; MEA Barbosa; FF Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are able to alter their morphology in response to environmental condition variation, such as water level fluctuations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water level on Sagittaria montevidensis morphology through measures of vegetative structures formed in drought and flood periods. We hypothesised that the plant height and the biomass of S. montevidensis leaves will increase during flood periods, while the biomass and diameter of petioles, and the basal plant ...

  12. Characterization of recommended banana cultivars using morphological and molecular descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onildo Nunes de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New banana varieties with superior agronomical characteristics have been developed through introductionand/or genetic breeding. In order to guarantee its marketing and intellectual property, these new varieties need to becharacterized by efficient inheritable qualitative morphological and molecular descriptors. The aim of the research was tocharacterize recommended banana varieties using qualitative morphological and molecular descriptors. Twelve genotypeswere analyzed using 61 morphological descriptors where 17 were related to the plant, 24 to the bunch and 20 regarding theflower. Eighty-one molecular markers; 47 RAPD primers and 34 SSR primers were used. The morphological and moleculardescriptors were efficient in the characterization and identification of specific characteristics for most of the varieties evaluated.Plant and inflorescence descriptors presented the greatest variability of characteristics that can facilitate its use for cultivarprotection and registration

  13. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattge, J.; Lens, F.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from spe

  14. Impact of Metals on Secondary Metabolites Production and Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Morphological changes associated with metal-induced stress were also examined with a scanning electron ... transfers and other essential metabolic processes in plants;3 ... affect the development and health of plants by inhibiting vital.

  15. Of Plants, and Other Secrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I inquire into the reasons for the all-too-frequent association of plants and secrets. Among various hypotheses explaining this connection from the standpoint of plant morphology and physiology, the one that stands out is the idea that plants are not only objects in the natural environment, but also subjects with a peculiar mode of accessing the world. The core of the “plant enigma” is, therefore, onto-phenomenological. Positively understood, the secret of their subjectivity leaves just enough space for the self-expression and the self-interpretation of vegetal life.

  16. Morfología de la planta y características de rendimiento y calidad de almidón de sagú Plant morphology, yield and quality of sagú starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2010-07-01

    estabilidad en el tiempo. Los índices de solubilidad y absorción de agua fueron de 1.23 y 2.8%, respectivamente.For Colombian people the edible fruit of Sagú Maranta arundinacea are the rhizome. This is used in an informal way by their starch in different products elaboration for human feeding. However, their agronomy is unknown. Plant propagation, dais to rhizome harvest, native starch production and chemical and phytochemical of the integral plant was analyzed. The cultivation settled down to open sky with 0.5x1.0 m. inside furrow and among furrows respectively. Uses descriptive statistic for the quantitative data (central tendency measures, of variation and of deviation. He mature plant reached a height among 50 y 75 cm. and a yield of fresh rhizome among 1.46 to 1.94 kg.plant-1. The crop index oscillates among 0.06 to 0.60. The native starch surrendered by the fresh rhizome fluctuated among 7.2 y 8.1%. The composition of the rhizome was 22.3; 7.4; 3.62; 1.02; 6.98 y 80.9% for DM, CP, CF, FNE and Ash respectively. The available fresh forage was negative for phytochemical tests and it presented 41.3; 22.0; 22.5; 15.06; 57.13; 32.3; 9.2; 23.13 y 24.8% for DM, CP, CF, ash, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose y hemicellulose respectively. The Relative feed value (RFV was 103.0. The granulate was ellipsoidal of 8 µm of diameter and compound for 20.54% amylose and 79.46% amylopectin, that it generates an opaque and resistant pasta to the retro gradation. The final temperature of jellification was 73° C, the maximum viscosity of the pasta was of 220 Brabender units (B. U., presenting a defined pick of viscosity and later conservation of the trajectory with stability in the time. The index of solubility and absorption of water was 1.23 y 2.8% respectively.

  17. Calcium signaling during the plant-plant interaction of parasitic Cuscuta reflexa with its hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, M.; Kaiser, B.; Krol, van der A.R.; Kaldenhoff, R.

    2010-01-01

    The plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces various responses in compatible and incompatible host plants. The visual reactions of both types of host plants including obvious morphological changes require the recognition of Cuscuta ssp. A consequently initiated signaling cascade is triggered which lea

  18. Calcium signaling during the plant-plant interaction of parasitic Cuscuta reflexa with its hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, M.; Kaiser, B.; Krol, van der A.R.; Kaldenhoff, R.

    2010-01-01

    The plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces various responses in compatible and incompatible host plants. The visual reactions of both types of host plants including obvious morphological changes require the recognition of Cuscuta ssp. A consequently initiated signaling cascade is triggered which

  19. Evolutionary developmental genetics of fruit morphological variation within the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Zhao, Jing; He, Chaoying

    2015-01-01

    Morphological variations of fruits such as shape and size, and color are a result of adaptive evolution. The evolution of morphological novelties is particularly intriguing. An understanding of these evolutionary processes calls for the elucidation of the developmental and genetic mechanisms that result in particular fruit morphological characteristics, which determine seed dispersal. The genetic and developmental basis for fruit morphological variation was established at a microevolutionary time scale. Here, we summarize the progress on the evolutionary developmental genetics of fruit size, shape and color in the Solanaceae. Studies suggest that the recruitment of a pre-existing gene and subsequent modification of its interaction and regulatory networks are frequently involved in the evolution of morphological diversity. The basic mechanisms underlying changes in plant morphology are alterations in gene expression and/or gene function. We also deliberate on the future direction in evolutionary developmental genetics of fruit morphological variation such as fruit type. These studies will provide insights into plant developmental processes and will help to improve the productivity and fruit quality of crops.

  20. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS IN LATE SUMMER IN THE TIANZHU MOUNTAIN, ANHUI PROVINCE%安徽天柱山夏末开花植物的花粉形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余世金; 周忠泽; 张中信; 潘少兵

    2011-01-01

    通过光镜和扫描电镜对天柱山夏末开花的23科、39属、37种3变种的植物花粉形态进行了观察研究.从形状看,一些科内花粉形状具有一致性,如菊科[Asteraceae Dumortier (Compositae Giseke,nom.altern.)]6个种都是球形或近球形(P/E=0.95-1.03);豆科(Leguminosae Lindl.)7个种多数都属长球形(P/E=1.05-1.30),只有鸡眼草[Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Cshindl.]为近球形(P/E= 1.05);伞形科[Apiaceae Lindl.(Umbelliferae A.L.de Juss)]的2个种都是长球形.也有一些科内花粉形状具有明显差异,如蔷薇科(Rosaceae A.L.de Juss.)的2个种中,龙牙草(Agrimonia pilosaL.)P/E为1.56,属长球形;柔毛水杨梅(Geum japonicum Thunb.var.chinense Bolle)的平均P/E为1.07,属近球形.科内花粉萌发孔的结构基本相似,如旋参科(Scrophulariaceae A.L.de Juss.)的3个种都为3沟;豆科的7个种都为3孔沟;菊科的6个种中5个种为3孔沟,只有革命草(Gynura crepidioides Benth.)具有3孔沟和4孔沟两种结构.科内花粉外壁纹饰具有一致性,如豆科中的7个种、伞形科中的2个种、玄参科中的3个种都为细网状,菊科的6个种为刺状,鸭跖草科(Commelinaceae R.Brown)的2个种为颗粒状.%Pollen morphology of 37 species and 3 varieties representing 39 genera* 23 families from the Tianzhu mountain, Anhui in late summer are described and illustrated under light microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In some families, the shape of pollen are consistency. For example, the six species of Asteraceae Dumortier (Compositae Giseke, nom. Altern. ) are all spheroidal or subspheroidal (P/E=0. 95-1.03) > in seven spe-cies of Leguminosae Lindl. , six are prolate (P/E= 1. 05-1. 30) and only one -Kummerowia striata (Thunb. ) Cshindl. Is subspheroidal (P/E=l. 05). Two species of Apiaceae Lindl. (Umbelliferae A. L. De Juss) are prolate. In other families< the differences of the pollen's shape are obvious. In Rosaceae A. L. De Juss. , Agrimonia pilosa

  1. Water level-dependent morphological plasticity in Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. and Schl. (Alismataceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Demetrio

    Full Text Available Aquatic plants are able to alter their morphology in response to environmental condition variation, such as water level fluctuations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water level on Sagittaria montevidensis morphology through measures of vegetative structures formed in drought and flood periods. We hypothesised that the plant height and the biomass of S. montevidensis leaves will increase during flood periods, while the biomass and diameter of petioles, and the basal plant area will increase during dry periods. We sampled a total amount of 270 individuals in nine sediment banks per visit, totalling 1080 plants. In order to compare plant morphology between dry and flood periods, we measured the water level in each bank and took the following variables for each plant: diameter, height and diameter of the biggest petiole. In order to compare biomass allocation between dry and flood periods, we sampled a total amount of 90 individuals in nine sediment banks per visit, totalling 360 plants. Plants were dried and weighed in the laboratory. All measured morphologic traits, as well as the biomass of leaf blades and petioles, were higher during flood periods, indicating that water level highly influences the morphology of S. montevidensis individuals. Our results suggest that these morphological responses allow survival and maintenance of S. montevidensis populations under environmental stress. These results can be linked to the invasive potential of S. montevidensis and sheds light on basic management practices that may be applied in the future.

  2. Water level-dependent morphological plasticity in Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. and Schl. (Alismataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrio, G R; Barbosa, M E A; Coelho, F F

    2014-08-01

    Aquatic plants are able to alter their morphology in response to environmental condition variation, such as water level fluctuations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water level on Sagittaria montevidensis morphology through measures of vegetative structures formed in drought and flood periods. We hypothesised that the plant height and the biomass of S. montevidensis leaves will increase during flood periods, while the biomass and diameter of petioles, and the basal plant area will increase during dry periods. We sampled a total amount of 270 individuals in nine sediment banks per visit, totalling 1080 plants. In order to compare plant morphology between dry and flood periods, we measured the water level in each bank and took the following variables for each plant: diameter, height and diameter of the biggest petiole. In order to compare biomass allocation between dry and flood periods, we sampled a total amount of 90 individuals in nine sediment banks per visit, totalling 360 plants. Plants were dried and weighed in the laboratory. All measured morphologic traits, as well as the biomass of leaf blades and petioles, were higher during flood periods, indicating that water level highly influences the morphology of S. montevidensis individuals. Our results suggest that these morphological responses allow survival and maintenance of S. montevidensis populations under environmental stress. These results can be linked to the invasive potential of S. montevidensis and sheds light on basic management practices that may be applied in the future.

  3. [On similarities and differences between morphological concepts of Linnaeus and Goethe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korona, V V

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of C. Linnaeus' and J.W. Goethe's morphological ideas shows that they both deal with structure of object under study however Linnaeus understood it perceptive structure while Goethe as its proper structure. Perceptive structure is an image (Gestalt) formed in observer's mind and recognized by the discriminating traits. The proper object structure is composed of its morphological elements, that can be distinguished only by a special study of their transformations. Notion of the plants modular construction originated within Goethe's ideas about plant morphology. We cannot expect any remarkable advances in modular theory as well in the descriptive and constructive morphology until conceptual differences between these two approaches will be understood.

  4. Shaping plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eTeichmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models.Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture

  5. 水泥厂废旧除尘布袋热重分析及其形态特征%Thermogravimetric analysis and morphological characteristics of waste filter bag from cement plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海斌; 宁寻安; 廖希凯; 刘敬勇; 吴坚荣

    2013-01-01

    采用综合热重分析法,对水泥厂3种不同工段的废旧除尘布袋及相对应的同型号新布袋进行了热重(TG)分析实验研究.结果表明,废旧除尘布袋热重分析的升温过程中主要有3个失重峰,前两个失重峰与涤纶纤维的燃烧析出相对应,第3个失重峰主要是碳酸钙分解的结果.采用积分法(Coats-Redfern方程)计算得到各阶段燃烧反应的机理方程及相应的活化能参数.分析表明,在低温段废旧布袋中的灰尘对燃烧反应影响不大,而在高温段废旧布袋中的灰尘导致燃烧反应活化能升高,阻碍燃烧反应进行.从电镜扫描和能谱分析可知,废旧除尘布袋中的涤纶纤维几乎被焚烧殆尽,剩下的少量焚烧灰渣由C、O、Si、Ca等主要元素,以及Ti、Al、Mg、Mn、Fe等次要元素组成.这种灰渣与水泥成分类似,具有较高的回收利用价值.%The combustion characteristics of waste filter bags from three working sections in a cement plant and new filter bags of the same model were studied by thermogravimetric analysis.The results showed that there were three obvious stages of weight loss in the waste filter bag combustion curves,and the first two stages were corresponded to the combustion of polyester while the third stage was caused by the decomposition of CaCO3.Both the reaction equations for different combustion periods and the corresponding activation energies were obtained by using the Coats-Redfern equation.The data indicated that dust in the filter bag had a little influence on the activation energy for combustion at low temperature,while it led to an increase of the activation energy at high temperature and thus hindered the combustion reaction.According to the results by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrum analysis,the polyester in waste filter bag had been burned off,and only a small amount of ash remained.The main elements of the ash were C,O,Si and Ca,and the minor elements were Ti

  6. Aplicação de bioestimulante nas características ampelométricas da infrutescência da videira 'Tieta' Effect of plant growth regulators application on the cluster and berry morphological characteristics of 'Tieta' grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio foi conduzido em 2003, em vinhedo de 'Tieta'. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de bioestimulante nas características dos cachos de uva. Foi aplicado o produto Stimulate® que contém em sua fórmula 0,09g L-1 de cinetina (citocinina, 0,05g L-1 de ácido giberélico (giberelina e 0,05mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (auxina. Os tratamentos consistiram na imersão dos cachos, 15 dias após o florescimento, em solução aquosa de 0,5% do adjuvante Natura'l Óleo, acrescidos de 5 doses de Stimulate®: 0; 28; 56; 84 e 112 ml L-1. Analisaram-se o comprimento, a largura e o peso dos cachos, bagos e engaço e o diâmetro do pedicelo. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a maior massa fresca dos cachos foi obtida em função do aumento do número de bagos fixados na ráquis e da massa do engaço. O Stimulate® associado ao Natura'l Óleo provocou o aparecimento de manchas marrons nos bagos e depreciando na qualidade, diminuiu o tamanho dos bagos e atrasou a maturação dos frutos.The trial was carried out in 2003 in a vineyard of 'Tieta'. The objective was to evaluat the effects of plant growth regulator application on the cluster characteristics. The growth regulator used was the Stimulate witch consists in a mix of 0.09g L-1 of kinetin (cytokinin, 0.05g L-1 gibberellic acid (gibberellin e 0.05mg L-1 of indolbutiric acid (auxin. The treatments consisted of the cluster dipping, fifteen days after bloom, in an aqueous solution containing 0.5% of the surfactant Natura'l Óleo, added five dosis of Stimulate®: 0, 28, 56, 84 e 112ml L-1. The width, length and mass of clusters, berries and rachis, and pedicel diameter were evaluated. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks. The results showed that the mass of the cluster occurred by the increased of the number of berries per cluster and the mass of the rachis. The Stimulate® associated to the Natura'l Oil produced brown

  7. Comparative study of plant morphological characteristics and photosynthetic physiological characteristics of wild and cultivated Paeonia lactiflora%野生和栽培芍药植株形态特征与光合生理特性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋玲; 魏胜利; 王文全

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the plant morphological characteristics and photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Paeonia Radix Rubra and I'aeonia Radix Alba, and find evidence of whether there are intraspecific variations of Paeonia lactiflora. Method: With wild and cultivated P. lactiflora of the roots as asexual reproduction materials for cultivation experiment , morphological index, photosynthetic parameters and photosynthetic pigment content were measured. Result: In the 9 of morphological characteristics between wild and cultivated P. lactiflora, the number of leaf, blade length, the width of leaf and the length of top leaf showed a significant difference. The variances within wild P. lactiflora group were big than those within cultivated P. lactiflora in 8 of morphological characteristics. In photosynthetic physiological characteristics, wild P. lactiflora were significantly higher than cultivated P. lactiflora in Max. net photosynthetic rate( Pmax), light compensation point( LCP), light saturation point( LSP), CO2 saturation point (C5P) and CO2 saturated Pn(Pm). And significantly lower than cultivated P. lactiflora in maximum net photosynthetic rate(/Pmax), light compensation point(LCP), light in apparent quantum yield( AQY), CO2 compensation point(CCP), carboxylation efficiency(CE)and photosynthetic pigment content. Conclusion: Wild and cultivated P. lactiflora have significant difference in morphological characteristics of leaf and photosynthetic physiological characteristics.%目的:对野生和栽培芍药植株形态特征和光合生理特征进行比较研究,旨在从形态和生理生态特性的角度找到赤芍和白芍的差异,为二者是否存在种内变异分化找到进一步的证据.方法:以野生芍药和栽培芍药的根茎作为无性繁殖材料进行栽培试验,在其生长期测定二者的植株地上部分形态指标、光响应曲线、CO2响应曲线和光合色素含量.结果:在形态特征

  8. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  9. Morphologic aspects of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, D E; Späth, M

    1998-01-01

    The most common morphological finding in muscle biopsies in longstanding fibromyalgia is type II fiber atrophy. This can be found in many other conditions such as disuse atrophy, affections of the corticospinal tracts, steroid atrophy, and other different neuromuscular disorders. An increase in lipid droplets and a slight proliferation of mitochondria in type I muscle fibers are correlated with the duration of fibromyalgia. In some cases we could find some ragged red fibers (RRF) which histochemically show a pronounced accumulation of lipids and mitochondria and single fiber defects of cytochrome-c-oxidase. In some fibromyalgia patients with RRF, we could find deletions of the mitochondrial genoma.

  10. 牛膝菊属两种外来入侵植物叶片的形态解剖结构比较研究%The comparison on leaf morphology and anatomy of two invasive plant of Galinsoga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昌恩梓; 齐淑艳; 孔令群; 李晓春; 申柳

    2012-01-01

    and G. quadriradiata. The characters of leaf epidermis are fairly similar in the shades of surface cells, the types and position of stomata apparatus between G. parviflora and G. quadriradiata. The leaf epidermal cells are irregular in shape with the undulate anticlinal walls. The stomata of 2 species of Galinsoga,occur on both sides of the leaf but are more numerous on the lower surface, the difference was very significant (P<0. 01). The guard cells in the genus Galinsoga are crescent-shaped and the type of stomata apparatus is anomocytic. The upper epidermis and the lower epidermis consist of one layer cell. The thickness of upper epidermis is more than the other side of it, the difference was significant (P<0. 05). The mesophyll of these two species were differentiated into spongy parenchyma and palisade parenchyma. There is a vascular bundle in the midrib. G. parviflora and G. quadriradiata belongs to C3 plant.

  11. Domestication and plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haibao; Sezen, Uzay; Paterson, Andrew H

    2010-04-01

    The techniques of plant improvement have been evolving with the advancement of technology, progressing from crop domestication by Neolithic humans to scientific plant breeding, and now including DNA-based genotyping and genetic engineering. Archeological findings have shown that early human ancestors often unintentionally selected for and finally fixed a few major domestication traits over time. Recent advancement of molecular and genomic tools has enabled scientists to pinpoint changes to specific chromosomal regions and genetic loci that are responsible for dramatic morphological and other transitions that distinguish crops from their wild progenitors. Extensive studies in a multitude of additional crop species, facilitated by rapid progress in sequencing and resequencing(s) of crop genomes, will further our understanding of the genomic impact from both the unusual population history of cultivated plants and millennia of human selection.

  12. Annotation on Mangrove Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伯荪; 张炜银; 梁士楚; 昝启杰

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the technical terms and definition of mangrove and mangal, as well as mangrove plant. The word mangrove has been used to refer either to the constituent plant of tropical and subtropical intertidal community or to the community itself, but this usage makes more confusion. Being leaved mangrove in the more limited sense for the constituent plant species, mangal was proposed by MacNae (1968) as aterm for mangrove community, which has been universally applied to most previous studies and should be adopted now. Mangrove should be therefore defined as a tropical and subtropical tree restricted to intertidal zones, which possesses some morphological specializion and physiological mechanism adapted to its habitat, and mangal as a tropical and subtropical forest community restricted to marine intertidal zones and periodically inundeated by the tides. A new term ″consortive plant″ is proposed here for herb, liana, epiphyte or parasite, which is restricted in the strict mangrove habitat.

  13. Morphology of Proeutectoid Ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiaqing; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of grain boundary nucleated ferrite particles in iron alloys with 0.3 mass pct carbon has been classified according to the presence of facets. Several kinds of particles extend into both grains of austenite and have facets to both. It is proposed that they all belong to a continuous series of shapes. Ferrite plates can nucleate directly on the grain boundary but can also develop from edges on many kinds of particles. Feathery structures of parallel plates on both sides of a grain boundary can thus form. In sections, parallel to their main growth direction, plates have been seen to extend the whole way from the nucleation site at the grain boundary and to the growth front. This happens in the whole temperature range studied from 973 K to 673 K (700 °C to 400 °C). The plates thus grow continuously and not by subunits stopping at limited length and continuing the growth by new ones nucleating. Sometimes, the plates have ridges and in oblique sections they could be mistaken for the start of new plates. No morphological signs were observed indicating a transition between Widmanstätten ferrite and bainitic ferrite. It is proposed that there is only one kind of acicular ferrite.

  14. Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant waxes are considered as promising alternatives to unhealthy solid fats such as trans fats and saturated fats in structured food products including margarines and spreads. Sunflower wax is of a great interest due to its strong gelling ability. Morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in soyb...

  15. Morphological and molecular based diversity studies of some cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... 2Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Cape ... The current study therefore investigated genetic diversity among ... application of morphological descriptors in management of ..... environment and subject to environment x cultivar .... in plants: a new class of molecular markers.

  16. Morphological diversity of mango germplasm from the upper Athi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Phenotypic variation in plants can be evaluated by morphological ... for use in the visual assessment of 98 mango accessions from 15 sites of the UAR ... of the selected 20; however, ANOVA and Chi square test revealed that diversity ...

  17. Heat Effects on Living Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Hare

    1961-01-01

    This review of knowledge concerning the effects of high temperatures on plants was undertaken in preparation for research aimed at determining how forest fires affect physiological processes in woody species. Major subjects discussed include morphological and physiological responses to high temperatures, external and internal factors governing these responses,...

  18. Morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from contrasting locations in southern tropical India - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsan, A.E.; Priyamvada, H.; Ravikrishna, R.; Despres, V.R.; Biju, C.V.; Sahu, L.K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Verma, R.S.; Philip, L.; Gunthe, S.S.

    great variability in their morphological features over this region of the world At these contrasting environments, we found that fungal spores constituted the major fraction of the total observed bioaerosols Pollen grains, plant and insect fragments...

  19. Growth and development of true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottbøll) : with special reference to accumulation of starch in the trunk : a study on morphology, genetic variation and ecophysiology, and their implications for cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Metroxylon sagu, Arecaceae, starch crops, plant growth and development, plant morphology, inflorescence structure, electron microscopy, phenological scale, genetic variation, plant taxonomy, folk taxonomy, ethnobotany, leaf area, leaf area index, starch accumulation, starch distribution, p

  20. Compatible plant-aphid interactions: how aphids manipulate plant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, Philippe; Brunissen, Laurence; Rusterucci, Christine; Vincent, Charles; van Bel, Aart; Dinant, Sylvie; Girousse, Christine; Faucher, Mireille; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    To access phloem sap, aphids have developed a furtive strategy, their stylets progressing towards sieve tubes mainly through the apoplasmic compartment. Aphid feeding requires that they overcome a number of plant responses, ranging from sieve tube occlusion and activation of phytohormone-signalling pathways to expression of anti-insect molecules. In addition to bypassing plant defences, aphids have been shown to affect plant primary metabolism, which could be a strategy to improve phloem sap composition in nutrients required for their growth. During compatible interactions, leading to successful feeding and reproduction, aphids cause alterations in their host plant, including morphological changes, modified resource allocation and various local as well as systemic symptoms. Repeated salivary secretions injected from the first probe in the epidermal tissue up to ingestion of sieve-tube sap may play a crucial role in the compatibility between the aphid and the plant.

  1. Generation of fuzzy mathematical morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology aims to extend the binary morphological operators to grey-level images. In order to define the basic morphological operations fuzzy erosion, dilation, opening and closing, we introduce a general method based upon fuzzy implication and inclusion grade operators, including as particular case, other ones existing in related literature In the definition of fuzzy erosion and dilation we use several fuzzy implications (Annexe A, Table of fuzzy implic...

  2. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  3. 发根农杆菌T-DNA基因对3种葛属植物毛状根形态和葛根素含量的影响%EFFECTS OF AGROBACTERIUM RHIZOGENE T-DNA GENES ON MORPHOLOGY AND PUERARIN CONTENT IN THREE PUERARAE PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传飞; 李玲; 潘瑞炽; 金乐红

    2001-01-01

    Direct in vitro infection of leaves in vitro of three puerarae plants, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi.,P. lobata var. montana (Lour.) van der Maesen. and P.phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth.,with R1601 strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes induced hairy roots with the capacity to produce puerarin. Hair roots cultured in vitro showed two morphologies: One was typical hairy roots with high puerarin content, and the other was callus-like hairy roots with low puerarin content and fast growth. Rol B gene in all typical and callus-like hairy roots indicted that rol genes were necessary for induction of all transformed roots showing typical hairy root and callus-like morphologies. Aux1 gene, existed in all callus-like hairy roots but only in 20%~50% typical hairy roots, suggested a significant role of aux genes in induction of callus on transformed roots. Puerarin content in hairy roots harboring ags gene was lower than that in those without ags gene, suggesting that the detriment of ags gene to secondary metabolite production. Tab 3, Ref 12%野葛、山葛和三裂叶葛的离体叶片与发根农杆菌R1601直接感染诱导出毛状根并能够合成葛根素,毛状根离体培养后均出现两种形态:一种是有较高的葛根素含量的典型毛状根,另一种是葛根素含量低但生长速率较快的愈伤组织化毛状根.两类毛状根均有rolB基因存在,表明rolB基因对所有毛状根的诱导和生长是必需的.aux1存在于所有愈伤组织化毛状根,而在典型毛状根中的检出率为20%~50%,表明aux1 基因有诱导毛状根产生愈伤组织的作用.含有ags基因的毛状根葛根素含量低于不含ags基因的毛状根葛根素含量,表明ags基因不利于次生代谢物合成. 表3 参12

  4. Linking parasitic plant-induced host morphology to tritrophic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailen A. Mooney; Brian W. Geils; Yan B. Linhart

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the tritrophic interactions among southwestern dwarf mistletoe [Arceuthobium vaginatum (Willd.) Presl subsp. cryptopodum], mistletoe herbivores, and host pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. and C. Laws. variety scopulorum Engelm.) associated predators. In an observational study, we characterized differences in...

  5. Nomenclature and the National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The National Wetland Plant List (NWPL) is being revised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S...Wetland Plant List The National Wetland Plant List (NWPL) is being revised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service... phylogenies predicated on molecular sequence analyses in combination with morphological char- acteristics and other biological and habitat features. ERDC

  6. Plant tendrils: Nature's hygroscopic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbode, Sharon; Puzey, Joshua; McCormick, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    Plant tendrils are specialized climbing organs that have fascinated biologists and physicists alike for centuries. Initially straight tendrils attach at the tip to an elevated rigid support and then winch the plant upward by coiling into a helical morphology characterized by two helices of opposite handedness connected by a helical perversion. In his renowned treatise on twining and tendril-bearing plants, Charles Darwin surmised that coiled tendrils serve as soft, springy attachments for the climbing plant. Yet, the true effect of the perverted helical shape of a coiled plant tendril has not been fully revealed. Using a combination of experiments on Cucurbitaceae tendrils, physical models constructed from strained rubber sheets, and numerical models of helical perversions, we have uncovered that tendril coiling occurs via anisotropic shrinkage of a strip of specialized cells in the interior of the tendril. Furthermore, variations in the mechanical behavior of tendrils as they become drier and ``woodier'' adds a new twist to the story of tendril coiling.

  7. Differentiating morphology, form, and meaning: neural correlates of morphological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Davis, Matthew H; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2007-09-01

    The role of morphological structure in word recognition raises issues about the nature and structure of the language system. One major issue is whether morphological factors provide an independent principle for lexical organization and processing, or whether morphological effects can be reduced to the joint contribution of form and meaning. The independence of form, meaning, and morphological structure can be directly investigated using derivationally complex words, because derived words can share form but need not share meaning (e.g., archer-arch). We used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to investigate priming between pairs of words that potentially shared a stem, where this link was either semantically transparent (e.g., bravely-brave) or opaque (e.g., archer-arch). These morphologically related pairs were contrasted with identity priming (e.g., mist-mist) and priming for pairs of words that shared only form (e.g., scandal-scan) or meaning (e.g., accuse-blame). Morphologically related words produced significantly reduced activation in left frontal regions, whether the pairs were semantically transparent or opaque. The effect was not found for any of the control conditions (identity, form, or meaning). Morphological effects were observed separately from processing form and meaning and we propose that they reflect segmentation of complex derived words, a process triggered by surface morphological structure of complex words.

  8. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  9. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  10. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sunshine, air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axi-omatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory, scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent, such as deserts,islands, water surfaces, South and North poles and space, as well as in human habi-tats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  11. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China starts to produce vegetables and fruits in a factory sunshine,air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axiomatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory,scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent,such as deserts, islands,water surfaces,South and North poles and space,as well as in human habitats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  12. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  13. Alterações bioquímicas de plantas e morfológicas de gemas de cafeeiro associadas a eventos do florescimento em resposta a elementos meteorológicos Biochemical alterations of plants and bud morphology of coffee tree associated to events on flowering in response to meteorological elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Neves do Nascimento

    2008-08-01

    these interactions can enhance the knowledge and promote better handling of the crop in field, mainly related to irrigation to promote synchronized flowering and consequently the uniform fruit maturation, lowering the production costs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bud morphology, proline and abscisic acic biosynthesis on coffee plants under different environmental conditions in order to contribute to the knowledge in factors that influence flowering synchronization. Scanning electron microscopic was performed on buds of plagiotropic shoots weekly collected from November/04 to February/05. Predawn water potential and proline content analysis were carried out from July to September/05 using complete superior third expanded leaves from plagiotropic shoots of non and irrigated plants. Abcisic acid content was also evaluated in xylem sap and on flower buds. The results show alterations on bud morphology associated to the period of water deficit followed by precipitation and also, consequently, lower thermic amplitude. Regarding to the water potential, differences could be observed in the treatments having -0.3 and 0.8MPa for irrigated and -0.6 and -1.5MPa for non-irrigated plants. The highest proline and abcisic acid content are related to dryer period, however there is no direct relationship between these biosynthesis compounds and the different flowering stages evaluated.

  14. 亚高山林线优势种形态结构和竞争力对CO2浓度和温度升高的响应%Responses of morphological structure and competition capability of dominant plant species in subalpine timberline to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯颖; 杨红超; 王开运

    2011-01-01

    By using enclosed-top chambers to simulate the future climate change, this paper studied the responses of the morphological structure and competition capability of subalpine dominant plant species ( Abies faxoniana, Deyeuxia scabrescen, Carex kansuensis, Fragaria orientali, and Cardamine tangutorum) to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature. After two years exposure, the crown volume, specific crown volume, specific leaf area, and specific root length of A. Faxoniana under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration increased by 42% , 65% , 17% , and 19% , respectively. Under elevated air temperature, A. Faxoniana grew faster lengthways, its crown volume increased by 22% , and its root/shoot ratio and specific root length increased by 17%. The interaction of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature increased the crown volume, specific crown volume, specific leaf area, and specific root length of A. Faxoniana by 79% , 197% , 17% , and 18% , respectively. Under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, the D. Scabrescen had an increase of plant height, basal diameter, and leaf number per plant but a decrease of specific leaf area, whereas the C. Kansuensis, F. Orientali , and C. Tangutorum were in adverse. Under elevated air temperature, the root/shoot ratio of D. Scabrescen, C. Kansuensis, F. Orientali, and C. Tangutorum decreased, and the plant height and basal diameter of the herbs except C. Tangutorum also decreased. The interaction of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature increased the basal diameter and leaf number per plant of the four herbs, but decreased their specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio. In sum, both elevated atmospheric C02 concentration and elevated air temperature promoted the formation of A. Faxoniana crown, which was beneficial to the capture of resources and the enhancement of the competition ability per unit mass, but had definite negative effects on the morphological structure and

  15. Identification of Tsuga Germplasm by Morphological Characters and RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROH Mark S; DE BENEDETTI Laura; JOUNG Young Hee; LEE Nam Sook

    2007-01-01

    Germplasm collection is important to preserve and maximize genetic diversity for germplasm conservation. Tsuga dumosa (D. Don) Eichler in Engler & Prantl. and T. chinensis var. forrestii (Downie) Silba germplasm was collected from three localities in China: Mt. Yulong, Wenfeng Temple and Mt. Dishiergu, Yunnan Province. Accessions were identified based on morphological characters and RAPD markers. The shapes of the apices and margins of needles were examined, and the length and width of needles, cones and seeds from accessions of mature plants were used to compare the morphological differences and to identify the germplasm. Molecular markers generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were also used to characterize the taxa. Although the clustering based on RAPD markers was inconsistent with the morphological characters of the needles, based on the overall morphological characters and on RAPD markers, the accessions from Mt. Yulong and Wenfeng Temple were identified as T. chinensis var. forrestii, and those from Mt. Dishiergu identified as T. dumosa. Taxonomic identification of the accessions was made based on morphology and by RAPD markers concurred. The results indicate that the shapes of the apices and margins of needles particularly from young plants could not be used as a possible key to identify T. dumosa and T. chinensis var. forrestii. Fig 6, Tab 3, Ref 24

  16. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions.

  17. Kayardild morphology, phonology and morphosyntax

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    PL7101.G39 , gyd , Gayardilt language --Morphology , Gayardilt language --Phonology Abstract Acknowledgements List of Abbreviations 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and surface phonology 3 Word structure 4 Segmental phonology 5 Prosodic structure and intonation 6 Syntax, morphosyntax and inflection 7 Realisational morphology Appendix A Segmental phonology Appendix B Distribution of A-TAM References

  18. Differential morphology and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, P

    1996-01-01

    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision.

  19. Tense Aspect in Verbal Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed the development of past tense verbal morphology in Spanish second language acquisition among native English speakers divided into three levels of proficiency. Analysis shows that learners may use a default marker of past tense during the beginning stages of development of verbal morphology, but the choice of the default may be dependent…

  20. Autoluminescent plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krichevsky

    Full Text Available Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  1. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  2. Elicitors in Plant Tissue Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krishnamurthy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants or Plant cells in vitro, show physiological and morphological response to microbial, physical or chemical factors which are known as ‘elicitors’. Elicitation is a process of induced or enhanced synthesis of secondary metabolites by the plants to ensure their survival persistence and competitiveness. The application of elicitors, which is currently the focus of research, has been considered as one of the most effective methods to improve the synthesis of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Plant secondary metabolites are unique sources for pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavours and other industrial materials. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. Commonly tested chemical elicitors are salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, bezoic acid, chitosan and so forth which affect production of phenolic compounds and activation of various defense-related enzymes in plants. Plants are challenged by a variety of biotic stresses like fungal, bacterial or viral infections. This lead to the great loss to a plant yield. Here we discuss the classification of elicitors, mechanism of elicitor, the use of elicitors and the different features of elicitors.

  3. Control of the actin cytoskeleton in plant cell growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussey, P.J.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Deeks, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Plant cells grow through increases in volume and cell wall surface area. The mature morphology of a plant cell is a product of the differential rates of expansion between neighboring zones of the cell wall during this process. Filamentous actin arrays are associated with plant cell growth, and the a

  4. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Niaei Fard, S.; Malcolm Matamoros, P.; Meeteren, van U.

    2014-01-01

    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed the

  5. Morphological adaptations of hot springs panic grass (Dichanthelium lanigunosum var sericeum (Schmoll) to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth and productivity of most crops is significantly reduced by exposure to temperatures in excess of 35 ° C. Some plants however thrive in geothermally heated soils characterized by chronic temperatures in excess of 40 ° C. The morphological adaptations that enable these plants to colonize ther...

  6. Branch morphology in young poplar clones on floodplain sites in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen G. Pallardy; Daniel E. Gibbins

    2003-01-01

    Four Populus clones were grown in central Missouri for 2 years at 1 x 1 m spacing to study total biomass production on floodplain sites previously in forage grasses. Branch morphology (living, first-order proleptic, and sylleptic shoots) was assessed for 2-year-old plants. All 2-year-old plants had lateral branches, and clones varied significantly in certain branch...

  7. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  8. Alterações morfológicas foliares em abacaxizeiros cv. IAC "Gomo-de-mel" micropropagados e aclimatizados em diferentes condições de luminosidade Morphological alterations in leave of micropropagated pineapple plants cv. IAC "Gomo-de-mel" acclimatizated in different conditions of luminosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Derlene Batagin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantas micropropagadas geralmente apresentam dificuldades de adaptação ao meio ex vitro, sendo muitas vezes submetidas a processos de rustificação para minimizar os impactos decorrentes da mudança de ambiente. Uma vez que a folha e seus anexos destacam-se como importantes indicativos das estratégias adaptativas das plantas a ambientes adversos, este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar a anatomia foliar de plantas de abacaxi cv. IAC "Gomo-de-mel" cultivadas in vitro com microplantas aclimatizadas em diferentes condições de luminosidade, sob telado com 50% de sombreamento e em pleno sol para verificar a necessidade do processo de rustificação para este cultivar. Avaliações por meio de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura da epiderme foliar, demonstraram aumento na densidade de escamas em ambas as superfícies das folhas, em microplantas dos ambientes ex vitro, principalmente em relação às que foram expostas diretamente ao sol. Observou-se ainda, aumento no espessamento da cutícula, na sinuosidade das células epidérmicas, e na distribuição e quantidade de fibras no mesofilo evidenciando a interferência das condições de luminosidade nas características morfológicas das microplantas. Essas alterações não prejudicaram o desenvolvimento das microplantas, indicando que não são necessárias etapas de rustificação para a aclimatização deste cultivar.Microprapagated plants usually show difficulties to adapt to ex vitro conditions, and many times are submitted to the rustication process to aim the reduction of all the impacts resulting from the environmental changes. Once the leaf and its annexes are important indicators of adaptability strategies of the plants to adverse environmental conditions, the objective of this work was to compare the leaf anatomy of pineapple cv. IAC "Gomo-de-mel" in vitro cultivated plants with microplants acclimatized in different conditions of luminosity, under mesh, with 50 % of

  9. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of resident,...

  10. Infraspecific morphological variations in Acinos graveolens (M.B. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. Talebi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of ecological factors on phenotype plasticity in the natural populations of Acinos graveolens in Iran. In total, twenty six quantitative and qualitative morphological traits were examined in the sixteen populations at two sections: inter- and intrapopulation. In the interpopulation section, averages amounts of morphological characteristics of populations were examined, while in the intrapopulation, morphological features of the seventy six plant samples of the populations were investigated. The obtained data showed that these characteristics differed between and within the populations and the analysis of variance test and one-sample test have shown significant differences of all quantitative characteristics. The biplot Principal Correspondence Analysis (PCA-biplot of traits showed some populations had indicator morphological characteristic(s which were useful in detecting of these populations. Significant correlations were found between some quantitative characteristics with ecological factors. The studied populations were separated from each other in the PCA and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO plots and the Unweighted Paired Group using Average method (UPGMA tree. The PCA plot of morphological features showed that some characteristics separated from others and the rest ones were together and had overlapping. The individuals of the studied populations were separated from others in the PCA and PCO plots and the UPGMA tree of the morphological characteristics. Individuals of some populations arranged separately and placed far from others, but this condition was reverse in the rest populations and most of individuals placed near each other. The obtained data confirmed high variations within some populations.

  11. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  12. Morphological and Phytochemical Investigations on Crataegus curvisepala and Crataegus oxyacantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghassemi Dehkordi

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Crataegus have been used for treatment of hypertension and certain cardiac disorders. Over than 20 species of this plant is extensively grew in Iran. One of these species is C. curvisepala."nin this study, C.curvisepala was examined botanically and phytochemically in comparison to C, oxyacantha."nMorphological as well as microscopical characteristics of C. curvisepala was examined and some differences distinguished from C. oxyacantha. By means of TLC in comparison to authentic samples,rutin, hyperoside and chlorogenic acid were identified in these plants. By preparative TLC method, rutin is isolated and then purified from these plants. The structure of rutin was determined by the UV-Vis. Techniques in methanol and by addition of the shift reagents and hydrolysis. The quantitative determinations of flavonoids in these plants were also performed by using an UV-Vis. spectroscopy method.

  13. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Salm

    Full Text Available This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl. Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti. The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests.

  14. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests.

  15. Morphological Transform for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of morphological neural networks. The morphological transform (MT presented in this paper generates heteroassociative MAMs derived from image subblocks. The MT is applied to individual blocks of the image using some transformation matrix as an input pattern. Depending on this matrix, the image takes a morphological representation, which is used to perform the data compression at the next stages. With respect to traditional methods, the main advantage offered by the MT is the processing speed, whereas the compression rate and the signal-to-noise ratio are competitive to conventional transforms.

  16. Morphological plasticity in Cladosporium sphaerospermum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugan, F.M.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    A morphologically distinct isolate of Cladosporium sphaerospermum from a North American patent collection, referenced as Cladosporium lignicola in the patent, was examined. Generic affinity was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic examination of conidiogenous loci and conidial hila. Species id

  17. Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... classified morphotypes of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (clusiaceae) ... Objective: Pentadesma butyracea is a multi-purpose tree species in Africa with great morphological ...... Fruit, Vegetable, and Cereals Science and.

  18. Morphological sampling of closed sets:

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Ronse; Mohamed Tajine

    2004-01-01

    We briefiy survey the standard morphological approach (Heijmans, 1994) to the sampling (or discretization) of sets. Then we summarize the main results of our metric theory of sampling (Ronse and Tajine, 2000; 2001; 2002; Tajine and Ronse, 2002), which can be used to analyse several sampling schemes, in particular the morphological one. We extend it to the sampling of closed sets (instead of compact ones), and to the case where the sampling subspace is boundedly compact (instead of boundedly f...

  19. Hypnotizability and Corpus Callosum Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, James Edward

    1999-01-01

    Hypnotizability and Corpus Callosum Morphology By James E. Horton Committee Chair: Helen J. Crawford, Ph.D. Department of Psychology (Abstract) In general, highly hypnotizable individuals ("highs") have exhibited greater abilities to focus attention and inhibit pain than low hypnotizable individuals ("lows"). Furthermore, highs appear to have faster neural processing than lows. The present study investigated differences between lows and highs in morphological volume of s...

  20. Sorting of Sperm by Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, James; Marcos, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have proven that the percentage of morphologically normal sperm is a significant factor in determining the success of assisted reproduction. The velocity of sperm in a microchannel with shear flow subjected to an external field will be explored theoretically. The difference in response between morphologically normal and abnormal sperm will be computed from a statistical approach, to study the feasibility and effectiveness of sorting by an external field to remove abnormal sperm. The full name of this author is Marcos.

  1. Morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Séverine; Colé, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-06-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to analyze in more detail the implications of the phonological impairments of dyslexics in dealing with larger units of language such as morphemes. First, the performance of dyslexic children in a series of morphological tasks was compared with the performance of children matched on reading-level and chronological age. In all the tasks, the dyslexic group performed below the chronological age control group, suggesting that morphological awareness cannot be developed entirely independently of reading experience and/or phonological skills. Comparisons with the reading-age control group indicated that, while the dyslexic children were poorer in the morphemic segmentation tasks, they performed normally for their reading level in the sentence completion tasks. Furthermore, they produced more derived words in the production task. This suggests that phonological impairments prevent the explicit segmentation of affixes while allowing the development of productive morphological knowledge. A second study compared dyslexic subgroups defined by their degree of phonological impairment. Our results suggest that dyslexics develop a certain type of morphological knowledge which they use as a compensatory reading strategy.

  2. Insectivore Plants Nepenthes sp. at Mount Merbabu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to know the existence of the Nepenthes at mount Merbabu, variations of its morphology, associated plants, and ecological conditions. Nepenthes are one of plants that were categorized as conserved plant by Indonesian government as indicated in PPRI No. 7/1999. Many researchers attracted to study this unique plant since it’s distinct feature and the way to get nutrient by trapping insects at its sac. Samples were taken randomly along the path for climbing from Selo, Boyolali to the top of the mountain between April to May 2000. The results show that the plants were found at the altitude of around 1500 to 2000 tsl. There were two forms of the sacs, long and short at the same individual plants. The plants grow coiling on Myristica trees and shrubs of Thunbergia fragrans Roxb., and also could grow at the stoned-soil.

  3. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  4. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  5. Pathogenic, morphological and molecular characteristics of Alternaria Tenuissima from soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Jasnić Stevan M.; Marjanović Žaklina S.; Vidić Miloš B.; Bagi Ferenc F.; Budakov Dragana B.; Pavlović Snežana Đ.; Stojšin Vera B.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008 and 2009 phytopathological isolations were done from soybean plants and seed samples from several localities in Serbia. A total of 19 isolates of Alternaria spp. were isolated, 13 from the seed and 3 from both leaf and stem. In order to determine and characterize isolates, cultural, morphological, molecular and pathogenic characteristics were thoroughly investigated. The slowest growth of the examined isolates was noted on Malt agar (MA) with average colony diameter of 42.9 ...

  6. Plant minichromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchler, James A; Graham, Nathaniel D; Swyers, Nathan C; Cody, Jon P; McCaw, Morgan E

    2016-02-01

    Plant minichromosomes have the potential for stacking multiple traits on a separate entity from the remainder of the genome. Transgenes carried on an independent chromosome would facilitate conferring many new properties to plants and using minichromosomes as genetic tools. The favored method for producing plant minichromosomes is telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation because the epigenetic nature of centromere function prevents using centromere sequences to confer the ability to organize a kinetochore when reintroduced into plant cells. Because haploid induction procedures are not always complete in eliminating one parental genome, chromosomes from the inducer lines are often present in plants that are otherwise haploid. This fact suggests that minichromosomes could be combined with doubled haploid breeding to transfer stacked traits more easily to multiple lines and to use minichromosomes for massive scale genome editing.

  7. Mitochondria change dynamics and morphology during grapevine leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruberti

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is the last stage of development of an organ and is aimed to its ordered disassembly and nutrient reallocation. Whereas chlorophyll gradually degrades during senescence in leaves, mitochondria need to maintain active to sustain the energy demands of senescing cells. Here we analysed the motility and morphology of mitochondria in different stages of senescence in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera, by stably expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein reporter targeted to these organelles. Results show that mitochondria were less dynamic and markedly changed morphology during senescence, passing from the elongated, branched structures found in mature leaves to enlarged and sparse organelles in senescent leaves. Progression of senescence in leaves was not synchronous, since changes in mitochondria from stomata were delayed. Mitochondrial morphology was also analysed in grapevine cell cultures. Mitochondria from cells at the end of their growth curve resembled those from senescing leaves, suggesting that cell cultures might represent a useful model system for senescence. Additionally, senescence-associated mitochondrial changes were observed in plants treated with high concentrations of cytokinins. Overall, morphology and dynamics of mitochondria might represent a reliable senescence marker for plant cells.

  8. Mitochondria change dynamics and morphology during grapevine leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, Cristina; Barizza, Elisabetta; Bodner, Martina; La Rocca, Nicoletta; De Michele, Roberto; Carimi, Francesco; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Zottini, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Leaf senescence is the last stage of development of an organ and is aimed to its ordered disassembly and nutrient reallocation. Whereas chlorophyll gradually degrades during senescence in leaves, mitochondria need to maintain active to sustain the energy demands of senescing cells. Here we analysed the motility and morphology of mitochondria in different stages of senescence in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera), by stably expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter targeted to these organelles. Results show that mitochondria were less dynamic and markedly changed morphology during senescence, passing from the elongated, branched structures found in mature leaves to enlarged and sparse organelles in senescent leaves. Progression of senescence in leaves was not synchronous, since changes in mitochondria from stomata were delayed. Mitochondrial morphology was also analysed in grapevine cell cultures. Mitochondria from cells at the end of their growth curve resembled those from senescing leaves, suggesting that cell cultures might represent a useful model system for senescence. Additionally, senescence-associated mitochondrial changes were observed in plants treated with high concentrations of cytokinins. Overall, morphology and dynamics of mitochondria might represent a reliable senescence marker for plant cells.

  9. Host Diet Affects the Morphology of Monarch Butterfly Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Kevin; Tao, Leiling; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2017-06-01

    Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation, and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication. As such, understanding factors that affect parasite morphology is important in predicting the consequences of host-parasite interactions. Here, we studied how host diet affected the spore morphology of a protozoan parasite ( Ophryocystis elektroscirrha ), a specialist parasite of the monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ). We found that different host plant species (milkweeds; Asclepias spp.) significantly affected parasite spore size. Previous studies have found that cardenolides, secondary chemicals in host plants of monarchs, can reduce parasite loads and increase the lifespan of infected butterflies. Adding to this benefit of high cardenolide milkweeds, we found that infected monarchs reared on milkweeds of higher cardenolide concentrations yielded smaller parasites, a potentially hidden characteristic of cardenolides that may have important implications for monarch-parasite interactions.

  10. Phytochemical profile of morphologically selected yerba-mate progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil is a native South American species. Plant progenies are populations that differ in terms of their productivity, morphology and phytochemical profile. This study aimed to determine the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, in leaves, of yerba-mate progenies selected based on morphological characteristics. We evaluated the centesimal composition of secondary metabolites in the leaves of five yerba-mate plants. Methylxanthines and phenolic compounds were determined by UPLC-PDA, and antioxidant activity by measuring DPPH scavenging. Significant differences were found in centesimal composition and the contents of caffeine, theobromine, rutin and chlorogenic acid, as well as antioxidant activities, in selected progenies. The IC50 values were correlated with the chlorogenic acid levels (r2 = 0.5242 and soluble content (r2 = 0.7686. The morphological characteristics observed in yerba-mate leaves can be used as a tool for plant selection, to obtain matrices with different phytochemical profiles as a genetic material source.

  11. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  12. Morphology of the Vitreoretinal Border Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane......Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane...

  13. Morphological development of Paspalum paniculatum L. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fávero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe the morphological development of Paspalum paniculatum. Individual plants were cultivated in pots and evaluated at seven ages: 31, 58, 93, 123, 134, 144 and 176 days of growth from the emergence. The species showed medium height (50cm, clonal growth, with aerial stems of culm-type, semi-erect, and underground stems of rhizome-type, with reproductive tillers over 100cm in length. The shoot dry matter (DM at flowering stage was composed by equivalent quantities of culms (C and leaves (L, in a L:C relationship of 1.5. After 176 days’ growth, the plants had accumulated 23.5g of DM, consisting of roots (29.06% and rhizomes (15.91%, totaling 44.97% of the DM in the underground part, leaves (21.89%, culms (26.32% and inflorescences (6.83%. The expressive formation of DM in the underground part suggests resistance to grazing and adverse climatic conditions, in addition to a possible aptitude for revegetation of areas subject to erosion.

  14. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  15. MorphologiCal and Cytogenetic Analysis on the Advanced Generations of Generic Hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang ZHAO; Dezhi DU; Zaiyun LI

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to reveal the genetic changes of advanced generation hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus. [Method] The morphological characteristics such as the plant shape, branching sites, leaf shape, leaf color, primary branches and secondary branches, as well as the cytolog- ical characteristics of the advanced generation hybrids (Fs-F10) between B. napus and O. violaceus were observed. [Result] The morphology analysis revealed that the hybrid progeny was more like B. rapa in leaf shape, leaf color, plant shape and ear- ly flowering phenotype, whereas more like B. napus in number of secondary branch- es, silique length and 1 000-seed weight. Analysis on the cytogenetics characteristics showed that these advanced inbred progenies were hypoploids with less than 38 chromosomes; moreover, all the chromosomes from O. violaceus had been lost. Chromosome pairings at meiotic diakinesis of hybrids between the advanced inbred progenies and B. rapa revealed that chromosomes lost in hypoploids possibly be- longed to the C genome of B. oleracea. With generations developing, chromosomes number of plants from two populations gradually increased and developed into the number of B. napus (2n=38). [Conclusion] This study will provide reference to reveal the source of chromosome lost in hypoploids and the morphological change of hybrids.

  16. Morphological variability in tree root architecture indirectly affects coexistence among competitors in the understory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschehoug, Erik T; Callaway, Ragan M

    2014-07-01

    Interactions between plants can have strong effects on community structure and function. Variability in the morphological, developmental, physiological, and biochemical traits of plants can influence the outcome of plant interactions and thus have important ecological consequences. However, the ecological ramifications of trait variability in plants are poorly understood and have rarely been tested in the field. We experimentally tested the effects of morphological variation in root architecture of Quercus douglasii trees in the field on interactions between understory plants and community composition. Our results indicate that variability among Q. douglasii tree root systems initiates a striking reversal in the competitive effects of dominant understory grass species on a less common species. Trees with a deep-rooted morphology facilitated exotic annual grasses and these annual grasses, in turn, competitively excluded the native perennial bunchgrass, Stipapulchra. In contrast, Q. douglasii trees with shallow-rooted morphologies directly suppressed the growth of exotic annual grasses and indirectly released S. pulchra individuals from competition with these annual grasses. Morphological variation in the root architecture of Q. douglasii created substantial conditionality in the outcomes of competition among species which enhanced the potential for indirect interactions to sustain coexistence and increase community diversity.

  17. Systematics of the genus Gnomoniopsis (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) based on a three gene phylogeny, host associations, and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species of Gnomoniopsis are leaf- and stem-inhabiting pyrenomycetes that infect plants in the Fagaceae, Onagraceae, and Rosaceae. The monophyly and species level relationships among thirteen species of Gnomoniopsis (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) were assessed using morphological, cultural, and mol...

  18. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  19. Galaxy Morphology - Halo Gas Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, G G; Steidel, C C; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2005-01-01

    We studied a sample of 38 intermediate redshift MgII absorption-selected galaxies using (1) Keck/HIRES and VLT/UVES quasar spectra to measure the halo gas kinematics from MgII absorption profiles and (2) HST/WFPC-2 images to study the absorbing galaxy morphologies. We have searched for correlations between quantified gas absorption properties, and host galaxy impact parameters, inclinations, position angles, and quantified morphological parameters. We report a 3.2-sigma correlation between asymmetric perturbations in the host galaxy morphology and the MgII absorption equivalent width. We suggest that this correlation may indicate a connection between past merging and/or interaction events in MgII absorption-selected galaxies and the velocity dispersion and quantity of gas surrounding these galaxies.

  20. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  1. Seed planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  2. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  3. TRANSGENIC PLANTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PEST RESISTANCE WHILE USING ... Stratégies to delay the development of résistance while using Bt engineered plants are many and would need to be ..... training, pesticide use patterns change, and the.

  4. Characterization of Morphological Diversity of Jute Mallow (Corchorus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munguatosha Ngomuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jute mallow is a traditional leaf vegetable that is an important part of daily diet for the majority of people in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we employed quantitative and qualitative phenotypic traits to assess the morphological diversity of 90 accessions using univariate and multivariate analyses. Field experiments were conducted for two seasons to identify accessions suitable for leaf yield. The accessions were significantly variable in all traits. Highest variability among accessions was found in harvest index, biomass yield, and weight of 1000 seeds. The traits that significantly correlated with biomass yield include plant height (r=0.448, petiole length (r=0.237, primary branches (r=0.319, and number of leaves per plant (r=0.333. Principal component analysis showed that the first five PCs with eigenvalues ≥1 explained 72.9% of the total variability in the accessions. Pods per plant, primary branches, secondary branches, and number of leaves per plant accounted for highest variability in PC1. Cluster analysis grouped the accessions into five major clusters mainly based on their origin. Thus, the collection displayed high variation in morphological traits, particularly those related to leaf yield. These accessions are therefore useful in breeding for the improvement of the crop and germplasm management.

  5. Speciation in arctic and alpine diploid plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, A Lovisa S

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to study patterns and processes of plant speciation in arctic and alpine diploid plants. Cryptic species are here referred to as morphologically similar individuals belonging to the same taxonomic species but that are unable to produce fertile offspring (i.e. 'sibling' species). The arctic flora is considered as one of the most species-poor floras of the world, and the latitudinal gradient with decreasing diversity from low to high latitudes is likely...

  6. Visual object recognition for automatic micropropagation of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Thorsten; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1994-11-01

    Micropropagation of plants is done by cutting juvenile plants and placing them into special container-boxes with nutrient-solution where the pieces can grow up and be cut again several times. To produce high amounts of biomass it is necessary to do plant micropropagation by a robotic system. In this paper we describe parts of the vision system that recognizes plants and their particular cutting points. Therefore, it is necessary to extract elements of the plants and relations between these elements (for example root, stem, leaf). Different species vary in their morphological appearance, variation is also immanent in plants of the same species. Therefore, we introduce several morphological classes of plants from that we expect same recognition methods.

  7. Children's Morphological Awareness and Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John R.; Deacon, S. Helene; Bowers, Peter N.; Izenberg, Leah; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of morphological awareness on five measures of reading in 103 children from Grades 1 to 3. Morphological awareness was assessed with a word analogy task that included a wide range of morphological transformations. Results indicated that the new measure had satisfactory reliability, and that morphological awareness was a…

  8. The effect of seed morphology on the potential dispersal of aquatic macrophytes by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; de Jong, M.D.E.; Steegh, A.; Ouborg, N.J.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    1. The potential for seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory) will vary among aquatic plants because of differences in seed size and morphology. 2. To examine how seed morphology influences the probability of dispersal by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we studied seed ingestion, retention time and

  9. Computer Vision and Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Kropratsch, W.; Klette, R.; Albrecht, R.

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical morphology is a theory of set mappings, modeling binary image transformations, which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This framework turns out to be too restricted for many applications, in particular for computer vision where group theoretical considerations suc

  10. Human morphology and temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. S.

    For nearly a century individuals have believed that there is a link between human morphology and one's thermoregulatory response in adverse environments. Most early research was focussed on the rate of core cooling in a male adult population and the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to withstand varying degrees of cold stress. More recently research has addressed heat tolerance in various populations, exploring the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to maintain thermal equilibrium in warm and hot, dry and humid environments. Since the late 1970s an emphasis has been placed on the role of muscle and muscle perfusion in total-body thermal insulation. Yet, despite the history of research pertaining to human morphology and temperature regulation there is little consensus as to the impact of variations in human morphology on thermoregulatory responses. Individuals differing in body size, shape and composition appear to respond quantitatively differently to variations in both ambient and core temperatures but the interrelations between morphological components and temperature regulation are complex. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the literature pertaining to the impact of variations in muscularity, adipose tissue thickness and patterning, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio on thermoregulation and thermal stability in response to both heat and cold stress.

  11. Structure Characterization Using Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luengo Hendriks, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the application of mathematical morphology to images of some kind of structure, with the intention of characterizing (or describing) that structure. The emphasis is placed on measuring properties of the real-world scene, rather than measuring properties of the digital image. T

  12. Pollen morphology of the Stemonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A pollen-morphological survey of all four genera of the Stemonaceae at the light and electron microscope level is presented. Stemonaceae is a eurypalynous family. Stichoneuron pollen, up to now described as monosulcate, appears to be inaperturate. Pentastemona pollen is most deviating in Stemonaceae

  13. Soot morphology in laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Ion C.; Pasuk, I.; Morjan, Ion G.; Voicu, Ion N.; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Fleaca, Claudiu T.; Ciupina, Victor; Dumitrache, Florian V.; Soare, Iuliana; Ploscaru, Mihaela I.; Daniels, H.; Westwood, A.; Rand, B.

    2004-10-01

    Soots obtained by laser pyrolysis of different gaseous/vapor hydrocarbons were investigated. The morphology variation of carbon soot versus process parameters and nature of reactants was analyzed and discussed. The role of oxygen is essential in obtaining soot particles having considerable curved-layer content.

  14. Computer Vision and Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Kropratsch, W.; Klette, R.; Albrecht, R.

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical morphology is a theory of set mappings, modeling binary image transformations, which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This framework turns out to be too restricted for many applications, in particular for computer vision where group theoretical considerations

  15. Evolution of unusual morphologies in Lentibulariaceae (bladderworts and allies) and Podostemaceae (river-weeds): a pictorial report at the interface of developmental biology and morphological diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    Various groups of flowering plants reveal profound ('saltational') changes of their bauplans (architectural rules) as compared with related taxa. These plants are known as morphological misfits that appear as rather large morphological deviations from the norm. Some of them emerged as morphological key innovations (perhaps 'hopeful monsters') that gave rise to new evolutionary lines of organisms, based on (major) genetic changes. This pictorial report places emphasis on released bauplans as typical for bladderworts (Utricularia, approx. 230 secies, Lentibulariaceae) and river-weeds (Podostemaceae, three subfamilies, approx. 54 genera, approx. 310 species). Bladderworts (Utricularia) are carnivorous, possessing sucking traps. They live as submerged aquatics (except for their flowers), as humid terrestrials or as epiphytes. Most Podostemaceae are restricted to rocks in tropical river-rapids and waterfalls. They survive as submerged haptophytes in these extreme habitats during the rainy season, emerging with their flowers afterwards. The recent scientific progress in developmental biology and evolutionary history of both Lentibulariaceae and Podostemaceae is summarized. Lentibulariaceae and Podostemaceae follow structural rules that are different from but related to those of more typical flowering plants. The roots, stems and leaves - as still distinguishable in related flowering plants - are blurred ('fuzzy'). However, both families have stable floral bauplans. The developmental switches to unusual vegetative morphologies facilitated rather than prevented the evolution of species diversity in both families. The lack of one-to-one correspondence between structural categories and gene expression may have arisen from the re-use of existing genetic resources in novel contexts. Understanding what developmental patterns are followed in Lentibulariaceae and Podostemaceae is a necessary prerequisite to discover the genetic alterations that led to the evolution of these

  16. Preliminary results of stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOC FASLLIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the experimental plots of the Agricultural Technology Transfer Center(ATTC Fushe - Kruja, from 2013 to 2014. The objectives of this study were, recognition with bio morphology of the growth and development of Stevios plant under conditions of our country. The study design consists of 30 plant pots planted with the STEVIAS. Indicators studied, were: time of planting, the beginning of growth, plant growth height in cm, number of brothers, number of branches in the main branch, the average number of leaves, total number of leaves. Planting was carried out on 20 February 2013, followed by the onset of growth on 3/25/2013 to 3/04/2014, ripening and harvest in September 5-10 October. At the end of the production these results were taken according to the study indicators. The height of the plant was carried 71.53 ± 11.08cm, depending on feeding conditions and illumination which according to requirements of this plant is one of the most dominant factors. The average number of brothers per branch is to 10.6 ± 2.4, which shows a high potential for stevia plant production. The average number of leaves per branch is 48.13 ± 9.26, and with a total leaves of 517. 03 ± 176.25, which are quantitative harvestable indicators of plant. Weight of plant was conducted at 49.46 ± 4.987gr.

  17. Phytomelatonin: Assisting Plants to Survive and Thrive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel J. Reiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the advances that have been made in terms of the identified functions of melatonin in plants. Melatonin is an endogenously-produced molecule in all plant species that have been investigated. Its concentration in plant organs varies in different tissues, e.g., roots versus leaves, and with their developmental stage. As in animals, the pathway of melatonin synthesis in plants utilizes tryptophan as an essential precursor molecule. Melatonin synthesis is inducible in plants when they are exposed to abiotic stresses (extremes of temperature, toxins, increased soil salinity, drought, etc. as well as to biotic stresses (fungal infection. Melatonin aids plants in terms of root growth, leaf morphology, chlorophyll preservation and fruit development. There is also evidence that exogenously-applied melatonin improves seed germination, plant growth and crop yield and its application to plant products post-harvest shows that melatonin advances fruit ripening and may improve food quality. Since melatonin was only discovered in plants two decades ago, there is still a great deal to learn about the functional significance of melatonin in plants. It is the hope of the authors that the current review will serve as a stimulus for scientists to join the endeavor of clarifying the function of this phylogenetically-ancient molecule in plants and particularly in reference to the mechanisms by which melatonin mediates its multiple actions.

  18. 氮营养配施稀效唑对马铃薯原种繁殖植株形态及产量和品质的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Uniconazole on Plant Morphology,Yield and Quality of Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇秋; 郑顺林; 李方安; 李德林; 郭刚金; 袁继超

    2012-01-01

    采用盆栽及营养液培养方法,以脱毒原原种费乌瑞它为试验材料,研究了氮营养配施稀效唑对马铃薯植株形态、产量和品质的影响,为马铃薯原种高产高效繁殖提供技术支持.结果表明:①增施氮肥降低了根长、根鲜重,增加了叶面积、主茎鲜重、单薯重等指标,随着施氮量的增加,叶面积、主茎鲜重、单位叶面积重和单薯重都有较大幅度的增加.叶面喷施稀效唑对根长和根鲜重影响很小,对叶面积、主茎鲜重、单薯重、单位叶面积重有较大的影响.随着喷施浓度的提高,总叶面积重和单位叶面积重呈不断增高的趋势.②氮肥、稀效唑对马铃薯产量影响极显著,施氮与不施氮处理相比,产量增加了50.41%,喷施稀效唑产量增加了9.04%,随着施氮量及稀效唑喷施浓度的提高,产量呈先增加,后降低的变化趋势.增施氮肥和叶面喷施稀效唑,降低了块茎中淀粉的含量,增加了块茎可溶性糖和蛋白质的含量.随着施氮量和稀效唑喷施浓度的增大,淀粉含量呈下降的趋势,可溶性糖和蛋白质含量呈增长的趋势.%Taking the potato of Favorita as tested material, the experiments of pot and nutrient solution were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen fertilizer with uniconazole on the plant morphology, yield and quality for providing technical support in potato high efficient cultivation. The results showed that( I )Increasing nitrogen fertilizer decreased the potato root length and root heavy, but increased leaf areas, the main stem fresh ,the weight of per potato, with nitrogen increasing, the leaf areas, the main stem, leaf areas per unit had a large margin of increase. Spraying uniconazole on leaves had little effect on the root length and root heavy, but had great impact on the leaf areas, the main stem fresh, weight per potato, the leaves weight per unit. With the concentration of uniconazole increasing, the weight of total

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  20. Atlas morphology in relation to craniofacial morphology and head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandikçioğlu, M; Skov, S; Solow, B

    1994-04-01

    The associations between dimensions of the first cervical vertebra, atlas, and a representative set of craniofacial and postural variables were studied on cephalometric radiographs of a sample of 103 adult males aged 22-30 years, recorded in the natural head position (mirror position). Atlas morphology was expressed by nine variables, linear and angular craniofacial dimensions by 27 variables, and head and cervical posture by seven variables. A pattern of low but significant correlations was found. Although the correlations were low, the study confirmed that the dimensions of the atlas vertebra reflect associations between cranio-cervical posture and craniofacial morphology. Negative correlations were found between the height of the posterior arch of atlas and the inclination of the mandible and the maxilla to the anterior cranial base. Low positive correlations between the height of the anterior arch and vertical facial dimensions reflect the general co-ordination of the vertical growth of the face and the cervical column. Moreover, the pattern of correlations between the atlanto-cranial angle and facial morphology suggests that in changes of the cranio-cervical angle, atlas follows the cervical column.

  1. Goethe's bone and the beginnings of morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M

    2004-04-01

    Biology as a discipline per se and its agenda, seems not to have been burdened from its beginnings as heavily with neo-Platonism as its subspecialty morphology, conceptualized at the same time by Goethe and Burdach. One of the reasons may have been that biologists were then regarded as "mere" naturalists, "doing" anatomy and embryology, breeding, and field work (as did Darwin, Wallace, Bateson and a legion of others during the 19th century), whereas the, perhaps more elitist, morphologists, ab initio devoted themselves to the origin, even to the Kantian analysis of causes of development and its variability within and between species. Since Goethe included abnormal plant development in his studies, his definition of morphology as the science of the form, formation and transformation of living organisms may be modified to include the concept of malformation, although the embryological and comparative analysis of vertebrate/mammalian malformation had its real inception somewhat later with the younger Meckel. In view of the meaning attached by his French contemporaries to the term transformisme (eventually defined as evolution) one would err considering Goethe as a prophet of "descent;" he was not, referring primarily to the continuous state of flux of living beings. Nonetheless, Goethe and Burdach independently coined the concept of morphology and set its agenda, increasingly freed of Naturphilosophie, an agenda that dominated 19th century biology but which did not come to fruition in its causal analysis of form and its formation until the 20th century, after Mendel, Darwin and the pioneers of experimental embryology (a.o., Roux, Driesch, Spemann, Vogt). In his discovery of the intermaxillary bone in humans (Goethe's bone), he had a startling insight, against conventional wisdom, into the anatomical, hence developmental, similarity of primate/mammals. During his lifetime, this was still called analogie by his great French contemporary Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire who

  2. The First Darwinian Phylogenetic Tree of Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoßfeld, Uwe; Watts, Elizabeth; Levit, Georgy S

    2017-02-01

    In 1866, the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) published the first Darwinian trees of life in the history of biology in his book General Morphology of Organisms. We take a specific look at the first phylogenetic trees for the plant kingdom that Haeckel created as part of this two-volume work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Morphology of wheat roots under low-phosphorus stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiguo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2002-03-01

    The morphology of root systems of different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under low-phosphorus stress were studied to determine the effects of external factors on components of root system and the early morphological indicators related to phosphorus efficiency. The number of root axes and the length of lateral root of P-deficient plant were significantly lower than those of P-sufficient plant. The length of root axis and root system, and the number of lateral roots were sharply increased under low-P stress. The number and length of root axis were significantly different under different levels of phosphorus supply and among different wheat genotypes under same phosphorus supply. This implied that the two traits (number and length of root axis) were controlled by genotype and external factors. The difference in the characteristics of lateral root of the given wheat genotypes was significant only between different levels of P supply. It showed that the traits of lateral root mainly depended on external factors. The length and number of root axis, root length, and root angle were significantly different among 6 wheat genotypes. There exited significant linear relationships between relative grain yield and the interaction of the morphological traits, and it implied that the traits could be used as early indicators of selecting high P-efficiency wheat varieties.

  4. Assessing establishment success of Zostera marina transplants through measurements of shoot morphology and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Tao; Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2010-07-01

    Since significant seagrass declines have been reported worldwide, numerous seagrass restoration projects through transplantation have been attempted in recent decades. In this study, Zostera marina shoots were transplanted into Jindong Bay on the southern coast of Korea in November 2006 to assess establishment success of the transplants to a new transplant environment. Shoot density, individual shoot weight, productivity, and morphological characteristics of transplants and reference plants in the vicinity of the planting site were monitored monthly for 13 months. Although shoot size of transplants was smaller than that of reference plants at the start of transplantation, individual shoot weight, leaf width, shoot height, and rhizome diameter of transplants increased rapidly, reaching even higher values than those of reference plants 5 months after transplantation. These results suggest that eelgrass transplants established morphologically 5 months after transplantation. Shoot productivity of transplants was lower than that of reference population during the first 5-6 months following transplantation, but became higher than that of reference population 6 months after transplantation. The higher transplant productivity was likely due to the lower shoot density at the transplant site than that at the reference population. Rapid changes in shoot morphology and growth of transplants indicated that eelgrass transplants had great morphological plasticity and established successfully in the new environment within 5-6 months. In addition to survival rates of transplants, monitoring of shoot morphology and growth appeared to be an effective approach for accurate assessment of the establishment success of eelgrass transplant.

  5. Chemical- and pathogen-induced programmed cell death in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Atanassov, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This review focuses on recent update in the understanding of programmed cell death regarding the differences and similarities between the diverse types of cell death in animal and plant systems and describes the morphological and some biochemical determinants. The role of PCD in plant development an

  6. Chemical- and pathogen-induced programmed cell death in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Atanassov, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This review focuses on recent update in the understanding of programmed cell death regarding the differences and similarities between the diverse types of cell death in animal and plant systems and describes the morphological and some biochemical determinants. The role of PCD in plant development

  7. Morphological details in bloodstain particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2015-01-01

    During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from dried bloodstains. The nature of these red particles is easily confirmed using spectroscopic methods. In casework, bloodstain particles showing highly detailed morphological features were observed. These provided a rationale for a series of experiments described in this work. It was found that the "largest" particles are shed from blood deposited on polyester and polyamide woven fabrics. No particles are lost from the stains made on absorbent fabrics and from those made on knitted fabrics. The morphological features observed in bloodstain particles can provide important information on the substrates from which they were lost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological classification of nanoceramic aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Kang, Bongwoo; Ospina, Carolina; Sung, Changmo

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum silicate nanoaggregates grown at near-room temperature on an organic template under a variety of experimental conditions have been imaged by transmission electron microscopy. Images have been automatically classified by an algorithm based on "spectrum enhancement", multivariate statistics and supervised optimization. Spectrum enhancement consists of subtracting, in the log scale, a known function of wavenumber from the angle averaged power spectral density of the image. Enhanced spectra of each image, after polynomial interpolation, have been regarded as morphological descriptors and as such submitted to principal components analysis nested with a multiobjective parameter optimization algorithm. The latter has maximized pairwise discrimination between classes of materials. The role of the organic template and of a reaction parameter on aggregate morphology has been assessed at two magnification scales. Classification results have also been related to crystal structure data derived from selected area electron diffraction patterns.

  9. Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

  10. Chemical interactions between plants in Mediterranean vegetation: the influence of selected plant extracts on Aegilops geniculata metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiumano, Vittorio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy is the chemical mediated communication among plants. While on one hand there is growing interest in the field, on the other hand it is still debated as doubts exist at different levels. A number of compounds have been reported for their ability to influence plant growth, but the existence of this phenomenon in the field has rarely been demonstrated. Furthermore, only few studies have reported the uptake and the effects at molecular level of the allelochemicals. Allelopathy has been reported on some plants of Mediterranean vegetation and could contribute to structuring this ecosystem. Sixteen plants of Mediterranean vegetation have been selected and studied by an NMR-based metabolomics approach. The extracts of these donor plants have been characterized in terms of chemical composition and the effects on a selected receiving plant, Aegilops geniculata, have been studied both at the morphological and at the metabolic level. Most of the plant extracts employed in this study were found to have an activity, which could be correlated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamate derivatives. These plant extracts affected the receiving plant in different ways, with different rates of growth inhibition at morphological level. The results of metabolomic analysis of treated plants suggested the induction of oxidative stress in all the receiving plants treated with active donor plant extracts, although differences were observed among the responses. Finally, the uptake and transport into receiving plant leaves of different metabolites present in the extracts added to the culture medium were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Eddy Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba. The foliar morphology of representative antophytes in four rainforest types of Eastern Cuba was studied in relation to the main abiotic factors. Although there are several leaf types in these forests, the microphyll type is the most important among endemic species in the ophiolites complex and the Montane rainforest. At the Lowland rainforest (metamorphic complex) the mesophyll leaf was the most important. Most foliar epidermis had structures normally found in mesomorphic plants, but xeromorphic and higromorphic morphologies were also present.

  12. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, M. E-mail: atom@sy.net; Al-Adawi, M.A

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae 'inside the eggs' were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  13. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Makino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ri; Wang, Haibin; Dong, Bin; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Zhaohe; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid. PMID:27735845

  14. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid.

  15. Toxic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is the single most important economic animal trait to the livestock industry and is reported to be 5 and 10 times more significant than carcass quality and growth traits respectively. Poisonous plants impact livestock reproductive function in a major way and have been shown...

  16. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our prel...

  17. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of obesity, age, sex, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus) does not point towards a single causal factor. Co-influence of additional pathogenetic factors are likely in the development of liver changes in morbid obesity....

  18. Shrub control by browsing: Targeting adult plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Pontes, Laíse; Magda, Danièle; Gleizes, Benoît; Agreil, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Reconciling the well known benefits of shrubs for forage with environmental goals, whilst preventing their dominance, is a major challenge in rangeland management. Browsing may be an economical solution for shrubby rangelands as herbivore browsing has been shown to control juvenile shrub growth. Less convincing results have been obtained for adult plants, and long-term experiments are required to investigate the cumulative effects on adult plants. We therefore assessed the impact of different levels of browsing intensity on key demographic parameters for a major dominant shrub species (broom, Cytisus scoparius), focusing on adult plants. We assigned individual broom plants to one of three age classes: 3-5 years (young adults); 5-7 years (adults); and 7-9 years (mature adults). These plants were then left untouched or had 50% or 90% of their total edible stem biomass removed in simulated low-intensity and high-intensity browsing treatments, respectively. Morphological, survival and fecundity data were collected over a period of four years. Browsing affected the morphology of individual plants, promoting changes in subsequent regrowth, and decreasing seed production. The heavily browsed plants were 17% shorter, 32% narrower, and their twigs were 28% shorter. Light browsing seemed to control the growth of young adult plants more effectively than that of older plants. Reproductive output was considerably lower than for control plants after light browsing, and almost 100% lower after heavy browsing. High-intensity browsing had a major effect on survival causing high levels of plant mortality. We conclude that suitable browsing practices could be used to modify adult shrub demography in the management of shrub dominance and forage value.

  19. Astragalar Morphology of Selected Giraffidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Solounias

    Full Text Available The artiodactyl astragalus has been modified to exhibit two trochleae, creating a double pullied structure allowing for significant dorso-plantar motion, and limited mediolateral motion. The astragalus structure is partly influenced by environmental substrates, and correspondingly, morphometric studies can yield paleohabitat information. The present study establishes terminology and describes detailed morphological features on giraffid astragali. Each giraffid astragalus exhibits a unique combination of anatomical characteristics. The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships. We find that the enlargement of the navicular head is a feature shared by all giraffids, and that the primitive giraffids possess exceptionally tall astragalar heads in relation to the total astragalar height. The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus. We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position. Diagnostic anatomical characters on the astragalus allow for giraffid species identifications and a better understanding of Giraffidae.

  20. Thermodynamics of catalytic nanoparticle morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Sharma, Renu; Lin, Pin Ann

    Metallic nanoparticles are an important class of industrial catalysts. The variability of their properties and the environment in which they act, from their chemical nature & surface modification to their dispersion and support, allows their performance to be optimized for many chemical processes useful in, e.g., energy applications and other areas. Their large surface area to volume ratio, as well as varying sizes and faceting, in particular, makes them an efficient source for catalytically active sites. These characteristics of nanoparticles - i.e., their morphology - can often display intriguing behavior as a catalytic process progresses. We develop a thermodynamic model of nanoparticle morphology, one that captures the competition of surface energy with other interactions, to predict structural changes during catalytic processes. Comparing the model to environmental transmission electron microscope images of nickel nanoparticles during carbon nanotube (and other product) growth demonstrates that nickel deformation in response to the nanotube growth is due to a favorable interaction with carbon. Moreover, this deformation is halted due to insufficient volume of the particles. We will discuss the factors that influence morphology and also how the model can be used to extract interaction strengths from experimental observations.

  1. Influence of Crack Morphology on Leak Before Break Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilin Zang (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the deterministic LBB-margins for different pipe systems in a Swedish PWR-plant and using different crack morphology parameters. Results: - The influence of crack morphology on Leak Before Break (LBB) margins is studied. The subject of the report is a number of LBB-submittals to SKI where deterministic LBB-margins are reported. These submittals typically uses a surface roughness of 0.0762 mm (300 microinch) and number of turns equal to zero and an in-house code for the leak rate evaluations. The present report has shown that these conditions give the largest LBB-margins both in terms of the quotient between the critical crack length and the leakage crack size and for the leak rate margin. - Crack morphology parameters have a strong influence on the leak rate evaluations. Using the SQUIRT code and more recent recommendations for crack morphology parameters, it is shown that in many cases the evaluated margins, using 1 gpm as the reference leak rate detection limit, are below the safety factor of 2 on crack size and 10 on leak rate, which is generally required for LBB approval. - The effect of including weld residual stresses on the LBB margins is also investigated. It is shown that for the two examples studied, weld residual stresses were important for the small diameter thin wall pipe whereas it was negligible for the large diameter thick wall pipe which had a self-balanced weld residual stress distribution

  2. Semantic annotation of morphological descriptions: an overall strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of morphological descriptions of whole organisms have been created as print or electronic text in a human-readable format. Converting the descriptions into computer- readable formats gives a new life to the valuable knowledge on biodiversity. Research in this area started 20 years ago, yet not sufficient progress has been made to produce an automated system that requires only minimal human intervention but works on descriptions of various plant and animal groups. This paper attempts to examine the hindering factors by identifying the mismatches between existing research and the characteristics of morphological descriptions. Results This paper reviews the techniques that have been used for automated annotation, reports exploratory results on characteristics of morphological descriptions as a genre, and identifies challenges facing automated annotation systems. Based on these criteria, the paper proposes an overall strategy for converting descriptions of various taxon groups with the least human effort. Conclusions A combined unsupervised and supervised machine learning strategy is needed to construct domain ontologies and lexicons and to ultimately achieve automated semantic annotation of morphological descriptions. Further, we suggest that each effort in creating a new description or annotating an individual description collection should be shared and contribute to the "biodiversity information commons" for the Semantic Web. This cannot be done without a sound strategy and a close partnership between and among information scientists and biologists.

  3. Using functional–structural plant models to study, understand and integrate plant development and ecophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Theodore M; Da Silva, David; Vos, Jan; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2011-10-01

    Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) explore and integrate relationships between a plant’s structure and processes that underlie its growth and development. In recent years, the range of topics being addressed by scientists interested in functional–structural plant modelling has expanded greatly. FSPM techniques are now being used to dynamically simulate growth and development occurring at the microscopic scale involving cell division in plant meristems to the macroscopic scales of whole plants and plant communities. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum from algae to trees. FSPM is highly interdisciplinary and involves scientists with backgrounds in plant physiology, plant anatomy, plant morphology, mathematics, computer science, cellular biology, ecology and agronomy. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers that provide examples of comprehensive functional–structural models, models of key processes such as partitioning of resources, software for modelling plants and plant environments, data acquisition and processing techniques and applications of functional–structural plant models for agronomic purposes.

  4. Activated sludge morphology characterization through an image analysis procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Perez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a digital image analysis procedure to characterize microbial flocs obtained in three different WWTP: a bench-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR dealing with phenol and nitrogen biological removal, a municipal treatment unit (Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and an industrial wastewater treatment plant (Ciba - Estrada do Colégio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The developed procedure permits to obtain its morphological parameters like equivalent diameter, compactness, roundness and porosity properties as well as the fractal dimension. This procedure was validated and lead to identify the major relationships between the analysed morphological parameters. A minimum of 300 flocs should be included in the image analysis and a significant influence of the sample dilution step on the mean size of the flocs was verified. The porosity parameter positively correlated with the fractal dimension of microbial aggregates indicating the that highly porous flocs are very irregular.

  5. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah A. Henning

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant traits, such as root and leaf area, influence how plants interact with their environment and the diverse microbiota living within plants can influence plant morphology and physiology. Here, we explored how three bacterial strains isolated from the Populus root microbiome, influenced plant phenotype. We chose three bacterial strains that differed in predicted metabolic capabilities, plant hormone production and metabolism, and secondary metabolite synthesis. We inoculated each bacterial strain on a single genotype of Populus trichocarpa and measured the response of plant growth related traits (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light–Asat, and saturating CO2–Amax. Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf growth rate up to 137% relative to non-inoculated control plants, evidence that plants respond to bacteria by modifying morphology. However, endophyte inoculation had no influence on total plant biomass and photosynthetic traits (net photosynthesis, chlorophyll content. In sum, bacterial inoculation did not significantly increase plant carbon fixation and biomass, but their presence altered where and how carbon was being allocated in the plant host.

  6. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  7. The importance of volumetric canopy morphology when modelling drag around riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Richard; Hardy, Richard; Warburton, Jeff; Marjoribanks, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetation has a significant impact on the hydraulic functioning of river systems. The bulk of past work concerned with modelling the influence of vegetation on flow has considered vegetation to be morphologically simple, and has generally neglected the complexity and porosity of natural plants, defined herein as the volumetric canopy morphology. However, the volumetric canopy morphology can influence the mean and turbulent properties of the flow, producing spatially heterogeneous downstream velocity fields. By explicitly accounting for this in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, and representing the plant as a porous blockage, complex flow structures and drag can be modelled. For a riparian species, Hebe odora, good agreement with flume measurements are found. Plant shear layer turbulence is shown to be dominated by Kelvin-Helmholtz and Görtler-type vortices, generated through shear instability. Porous representations of the plants, that allow for flow to pass through the plant canopy interior, are compared against fully impermeable plant representations. Penetration of fluid through the canopy in the porous case resembles 'bleed-flow', and this results in a plant wake region that significantly differs from the impermeable case, which is characteristic of wake flow around a traditional bluff body. These results demonstrate the significant effect that the volumetric canopy morphology and porosity of natural plants has on the three-dimensional flow and in-stream drag, and enables a re-evaluation of vegetative flow resistance. The modelled results allow a species dependent Manning's n to be calculated, and this presents an opportunity to move away from the conventional methods of representing vegetation in hydraulic models, in favour of a more physically determined approach. Given the importance of vegetation in river corridor management, and the increasing application of UAV imagery to map riparian vegetation, the numerical scheme developed here

  8. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari;

    2014-01-01

    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...

  9. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari

    2014-01-01

    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...

  10. Biogeographic, molecular evolution, and diversification patterns in Neotropical plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. A.; Dick, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Neotropical plants demonstrate a phenomenal range of ecological and morphological diversity. We will explore the phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns of a group of Neotropical plants and how these patterns relate to the geological history of the area. This includes the timing and location of biological exchange between areas. Neotropical plants also demonstrate repeated examples of rapid speciation and diversification. We will examine these evolutionary patterns and how they relate to molecular evolution.

  11. Influence of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.)Kitamura) : First steps towards a quality model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium) are reviewed. The external quality aspects analysed in this paper are stem morphology (length, diameter and "strength"), leaf morphology (number and

  12. POEAS: Automated Plant Phenomic Analysis Using Plant Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameer, Khader; Naika, Mahantesha Bn; Mathew, Oommen K; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2014-01-01

    Biological enrichment analysis using gene ontology (GO) provides a global overview of the functional role of genes or proteins identified from large-scale genomic or proteomic experiments. Phenomic enrichment analysis of gene lists can provide an important layer of information as well as cellular components, molecular functions, and biological processes associated with gene lists. Plant phenomic enrichment analysis will be useful for performing new experiments to better understand plant systems and for the interpretation of gene or proteins identified from high-throughput experiments. Plant ontology (PO) is a compendium of terms to define the diverse phenotypic characteristics of plant species, including plant anatomy, morphology, and development stages. Adoption of this highly useful ontology is limited, when compared to GO, because of the lack of user-friendly tools that enable the use of PO for statistical enrichment analysis. To address this challenge, we introduce Plant Ontology Enrichment Analysis Server (POEAS) in the public domain. POEAS uses a simple list of genes as input data and performs enrichment analysis using Ontologizer 2.0 to provide results in two levels, enrichment results and visualization utilities, to generate ontological graphs that are of publication quality. POEAS also offers interactive options to identify user-defined background population sets, various multiple-testing correction methods, different enrichment calculation methods, and resampling tests to improve statistical significance. The availability of such a tool to perform phenomic enrichment analyses using plant genes as a complementary resource will permit the adoption of PO-based phenomic analysis as part of analytical workflows. POEAS can be accessed using the URL http://caps.ncbs.res.in/poeas.

  13. Plant adaptogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Nörr, H; Winterhoff, H

    1994-06-01

    The term adaptogen has not yet been accepted in medicine. This is probably due to the difficulties in discriminating adaptogenic drugs from immunostimulators, anabolic drugs, nootropic drugs, and tonics. There can be not doubt, however, that, at least in animal experiments, there are plant drugs capable of modulating distinct phases of the adaptation syndrome as defined by Seyle. These drugs either reduce stress reactions in the alarm phase or retard / prevent the exhaustion phase and thus provide a certain degree of protection against long-term stress. The small number of drugs the antistress activity of which has been proven or reported includes, among others, the plant drugs Ginseng, Eleutherococcus, Withania, Ocimum, Rhodiola, and Codonopsis. This review summarizes the major findings of pharmacological tests and human studies carried out with these drugs. Currently used assay systems allowing detection of antistress activities are also reported. At present the most likely candidates responsible for the putative antistress activity of plant drugs are special steroids, phenylprogane compounds and lignanes, respectively. Apart from influencing activities of the pituitary-adrenal axis and inducing stress proteins, many adaptogens also possess immunomodulatory and / or anabolic activities. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lao, Jing Yu; Banerjee, Debasish

    2007-11-13

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  15. Mycorrhizal trifoliate orange has greater root adaptation of morphology and phytohormones in response to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying-Ning; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Ni, Qiu-Dan; Zhang, De-Jian; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Plant roots are the first parts of plants to face drought stress (DS), and thus root modification is important for plants to adapt to drought. We hypothesized that the roots of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants exhibit better adaptation in terms of morphology and phytohormones under DS. Trifoliate orange seedlings inoculated with Diversispora versiformis were subjected to well-watered (WW) and DS conditions for 6 weeks. AM seedlings exhibited better growth performance and significantly greater number of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order lateral roots, root length, area, average diameter, volume, tips, forks, and crossings than non-AM seedlings under both WW and DS conditions. AM fungal inoculation considerably increased root hair density under both WW and DS and root hair length under DS, while dramatically decreased root hair length under WW but there was no change in root hair diameter. AM plants had greater concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid, methyl jasmonate, nitric oxide, and calmodulin in roots, which were significantly correlated with changes in root morphology. These results support the hypothesis that AM plants show superior adaptation in root morphology under DS that is potentially associated with indole-3-acetic acid, methyl jasmonate, nitric oxide, and calmodulin levels. PMID:28106141

  16. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, Allston J. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2014-11-06

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  17. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    the morphology of the active layer of the solar cells when produced with water based inks using R2R coating. Using a broad range of scattering and imaging techniques, cells coated with water based inks were investigated, and compared to their spin coated counterpart. Two challenges to be addressed were small...... cells. Ptychography offers desirable properties such as potentially high resolution, quantitative contrast and possibility for tomography. Both these X-ray imaging techniques were used to measure the samples with high spatial and chemical resolution. In addition, these experiments explored and reviewed...

  18. Early Modern English:Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    By the end of the Middle English period there is already considerable loss of inflectional morphology, and in Early Modern English we see the last reflexes of a shift from synthetic Old English to analytic Modern English (Lass 1999: 139). In fact, the inflectional system of Early Modern English is not very different from what we have today (Go¨rlach 1991: 79). The changes in inflection which do take place between 1500 and 1700 show marked sociolinguistic differentiation and are the subject of...

  19. Comparison between diploid and tetraploid citrus rootstocks: morphological characterization and growth evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid citrus rootstocks may present different morphological characteristics and growth when compared to diploid ones. This worked aimed at comparing morphological characteristics and height growth of diploid and tetraploid plants from the rootstocks 'Swingle' citrumelo [C. paradise Macf. x Poncirus trifoliate (L. Raf], citrange 'Troyer' (C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata and citranges 'Fepagro C 13' and 'Fepagro C 37' [C. sinensis cv. Pêra x P. trifoliata] during twelve months. Diploid (2n=18 and tetraploid (2n=36 plants originated from the same seed were identified, cultivated and evaluated every 45 days regarding color, height, petiole length, leaf length and central leaflet width. Significant differences were observed for the evaluated characteristics: the average of petiole length was 1.78 cm in the diploid and 0.99 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of leaf length was 2.32 cm in the diploid and 2.95 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of central leaflet width was 1.33 cm in the diploid and 1.69 cm in the tetraploid plants. Moreover, tetraploid plants had darker and thicker leaves than the diploid ones. Variation regarding height was observed and the diploid plants presented higher growth than the tetraploid ones. As tetraploid plants are smaller, have a slow height growth and wider and longer leaves.

  20. Functional–structural plant models: a growing paradigm for plant studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievänen, Risto; Godin, Christophe; DeJong, Theodore M.; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2014-01-01

    A number of research groups in various areas of plant biology as well as computer science and applied mathematics have addressed modelling the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and development of plants. This has resulted in development of functional–structural plant models (FSPMs). In FSPMs, the plant structure is always explicitly represented in terms of a network of elementary units. In this respect, FSPMs are different from more abstract models in which a simplified representation of the plant structure is frequently used (e.g. spatial density of leaves, total biomass, etc.). This key feature makes it possible to build modular models and creates avenues for efficient exchange of model components and experimental data. They are being used to deal with the complex 3-D structure of plants and to simulate growth and development occurring at spatial scales from cells to forest areas, and temporal scales from seconds to decades and many plant generations. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum, from algae to trees. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers on FSPM topics such as models of morphological development, models of physical and biological processes, integrated models predicting dynamics of plants and plant communities, modelling platforms, methods for acquiring the 3-D structures of plants using automated measurements, and practical applications for agronomic purposes. PMID:25469374

  1. Functional-structural plant models: a growing paradigm for plant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievänen, Risto; Godin, Christophe; DeJong, Theodore M; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2014-09-01

    A number of research groups in various areas of plant biology as well as computer science and applied mathematics have addressed modelling the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and development of plants. This has resulted in development of functional-structural plant models (FSPMs). In FSPMs, the plant structure is always explicitly represented in terms of a network of elementary units. In this respect, FSPMs are different from more abstract models in which a simplified representation of the plant structure is frequently used (e.g. spatial density of leaves, total biomass, etc.). This key feature makes it possible to build modular models and creates avenues for efficient exchange of model components and experimental data. They are being used to deal with the complex 3-D structure of plants and to simulate growth and development occurring at spatial scales from cells to forest areas, and temporal scales from seconds to decades and many plant generations. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum, from algae to trees. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers on FSPM topics such as models of morphological development, models of physical and biological processes, integrated models predicting dynamics of plants and plant communities, modelling platforms, methods for acquiring the 3-D structures of plants using automated measurements, and practical applications for agronomic purposes.

  2. Developmental instability and plant potential fitness in a Mediterranean perennial plant, Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungairiño, S. G.; Fernández, C.; Serrano, J. M.; López, F.; Acosta, F. J.

    2005-02-01

    Developmental instability is manifested as developmental errors reflected in exaggerated intra-individual variation in repeated traits and patterns. Plants, as organisms with modular construction, are very suitable subjects for detecting developmental instability caused by environmental disturbance. The analysis of the asymmetry of plant structural traits allows for determination of deviations from the basic structural pattern, which is a measure of plant developmental instability. In this paper, we study the relationship between intra-individual variations on self-similar structural traits (as a measure of developmental instability) and plant potential fitness. Randomly-selected branches (composed of branch segments) were monitored on different plants of a natural population of the woody perennial plant Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. Data on the morphology and the demographic processes that occurred during plant development (determined from marks left on the persistent structure of the plant) were recorded on the different branches. Different measures of developmental instability were analysed and related with plant potential fitness, which was estimated from the demographic data of the modules of each plant (bud development, branch survival, etc). Our results show a direct relationship between developmental instability measured on structural traits (except for branch segment diameter) and plant potential fitness, estimated by means of branch survival.

  3. Functional ultrastructure of the plant nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępiński, Dariusz

    2014-11-01

    Nucleoli are nuclear domains present in almost all eukaryotic cells. They not only specialize in the production of ribosomal subunits but also play roles in many fundamental cellular activities. Concerning ribosome biosynthesis, particular stages of this process, i.e., ribosomal DNA transcription, primary RNA transcript processing, and ribosome assembly proceed in precisely defined nucleolar subdomains. Although eukaryotic nucleoli are conservative in respect of their main function, clear morphological differences between these structures can be noticed between individual kingdoms. In most cases, a plant nucleolus shows well-ordered structure in which four main ultrastructural components can be distinguished: fibrillar centers, dense fibrillar component, granular component, and nucleolar vacuoles. Nucleolar chromatin is an additional crucial structural component of this organelle. Nucleolonema, although it is not always an unequivocally distinguished nucleolar domain, has often been described as a well-grounded morphological element, especially of plant nucleoli. The ratios and morphology of particular subcompartments of a nucleolus can change depending on its metabolic activity which in turn is correlated with the physiological state of a cell, cell type, cell cycle phase, as well as with environmental influence. Precise attribution of functions to particular nucleolar subregions in the process of ribosome biosynthesis is now possible using various approaches. The presented description of plant nucleolar morphology summarizes previous knowledge regarding the function of nucleoli as well as of their particular subdomains not only in the course of ribosome biosynthesis.

  4. Evolution of morphological and climatic adaptations in Veronica L. (Plantaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Cheng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perennials and annuals apply different strategies to adapt to the adverse environment, based on ‘tolerance’ and ‘avoidance’, respectively. To understand lifespan evolution and its impact on plant adaptability, we carried out a comparative study of perennials and annuals in the genus Veronica from a phylogenetic perspective. The results showed that ancestors of the genus Veronicawere likely to be perennial plants. Annual life history of Veronica has evolved multiple times and subtrees with more annual species have a higher substitution rate. Annuals can adapt to more xeric habitats than perennials. This indicates that annuals are more drought-resistant than their perennial relatives. Due to adaptation to similar selective pressures, parallel evolution occurs in morphological characters among annual species of Veronica.

  5. Genetic divergence in sesame based on morphological and agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Helena Castro Arriel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of diversity in germplasm collections is important for both plant breeders and germplasmcurators to optimize the use of the variability available. Diversity can be estimated by different genetic markers. The purposeof this study was to estimate the genetic divergence of 30 morphological and agronomic traits in 108 sesame genotypes bymultivariate analysis. The Cole-Rodgers index was used to establish the dissimilarity matrices. The principal componentanalysis identified the traits that contributed most to the divergence and the genotypes were clustered by Tocher’s optimization.Despite the narrow genetic basis, the markers were efficient to characterize the genotypes and identify the most similar groupsor duplicate and divergent genotypes. Greatest variation was found for the traits number of capsules per plant and grain yield.

  6. CHANGE DETECTION VIA MORPHOLOGICAL COMPARATIVE FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vizilter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the new change detection technique based on morphological comparative filtering. This technique generalizes the morphological image analysis scheme proposed by Pytiev. A new class of comparative filters based on guided contrasting is developed. Comparative filtering based on diffusion morphology is implemented too. The change detection pipeline contains: comparative filtering on image pyramid, calculation of morphological difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local morphological correlation coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability of proposed approach.

  7. Change Detection via Morphological Comparative Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizilter, Y. V.; Rubis, A. Y.; Zheltov, S. Y.; Vygolov, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose the new change detection technique based on morphological comparative filtering. This technique generalizes the morphological image analysis scheme proposed by Pytiev. A new class of comparative filters based on guided contrasting is developed. Comparative filtering based on diffusion morphology is implemented too. The change detection pipeline contains: comparative filtering on image pyramid, calculation of morphological difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local morphological correlation coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability of proposed approach.

  8. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Buch; W.E. Kaman; F.J. Bikker; A. Yilamujiang; A. Mithöfer

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themse

  9. Morphologies of omega band auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Natsuo; Yukimatu, Akira Sessai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Hori, Tomoaki

    2017-08-01

    We examined the morphological signatures of 315 omega band aurora events observed using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm ground-based all-sky imager network over a period of 8 years. We find that omega bands can be classified into the following three subtypes: (1) classical (O-type) omega bands, (2) torch or tongue (T-type) omega bands, and (3) combinations of classical and torch or tongue (O/T-type) omega bands. The statistical results show that T-type bands occur the most frequently (45%), followed by O/T-type bands (35%) and O-type bands (18%). We also examined the morphologies of the omega bands during their formation, from the growth period to the declining period through the maximum period. Interestingly, the omega bands are not stable, but rather exhibit dynamic changes in shape, intensity, and motion. They grow from small-scale bumps (seeds) at the poleward boundary of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, rather than via the rotation or shear motion of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, and do not exhibit any shear motion during the periods of auroral activity growth. Furthermore, the auroral luminosity is observed to increase during the declining period, and the total time from the start of the growth period to the end of the declining period is found to be about 20 min. Such dynamical signatures may be important in determining the mechanism responsible for omega band formation.

  10. Functional morphology and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullemeijer, P

    1980-01-01

    In this study the relationship between functional morpholoy and evolutionary biology is analysed by confronting the main concepts in both disciplines. Rather than only discussing this connection theoretically, the analysis is carried out by introducing important practical and experimental studies, which use aspects from both disciplines. The mentioned investigations are methodologically analysed and the consequences for extensions of the relationship are worked out. It can be shown that both disciplines have a large domain of their own and also share a large common ground. Many disagreements among evolutionary biologists can be reduced to differences in general philosophy (idealism vs. realism), selection of phenomenona (structure vs. function), definition of concepts (natural selection) and the position of the concept theory as an explaining factor (neutralists vs selectionist, random variation, determinate selection, etc.). The significance of functional morphology for evolutionary biology, and vice versa depends on these differences. For a neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory, contributions from functional and ecological morphology are indispensable. Of ultimate importance are the notions of internal selection and constraints in the constructions determining further development. In this context the concepts of random variation and natural selection need more detailed definition. The study ends with a recommendation for future research founded in a system-theoretical or structuralistic conception.

  11. FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE VEGETATIVE ORGANS OF TEN AQUILEGIA L. SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Krokhmal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of patterns in the functional morphology of the vegetative organs of plants in new conditions allows to determine traits that are important in adaptation and to predict success of introduction of species in the Ukrainian steppe zone. We analysed the functional morphology of the vegetative organs of 10 Aquilegia L. species having applied methods widely used in anatomy, morphology and ecology. The groups of species were compared on the basis of their eco-geographical origin using ANOVA test, as a result of which, we found out diagnostic features of a successful adaptation of some of them. These features are a large volume of the root system, a greater thickness of the hypocotyl, a larger petiole xylem area of the leaf and a higher stomatal index. A diagnostic trait of successful adaptation of species is a smaller value of the ratio of the petiole diameter to its length in comparison with other researched species. Our search for dependencies and determination of their degree revealed that plant biomass, in particular of its above-ground part, and plant petiole parameters (diameter, the area of its cross-section and of its xylem, quantity of the conducting bundles correlate with the volume of the root system and with the hypocotyl thickness. We analyzed 52 morphological and anatomical attributes of species of the genus Aquilegia and 9 climatic factors of their natural habitat. It was detected that ecological and geographical origin of the species affects the anatomical and morphological characteristics of their vegetative organs.

  12. Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation of Turkish Text

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Kuruoz, Ilker

    1994-01-01

    Automatic text tagging is an important component in higher level analysis of text corpora, and its output can be used in many natural language processing applications. In languages like Turkish or Finnish, with agglutinative morphology, morphological disambiguation is a very crucial process in tagging, as the structures of many lexical forms are morphologically ambiguous. This paper describes a POS tagger for Turkish text based on a full-scale two-level specification of Turkish morphology that is based on a lexicon of about 24,000 root words. This is augmented with a multi-word and idiomatic construct recognizer, and most importantly morphological disambiguator based on local neighborhood constraints, heuristics and limited amount of statistical information. The tagger also has functionality for statistics compilation and fine tuning of the morphological analyzer, such as logging erroneous morphological parses, commonly used roots, etc. Preliminary results indicate that the tagger can tag about 98-99\\% of the...

  13. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  14. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  15. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  16. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar....... Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight...

  17. Verification of Geometric Model-Based Plant Phenotyping Methods for Studies of Xerophytic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Drapikowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of verification of certain non-contact measurement methods of plant scanning to estimate morphological parameters such as length, width, area, volume of leaves and/or stems on the basis of computer models. The best results in reproducing the shape of scanned objects up to 50 cm in height were obtained with the structured-light DAVID Laserscanner. The optimal triangle mesh resolution for scanned surfaces was determined with the measurement error taken into account. The research suggests that measuring morphological parameters from computer models can supplement or even replace phenotyping with classic methods. Calculating precise values of area and volume makes determination of the S/V (surface/volume ratio for cacti and other succulents possible, whereas for classic methods the result is an approximation only. In addition, the possibility of scanning and measuring plant species which differ in morphology was investigated.

  18. Morphological patterns and their colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadam, James; Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzed qualitative aspects in perception, particularly the relationship between morphological aspects of biological shapes and colour. The experiment reported by the study assessed the functional relation between shape and colour and, in particular, the relations among the patterns of shapes appearing in perceptual configurations, as well as certain characteristics of colour. Participants were shown 32 natural images and were asked to match them with a colour. The results indicated that some figures were more frequently associated (positively or negatively) with some colours instead of others. Type of shape, texture, and three-dimensionality were important elements in the participants' choices. Rounded figures and non-holed figures had positive matches with red; elongated figures were associated with colours between blue and green; and holed figures showed positive matches with colours between green and yellow. Type of shape and texture also exhibited a relationship with the warmth of the colour.

  19. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where dat...

  20. Differential Equations for Morphological Amoebas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Martin; Breuß, Michael; Vogel, Oliver

    This paper is concerned with amoeba median filtering, a structure-adaptive morphological image filter. It has been introduced by Lerallut et al. in a discrete formulation. Experimental evidence shows that iterated amoeba median filtering leads to segmentation-like results that are similar to those obtained by self-snakes, an image filter based on a partial differential equation. We investigate this correspondence by analysing a space-continuous formulation of iterated median filtering. We prove that in the limit of vanishing radius of the structuring elements, iterated amoeba median filtering indeed approximates a partial differential equation related to self-snakes and the well-known (mean) curvature motion equation. We present experiments with discrete iterated amoeba median filtering that confirm qualitative and quantitative predictions of our analysis.

  1. Morphology of the membrana limitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, M; Kimura, R S

    1993-08-01

    The morphology of the membrana limitans (ML) was studied by light and electron microscopy to further understand its functional significance. The ML is a porous shield composed of a few to several layers of tightly packed fibrocytes that separate the perilymphatic space of the cochlea and saccule from that of the utricle and canal system. These fibrocytes are thinner on the side of the vestibule. They show many desmosomes and gap junctions and are interspersed with fibrils. The 3-dimensional reconstruction from celloidin sections shows that the ML, as it is viewed from the anterior side, is rectangular in shape, with various surface curvatures and an invagination toward the internal aperture of the vestibular aqueduct. Horseradish peroxidase, a tracer substance, placed on either side of the ML fails to pass to the opposite side. The ML and trabecular meshwork may be a factor contributing to differential sensitivity of cochlear and vestibular sensory cells in the presence of noxious substances.

  2. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji

    2008-05-01

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes.

  3. Open data and digital morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas G.; Cunningham, John A.; Asher, Robert J.; Bates, Karl T.; Bengtson, Stefan; Benson, Roger B. J.; Boyer, Doug M.; Braga, José; Dong, Xi-Ping; Evans, Alistair R.; Friedman, Matt; Garwood, Russell J.; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.; Jeffery, Nathan S.; Lebrun, Renaud; Martínez-Pérez, Carlos; O'Higgins, Paul M.; Orliac, Maëva; Rowe, Timothy B.; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Shubin, Neil H.; Starck, J. Matthias; Stringer, Chris; Summers, Adam P.; Sutton, Mark D.; Walsh, Stig A.; Weisbecker, Vera; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Wroe, Stephen; Yin, Zongjun

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the development of methods for visualizing and analysing specimens digitally, in three and even four dimensions, has transformed the study of living and fossil organisms. However, the initial promise that the widespread application of such methods would facilitate access to the underlying digital data has not been fully achieved. The underlying datasets for many published studies are not readily or freely available, introducing a barrier to verification and reproducibility, and the reuse of data. There is no current agreement or policy on the amount and type of data that should be made available alongside studies that use, and in some cases are wholly reliant on, digital morphology. Here, we propose a set of recommendations for minimum standards and additional best practice for three-dimensional digital data publication, and review the issues around data storage, management and accessibility. PMID:28404779

  4. Morphological Inversion of Complex Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, V AT

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics, neural cascades, power failures, and many other phenomena can be described by a diffusion process on a network. To identify the causal origins of a spread, it is often necessary to identify the triggering initial node. Here we define a new morphological operator and use it to detect the origin of a diffusive front, given the final state of a complex network. Our method performs better than randomized trials as well as centrality based methods. More importantly, our method is applicable regardless of the specifics of the forward model, and therefore can be applied to a wide range of systems such as identifying the patient zero in an epidemic, pinpointing the neuron that triggers a cascade, identifying the original malfunction that causes a catastrophic infrastructure failure, and inferring the ancestral species from which a heterogeneous population evolves.

  5. Cartography – morphology – topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    I 2004 a Summer School was established on the Greek island of Hydra. The was to be the basis of research-based morphological and topological studies, which have since taken place for 4 weeks of every year. Starting with Hydra’s topography different ways of considering topology were developed....... The work was approached from a new angle every year through a series of associated questions, resulting in an extensive body of drawings describing the various discourses raised. The developed observational forms reflected in the collected body of drawings constitute a topological landscape with a great...... and developing topological emergence as a passage between cartographic appropriation and creative becoming while simultaneously lifting the material out of its mimetic reference, makes room for the of a movement towards a production of meaning as well as a basis for initiating architectonic practices. We seek...

  6. Scyl1 regulates Golgi morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon L Burman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane trafficking is a defining feature of eukaryotic cells, and is essential for the maintenance of organelle homeostasis and identity. We previously identified Scy1-like 1 (Scyl1, a member of the Scy1-like family of catalytically inactive protein kinases, as a high-affinity binding partner of COPI coats. COPI-coated vesicles control Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum trafficking and we observed that disruption of Scyl1 function leads to a decrease in trafficking of the KDEL receptor via the COPI pathway. We reasoned that if Scyl1 plays a major role in COPI trafficking its disruption could influence Golgi homeostasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed Scyl1 knock down in cultured cells using previously established methods and observed an alteration in Golgi morphology. Both the surface area and volume of the Golgi is increased in Scyl1-depleted cells, but the continuity and polarity of the organelle is unperturbed. At the ultrastructural level we observe a decrease in the orderly structure of the Golgi with an increase in cisternal luminal width, while the number of Golgi cisternae remains unchanged. The golgin family of proteins forms a detergent resistant network that controls Golgi homeostasis. Disruption of this protein network by knock down of the golgin p115 disrupts the Golgi localization of Scyl1. Moreover, we find that Scyl1 interacts with 58K/formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase (FTCD, a protein that is tightly associated with the cis face of the Golgi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results place Scyl1 at an interface between the golgin network and COPI trafficking and demonstrate that Scyl1 is required for the maintenance of Golgi morphology. Coupled with the observation from others that Scyl1 is the gene product responsible for the neurodegenerative mouse model mdf, our results additionally implicate the regulation of COPI trafficking and Golgi homeostasis in neurodegeneration.

  7. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2015-11-07

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are coevolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies.

  8. The plant microbiome explored: implications for experimental botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Rybakova, Daria; Grube, Martin; Köberl, Martina

    2016-02-01

    The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts. They can stimulate germination and growth, help plants fend off disease, promote stress resistance, and influence plant fitness. Therefore, plants have to be considered as metaorganisms within which the associated microbes usually outnumber the cells belonging to the plant host. The structure of the plant microbiome is determined by biotic and abiotic factors but follows ecological rules. Metaorganisms are co-evolved species assemblages. The metabolism and morphology of plants and their microbiota are intensively connected with each other, and the interplay of both maintains the functioning and fitness of the holobiont. Our study of the current literature shows that analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of the diverse structure and functioning of the plant microbiome with respect to the following: (i) the high interplay of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and protists; (ii) the high specificity even at cultivar level; (iii) the vertical transmission of core microbiomes; (iv) the extraordinary function of endophytes; and (v) several unexpected functions and metabolic interactions. The plant microbiome should be recognized as an additional factor in experimental botany and breeding strategies.

  9. Effects of lead on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in the root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Ze; Zhang, Huaning; Qin, Rong; Zou, Jinhua; Wang, Junran; Shi, Qiuyue; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-01-01

    To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated...

  10. Novel weapons testing: are invasive plants more chemically defended than native plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eric M; Parker, John D

    2010-05-03

    Exotic species have been hypothesized to successfully invade new habitats by virtue of possessing novel biochemistry that repels native enemies. Despite the pivotal long-term consequences of invasion for native food-webs, to date there are no experimental studies examining directly whether exotic plants are any more or less biochemically deterrent than native plants to native herbivores. In a direct test of this hypothesis using herbivore feeding assays with chemical extracts from 19 invasive plants and 21 co-occurring native plants, we show that invasive plant biochemistry is no more deterrent (on average) to a native generalist herbivore than extracts from native plants. There was no relationship between extract deterrence and length of time since introduction, suggesting that time has not mitigated putative biochemical novelty. Moreover, the least deterrent plant extracts were from the most abundant species in the field, a pattern that held for both native and exotic plants. Analysis of chemical deterrence in context with morphological defenses and growth-related traits showed that native and exotic plants had similar trade-offs among traits. Overall, our results suggest that particular invasive species may possess deterrent secondary chemistry, but it does not appear to be a general pattern resulting from evolutionary mismatches between exotic plants and native herbivores. Thus, fundamentally similar processes may promote the ecological success of both native and exotic species.

  11. Morphological and structural characterization of fly ash powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and structural characterization of fly ash powder's reports are obtained from coal  combustion supplied by the thermal - electrical plant Termotasajero S.A. The morphological study consisted in the superficial analysis, using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The basic chemical composition was found using X ray energy dispersion spectrums (EDX - SEM whereas structural characterization was developed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The software Image tool V. 3.0. was used for the particle size distribution. The results obtained show that the fly ash powders are composed mostly by spherical particles as well as unburned particles adhered to the particles, with average particle size of order micrometers. The structural study, using XRD, reports the main crystalline phases of mullite, quartz and hematite. Our results will allow us to evaluate the Thermal - electrical Plant Termotasajero's coal combustion processes, as well as another uses and applications of those ashes.

  12. The evolution, morphology and development of fern leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eVasco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearl all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development.

  13. Phenotypic Correlations among Pollen Quality and Morphological Traits of Saintpaulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsebet BUTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the correlation between pollen viability, germination and the morphological traits, 15 Saintpaulia genotypes were analysed. Pollen viability was obtained by staining with potassium iodide (25% and germination was estimated using solid nutrient medium (15% sucrose, 85% humidity, 22 °C temperature. Several morphological traits such as number of flowers, diameter of leaves rosette, number of leaves, length and width of leaves and petiole length were evaluated to determine growth indices. The results obtained indicated that ‘Hot Pink Bell’ genotype achieved the highest number of flowers and the largest diameter of leaves rosette. Genotypes ‘Tomahawks’ and S. grotei recorded the highest number of leaves. Higher width of leaves values was obtained in ‘Aloha Orchid’, while genotype ‘Park Avenue Blue’ was noted for a high length of leaves. Positive correlations were recorded among viability and germination in S. jonantha, S. rupicola and S. grotei. Significant positive correlation was registered between pollen viability and the number of flowers, but also between germination and the number of flowers per plant. The results indicated a possible correlation between viability, germination capacity and the morphological traits in most genotypes studied.

  14. Morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars of East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FITRI HANDAYANI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Handayani F, Sumarmiyati, Ahmadi NR. 2016. Morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars of East Kalimantan. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 88-93. High diversity of local rice is very important in rice breeding program as a gene pool for valuable traits such as resistance to specific disease and tolerance against environmental stresses (Al, Fe, acidity, etc. East Kalimantan is a province which has so many local rice cultivars either lowland, upland or tidal swamp rice. Unfortunately, there is still limited scientific information about local rice genetic diversity in East Kalimantan, whereas it is an important basic information for rice breeding program. The aim of this research was to study the morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars from some regions in East Kalimantan. The research was conducted at Lempake trial field, Samarinda in April-September 2016. The result showed that the cultivars had variability in morphological characters. Plant profile was medium to high while some tillers were little and very little. The color of lemma and palea was yellowish straw in 17 cultivars while the rest had brown lines in yellowish straw background. Seed length ranged between 7.3-9.6 mm, while seed width ranged between 1.9-3.3 mm, and seed thickness ranged between 1.5-2.1 mm. The shape of the rice grain varied between medium grain (length: width = 2.1-3.0 or long grain (length: width > 3.0.

  15. HERBASPIRILLUM-LIKE BACTERIA IN BANANA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Olmar B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from banana plants were characterized by morphological and physiological aspects. Three different groups of these plant-bacteria could be established. Two of them showed similarity to species of the Herbaspirillum genus. The third one was different because used only a few carbon substrates and produced water diffusible compounds that fluoresced under UV light. All three bacterial groups were thin rods with mono or bipolar flagella, presented negative reaction in Gram stain, showed catalase activity, were able to reduce nitrate and grew better in semi-solid JNFb medium at 31ºC. The nitrogenase activity was detected in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium and expressed higher values when pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.0 (groups I and II and 6.0 to 6.5 (group III. The diazotrophs isolated from banana plants were distinct from species of Herbaspirillum previously identified in gramineous plants.

  16. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

    2013-01-01

    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

  17. Developing free morphological data for Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Radziszewski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing free morphological data for Polish A limiting factor in construction of Natural Language Processing (NLP systems is often the availability of morphological resources. This indeed happens for Polish: the freely available corpus with manual morpho-syntactic annotation (part of the IPI PAN Corpus is not coupled with any free morphological analyser. There exists a very large morphological dictionary of Polish available under a free licence – Morfologik. Unfortunately, its tagset differs significantly from the tagset of the corpus and, what is more, its morphological description lacks desired rigour. We amend this situation by performing a massive conversion of the dictionary into the tagset compliant with the corpus. The conversion results in a free dictionary containing entries for almost 3.5 million different word forms. In this article we report on our methodology, discuss some morphological and syntactic issues related to both tagsets and present the characteristics of the resulting dictionary.

  18. Simulations of dual morphology in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, S L

    2003-01-01

    Gas and stars in spiral galaxies are modelled with the DUAL code, using hydrodynamic and N-body techniques. The simulations reveal morphological differences mirroring the dual morphologies seen in B and K' band observations of many spiral galaxies. In particular, the gaseous images are more flocculent with lower pitch angles than the stellar images, and the stellar arm-interarm contrast correlates with the degree of morphological decoupling.

  19. PREPARATION OF POLYALKYLCYANOACRYLATE NANOPARTICLES WITH VARIOUS MORPHOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-lin Xu; He-xian Li; Guo-chang Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various reaction conditions on the preparation of polyalkylcyanoacrylate (PACA) nanoparticles are studied. The PACA nanoparticles with different crosslinking degrees and morphology are prepared. Addition of crosslinkers can not only adjust the particle size, but also change the morphology of PACA nanoparticles. Moreover, the loose network structure of the PACA nanoparticles with “core/shell-like” morphology is investigated by AFM and TEM in detail.

  20. Morphology predicts species' functional roles and their degree of specialization in plant–frugivore interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehling, D. Matthias; Schaefer, H. Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Species' functional roles in key ecosystem processes such as predation, pollination or seed dispersal are determined by the resource use of consumer species. An interaction between resource and consumer species usually requires trait matching (e.g. a congruence in the morphologies of interaction partners). Species' morphology should therefore determine species' functional roles in ecological processes mediated by mutualistic or antagonistic interactions. We tested this assumption for Neotropical plant–bird mutualisms. We used a new analytical framework that assesses a species's functional role based on the analysis of the traits of its interaction partners in a multidimensional trait space. We employed this framework to test (i) whether there is correspondence between the morphology of bird species and their functional roles and (ii) whether morphologically specialized birds fulfil specialized functional roles. We found that morphological differences between bird species reflected their functional differences: (i) bird species with different morphologies foraged on distinct sets of plant species and (ii) morphologically distinct bird species fulfilled specialized functional roles. These findings encourage further assessments of species' functional roles through the analysis of their interaction partners, and the proposed analytical framework facilitates a wide range of novel analyses for network and community ecology. PMID:26817779

  1. Morphological Characteristics of Korean Dried Ginseng Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hee-Do Hong; Chang-Woon Cho; Young-Chan Kim; Eunyoung Kim; Young-Kyung Rhee; Jeonghae Rho; Seung-Hoe Choi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a standard quality characteristic through the evaluation and statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics of dried ginseng (white ginseng) products...

  2. The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Wheeler

    Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.

  3. DNA Extraction from Eriocaulon Plants and Construction of RAPD System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xian; Lin Shanzhi; Zhang Zhixiang

    2004-01-01

    There have been many arguments on the classification of Eriocaulon Linn. by morphology so far, and little is known about the use of molecular marker for genetic for genetic diversity of Eriocaulon plants. To apply the technique of molecular marker to the research of genetic diversity of Eriocaulon plants, the study of the extraction method of DNA from the Eriocaulon plants and the RAPD system are essential for researchers. In this paper, the extraction of genome DNA from the silica-gel-dried leaves of several species of Eriocaulon distributed in China was studied, and the best RAPD analysis technique condition of Eriocaulon plants was analyzed.

  4. [Phenylethanoid glycosides distribution in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Liu, Yong

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the role of distribution and phylogeny of phenylethanoid glycoside in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae, five phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were quantitatively determined in 12 species of Gesneriaceae by HPLC. The existence and content of these compounds were analyzed. The results showed that phenylethanoid glycosides were found in the most of those plants, but the kind of phenylethanoid glycosides varied in different species. Acteoside distribute in most of this plant group, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were rare in those plants. The results of this study support morphological viewpoint that Trib. Trichosporeae is more developmental than Trib. Didymocarpeae.

  5. STREPTOCARPUS - FLOWERING POT PLANT - PROPAGATION AND CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CANTOR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years in Romania and throughout the world we assist at diversification of floral plants assortment by introducing new species and cultivars. For this goal, at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Floriculture Department we diversified and enriched the collection for indoor plants with a pot species, which decorates by flowers, Streptocarpus x hybridus. In this work are presented the main morphological and biological characteristics, propagation by seeds and vegetative propagation, growth requirements, the main diseases and pests of this species, in order to recommend it for indoor culture.

  6. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Jeremiah A.; Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant traits, such as root and leaf area, influence how plants interact with their environment and the diverse microbiota living within plants can influence plant morphology and physiology. Here, we explored how three bacterial strains isolated from the Populus root microbiome, influenced plant...... phenotype. We chose three bacterial strains that differed in predicted metabolic capabilities, plant hormone production and metabolism, and secondary metabolite synthesis. We inoculated each bacterial strain on a single genotype of Populus trichocarpa and measured the response of plant growth related traits...... (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates) and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light-Asat, and saturating CO2-Amax). Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf...

  7. Plants Biodiversity of Jobolarangan Forest Mount Lawu: 2. Spermatophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHAR IRIANTO

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to make: (1 a list of Spermatophyte plants at Jobolarangan forest in mount Lawu, and (2 the ecological and the economical benefits of the plants. All Spermatophyte plants on the forest were studied. The research procedures were including species collection in the field, make up herbaria, morphological observations in the laboratory, and interview to residents and government administrations. The results showed that in the forest were found 142 species Spermatophyte plants, in which 126 species of 54 family were identified, consisting of 78 species of herbs, 26 species of bushes, and 21 species of trees. Ecological benefits of the plants were hydrological regulation, keep out landslide and erosions etc., however economical benefits of the plants were log, firewood, charcoal, honey bee, medicinal plants, etc.

  8. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  9. Secular trend: morphology and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Schipman, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Danial, Mario; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In a context of morphological expansion of the general population, how do athletes follow such a pattern of anthropometric growth? Is there any relation to performance? Biometric data including mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and age were collected for 50,376 American athletes representing 249,336 annual performers playing in professional baseball, football, ice hockey and basketball. Distributions by mass in National Football League (NFL) players are described by periods. Field goals have been studied in relation to players' height in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Between 1871 and 2011, athletes from the four sports have increased significantly in mass, height and BMI, following a multi-exponential function series. Consequently, biometric differences between athletes and the general population are increasing gradually. Changes in the mass distribution within the NFL show the emergence of a biometrical specificity in relation to the field position. At the professional level, performance remains structured around precise biometric values. In the NBA, a height-attractor at 201.3 ± 6.3 cm for the best scorers is invariant, regardless of the level of play. These results suggest that laws of growth and biometrics drive high-level sport and organise performance around the specific constraint of each field position. Discrepancies between some mass and height developments question the (disproportionate) large mass increase (relative to the height increase) during the 1980s and 1990s.

  10. High resolution urban morphology data for urban wind flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cionco, Ronald M.; Ellefsen, Richard

    The application of urban forestry methods and technologies to a number of practical problems can be further enhanced by the use and incorporation of localized, high resolution wind and temperature fields into their analysis methods. The numerical simulation of these micrometeorological fields will represent the interactions and influences of urban structures, vegetation elements, and variable terrain as an integral part of the dynamics of an urban domain. Detailed information of the natural and man-made components that make up the urban area is needed to more realistically model meteorological fields in urban domains. Simulating high resolution wind and temperatures over and through an urban domain utilizing detailed morphology data can also define and quantify local areas where urban forestry applications can contribute to better solutions. Applications such as the benefits of planting trees for shade purposes can be considered, planned, and evaluated for their impact on conserving energy and cooling costs as well as the possible reconfiguration or removal of trees and other barriers for improved airflow ventilation and similar processes. To generate these fields, a wind model must be provided, as a minimum, the location, type, height, structural silhouette, and surface roughness of these components, in order to account for the presence and effects of these land morphology features upon the ambient airflow. The morphology of Sacramento, CA has been characterized and quantified in considerable detail primarily for wind flow modeling, simulation, and analyses, but can also be used for improved meteorological analyses, urban forestry, urban planning, and other urban related activities. Morphology methods previously developed by Ellefsen are applied to the Sacramento scenario with a high resolution grid of 100 m × 100 m. The Urban Morphology Scheme defines Urban Terrain Zones (UTZ) according to how buildings and other urban elements are structured and placed with

  11. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  12. The Plant Ontology as a Tool for Comparative Plant Anatomy and Genomic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Laurel; Walls, Ramona L.; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A.; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Smith, Barry; Preece, Justin; Athreya, Balaji; Mungall, Christopher J.; Rensing, Stefan; Hiss, Manuel; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf; Berardini, Tanya Z.; Li, Donghui; Huala, Eva; Schaeffer, Mary; Menda, Naama; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Shrestha, Rosemary; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    The Plant Ontology (PO; http://www.plantontology.org/) is a publicly available, collaborative effort to develop and maintain a controlled, structured vocabulary (‘ontology’) of terms to describe plant anatomy, morphology and the stages of plant development. The goals of the PO are to link (annotate) gene expression and phenotype data to plant structures and stages of plant development, using the data model adopted by the Gene Ontology. From its original design covering only rice, maize and Arabidopsis, the scope of the PO has been expanded to include all green plants. The PO was the first multispecies anatomy ontology developed for the annotation of genes and phenotypes. Also, to our knowledge, it was one of the first biological ontologies that provides translations (via synonyms) in non-English languages such as Japanese and Spanish. As of Release #18 (July 2012), there are about 2.2 million annotations linking PO terms to >110,000 unique data objects representing genes or gene models, proteins, RNAs, germplasm and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from 22 plant species. In this paper, we focus on the plant anatomical entity branch of the PO, describing the organizing principles, resources available to users and examples of how the PO is integrated into other plant genomics databases and web portals. We also provide two examples of comparative analyses, demonstrating how the ontology structure and PO-annotated data can be used to discover the patterns of expression of the LEAFY (LFY) and terpene synthase (TPS) gene homologs. PMID:23220694

  13. The plant ontology as a tool for comparative plant anatomy and genomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Laurel; Walls, Ramona L; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A; Stevenson, Dennis W; Smith, Barry; Preece, Justin; Athreya, Balaji; Mungall, Christopher J; Rensing, Stefan; Hiss, Manuel; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf; Berardini, Tanya Z; Li, Donghui; Huala, Eva; Schaeffer, Mary; Menda, Naama; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Shrestha, Rosemary; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2013-02-01

    The Plant Ontology (PO; http://www.plantontology.org/) is a publicly available, collaborative effort to develop and maintain a controlled, structured vocabulary ('ontology') of terms to describe plant anatomy, morphology and the stages of plant development. The goals of the PO are to link (annotate) gene expression and phenotype data to plant structures and stages of plant development, using the data model adopted by the Gene Ontology. From its original design covering only rice, maize and Arabidopsis, the scope of the PO has been expanded to include all green plants. The PO was the first multispecies anatomy ontology developed for the annotation of genes and phenotypes. Also, to our knowledge, it was one of the first biological ontologies that provides translations (via synonyms) in non-English languages such as Japanese and Spanish. As of Release #18 (July 2012), there are about 2.2 million annotations linking PO terms to >110,000 unique data objects representing genes or gene models, proteins, RNAs, germplasm and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from 22 plant species. In this paper, we focus on the plant anatomical entity branch of the PO, describing the organizing principles, resources available to users and examples of how the PO is integrated into other plant genomics databases and web portals. We also provide two examples of comparative analyses, demonstrating how the ontology structure and PO-annotated data can be used to discover the patterns of expression of the LEAFY (LFY) and terpene synthase (TPS) gene homologs.

  14. Morphology of representatives of the tribe Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. (Fabaceae from Ukrainian flora on early stages of ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia I. Karpenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative investigations of the morphological peculiarities in 15 species of Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. tribe (Fabaceae at early stages of their ontogenesis were carried out. The morphological descriptions of the young plants of all species studied were presented. The appropriateness of some taxonomic changes was shown, in particular the placement of Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Sprun. into the genus Hippocrepis L. and Coronilla varia L., С. cretica L., C. elegans Panč. into the genus Securigera DC.

  15. 青海省海北州杜鹃花科杜鹃花属植物种类形态特征及发展前景%Morphological Characteristics and Development Prospects of Plant Species of Rhododendron Genus,Ericaceae Family in Haibei State of Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扈晓途

    2012-01-01

    There are four species belonging to Rhododendron genus,Ericaceae family in Haibei State,such as Rdodendron przewalskii Maxim.,Rhododendron anthopogonlides Maxim.,Rhododendron capitatum Maxim.and Rhododendron thymifolium Maxim..The morphological characteristics,pharmacological properties,production and sales as well as development prospects of Rhododendron genus were introduced.%青海省海北州境内的杜鹃花科杜鹃花属植物有4种,即青海杜鹃、烈香杜鹃、头花杜鹃、百里香杜鹃。介绍了杜鹃花属植物的形态特征、药理性能、功效、产销情况及发展前景。

  16. The effect of tetraploidy induction on morphology and anatomy characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Mansouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of tetraploid plant was studied in Cannabis sativa L. with colchicine at three different concentrations (i.e., 0.0, 0.1 and 0.2% for about 24 and 48 h through dropping method. Flow cytometry analyses were used to confirm the ploidy level. Morphologic and anatomic characteristics between tetraploid and diploid control plants were compared. The results showed that 0.2% colchicine for 24 h had the best effect. The percentage of tetraploid plants and the survival rate were lowered by increasing the treatment time. In addition, the leaf index and height of tetraploid plants exhibited a significant decrease compared to the diploid plants. The size of leaves' epidermis stomata were larger in tetraploid plant compared to the diploid ones, in spite of their less density of stomata. However, the amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoids were almost the same in both of tetraploid and diploid plants. In addition, some differences were also observed in the cross section of stem of these plants from the descriptive structure point of view. On the whole, the results introduced usage of the stomata parameters as an effective and convenient method for detecting the tetraploid plants however, the flow cytometry analysis was more effective in assessing the ploidy percentage.

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-11-11

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1α sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1α genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1α region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study.

  18. [Three-dimensional morphological modeling and visualization of wheat root system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Feng; Tang, Liang; Hu, Jun-Cheng; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Cao, Wei-Xing; Zhu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Crop three-dimensional (3D) morphological modeling and visualization is an important part of digital plant study. This paper aimed to develop a 3D morphological model of wheat root system based on the parameters of wheat root morphological features, and to realize the visualization of wheat root growth. According to the framework of visualization technology for wheat root growth, a 3D visualization model of wheat root axis, including root axis growth model, branch geometric model, and root axis curve model, was developed firstly. Then, by integrating root topology, the corresponding pixel was determined, and the whole wheat root system was three-dimensionally re-constructed by using the morphological feature parameters in the root morphological model. Finally, based on the platform of OpenGL, and by integrating the technologies of texture mapping, lighting rendering, and collision detection, the 3D visualization of wheat root growth was realized. The 3D output of wheat root system from the model was vivid, which could realize the 3D root system visualization of different wheat cultivars under different water regimes and nitrogen application rates. This study could lay a technical foundation for further development of an integral visualization system of wheat plant.

  19. Large scale molecular analysis of traditional European maize populations. Relationships with morphological variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebourg, C; Gouesnard, B; Charcosset, A

    2001-05-01

    A representative sample of 130 European traditional maize populations was analysed for both their morphological and molecular variation. The morphological analysis of 19 variables revealed a significant variability. Correlation analysis allowed us to distinguish between traits affected by earliness (plant and ear height) and structural traits (plant architecture, grain structure). Two main morphological types could be distinguished. Molecular analyses were performed for 29 RFLP loci on DNA bulks. The number of alleles detected was high when compared to previous studies (9.59 alleles per locus). Genetic diversity was also high (0.55), with a strong differentiation between populations (GST value of 35.6%). A clear relationship between the genetic diversity of the populations and their agronomic performances was highlighted. Morphological and molecular distances showed a tendency towards a triangular relationship. We therefore considered a two-phase process to be the most efficient approach for the classification of genetic resources: firstly, a molecular study to define groups of genetically close populations, and secondly a morphological description of populations from each group. In our European collection, this approach allowed us to separate the populations from Northern and Southern Europe and to define six groups of genetically close populations, comparable to European races. This study opens new prospects concerning the molecular analysis of very large collections of genetic resources, hitherto limited by the necessity of individual analyses, and proposes a first molecular classification of European maize germplasm.

  20. Arabic Morphology in the Neural Language System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudelaa, Sami; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2010-01-01

    There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological…

  1. Lexical Morphology: Structure, Process, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the importance of derivational morphology to later language development and has led to a consensus that derivation is a lexical process. In this review, derivational morphology is discussed in terms of lexical representation models from both linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives. Input characteristics, including…

  2. Morphological features in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval

    2008-01-01

    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and classi

  3. Morphological features in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval

    2008-01-01

    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and

  4. Morphological Atlas of the Dutch Dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, de Georges; Berg, van den Boudewijn; Goeman, Ton; Jong, de Thera

    2005-01-01

    For the first time in the history of Dutch dialectology, a detailed overview of the variation in the formation of words has become available in the Morphological Atlas of the Dutch Dialects (MAND). MAND presents the state of the art in dialect morphology at the end of the twentieth century in two vo

  5. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  6. Morphological features in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval

    2008-01-01

    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and classi

  7. Morphology of solidification front in eutectic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepczyńska - Łent

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of morphology of solidification front in eutectic made. It was present influence of composition, solidification velocity, concentration micro-field and capillarity effects on the morphology of the solid/liquid interface. It was introduced phase-field model.

  8. Automatic Target Detection by Optimal Morphological Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Nong(余农); WU Hao(吴昊); WU ChangYong(吴常泳); LI YuShu(李予蜀)

    2003-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of morphological filters, which are optimal in some sense, is a difficult task. In this paper a novel method for optimal learning of morphological filtering parameters (Genetic training algorithm for morphological filters, GTAMF) is presented.GTAMF adopts new crossover and mutation operators called the curved cylinder crossover and master-slave mutation to achieve optimal filtering parameters in a global searching. Experimental results show that this method is practical, easy to extend, and markedly improves the performances of morphological filters. The operation of a morphological filter can be divided into two basic problems including morphological operation and structuring element (SE) selection. The rules for morphological operations are predefined so that the filter's properties depend merely on the selection of SE. By means of adaptive optimization training, structuring elements possess the shape and structural characteristics of image targets, and give specific information to SE. Morphological filters formed in this way become certainly intelligent and can provide good filtering results and robust adaptability to image targets with clutter background.

  9. Prosodic Morphology in Four Chinese Dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Moira

    1992-01-01

    Yanggu, Anxiang, and Yuanyang diminutives and Cantonese familiar name formation are examined in the light of recent understanding about the role of prosodic categories in phonology and morphology. The results lend strong support to the growing body of research in prosodic morphology, especially the pioneering work of McCarthy and Prince. (52…

  10. Recent developments in pathogen detection arrays: implications for fungal plant pathogens and use in practica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The failure to adequately identify plant pathogens from culture-based morphological techniques has led to the development of culture-independent molecular approaches. Increasingly, diagnostic laboratories are pursuing fast routine methods that provide reliable identification, sensitive detection, an

  11. Bias and conflict in phylogenetic inference of myco-heterotrophic plants: a case study in Thismiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Bakker, F.T.; Huysmans, K.; Smets, B.F.

    2009-01-01

    Due to morphological reduction and absence of amplifiable plastid genes, the identification of photosynthetic relatives of heterotrophic plants is problematic. Although nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences may offer a welcome alternative source of phylogenetic markers, the presence of rate heter

  12. Morphology and Temperatures at Pele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert R.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2010-10-01

    The Pele region of Io has been the site of vigorous volcanic activity from the time of the first Voyager I observations in 1979 up through the final Galileo ones in 2001. There is high temperature thermal emission from what is thought to be a rapidly overturning lava lake, and also the source of a large sulfur-rich plume. We present a new analysis of Voyager I visible wavelength images, and Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) and Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) thermal emission observations which better define the morphology of the region and the intensity of the emission. The observations show remarkably correlations between the locations of the emission and the features seen in the Voyager images, which provide insight into eruption mechanisms and constrain the longevity of the activity. We also analyze an additional wavelength channel of NIMS data (1.87 micron) which paradoxically, because of reduced sensitivity, allows us to estimate temperatures at the peak locations of emission. Measurements of eruption temperatures on Io are crucial because they provide our best clues to the composition of the magma. High color temperatures indicative of ultramafic composition have been reported for the Pillan hot spot and possibly for Pele, although recent work has called into question the requirement for magma temperatures above those expected for ordinary basalts. Our new analysis of the Pele emission near the peak of the hot spot shows color temperatures near the upper end of the basalt range during the I27 and I32 encounters. We also analyze those temperatures in terms of lava cooling models to determine the required magma temperatures.

  13. The Contribution of Morphological Awareness to the Spelling of Morphemes and Morphologically Complex Words in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Anila

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between morphological awareness and the spelling of morphemes and morphologically complex words among 75 third- and fourth-grade Francophone students of low socio-economic status. To reach this objective, we administered a dictation comprised of morphologically complex words with prefixes,…

  14. The Contribution of Morphological Awareness to the Spelling of Morphemes and Morphologically Complex Words in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Anila

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between morphological awareness and the spelling of morphemes and morphologically complex words among 75 third- and fourth-grade Francophone students of low socio-economic status. To reach this objective, we administered a dictation comprised of morphologically complex words with prefixes,…

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED SWEET VIOLET POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata ERHATIĆ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sweet violet (Viola odorata L. blooms in continental climate conditions in early spring (March-April with delicate flowers of attractive scent because of which it is frequently gathered from its natural habitats. Differences among the populations were established according to their morphological properties of twelve populations from Križevci area. Stated information indicates that the populations gathered from meadow – habitat are shorter and have a smaller diameter than the populations gathered from the habitat in forest, whereas the population from the orchards has the highest number of leaves and flowers. Correlation analysis shows strong (P<0.01 positive connection of the root mass, leaves mass, number of leaves with the total mass of the plants, as well as connection of the plant mass with the number of flowers. Chemical analysis established agrochemical soil properties and nutrient concentrations in plants. Correlations between the examined properties of violets and soil properties indicate that the potassium concentration in the roots is in strong (P <0.01 correlation with potassium in the soil, whereas phosphorus concentration in flower is in a considerably strong (P<0.05 positive correlation with the phosphorus in the soil.

  16. SDSS superclusters: morphology and galaxy content

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, M; Tempel, E; Gramann, M; Liivamagi, L J; Einasto, J

    2014-01-01

    We compare the galaxy populations in superclusters of different morphology in the nearby Universe (180 < d < 270 Mpc) to see whether the inner structure and overall morphology of superclusters are important in shaping galaxy properties in superclusters. Supercluster morphology has been found with Minkowski functionals. We analyse the probability density distributions of colours, morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) of galaxies, and the peculiar velocities of the main galaxies in groups in superclusters of filament and spider types, and in the field. We show that the fraction of red, early-type, low SFR galaxies in filament-type superclusters is higher than in spider-type superclusters; in low-density global environments their fraction is lower than in superclusters. In all environments the fraction of red, high stellar mass, and low SFR galaxies in rich groups is higher than in poor groups. In superclusters of spider morphology red, high SFR galaxies have higher stellar masses...

  17. Auditory morphological processing: Evidence from phonological priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacovcin, Hezekiah Akiva; Goodwin Davies, Amy; Wilder, Robert J; Embick, David

    2017-07-01

    Using an auditory lexical decision task, we find evidence of a facilitatory priming effect for morphologically complex targets (e.g., snow-ed) preceded by primes which rhyme with the target's stem (e.g., dough). By using rhyme priming, we are able to probe for morphological processing in a way that avoids confounds arising from semantic relatedness that are inherent to morphological priming (snow/snow-ed). Phonological control conditions (e.g., targets code and grove for prime dough) are used to rule out alternative interpretations of the effect that are based on partial rhyme or phonological embedding of the stem. The findings provide novel evidence for an independent morphological component in lexical processing and demonstrate the utility of rhyme priming in probing morphological representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-09-02

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference.

  19. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  20. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  1. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  2. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; Malcolm Matamoros, Priscila; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for 4 days to low VPD (M→L). Part of the M→L-plants were sprayed with ABA (abscisic acid) during exposure to L. L-plants showed bigger stomata, larger pore area, thinner leaves and less spongy cells compared with M-plants. Stomatal morphology (except aperture) and leaf anatomy of the M→L-plants were almost similar to the M-plants, while their transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were identical to that of L-plants. The stomatal response to ABA was lost in L-plants, but also after 1-day exposure of M-plants to low VPD. The level of foliar ABA sharply decreased within 1-day exposure to L, while the level of ABA-GE (ABA-glucose ester) was not affected. Spraying ABA during the exposure to L prevented loss of stomatal closing response thereafter. The effect of low VPD was largely depending on exposure time: the stomatal responsiveness to ABA was lost after 1-day exposure to low VPD, while the responsiveness to desiccation was gradually lost during 4-day exposure to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main cause of loss of stomatal closure response to closing stimuli.

  3. Intraspecific taxonomy of plant genetic resources – Important for differentiation of medicinal and aromatic plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohwasser, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples, investigations of parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collections of the German genebank are demonstrated. In addition to morphological description, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  4. Morphology of Betula pendula var. carelica bark at the pre-reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda N. Nikolaeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in bark morphology at the pre-reproductive stage of Karelian birch are for the first time considered in connection with the type of trunk surface. The bark surface in Karelian birch changes with age from smooth to fissured. At the pre-reproductive stage Karelian birch has smooth bark with different types of exfoliation of the phellem surface layers, and tubercular specimens feature locally fissured bark on muffs at the very onset of their formation, as well as early rhytidome formation. Morphology of the bark tissues complex is a reflection of direction and intensity of the internal processes of the plant.

  5. MADS-box genes in plant ontogeny and phylogeny: Haeckel's 'biogenetic law' revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, G; Saedler, H

    1995-10-01

    Data currently accumulating with impressive speed indicate that the molecular evolution of MADS-box genes was a decisive aspect of the morphological evolution of plants. Studies on MADS-box genes in diverse plant species thus help us to understand the emergence of morphological novelties, such as the flower, in evolution. This furthers our understanding of the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny, which has been a controversial issue since Ernst Haeckel published his 'biogenetic law' more than a century ago.

  6. Plant Peroxisome Multiplication: Highly Regulated and Still Enigmatic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Plant peroxisomes play a key role in numerous physiological processes and are able to adapt to environmental changes by altering their content, morphology, and abundance. Peroxisomes can multiply through elongation, constriction, and fission; this process requires the action of conserved, as well as species-specific proteins. Genetic and morphological analyses have been used with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to determine at the mechanistic level how plant peroxisomes increase their abundance. The five-member PEX11 family promotes early steps of peroxisome multiplication with an unknown mechanism and some subfamily specificities. The dynamin-related protein (DRP)3 subfamily of dynaminrelated large guanosine triphosphatases mediates late steps of both peroxisomal and mitochondrial multiplication. New genetic and biochemical tools will be needed to identify additional, especially plant-specific, constituents of the peroxisome multiplication pathways.

  7. How did the swiss cheese plant get its holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Christopher D

    2013-02-01

    Adult leaf fenestration in "Swiss cheese" plants (Monstera Adans.) is an unusual leaf shape trait lacking a convincing evolutionary explanation. Monstera are secondary hemiepiphytes that inhabit the understory of tropical rainforests, where photosynthesis from sunflecks often makes up a large proportion of daily carbon assimilation. Here I present a simple model of leaf-level photosynthesis and whole-plant canopy dynamics in a stochastic light environment. The model demonstrates that leaf fenestration can reduce the variance in plant growth and thereby increase geometric mean fitness. This growth-variance hypothesis also suggests explanations for conspicuous ontogenetic changes in leaf morphology (heteroblasty) in Monstera, as well as the absence of leaf fenestration in co-occurring juvenile tree species. The model provides a testable hypothesis of the adaptive significance of a unique leaf shape and illustrates how variance in growth rate could be an important factor shaping plant morphology and physiology.

  8. Sexual dimorphism in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Spencer C H; Hough, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Among dioecious flowering plants, females and males often differ in a range of morphological, physiological, and life-history traits. This is referred to as sexual dimorphism, and understanding why it occurs is a central question in evolutionary biology. Our review documents a range of sexually dimorphic traits in angiosperm species, discusses their ecological consequences, and details the genetic and evolutionary processes that drive divergence between female and male phenotypes. We consider why sexual dimorphism in plants is generally less well developed than in many animal groups, and also the importance of sexual and natural selection in contributing to differences between the sexes. Many sexually dimorphic characters, including both vegetative and flowering traits, are associated with differences in the costs of reproduction, which are usually greater in females, particularly in longer-lived species. These differences can influence the frequency and distribution of females and males across resource gradients and within heterogeneous environments, causing niche differences and the spatial segregation of the sexes. The interplay between sex-specific adaptation and the breakdown of between-sex genetic correlations allows for the independent evolution of female and male traits, and this is influenced in some species by the presence of sex chromosomes. We conclude by providing suggestions for future work on sexual dimorphism in plants, including investigations of the ecological and genetic basis of intraspecific variation, and genetic mapping and expression studies aimed at understanding the genetic architecture of sexually dimorphic trait variation.

  9. Three-way interaction among plants, bacteria, and coleopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielkopolan, Beata; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera, the largest and the most diverse Insecta order, is characterized by multiple adaptations to plant feeding. Insect-associated microorganisms can be important mediators and modulators of interactions between insects and plants. Interactions between plants and insects are highly complex and involve multiple factors. There are various defense mechanisms initiated by plants upon attack by herbivorous insects, including the development of morphological structures and the synthesis of toxic secondary metabolites and volatiles. In turn, herbivores have adapted to feeding on plants and further sophisticated adaptations to overcome plant responses may continue to evolve. Herbivorous insects may detoxify toxic phytocompounds, sequester poisonous plant factors, and alter their own overall gene expression pattern. Moreover, insects are associated with microbes, which not only considerably affect insects, but can also modify plant defense responses to the benefit of their host. Plants are also frequently associated with endophytes, which may act as bioinsecticides. Therefore, it is very important to consider the factors influencing the interaction between plants and insects. Herbivorous insects cause considerable damage to global crop production. Coleoptera is the largest and the most diverse order in the class Insecta. In this review, various aspects of the interactions among insects, microbes, and plants are described with a focus on coleopteran species, their bacterial symbionts, and their plant hosts to demonstrate that many factors contribute to the success of coleopteran herbivory.

  10. The morphology of cometary nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Jorda, L.

    the Rosetta comet rendezvous mission) to about 50 km (comet Hale- Bopp, comet P/Schwassman-Wachmann 1). Their albedos are very low, about 0.04. Their shapes are irregular, axes ratios of 2:1 are often derived. Even though comets are characterized by their activity, in most cases only a small fraction of the nuclear surface (in some cases less than 1%) is active. An exception seems to be comet P/Wirtanen where all its surface is required to be active in order to explain its production rates (Rickman and Jorda 1998). The detection of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) in the Kuiper belt (Jewitt and Luu 1993) reveals a new population of cometary bodies with dimensions an order of magnitude bigger (100 km and larger) than the typical comet observed in the inner planetary system. Little is known about the extent, density, size distribution and physical characteristics of these objects. This region is supposedly the reservoir for short-period comets, manly those controlled by Jupiter (Jupiter family comets). Our present concept of a cometary nucleus has been strongly influenced by the first pictures of the nucleus of comet Halley achieved during the Giotto flyby in 1986. While this revelation seems to be confirmed as typical by modern observations it carries the danger of prototyping new observational results and inferences. Missions and spacecraft are already on their way (Deep Space, Contour, Stardust, Deep Impact) or in preparation (Rosetta) to diversify our knowledge. The morphology of cometary nuclei is determined by their formation process in the early solar nebula, their dynamics and evolution. The physics of the processes leading to their apparent activity while approaching the Sun are still obscure in many details but determine the small- and intermediate-scale morphology. The large-scale morphology, the shape, of a cometary nucleus is determined by its fragility and inner structure and by its generally complex rotational state. These topics will be reviewed in the

  11. Experimental Trichomonas infection: Morphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Shumkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growth tendency the asymptomatic forms of an urogenital trichomoniasis, frequency of complications from reproductive organs, uncertainty of many aspects of the violations of a spermatogenesis influencing reproductive function all this proves need of search of the urogenital trichomoniasis adequate experimental model. Lack of the corresponding experimental model is limited by our opportunities for carrying out the standardized, controlled researches on studying of transmission, pathogenesis, the immune answer, therapy and development of vaccines at a triсhomonas infection.Objective is studying action of Trichomonas vaginalis on a spermatogenny epithelium the mature of individuals of guinea pigs in the conditions of sharp and chronic experience.Materials and methods. Experiments are made on the “Reproductive System (Guinea Pigs + Trichomonas vaginalis” modeling the natural course of an infection. In experiment 2 groups of animals: 1st (n = 8 – experimental, 2nd (n = 8 – control were formed. Against the background of the reduction of the immune status (hydrocortisone 125 mg/kg intramuscularly 1 time in day during 2 days the animals of the 1st group were injected intraurethral suspension containing 1 × 106 Trichomonas on 0.5 ml of culture medium, the animals of the 2nd group – 0.5 ml of medium. Under the condition of the acute experiment the animals were sacrificed on day 9 (the middle of the cycle of spermatogenesis – I experienced group and on day 30 (full spermatogenic cycle – II experimental group. The control animals were slaughtered in the same period. The material for histological study was prepared by the traditional way.Results. In an experimental model of “Reproductive system (guinea pigs + T. vaginalis”, staging and degree of disturbance of spermatogenesis, depending on the duration of trichomonas infection were shown. So, in acute experience morphological changes correspond to changes in the

  12. Secondary Broccoli Production Depending On Sowing And Planting Dates

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Desislava

    2014-01-01

    The investigation was carried out during the period of 2009-2011 at the Institute of Agriculture – Kyustendil, located in the Southwest Bulgaria. Four broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) hybrids were grown by the technology of late field production with different sowing and planting dates. The aim of the research was to establish a relationship between planting time and secondary yield of broccoli. Some morphological characteristics and production traits of an additional yield of...

  13. Does Trichomes on the Plant Epidermic Surface Disturb Ants Locomotion?

    OpenAIRE

    Danon C. Cardoso; Maykon P Cristiano; Lenise C. M. Vilela; Tiago D. A. Martins

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Many morphological characteristics, both physical and chemical, are used in the defense against herbivores on plants. Trichomes are structures used by plants as physics defense and when associated with glands combine physics and chemistry defense. Many species of ants are herbivores and use leaves and seeds, others ants use Extra Floral Nectars as a food resource, and the majority of the species are predators of other ants and other insects, &#...

  14. Phonological bases for L2 morphological learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning.

  15. Morphologic Spectrum of Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreik, Riyam T; Fritchie, Karen J

    2016-03-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is a locally aggressive neoplasm composed of long sweeping fascicles of bland fibroblasts/myofibroblasts. Tumors with classic features are easy to identify, but the morphologic spectrum of this entity spans beyond the conventional histologic pattern. Since sampling of an unrecognized histologic variant may lead to misdiagnosis, especially on small needle biopsy specimens, we sought to fully characterize the morphologic spectrum of this entity. We examined 165 cases of desmoid-type fibromatosis and catalogued the morphologic patterns and percentage of those patterns identified in each case. Clinicopathologic variables, including age, sex, location, and recurrence, were analyzed and correlated with pattern frequency. Seven morphologic patterns were identified, including conventional, hyalinized/hypocellular, staghorn vessel, myxoid, keloidal, nodular fasciitis-like, and hypercellular. The mean number of patterns per case was two, but some cases harbored up to five patterns. The greatest morphologic variability was seen in the intra-abdominal lesions, with these tumors having a significantly higher percentage of the keloidal and staghorn patterns compared with extra-abdominal and abdominal wall sites. No significant correlation between patient outcome (recurrence) and presence of variant morphologic pattern was observed (P = .549). The morphologic spectrum of desmoid-type fibromatosis is deceptively broad, and awareness of the variety of histologic patterns is critical for accurate diagnosis. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Measurement and significance of sperm morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roelof Menkveld; Cas AG Holleboom; Johann PT Rhemrev

    2011-01-01

    The measurement or evaluation and clinical significance of human sperm morphology has always been and still is a controversial aspect of the semen analysis for the determination of a male's fertility potential.In this review the background of the development of the evaluation criteria for sperm morphology will be discussed.Aspects of criticism on the strict criteria definition and use of the criteria for sperm morphology evaluation will be discussed as well as possible reasons for the decline in normal sperm morphology values and how we can compromise for this phenomenon resulting in the very low normal reference value as published in the 2010 WHO manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.One of the possible solutions may be to give more attention to a limited number of abnormal sperm morphology categories and the inclusion of sperm morphology patterns.It is concluded in this review that if done correctly and with care and with strict application of existing guidelines as outlined in the 2010 WHO manual,sperm morphology measurement still has a very important role to play in the clinical evaluation of male fertility potential.

  17. Fundamental features of modern inflorescence morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Weberling

    1983-12-01

    florescence’. The lower lateral branches repeat the structure of the main stem by producing (indefinite florescences themselves and therefore may be termedparacladia (of the polytelic system. As in monotelic inflorescences the area of paracladia — the ‘enriching field’ — can be preceded by a ‘field of inhibition’ and, in perennial plants, by a ‘field of innovation’.Though generally we may confirm that the inflorescences of all species investigated (about 20 000 from nearly all angiosperm families proved to be variations of one of the two fundamental types, it sometimes needs morphological experience to apply Troll’s system to woody plants of tropical regions. Difficulties may derive from prolepsis and syllepsis of the innovation shoots, prolification of the inflorescence axis and, abundantly, by the deficiency of clearly marked limits between sprouts growing in different seasons. In each of such cases, however, the homologous flower-bearing-elements can be identified by comparing their positions within the whole system of ramification.

  18. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eTorben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation.Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate.As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  19. Investigation of the gypsum quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants and a pilot plant were examined and compared. Gypsum quality can be expressed in terms of moisture content (particle size and morphology dependent) and the concentration of residual...... or accumulation of fly ash and impurities from the sorbent. The crystal morphology obtained in the pilot plant was columnar with distinct crystal faces as opposed to the rounded shapes found at the full-scale plants. All the investigated full-scale plants consistently produced high quality gypsum (High purity......, low moisture content and low impurity content). An episode concerning a sudden deterioration in the gypsum dewatering properties was furthermore investigated, and a change in crystal morphology, as well as an increased impurity content (aluminium, iron and fluoride), was detected....

  20. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture: the most flexible foundations for plant metabolic engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogita, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in plant cell, tissue and organ culture (PCTOC) have been made in the last five decades. PCTOC is now thought to be the underlying technique for understanding general or specific biological functions of the plant kingdom, and it is one of the most flexible foundations for morphological, physiological and molecular biological applications of plants. Furthermore, the recent advances in the field of information technology (IT) have enabled access to a large amount of information regarding all aspects of plant biology. For example, sequencing information is stored in mega repositories such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which can be easily accessed by researchers worldwide. To date, the PCTOC and IT combination strategy for regulation of target plant metabolism and the utilization of bioactive plant metabolites for commercial purposes is essential. In this review, the advantages and the limitations of these methodologies, especially regarding the production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites and metabolic engineering in target plants are discussed mainly from the phenotypic view point.

  1. Combined morphological and molecular approach for identification of Stemphylium vesicarium inoculum in pear orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Mireia; Ruz, Lídia; Montesinos, Emilio; Moragrega, Concepció; Llorente, Isidre

    2015-03-01

    Stemphylium vesicarium is the causal agent of brown spot of pear, an important disease reported in pear-growing areas of Europe. The pathogen is able to colonize pear leaf debris and dead tissues of herbaceous plants and produce abundant ascospores and conidia that are capable of infecting pear trees. Inoculum monitoring in pear orchards is mainly achieved through spore traps and species identification is based on conidial morphology, but the similarities on conidial traits among species of Stemphylium make correct identification difficult. In this work a total of thirty-seven Stemphylium isolates from pear orchards were characterized at the morphological, pathogenic, and molecular level. Correspondence among ITS and gpd sequences and morphological traits were evaluated. Species identification based exclusively on morphological data was not feasible. Combined morphological and molecular data were necessary for unambiguous identification of isolates in the S. vesicarium species group. Only isolates identified as S. vesicarium were pathogenic on pear. The study revealed that several species of Stemphylium coexist in pear orchards with S. vesicarium, the causal agent of BSP, and that combined morphological and molecular data are needed to differentiate them. Consequently, direct measurements of the airborne inoculum using volumetric spore traps may overestimate the actual pathogen population.

  2. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  3. Using a Corpus for Teaching Turkish Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Guvenir, H A; Oflazer, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary phase of our ongoing research towards developing an intelligent tutoring environment for Turkish grammar. One of the components of this environment is a corpus search tool which, among other aspects of the language, will be used to present the learner sample sentences along with their morphological analyses. Following a brief introduction to the Turkish language and its morphology, the paper describes the morphological analysis and ambiguity resolution used to construct the corpus used in the search tool. Finally, implementation issues and details involving the user interface of the tool are discussed.

  4. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, Aaron P; Juslin, Niklas; Stoller, Roger E; Wirth, Brian D; Kurtz, Richard J

    2015-06-10

    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, b, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy (N(F) ~ E(MD)(b)). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, μ, between the high- and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of μ as a function of displacement threshold energy, E(d), is presented for bcc metals.

  5. Variation in the Agronomic and Morphological Traits of Iranian Chickpea Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI; Mohammad Reza JAHANSOUZ

    2005-01-01

    Landraces of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Iran have not been adequately characterized for their agronomic and morphological traits. Such characterization would be helpful in the development of improved cultivars, so in this study 362 chickpea accessions, collected from the major chickpea growing areas of Iran, were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity. High coefficients of variation (CVs)were recorded in pods/branch, seeds/pod, yield/plant, seeds/plant, pods/plant and branches/plant. Using principal component (PC) analysis, the first four PCs with eigenvalues more than 1 contributed 84.10% of the variability among accessions, whereas PC5 to PC10 were less than unity. PC1 was positively related to days to first maturity, days to 50% flowering and days to 50% maturity. The characters with the greatest weight on PC2 were seeds/plant and yield/plant, whereas PC3 was mainly related to pods/plant, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight, and PC4 was positively related to pods/branch and negatively to branches/plant. The germplasm was grouped into four clusters using cluster analysis. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the cluster I was clearly separated from clusters Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. These accessions are an important resource for the establishment of a core collection of chickpeas in the world.

  6. Do plants and animals differ in phenotypic plasticity?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renee M Borges

    2005-02-01

    This paper compares the flexibility in the nexus between phenotype and genotype in plants and animals. These taxa although considered to be fundamentally different are found to be surprisingly similar in the mechanisms used to achieve plasticity. Although non-cognitive behaviour occurs in plants, its range is limited, while morphological and developmental plasticity also occur to a considerable extent in animals. Yet both plants and animals are subject to unique constraints and thus need to find unique solutions to functional problems. A true comparison between the plant and animal phenotype would be a comparison between plants and sessile photo-synthesizing colonial invertebrates. Such comparisons are lacking. However, they would provide important insights into the adaptive significance of plasticity in these groups. It is also suggested that a comparison of inflexible traits in these groups would provide an understanding of the constraints, as well as the costs and benefits, of a plastic versus non-plastic phenotype in plants and animals.

  7. PLANT DIVERSITY OF THE ZHELTOKAMENSKIY OPEN CAST MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarova T.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Floristic structure data of soil algae, lichens, mosses, and vascular plants are given. Rare plant species which are protected at the Ukrainian, European, and International levels were revealed. The species list of trees and bushes was conducted. The soil analysis was carried out by such parameters: pH-value, the maintenance of hygroscopic water, the maintenance of mineral substances. Vegetation biomass on the open cast mines sample areas is defined. Ecological analysis of the biotopes of registered algae species was performed. The ecological analysis of the vascular plants species biotopes was carried out.The estimation of the perspective vegetation pattern was suggested for natural restoration of the open cast mines. The plant species are selected according to the ecological and morphological characteristics for plant rehabilitation and planting of open cast mines.

  8. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have medicinal properties such as anti-tumorogenic, anti-microbial, purgative, hypoglycemic, abortificient, analgesic, anti-septic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory. We created a database named DEPTH in an attempt to communicate data of these plants to the scientific community. DEPTH contains data on scientific name, vernacular name, family name, morphological description, economic importance, known medicinal compounds and medicinal importance. Availability http://svimstpt.ap.nic.in/MedicinalPlants/mainpage.htm PMID:18317578

  9. Genetic and environmental effects on morphology and asexual reproduction in the moss, Bryum bicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, A.J. (Ithaca College, NY (USA))

    A distinctive form of Bryum bicolor, characterized by stoutly excurrent costae and abundant asexual gemmae, occurs on heavy metal-contaminated tailings of the Conrad Hill Mine in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Plants from two mine site populations, plus two other populations from Richmond, Virginia, were grown on three types of soil in order to determine the degree to which morphological traits, including the number of gemmae per plant, can be modified by substrate. All populations grew equally well in the mine soil, and there was no evidence that plants from the mine site populations were physiologically adapted for growth on the contaminated tailings. Leaf dimensions, costa length, and number of gemmae per stem were strongly influenced by substrate, although some differences between populations were maintained under experimental conditions. Populations also differed in the efficacy with which plants regenerated from gametophytic fragments.

  10. Genotypic variation in morphology and freezing resistance of Eucalyptus globulus seedlings subjected to drought hardening in nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Coopman, Rafael E.; Jara,Jorge C; Escobar,Rene; Luis J Corcuera; Bravo,Leon A

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus Labill is one of the most planted species in Chile, because of its fast growth and superior pulp qualities. Nevertheless, the incidence of drought and frost damage immediately after planting is frequent. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of drought hardening on frost resistance and on variations in morphological traits that may increase drought resistance at nursery phase in four genotypes of E. globulus Labill. Drought hardening treatments consisted in indu...

  11. Variation and relationships of morphological traits, shoot yields and essential oil contents of four Anthemis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthemis L. is a genus of aromatic flowering plants in the family Asteraceae and is native to Iran. In this research, 62 accessions of four chamomile species including Anthemis tinctoria, A. triumfetti, A. haussknechtii and A. pseudocotula were evaluated for morphological traits. Four experiments were conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland, Tehran, Iran in 2011. Data were collected for the morphological traits for all of the species and essential oil content for A. triumfetti and A. pseudocotula. The results showed that plant height was positively correlated with canopy area for all of the species except A. triumfetti (p < 0.01. There were positive correlations between flower number with plant height and canopy area in both A. tinctoria and A. haussknechtii (p < 0.01. Fresh and dry weight were positively correlated with canopy area and plant height in all of the species (p < 0.01, except A. tinctoria for canopy area and A. triumfetti for plant height. GDD had a positive correlation with canopy area for A. triumfetti (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between essential oil yield and plant height, fresh and dry weight in A. triumfetti and A. pseudocotula (p < 0.05. Using cluster analysis (Ward method, the accessions of A. triumfetti, A. tinctoria, A. haussknechtii and A. pseudocotula were grouped into 3, 2, 4 and 2 clusters, respectively. The results of cluster analysis separated the accession based on shoot yield, morphological traits and maturity. In some items, the accessions within each cluster were coordinated with their geographical provenance.

  12. Morphological, physiological, and genetic variation between metallicolous and nonmetallicolous populations of Dianthus carthusianorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Jawor, Emilia; Kowalczyk, Krzysztof; Tukiendorf, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Waste deposits produced by metal mining and smelting activities provide extremely difficult habitats for plant colonization and growth. Therefore, plants spontaneously colonizing such areas represent a very interesting system for studying evolution of plant adaptation and population differentiation between contaminated and noncontaminated environments. In this study, two populations of Dianthus carthusianorum, one originating from Zn-Pb waste deposit (a metallicolous population, M) and the other from unpolluted soil (a nonmetallicolous population, NM), were analyzed in respect of their morphological and physiological traits as well as genetic markers. It was found that the plants inhabiting the waste heap differed significantly from the NM plants in terms of leaf size and shape, and these differences were persistent between the first generation of the plants of both populations cultivated under uniform, controlled laboratory conditions. In contrast with the evident morphological differences, no significant differentiation between the populations regarding the physiological traits measured (accumulation of proline, anthocyanins, chlorophyll, carotenoids) was found. These traits can be regarded as neither population specific nor stress markers. The genetic variability was analyzed using 17 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and four inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers; this proved that the differentiation between the M and NM populations exists also at the genetic level. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 24% of the total genetic diversity resided among populations, while 76% - within the populations. However, no significant differences in intrapopulation genetic diversity (Hj) between the M and NM populations of D. carthusianorum was found, which contradicts the theory that acquisition of adaptation mechanisms to adverse, isolated growth habitats is related to reduction in genetic diversity. Distinct genetic differences between the two

  13. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eGohlke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumours. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (‘omic’ approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumour formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant.

  14. Morphological and genetic diversity of symbiotic cyanobacteria from cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Muralitharan, Gangatharan; Sundaramoorthy, Mariappan; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Akbarsha, Mohamed Abdulkadar; Gunasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2010-06-01

    The morphological and genetic diversity of cyanobacteria associated with cycads was examined using PCR amplification techniques and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Eighteen symbiotic cyanobacteria were isolated from different cycad species. One of the symbiotic isolates was a species of Calothrix, a genus not previously reported to form symbioses with Cycadaceae family, and the remainder were Nostoc spp. Axenic cyanobacterial strains were compared by DNA amplification using PCR with either short arbitrary primers or primers specific for the repetitive sequences. Based on fingerprint patterns and phenograms, it was revealed that cyanobacterial symbionts exhibit important genetic diversity among host plants, both within and between cycad populations. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that most of the symbiotic cyanobacterial isolates fell into well-separated clades.

  15. Plant Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  16. Ethylene insensitive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  17. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  18. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  19. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...

  20. Morphological representation in an endangered, polysynthetic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Sally; Libben, Gary; Derwing, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the results from an initial psycholinguistic study of patterns of morphological representation in Dene Suliné (Chipewyan), an indigenous and highly endangered language spoken in Northwestern Canada. Our investigation focused on how morphological knowledge in this polysynthetic language is affected across various levels of language attrition by employing a morphological segmentation task and an off-line lexical decision task. We discuss the manner in which these tasks target different aspects of morphological ability and then turn to methodological issues associated with conducting psycholinguistic studies with language users that differ in levels of age, education, literacy, and bilingualism (Dene- English). Finally, we report on the challenges of doing psycholinguistic research outside the confines of a university setting and make some recommendations to other researchers who might wish to undertake similar studies.